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Sample records for expanding advanced pharmacy

  1. Barriers to expanding advanced pharmacy practice experience site availability in an experiential education consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackett, P David; Byrd, Debbie C; Duke, Lori J; Fetterman, James W; Unterwagner, Whitney L; Staton, April G; Miller, Mindi S; Sheffield, Melody C; Kennedy, William K; McDuffie, Charles H; Stevenson, T Lynn; Thompson, Paula A; McCullough, Elizabeth S

    2009-08-28

    To compare 2006-2007 and projected 2010-2011 advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) availability and needs for 4 colleges and schools of pharmacy in Georgia and Alabama and to examine barriers and offer potential solutions to increase APPE site and preceptor availability. Data on APPE needs and availability were gathered prospectively and evaluated relative to current and projected enrollment and planned programmatic changes. Combined 2006-2007 non-community APPE needs and availabilities were 3,590 and 4,427, respectively, with a surplus availability of 837. Combined projected 2010-2011 non-community APPEs were estimated at 4,309. Assuming 2006-2007 non-community availability remained unchanged, the surplus availability declined to 118. The need for quality experiential education represents a significant barrier and rate-limiting step to the matriculation of the increased numbers of pharmacists. Barriers to expanding APPE availability include: introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) and APPE expansion, growth of new and existing pharmacy programs, financial instability of acute care facilities, and lack of preceptor development resources. Regional experiential education consortiums can provide a constructive approach to improve access to quality sites and preceptors through standardizing processes and leveraging resources.

  2. Expanding Dress Code Requirements in the Doctor of Pharmacy Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Naughton, Cynthia A; Schweiger, Teresa A; Angelo, Lauren B; Lea Bonner, C; Dhing, Conrad W; Farley, Joel F

    2016-01-01

    Although the use of a professional dress code is standard practice across colleges and schools of pharmacy during introductory and advanced pharmacy practice experiences, requiring professional attire...

  3. Expanding Dress Code Requirements in the Doctor of Pharmacy Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Cynthia A; Schweiger, Teresa A; Angelo, Lauren B; Lea Bonner, C; Dhing, Conrad W; Farley, Joel F

    2016-06-25

    Although the use of a professional dress code is standard practice across colleges and schools of pharmacy during introductory and advanced pharmacy practice experiences, requiring professional attire is not applied consistently during the didactic portion of students' education. There are arguments for and against the adoption of a professional dress code throughout the entire doctor of pharmacy program, including the classroom setting. Given uncertainty regarding the potential benefits and challenges that may arise from adopting a professional dress code in the didactic portion of a student pharmacist's education, it is perhaps not surprising that programs adopt disparate policies regarding its use. This exploration was conducted as part of a series of debates held in conjunction with the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy's (AACP) Academic Leadership Fellows Program (ALFP) and was presented at the 2015 AACP Interim Meeting on February 7, 2015.

  4. Pharmacy staff characteristics associated with support for pharmacy-based HIV-testing in pharmacies participating in the New York State Expanded Access Syringe Exchange Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amesty, Silvia; Blaney, Shannon; Crawford, Natalie D.; Rivera, Alexis V.; Fuller, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine support of in-pharmacy HIV-testing among pharmacy staff and the individual-level characteristics associated with in-pharmacy HIV testing support. Design Descriptive, nonexperimental, cross-sectional study. Setting New York City (NYC) during January 2008 to March 2009. Intervention 131 pharmacies registered in the Expanded Syringe Access Program (ESAP) completed a survey. Participants 480 pharmacy staff, including pharmacists, owners/managers, and technicians/clerks. Main outcome measures Support of in-pharmacy HIV testing. Results Support of in-pharmacy HIV testing is high among pharmacy staff (79.4%). Pharmacy staff that supported in-pharmacy vaccinations were significantly more likely to support in-pharmacy HIV testing. Pharmacy staff that think that selling syringes to IDUs causes the community to be littered with dirty syringes were significantly less likely to support in-pharmacy HIV testing. Conclusion Support for in-pharmacy HIV testing is high among our sample of ESAP pharmacy staff actively involved in non-prescription syringe sales. These findings suggest that active ESAP pharmacy staff may be amenable to providing HIV counseling and testing to injection drug users and warrants further investigation. PMID:22825227

  5. An advanced pharmacy practice experience in sports pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Peter J

    2008-02-15

    To establish and evaluate an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in sports pharmacy. Students actively participated in a variety of activities for this new 6-week elective APPE, including drug-testing collections, delivering presentations, and providing drug information. Students also learned about assays, compounding, and dispensing medications specifically for athletes, and visited various athletic medical facilities. Student were given written and practical certification examinations for drug-testing collections, and their specimen measurements were compared to those obtained by the testing laboratory for validation; satisfaction surveys were obtained from testing sites; and presentation evaluations were obtained from audience participants. Students were able to accurately measure pH and specific gravity of urine samples and all students passed the certification examination. Students rated the APPE very high. Also, students received high satisfaction ratings on surveys administered to the officials of the schools where they tested and members of the groups to whom they gave presentations. Students gained experience and insight into the various roles of pharmacists in sports pharmacy and developed confidence in their ability to conduct drug-testing collections.

  6. Randomized, community-based pharmacy intervention to expand services beyond sale of sterile syringes to injection drug users in pharmacies in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Natalie D; Amesty, Silvia; Rivera, Alexis V; Harripersaud, Katherine; Turner, Alezandria; Fuller, Crystal M

    2013-09-01

    Structural interventions may help reduce racial/ethnic disparities in HIV. In 2009 to 2011, we randomized pharmacies participating in a nonprescription syringe access program in minority communities to intervention (pharmacy enrolled and delivered HIV risk reduction information to injection drug users [IDUs]), primary control (pharmacy only enrolled IDUs), and secondary control (pharmacy did not engage IDUs). Intervention pharmacy staff reported more support for syringe sales than did control staff. An expanded pharmacy role in HIV risk reduction may be helpful.

  7. Clinical pharmacy consultations provided by American and Kenyan pharmacy students during an acute care advanced pharmacy practice experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastakia, Sonak D; Vincent, William R; Manji, Imran; Kamau, Evelyn; Schellhase, Ellen M

    2011-04-11

    To compare the clinical consultations provided by American and Kenyan pharmacy students in an acute care setting in a developing country. The documented pharmacy consultation recommendations made by American and Kenyan pharmacy students during patient care rounds on an advanced pharmacy practice experience at a referral hospital in Kenya were reviewed and classified according to type of intervention and therapeutic area. The Kenyan students documented more interventions than American students (16.7 vs. 12.0 interventions/day) and provided significantly more consultations regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and antibiotics. The top area of consultations provided by American students was cardiovascular diseases. American and Kenyan pharmacy students successfully providing clinical pharmacy consultations in a resource-constrained, acute-care practice setting suggests an important role for pharmacy students in the reconciliation of prescriber orders with medication administration records and in providing drug information.

  8. An interprofessional psychiatric advanced pharmacy practice experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, Lisa W; Cooley, Janet

    2013-08-12

    To create an interprofessional psychiatry advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) and assess the initial outcomes. An elective psychiatry APPE was developed in a setting of interdisciplinary practice. Preceptor responsibilities were shared between a psychiatric pharmacist and an attending psychiatrist or psychiatric nurse practitioner. Students were also given the opportunity to shadow and work with other health care professionals such as nurses, social workers, therapists, family nurse practitioners, and utilization review staff members. Midpoint and final evaluations demonstrated student advancement throughout the experience as well as the development of communication skills with patients and an increased ability to work collaboratively with other health care providers. Students rated this practice experience highly and their comments reflected achievement of the established learning objectives. An interdisciplinary elective practice experience in psychiatry at a local teaching hospital was effective in teaching psychiatric care and interprofessional interaction. This teaching model can be adapted for use in other practice settings or specialty areas.

  9. Adopting an Advanced Community Pharmacy Practice Experiential Educational Model Across Colleges of Pharmacy

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer L. Rodis, Pharm.D., BCPS; Brandon T. Jennings, Pharm.D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the experience of sharing an experiential model of education and practice development between two colleges of pharmacy and to provide a framework to guide faculty in this type of collaboration.Case Study: The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy (OSU COP) Partner for Promotion (PFP) program was developed in response to the need for advancing practice in the community pharmacy setting. After successful implementation of this program, the PFP program design and materi...

  10. Neighborhood geographical factors and the presence of advanced community pharmacy practice sites in Greater Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Charisse L; Crawford, Stephanie Y; Lin, Swu-Jane; Salmon, J Warren; Smith, Miriam Mobley

    2009-02-19

    To determine the availability of experiential learning opportunities in culturally diverse areas and to identify opportunities and barriers to attract and sustain sites for the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy. Utilizing variables of census tract income, racial/ethnicity composition and crime index, data analyses included descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. Faculty members involved in experiential education were interviewed to identify other factors influencing site placement and selection for community-based advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Median family income and Asian population were significantly higher and black population was significantly lower in census tracts with community APPE sites than in census tracts without APPE sites (p pharmacy staffing issues, goodwill, influence of district and corporate managers, and strategic initiatives were critical considerations in site establishment and overall sustainability. Advanced community pharmacy practice sites were fairly well distributed across metropolitan Chicago, indicating that exposure to diverse populations during the advanced community practice experiences parallels with strategic College objectives of expanding and diversifying experiential sites to enhance pharmacy students' abilities to meet emerging patient care challenges and opportunities.

  11. Adopting an Advanced Community Pharmacy Practice Experiential Educational Model Across Colleges of Pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Rodis, Pharm.D., BCPS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To discuss the experience of sharing an experiential model of education and practice development between two colleges of pharmacy and to provide a framework to guide faculty in this type of collaboration.Case Study: The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy (OSU COP Partner for Promotion (PFP program was developed in response to the need for advancing practice in the community pharmacy setting. After successful implementation of this program, the PFP program design and materials were shared, adapted, and implemented at the University of Utah College of Pharmacy (Utah COP. Collaborating faculty developed a framework based on lessons learned through this experience which proposes key guiding strategies as considerations to address prior to embarking on sharing any aspect of an educational program or model between institutions. Each step of the framework is described and applied to the process followed by The OSU COP and Utah COP in sharing the PFP program. Additional considerations related to transfer of educational models are discussed.Results/Conclusion: Sharing the education model and materials associated with the PFP program between institutions has enhanced experiential opportunities for students and helped develop residency training sites in the community setting. In addition, the relationship between the two colleges has contributed to faculty development, as well as an increase in community pharmacy service development with community pharmacy partners at each institution. It is hoped this experience will help guide collaborations between other colleges of pharmacy to enhance education of future pharmacists while positively impacting pharmacy practice, teaching, and research by faculty.

  12. Qualitative Analysis of Common Definitions for Core Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    O’Sullivan, Teresa A.; Danielson, Jennifer; Weber, Stanley S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine how colleges and schools of pharmacy interpreted the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education’s (ACPE’s) Standards 2007 definitions for core advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs), and how they differentiated community and institutional practice activities for introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) and APPEs.

  13. Complete-block scheduling for advanced pharmacy practice experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Randy C; Weitzel, Kristin W

    2013-12-01

    An innovative approach to meeting increased student demand for advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) is described, including lessons learned during a two-year pilot project. To achieve more efficient allocation of preceptor resources, the University of Florida College of Pharmacy (UFCOP) adopted a new APPE rotation model in which 20 pharmacy students per year complete all required and elective APPEs at one practice site, an affiliated academic medical center. Relative to the prevailing model of experiential training for Pharm.D. students, the "complete-block scheduling" model offers a number of potential benefits to students, preceptors, and the pharmacy school. In addition to potentially reduced student housing expenses and associated conveniences, complete-block scheduling may enable (1) more efficient use of teaching resources, (2) increased collaboration among preceptors, (3) greater continuity and standardization of educational experiences, and (4) enhanced opportunities for students to engage in longer and more complex research projects. The single-site APPE rotation model also can provide value to the training site by enabling the extension of clinical pharmacy services; for example, UFCOP students perform anticoagulation monitoring and discharge medication counseling at the host institution. Despite logistical and other challenges encountered during pilot testing of the new scheduling model, the program has been well received by students and preceptors alike. Complete-block APPE scheduling is a viable model for some health systems to consider as a means of streamlining experiential education practices and helping to ensure high-quality clinical rotations for Pharm.D. students.

  14. Promoting direct patient care services at community pharmacies through advanced pharmacy practice experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam, Rosemin; Kwong, Mona; Collins, John B

    2013-12-01

    To determine the relative benefits of three different models of advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in successfully integrating the delivery of direct patient care into students' final year community pharmacy clerkships. All fourth-year pharmacy students at the University of British Columbia were divided into one of three study arms for their community APPE: a 2 × 4-week rotation in a traditional format, a 1 × 8-week rotation where their preceptors had experienced a 2-day education course and a 1 × 8-week rotation with both preceptor education plus a 5-day pre-APPE in-store orientation and peer debriefing. All 123 students conducted patient consultations and documented their care. Students in the pre-APPE + preceptor education arm provided nearly double the number of direct patient consultations than did students in the preceptor-education-only arm or the traditional 2 × 4-week arm. Numbers of drug-related problems identified and interventions performed per patient consult did not differ across study arms. Pre-APPE orientation activities provided an enhanced learning environment, promoted greater student engagement, provided care to more patients, increased preceptor preparedness and enhanced in-store patient-centred care practice. Certain of these learning activities can also form part of third- and fourth-year introductory pharmacy practice experiences to prepare students for their final-year APPE. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  15. Development and Implementation of a Novel Lifestyle Medicine Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience Elective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Lenz, PharmD, MS, PAPHS, FACLM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop and implement an Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (APPE to increase student’s awareness and use of lifestyle modifications in chronic disease prevention and management. Design: A five-week APPE was developed that utilized a wide variety of activities, including direct patient care, patient education, case studies, journal clubs and reflective assessment and writing to explore various lifestyle modifications and their relation to chronic disease prevention and management. Conclusion: The novel lifestyle medicine APPE provides students a unique opportunity to advance their knowledge in therapeutic lifestyle changes and expand their understanding of the pharmacist’s role in chronic disease prevention and management.

  16. Development and Implementation of a Novel Lifestyle Medicine Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience Elective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole D. Gillespie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop and implement an Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (APPE to increase student's awareness and use of lifestyle modifications in chronic disease prevention and management. Design: A five-week APPE was developed that utilized a wide variety of activities, including direct patient care, patient education, case studies, journal clubs and reflective assessment and writing to explore various lifestyle modifications and their relation to chronic disease prevention and management. Conclusion: The novel lifestyle medicine APPE provides students a unique opportunity to advance their knowledge in therapeutic lifestyle changes and expand their understanding of the pharmacist's role in chronic disease prevention and management.   Type: Idea Paper

  17. Evaluation of a Longitudinal Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasiolas, Jorie A; Wright, Kelly; Dzierba, Amy L

    2017-04-01

    Objective. To describe satisfaction and career path of students who participated in the longitudinal advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). Methods. A 3-part survey was administered to students enrolled between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2013. The sections of the survey evaluated respondents' baseline characteristics, satisfaction, and career path. Results. Majority of the respondents had a GPA above 3.0 (91%), pharmacy school honors (84%), work experience in retail (16%) or multiple pharmacy sites (38%), and were members of at least one professional organization (76%). Sixty-nine percent reported that the program exceeded their expectations. Strengths included practice site consistency, rotation diversity, preceptors, presentations, and collaboration with health care professionals. Students gained approximately 76 hours of additional clinical experience, compared to if they completed rotations at individual sites. After graduation, more than half of the respondents accepted a pharmacy practice residency (67%). Conclusion. The results of this study support the need for APPE programs that prepare students to deliver advanced patient care, while providing them with professional development.

  18. Pharmacies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Pharmacies in the United States and Territories A pharmacy is a facility whose primary function is to store, prepare and legally dispense prescription drugs under...

  19. Comparison of patients' expectations and experiences at traditional pharmacies and pharmacies offering enhanced advanced pharmacy practice experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam, Rosemin; Collins, John B; Berkowitz, Jonathan

    2010-06-15

    To compare patients' expectations and experiences at pharmacies offering traditional APPE learning opportunities with those offering enhanced APPEs that incorporate pharmaceutical care activities. A survey of anchored measures of patient satisfaction was conducted in 2 groups of APPE- affiliated community pharmacies: those participating in an enhanced APPE model versus those participating in the traditional model. The enhanced intervention included preceptor training, a comprehensive student orientation, and an extended experience at a single pharmacy rather than the traditional 2 x 4-week experience at different pharmacies. While patient expectations were similar in both traditional and enhanced APPE pharmacies, patients in enhanced pharmacies reported significantly higher in-store satisfaction and fewer service gaps. Additionally, satisfaction was significantly higher for patients who had received any form of consultation, from either pharmacist or students, than those reporting no consultations. Including provision of pharmaceutical care services as part of APPEs resulted in direct and measurable improvements in patient satisfaction.

  20. Expanding Ambulatory Care Pharmacy Residency Education Through a Multisite University-Affiliated Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiss, Sarah K; Westberg, Sarah M; Moon, Jean Y; Sorensen, Todd D

    2017-12-01

    As the health-care system evolves and shifts to value-based payment systems, there is a recognized need to increase the number of ambulatory care trained pharmacists. The objective of this article is to describe the administrative structure of the University of Minnesota Postgraduate Year 1 (PGY1) Pharmacy Residency program and to encourage adoption of similar models nationally in order to expand ambulatory care residency training opportunities and meet the demand for pharmacist practitioners. Program Structure: The University of Minnesota PGY1 Pharmacy Residency program is a multisite program centered on the practice of pharmaceutical care and provision of comprehensive medication management (CMM) services in ambulatory care settings. The centralized administration of a multisite academic-affiliated training model creates efficiency in the administration process, while allowing sites to focus on clinical training. This model also offers many innovative and unique opportunities to residents. A multisite university-affiliated ambulatory care residency training model provides efficiency in program administration, while successfully accelerating the growth of quality ambulatory care residency training and supporting innovative delivery of shared core learning experiences. Consequently, practice sites grow in their service delivery capacity and quality of care.

  1. Expanding voluntary active-learning opportunities for pharmacy students in a Respiratory Physiology Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Hardy; Colthorpe, Kay

    2008-04-15

    To expand voluntary active-learning opportunities for bachelor of pharmacy students enrolled in a third-year human physiology and pharmacology course and determine whether the additional course components improved learning outcomes. Additional voluntary active-learning opportunities including a large-class tutorial, additional formative assessment, and an online discussion were added to the Respiratory Physiology Module of the course. Examination scores were compared with those from previous years. A questionnaire was administered to assess students' perception of the active-learning components. Mean examination scores increased from 69.3% +/- 24.4% in 2003 to 88.9% +/- 13.4% in 2004 and 86.9% +/- 17.6% in 2005, after the addition of the active-learning components. Students' overall perception of the value of the active-learning activities was positive. The addition of voluntary active-learning course components to a required pharmacy course resulted in improved student examination scores, and decreased failure rate, and were accomplished at low cost and with little additional staff time.

  2. Pharmacists' self-perceptions in relation to the 'Advanced Pharmacy Practice Framework'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A S; Fejzic, J; Grant, G D; Nissen, L M

    2016-01-01

    The Australian Pharmacy Practice Framework was developed by the Advanced Pharmacy Practice Steering Committee and endorsed by the Pharmacy Board of Australia in October 2012. The Steering Committee conducted a study that found practice portfolios to be the preferred method to assess and credential Advanced Pharmacy Practitioner, which is currently being piloted by the Australian Pharmacy Council. Credentialing is predicted to open to all pharmacists practising in Australia by November 2015. To explore how Australian pharmacists self-perceived being advanced in practice and how they related their level of practice to the Australian Advanced Pharmacy Practice Framework. This was an explorative, cross-sectional study with mixed methods analysis. Advanced Pharmacy Practice Framework, a review of the recent explorative study on Advanced Practice conducted by the Advanced Pharmacy Practice Framework Steering Committee and semi-structured interviews (n = 10) were utilized to create, refine and pilot the questionnaire. The questionnaire was advertised across pharmacy-organizational websites via a purposive sampling method. The target population were pharmacists currently registered in Australia. Seventy-two participants responded to the questionnaire. The participants were mostly female (56.9%) and in the 30-40 age group (26.4%). The pharmacists self-perceived their levels of practice as either entry, transition, consolidation or advanced, with the majority selecting the consolidation level (38.9%). Although nearly half (43.1%) of the participants had not seen the Framework beforehand, they defined Advanced Pharmacy Practice similarly to the definition outlined in the Framework, but also added specialization as a requirement. Pharmacists explained why they were practising at their level of practice, stating that not having more years of practice, lacking experience, or postgraduate/post-registration qualifications, and more involvement and recognition in practice were the

  3. Factors Associated With Reflection Among Students After an Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (APPE) in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Wallman, A.; Lindblad, A.K.; Gustavsson, Maria; Ring, L

    2009-01-01

    Objective. To identify individual and social factors associated with pharmacy students level of reflection in an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). Methods. A postal questionnaire, including a reflective assignment, was sent to all pharmacy interns (n=262) at Uppsala University, Sweden, for 4 semesters in 2005-2007. Results. In a univariate analysis, 7 factors were found to be associated with students level of reflection. After controlling for covariates, 3 social factors were foun...

  4. Patient, family physician and community pharmacist perspectives on expanded pharmacy scope of practice: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Maoliosa; King-Shier, Kathryn; Tsuyuki, Ross T.; Al Hamarneh, Yazid N.; Jones, Charlotte A.; Manns, Braden; Tonelli, Marcello; Tink, Wendy; Scott-Douglas, Nairne; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The RxEACH trial was a randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of community pharmacy-based case finding and intervention in patients at high risk for cardiovascular (CV) events. Community-dwelling patients with poorly controlled risk factors were identified and their CV risk reduced through patient education, prescribing and follow-up by their pharmacist. Perspectives of patients, family physicians and community pharmacists were obtained regarding pharmacists' identification and management of patients at high risk for CV events, to identify strategies to facilitate implementation of the pharmacist's expanded role in routine patient care. Methods: We used a qualitative methodology (individual semistructured interviews) with conventional qualitative content analysis to describe perceptions about community pharmacists' care of patients at high risk for CV events. Perceptions were categorized into macro (structure), meso (institution) and micro (practice) health system levels, based on a conceptual framework of care for optimizing scopes of practice. Results: We interviewed 48 participants (14 patients, 13 family physicians and 21 community pharmacists). Patients were supportive of the expanded scope of practice of pharmacists. All participant groups emphasized the importance of communication, ability to share patient information, trust and better understanding of the roles, responsibilities, accountabilities and liabilities of the pharmacist within their expanded role. Interpretation: Despite support from patients and changes to delivery of care in primary care settings, ongoing efforts are needed to understand how to best harmonize family physician and community pharmacist roles across the health system. This will require collaboration and input from professional associations, regulatory bodies, pharmacists, family physicians and patients. PMID:28401136

  5. Expanded pharmacy technician roles: Accepting verbal prescriptions and communicating prescription transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Timothy P; Adams, Alex J

    2017-11-01

    As the role of the clinical pharmacist continues to develop and advance, it is critical to ensure pharmacists can operate in a practice environment and workflow that supports the full deployment of their clinical skills. When pharmacy technician roles are optimized, patient safety can be enhanced and pharmacists may dedicate more time to advanced clinical services. Currently, 17 states allow technicians to accept verbal prescriptions called in by a prescriber or prescriber's agent, or transfer a prescription order from one pharmacy to another. States that allow these activities generally put few legal limitations on them, and instead defer to the professional judgment of the supervising pharmacist whether to delegate these tasks or not. These activities were more likely to be seen in states that require technicians to be registered and certified, and in states that have accountability mechanisms (e.g., discipline authority) in place for technicians. There is little evidence to suggest these tasks cannot be performed safely and accurately by appropriately trained technicians, and the track record of success with these tasks spans four decades in some states. Pharmacists can adopt strong practice policies and procedures to mitigate the risk of harm from verbal orders, such as instituting read-back/spell-back techniques, or requiring the indication for each phoned-in medication, among other strategies. Pharmacists may also exercise discretion in deciding to whom to delegate these tasks. As the legal environment becomes more permissive, we foresee investment in more robust education and training of technicians to cover these activities. Thus, with the adoption of robust practice policies and procedures, delegation of verbal orders and prescription transfers can be safe and effective, remove undue stress on pharmacists, and potentially free up pharmacist time for higher-order clinical care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. advancing the frontiers of pharmacy profession to new horizons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof.Thoithi

    There are several outlets for veterinary products and these include pet shops, agrovet shops, pharmacies and veterinary clinics. The veterinarian just like pharmacist, dentist and medical practitioner is a proud professional and resents intrusion of non-veterinarians in his profession. Unfortunately, a pharmacy dealing with ...

  7. The Offering, Scheduling and Maintenance of Elective Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex O. Brown

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE provides standards for colleges of pharmacy to assist in the provision of pharmacy education to student pharmacists. An integral part of all college educational programs includes the provision of experiential learning. Experiential learning allows students to gain real-world experience in direct patient care during completion of the curriculum. All college of pharmacy programs provide several Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPEs, which include a balance between the four required experiences and a number of other required or elective APPEs. Required APPEs include advanced community, advanced institutional, ambulatory care, and general medicine. The elective APPEs include a myriad of opportunities to help provide a balanced education in experiential learning for student pharmacists. These unique opportunities help to expose student pharmacists to different career tracks that they may not have been able to experience otherwise. Not all colleges offer enough elective APPEs to enable the student pharmacist to obtain experiences in a defined area. Such an approach is required to produce skilled pharmacy graduates that are capable to enter practice in various settings. Elective APPEs are scheduled logically and are based upon student career interest and site availability. This article describes the offering, scheduling and maintenance of different elective APPEs offered by The University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy.

  8. Factors associated with reflection among students after an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallman, Andy; Lindblad, Asa Kettis; Gustavsson, Maria; Ring, Lena

    2009-10-01

    To identify individual and social factors associated with pharmacy students' level of reflection in an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). A postal questionnaire, including a reflective assignment, was sent to all pharmacy interns (n=262) at Uppsala University, Sweden, for 4 semesters in 2005-2007. In a univariate analysis, 7 factors were found to be associated with students' level of reflection. After controlling for covariates, 3 social factors were found to be independently associated with reflection: having a formal preceptor (OR=5.3), being at a small pharmacy (OR=19.8), and students' perception of the importance of discussing critical thinking with the preceptor (OR=1.2). No correlation could be observed between level of reflection and critical thinking, nor learning style. Social components seem to be of higher importance than individual components in students' reflective levels after pharmacy internship experience. Trained preceptors are important to foster reflection skills.

  9. Factors Associated With Reflection Among Students After an Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (APPE) in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Åsa Kettis; Gustavsson, Maria; Ring, Lena

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify individual and social factors associated with pharmacy students' level of reflection in an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). Methods A postal questionnaire, including a reflective assignment, was sent to all pharmacy interns (n=262) at Uppsala University, Sweden, for 4 semesters in 2005-2007. Results In a univariate analysis, 7 factors were found to be associated with students' level of reflection. After controlling for covariates, 3 social factors were found to be independently associated with reflection: having a formal preceptor (OR=5.3), being at a small pharmacy (OR=19.8), and students' perception of the importance of discussing critical thinking with the preceptor (OR=1.2). No correlation could be observed between level of reflection and critical thinking, nor learning style. Conclusion Social components seem to be of higher importance than individual components in students' reflective levels after pharmacy internship experience. Trained preceptors are important to foster reflection skills. PMID:19885076

  10. Effect of an Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience on Medication Therapy Management Services in a Centralized Retail Pharmacy Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Griend, Joseph P; Rodgers, Melissa; Nuffer, Wesley

    2017-05-01

    Medication therapy management (MTM) delivery is increasingly important in managed care. Successful delivery positively affects patient health and improves Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services star ratings, a measure of health plan quality. As MTM services continue to grow, there is an increased need for efficient and effective care models. The primary objectives of this project were to describe the delivery of MTM services by fourth-year Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (APPE) students in a centralized retail pharmacy system and to evaluate and quantify the clinical and financial contributions of the students. The secondary objective was to describe the engagement needed to complete comprehensive medication reviews (CMRs) and targeted interventions. From May 2015 to December 2015, thirty-five APPE students from the University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy provided MTM services at Albertsons Companies using the OutcomesMTM and Mirixa platforms. Students delivered patient care services by phone at the central office and provided face-to-face visits at pharmacies in the region. With implementation of the MTM APPE in 2015, the team consisted of 2 MTM pharmacists and pharmacy students, as compared with 1 MTM pharmacist in 2014. The number of CMRs and targeted interventions completed and the estimated additional revenue generated during the 2015 time period were compared with those completed from May through December 2014. The patient and provider engagement needed to complete the CMRs and targeted interventions was summarized. 125 CMRs and 1,918 targeted interventions were billed in 2015, compared with 13 CMRs and 767 targeted interventions in 2014. An estimated $16,575-$49,272 of additional revenue was generated in 2015. To complete the interventions in 2015, the team engaged in 1,714 CMR opportunities and 4,686 targeted intervention opportunities. In this MTM rotation, students provided real-life care to patients, resulting in financial and clinical

  11. Qualitative Analysis of Common Definitions for Core Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Jennifer; Weber, Stanley S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine how colleges and schools of pharmacy interpreted the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education’s (ACPE’s) Standards 2007 definitions for core advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs), and how they differentiated community and institutional practice activities for introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) and APPEs. Methods. A cross-sectional, qualitative, thematic analysis was done of survey data obtained from experiential education directors in US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Open-ended responses to invited descriptions of the 4 core APPEs were analyzed using grounded theory to determine common themes. Type of college or school of pharmacy (private vs public) and size of program were compared. Results. Seventy-one schools (72%) with active APPE programs at the time of the survey responded. Lack of strong frequent themes describing specific activities for the acute care/general medicine core APPE indicated that most respondents agreed on the setting (hospital or inpatient) but the student experience remained highly variable. Themes were relatively consistent between public and private institutions, but there were differences across programs of varying size. Conclusion. Inconsistencies existed in how colleges and schools of pharmacy defined the core APPEs as required by ACPE. More specific descriptions of core APPEs would help to standardize the core practice experiences across institutions and provide an opportunity for quality benchmarking. PMID:24954931

  12. Expanding and Personalising Feedback in Online Assessment: A Case Study in a School of Pharmacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Steven; Barber, Jill

    2016-01-01

    In the Manchester Pharmacy School, we first adopted summative on-line examinations in 2005. Since then, we have increased the range of question types to include short answers, short essays and questions incorporating chemical structures and we achieve time savings of up to 90% in the marking process. Online assessments allow two novel forms of…

  13. Documenting Student Engagement Using an Intention/Reflection Exercise during an Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierke, Kerry K.; Lepp, Gardner A.

    2015-01-01

    The article shares the outcomes of a practice called Intention/Reflection (I/R) when applied to a group of ten students in a five-week course involving an international advanced pharmacy practice experience. Developed by the authors and founded on a combination of theoretical principles, this practice is unique because of the blend of formative…

  14. Establishment and Implementation of a Required Medication Therapy Management Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuffer, Wesley; Gilliam, Eric; Thompson, Megan; Vande Griend, Joseph

    2017-03-25

    Objective. To develop a community pharmacy-based medication therapy management (MTM) advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) that provides students with skills and knowledge to deliver entry-level pharmacy MTM services. Design. The University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences (SSPPS) partnered with three community pharmacy chains to establish this three-week, required MTM APPE. Students completed the American Pharmacists Association MTM Certificate Course prior to entering the APPE. Students were expected to spend 90% or more of their time at this experience working on MTM interventions, using store MTM platforms. Assessment. All 151 students successfully completed this MTM APPE, and each received a passing evaluation from their preceptor. Preceptor evaluations of students averaged above four (entry-level practice) on a five-point Likert scale. The majority of students reported engagement in MTM services for more than 80% of the time on site. Students' self-reporting of their ability to perform MTM interventions improved after participation in the APPE. Conclusion. The SSPPS successfully implemented a required MTM APPE, preparing students for entry-level delivery of MTM services.

  15. Educational card games to teach pharmacotherapeutics in an advanced pharmacy practice experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Sean M; Jeffres, Meghan N; Bhakta, Ragini

    2011-03-10

    To implement and assess the effectiveness of card games to teach pharmacotherapeutic topics to pharmacy students and to determine the relationship between students' assessment scores and their learning styles. Two card games, Cardiology Go Fish and Infectious Diseases Gin Rummy, were created and taught to pharmacy students enrolled in an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). Students were required to play each game for 1 hour, 3 times over a 6-week period. Forty-five students completed a 90-question assessment administered prior to and after the 6-week period in which the games were played. Students' cardiology and infectious diseases assessment scores improved significantly as compared with scores on pharmacy practice questions, 19.2% vs. 5.1%, (p VARK (visual, aural, read/write, kinesthetic) questionnaire; however, the cardiology assessment scores of students with a preference for kinetic learning improved the most. Incorporating innovative learning tools such as card games into the curriculum of APPEs can enhance the educational experience of pharmacy students.

  16. Transnational comparability of advanced pharmacy practice developmental frameworks: a country-level crossover mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, Arit; Bruno, Andreia; Bates, Ian; Galbraith, Kirsten

    2018-01-04

    Previous work by the International Pharmaceutical Federation Education Initiative (FIPEd) demonstrates that even though some country-specific variations occur in pharmacy practice, there exists a set of practice-related competencies that are globally applicable. This study aimed to evaluate the transnational comparability of the Royal Pharmaceutical Society Advanced Pharmacy Framework (RPS-APF, Great Britain) and the Advanced Pharmacy Practice Framework for Australia (APPF). The objective was to obtain preliminary data on the transnational applicability of the developmental competencies contained in the two frameworks. A crossover mapping study involving 42 advanced-level pharmacists from four countries was conducted. Qualitative interview (n = 17) was also carried out to explore practitioners' perception of the frameworks. The average postregistration experience of the practitioners in the crossover study was 19 years. Directly observed within-subject agreement per advanced practice competency ranged from 45% to 86%. This agreement was significant for 87% of the competencies evaluated (k ≥ 0.21; P ≤ 0.05). The lowest agreement was in the 'governance' competency (k = 0.13; P = 0.21). Wilcoxon sum rank test showed a statistically significant within-subject difference in the 'collaborative practice' cluster (P = 0.043). This was not observed in the other five advanced practice clusters. From the qualitative interviews, practitioners generally perceived the two compared advanced-level frameworks as similar in content and indicated they found the described competencies to be useful for clarifying expectations of practice and identifying skills development needs. These findings provide preliminary evidence of the comparability and transnational applicability of the advanced pharmacy practice competencies contained in the two national competency development frameworks evaluated. © 2018 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  17. Defining and advancing ambulatory care pharmacy practice: it is time to lengthen our stride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helling, Dennis K; Johnson, Samuel G

    2014-08-15

    This paper reviews the basic tenets of ambulatory care pharmacy practice, including (1) the historical development of patient-centered care provided by pharmacists, (2) the need for and value of comprehensive medication management, (3) the education, training, and qualifications of pharmacists, and (4) demonstrated improvement in health and healthcare outcomes from pharmacists' services. When ambulatory care pharmacists engage in patient care to their full capacity, physician time is saved, access to care is improved, and clinical and economic outcomes are enhanced. There is a need for ambulatory care pharmacists to work toward optimizing safe medication use and optimizing medication therapy for patients with diabetes, asthma, cardiovascular disease, and renal disease. Other opportunities for the development of ambulatory care pharmacy services exist in preventive care, precision therapeutics, medication therapy management, mitigation of healthcare disparities, and implementation of national healthcare reform. Interprofessional patient care teams should include ambulatory care pharmacists in patient-centered medical homes and accountable care organizations. Ambulatory care pharmacy practice would benefit by enhancing specialty residency training and by creating a residency/fellowship for advanced subspecialty clinical practice and research. Provider status is essential to recognize pharmacists as an integral part of the patient care team. By assertively advancing ambulatory care practice, pharmacy will help achieve the national priorities of improving patient care, patient health, and affordability of care. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An automated competency-based student performance assessment program for advanced pharmacy practice experiential programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, L Douglas; Nemire, Ruth; Doty, Randell; Brickler, Mildred P; Anderson, Holly H; Frenzel-Shepherd, Elizabeth; Larose-Pierre, Margareth; Dugan, Dee

    2007-12-15

    To describe the development and preliminary outcomes of the System of Universal Clinical Competency Evaluation in the Sunshine State (SUCCESS) for preceptors to assess students' clinical performance in advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). An Internet-based APPE assessment tool was developed by faculty members from colleges of pharmacy in Florida and implemented. Numeric scores and grades derived from the SUCCESS algorithm were similar to preceptors' comparison grades. The average SUCCESS GPA was slightly higher compared to preceptors' scores (0.02 grade points). The SUCCESS program met its goals, including establishing a common set of forms, standardized assessment criteria, an objective document that is accessible on the Internet, and standardized grading, and reducing pressure on preceptors from students concerning their grades.

  19. Relationship between performance barriers and pharmacist competency towards the implementation of an expanded public health pharmacy role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathialagan, Amuthaganesh; Nagalinggam, Preesha; Mathialagan, Saravanabavan; Kirby, Brian P

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between performance barriers and competency, and implementation of an expanded public health role for community pharmacists. A validated questionnaire was utilised for this study whereby three variables of the study (performance barriers, competency and public health role) were measured using a 5-point Likert scale. Three hundred questionnaires were distributed to target respondents of registered community pharmacies in five states (Johor, Negeri Sembilan, Selangor, Perak and Penang) in Malaysia. The data were analysed utilising the principles of structural equation modelling. There were 191 completed and usable responses received, which represented a 66.7% response rate. This study showed perceived competency had a direct relationship with delivering a general public health role. A perceived lack of competency was shown to be a barrier to fulfilling a public health role. However, other factors, such as design of premises, IT infrastructure and pay, were not viewed as barriers to carrying out a public health role. Perceived competency is an obstacle for community pharmacists to undertake a public health role in Malaysia. Adequate training programmes in pharmaceutical public health have to be put in place to address this concern and this should therefore be a priority. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  20. A pharmacotherapy capstone course to advance pharmacy students' clinical documentation skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Jeannine M; Ahmed, Ghada F

    2012-09-10

    To implement and assess the effectiveness of a capstone pharmacotherapy course designed to integrate in-class curriculum using patient cases and drug-information questions. The course was intended to improve third-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students' clinical documentation skills in preparation for beginning advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). This 2-credit, semester-long course consisted of 6 patient cases and 12 drug-information questions posted electronically on an Internet-based medical chart, a public health presentation, a knowledge examination, and an objective standardized performance assessment. In class, students engaged in active-learning exercises and clinical problem-solving. Students worked outside of class in small groups to retrieve and discuss assigned articles and review medication information in preparation for in-class discussions. A rubric was used to assess the patient cases and questions that students completed and submitted individually. Data for 4 consecutive course offerings (n=622) were then analyzed. A significant improvement was found in the "misplaced" but not the "missing" documentation ratings for both assessment and plan notes in the final assessment compared with baseline. In course evaluations, the majority of students agreed that the course integrated material across the curriculum (97%) and improved their clinical writing skills (80.5%). A capstone pharmacy course was successful in integrating and reviewing much of the material covered across the PharmD curriculum and in improving students' clinical documentation skills.

  1. An elective pharmaceutical care course to prepare students for an advanced pharmacy practice experience in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellhase, Ellen M; Miller, Monica L; Ogallo, William; Pastakia, Sonak D

    2013-04-12

    OBJECTIVE. To develop a prerequisite elective course to prepare students for an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in Kenya. DESIGN. The course addressed Kenyan culture, travel preparation, patient care, and disease-state management. Instructional formats used were small-group discussions and lectures, including some Web-based presentations by Kenyan pharmacists on disease states commonly treated in Kenya. Cultural activities include instruction in conversational and medical Kiswahili and reading of a novel related to global health programs. ASSESSMENT. Student performance was assessed using written care plans, quizzes, reflection papers, a formulary management exercise, and pre- and post-course assessments. Student feedback on course evaluations indicated that the course was well received and students felt prepared for the APPE. CONCLUSION. This course offered a unique opportunity for students to learn about pharmacy practice in global health and to apply previously acquired skills in a resource-constrained international setting. It prepares students to actively participate in clinical care activities during an international APPE.

  2. A capstone course with a comprehensive and integrated review of the pharmacy curriculum and student assessment as a preparation for advanced pharmacy practice experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Adina C; Parihar, Harish S

    2014-12-15

    To create a capstone course that provides a comprehensive and integrated review of the pharmacy curriculum with a broad range of assessment tools to evaluate student knowledge and skills as a final preparation prior to beginning fourth-year advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). The capstone course was a 4 credit-hour, case-based course. Eight comprehensive cases were assigned to students over the course of the term. The cases were designed to mimic complex clinical scenarios that students were likely to encounter during an APPE. Students were required to prepare a written and oral presentation for each case and were assessed on material covered during the cases. Faculty members presented weekly reviews on selected topics such as calculations, pharmacokinetics, and pharmaceutical compounding. At the end of the course, students took an observed structured clinical examination (OSCE), which simulated the Georgia Board of Pharmacy Practical Examination, and a comprehensive examination designed to mimic the NAPLEX (North American Pharmacy Licensure Examination). Evaluation of student outcomes was based on written and verbal presentations of the cases, multiple-choice examinations, a short-answer calculations examination, an "Errors and Omissions" examination, a standardized patient encounter, and pharmaceutical compounding examinations. Ninety-five percent of students successfully passed the course on their first attempt. Student feedback indicated satisfaction with the depth, breadth, and organization of material covered and felt that the course helped prepare them for APPEs. The culminating experience of the capstone course gave students a thorough review of practical, clinical, and communication skills and provided faculty members with feedback regarding the curriculum through robust assessment.

  3. Tracking Patient Encounters and Clinical Skills to Determine Competency in Ambulatory Care Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounsbery, Jody L; Pereira, Chrystian R; Harris, Ila M; Moon, Jean Y; Westberg, Sarah M; Kolar, Claire

    2016-02-25

    To determine if the amount of exposure to patient encounters and clinical skills correlates to student clinical competency on ambulatory care advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Students in ambulatory care APPEs tracked the number of patients encountered by medical condition and the number of patient care skills performed. At the end of the APPE, preceptors evaluated students' competency for each medical condition and skill, referencing the Dreyfus model for skill acquisition. Data was collected from September 2012 through August 2014. Forty-six responses from a student tracking tool were matched to preceptor ratings. Students rated as competent saw more patients and performed more skills overall. Preceptors noted minimal impact on workload. Increased exposure to patient encounters and skills performed had a positive association with higher Dreyfus stage, which may represent a starting point in the conversation for more thoughtful design of ambulatory care APPEs.

  4. Librarian-lead tutorial for enhancement of pharmacy students' information-searching skills in advanced experiential rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapidus, Mariana; Kostka-Rokosz, Maria D; Dvorkin-Camiel, Lana

    2009-10-01

    Pharmacy schools across the United States expose students to literature searching and evaluation mostly during required didactic drug information courses. The majority of Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students do not utilize library-available electronic resources on a regular basis, and their didactic experience alone is not sufficient to make them successful in their advanced experiential drug information (DI) rotations. This pilot study demonstrates an improvement of students' perceptions regarding information searching and evaluating abilities as the result of their participation in a small group tutorial with a reference librarian, thus indicating effectiveness of the tutorial in refreshing and enhancing database knowledge skills.

  5. Advancing the use of community pharmacy quality measures: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyanbola, Olayinka O; Mort, Jane R; Lyons, Kayley

    2013-01-01

    To describe consumers' ability to interpret pharmacy quality measures data presented in a report card, to examine the tools that consumers require to interpret the information available in a pharmacy quality report card, and to determine whether pharmacy quality measures influence consumers' choice of a pharmacy. Qualitative study. Three semistructured focus groups conducted in a private meeting space at a public library in Sioux Falls, SD, from April 2011 to May 2011. 29 laypeople. Participants' skills interpreting and using pharmacy quality information were examined based on mock report cards containing the Pharmacy Quality Alliance (PQA) quality measures. Consumer perceptions of pharmacy quality data. Participants reported difficulty understanding quality measures because of knowledge deficits. They wanted supportive resources on drug class of their medications to help them understand the measures. Participants had different opinions on whether their pharmacies should be compared with other pharmacies based on specific quality measures. For example, they favored the use of drug-drug interactions as a quality measure for comparing pharmacies, while medication adherence was deemed of limited use for comparison. Participants stated that pharmacy report cards would be useful information but would not prompt a change in pharmacy. However, participants perceived that this information would be useful in selecting a new pharmacy. The results suggest that consumers require simplification of PQA quality measures and supportive resources to interpret the measures. Consumers may favor certain quality measures based on their perception of the role of the pharmacist. Education is required before full use of this quality-of-care information can be realized.

  6. Student pharmacists' preparedness to evaluate primary literature pre- and post-Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momary, Kathryn M; Lundquist, Lisa M

    2017-05-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of formal primary literature evaluation (PLE) during advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) on student pharmacists' preparedness and knowledge related to literature evaluation. A perception of preparedness survey and knowledge assessment was given to student pharmacists pre- and post-APPEs. Student pharmacists were also asked to characterize their opportunities for formal PLE during APPEs. Literature evaluation experiences, knowledge base and preparedness data were compared between student pharmacists who completed two or more PLE on APPE and those who did not. A total of 211 student pharmacists completed 529 formal PLE during their APPE experiences. Quiz grades and average perception of preparedness increased significantly from pre- to post-APPE regardless of whether student pharmacists had the opportunity for formal PLE on APPE. Student pharmacists who completed two or more PLE on APPE stated they felt more confident in evaluating primary literature after APPE, had greater post-APPE preparedness scores and a trend towards higher post-APPE quiz scores. APPEs provide an important opportunity for student pharmacists to improve their PLE knowledge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Expanding the spectrum: 20 years of advances in MMW imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher A.; Lovberg, John A.; Kolinko, Valdimir G.

    2017-05-01

    Millimeter-wave imaging has expanded from the single-pixel swept imagers developed in the 1960s to large field-ofview real-time systems in use today. Trex Enterprises has been developing millimeter-wave imagers since 1991 for aviation and security applications, as well as millimeter-wave communications devices. As MMIC device development was stretching into the MMW band in the 1990s, Trex developed novel imaging architectures to create 2-D staring systems with large pixel counts and no moving parts while using a minimal number of devices. Trex also contributed to the device development in amplifiers, switches, and detectors to enable the next generation of passive MMW imaging systems. The architectures and devices developed continue to be employed in security imagers, radar, and radios produced by Trex. This paper reviews the development of the initial real-time MMW imagers and associated devices by Trex Enterprises from the 1990s through the 2000s. The devices include W-band MMIC amplifiers, switches, and detector didoes, and MMW circuit boards and optical processors. The imaging systems discussed include two different real-time passive MMW imagers flown on helicopters and a MMW radar system, as well as implementation of the devices and architectures in simpler stand-off and gateway security imagers.

  8. Status of Pharmacy Practice Experience Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, Dayl; Kwasnik, Abigail; Craddick, Karen; Heinz, Andrew K.; Harralson, Arthur F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To assess financial, personnel, and curricular characteristics of US pharmacy practice experiential education programs and follow-up on results of a similar survey conducted in 2001. Methods. Experiential education directors at 118 accredited US pharmacy colleges and schools were invited to participate in a blinded, Web-based survey in 2011. Aggregate responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics and combined with data obtained from the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy to assess program demographics, faculty and administrative organizational structure, and financial support. Results. The number of advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) sites had increased by 24% for medium, 50% for large, and 55% for very large colleges and schools. Introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) sites outnumbered APPEs twofold. The average experiential education team included an assistant/associate dean (0.4 full-time equivalent [FTE]), a director (1.0 FTE), assistant/associate director (0.5 FTE), coordinator (0.9 FTE), and multiple administrative assistants (1.3 FTE). Most faculty members (63%-75%) were nontenure track and most coordinators (66%) were staff members. Estimated costs to operate an experiential education program represented a small percentage of the overall expense budget of pharmacy colleges and schools. Conclusion. To match enrollment growth, pharmacy practice experiential education administrators have expanded their teams, reorganized responsibilities, and found methods to improve cost efficiency. These benchmarks will assist experiential education administrators to plan strategically for future changes. PMID:24850934

  9. Expanding professional pharmacy services in European community setting: Is it cost-effective? A systematic review for health policy considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraudin, Clémence; Bugnon, Olivier; Pelletier-Fleury, Nathalie

    2016-12-01

    To synthesize cost-effectiveness analyses on professional pharmacy services (PPS) performed in Europe in order to contribute to current debates on their funding and reimbursement. Systematic review in PubMed, Embase and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases to identify full economic evaluation studies of PPS in community setting from 2004. Twenty-one studies were included, conducted in the United-Kingdom (n=13), the Netherlands (n=3), Spain (n=2), Belgium (n=1), France (n=1) and Denmark (n=1). PPS to enhance medicine safety (interprofessional meetings to reduce errors, n=2) and access to medicines (minor ailment scheme, n=1) were in favour of their cost-effectiveness in the UK context, but the evidence is not sufficient. Eleven studies assessed PPS to improve treatment outcomes of individual patients-such as pharmaceutical care services, medication review, educational and coaching program, disease support service, medicines management and telephone-based advisory for improving adherence. Findings were contradictory and did not lead to strong conclusion. Screening programs for different diseases showed robust positive results (n=2) as well as smoking cessation services (n=5) and should be considered to be more widely available in accordance with national context. The review provides arguments for the implementation of PPS aiming to improve public health through screening programs and smoking cessation services. However, further full economic evaluations are needed to support or refute the added value of other services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 78 FR 43745 - Expanding National Service Through Partnerships to Advance Government Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Vol. 78 Friday, No. 139 July 19, 2013 Part V The President Memorandum of July 15, 2013--Expanding National Service Through Partnerships To Advance Government Priorities Notice of July 17, 2013--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Former Liberian Regime...

  11. A conceptual framework toward identifying and analyzing challenges to the advancement of pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Lina R; McGrath, Simon; Rouse, Michael J; Anderson, Claire

    Pharmacists and health care professionals are faced with increasing and changing health care needs around the world. To meet these demands, they are required to continuously upgrade and develop their professions. Reprofessionalization is therefore crucial to the successful delivery of health services, but traditional theories might provide little practical guidance to evaluating the overall status of a profession. This study proposes a new conceptual framework of three interrelated professional sectors: education, regulation and practice, and uses it to identify and analyze challenges facing the pharmacy profession in Jordan. A multiple-method qualitative study comprised of semi-structured interviews and focus groups was conducted in Amman, Jordan. To explore and identify the challenges, a purposively recruited cross-sector sample of 53 key informants, stakeholders and pharmacists were interviewed. Interview transcripts were translated and analyzed using QSR NVivo 10. Thematic analysis identified eight main challenges facing pharmacy in Jordan. The original participants were then invited to participate in focus groups, the purpose of which was to validate the interview findings, map them against the conceptual framework and discuss recommendations for development. The eight validated challenges span the following areas: graduates preparedness for practice, pharmacy education accreditation and quality assurance, pre-registration requirements, workforce development, workforce planning, remuneration and wage rate, pharmacy assistants, and Pharm.D. pharmacists. Focus group participants used the framework to map each of the challenges to the primary sector-to-sector disconnect that they perceived to explain it. A list of recommendations addressing each of the challenges was also devised. The framework was found to offer valuable insight as an explanatory and diagnostic tool in policy-relevant research. By emphasizing the processual and contextual nature of

  12. "It's like rotations, but in the classroom": Creation of an innovative course to prepare students for advanced pharmacy practice experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Yolanda M; Marshall, Janene L

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the course development and results of a survey assessing students' perceived confidence in performing various skills after completion of this course. The course was taught using a model in which all activities performed by students took place in a fictitious health system. The course was created to give students the opportunity to learn in an environment that closely mimicked advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) while in the didactic setting. Higher order active learning activities and case-based exams were utilized in the course. Students' perceived level of confidence in performing skills practiced in the course was assessed via survey after completion of each semester of the course and after the first introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE). Course coordinators hypothesized that this course design would improve students' perceived level of confidence in performing skills utilized in the clinical practice setting. Survey data from two class cohorts were analyzed. Students' perceived level of confidence in performing skills necessary in clinical practice increased as a result of the course. This course provided students an opportunity to experience an APPE environment while still in the didactic setting. The course design meets the Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) outcomes and aids in making students "APPE-ready" prior to the start of the P4 year. This unique and innovative course format allowed students to integrate knowledge learned in previous courses and apply it in a manner like what is expected in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. International Mentoring Programs: Leadership Opportunities to Enhance Worldwide Pharmacy Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaka, Chukwuemeka; Brechtelsbauer, Erich; Goff, Debra A

    2017-07-01

    Health-system and community pharmacy practice in the United States is experiencing transformational change; however, this transformation is lagging in the international arena. As a result, efforts are being made to provide support and education to the international pharmacy leaders and practitioners. This article describes one effort, the Mandela Washington Fellows Program, and suggests areas where pharmacy leaders can be involved to help advance the practice of pharmacy on an international level. The Mandela Washington Fellows Program for young Africa leaders consists of a US-Africa pharmacy-mentoring program identified ranging from educational opportunities to collaboration for implementation of patient care programs. The specifics of the mentoring program include daily meetings, clinic and ward rounds, round table discussions with mentors, and visits to various hospital care systems. Lessons were learned and strategies for sustaining the program are discussed. These types of programs represent leadership opportunities that may not be apparent to most pharmacy directors, but expanding their view to helping international pharmacists expand their practice only strengthens the professional goal of providing patient-centered pharmacy services.

  14. An Advanced Registered Nurse Practitioner-Community Pharmacist Team-Based Approach to Managing Hypertension in a Rural Community Pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Parker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the implementation of an Advanced Registered Nurse Practitioner (ARNP – community pharmacist team-based collaborative model for managing hypertension in a rural, Midwestern, community pharmacy and family medicine clinic using the core functions of the patient centered medical home model (PCMH. Methods: Thirteen patients with uncontrolled hypertension, 5 of who were newly diagnosed, were referred to the pharmacist by the ARNP. The pharmacist rechecked the patient’s blood pressure (BP every 2 weeks after referral and made drug therapy change recommendations to the ARNP if the patient was not below goal. Results: Following the intervention, the average SBP and DBP decreased 24 mmHg and 12mmHg, respectively. The pharmacists made 21 recommendations (dose increase (11, add a medication (6, change a medication (2, and addition of an adherence tool (2, 100% of which were accepted by the ARNP. Conclusion: A team-based approach to managing hypertension in a rural community pharmacy and family medicine clinic was an effective way to lower blood pressure. In addition, the core functions of the PCMH model can be delivered in a small family medicine practice. Creating specific expectations for each member of the team prior to referring patients improved the efficiency of the intervention.   Type: Original Research

  15. Online virtual-patient cases versus traditional problem-based learning in advanced pharmacy practice experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dahir, Sara; Bryant, Kendrea; Kennedy, Kathleen B; Robinson, Donna S

    2014-05-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of faculty-led problem-based learning (PBL) vs online simulated-patient case in fourth-year (P4) pharmacy students. Fourth-year pharmacy students were randomly assigned to participate in either online branched-case learning using a virtual simulation platform or a small-group discussion. Preexperience and postexperience student assessments and a survey instrument were completed. While there were no significant differences in the preexperience test scores between the groups, there was a significant increase in scores in both the virtual-patient group and the PBL group between the preexperience and postexperience tests. The PBL group had higher postexperience test scores (74.8±11.7) than did the virtual-patient group (66.5±13.6) (p=0.001). The PBL method demonstrated significantly greater improvement in postexperience test scores than did the virtual-patient method. Both were successful learning methods, suggesting that a diverse approach to simulated patient cases may reach more student learning styles.

  16. Electronic reflective student portfolios to demonstrate achievement of ability-based outcomes during advanced pharmacy practice experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceland, Laurie L; Hamilton, Robert A

    2010-06-15

    To demonstrate achievement of ability-based outcomes through a structured review of electronic student portfolios in an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) program. One hundred thirty-eight students produced electronic portfolios containing select work products from APPEs, including a self-assessment reflective essay that demonstrated achievement of course manual-specified ability-based outcomes. Through portfolio submissions, all students demonstrated the achievement of ability-based outcomes for providing pharmaceutical care, evaluating the literature, and managing the medication use system with patient case reports most frequently submitted. The rubric review of self-reflective essays addressed student learning through APPEs and continuing professional development plans. The electronic portfolio with reflective essay proved to be a useful vehicle to demonstrate achievement of ability-based outcomes.

  17. Advanced Monobore Concept, Development of CFEX Self-Expanding Tubular Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeff Spray

    2007-09-30

    The Advanced Monobore Concept--CFEX{copyright} Self-Expanding Tubular Technology Development was a successfully executed fundamental research through field demonstration project. This final report is presented as a progression, according to basic technology development steps. For this project, the research and development steps used were: concept development, engineering analysis, manufacturing, testing, demonstration, and technology transfer. The CFEX{copyright} Technology Development--Advanced Monobore Concept Project successfully completed all of the steps for technology development, covering fundamental research, conceptual development, engineering design, advanced-level prototype construction, mechanical testing, and downhole demonstration. Within an approximately two year period, a partially defined, broad concept was evolved into a substantial new technological area for drilling and production engineering applicable a variety of extractive industries--which was also successfully demonstrated in a test well. The demonstration achievement included an actual mono-diameter placement of two self-expanding tubulars. The fundamental result is that an economical and technically proficient means of casing any size of drilling or production well or borehole is indicated as feasible based on the results of the project. Highlighted major accomplishments during the project's Concept, Engineering, Manufacturing, Demonstration, and Technology Transfer phases, are given.

  18. Community education by advanced pharmacy practice experience students: Increasing electronic cigarette awareness amongst teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Amanda M; Abel, Cheryl A; Januszweski, Megan; Chamberlain, Bradley

    2017-11-01

    An electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) is a device used to mimic the experience of smoking tobacco cigarettes. Considering their growing popularity amongst adolescents, it is imperative that education surrounding e-cigarettes be provided. The purpose of this project is to describe the development and delivery of a pilot interactive presentation and survey tool by doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) candidates to gauge the use and understanding of e-cigarettes amongst teens. An interactive presentation providing information on e-cigarettes was created by a PharmD candidate, and presented to 357 high school students in Massachusetts and New Hampshire. An anonymous survey tool was administered after the presentation to evaluate students' perception, use, and knowledge of e-cigarettes. When asked which is safer, an e-cigarette or a tobacco cigarette, most students (84%) responded "neither," and most stated that they learned something new from the presentation. Of the 96% of students that indicated they had heard of e-cigarettes, 27% of them had tried one. PharmD candidates reported increased confidence in public speaking and preparation of patient-suitable material. This pilot project provided both education to adolescents and insight into their experience and understanding of the potential harms of e-cigarettes. Having a PharmD candidate deliver the presentation may have increased the students' level of comfort. An interactive, PharmD candidate-delivered presentation about e-cigarettes is an innovative method to both provide education about e-cigarettes, and ascertain information about knowledge and use in adolescents. Facilitating presentations like this could be successful in other settings or topics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Patient care delivery and integration: stimulating advancement of ambulatory care pharmacy practice in an era of healthcare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epplen, Kelly T

    2014-08-15

    This article discusses how to plan and implement an ambulatory care pharmacist service, how to integrate a hospital- or health-system-based service with the mission and operations of the institution, and how to help the institution meet its challenges related to quality improvement, continuity of care, and financial sustainability. The steps in implementing an ambulatory care pharmacist service include (1) conducting a needs assessment, (2) aligning plans for the service with the mission and goals of the parent institution, (3) collaborating with patients and physicians, (4) standardizing the patient care process, (5) proposing the service, (6) attaining the necessary resources, (7) identifying stakeholders, (8) identifying applicable quality standards, (9) defining competency standards, (10) planning for service payment, and (11) monitoring outcomes. Ambulatory care pharmacists have current opportunities to become engaged with patient-centered medical homes, accountable care organizations, preventive and wellness programs, and continuity of care initiatives. Common barriers to the advancement of ambulatory care pharmacist services include lack of complete access to patient information, inadequate information technology, and lack of payment. Ambulatory care pharmacy practitioners must assertively promote appropriate medication use, provide patient-centered care, pursue integration with the patient care team, and seek appropriate recognition and compensation for the services they provide. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. An expanded framework for the advanced computational testing and simulation toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Osni A.; Drummond, Leroy A.

    2003-11-09

    The Advanced Computational Testing and Simulation (ACTS) Toolkit is a set of computational tools developed primarily at DOE laboratories and is aimed at simplifying the solution of common and important computational problems. The use of the tools reduces the development time for new codes and the tools provide functionality that might not otherwise be available. This document outlines an agenda for expanding the scope of the ACTS Project based on lessons learned from current activities. Highlights of this agenda include peer-reviewed certification of new tools; finding tools to solve problems that are not currently addressed by the Toolkit; working in collaboration with other software initiatives and DOE computer facilities; expanding outreach efforts; promoting interoperability, further development of the tools; and improving functionality of the ACTS Information Center, among other tasks. The ultimate goal is to make the ACTS tools more widely used and more effective in solving DOE's and the nation's scientific problems through the creation of a reliable software infrastructure for scientific computing.

  1. Collaboration between a college of pharmacy and a for-profit health system at an academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Matthew L; Dunn, Rebecca L; Hagemann, Tracy M; Burton, Michael E; Britton, Mark L; St Cyr, Mark B

    2012-07-01

    The genesis and growth of a successful 14-year partnership between the University of Oklahoma (OU) college of pharmacy and the OU Medical Center (OUMC) department of pharmacy are described. Pursuant to a 1998 joint operating agreement, the medical center and pharmacy school have achieved a high degree of collaboration on a wide range of educational and clinical initiatives. The close relationship has conferred a number of benefits on both institutions, including (1) expanded experiential education opportunities for pharmacy students, (2) joint faculty and staff funding arrangements that have facilitated the development and accreditation of OU pharmacy residency programs, and (3) patient care initiatives that have increased awareness of pharmacists' important contributions in areas such as venous thromboembolism prophylaxis, antibiotic stewardship, and core measures compliance. In addition to the formal integration of the college of pharmacy into the OUMC organizational structure, ongoing teamwork by clinicians and administrators at the two institutions has strengthened the 14-year partnership while helping to identify creative solutions to evolving communications, technology, and reimbursement challenges. Potential growth opportunities include the expansion of pharmacy services into additional service areas and greater involvement by OU pharmacy school faculty in the training of medical, nursing, and allied health professionals. A large for-profit academic medical center and a college of pharmacy developed a successful collaboration that is mutually beneficial and provides increased clinical, educational, and scholarly opportunities, advancing the mission of both institutions.

  2. Confronting the "Acid Test": Educators' Perspectives on Expanding Access to Advanced Placement at a Diverse Florida High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, M. Lance; Shircliffe, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines educators' perspectives on accountability mandates designed to expand access to the College Board's Advanced Placement (AP) classes to traditionally underserved students at a diverse suburban high school in Florida, Palm Crest High School. Consistent with Elmore (1979), district and site-based administrators focused on the…

  3. Pharmacy Technicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... require passing an exam or completing a formal education or training program. Pay The median annual wage for pharmacy technicians was $30,920 in May ... State & Area Data Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area ... Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of pharmacy technicians with ...

  4. Exploring the scope of expanding advanced nursing practice in nurse-led clinics: a multiple-case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Ann T Y; Lee, Diana T F; Chau, Janita P C

    2012-08-01

    This article is a report on a study to explore the development of expanding advanced nursing practice in nurse-led clinics in Hong Kong. Nurse-led clinics serviced by advanced practice nurses, a common international practice, have been adopted in Hong Kong since 1990s. Evaluations consistently show that this practice has good clinical outcomes and contributes to containing healthcare cost. However, similar to the international literature, it remains unclear as to what the elements of good advanced nursing practice are, and which directions Hong Kong should adopt for further development of such practice. A multiple-case study design was adopted with six nurse-led clinics representing three specialties as six case studies, and including two clinics each from continence, diabetes and wound care. Each case had four embedded units of analysis. They included non-participant observation of nursing activities (9 days), nurse interviews (N = 6), doctor interviews (N = 6) and client interviews (N = 12). The data were collected in 2009. Within- and cross-case analyses were conducted. The cross-case analysis demonstrated six elements of good advanced nursing practice in nurse-led clinics, and showed a great potential to expand the practice by reshaping four categories of current boundaries, including community-hospital, wellness-illness, public-private and professional-practice boundaries. From these findings, we suggest a model to advance the scope of advanced nursing practice in nurse-led clinics. The six elements may be applied as audit criteria for evaluation of advanced nursing practice in nurse-led clinics, and the proposed model provides directions for expanding such practice in Hong Kong and beyond. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Issues Facing Pharmacy Leaders in 2015: Suggestions for Pharmacy Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 include practice model growth and the role of pharmacy students, clinical privileging of health-system pharmacists and provider status, medication error prevention, and specialty pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide practical approaches to 4 issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 to help them focus their department’s goals. This article will address (1) advances in the pharmacy practice model initiative and the role of pharmacy students, (2) the current thinking of pharmacists being granted clinical privileges in health systems, (3) updates on preventing harmful medication errors, and (4) the growth of specialty pharmacy services. The sample template of a strategic plan may be used by a pharmacy department in 2015 in an effort to continue developing patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:25717212

  6. Use of the International Pharmaceutical Federation's Basel Statements to Assess and Advance Hospital Pharmacy Practice: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penm, Jonathan; Chaar, Betty; Moles, Rebekah J

    2016-01-01

    The Basel statements of the International Pharmaceutical Federation, which provide the first global, unified vision for the hospital pharmacy profession, have recently been revised. Originally released in 2008, the Basel statements have since been made available in 21 languages, and thus have the potential for great impact around the world. To conduct a scoping review to examine the extent and nature of research activity related to the Basel statements. Google Scholar, PubMed, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts were searched using the key term "Basel statements" for relevant research articles. From each included study, data were extracted on geographic location, study design, study outcomes, and use of the Basel statements. The search strategy generated 113 results. Further refinement resulted in 14 English-language articles that met the inclusion criteria. Four of these articles focused on adapting the Basel statements to European practice, an initiative of the European Association of Hospital Pharmacists that led to development of the European statements of Hospital Pharmacy. Six studies focused on monitoring hospital pharmacy practice in Uganda, the Pacific island countries, and the Western Pacific Region. These studies provide valuable baseline data to measure and track the development of hospital pharmacy practices in their respective countries and regions. The remaining 4 studies used qualitative methods to explore the barriers to and facilitators of implementation of the Basel statements in South Africa, China, and Australia. The Basel statements have led to multiple initiatives around the world, involving more than 70 countries. The European and Western Pacific regions have been the most active. Current initiatives should be continued to ensure identification and resolution of issues related to sustaining their use over time.

  7. Use of the International Pharmaceutical Federation’s Basel Statements to Assess and Advance Hospital Pharmacy Practice: A Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penm, Jonathan; Chaar, Betty; Moles, Rebekah J

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Basel statements of the International Pharmaceutical Federation, which provide the first global, unified vision for the hospital pharmacy profession, have recently been revised. Originally released in 2008, the Basel statements have since been made available in 21 languages, and thus have the potential for great impact around the world. Objective: To conduct a scoping review to examine the extent and nature of research activity related to the Basel statements. Methods: Google Scholar, PubMed, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts were searched using the key term “Basel statements” for relevant research articles. From each included study, data were extracted on geographic location, study design, study outcomes, and use of the Basel statements. Results: The search strategy generated 113 results. Further refinement resulted in 14 English-language articles that met the inclusion criteria. Four of these articles focused on adapting the Basel statements to European practice, an initiative of the European Association of Hospital Pharmacists that led to development of the European statements of Hospital Pharmacy. Six studies focused on monitoring hospital pharmacy practice in Uganda, the Pacific island countries, and the Western Pacific Region. These studies provide valuable baseline data to measure and track the development of hospital pharmacy practices in their respective countries and regions. The remaining 4 studies used qualitative methods to explore the barriers to and facilitators of implementation of the Basel statements in South Africa, China, and Australia. Conclusion: The Basel statements have led to multiple initiatives around the world, involving more than 70 countries. The European and Western Pacific regions have been the most active. Current initiatives should be continued to ensure identification and resolution of issues related to sustaining their use over time. PMID:27168634

  8. Pharmacy alternatives (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common source for obtaining prescriptions is the local pharmacy. Usually the pharmacy is located in a drug or grocery store. ... some insurance companies have chosen is mail-order pharmacy. Once a pharmacy has been chosen it is ...

  9. International Mentoring Programs: Leadership Opportunities to Enhance Worldwide Pharmacy Practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ubaka, Chukwuemeka; Brechtelsbauer, Erich; Goff, Debra A

    2017-01-01

    .... This article describes one effort, the Mandela Washington Fellows Program, and suggests areas where pharmacy leaders can be involved to help advance the practice of pharmacy on an international level...

  10. Final results of the European Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma Sorafenib (EU-ARCCS) expanded-access study: a large open-label study in diverse community settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, J.; Procopio, G.; Bajetta, E.; Keilholz, U.; Negrier, S.; Szczylik, C.; Bokemeyer, C.; Bracarda, S.; Richel, D. J.; Staehler, M.; Strauss, U. P.; Mersmann, S.; Burock, K.; Escudier, B.

    2011-01-01

    The European Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma Sorafenib (EU-ARCCS) expanded-access study provided sorafenib to advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients in whom previous systemic therapy had failed. The study assessed the safety and use of sorafenib for the treatment of advanced RCC in a large

  11. Correlation between active-learning coursework and student retention of core content during advanced pharmacy practice experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Kristy H; Testman, Julie A; Hoyland, Marcella N; Kimble, Angel M; Euler, Mary L

    2013-10-14

    To implement an active-learning approach in a pharmacotherapy course sequence in the second year (P2) and third (P3) year of a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program and determine whether the pedagogical changes correlated with retention of core content in the fourth year (P4). Class sessions were transitioned from slides-based lectures to discussion-based active-learning pedagogy. A comprehensive examination was created and administered to assess student retention of therapeutic topics taught. Students demonstrated significantly improved overall scores on questions derived from the active-learning pedagogy used in Pharmacotherapy II and III compared to those derived from Pharmacotherapy I in which content was delivered by lecture. The use of active-learning strategies over lecture-based methods in pharmacotherapy courses resulted in higher retention of core content. Students' performance in areas taught using the discussion-based methodology was superior to that which was taught using lecture-based slide presentations.

  12. Expanding Robust HCCI Operation with Advanced Valve and Fuel Control Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szybist, J. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Confer, K. [Delphi Automotive Systems (United States)

    2012-09-11

    Delphi Automotive Systems and ORNL established this CRADA to advance the commercialization potential of the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) advanced combustion strategy for gasoline engine platforms. HCCI combustion has been shown by others to produce high diesel-like efficiency on a gasoline engine platform while simultaneously producing low NOX and particulate matter emissions. However, the commercialization barriers that face HCCI combustion are significant, with requirements for a more active engine control system, likely with next-cycle closed-loop feedback control, and with advanced valve train technologies to enable negative valve overlap conditions. In the partnership between Delphi and ORNL, each organization brought a unique and complementary set of skills to the project. Delphi has made a number of breakthroughs with production-intent valve train technologies and controls in recent years to make a part time production-intent HCCI engine plausible. ORNL has extensive knowledge and expertise with HCCI combustion, and also has a versatile research engine with hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) that is useful for guiding production of a cam-based HCCI system. Partnering these knowledge bases and capabilities was essential towards making progress to better understand HCCI combustion and the commercialization barriers that it faces. ORNL and Delphi maintained strong collaboration throughout the project. Meetings were held regularly, with additional reports, presentations, and meetings as necessary to maintain progress. Delphi provided guidance to ORNL regarding operational strategies to investigate on their single-cylinder research engine with HVA and data from their experimental multi-cylinder engine for modeling. ORNL provided single-cylinder engine data and modeling results.

  13. Recent advances of molecular toolbox construction expand Pichia pastoris in synthetic biology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhen; Huang, Hao; Zhang, Yunfeng; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Pichia pastoris: (reclassified as Komagataella phaffii), a methylotrophic yeast strain has been widely used for heterologous protein production because of its unique advantages, such as readily achievable high-density fermentation, tractable genetic modifications and typical eukaryotic post-translational modifications. More recently, P. pastoris as a metabolic pathway engineering platform has also gained much attention. In this mini-review, we addressed recent advances of molecular toolboxes, including synthetic promoters, signal peptides, and genome engineering tools that established for P. pastoris. Furthermore, the applications of P. pastoris towards synthetic biology were also discussed and prospected especially in the context of genome-scale metabolic pathway analysis.

  14. Issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2014: suggestions for pharmacy strategic planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandoobhai, Anand; Weber, Robert J

    2014-03-01

    In 2013, the Director's Forum published our assessment of issues facing pharmacy leaders to assist pharmacy directors in planning for the year ahead. The issues include health care reform and the Affordable Care Act, the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative, the health care workforce, patients' perceptions of pharmacists, and the changing landscape of pharmacy education. Based on our environmental scan, the issues addressed in 2013 are pertinent to a department's plan for 2014. The goal of this article is to provide practical approaches to each of these issues to help pharmacy directors focus their department's goals for 2014 to support the development of patient-centered pharmacy services. This column will address (1) strategies to reduce medication costs and generate new pharmacy revenue streams, (2) innovative approaches to improving medication safety and quality, (3) steps to advance the clinical practice model, and (4) ways to create mutually beneficial student experiences.

  15. A Public Health Pharmacy Course at a Malaysian Pharmacy School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Awaisu, Ahmed; Mohamed Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham; Ahmed, Syed Imran

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To develop and implement a new course on public health into the bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) curriculum in Malaysia. Design A required 2-credit-hour course was designed to provide an overview of public health pharmacy roles and the behavioral aspects of human healthcare issues. Graded activities included nursing home visits, in-class quizzes, mini-projects, and poster sessions, and a comprehensive final examination. Assessment The majority of the students performed well on the class activities and 93 (71.5%) of the 130 students enrolled received a grade of B or higher. A Web-based survey was administered at the end of the semester and 90% of students indicated that they had benefited from the course and were glad that it was offered. The majority of students agreed that the course made an impact in preparing them for their future role as pharmacists and expanded their understanding of the public health roles of a pharmacist. Conclusions A public health pharmacy course was successfully designed and implemented in the BPharm curriculum. This study highlighted the feasibilities of introducing courses that are of global relevance into a Malaysian pharmacy curriculum. The findings from the students' evaluation suggest the needs to incorporate a similar course in all pharmacy schools in the country and will be used as a guide to improve the contents and methods of delivery of the course at our school. PMID:19960093

  16. Creating a new rural pharmacy workforce: Development and implementation of the Rural Pharmacy Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Mollie Ashe; Kiser, Stephanie; Park, Irene; Grandy, Rebecca; Joyner, Pamela U

    2017-12-01

    An innovative certificate program aimed at expanding the rural pharmacy workforce, increasing the number of pharmacists with expertise in rural practice, and improving healthcare outcomes in rural North Carolina is described. Predicted shortages of primary care physicians and closures of critical access hospitals are expected to worsen existing health disparities. Experiential education in schools and colleges of pharmacy primarily takes place in academic medical centers and, unlike experiential education in medical schools, rarely emphasizes the provision of patient care in rural U.S. communities, where chronic diseases are prevalent and many residents struggle with poverty and poor access to healthcare. To help address these issues, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy developed the 3-year Rural Pharmacy Health Certificate program. The program curriculum includes 4 seminar courses, interprofessional education and interaction with medical students, embedding of each pharmacy student into a specific rural community for the duration of training, longitudinal ambulatory care practice experiences, community engagement initiatives, leadership training, development and implementation of a population health project, and 5 pharmacy practice experiences in rural settings. The Rural Pharmacy Health Certificate program at UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy seeks to transform rural pharmacy practice by creating a pipeline of rural pharmacy leaders and teaching a unique skillset that will be beneficial to healthcare systems, communities, and patients. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fellowships in community pharmacy research: Experiences of five schools and colleges of pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Margie E; Frail, Caitlin K; Gernant, Stephanie A; Bacci, Jennifer L; Coley, Kim C; Colip, Lauren M; Ferreri, Stefanie P; Hagemeier, Nicholas E; McGivney, Melissa Somma; Rodis, Jennifer L; Smith, Megan G; Smith, Randall B

    2016-01-01

    To describe common facilitators, challenges, and lessons learned in 5 schools and colleges of pharmacy in establishing community pharmacy research fellowships. Five schools and colleges of pharmacy in the United States. Schools and colleges of pharmacy with existing community partnerships identified a need and ability to develop opportunities for pharmacists to engage in advanced research training. Community pharmacy fellowships, each structured as 2 years long and in combination with graduate coursework, have been established at the University of Pittsburgh, Purdue University, East Tennessee State University, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and The Ohio State University. Program directors from each of the 5 community pharmacy research fellowships identified common themes pertaining to program structure, outcomes, and lessons learned to assist others planning similar programs. Common characteristics across the programs include length of training, prerequisites, graduate coursework, mentoring structure, and immersion into a pharmacist patient care practice. Common facilitators have been the existence of strong community pharmacy partnerships, creating a fellowship advisory team, and networking. A common challenge has been recruitment, with many programs experiencing at least one year without filling the fellowship position. All program graduates (n = 4) have been successful in securing pharmacy faculty positions. Five schools and colleges of pharmacy share similar experiences in implementing community pharmacy research fellowships. Early outcomes show promise for this training pathway in growing future pharmacist-scientists focused on community pharmacy practice. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The expanding role of the clinical haematologist in the new world of advanced therapy medicinal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowdell, Mark W; Thomas, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) represent the current pinnacle of 'patient-specific medicines' and will change the nature of medicine in the near future. They fall into three categories; somatic cell-therapy products, gene therapy products and cells or tissues for regenerative medicine, which are termed 'tissue engineered' products. The term also incorporates 'combination products' where a human cell or tissue is combined with a medical device. Plainly, many of these new medicines share similarities with conventional haematological stem cell transplant products and donor lymphocyte infusions as well as solid organ grafts and yet ATMPs are regulated as medicines and their development has remained predominantly in academic settings and within specialist centres. However, with the advent of commercialisation of dendritic cell vaccines, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells and genetically modified autologous haematopoietic stem cells to cure single gene-defects in β-thalassaemia and haemophilia, the widespread availability of these therapies needs to be accommodated. Uniquely to ATMPs, the patient or an allogeneic donor is regularly part of the manufacturing process. All of the examples given above require procurement of blood, bone marrow or an apheresate from a patient as a starting material for manufacture. This can only occur in a clinical facility licensed for the procurement of human cells for therapeutic use and this is likely to fall to haematology departments, either as stem cell transplant programmes or as blood transfusion departments, to provide under a contract with the company that will manufacture and supply the final medicine. The resource implications associated with this can impact on all haematology departments, not just stem cell transplant units, and should not be under-estimated. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Statistically advanced, self-similar, radial probability density functions of atmospheric and under-expanded hydrogen jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Adam J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents improved statistical insight regarding the self-similar scalar mixing process of atmospheric hydrogen jets and the downstream region of under-expanded hydrogen jets. Quantitative planar laser Rayleigh scattering imaging is used to probe both jets. The self-similarity of statistical moments up to the sixth order (beyond the literature established second order) is documented in both cases. This is achieved using a novel self-similar normalization method that facilitated a degree of statistical convergence that is typically limited to continuous, point-based measurements. This demonstrates that image-based measurements of a limited number of samples can be used for self-similar scalar mixing studies. Both jets exhibit the same radial trends of these moments demonstrating that advanced atmospheric self-similarity can be applied in the analysis of under-expanded jets. Self-similar histograms away from the centerline are shown to be the combination of two distributions. The first is attributed to turbulent mixing. The second, a symmetric Poisson-type distribution centered on zero mass fraction, progressively becomes the dominant and eventually sole distribution at the edge of the jet. This distribution is attributed to shot noise-affected pure air measurements, rather than a diffusive superlayer at the jet boundary. This conclusion is reached after a rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis and inspection of pure air data collected with each hydrogen data set. A threshold based upon the measurement noise analysis is used to separate the turbulent and pure air data, and thusly estimate intermittency. Beta-distributions (four parameters) are used to accurately represent the turbulent distribution moments. This combination of measured intermittency and four-parameter beta-distributions constitutes a new, simple approach to model scalar mixing. Comparisons between global moments from the data and moments calculated using the proposed model show excellent

  20. Pharmacy in a New Frontier - The First Five Years at the Johnson Space Center Pharmacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayuse, Tina

    2008-01-01

    A poster entitled "Space Medicine - A New Role for Clinical Pharmacists" was presented in December 2001 highlighting an up-and-coming role for pharmacists at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas. Since that time, the operational need for the pharmacy profession has expanded with the administration s decision to open a pharmacy on site at JSC to complement the care provided by the Flight Medicine and Occupational Medicine Clinics. The JSC Pharmacy is a hybrid of traditional retail and hospital pharmacy and is compliant with the ambulatory care standards set forth by the Joint Commission. The primary charge for the pharmacy is to provide medication management for JSC. In addition to providing ambulatory care for both clinics, the pharmacists also practice space medicine. A pharmacist had been involved in the packing of both the Space Shuttle and International Space Station Medical Kits before the JSC Pharmacy was established; however, the role of the pharmacist in packing medical kits has grown. The pharmacists are now full members of the operations team providing consultation for new drug delivery systems, regulations, and patient safety issues. As the space crews become more international, so does the drug information provided by the pharmacists. This presentation will review the journey of the JSC Pharmacy as it celebrated its five year anniversary in April of 2008. The implementation of the pharmacy, challenges to the incorporation of the pharmacy into an existing health-care system, and the current responsibilities of a pharmacist at the Johnson Space Center will be discussed.

  1. Pharmacy technician self-efficacies: Insight to aid future education, staff development, and workforce planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desselle, Shane P; Hoh, Ryan; Holmes, Erin R; Gill, Amanpreet; Zamora, Lemuel

    2017-07-15

    The roles of pharmacy technicians are increasingly prominent given pharmacy's transition to patient-centered activities and evolving scopes of practice in many U.S. states and throughout the world. The aims of this study were to assess U.S. pharmacy technicians' self-efficacies for and attitudes toward performing current and emerging roles in hospital and in community pharmacy and to identify factors related to pharmacy technician self-efficacies in these roles. A total of 5000 pharmacy technicians from 8 U.S. states were sent an electronic survey eliciting data on current involvement, self-efficacies, and attitudes for practicing in an expansive list of practice activities. The 8 states from which the sample was drawn were selected from a stratified randomized procedure using U.S. Census Bureau geographically defined regions. Pre-notification and response reminders were employed. Data were analyzed descriptively and with univariate, inferential tests, as appropriate, to determine associations with commitment, practice environment, experience level, and other variables. Of the 612 participants who responded, 494 were currently working as a technician and not enrolled in a PharmD program of study. Participants reported various activities in which they were highly engaged. Overall, attitudes toward performing most of the activities and self-efficacies were quite favorable, even for those activities in which technicians were currently less involved. There were some notable differences between technicians practicing in community versus hospital settings. Years of experience, profession commitment, and advanced employee ranking were associated with higher levels of self-efficacy, overall. This initial examination of pharmacy technician self-efficacies identified areas that along with other factors could help employers with further expanding technician practice activities and vocational institutions with considerations for education and development of these key members

  2. Impact of previous pharmacy work experience on pharmacy school academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Ellena; Barnett, Mitchell J; T-L Tang, Terrill; Sasaki-Hill, Debra; Kuperberg, James R; Knapp, Katherine

    2010-04-12

    To determine whether students' previous pharmacy-related work experience was associated with their pharmacy school performance (academic and clinical). The following measures of student academic performance were examined: pharmacy grade point average (GPA), scores on cumulative high-stakes examinations, and advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) grades. The quantity and type of pharmacy-related work experience each student performed prior to matriculation was solicited through a student survey instrument. Survey responses were correlated with academic measures, and demographic-based stratified analyses were conducted. No significant difference in academic or clinical performance between those students with prior pharmacy experience and those without was identified. Subanalyses by work setting, position type, and substantial pharmacy work experience did not reveal any association with student performance. A relationship was found, however, between age and work experience, ie, older students tended to have more work experience than younger students. Prior pharmacy work experience did not affect students' overall academic or clinical performance in pharmacy school. The lack of significant findings may have been due to the inherent practice limitations of nonpharmacist positions, changes in pharmacy education, and the limitations of survey responses.

  3. Mental health and psychiatric pharmacy instruction in US colleges and schools of pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Marshall E; Monk-Tutor, Mary R; Drummond, Stephanie Ogle

    2007-02-15

    To describe the extent of psychiatric pharmacy instruction in US pharmacy curricula, including course and faculty characteristics and mental health topics taught in clinical therapeutics-based courses. An 11-item survey instrument (54% response) was developed and mailed to 91 colleges and schools of pharmacy. Over 75% of colleges and schools employed a psychiatric pharmacist; however, less than 50% of faculty teaching psychiatric pharmacy content were psychiatric pharmacy specialists as defined in the study. All colleges and schools included psychiatric topics as part of a therapeutics-based course with an average of 9.5% of course content devoted to these topics. About 25% of colleges and schools offered elective didactic courses in psychiatric pharmacy. Only 2 schools required a psychiatric pharmacy advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE), but about 92% offered elective APPEs. The mean number of hours spent on lecture- and case-based instruction across all colleges and schools was highest for depression and lowest for personality disorders. There is a need for colleges and schools of pharmacy to better identify and standardize the minimal acceptable level of didactic instruction in psychiatric pharmacy as well as the minimal level of specialty qualifications for faculty members who teach this subject.

  4. Community pharmacists and Colleges of Pharmacy: the Ohio partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Marc A; Mauro, Vincent F; Cable, Gerald L; Rudnicki, Barbara M; Wall, Andrea L; Murphy, Christine C; Makarich, Joseph A; Kahaleh, Abir A

    2005-01-01

    To develop pharmacist practice standards, pharmacy preceptor standards, and objectives for students completing advanced practice community pharmacy rotations. Ohio. Pharmacy schools and community pharmacies that serve as advanced practice rotation sites. Developed standards for preceptors and objectives for student experiences. Focus groups that included both community pharmacists and pharmacy faculty collaborated on defining key standards for advanced community pharmacy rotations. Not applicable. Three main documents were produced in this initiative, and these are provided as appendices to this article. Professional and patient care guidelines for preceptors define minimum standards for these role models. Expectations of pharmacists as preceptors provide insights for managing this student-teacher relationship, which is fundamentally different from the more common employer-employee and coworker relationships found in pharmacies of all types. Objectives for student experiences during advanced practice community pharmacy rotations present core expectations in clinical, dispensing, patient education, wellness, and drug information areas. Through this collaboration, Ohio colleges of pharmacy developed a partnership with practitioners in community settings that should enhance the Ohio experiential educational program for student pharmacists. Use of the established guidelines will help educators and practitioners achieve their shared vision for advanced practice community pharmacy rotations and promote high-quality patient care.

  5. Development and Validation of an Instrument To Assess the Self-Confidence of Students Enrolled in the Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongwiwatthananukit, Supakit; Newton, Gail D.; Popovich, Nicholas G.

    2002-01-01

    Sought to develop a reliable and valid instrument to measure pharmacy students' self-confidence and to determine the effect of selected demographic variables as independent predictors of self-confidence. Found that the instrument had content validity, high internal consistency reliability, and convergent and discriminant validity. Several…

  6. Establishment and outcomes of a model primary care pharmacy service system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Jannet M; Alvarez, Autumn; Chaput, Ryan; DiMaggio, Jennifer; Magallon, Heather; Mambourg, Scott

    2004-03-01

    The establishment and outcomes of a model primary care pharmacy service system are described. A primary care pharmacy practice model was established at a government health care facility in March 1996. The original objective was to establish a primary pharmacy practice model that would demonstrate improved patient outcomes and maximize the pharmacist's contributions to drug therapy. Since its inception, many improvements have been realized and supported by advanced computer and automated systems, expanded disease state management practices, and unique practitioner and administrative support. Many outcomes studies have been performed on the pharmacist-initiated and -managed clinics, leading to improved patient care and conveying the quality-conscious and cost-effective role pharmacists can play as independent practitioners in this environment. These activities demonstrate cutting-edge leadership in health-system pharmacy. Redesign has been used to improve consistent access to a medication expert and has significantly improved the quality of patient care while easing physicians' workload without increasing health care costs. A system using pharmacists as independent practitioners to promote primary care has achieved high-quality and cost-effective patient care.

  7. Big Data: Implications for Health System Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Laura B; Rogers, Joseph W; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Big Data refers to datasets that are so large and complex that traditional methods and hardware for collecting, sharing, and analyzing them are not possible. Big Data that is accurate leads to more confident decision making, improved operational efficiency, and reduced costs. The rapid growth of health care information results in Big Data around health services, treatments, and outcomes, and Big Data can be used to analyze the benefit of health system pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide a perspective on how Big Data can be applied to health system pharmacy. It will define Big Data, describe the impact of Big Data on population health, review specific implications of Big Data in health system pharmacy, and describe an approach for pharmacy leaders to effectively use Big Data. A few strategies involved in managing Big Data in health system pharmacy include identifying potential opportunities for Big Data, prioritizing those opportunities, protecting privacy concerns, promoting data transparency, and communicating outcomes. As health care information expands in its content and becomes more integrated, Big Data can enhance the development of patient-centered pharmacy services.

  8. The Vision and Challenges of Hokkaido Pharmaceutical University's Affiliated Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norose, Takahiko; Manabe, Tomohiro; Furuta, Seiichi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Hokkaido Pharmaceutical University (HPU), according to its educational mission, seeks to "develop medical professionals who contribute to community medicine", and it has produced more than 6300 graduates since 1974. With recent medical advancements and a progressively aging society, the role of the pharmacist in community medicine has diversified and is increasing in importance. Therefore, in April 2012, the Hokkaido Pharmaceutical University Affiliated Pharmacy was established as a for-profit business of the Educational Foundation of the Hokkaido University of Science, the parent body of HPU. The pharmacy is located near the Sapporo station; it is operated by six pharmacists and four clerks, and supported by three faculty members who are engaged in providing HPU student education such as on-site clinical training, in addition to their pharmacy duties such as home care pharmaceutics. For the first two years it was open, the pharmacy focused on the establishment of pharmacy administration and fiscal consolidation. In April 2015, the Pharmacy Management Committee set the pharmacy's future vision, as well as its mid-term strategy, which consists of the four main components of pharmacy practices, education, research, and social contribution, in order for the pharmacy to serve as a model of community pharmacy.

  9. Third-Year Pharmacy Students’ Work Experiences and Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark V Siracuse

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe pharmacy students’ work experience for pay; examine student attitudes towards work; examine student perceptions of how pharmacist preceptors feel about their jobs; and determine how pharmacy student work environment influences career aspirations and whether or not gender or academic pathway have any influences. Methods. An electronic survey was administered to third-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD students at a Midwestern school of pharmacy over five consecutive years. Results. Four hundred eighty nine students (response rate = 61.0% completed the electronic survey instrument. Over 90% reported working in a pharmacy by the time their advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs began. Of these respondents, 67.4% reported working in a community pharmacy while 23.0% reported working in hospital inpatient pharmacy. Students working for independent pharmacies were most likely to feel that this type of practice site would offer an optimal work schedule and work environment for their career. Conclusions. Most students are working in community pharmacy practice. Having a fulfilling career and a desirable work schedule was the variable most strongly associated with optimal career choice. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties.     Type: Original Research

  10. Over-the-counter but out of reach: a pharmacy-based survey of OTC syringe sales in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollini, Robin A; Gallardo, Manuel; Ruiz, Serena; Case, Patricia; Zaller, Nickolas; Lozada, Remedios

    2014-05-01

    Sterile syringe access is critical to HIV prevention efforts targeting injection drug users (IDUs) but some pharmacies do not sell syringes over-the-counter (OTC) even where such sales are legal. We conducted a pharmacy survey in Tijuana, Mexico (where OTC sales are legal) to characterize attitudes toward syringe sales and to explore support for expanding pharmacy-based HIV prevention efforts. Of 203 respondents, 28% supported OTC syringe sales to IDUs and 74% said their pharmacy required a prescription for at least some syringe sales. Support for OTC syringe sales was independently associated with selling OTC syringes, understanding the role of sterile syringes in HIV prevention, and recognizing pharmacies as an important health resource for IDUs. Most respondents supported an expanded role for pharmacies in HIV prevention, exclusive of OTC syringe sales. Our study provides information for developing interventions to promote OTC syringe sales and expanding pharmacy-based distribution of HIV-related information and resources.

  11. Third-year pharmacy students' work experience and attitudes and perceptions of the pharmacy profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siracuse, Mark V; Schondelmeyer, Stephen W; Hadsall, Ronald S; Schommer, Jon C

    2008-06-15

    To describe PharmD students' work experiences and activities; examine their attitudes towards their work; examine perceptions of preceptor pharmacists they worked with; and determine important issues associated with career preference. A written survey was administered to third-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students at 8 colleges and schools of pharmacy in the Midwest. Five hundred thirty-three students (response rate = 70.4%) completed the survey instrument. Nearly 100% of PharmD students reported working in a pharmacy by the time their advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) began. Seventy-eight percent reported working in a community pharmacy, and 67% had worked in a chain community pharmacy. For all practice settings, students reported spending 69% of their time on activities such as compounding, dispensing, and distribution of drug products. Most students are working in community pharmacy (mainly chain) positions where their primary function is traditional drug product dispensing and distribution. Having a controllable work schedule was the variable most strongly associated with career choice for all students.

  12. Refinement of a thrombectomy technique to treat acute ischemic stroke: Technical note on microcatheter advance during retrieving self expandable stent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Sung Won; Kim, Ho Kyun [Catholic Univ. of Daegu School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Temporary stenting and thrombectomy by use of the Solitaire stent (ev3, Irvine, CA, USA) has shown prompt and successful recanalization of the acutely occluded major cerebral artery. However, even if rarely reported, inadvertent stent detachment may occur as an innate drawback and full deployment of the stent was considered to increase the risk. In our patients, the Solitaire stent did not fully unfold to prevent inadvertent detachment. Before retrieval of the stent, the tip of the microcatheter was advanced forward carefully under fluoroscopic observation until it met the presumed thrombus segment and a subtle sense of resistance was felt in the fingers guiding the stent. After retrieval, complete recanalization was achieved, and the thrombus was trapped between the tip of the microcatheter and the stent strut. We present 2 cases of successful thrombi captures by advancing a microcatheter during Solitaire stent retrieval, and we suggest that advancing the microcatheter can be a useful refinement to the thrombectomy technique for acute ischemic stroke.

  13. A pharmacy's journey toward the patient-centered medical home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Steven; Hambleton, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    To describe the integration of a clinic pharmacy with a patient-centered medical home (PCMH). Primary care clinic in Monroe, WA, from 1981 to January 2011. Pharmacists and physicians with a previous working relationship in a family practice residency program established colocated practices in 1981. In addition to traditional pharmacy services, collaborative practice agreements were developed and clinical pharmacy services expanded over time. Reimbursement challenges for clinical pharmacy services existed in the fee-for-service environment. The acquisition of the clinic and pharmacy by Providence Health and Services created a new financial alignment with additional opportunities for collaboration. An internally funded grant established a PCMH pilot that included pharmacist participation. PCMH pharmacists and the care provider team identified areas to improve physician and clinic efficiencies and to enhance patient care. Clinical pharmacy services expanded under the PCMH model. Pharmacist activities included value-added refill authorization services, coordinated patient visits with the PCMH pharmacist and physicians, medication therapy management, diabetes and anticoagulation services, hospital discharge medication reconciliation, and participation in the shared medical appointment. Clinical pharmacy services are woven into the PCMH fabric of this clinic. New pharmacists will be challenged and rewarded in this evolving health care model.

  14. Attrition of Canadian Internet pharmacy websites: what are the implications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronin MA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael A Veronin,1 Kristen M Clancy2 1Rangel College of Pharmacy, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Texas, USA; 2Christus Dubuis Health System, Texas, USA Background: The unavailability of Internet pharmacy websites may impact a consumer's drug purchases and health care. Objective: To address the issue of attrition, a defined set of Canadian Internet pharmacy websites was examined at three separate time intervals. Methods: In February to March 2006, 117 distinct, fully functional "Canadian Internet pharmacy" websites were located using the advanced search options of Google and the uniform resource locator (URL for each website was recorded. To determine website attrition, each of the 117 websites obtained and recorded from the previous study was revisited at two later periods of time within a 4-year period. Results: After approximately 4 years and 5 months, only 59 (50.4% sites were found in the original state. Thirty-four sites (29.1% had moved to a new URL address and were not functioning as the original Internet pharmacy. For 24 sites (20.5% the viewer was redirected to another Canadian Internet pharmacy site. Conclusion: Of concern for patients if Internet pharmacy sites were suddenly inaccessible would be the disruption of continuity of care. Keywords: Canadian Internet pharmacy, online pharmacy, website attrition, continuity of care

  15. Community Impact of Pharmacy-Randomized Intervention to Improve Access to Syringes and Services for Injection Drug Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Natalie D.; Amesty, Silvia; Rivera, Alexis V.; Harripersaud, Katherine; Turner, Alezandria; Fuller, Crystal M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: In an effort to reduce HIV transmission among injection drug users (IDUs), New York State deregulated pharmacy syringe sales in 2001 through the Expanded Syringe Access Program by removing the requirement of a prescription. With evidence suggesting pharmacists' ability to expand their public health role, a structural, pharmacy-based…

  16. Refer-To-Pharmacy: Pharmacy for the Next Generation Now! A Short Communication for Pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair Gray

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Refer-to-Pharmacy is the first fully integrated hospital to community pharmacy referral system. This article explains the importance of these referrals for patients and health economies to improve medicines optimisation, and how Refer-to-Pharmacy works in both hospital and community pharmacies.

  17. Refer-To-Pharmacy: Pharmacy for the Next Generation Now! A Short Communication for Pharmacy

    OpenAIRE

    Alistair Gray

    2015-01-01

    Refer-to-Pharmacy is the first fully integrated hospital to community pharmacy referral system. This article explains the importance of these referrals for patients and health economies to improve medicines optimisation, and how Refer-to-Pharmacy works in both hospital and community pharmacies.

  18. Motivational theory applied to hospital pharmacy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, M

    1980-12-01

    In recent years a great deal of attention has been paid to motivation and job satisfaction among hospital pharmacy practitioners. Institutional pharmacy managers should become more aware of ways in which they can motivate members of their staff. Specifically, Frederick Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory is discussed in reference to its origination, major tenets, and practical applications in institutional pharmacy practice settings. Principally, Herzberg's theory explains needs of workers in terms of extrinsic factors called "hygienes" and intrinsic factors called "motivators." The theory suggests that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not opposites but two separate dimensions. According to this theory, an employee will be motivated if the task allows for the following: 1)actual achievement, 2) recognition for achievement, 3) increased responsibility, 4) opportunity for growth (professionally), and 5) chance for advancement. It is concluded that some of these suggested applications can be useful to managers who are faced with low morale among the members of their staff.

  19. Global Health Education in Doctor of Pharmacy Programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Gina M; Vu, Betty N; Alsharif, Naser Z; Prescott, William Allan

    2017-03-25

    Objective. To determine the extent and manner in which global health education is taught at US PharmD programs. Methods. A pre-tested 40-question electronic survey instrument was developed and sent to each of the 127 accredited or candidate-status US doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs. Results. Twenty-eight public and 27 private PharmD programs responded to the survey (43.3%). Twenty-five (45.5%) programs had integrated global health topics into their required didactic curriculum, and 30 of 52 programs (57.7%) offered at least one standalone global health elective course. Of the 52 programs that provided details regarding experiential education, 41 (78.8%) offered introductory and/or advanced pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs and/or APPEs) in global health, and 34 (65.4%) programs offered medical mission trips. Conclusion. Doctor of pharmacy programs participating in global health education most commonly educate students on global health through experiential learning, while inclusion of required and elective coursework in global health was less common. To adequately prepare students for an increasingly global society, US PharmD programs should consider expanding global health education.

  20. Factors affecting pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in community pharmacy: A structural equation modeling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nitadpakorn S; Farris KB; Kittisopee T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The concept of customer engagement and devotion has been applied in various service businesses to keep the customers with business However, a limited number of studies were performed to examine the context of customer engagement and devotion in pharmacy business which focus on the impact of customer perceptions about pharmacists, perceived quality of pharmacy structure, medication price strategy on pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in a pharmacy providing pharmace...

  1. Defining the Role of the Pharmacy Technician and Identifying Their Future Role in Medicines Optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughen, Melanie; Sutton, Jane; Fenn, Tess; Wright, David

    2017-07-15

    Traditionally, pharmacy technicians have worked alongside pharmacists in community and hospital pharmacy. Changes within pharmacy provide opportunity for role expansion and with no apparent career pathway, there is a need to define the current pharmacy technician role and role in medicines optimisation. To capture the current roles of pharmacy technicians and identify how their future role will contribute to medicines optimisation. Following ethical approval and piloting, an online survey to ascertain pharmacy technicians' views about their roles was undertaken. Recruitment took place in collaboration with the Association of Pharmacy Technicians UK. Data were exported to SPSS, data screened and descriptive statistics produced. Free text responses were analysed and tasks collated into categories reflecting the type of work involved in each task. Responses received were 393 (28%, n = 1380). Results were organised into five groups: i.e., hospital, community, primary care, General Practitioner (GP) practice and other (which included HM Prison Service). Thirty tasks were reported as commonly undertaken in three or more settings and 206 (84.7%, n = 243) pharmacy technicians reported they would like to expand their role. Tasks core to hospital and community pharmacy should be considered for inclusion to initial education standards to reflect current practice. Post qualification, pharmacy technicians indicate a significant desire to expand clinically and managerially allowing pharmacists more time in patient-facing/clinical roles.

  2. A methodological review of faith-based health promotion literature: advancing the science to expand delivery of diabetes education to Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newlin, Kelley; Dyess, Susan MacLeod; Allard, Emily; Chase, Susan; Melkus, Gail D'Eramo

    2012-12-01

    Non-traditional avenues, such as faith-based organizations (FBOs), must be explored to expand delivery of diabetes self-management education (DSME) to benefit Black Americans with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The purpose of this study was to methodologically review the faith-based health promotion literature relevant to Blacks with T2D. A total of 14 intervention studies were identified for inclusion in the review. These studies detailed features of methods employed to affect health outcomes that DSME similarly targets. Analysis of the faith-based studies' methodological features indicated most studies used (1) collaborative research approaches, (2) pre-experimental designs, (3) similar recruitment and retention strategies, and (4) culturally sensitive, behaviorally oriented interventions with incorporation of social support to achieve positive health outcomes in Black Americans. Findings indicate FBOs may be a promising avenue for delivering DSME to Black Americans. Informed by the findings, a focused discussion on advancing the science of faith-based interventions to expand delivery of DSME to Black Americans with diabetes is provided.

  3. Evaluation of recent pharmacy graduates' practice patterns, professional lifelong learning, pharmacy organization memberships, and salary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, C A; Pitterle, M E; Raehl, C L

    1994-01-01

    To document information on recent bachelor of science (B.S.) pharmacy graduates' practice patterns, professional lifelong learning (PLL) methods, pharmacy organization memberships, and salary. The association between advanced training and education on PLL methods, pharmacy organization membership, and salary are explored. Pertinent literature was identified by MEDLINE searches (1966-1992). The results of a Fall 1991 survey of recent B.S. pharmacy graduates (n = 371) of the University of Wisconsin School of Pharmacy are reported (55 percent response rate). Hospital pharmacists devoted more time to PLL outside of work (18.00 +/- 17.89 h/mo) than community pharmacists (9.93 +/- 8.76 h/mo), t = 5.02, degrees of freedom (df) = 289, p degree program, residency, or fellowship (advanced degree/training [ADT]) spent more time in PLL (17.76 +/- 10.63 h/mo) compared with graduates who had only obtained a B.S. degree (10.63 +/- 8.56 h/mo), t = 3.80, df = 311, p degree only) showed the strongest correlation of membership affiliation, which was about equal with ASHP (phi = 0.32) and ACCP (phi = 0.33). Although pharmacists changed their individual pharmacy organization memberships during the first seven years after graduation, there was no evidence of a decline in overall interest in pharmacy organization membership. Pharmacists who had completed ADT had an annual mean salary of $51,112 +/- $10,012; those pharmacists who did not complete an ADT program had an annual mean salary of $46,440 +/- $7802, a difference of $4672 per year. Hospital pharmacists who had obtained ADT had an annual mean salary of $51,840 +/- $9765; B.S. pharmacists without ADT in hospital practice had an annual mean salary of $43,603 +/- $8192, a difference of $8237 per year. Pharmacists' PLL methods, organization memberships, and salaries varied significantly by their practice site and the completion of an ADT program.

  4. Game on: The gamification of the pharmacy classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sera, Leah; Wheeler, Erin

    Gamification is the use of game mechanics to promote engagement and enjoyment of problem-solving in non-game situations. Gamification has been used widely in recent years in industry and academia as a tool for training and education. The aims of this paper are to provide an overview of gamification and digital game-based learning (DGBL), review the use of digital games in health professional education, and provide suggestions for future use in pharmacy curricula. Many examples of game-based learning in pharmacy and other health professional curricula have been published, however the body of literature on DGBL is less developed. Overall, evaluations of these techniques show that students find them engaging and enjoyable. A recent meta-analysis of studies comparing DGBL to non-game based learning in primary, secondary, post-secondary education found that DGBL significantly enhances learning. Challenges to implementing game-based learning are financial, cultural, and technological. Many areas of the pharmacy curriculum could be appropriate for digital gamification. With more students entering pharmacy school familiar with video games and game-based living the time has come for pharmacy educators to explore how these instructional technologies could benefit a new generation of pharmacy students. As serious games are developed and researched in pharmacy curricula, test scores, student confidence in knowledge and skills, and retention of knowledge and skills are all outcomes that, if published, will help advance the adoption of DGBL into the pharmacy school classroom. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Education of clinical pharmacy specialists in critical care in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Mikihiro

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, recent initiation of the reimbursement from the government to monitor patients in intensive care unit (ICU) and the foundation of certified emergency medicine and critical care specialist resulted in the increased number of ICU pharmacists. Because most pharmacy schools in Japan have provided few lectures or rotations related to critical care, pharmacy students may think critical care is a difficult field. Pharmacy students in the United States usually have basic didactic courses for critical care such as sepsis or sedation. They can also take critical care rotations as an elective advanced rotation. An organized postgraduate training programs, pharmacy practice residency programs (PGY1; post graduate year 1) and specialized pharmacy practice residency programs (PGY2), develop clinical knowledge and skills as clinical pharmacists. Critical care is one of the most popular areas in PGY2 specialty residency programs. Through three years pharmacy students and residents can develop required knowledge and skills in critical care such as patient monitoring skill. As a part of new pharmacists training, our institution provides a week of critical care rotation. The main objective is the introduction of critical care to be a pharmacy generalist and to develop patient monitoring skills. The critical care rotation is the first step to develop critical care clinical pharmacy specialists in the future.

  6. Service preferences differences between community pharmacy and supermarket pharmacy patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominelli, Angela; Weck Marciniak, Macary; Jarvis, Janice

    2005-01-01

    Differences in service preferences between patrons of supermarket and chain pharmacies were determined. Subjects fell into two groups: patrons of a supermarket chain's pharmacies and patrons of the same supermarket chain who patronized other community chain pharmacies for prescription drug purchases. Subjects were asked to prioritize services in terms of convenience and impact on pharmacy selection. Differences in service preferences emerged. Community pharmacy patrons were more likely to rate easy navigation through a pharmacy and 24 X 7 hours of operation as key services. Supermarket pharmacy patrons were more likely to rate one-stop shopping and adequate hours of operation as priorities. Both groups rated basic services such as maintenance of prescription and insurance information as priorities. Pharmacies should stress the delivery of basic services when trying to attract customers.

  7. A characterization of the current communication patterns in Danish community pharmacies - an observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Susanne; Mygind, Anna; Saleem, Sahdia

    2013-01-01

    Community pharmacies have been trying to expand their core function by counseling customers at the counter. This has been challenging given that customers' interest in receiving counseling may be limited....

  8. The Acute Care Assessment Tool: 'Pharmacy ACAT'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubraj, Barry; Patel, Sheena; Naseem, Iram; Copp, Samantha; Karagkounis, Dimitrios

    2017-06-01

    The Acute Care Assessment Tool (ACAT) was developed as a workplace-based assessment (WPBA) for trainee performance whilst working in acute medicine. Here, we discuss the multi-professional potential of ACAT through a pilot with foundation and senior hospital pharmacists. The pharmacy profession is engaging meaningfully with foundation training for pharmacists akin to doctor foundation training, and has launched a post-foundation recognition scheme as a route to advanced generalist or specialist practice. Foundation training has included the adoption of familiar WPBA, such as the mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) and case-based discussion (CbD). However, mini-CEX and CbD are 'snapshot' assessments, and we identified a need for the assessment of practice over a short period of time. A local director of medical education suggested ACAT. We identified a need for the assessment of practice over a short period of time INNOVATION: Permission was gained from the Joint Royal Colleges of Physicians to adapt the ACAT to form the 'Pharmacy ACAT'. Adaptations were based on the two current Royal Pharmaceutical Society competency frameworks used for foundation and post-foundation practice. The 'Pharmacy ACAT' was piloted across three acute hospitals (known as 'Trusts') in London for foundation trainees, and was found to be broadly acceptable in terms of time and was valued for feedback, particularly for foundation pharmacy trainees. Senior pharmacists at the single pilot site were more sceptical. We believe that the 'Pharmacy ACAT' should be considered for routine use in pharmacy foundation training in hospital and community practice as it 'plugs a gap' in the current scheme of WPBA, by allowing the assessment of a short period of practice as opposed to a snapshot. It also has potential for use at undergraduate level. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  9. Physician and Pharmacy Student Expectations of Pharmacy Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voris, John C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The attitudes of family practice residents toward ambulatory pharmacy services were compared with pharmacy students' predictions on what the residents' attitudes would be. The residents' perceptions of pharmacist behaviors rated significantly higher than how the pharmacy students thought they would respond. (Author/MLW)

  10. Designing a modern hospital pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, B G; Boyar, R L; Raspante, P S

    1986-02-01

    Cooperation between the pharmacy director and the hospital's architects in planning a modern hospital pharmacy is described. The pharmacy director at an 870-bed voluntary nonprofit institution and the hospital's architects planned the design for a new 3250-square foot pharmacy department. They developed a preliminary floor plan based on the following functions that the pharmacy would perform: centralized unit dose drug distribution; compounding; bulk and unit dose prepackaging; preparation of sterile products; controlled substance storage; outpatient and employee prescription dispensing; reserve stock storage; purchasing, receiving, and inventory control; drug information services; and administrative services. A final floor plan was designed that incorporated these functions with structural and utility requirements, such as placement of the computer system and dispensing and lighting fixtures. By integrating modern material management concepts with contemporary hospital pharmacy practice, the pharmacy director and the hospital's architects were able to plan and construct a pharmacy that receives, processes, and dispenses medication efficiently.

  11. Pharmacy specialists' attitudes toward pharmaceutical service quality at community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbonas, Gvidas; Jakušovaitė, Irayda; Savickas, Arūnas

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze pharmacy specialists' attitudes toward the quality of pharmaceutical services at Lithuanian community pharmacies. Between April and June 2009, a total of 471 Lithuanian community pharmacy specialists completed a questionnaire designed to evaluate their attitudes toward the quality of pharmaceutical services at community pharmacies. The main dimensions of pharmaceutical service quality were extracted by principal component analysis. Two main dimensions of pharmaceutical service quality were extracted: pharmacotherapeutic aspects (provision of information about drug therapy, possible side effects, health promotion, the amount of time spent with a patient, and the ascertainment that a patient understood the provided information) and socioeconomic aspects (considering patient's needs and financial capabilities, making a patient confident with the services provided). Pharmacy specialists evaluated the quality of both dimensions positively, but the quality of the first dimension was rated significantly worse than that of the second dimension. The attitudes of pharmacy specialists working at independent pharmacies were more positive toward pharmacotherapeutic aspects as compared to the specialists working at chain or state pharmacies. Pharmacotherapeutic aspects were rated better by pharmacy specialists, aged ≥ 55 years, than those younger than 45 years. Moreover, the attitudes of 45-54-year-old pharmacy specialists toward the socioeconomic aspects were more positive as compared with those of 35-44-year olds. Pharmacists rated the socioeconomic aspects of pharmaceutical service quality worse as compared with pharmacy technicians. The attitudes of pharmacy specialists working at pharmacies with 6-9 specialists were more negative toward pharmacotherapeutic aspects than those of the pharmacies with 1-2 specialists. Pharmacy specialists working at pharmacies with ≥ 10 specialists reported lower scores of socioeconomic

  12. Qualitative study on the implementation of professional pharmacy services in Australian community pharmacies using framework analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moullin, Joanna C; Sabater-Hernández, Daniel; Benrimoj, Shalom I

    2016-08-25

    Multiple studies have explored the implementation process and influences, however it appears there is no study investigating these influences across the stages of implementation. Community pharmacy is attempting to implement professional services (pharmaceutical care and other health services). The use of implementation theory may assist the achievement of widespread provision, support and integration. The objective was to investigate professional service implementation in community pharmacy to contextualise and advance the concepts of a generic implementation framework previously published. Purposeful sampling was used to investigate implementation across a range of levels of implementation in community pharmacies in Australia. Twenty-five semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using a framework methodology. Data was charted using implementation stages as overarching themes and each stage was thematically analysed, to investigate the implementation process, the influences and their relationships. Secondary analyses were performed of the factors (barriers and facilitators) using an adapted version of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), and implementation strategies and interventions, using the Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change (ERIC) discrete implementation strategy compilation. Six stages emerged, labelled as development or discovery, exploration, preparation, testing, operation and sustainability. Within the stages, a range of implementation activities/steps and five overarching influences (pharmacys' direction and impetus, internal communication, staffing, community fit and support) were identified. The stages and activities were not applied strictly in a linear fashion. There was a trend towards the greater the number of activities considered, the greater the apparent integration into the pharmacy organization. Implementation factors varied over the implementation stages, and additional factors were added

  13. Challenges to counseling customers at the pharmacy counter - why do they exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig

    2012-01-01

    expectation of customers, the type of question asked by pharmacy staff, and differences in perception of illness and medicines between staff and customers are discussed. Both staff and customer influence the outcome of attempts by pharmacy staff to engage customers in dialogue about their medicine use through......Challenges to engage pharmacy customers in medicine dialogues at the counter have been identified comprising a new and extended clinical role for pharmacists in the health care system. This article seeks to expand understanding of factors involved in successful interaction at the pharmacy counter...... between customers and pharmacy staff to develop their relationship further. Practical challenges to customer encounters experienced by community pharmacists are discussed using theory from the field of mainly inter-relational communication and particular studies on pharmacy communication. Preconceived...

  14. A qualitative case study of ehealth and digital literacy experiences of pharmacy staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLure, Katie; Stewart, Derek

    2017-07-03

    eHealth's many forms are benchmarked by the World Health Organization. Scotland is considered an advanced adopter of ehealth. The third global survey on ehealth includes pharmacy-related ehealth indicators. Advances in ehealth place an obligation on pharmacy staff to demonstrate proficiency, or digital literacy, in using ehealth technologies. The aim of this study was to provide an indepth exploration of the ehealth and digital literacy experiences of pharmacy staff in the North East of Scotland. A qualitative local case study approach was adopted for observational and interview activities in community and hospital pharmacies. Interview and observational data were collated and analysed using a framework approach. This study gained management approval from the local health board following ethical review by the sponsor university. Nineteen pharmacies and staff (n = 94) participated including two hospitals. Most participants were female (n = 82), aged 29 years and younger (n = 34) with less than 5 years pharmacy experience (n = 49). Participants identified their own digital literacy as basic. Most of the pharmacies had minimum levels of technology implemented (n = 15). Four themes (technology, training, usability, processes) were inducted from the data, coded and modelled with illustrative quotes. Scotland is aspirational in seeking to support the developing role of pharmacy practice with ehealth, however, evidence to date shows most pharmacy staff work with minimum levels of technology. The self-reported lack of digital literacy and often mentioned lack of confidence in using IT suggest pharmacy staff need support and training. Informal work based digital literacy development of the pharmacy team is self-limiting. Usability of ehealth technology could be a key element of its' acceptability. There is potential to better engage with ehealth process efficiencies in both hospital and community pharmacy. As Scotland increasingly invests in ehealth pharmacy

  15. Advanced Expander Test Bed Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    Aoceptance Tests 2. Design Methodology Review a. Cononent Acceptance Tm w/ Spares 3. Preliminary DeignReview 9. Engine Asembly and Acceptance Teets 4. Critical...of the disk and the bearing of both primary and secondary turbines, has been revised to accommodate brush seals for reduced leakage. Primary disk

  16. Factors affecting pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in community pharmacy: A structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitadpakorn, Sujin; Farris, Karen B; Kittisopee, Tanattha

    2017-01-01

    The concept of customer engagement and devotion has been applied in various service businesses to keep the customers with business However, a limited number of studies were performed to examine the context of customer engagement and devotion in pharmacy business which focus on the impact of customer perceptions about pharmacists, perceived quality of pharmacy structure, medication price strategy on pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in a pharmacy providing pharmaceutical care to the customers. This study aimed to assess a conceptual model depicting the relationships among customer perceptions about pharmacists, pharmacy quality structure, medication price, customer engagement, and customer devotion. And also aimed to assess and measure if there is a direct or indirect relationship between these factors. A quantitative study was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires. Two hundred and fifty three customers who regularly visited the pharmacy were randomly recruited from a purposively selected 30 community pharmacies in Bangkok. The survey was completed during February to April 2016. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to assess the direct and indirect relationships between constructs. A total of 253/300 questionnaires were returned for analysis, and the response rate was 84%. Only perceptions about pharmacist in customers receiving professional pharmacy services was statically significant regarding relationship with pharmacy engagement (beta=0.45). Concurrently, the model from empirical data fit with the hypothetical model (p-value = 0.06, adjusted chi-square (CMIN/DF)=1.16, Goodness of Fit Index (GFI)=0.93, Comparatively Fit Index (CFI)=0.99, and Root Mean Square Error Approximation (RMSEA)=0.03). The study confirmed the indirect positive influence of customer perceptions about pharmacist on pharmacy customer devotion in providing pharmacy services via pharmacy engagement It was customer perceptions about pharmacist that influenced

  17. Medication therapy management services in community pharmacy: a pilot programme in HIV specialty pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenquist, Ashley; Best, Brookie M; Miller, Teresa A; Gilmer, Todd P; Hirsch, Jan D

    2010-12-01

    Pharmacist-provided medication therapy management services (MTMS) have been shown to increase patient's adherence to medications, improve health outcomes and reduce overall medical costs. The purpose of this study was to describe a pilot programme that provided pharmacy-based MTMS for patients with HIV/AIDS in the state of California, USA. Pharmacists from the 10 pilot pharmacies were surveyed using an online data collection tool. Information was collected to describe the types of MTMS offered, proportion of patients actively using specific MTMS, pharmacist beliefs regarding effect on patient outcomes and barriers to providing MTMS, ability to offer MTMS without pilot programme funding and specialized pharmacist or staff training. Each responding pharmacy (7 of 10) varied in the number of HIV/AIDS patients served and prescription volume. All pharmacists had completed HIV/AIDS-related continuing education programmes, and some had other advanced training. The type of MTMS being offered varied at each pharmacy with 'individualized counselling by a pharmacist when overuse or underuse was detected' and 'refill reminders by telephone' being actively used by the largest proportion of patients. Most, but not all, pharmacists cited reimbursement as a barrier to MTMS provision. Pharmacists believed the MTMS they provide resulted in improved satisfaction (patient and provider), medication usage, therapeutics response and patient quality of life. The type of MTMS offered, and proportion of patients actively using, varied among participating pilot pharmacies. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Impact of utilizing pharmacy students as workforce for Hawai'i Asthma Friendly Pharmacy Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Carolyn S; Nett, Blythe; Kishaba, Gregg; Gomez, Lara

    2015-02-01

    A partnership was formed between the University of Hawai'i at Hilo Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy (DKICP) and the Department of Health to carry out the Hawai'i Asthma Friendly Pharmacy Project (HAFPP), which utilizes pharmacy students as a workforce to administer Asthma Control Tests™ (ACT), and provide Asthma Action Plans (AAP) and inhaler technique education. Evaluation of data from a pilot project in 2008 with first and second year students prompted more intensive training in therapeutics, inhaler medication training, and communication techniques. Data collection began when two classes of students were first and second year students and continued until the students became fourth year students in their advanced experiential ambulatory care clinic and retail community pharmacy rotations. Patients seen included pediatric (32%) and adult (68%) aged individuals. Hawai'i County was the most common geographic site (50%) and most sites were retail pharmacies (72%). Administered ACT surveys (N=96) yielded a mean score of 19.64 (SD +/-3.89). In addition, 12% of patients had received previous ACT, and 47% had previous AAPs. Approximately 83% of patients received an additional intervention of AAP and inhaler education with 73% of these patients able to demonstrate back proper inhaler technique. Project challenges included timing of student training, revising curriculum and logistics of scheduling students to ensure consistent access to patients.

  19. Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Pharmacy and Bioresources (JPB) publishes scientific work in all areas of Pharmaceutical and life sciences, including (but not restricted to): medicinal plant research; herbal medicines and cosmetics; development of drugs and pharmaceuticals; quality assurance of drugs; safety and efficacy of drugs; ...

  20. Medication Safety: Experiential Learning for Pharmacy Students and Staff in a Hospital Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Graudins, Linda V.; Dooley, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Medication Safety has been an established pharmacy specialty in Australian hospitals since the early 2000s and is now one of the ten Australian hospital accreditation standards. Although advances have occurred, medication-related patient harm has not been eradicated. Victorian undergraduate pharmacy programs include some aspects of medication safety, however clinical pharmacy experience, along with interpersonal and project management skills, are required to prepare pharmacists to be confiden...

  1. The I-Tribe Community Pharmacy Practice Model: professional pharmacy unshackled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Greg L; Waitzman, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    To describe a mechanism by which pharmacists could create a disruptive innovation to provide professional primary care services via a Web-based delivery model. Several obstacles have prevented pharmacists from using available technology to develop business models that capitalize on their clinical skills in primary care. Community practice has experienced multiple sustaining innovations that have improved dispensing productivity but have not stimulated sufficient demand for pharmacy services to disrupt the marketplace and provide new opportunities for pharmacists. Pharmacists are in a unique position to bridge the gap between demand for basic primary medical care and access to a competent medical professional. Building on the historic strengths of community pharmacy practice, modern pharmacists could provide a disruptive innovation in the marketplace for primary care by taking advantage of new technology and implementing the I-Tribe Community Pharmacy Practice Model (I-Tribe). This model would directly connect pharmacists to patients through an interactive, secure Web presence that would liberate the relationship from geographic restrictions. The I-Tribe is a disruptive innovation that could become the foundation for a vibrant market in pharmacist professional service offerings. The I-Tribe model could benefit society by expanding access to primary medical care while simultaneously providing a new source of revenue for community practice pharmacists. Entrepreneurial innovation through I-Tribe pharmacy would free pharmacists to become the care providers envisioned by the profession's thought leaders.

  2. The WHO UNESCO FIP Pharmacy Education Taskforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouse Mike

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pharmacists' roles are evolving from that of compounders and dispensers of medicines to that of experts on medicines within multidisciplinary health care teams. In the developing country context, the pharmacy is often the most accessible or even the sole point of access to health care advice and services. Because of their knowledge of medicines and clinical therapeutics, pharmacists are suitably placed for task shifting in health care and could be further trained to undertake functions such as clinical management and laboratory diagnostics. Indeed, pharmacists have been shown to be willing, competent, and cost-effective providers of what the professional literature calls "pharmaceutical care interventions"; however, internationally, there is an underuse of pharmacists for patient care and public health efforts. A coordinated and multifaceted effort to advance workforce planning, training and education is needed in order to prepare an adequate number of well-trained pharmacists for such roles. Acknowledging that health care needs can vary across geography and culture, an international group of key stakeholders in pharmacy education and global health has reached unanimous agreement that pharmacy education must be quality-driven and directed towards societal health care needs, the services required to meet those needs, the competences necessary to provide these services and the education needed to ensure those competences. Using that framework, this commentary describes the Pharmacy Education Taskforce of the World Health Organization, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the International Pharmaceutical Federation Global Pharmacy and the Education Action Plan 2008–2010, including the foundation, domains, objectives and outcome measures, and includes several examples of current activities within this scope.

  3. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  4. Expander Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Expander Codes - The Sipser–Spielman Construction. Priti Shankar. General Article Volume 10 ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560 012, India.

  5. Market dynamics of community pharmacies in Minnesota, U.S. from 1992 through 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schommer, Jon C; Yusuf, Akeem A; Hadsall, Ronald S

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of community pharmacy market dynamics is important for monitoring access points for pharmacist services. The purpose of this study was to describe (1) changes in pharmacy mix (independent versus chain) between 1992 and 2002 and between 2002 and 2012 for 87 counties in Minnesota (state in U.S.) and (2) the number (and proportion) of community pharmacies in Minnesota for the years 1992, 2002, and 2012 using a new categorization method developed specifically for this study. Data included licensure records for 1992, 2002, and 2012 from the State of Minnesota Board of Pharmacy and county level demographics for 1990, 2000 and 2010 from the US Census Bureau. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize findings over time and to describe associations between study variables. The ratio of independent pharmacies to chain pharmacies changed from approximately 2:1 in 1992 to 1:2 in 2012. The primary market factors associated with changes in the number of community pharmacies per county were (1) the metropolitan designation of the county and (2) whether the population density (persons/square mile) was increasing or decreasing. The face of community pharmacy in Minnesota changed between 1992 and 2012. By 2012, pharmacies were located in traditional retail pharmacies, mass merchandiser outlets, supermarkets, and clinics/medical centers. Furthermore, specialty pharmacies grew in proportion to meet patient needs. Between 1992 and 2012, the market dynamics of community pharmacies in Minnesota was characterized by vigorous market entry and exit. In light of recent health reform that is exhibiting characteristics such as continuity-of-care models, performance-based payment, technology advances, and the care of patients becoming more "ambulatory" (versus in-patient), we suggest that the market dynamics of community pharmacies will continue to exhibit vigorous market entry and exit in this new environment. It is proposed that the community pharmacy categories developed

  6. Data analyst technician: an innovative role for the pharmacy technician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervin, K C; Skledar, S; Hess, M M; Ryan, M

    2001-10-01

    The development of an innovative role for the pharmacy technician is described. The role of the pharmacy technician was based on a needs assessment and the expertise of the pharmacy technician selected. Initial responsibilities of the technician included chart reviews, benchmarking surveys, monthly financial impact analysis, initiative assessment, and quality improvement reporting. As the drug-use and disease-state management (DUDSM) program expanded, pharmacist activities increased, requiring the expansion of data analyst technician (DAT) duties. These new responsibilities included participation in patient assessment, data collection and interpretation, and formulary enforcement. Most recently, technicians' expanded duties include maintenance of a physician compliance profiling database, quality improvement reporting and graphing, active role in patient risk assessment and database management for adult vaccination, and support of financial impact monitoring for other institutions within the health system. This pharmacist-technician collaboration resulted a threefold increase in patient assessments completed per day. In addition, as the DUDSM program continues to expand across the health system, an increase in DAT resources from 0.5 to 1.0 full-time equivalent was obtained. The role of the DAT has increased the efficiency of the DUDSM program and has provided an innovative role for the pharmacy technician.

  7. Reflections on the role of the pharmacy regulatory authority in enhancing quality related event reporting in community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Todd A; Bishop, Andrea C; Mahaffey, Thomas; Mackinnon, Neil J; Ashcroft, Darren M; Zwicker, Bev; Reid, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Given the demanding nature of providing pharmacy services, coupled with the expanded scope of practice of the professions in jurisdictions around the world, greater commitment to continuous quality improvement through adoption of quality-related event (QRE) reporting is necessary to ensure patient safety. Pharmacy regulatory authorities (PRAs) are in a unique position to enhance QRE reporting and learning through the standardization of expected practice. This study was aimed to gain a better understanding of the perceived roles of PRAs in enhancing QRE reporting and learning in community pharmacies, and identifying regulatory best practices to execute such roles. A purposive case sampling approach was used to identify PRA staff members from two groups (Deputy registrars and pharmacy inspectors) in 10 Canadian jurisdictions to participate in focus groups in the fall of 2011. Focus groups were used to explore perceptions of the role of PRAs in enhancing and promoting QRE reporting and learning, and perceived barriers to effective implementation in practice. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. Two focus groups were conducted, one with seven Deputy registrars/Practice managers, and one with nine pharmacy inspectors. Five themes were identified, including (1) defining QRE reporting and compliance, (2) navigating role conflict, (3) educating for enhanced QRE reporting and learning, (4) promoting the positive/removing the fear of QREs, and (5) tailoring QRE reporting and learning consistency. Overall, participants perceived a strong role for PRAs in enhancing QRE reporting and learning and providing education for pharmacies to support their compliance with reporting standards. However, PRAs must navigate the conflict inherent in both educating and promoting a process for achieving a standard while simultaneously inspecting compliance to that standard. Ensuring pharmacies have autonomy in operationalizing standards may help to mitigate this conflict

  8. Application of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to community pharmacy: A framework for implementation research on pharmacy services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Sarah J; Curran, Geoffrey M; Swan, Holly; Teeter, Benjamin S; Thomas, Jeremy

    Community pharmacies are an increasingly important health care setting with opportunities for improving quality and safety, yet little is understood about determinants of implementation in this setting. This paper presents an implementation framework for pharmacy based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). This study employed a critical review of 45 articles on professional services provided in community pharmacies, including medication therapy management (MTM), immunizations, and rapid HIV testing. The relevant domains and associated constructs for pharmacy services were as follows. Intervention Characteristics ultimately depend on the specific service; of particular note for pharmacy are relative advantage and complexity. The former because implementation of services can pose a cost-benefit challenge where dispensing is the primary role and the latter because of the greater challenge implementing multi-faceted services like MTM compared to a discrete service like immunizations. "In terms of Outer Setting, pharmacies are affected by patient needs and acceptance, and external policies and incentives such as reimbursement and regulations. For Inner Setting, structural characteristics like pharmacy type, size and staff were important as was pharmacists' perception of their role and available resources to provide the service. Key Characteristics of Individuals include training, preparedness, and self-efficacy of the pharmacist for providing a new service. Few studies revealed relevant Process constructs, but if they did it was primarily related to engaging (e.g., champions). As pharmacists' roles in health care are continuing to expand, a framework to inform implementation research in community pharmacy (and other) settings is crucially needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Motivating pharmacy employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S J; Generali, J A

    1984-07-01

    Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented.

  10. Individual- and neighborhood-level characteristics associated with support of in-pharmacy vaccination among ESAP-registered pharmacies: pharmacists' role in reducing racial/ethnic disparities in influenza vaccinations in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Natalie D; Blaney, Shannon; Amesty, Silvia; Rivera, Alexis V; Turner, Alezandria K; Ompad, Danielle C; Fuller, Crystal M

    2011-02-01

    New York State (NYS) passed legislation authorizing pharmacists to administer immunizations in 2008. Racial/socioeconomic disparities persist in vaccination rates and vaccine-preventable diseases such as influenza. Many NYS pharmacies participate in the Expanded Syringe Access Program (ESAP), which allows provision of non-prescription syringes to help prevent transmission of HIV, and are uniquely positioned to offer vaccination services to low-income communities. To understand individual and neighborhood characteristics of pharmacy staff support for in-pharmacy vaccination, we combined census tract data with baseline pharmacy data from the Pharmacies as Resources Making Links to Community Services (PHARM-Link) study among ESAP-registered pharmacies. The sample consists of 437 pharmacists, non-pharmacist owners, and technicians enrolled from 103 eligible New York City pharmacies. Using multilevel analysis, pharmacy staff who expressed support of in-pharmacy vaccination services were 69% more likely to support in-pharmacy HIV testing services (OR, 1.69; 95% CI 1.39-2.04). While pharmacy staff who worked in neighborhoods with a high percent of minority residents were less likely to express support of in-pharmacy vaccination, those in neighborhoods with a high percent of foreign-born residents were marginally more likely to express support of in-pharmacy vaccination. While educational campaigns around the importance of vaccination access may be needed among some pharmacy staff and minority community residents, we have provided evidence supporting scale-up of vaccination efforts in pharmacies located in foreign-born/immigrant communities which has potential to reduce disparities in vaccination rates and preventable influenza-related mortality.

  11. Expanding Dress Code Requirements in the Doctor of Pharmacy Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cynthia A Naughton

    2017-01-01

    "1 We initiated this article to address both the potential advantages and disadvantages to implementing a dress code to facilitate a discussion surrounding this topic and to assist programs that might...

  12. Partition expanders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gavinsky, Dmitry; Pudlák, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2017), s. 378-395 ISSN 1432-4350 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : expanders * pseudorandomness * communication complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00224-016-9738-5

  13. Research philosophy in pharmacy practice: necessity and relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winit-Watjana, Win

    2016-12-01

    Pharmacy practice has gradually evolved with the paradigm shifted towards patient-focused practice or medicines optimisation. The advancement of pharmacy-related research has contributed to this progression, but the philosophy of research remained unexplored. This review was thus aimed to outline the succinct concept of research philosophy and its application in pharmacy practice research. Research philosophy has been introduced to offer an alternative way to think about problem-driven research that is normally conducted. To clarify the research philosophy, four research paradigms, i.e. positivism (or empiricism), postpositivism (or realism), interpretivism (or constructivism) and pragmatism, are investigated according to philosophical realms, i.e. ontology, epistemology, axiology and logic of inquiry. With the application of research philosophy, some examples of quantitative and qualitative research were elaborated along with the conventional research approach. Understanding research philosophy is crucial for pharmacy researchers and pharmacists, as it underpins the choice of methodology and data collection. The review provides the overview of research philosophy and its application in pharmacy practice research. Further discussion on this vital issue is warranted to help generate quality evidence for pharmacy practice. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. Assessment and revision of clinical pharmacy practice internet web sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Krystal L; Salvo, Marissa C; Ward, Kristina E; Attridge, Russell T; Kiser, Katie; Pinner, Nathan A; Gallegos, Patrick J; Kesteloot, Lori Lynn; Hylton, Ann; Bookstaver, P Brandon

    2014-02-01

    Health care professionals, trainees, and patients use the Internet extensively. Editable Web sites may contain inaccurate, incomplete, and/or outdated information that may mislead the public's perception of the topic. To evaluate the editable, online descriptions of clinical pharmacy and pharmacist and attempt to improve their accuracy. The authors identified key areas within clinical pharmacy to evaluate for accuracy and appropriateness on the Internet. Current descriptions that were reviewed on public domain Web sites included: (1) clinical pharmacy and the clinical pharmacist, (2) pharmacy education, (3) clinical pharmacy and development and provision for reimbursement, (4) clinical pharmacists and advanced specialty certifications/training opportunities, (5) pharmacists and advocacy, and (6) clinical pharmacists and interdisciplinary/interprofessional content. The authors assessed each content area to determine accuracy and prioritized the need for updating, when applicable, to achieve consistency in descriptions and relevancy. The authors found that Wikipedia, a public domain that allows users to update, was consistently the most common Web site produced in search results. The authors' evaluation resulted in the creation or revision of 14 Wikipedia Web pages. However, rejection of 3 proposed newly created Web pages affected the authors' ability to address identified content areas with deficiencies and/or inaccuracies. Through assessing and updating editable Web sites, the authors strengthened the online representation of clinical pharmacy in a clear, cohesive, and accurate manner. However, ongoing assessments of the Internet are continually needed to ensure accuracy and appropriateness.

  15. Students as catalysts to increase community pharmacy-led direct patient care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodis, Jennifer L; Ulbrich, Timothy R; Jennings, Brandon T; Elswick, Betsy M; McKinley, Rebekah Jackowski

    2015-01-01

    To describe the impact on community pharmacy service development of a faculty-student-pharmacist collaborative program offered by five U.S. colleges. Colleges of pharmacy and community pharmacies in Arizona, Illinois, Ohio, Utah, and West Virginia. Partner for Promotion (PFP) is an elective, longitudinal advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) focused on enhancement of community pharmacy management skills, specifically the development and implementation of direct patient care services. This faculty-student-pharmacist collaborative model has been implemented in five U.S. colleges of pharmacy beyond the originating institution. Data on pharmacy demographics and the impact of PFP on service creation and longevity at these partnering schools were reported via annual online surveys completed by faculty directors at each partnering college of pharmacy. Over a 3-year period, 19 pharmacy teams across five states worked to create a total of 15 direct patient care services, 12 of which were still being offered to patients at the time of data collection (80% longevity). The PFP program guided 38 students through the process of developing and implementing a sustainable service at a community pharmacy. All participating faculty from partnering colleges of pharmacy (100%) indicated that PFP model materials were "very useful" (4-point Likert scale; 1, not useful, to 4, very useful), and all five colleges plan to continue offering the program moving forward. The PFP model of training and service development can have a positive impact on the pharmacy profession, serve as an avenue for training students in the development of clinical services, and be a catalyst for establishing the growth of community pharmacy as a patient-centered, service-oriented partner in the health care system.

  16. the pharmacy screening project - an evaluation of pharmacy-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1999-09-12

    Sep 12, 1999 ... Setting. In Pretoria, 155 pharmacies were randomly selected and all 43 pharmacies in Potchefstroom and Klerksdorp were included. Methods. ... risk factor. A screening test is not intended to be diagnostic." Persons with positive or suspected po itive creening test results are usually ubjected to further ...

  17. Status of Radiological Pharmacy Education at Colleges of Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heske, Suzanne M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 84 pharmacy schools showed most not in compliance with 1975 American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy resolutions concerning curriculum for radiopharmaceuticals and radiopharmacy practice. Results suggest content is generally presented as part of a core course, separate required course, or elective. However, 31% of schools offer no…

  18. Expanding versus non expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Alfonso-Faus, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    In cosmology the number of scientists using the framework of an expanding universe is very high. This model, the big-bang, is now overwhelmingly present in almost all aspects of society. It is the main stream cosmology of today. A small number of scientists are researching on the possibility of a non-expanding universe. The existence of these two groups, one very large and the other very small, is a good proof of the use of the scientific method: it does not drive to an absolute certainty. All models have to be permanently validated, falsified. Ockham's razor, a powerful philosophical tool, will probably change the amount of scientists working in each of these groups. We present here a model where a big-bang is unnecessary. It ends, in a finite time, in a second INFLATION, or a disaggregation to infinity. We also discuss the possibilities of a non-expanding universe model. Only a few references will be cited, mainly concerned with our own work in the past, thus purposely avoiding citing the many thousands of ...

  19. Factors affecting pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in community pharmacy: A structural equation modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitadpakorn S

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The concept of customer engagement and devotion has been applied in various service businesses to keep the customers with business However, a limited number of studies were performed to examine the context of customer engagement and devotion in pharmacy business which focus on the impact of customer perceptions about pharmacists, perceived quality of pharmacy structure, medication price strategy on pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in a pharmacy providing pharmaceutical care to the customers. Objective: This study aimed to assess a conceptual model depicting the relationships among customer perceptions about pharmacists, pharmacy quality structure, medication price, customer engagement, and customer devotion. And also aimed to assess and measure if there is a direct or indirect relationship between these factors. Methods: A quantitative study was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires. Two hundred and fifty three customers who regularly visited the pharmacy were randomly recruited from a purposively selected 30 community pharmacies in Bangkok. The survey was completed during February to April 2016. A structural equation model (SEM was used to assess the direct and indirect relationships between constructs. Results: A total of 253/300 questionnaires were returned for analysis, and the response rate was 84%. Only perceptions about pharmacist in customers receiving professional pharmacy services was statically significant regarding relationship with pharmacy engagement (beta=0.45. Concurrently, the model from empirical data fit with the hypothetical model (p-value = 0.06, adjusted chi-square (CMIN/DF=1.16, Goodness of Fit Index (GFI=0.93, Comparatively Fit Index (CFI=0.99, and Root Mean Square Error Approximation (RMSEA=0.03. Conclusion: The study confirmed the indirect positive influence of customer perceptions about pharmacist on pharmacy customer devotion in providing pharmacy services via pharmacy

  20. Factors affecting pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in community pharmacy: A structural equation modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitadpakorn, Sujin; Kittisopee, Tanattha

    2017-01-01

    Background: The concept of customer engagement and devotion has been applied in various service businesses to keep the customers with business However, a limited number of studies were performed to examine the context of customer engagement and devotion in pharmacy business which focus on the impact of customer perceptions about pharmacists, perceived quality of pharmacy structure, medication price strategy on pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in a pharmacy providing pharmaceutical care to the customers. Objective: This study aimed to assess a conceptual model depicting the relationships among customer perceptions about pharmacists, pharmacy quality structure, medication price, customer engagement, and customer devotion. And also aimed to assess and measure if there is a direct or indirect relationship between these factors. Methods: A quantitative study was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires. Two hundred and fifty three customers who regularly visited the pharmacy were randomly recruited from a purposively selected 30 community pharmacies in Bangkok. The survey was completed during February to April 2016. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to assess the direct and indirect relationships between constructs. Results: A total of 253/300 questionnaires were returned for analysis, and the response rate was 84%. Only perceptions about pharmacist in customers receiving professional pharmacy services was statically significant regarding relationship with pharmacy engagement (beta=0.45). Concurrently, the model from empirical data fit with the hypothetical model (p-value = 0.06, adjusted chi-square (CMIN/DF)=1.16, Goodness of Fit Index (GFI)=0.93, Comparatively Fit Index (CFI)=0.99, and Root Mean Square Error Approximation (RMSEA)=0.03). Conclusion: The study confirmed the indirect positive influence of customer perceptions about pharmacist on pharmacy customer devotion in providing pharmacy services via pharmacy engagement It was

  1. Characterization of the Medical Subject Headings thesaurus for pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguet, Fernando; Van Den Boogerd, Lucienne; Salgado, Teresa M; Correr, Cassyano J; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    2014-11-15

    The completeness and utility of pharmacy-oriented Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) relative to MeSH terminology pertaining to other healthcare professions (dentistry and nursing) are evaluated. The 2013 version of the MeSH thesaurus-the standard vocabulary used by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) to index articles in PubMed and MEDLINE-was searched for dentistry-, nursing-, and pharmacy-specific terms using a truncation strategy (search terms: nurs*, dent*, and pharm*); the hierarchical level of each term and the number of descendant terms (an indication of the granularity of the associated NLM-indexed content) were determined. PubMed searches were conducted to identify areas of the MeSH hierarchy containing dentistry- and nursing-specific terms but no equivalent pharmacy-specific term. The search of the MeSH thesaurus identified 145 terms representing dentistry-specific activities and 94 and 26 terms specific to nursing and pharmacy practice, respectively. Analysis of the three sets of MeSH terms indicated that dentistry-oriented MeSH terms were generally situated more prominently within the MeSH hierarchy than terms for nursing- and pharmacy-oriented research; the MeSH terminology oriented toward nursing or dentistry practice was relatively more granular, allowing for increased specificity and power of information retrieval during PubMed and MEDLINE searches. Seventeen proposed new MeSH terms describing key areas of pharmacy practice were identified; the inclusion of these terms in the MeSH hierarchy could substantially expand and improve the retrievability of NLM-indexed literature. Imbalances and gaps were found in MeSH coverage of pharmacy concepts and terminology relative to MeSH terminology specific to the nursing and dentistry professions. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical Microbiology in Pharmacy Education: A Practice-based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfi, Olla; Power, Mary; Slavcev, Roderick A

    2010-01-01

    The increasing incidence of multi-drug resistant pathogenic bacteria, alongside viral and fungal human pathogens, supports the argument that skills in microbiology and infectious disease diagnosis, treatment and prevention are of growing global importance to be held among primary care clinicians. In Canada, inevitable future astronomical health care costs largely due to an aging population, have forced eyes upon pharmacists as one of (if not) the primary clinical professions to accommodate the growing need to accommodate patient access to health care while maintaining lower health care costs. As such, the role of pharmacists in health care is expanding, punctuating the need to enhance and improve Pharmacy education. Accurate assessment of the current gaps in Pharmacy education in Canada provides a unique opportunity for a new Pharmacy School at the University of Waterloo to establish a non-traditional, outcomes-based model to curricular design. We are applying this iterative curriculum assessment and design process to the establishment of a Medical Microbiology program, deemed as a prominent gap in former Pharmacy educational training programs. A PILOT STUDY WAS CARRIED OUT DISTRIBUTING A COMPREHENSIVE SURVEY TO A LOCAL GROUP OF PHARMACISTS PRACTICING IN A VARIETY OF SETTINGS INCLUDING: hospital, clinic, community, independent, industry and government, to assess perceived gaps in Pharmacy microbiology and infectious disease education. Preliminary findings of the surveys indicate that practitioners feel under-qualified in some areas of microbiology. The results are discussed with respect to a curricular redesign model and next steps in the process of curricular design are proposed.

  3. Career goals and expectations of men and women pharmacy residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, C M; Oliver, E J; Jeffrey, L P

    1982-11-01

    Personal and professional characteristics of men and women hospital pharmacy residents were studied to identify differences that could affect future hospital pharmacy practice. Residents in 111 ASHP-accredited pharmacy residency programs received a survey containing questions on demographic information, reasons for selecting a residency, areas of professional interest, postresidency career goals, responsibilities to home and family, and advantages and disadvantages associated with gender. Of 286 residents receiving questionnaires, 226 responded; the percentages of men and women responding corresponded to the ratio of men and women in hospital pharmacy residencies. While men and women expressed educational goals that were not significantly different, more men than women had earned or were in the process of earning advanced degrees. No significant differences were evident between men's and women's plans for marriage and children, but 73% of the women indicated that they would take time out from their practice to raise children, compared with only 9% of the men. The majority of residents did not think their gender affected them in their residency programs, but in professional interactions more men saw gender as an advantage and more women as a disadvantage. Significantly more than women aspired to be hospital pharmacy directors. The results suggest that men are obtaining advanced training closer to the time they graduate from pharmacy school and that in the future women competing for promotions may be older than men competing for comparable positions. Those planning pharmacy staffing should consider the needs of women, and men, who expect to take time out from their careers for family responsibilities and possibly seek part-time positions when they return to the work force.

  4. The Ethics of Pharmacy Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Francis X.

    1985-01-01

    An address to the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy focuses on the pharmacy school and faculty's role in providing an ethical foundation for practicing pharmacists. The issues of professional socialization, burnout, the influence of pharmaceutical advertising, and regulation of health care are noted. (MSE)

  5. Branding a college of pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Michael T

    2012-11-12

    In a possible future of supply-demand imbalance in pharmacy education, a brand that positively differentiates a college or school of pharmacy from its competitors may be the key to its survival. The nominal group technique, a structured group problem-solving and decision-making process, was used during a faculty retreat to identify and agree on the core qualities that define the brand image of Midwestern University's College of Pharmacy in Glendale, AZ. Results from the retreat were provided to the faculty and students, who then proposed 168 mottos that embodied these qualities. Mottos were voted on by faculty members and pharmacy students. The highest ranked 24 choices were submitted to the faculty, who then selected the top 10 finalists. A final vote by students was used to select the winning motto. The methods described here may be useful to other colleges and schools of pharmacy that want to better define their own brand image and strengthen their organizational culture.

  6. Expanded Dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, D B; Salvi, Sonali; Chandanwale, Ajay

    2016-07-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has coined the term expanded dengue to describe cases which do not fall into either dengue shock syndrome or dengue hemorrhagic fever. This has incorporated several atypical findings of dengue. Dengue virus has not been enlisted as a common etiological agent in several conditions like encephalitis, Guillain Barre syndrome. Moreover it is a great mimic of co-existing epidemics like Malaria, Chikungunya and Zika virus disease, which are also mosquito-borne diseases. The atypical manifestations noted in dengue can be mutisystemic and multifacetal. In clinical practice, the occurrence of atypical presentation should prompt us to investigate for dengue. Knowledge of expanded dengue helps to clinch the diagnosis of dengue early, especially during ongoing epidemics, avoiding further battery of investigations. Dengue has proved to be the epidemic with the ability to recur and has a diverse array of presentation as seen in large series from India, Srilanka, Indonesia and Taiwan. WHO has given the case definition of dengue fever in their comprehensive guidelines. Accordingly, a probable case is defined as acute febrile illness with two or more of any findings viz. headache, retro-orbital pain, myalgia, arthralgia, rash, hemorrhagic manifestations, leucopenia and supportive serology. There have been cases of patients admitted with fever, altered mentation with or without neck stiffness and pyramidal tract signs. Some had seizures or status epilepticus as presentation. When they were tested for serology, dengue was positive. After ruling out other causes, dengue remained the only culprit. We have come across varied presentations of dengue fever in clinical practice and the present article throws light on atypical manifestations of dengue. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  7. A Pharmaceutical Industry Elective Course on Practice Experience Selection and Fellowship Pursuit by Pharmacy Students

    OpenAIRE

    Hartman, Rhea; Blustein, Leona; Morel, Diane; Davis, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To design and implement 2 pharmaceutical industry elective courses and assess their impact on students’ selection of advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) and pursuit of pharmaceutical industry fellowships.

  8. Laboratory testing in pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Plebani, Mario; Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Trenti, Tommaso

    2010-07-01

    Point-of-care testing (POCT) is traditionally defined as laboratory diagnostics performed at or near the site where clinical care is delivered. POCT thereby combines sample collection, analysis, and reporting of results into a robust integrated testing structure, with a simple user interface. The availability of reliable devices and consolidated tests for patient screening, diagnosis and monitoring has allowed broad diffusion of POCT to the patient's bedside, physician offices, pharmacies, other healthcare facilities, supermarkets, and even into the patient's home. However, current evidence clearly shows that POCT can be subjective, and might even amplify the traditional problems encountered in the preanalytical, analytical and postanalytical phases of the total testing process. This may especially be seen in inappropriateness of the test request, collection of unsuitable biological materials, inaccurate test performances, larger analytical imprecision, unsuitable report formatting, delayed reporting of critical value, and report recording/retrieval. POCT patient care service in the pharmacy can be regarded as a valuable option for the present and future since it might be beneficial for all parties. However, several economic, clinical and regulatory issues should also be addressed before this opportunity can turn into a real advantage for patients and the entire healthcare system. The most appropriate allocation of POCT within the diagnostic pathway, as well as its adjuvant role in screening, diagnosis and monitoring of diseases should also be clearly established in order to prevent widespread and deregulated implementation.

  9. Pharmacy Student Perception of Characteristics and Activities of Pharmacy Faculty; Basic Science Compared with Pharmacy Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Paul L.; House, Michael L.

    1981-01-01

    Student attitudes toward pharmacy faculty were measured. Areas of inquiry included faculty characteristics such as age, sex, academic rank, education, licensure, experience, teaching, research, service and credibility. Analysis of data involved a comparision of student answers for pharmacy practice and basic science faculty. (Author/MLW)

  10. The business of pharmacy: alive and kicking for aspiring entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldy, Joanne

    2010-05-01

    Many senior care pharmacy professionals have chosen to become their own boss and start businesses doing what they love--and what they do best. Some have approached this analytically, strategizing and planning in advance. Others have found paths to follow almost by accident. But they all share drive, determination, and a passion for their profession and their patients.

  11. Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  12. Attitude of fourth year Doctor of Pharmacy students towards pharmacy profession and their career preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Saad

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Fourth year students believed that pharmacy education and practice affect the health care system. Their favorite career areas were clinical pharmacy, industrial pharmacy, and hospital pharmacy. Personal interest was the most important factor involved in this selection. Most of them were interested in pharmacy-related research activities.

  13. 21 CFR 1311.200 - Pharmacy responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pharmacy responsibilities. 1311.200 Section 1311... ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS (Eff. 6-1-10) Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.200 Pharmacy responsibilities. (a) Before initially using a pharmacy application to process controlled substance prescriptions, the pharmacy...

  14. Evaluation of pharmacy students’ clinical interventions on a general medicine practice experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones JD

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As colleges of pharmacy prepare a new generation of practitioners, it is important that during practice experiences students learn the impact of clinical interventions. For over ten years, pharmacy students have been a vital part of the multidisciplinary team at the military treatment facility. The overall impact of the student interventions on patient care has not been evaluated. To evaluate the impact, the students began documenting their clinical interventions in Medkeeper RxInterventions™, an online database. The program is used to document faculty and fourth year pharmacy students’ pharmaceutical interventions.Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the interventions completed by fourth year pharmacy students during a general medicine advanced pharmacy practice experience at a military treatment facility.Methods: The students completing their general medicine advanced pharmacy practice experience at the military treatment facility are responsible for self reporting all interventions made during clinical rounds into the Medkeeper RxIntervention™ database. The researchers retrospectively collected and analyzed interventions made from June 2008 to June 2009.Results: The total number of interventions recorded by 8 fourth year pharmacy students was 114. Students averaged a number of 14.3 interventions during an eight week practice experience. Students spent an average of 5 minutes per intervention. Ninety- five percent of the interventions were accepted.Conclusion: Fourth year pharmacy students’ recommendations were accepted at a high rate by resident physicians. The high acceptance rate may have the ability to positively impact patient care.

  15. Towards an operational definition of pharmacy clinical competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Charles Allen

    The scope of pharmacy practice and the training of future pharmacists have undergone a strategic shift over the last few decades. The pharmacy profession recognizes greater pharmacist involvement in patient care activities. Towards this strategic objective, pharmacy schools are training future pharmacists to meet these new clinical demands. Pharmacy students have clerkships called Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPEs), and these clerkships account for 30% of the professional curriculum. APPEs provide the only opportunity for students to refine clinical skills under the guidance of an experienced pharmacist. Nationwide, schools of pharmacy need to evaluate whether students have successfully completed APPEs and are ready treat patients. Schools are left to their own devices to develop assessment programs that demonstrate to the public and regulatory agencies, students are clinically competent prior to graduation. There is no widely accepted method to evaluate whether these assessment programs actually discriminate between the competent and non-competent students. The central purpose of this study is to demonstrate a rigorous method to evaluate the validity and reliability of APPE assessment programs. The method introduced in this study is applicable to a wide variety of assessment programs. To illustrate this method, the study evaluated new performance criteria with a novel rating scale. The study had two main phases. In the first phase, a Delphi panel was created to bring together expert opinions. Pharmacy schools nominated exceptional preceptors to join a Delphi panel. Delphi is a method to achieve agreement of complex issues among experts. The principal researcher recruited preceptors representing a variety of practice settings and geographical regions. The Delphi panel evaluated and refined the new performance criteria. In the second phase, the study produced a novel set of video vignettes that portrayed student performances based on recommendations of

  16. Pharmacy Dashboard: An Innovative Process for Pharmacy Workload and Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Ashley; Bui, Quyen; Hodding, Jane; Le, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    Background: Innovative approaches, including LEAN systems and dashboards, to enhance pharmacy production continue to evolve in a cost and safety conscious health care environment. Furthermore, implementing and evaluating the effectiveness of these novel methods continues to be challenging for pharmacies. Objective: To describe a comprehensive, real-time pharmacy dashboard that incorporated LEAN methodologies and evaluate its utilization in an inpatient Central Intravenous Additives Services (CIVAS) pharmacy. Methods: Long Beach Memorial Hospital (462 adult beds) and Miller Children's and Women's Hospital of Long Beach (combined 324 beds) are tertiary not-for-profit, community-based hospitals that are served by one CIVAS pharmacy. Metrics to evaluate the effectiveness of CIVAS were developed and implemented on a dashboard in real-time from March 2013 to March 2014. Results: The metrics that were designed and implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of CIVAS were quality and value, financial resilience, and the department's people and culture. Using a dashboard that integrated these metrics, the accuracy of manufacturing defect-free products was ≥99.9%, indicating excellent quality and value of CIVAS. The metric for financial resilience demonstrated a cost savings of $78,000 annually within pharmacy by eliminating the outsourcing of products. People and value metrics on the dashboard focused on standard work, with an overall 94.6% compliance to the workflow. Conclusion: A unique dashboard that incorporated metrics to monitor 3 important areas was successfully implemented to improve the effectiveness of CIVAS pharmacy. These metrics helped pharmacy to monitor progress in real-time, allowing attainment of production goals and fostering continuous quality improvement through LEAN work.

  17. Nepalese pharmacy students' perceptions regarding mental disorders and pharmacy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthee, Suresh; Panthee, Bimala; Shakya, Sabin Raj; Panthee, Nirmal; Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Bell, J Simon

    2010-06-15

    To determine Nepalese pharmacy students' perceptions of whether mental disorders impact performance in pharmacy school. All first- and third-year undergraduate pharmacy students (n=226) in Nepal were invited to complete a modified version of the Mental Illness Performance Scale. Among the 200 respondents (response rate 88.5%), 14% reported that they had a mental disorder. The majority (92%) of third-year students agreed or strongly agreed that depression would interfere with a student's academic performance. Almost half of first-year students agreed or strongly agreed that alcohol or drug abuse would be grounds for both rejecting an applicant from pharmacy school (49%) and dismissal of a student from pharmacy school (46%). Students perceived a high level of academic impairment associated with mental disorders, but the majority did not perceive that mental disorders were grounds for dismissal from or rejection of entry to pharmacy school. Students' attitudes may discourage them from seeking help or providing mental health support to others.

  18. Provision of opioid substitution therapy services in Australian pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaar BB

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Opioid dependence, despite being the subject of significantpublic funding, remains a costly burden to Australian societyin human and economic terms. The most cost-effective publichealth strategy for managing opioid dependence is opioidsubstitution therapy (OST, primarily through the use ofmethadone or buprenorphine. Supervised dispensing of OSTfrom specialist clinics and community pharmacies plays acrucial role in enhancing compliance, monitoring treatmentand reducing diversion. Australia, compared with othercountries in the world, ranks very high in illicit opioid use;hence there is a great demand for OST.The utilisation of community pharmacies for stable patientshas many advantages. For public clinics, patient transfer tocommunity pharmacies relieves workload and costs, andincreases capacity for new OST patients. From a patient’sperspective, dosing at a pharmacy is more flexible andgenerally more preferable. Pharmacists stand to gain clientele,profit and receive small incentives from state governments inAustralia, for their services. Yet, many “unmet needs” existand there is a high demand for more involvement in OSTservice provision in community pharmacy in Australia.In the UK there has been a steady increase in communitypharmacy provision of OST, and pharmacists appear ready toprovide further healthcare services to these patients.The role of pharmacy in some countries in Europe, such asGermany, is less prominent due to their approach to harmminimisation and the complex, variable nature of OSTprovision across the European Union (EU. The provisionof OST by pharmacists in the USA on the other hand is oflesser frequency as the healthcare system in the USAencourages detoxification clinics to handle cases of illicitdrug addiction.At a time when harm minimisation strategies constitute atopic of considerable political and public interest, it isimportant to understand the scope and variability ofpharmacy involvement in drug policy in Australia

  19. Hospital pharmacy services in the Pacific Island countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penm, Jonathan; Chaar, Betty; Moles, Rebekah

    2015-02-01

    Non-communicable diseases have become an increasing problem in the Pacific Island countries (PICs). With the medical supply system often attached to hospitals in PICs, the training of hospital pharmacy staff has become increasingly important. This study aimed to explore hospital pharmacy services in the PICs using these validated surveys (BS26-27 and BS28-31 surveys) focusing upon hospital pharmacists' influence on prescribing and quality use of medicines. The BS26-27 and BS28-31 surveys were distributed online to pharmacy directors in hospitals in the PICs in 2011 and 2013, respectively. Surveys were made available in both English and French. In total, data from 55 hospitals were received (77% of the hospital sample in PICs) for either the BS26-27 or BS28-31 survey. From the responses received, 97% (36/37) of hospitals had a formulary, with 81% (26/32) of hospitals having a Pharmacy and Therapeutics (P&T) committee. Furthermore, 67% (24/36) of respondents stated that they provided some sort of clinical pharmacy service. On average, hospitals had two pharmacists involved in clinical pharmacy services. In BS28-31, over 75% (n=27) of respondents believed having a strong relationship with other health care professionals, having effective communication skills and taking professional responsibility for the medicines prescribed as 'mostly' or 'strongly' facilitating clinical services. Hospital pharmacists' participation on P&T committee and clinical services is common in the PICs. Such services enhance medication selection and reduce wastage. Although there are still too few hospital pharmacists in PICs, additional support aimed at enhancing their team building and communication skills will allow them to expand their roles and continue to improve patient health outcomes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Pharmacy information systems in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Jeff; Jennings, Heather

    2009-01-01

    The goal of Canada Health Infoway is to provide at least 50% of all Canadians with an electronic health record (EHR) by 2010. The goal of the Infoway Drug Information Systems Program is to develop an interoperable drug information system that will keep each patient's medication history: prescribed and dispensed drugs, allergies, ongoing drug treatment, etc. Drug and drug-interaction checks will be performed automatically and added to the patients' drug profiles. Physicians and pharmacists will be supplied with data to support appropriate and accurate prescribing and dispensing, thereby avoiding adverse drug interactions and drug-related deaths [1]. This paper describes Canadian developments in pharmacy eHealth. It presents the results of the Pharmacy Informatics Pharmacy Special Networks (PSN) survey about computer systems used in hospital pharmacies across Canada including information concerning Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) systems deployed; which may reduce the number of errors in orders.

  1. Sleep quality among pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Marshall E; Clark, Andraya; Woolley, Thomas W; Saunders, Amy

    2015-02-17

    To determine the quality of sleep among pharmacy students in the didactic portion of the curriculum at one school of pharmacy. The study consisted of an anonymous, voluntary survey that included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a self-rated instrument that measures sleep habits for a month. The survey was completed by 253 students. Students in the lower grade point average (GPA) category had higher scores on 2 of 7 components of the PSQI and on the global score. Poor sleep quality, indicated by a global PSQI score of greater than 5, was reported by 140 students. The rate of poor sleeping was higher among students in the lower GPA category. Poor sleep quality was pervasive among surveyed pharmacy students in the didactic portion of the pharmacy school curriculum, especially among those with lower GPAs.

  2. Benchmarking in Academic Pharmacy Departments

    OpenAIRE

    Bosso, John A.; Chisholm-Burns, Marie; Nappi, Jean; Gubbins, Paul O.; Ross, Leigh Ann

    2010-01-01

    Benchmarking in academic pharmacy, and recommendations for the potential uses of benchmarking in academic pharmacy departments are discussed in this paper. Benchmarking is the process by which practices, procedures, and performance metrics are compared to an established standard or best practice. Many businesses and industries use benchmarking to compare processes and outcomes, and ultimately plan for improvement. Institutions of higher learning have embraced benchmarking practices to facilit...

  3. Not sold here: limited access to legally available syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollini, Robin A; Rosen, Perth C; Gallardo, Manuel; Robles, Brenda; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Macalino, Grace E; Lozada, Remedios

    2011-05-24

    Sterile syringe access is a critical component of HIV prevention programs. Although retail pharmacies provide convenient outlets for syringe access, injection drug users (IDUs) may encounter barriers to syringe purchase even where purchase without a prescription is legal. We sought to obtain an objective measure of syringe access in Tijuana, Mexico, where IDUs report being denied or overcharged for syringes at pharmacies. Trained "mystery shoppers" attempted to buy a 1 cc insulin syringe according to a predetermined script at all retail pharmacies in three Tijuana neighborhoods. The same pharmacies were surveyed by telephone regarding their syringe sales policies. Data on purchase attempts were analyzed using basic statistics to obtain an objective measure of syringe access and compared with data on stated sales policies to ascertain consistency. Only 46 (28.4%) of 162 syringe purchase attempts were successful. Leading reasons for unsuccessful attempts were being told that the pharmacy didn't sell syringes (35.3%), there were no syringes in stock (31.0%), or a prescription was required (20.7%). Of 136 pharmacies also surveyed by telephone, a majority (88.2%) reported selling syringes but only one-third (32.5%) had a successful mystery shopper purchase; the majority of unsuccessful purchases were attributed to being told the pharmacy didn't sell syringes. There was similar discordance regarding prescription policies: 74 pharmacies said in the telephone survey that they did not require a prescription for syringes, yet 10 of these pharmacies asked the mystery shopper for a prescription. IDUs in Tijuana have limited access to syringes through retail pharmacies and policies and practices regarding syringe sales are inconsistent. Reasons for these restrictive and inconsistent practices must be identified and addressed to expand syringe access, reduce syringe sharing and prevent HIV transmission.

  4. Mental health and psychiatric pharmacy instruction in US colleges and schools of pharmacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cates, Marshall E; Monk-Tutor, Mary R; Drummond, Stephanie Ogle

    2007-01-01

    To describe the extent of psychiatric pharmacy instruction in US pharmacy curricula, including course and faculty characteristics and mental health topics taught in clinical therapeutics-based courses...

  5. Community pharmacy owners' views of star ratings and performance measurement: In-depth interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeter, Benjamin S; Fox, Brent I; Garza, Kimberly B; Harris, Stanley G; Nau, David P; Owensby, Justin K; Westrick, Salisa C

    2016-01-01

    The star rating system implemented by Medicare has the potential to positively affect patient health and may have financial implications for community pharmacies. Learning from owners of community pharmacies with high performance on these quality measures may help us to identify and further understand factors contributing to their success. This study described high-performing community pharmacy owners' current awareness and knowledge of star ratings, attitudes toward star ratings and performance measurement, and initiatives being offered in pharmacies that aim to improve the quality of care. Qualitative interviews with owners of independent community pharmacies were conducted in Spring 2015. Fifteen community pharmacies with high performance on the star rating measures were invited to participate. Recruitment did not end until the saturation point had been reached. All interviews were transcribed verbatim. Interview data were analyzed with the use of ATLAS.ti by 2 coders trained in thematic analysis. Krippendorf's alpha was calculated to assess intercoder reliability. Ten high-performing pharmacy owners participated. Analysis identified 8 themes, which were organized into the following categories: 1) current awareness and knowledge (i.e., superficial or advanced knowledge); 2) attitudes toward star ratings (positive perceptions, skeptical of performance rewards, and lack a feeling of control); and 3) pharmacy initiatives (personal patient relationships, collaborative employee relationships, and use of technology). Intercoder reliability was good overall. Interviews with high-performing pharmacies suggested that awareness of the star rating measures, overall positive attitudes toward the star ratings, the relationships that pharmacy owners have with their patients and their employees, and the use of technology as a tool to enhance patient care may contribute to high performance on the star rating measures. Future research is needed to determine if and how these

  6. The Value of Pharmacy Residency Training for Health Systems: An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Joshua T; Giouroukakis, Mary; Shank, Brandon R; Crona, Daniel J; Berger, Karen; Wombwell, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Identify and summarize articles that describe the value that pharmacy residency training offers to sponsoring health systems. There is a tremendous gap between the number of resident applicants and the number of pharmacy residencies available. Informing health-system administration executives about the proven value of residency training is key to expanding the number of available positions. To address this disparity, a comprehensive and systematic literature search to identify publications highlighting the value that pharmacy residency training provides to the sponsor hospital or health system was conducted. Articles were identified through query of PubMed and SciVerse SCOPUS and through review of bibliographies from relevant articles. Twenty articles were identified and summarized in this annotated bibliography that demonstrate perceived and quantitative value of pharmacy residency training for health systems that sponsor residency training. Pharmacy residency training programs are essential for pharmacists that will primarily engage in direct patient care activities. This annotated bibliography includes key publications that provide evidence of the value that pharmacy residents provide to the sponsoring health system. This manuscript will aid prospective residency directors interested in developing new residency positions at new institutions or for residency program directors interested in expanding the total number of resident positions available at the existing sites. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Relationship between selected personality traits and citation for violating pharmacy board regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocolas, G; Sleath, B

    2000-03-01

    The relationship between certain personality traits and citation for pharmacy board violations was studied. The Gordon Personal Profile-Inventory (GPP-I) was mailed to three samples of pharmacists licensed in North Carolina (95 pharmacist leaders, 199 pharmacists who had been cited for violating one or more board of pharmacy regulations, and a random sample of 494 pharmacists licensed in the state). The pharmacists were asked to provide demographic information and to complete the 38-item GPP-I, which measures eight different personality traits (ascendancy, responsibility, emotional stability, sociability, cautiousness, original thinking, personal relations, and vigor). The response rates for the three samples were 78.9%, 23.6%, and 58.3%, respectively. Pharmacists who had been cited for one or more board of pharmacy violations had significantly lower scores on the GPP-I for the personality trait vigor than general pharmacists. They also had lower scores on the GPP-I traits of ascendancy, original thinking, and vigor than pharmacy leaders. They were less likely to have advanced degrees or belong to any pharmacy organizations. They tended to be male, older, and out of school longer than those pharmacists who had never been cited for violating one or more board of pharmacy regulations. Significant differences in personality traits were found between pharmacists who had been cited for violating board of pharmacy regulations and general pharmacists and pharmacy leaders.

  8. Challenges to counseling customers at the pharmacy counter--why do they exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig

    2012-01-01

    Challenges to engage pharmacy customers in medicine dialogues at the counter have been identified comprising a new and extended clinical role for pharmacists in the health care system. This article seeks to expand understanding of factors involved in successful interaction at the pharmacy counter between customers and pharmacy staff to develop their relationship further. Practical challenges to customer encounters experienced by community pharmacists are discussed using theory from the field of mainly inter-relational communication and particular studies on pharmacy communication. Preconceived expectation of customers, the type of question asked by pharmacy staff, and differences in perception of illness and medicines between staff and customers are discussed. Both staff and customer influence the outcome of attempts by pharmacy staff to engage customers in dialogue about their medicine use through a complex mechanism of interaction. It is recommended that practitioners and researchers begin to distinguish, both theoretically and practically, between the content of a conversation and the underlying relationship when exploring and further developing the therapeutic relationship between pharmacy personnel and customers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A hybrid of B and T lymphoblastic cell line could potentially substitute dendritic cells to efficiently expand out Her-2/neu-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes from advanced breast cancer patients in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adoptive transfer of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs holds promises to cure cancer. However, this treatment is hindered by lacking a robust way to specifically expand out CTLs. Here, we developed a hybrid of B lymphoblastic cell line and T lymphoblastic cell line (T2 cells as a substitute of dendritic cells, together with irradiated autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC as feeder cells and rhIL-2, to activate and expand Her-2/neu-specific CD8+ T cells from human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her-2/neu and human leukocyte antigen (HLA-A2 double positive advanced breast cancer patients in vitro. These Her-2/neu-loaded T2 cells reproducibly activated and expanded out Her-2/neu-specific CD8+ T cells to 107 in 8 weeks. Furthermore, these Her-2/neu-specific CD8+ T cells had good sensitivity of recognition and killing Her-2/neu-overexpressed breast cancer cell line SK.BR.3. This technique gives us another insight on how to rapidly obtain sufficient CTLs for adoptive cancer immunotherapy.

  10. Opportunities and challenges in social pharmacy and pharmacy practice research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine M

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacy practice and social pharmacy are two important research areas within pharmaceutical and health sciences. As the disciplines have undergone and are still undergoing changes, it is useful to reflect on the current state of their research as the basis for discussing further development...... ever before. In this article, the challenges and opportunities in current research are reviewed, and suggestions provided on how to further research in these areas. A systematic content analysis is important to benchmark trends in the types of studies conducted, and to map the collaboration and funding....... The two areas are currently beset by a lack of consensus and charged all too often with evaluating narrowly focused pharmacy services. With the added challenge of diminished funding for research and the pressures to publish results, these fields have to accommodate a much broader research framework than...

  11. Advanced cryo propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, William K.

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in viewgraph form: (1) advanced space engine (ASE) chronology; (2) an ASE description; (3) a single expander; (4) a dual expander; (5) split expander; (6) launch vehicle start; (7) space start; (8) chemical transfer propulsion; and (9) an advanced expander test bed.

  12. Measuring Empathy in Pharmacy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Winkle, Lon J.; Hojat, Mohammadreza

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To validate the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Profession Students version (JSE-HPS) in pharmacy students. Methods. The JSE-HPS (20 items), adapted from the original Jefferson Scale of Empathy for use among students in the healthcare professions, was completed by 187 first-year pharmacy students at Midwestern University Chicago College of Pharmacy. Results. Two factors, “perspective-taking” and “compassionate care,” emerged from factor analysis in this study, accounting for 31% and 8% of the variance, respectively. These factors are similar to the prominent ones reported in previous research involving physicians and medical students, supporting the construct validity of this instrument for pharmacy students. In the current study, mean JSE-HPS score was comparable to those reported for medical students, and consistent with previous findings with medical students and physicians. Women scored significantly higher than men. Conclusions. Findings support the construct validity and reliability of the JSE-HPS for measuring empathy in pharmacy students. PMID:21931447

  13. Opening A New Independent Pharmacy 101

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Elabed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Opening an independent pharmacy is a process that involves multiple components. The rationale of this project is to discuss different issues that must be investigated prior to opening a new independency pharmacy. This includes the location, structure of the corporation, start-up cost, picking a wholesaler, fulfilling state board requirements and Philadelphia requirements, having a valid license, making professional relationships, and knowing basic marketing research. Methods used include using the knowledge and expertise from an independent pharmacy owner, visiting pharmacies, and interviewing neighbors for basic marketing research. Many aspects of opening an independent pharmacy differ significantly from a retail pharmacy, as there are various issues within the pharmacy and outside the pharmacy that must be extensively researched prior to opening in order to be successful.   Type: Student Project

  14. Prevalence and types of disease management programs in community pharmacies in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Anandi V; Okamoto, Mark P; Chang, Peter S

    2005-01-01

    challenge to implementing DM programs. Only 2 pharmacies reported an increase in revenue as a gain from the program, and 2 reported cost savings. Improved patient satisfaction was reported by 16 of 18 respondents (89%) with DM programs, but only 8 (44%) reported that patient satisfaction was being measured. The study found that the prevalence of DM programs was very low among California community pharmacies and the interest in developing these programs moderate, attributable to several barriers such as lack of time, lack of reimbursement, and lack of trained personnel. Some of these barriers could be addressed to encourage the development and proliferation of DM programs that would improve patient outcomes and expand practice roles of pharmacists.

  15. Pharmacists’ journey to clinical pharmacy practice in Ethiopia: Key informants’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemayehu B Mekonnen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Clinical pharmacy practice has developed internationally to expand the role of a pharmacist well beyond the traditional roles of compounding and supplying drugs to roles more directly in caring for patients and providing medication consultation to staff. This area of practice is at the infant stage in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to explore key informants’ perspective in the implementation of clinical pharmacy practice in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia. Method: A qualitative study was conducted through in-depth interviews with the heads of departments (internal medicine, paediatrics, surgery, nurse, pharmacy, medical director, administration and pharmacy student representatives. Qualitative data analysis was done after audiotapes were transcribed verbatim and notes were compiled. Results: All of the respondents interviewed express diverse and conflicting perspectives on pharmacists’ role, varying from a health-care professional to a business man. Despite this, the current pace of change worldwide takes the professions’ mission to that of a provider of clinical pharmacy services. The data ascertained the change in pharmacy practice, and integrating clinical pharmacy services within the health-care system should be seen as a must. Pharmacists should delineate from a business perspective and focus on widening the scope of the profession of pharmacy and should come close to the patient to serve directly. Conclusions: Although the perception of people on traditional roles of pharmacists was weak, there were promising steps in developing clinical pharmacy practice within the health-care system. Moreover, the results of this study revealed a high demand for this service among health-care providers.

  16. Community pharmacy: an untapped patient data resource

    OpenAIRE

    Wright DJ; Twigg MJ

    2016-01-01

    David John Wright, Michael James Twigg School of Pharmacy, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK Abstract: As community pharmacy services become more patient centered, they will be increasingly reliant on access to good quality patient information. This review describes how the information that is currently available in community pharmacies can be used to enhance service delivery and patient care. With integration of community pharmacy and medical practice records on the horizon, the opport...

  17. Clinical Microbiology in Pharmacy Education: A Practice-based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olla Wasfi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing incidence of multi-drug resistant pathogenic bacteria, alongside viral and fungal human pathogens, supports the argument that skills in microbiology and infectious disease diagnosis, treatment and prevention are of growing global importance to be held among primary care clinicians.In Canada, inevitable future astronomical health care costs largely due to an aging population, have forced eyes upon pharmacists as one of (if not the primary clinical professions to accommodate the growing need to accommodate patient access to health care while maintaining lower health care costs. As such, the role of pharmacists in health care is expanding, punctuating the need to enhance and improve Pharmacy education. Accurate assessment of the current gaps in Pharmacy education in Canada provides a unique opportunity for a new Pharmacy School at the University of Waterloo to establish a non-traditional, outcomes-based model to curricular design. We are applying this iterative curriculum assessment and design process to the establishment of a Medical Microbiology program, deemed as a prominent gap in former Pharmacy educational training programs.A pilot study was carried out distributing a comprehensive survey to a local group of pharmacists practicing in a variety of settings including: hospital, clinic, community, independent, industry and government, to assess perceived gaps in Pharmacy microbiology and infectious disease education. Preliminary findings of the surveys indicate that practitioners feel under-qualified in some areas of microbiology. The results are discussed with respect to a curricular redesign model and next steps in the process of curricular design are proposed.

  18. Teaching evaluation practices in colleges and schools of pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Candace W; Matthews, Hewitt W

    2009-10-01

    To document teaching evaluation practices in colleges and schools of pharmacy. A 51-item questionnaire was developed based on the instrument used in a previous study with modifications made to address changes in pharmacy education. An online survey service was used to distribute the electronic questionnaire to the deans of 98 colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States. Completed surveys were received from 89 colleges and schools of pharmacy. All colleges/schools administered student evaluations of classroom and experiential teaching. Faculty peer evaluation of classroom teaching was used by 66% of colleges/schools. Use of other evaluation methods had increased over the previous decade, including use of formalized self-appraisal of teaching, review of teaching portfolios, interviews with samples of students, and review by teaching experts. While the majority (55%) of colleges/schools administered classroom teaching evaluations at or near the conclusion of a course, 38% administered them at the midpoint and/or conclusion of a faculty member's teaching within a team-taught course. Completion of an online evaluation form was the most common method used for evaluation of classroom (54%) and experiential teaching (72%). Teaching evaluation methods used in colleges and schools of pharmacy expanded from 1996 to 2007 to include more evaluation of experiential teaching, review by peers, formalized self-appraisal of teaching, review of teaching portfolios, interviews with samples of students, review by teaching experts, and evaluation by alumni. Procedures for conducting student evaluations of teaching have adapted to address changes in curriculum delivery and technology.

  19. Swiss community pharmacies' on the Web and pharmacists' experiences with E-commerce: longitudinal study and Internet-based questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Simon; Bruppacher, Rudolf; Ruppanner, Hans; Hersberger, Kurt E

    2004-03-03

    There are multiple ways in which community pharmacies can present themselves on the Internet, e.g., as a platform for drug information or as an advertising platform for their services. To estimate the number of Swiss community pharmacies on the Internet over the period of 32 months (2000-2003), to describe their current e-commerce services, and to explore the experiences and plans these pharmacies have with regard to their Internet presence. A longitudinal study was performed to determine the number of Swiss German pharmacies on the Internet by conducting Internet searches in 2000, 2001, and 2003. In April 2002, a cross-sectional Internet-based survey was administered to explore the pharmacies' experiences and plans regarding their Web sites. As of April 2003, 373 (44%) of 852 community pharmacies from the German speaking part of Switzerland were on the Internet. One hundred eighty four listed an e-mail address and were asked to complete a questionnaire. Of the 107 pharmacies answering the survey questions (58% response rate): 46% had been on the Internet for 1 to 2 years; 33% of the Web sites are part of a pharmacy group's Web portal; 31% of the pharmacies plan to expand their Internet appearance in the future; 74% provide e-commerce services, with 81% of those pharmacies filling five or less orders per month; and 12% plan on expanding their e-commerce services in the future. The number of community pharmacies offering Internet services steadily increased over 32 months. Given the importance of the Internet as a tool for information, communication, and advertising for pharmacy products and services, it can be expected that the increase will continue. Pharmacy-group portals are important promoters of pharmacies on the Internet. For many community pharmacies, Internet portals that provide an Internet presence for the pharmacies and provide regularly-updated content (e.g., health news, tips, drug information) seem to be the most effective solutions. Even though 40

  20. Swiss Community Pharmacies' on the Web and Pharmacists' Experiences with E-commerce: Longitudinal study and Internet-based questionnaire survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruppacher, Rudolf; Ruppanner, Hans; Hersberger, Kurt E

    2004-01-01

    Background There are multiple ways in which community pharmacies can present themselves on the Internet, e.g., as a platform for drug information or as an advertising platform for their services. Objective To estimate the number of Swiss community pharmacies on the Internet over the period of 32 months (2000-2003), to describe their current e-commerce services, and to explore the experiences and plans these pharmacies have with regard to their Internet presence. Methods A longitudinal study was performed to determine the number of Swiss German pharmacies on the Internet by conducting Internet searches in 2000, 2001, and 2003. In April 2002, a cross-sectional Internet-based survey was administered to explore the pharmacies' experiences and plans regarding their Web sites. Results As of April 2003, 373 (44%) of 852 community pharmacies from the German speaking part of Switzerland were on the Internet. One hundred eighty four listed an e-mail address and were asked to complete a questionnaire. Of the 107 pharmacies answering the survey questions (58% response rate): 46% had been on the Internet for 1 to 2 years; 33% of the Web sites are part of a pharmacy group's Web portal; 31% of the pharmacies plan to expand their Internet appearance in the future; 74% provide e-commerce services, with 81% of those pharmacies filling five or less orders per month; and 12% plan on expanding their e-commerce services in the future. Conclusions The number of community pharmacies offering Internet services steadily increased over 32 months. Given the importance of the Internet as a tool for information, communication, and advertising for pharmacy products and services, it can be expected that the increase will continue. Pharmacy-group portals are important promoters of pharmacies on the Internet. For many community pharmacies, Internet portals that provide an Internet presence for the pharmacies and provide regularly-updated content (e.g., health news, tips, drug information) seem to

  1. Analysis of pharmacy-centric blogs: Types, discourse themes, and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Jeff; Dillon, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    To determine types of pharmacy blogs in existence, themes of discourse on pharmacy blogs, and impressions of the profession generated by pharmacy blogs. Descriptive, qualitative, cross-sectional study. Weblogs (blogs) on the World Wide Web in July 2009. Not applicable; pharmacy-centric blogs were analyzed. Qualitative research methods were used to form categories and assign pharmacy-centric blogs to appropriate categories. Thematic analysis was used to study the discourse of blogs in the personal views category. Finally, blogs in the personal views category were analyzed further to determine what type of impression (positive, negative, or neutral) they gave the reader. Categories, themes, and impressions of blogs, as determined by analysis. 136 blogs met study criteria. Seven main categories of pharmacy blogs emerged from the study. The majority of blogs were assigned to the news (n = 44) and personal views (n = 38) categories. Thematic analysis of blogs in the personal views category revealed 11 different themes. The top four blog post themes were issues with patients (n = 30), personal lives (n = 29), working conditions/issues (n = 20), and issues with other professionals (n = 19). A total of 24 (63%) blogs in the personal views category were judged as promoting a negative impression of pharmacists and/or the profession. The pharmacy blogosphere contains a variety of blog types. Most of these blogs studied were useful information resources for those in or considering the profession. However, a considerable number of pharmacy blogs contained derogatory posts regarding patients, other health care professionals, and/or the author's occupation as a pharmacist. Blogs such as these tend to generate a negative impression of pharmacy to the reader. The opportunity exists for pharmacists and pharmacy educators to use social media applications such as blogs to educate new pharmacists and advance the profession.

  2. 42 CFR 483.60 - Pharmacy services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pharmacy services. 483.60 Section 483.60 Public... Care Facilities § 483.60 Pharmacy services. The facility must provide routine and emergency drugs and... the provision of pharmacy services in the facility; (2) Establishes a system of records of receipt and...

  3. 42 CFR 413.241 - Pharmacy arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pharmacy arrangements. 413.241 Section 413.241... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.241 Pharmacy arrangements. Effective January 1, 2011, an ESRD facility that enters into an arrangement with a pharmacy to furnish renal dialysis...

  4. The Status of Women in US Academic Pharmacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Cecilia M.; Taylor, Danielle A.; Meyer, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To describe the status of women in pharmacy education with particular focus on a 10-year update of a previous study. Methods. Information was obtained from national databases, published reports, scholarly articles, and association websites. Comparisons were made between men and women regarding degree completion, rank, tenure status, leadership positions, research awards, salaries, and career advancement. Results. There have been modest gains in the number of women serving as department chairs and deans. Salary disparities were found between men and women at several ranks within pharmacy practice. Men were more apt to be tenured or in tenure-track positions and received 89.4% of the national achievement awards tracked since 1981. Conclusion. The problem cannot be simply attributed to the pipeline of those entering academia. Barriers to advancement differ between men and women. We recommend that individuals, institutions, and associations implement strategies to decrease barriers and reduce bias against women. PMID:25657365

  5. Defining Levels of Learning for Strengths Development Programs in Pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Janke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Clifton StrengthsFinder™ is an online measure of personal talent that identifies where an individual's greatest potential for building strengths exists. This paper describes a framework for strengths education in pharmacy which includes introductory, intermediate and advanced levels of learning. The use of the StrengthsFinder™ assessment and supporting workshops aids student pharmacists, pharmacy residents and practitioners in identifying and refining their talents and connecting talents to roles in the profession. Additional learning strategies support a learner's progression to intermediate and advanced levels of learning, which focus on the application of strengths in teams, leadership, and organizational development. By articulating and recognizing levels of learning around strengths-related content and skills, strong instructional design is fostered. Optimal design includes development of a sequence of learning opportunities delivered over time, a roll-out plan and consideration of the instructional resources required. Type: Idea Paper

  6. Defining Levels of Learning for Strengths Development Programs in Pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin K. Janke, Ph.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Clifton StrengthsFinder® is an online measure of personal talent that identifies where an individual’s greatest potential for building strengths exists. This paper describes a framework for strengths education in pharmacy which includes introductory, intermediate and advanced levels of learning. The use of the StrengthsFinder® assessment and supporting workshops aids student pharmacists, pharmacy residents and practitioners in identifying and refining their talents and connecting talents to roles in the profession. Additional learning strategies support a learner’s progression to intermediate and advanced levels of learning, which focus on the application of strengths in teams, leadership, and organizational development. By articulating and recognizing levels of learning around strengths-related content and skills, strong instructional design is fostered. Optimal design includes development of a sequence of learning opportunities delivered over time, a roll-out plan and consideration of the instructional resources required.

  7. AN ANALYSIS OF PHARMACY SERVICES BY PHARMACIST IN COMMUNITY PHARMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Joseph Herman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Up to now there are more than 60 schools of pharmacy with a variety of accreditation level in lndonesia. Previous study found that the standard of pharmaceutical services at various service facilities (hospitals, primary health care and community pharmacy can not be fully implemented because of the limited competency of pharmacist. This study was conducted to identify the qualification of pharmacist who delivers services in community pharmacy in compliance with the Indonesian Health Law No. 36 of 2009. As mandated in the Health Law No. 36 of 2009, the government is obliged to establish minimum requirements that must be possessed. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in 2010 at 2 community pharmacies in each of 3 cities, i.e. Bandung, DI Yogyakarta and Surabaya. Other than ten pharmacists delivering services in community pharmacies, there were pharmacists as informants from 4 institutions in each city selected, i.e. six pharmacists from two Schools of Pharmacy, three pharmacists from three Regional Indonesian Pharmacists Association,six pharmacists from three District Health Offices and three Provincial Health Offices. Primary data collection through in-depth interviews and observation as well as secondary data collection concerning standard operating procedures, monitoring documentation and academic curricula has been used. Descriptive data were analysed qualitatively Results: The findings indicate that pharmacists' qualification to deliver services in a community pharmacy in accordance with the Government Regulation No. 51 of 2009, Standards of Pharmacy Services in Community Pharmacy and Good Pharmaceutical Practices (GPP was varied. Most pharmacists have already understood their roles in pharmacy service, but to practice it in accordance with the standards or guidelines they are still having problems. It is also acknowledged by pharmacists in other institutions, including School of Pharmacy, Regional

  8. Assessment of pharmacy student professionalism across a curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Therese I; Gupchup, Gireesh V

    2010-05-12

    To evaluate changes in professionalism across the curriculum among pharmacy students in different classes. A professionalism instrument was administered early in the first (P1) year, upon completing the introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPE) near the end of the second (P2) year, and upon completing the advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPE) at the end of the fourth (P4) year. The professionalism scale and its subscales were compared for the 3 time points for the class of 2009. Significant differences were noted in professionalism scores between the P1 and P4 years and for altruism, accountability, and honor/integrity subscale scores for the class of 2009. No significant differences were noted when the scores for 4 P1 classes, and 3 P2 classes were compared. An increase in professionalism scores and altruism, accountability, and honor/integrity scores was demonstrated, providing evidence that the curricular and co-curricular activities in the school of pharmacy helped develop professionalism in the class of 2009 students.

  9. Pharmacy Research in Academic Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calligaro, Ina Lee Stile; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A national survey of assistant and associate pharmacy professors (n=491) found differences between disciplines in time allocation, number of publications, and research funding. Time, lack of funding, and need for research assistants were commonly identified as impediments to research productivity. A quantitative method for evaluating productivity…

  10. Practice of Critical Care Pharmacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weil, Max Harry

    1985-01-01

    ... departments and trauma units. This multiauthored book serves to orient pharmacists to the evolving programs in critical care pharmacy. There is a focus on organizational and administrative options. Paucity of scientific content or authoritative historical commentary are likely to limit the usefulness of this volume to clinical pharmacists who seek ...

  11. Toolkit for US colleges/schools of pharmacy to prepare learners for careers in academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Seena L; Summa, Maria A; Peeters, Michael J; Dy-Boarman, Eliza A; Boyle, Jaclyn A; Clifford, Kalin M; Willson, Megan N

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this article is to provide an academic toolkit for use by colleges/schools of pharmacy to prepare student pharmacists/residents for academic careers. Through the American Association of Colleges of Pharmac (AACP) Section of Pharmacy Practice, the Student Resident Engagement Task Force (SRETF) collated teaching materials used by colleges/schools of pharmacy from a previously reported national survey. The SRETF developed a toolkit for student pharmacists/residents interested in academic pharmacy. Eighteen institutions provided materials; five provided materials describing didactic coursework; over fifteen provided materials for an academia-focused Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPE), while one provided materials for an APPE teaching-research elective. SRETF members created a syllabus template and sample lesson plan by integrating submitted resources. Submissions still needed to complete the toolkit include examples of curricular tracks and certificate programs. Pharmacy faculty vacancies still exist in pharmacy education. Engaging student pharmacists/residents about academia pillars of teaching, scholarship and service is critical for the future success of the academy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Assessing Opportunities for Student Pharmacist Leadership Development at Schools of Pharmacy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Tara T; Doucette, William R; Witry, Matthew J

    2016-06-25

    Objective. To summarize student pharmacist leadership development opportunities delivered by pharmacy programs, to describe selected opportunities, and to assess how these opportunities meet leadership development competencies. Methods. A multi-method study was conducted that comprised a systematic content analysis of pharmacy education journals, pharmacy program websites, and telephone interviews with key informants, which included open-ended questions and scaled responses. Results. Review of six articles, 37 American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) Annual Meeting abstracts, and 138 websites resulted in the identification of 191 leadership development opportunities. These consisted of courses, projects/programs, and events/speaker series. Interviews with 12 key informants detailed unique events that developed leadership competencies. Formal assessments of student leadership development were limited and primarily focused on informal feedback and course evaluations. Conclusion. Most US pharmacy programs offer their students an array of opportunities to develop leadership abilities. Pharmacy programs should consider expanding opportunities beyond elective courses, learn from the successes of others to implement new leadership development opportunities, and bolster the assessment of student leadership competencies and outcomes.

  13. Community pharmacy and emerging public health initiatives in developing Southeast Asian countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansyah, Andi; Sainsbury, Erica; Krass, Ines

    2016-09-01

    The development of health and healthcare systems in South-East Asia has influenced the practice of community pharmacy. Over the years, community pharmacy in the region has striven to expand services beyond dispensing to encompass more involvement in public health issues. Searches were conducted in Scopus, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PubMed for articles published between January 2000 and December 2014, with 21 studies in five countries meeting the inclusion criteria. The findings showed increasing interest in research into the delivery of pharmacy services and public health initiatives. Overall, the review found that provision of some health services in pharmacies was common; however, most public health initiatives appeared to be poorly implemented, had limited evidence and were not demonstrated to be sustainable across the sector. This indicates that the practice of community pharmacy in the region has not significantly changed over the past 14 years with respect to the scope and quality of pharmacy services provided, and fundamental policy changes are necessary to improve this situation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Economic analysis of a herpes zoster vaccination program in 19 affiliated supermarket pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Megan A; Kuehl, Peggy G; Liu, Yifei

    2014-01-01

    To examine the economic impact of providing herpes zoster vaccine (ZOS) in 19 affiliated supermarket pharmacies in a midwestern metropolitan area from the perspective of the pharmacy and to identify factors associated with greater rates of vaccine delivery and profitability. 19 affiliated supermarket pharmacies in the Kansas City metropolitan area. Immunizations with ZOS were expanded from 2 pharmacies to all 19 affiliated pharmacies. Various methods to promote the vaccine were used, including personal selling, store signage, and circular ads. In addition to a broad perspective pharmacoeconomic model, a localized perspective model is proposed to determine profitability for the service. Factors associated with greater success in vaccine delivery and profitability were identified. Net financial gains or losses were calculated for each vaccine administered for each of the 19 pharmacies and for the entire supermarket chain. 662 vaccines were given during the study period, accounting for 6.7% of all eligible patients. The profit per vaccine averaged $9.60 (5.7%) and $28.37 (18.9%) using the broad and localized perspective models, respectively. Success of the ZOS program was demonstrated using both models. Certain factors correlated with greater profits when using the localized perspective model.

  15. The provision of emergency contraception in Kinshasa's private sector pharmacies: experiences of mystery clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Julie H; Mbadu, Muanda Fidèle; Garcia, Mélissa; Glover, Annie

    2017-08-10

    Recent programmatic and research efforts on addressing gaps in health systems of low-income countries increasingly see task shifting, i.e. the provision of healthcare by non-medically trained personnel, as a possible solution to increase the availability of specific services and commodities. In Kinshasa, private-sector pharmacies are the primary and preferred provider of family planning (FP) methods, and thus constitute a potential resource for expanding access to specific contraceptives. The objective of this study is to explore selected pharmacies' readiness to serve women seeking emergency contraception (EC). This study used a mystery client (MC) methodology to visit 73 pharmacies in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Trained interviewers posed as novice EC users and asked specific questions to evaluate the pharmacy staff's technical knowledge of EC and their attitudes towards EC clients. The results of the MC visit were recorded immediately after the MC left the pharmacy. Findings indicate that more than two-thirds of EC providers were knowledgeable about EC dosage, timeframe, and side effects, and 90% were deemed helpful towards novice EC users. Rare but glaring misconceptions about EC timeframe (20% of providers) and long-term side effects (4% of providers), as well as frequent stock-out (22%) and cost issues highlight priorities for programmatic improvements. As new service delivery strategies are explored to complement the uneven network of health structures in DRC, this study suggests that, given proper training and integration in FP programming, private-sector pharmacies have the potential to meet specific contraceptive needs for women living in Kinshasa. Private pharmacies included in study sample in Kinshasa (DRC) have adequate family planning (FP) service skills to provide clients with emergency contraceptive pills. These higher-end outlets constitute an opportunity for expanding access to FP, although, under total market approaches, a more

  16. Global Experiential and Didactic Education Opportunities at US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeb, David R; Overman, Robert A; Sleath, Betsy L; Joyner, Pamela U

    2016-02-25

    To assess the characteristics of global experiential and didactic education offerings in the pharmacy curricula. A 2-stage web-based review of US colleges and schools of pharmacy identified country locations of international advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPE), globally focused didactic courses, and whether these offerings were interprofessional. Schools were contacted to confirm their offerings and were asked about student participation and demand. Sixty-four percent of responding schools confirmed an international APPE offering in 67 different countries with an average graduating class participation of 6.1%. Forty-seven percent of responding schools confirmed a globally focused course offering with an average graduating class participation of 13.1%. Almost two thirds of international APPEs and a majority of courses were designated as interprofessional. Student demand did not outweigh supply for either. Colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States are continuing to develop global education opportunities for students in the classroom and throughout the world.

  17. Net Income of Pharmacy Faculty Compared to Community and Hospital Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A; Dickey, Susan E

    2016-09-25

    Objective. To compare the net cumulative income of community pharmacists, hospital pharmacists, and full-time pharmacy faculty members (residency-trained or with a PhD after obtaining a PharmD) in pharmacy practice, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, pharmacology, and social and administrative sciences. Methods. Markov modeling was conducted to calculate net projected cumulative earnings of career paths by estimating the costs of education, including the costs of obtaining degrees and student loans. Results. The economic model spanned 49 years, from ages 18 to 67 years. Earning a PharmD and pursuing an academic career resulted in projected net cumulative lifetime earnings ranging from approximately $4.7 million to $6.3 million. A pharmacy practice faculty position following public pharmacy school and one year of residency resulted in higher net cumulative income than community pharmacy. Faculty members with postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) training also had higher net income than other faculty and hospital pharmacy career paths, given similar years of prepharmacy education and type of pharmacy school attended. Faculty members with either a PharmD or PhD in the pharmacology discipline may net as much as $5.9 million and outpace all other PhD graduates by at least $75 000 in lifetime earnings. Projected career earnings of postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) trained faculty and PharmD/PhD faculty members were lower than those of community pharmacists. Findings were more variable when comparing pharmacy faculty members and hospital pharmacists. Conclusion. With the exception of PGY1 trained academic pharmacists, faculty projected net cumulative incomes generally lagged behind community pharmacists, likely because of delayed entry into the job market as a result of advanced training/education. However, nonsalary benefits such as greater flexibility and autonomy may enhance the desirability of academic pharmacy as a career path.

  18. Social Pharmacy: Its Performance and Promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Among private Universities of Pharmacy in Japan, Kyoritsu University of Pharmacy was the first to introduce courses in social pharmacy in 1991. Social pharmacy is a discipline driven by social needs. By studying the relationship between pharmacy and society, particularly through case studies, the impact of drugs and changes in societal expectation of them, as well as through historical background studies and surveys of current trends, this discipline acts to determine the roles of pharmacists and pharmacies expected by society. Social pharmacy requires a basic knowledge of pharmaceutical science, but an understanding from economic viewpoints of the current systems and structures in which healthcare functions is important as well. Once these are understood, the goal is to identify social problems, and to create and apply models for their resolution which connect pharmacy and society. So far, social pharmacy has played an important role in training programs for community-based pharmacists essential for a hyper-aged society, for community pharmacies' health management programs aimed at promoting the health of residents, and educational programs for elementary and middle school children.

  19. Variables impacting an academic pharmacy career choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheaffer, Elizabeth A; Brown, Bonnie K; Byrd, Debbie C; Gupchup, Gireesh V; Mark, Scott M; Mobley Smith, Miriam A; Rospond, Raylene M

    2008-06-15

    To identify the variables associated with an academic pharmacy career choice among the following groups: final professional-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students, pharmacy residents, pharmacy faculty members within the first 5 years of academic employment, and clinical pharmacy practitioners. A cross-sectional design Web-based survey instrument was developed using the online tool SurveyMonkey. The survey link was distributed via e-mail and postcards, and data were collected anonymously. Quantitative analyses were used to describe the 2,494 survey respondents and compare their responses to 25 variables associated with an academic pharmacy career choice. Logistic regression models were used to predict the motivators/deterrents associated with an academic pharmacy career choice for each participant group. Across all participant groups, the potential need to generate one's salary was the primary deterrent and autonomy, flexibility, and the ability to shape the future of the profession were the primary motivators. Final-year pharmacy students who considered a career in academic pharmacy were significantly deterred by grant writing. The overall sample of participants who considered an academic pharmacy career was more likely to be motivated by the academic environment and opportunities to teach, conduct professional writing and reviews, and participate in course design and/or assessment. This study demonstrates specific areas to consider for improved recruitment and retention of pharmacy faculty. For example, providing experiences related to pharmacy academia, such as allowing student participation in teaching and research, may stimulate those individuals' interest in pursuing an academic pharmacy career.

  20. The Faculties of Pharmacy Schools Should Make an Effort to Network with Community Pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    By law, medical faculties are mandated to have a designated partner hospital for the purposes of student practical training. In contrast, pharmacy faculties do not have such a legal requirement for student training in a community pharmacy setting. Nevertheless, there are several public and private universities that do have community pharmacies. However, there is no national university that has established both an educational hospital and a community pharmacy. When Kanazawa University (KU) established a graduate school with a clinical pharmacy course, the faculty of KU deemed it necessary to set up an independent community pharmacy for the purpose of practical training. Thus, in 2003, the Acanthus Pharmacy was set up as the first educational community pharmacy in Japan, managed by a nonprofit organization, with the permission of the Ishikawa Pharmaceutical Association and local community pharmacists. Since that time, Acanthus has managed a clinical pharmacy practice for students from both the undergraduate and graduate schools of KU. From 2006, the undergraduate pharmacy program was changed to a 6-year program, and the Acanthus Pharmacy has continued its roles in educating undergraduate pharmaceutical students, medical students, and as a site of early exposure for KU freshmen. From our experience, it is important to have a real clinical environment available to university pharmacy faculty and students, especially in training for community pharmacy practices.

  1. Interprofessional Education (IPE and Pharmacy in the UK. A Study on IPE Activities across Different Schools of Pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Patel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Interprofessional education (IPE has been recognised internationally as a way to improve healthcare professional interactions and team working in order to enhance patient care. Since pharmacists are increasingly part of multi-professional healthcare teams and are expanding their clinical roles, many pharmacy regulators have stipulated IPE must be included in educational curricula. This study aimed to examine how different Schools of Pharmacy (SOPs in the UK implement IPE within their pharmacy course. Information about IPE was mainly obtained through interviews with staff from various SOPs. Nine telephone interviews were conducted which were analysed using a thematic analysis approach in order to derive common categories. These were identified as students, activities, barriers and facilitators and benefits of IPE. It was found that teaching methods used for IPE varied across SOPs. No standard strategy to deliver IPE was identified. Students were thought to value the IPE experience, especially the interaction with other professionals. The main barriers to implementing IPE arose from limited financial and organisational support. In general, many SOPs in the UK are undertaking IPE but challenges remain in establishing it as a routine part of the course, something which seems to echo difficulties in implementation of IPE both nationally and internationally.

  2. Recommendations for meeting the pediatric patient's need for a clinical pharmacist: a joint opinion of the Pediatrics Practice and Research Network of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy and the Pediatric Pharmacy Advocacy Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt-Mehta, Varsha; Buck, Marcia L; Chung, Allison M; Farrington, Elizabeth A; Hagemann, Tracy M; Hoff, David S; LaRochelle, Joseph M; Pettit, Rebecca S; Phan, Hanna; Potts, Amy L; Smith, Katherine P; Parrish, Richard H

    2013-02-01

    Children warrant access to care from clinical pharmacists trained in pediatrics. The American College of Clinical Pharmacy Pediatrics Practice and Research Network (ACCP Pediatrics PRN) released an opinion paper in 2005 with recommendations for improving the quality and quantity of pediatric pharmacy education in colleges of pharmacy, residency programs, and fellowships. Although progress has been made in increasing the availability of pediatric residencies, there is still much to be done to meet the direct care needs of pediatric patients. The purpose of this joint opinion paper is to outline strategies and recommendations for expanding the quality and capacity of pediatric clinical pharmacy practitioners by elevating the minimum expectations for pharmacists entering pediatric practice, standardizing pediatric pharmacy education, expanding the current number of pediatric clinical pharmacists, and creating an infrastructure for development of pediatric clinical pharmacists and clinical scientists. These recommendations may be used to provide both a conceptual framework and action items for schools of pharmacy, health care systems, and policymakers to work together to increase the quality and quantity of pediatric training, practice, and research initiatives. © 2013 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  3. [Pharmacy standards for clinical trials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terkola, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The procurement, transport, storage, manufacturing or compounding, the application, disposal, documentation, and the quality assurance of investigational medicinal products (IMPs) have to be done according to the pharmaceutical sciences. Medicines related to clinical trials in the European Union are regulated in volume 10 of the EudraLex. The rules for commercially manufactured medicines for human use are not valid for medicines which are individually compounded for a certain patient in the pharmacy. They are also not valid for medicines dedicated for experiments in research and development. The present article describes standards concerning the participation of the pharmacy in clinical trials, the pathway of the drug including the role of the study personnel, and its qualification and training. The issue of stability and compatibility of IMPs is an important topic which may influence the outcome of clinical trials. To avoid quality shifts Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) have to be established. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Pharmacy Students as Health Coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominick P Trombetta, Pharm.D

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases are the main contributor to both health care costs and mortality in the United States, with medication non-adherence and lifestyle modifications being leading causes. To motivate patients with several co-morbidities, the longitudinal care class was used to educate on maintaining adherence to prescribed regimens. Twenty pharmacy students were trained in health coaching and motivational interviewing methods. Specifically, students were to provide patients with education sheets, apply the teach-back method, and motivate the patient to develop and reach SMART goals made with the pharmacy student over a course of one academic school year. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties.   Type: Note

  5. A pharmacy leadership action study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Clifton; Mertz, Elizabeth; Penfil, Brett; O'Neil, Edward

    2009-01-01

    To report on the creation of a leadership development program targeted exclusively at pharmacists working in management in the professional community. Large staff-model health maintenance organization (HMO) in California between 2004 and 2008. The Pharmacy Leadership Institute (PLI; a joint effort of the School of Pharmacy and the Center for the Health Professions at the University of California, San Francisco) tested a program in a large staff-model HMO with hundreds of pharmacists in leadership roles. This program included learning seminars, psychometric assessments, leadership goals, intersession activities, coaching/mentoring, and leadership projects. Not applicable. PLI collected survey data in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the institute's leadership development program. In addition, an external evaluator was hired to conduct interviews with the pharmacy directors of the organization which chose to pilot the program. The evaluations from the participants indicate that the leadership development program met many but not all of its initial objectives. Consistent with action research methodology, the faculty of the institute met to redesign some sections of the program in order to meet the established goals. Adjustments were made to different components of the program over the next 4 years. Evaluation data show that these revisions were successful. In addition, follow-up evaluations with participants showed a lasting impact of the program on both individual leadership skills and organizational outcomes. Given the positive outcomes indicated by the evaluation data used in this study, the work of PLI indicates that broader leadership skills can be identified and enhanced within a group of pharmacy managers.

  6. Mental Health and Psychiatric Pharmacy Instruction in US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marshall E Cates; Mary R Monk-Tutor; Stephanie Ogle Drummond

    2007-01-01

      To describe the extent of psychiatric pharmacy instruction in US pharmacy curricula, including course and faculty characteristics and mental health topics taught in clinical therapeutics-based courses...

  7. 78 FR 57656 - S & S Pharmacy, Inc., d/b/a Platinum Pharmacy & Compounding; Decision and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... Enforcement Administration S & S Pharmacy, Inc., d/b/a Platinum Pharmacy & Compounding; Decision and Order On... Cause and Immediate Suspension of Registration to S & S Pharmacy, Inc., d/b/a Platinum Pharmacy... revocation of Registrant's Certificate of Registration as a retail pharmacy, which before it expired...

  8. Retail pharmacy market structure and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, John M; Doucette, William R; Wan, Shaowei; Klepser, Donald G

    2008-01-01

    Substantial variation has been observed in the use of prescription drugs from retail pharmacies, the level of services provided by retail pharmacies, and the prices paid for prescriptions from retail pharmacies. It is not clear whether local area retail pharmacy market structures affect these pharmacy outcomes. The goal of this paper is to discuss the potential research avenues to address these issues. The discussion provides. 1) background on the retail pharmacy and its place within the pharmaceutical supply chain; 2) a discussion of the data that are available to address these issues and the measures that can be developed from these data; and 3) a review of existing research findings and gaps in knowledge.

  9. International practice experiences in pharmacy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, Robert M; Jawaid, Sarah Parnapy; Kendall, Debra A; McPherson, Charles E; Mu, Keli; Weston, Grady Scott; Roberts, Kenneth B

    2013-11-12

    To identify reasons for inclusion of international practice experiences in pharmacy curricula and to understand the related structure, benefits, and challenges related to the programs. A convenience sample of 20 colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States with international pharmacy education programs was used. Telephone interviews were conducted by 2 study investigators. University values and strategic planning were among key driving forces in the development of programs. Global awareness and cultural competency requirements added impetus to program development. Participants' advice for creating an international practice experience program included an emphasis on the value of working with university health professions programs and established travel programs. Despite challenges, colleges and schools of pharmacy value the importance of international pharmacy education for pharmacy students as it increases global awareness of health needs and cultural competencies.

  10. Benchmarking in academic pharmacy departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosso, John A; Chisholm-Burns, Marie; Nappi, Jean; Gubbins, Paul O; Ross, Leigh Ann

    2010-10-11

    Benchmarking in academic pharmacy, and recommendations for the potential uses of benchmarking in academic pharmacy departments are discussed in this paper. Benchmarking is the process by which practices, procedures, and performance metrics are compared to an established standard or best practice. Many businesses and industries use benchmarking to compare processes and outcomes, and ultimately plan for improvement. Institutions of higher learning have embraced benchmarking practices to facilitate measuring the quality of their educational and research programs. Benchmarking is used internally as well to justify the allocation of institutional resources or to mediate among competing demands for additional program staff or space. Surveying all chairs of academic pharmacy departments to explore benchmarking issues such as department size and composition, as well as faculty teaching, scholarly, and service productivity, could provide valuable information. To date, attempts to gather this data have had limited success. We believe this information is potentially important, urge that efforts to gather it should be continued, and offer suggestions to achieve full participation.

  11. Benchmarking in Academic Pharmacy Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm-Burns, Marie; Nappi, Jean; Gubbins, Paul O.; Ross, Leigh Ann

    2010-01-01

    Benchmarking in academic pharmacy, and recommendations for the potential uses of benchmarking in academic pharmacy departments are discussed in this paper. Benchmarking is the process by which practices, procedures, and performance metrics are compared to an established standard or best practice. Many businesses and industries use benchmarking to compare processes and outcomes, and ultimately plan for improvement. Institutions of higher learning have embraced benchmarking practices to facilitate measuring the quality of their educational and research programs. Benchmarking is used internally as well to justify the allocation of institutional resources or to mediate among competing demands for additional program staff or space. Surveying all chairs of academic pharmacy departments to explore benchmarking issues such as department size and composition, as well as faculty teaching, scholarly, and service productivity, could provide valuable information. To date, attempts to gather this data have had limited success. We believe this information is potentially important, urge that efforts to gather it should be continued, and offer suggestions to achieve full participation. PMID:21179251

  12. Comparative Analysis of Understanding of Pictograms among Pharmacy and Non-Pharmacy Students.

    OpenAIRE

    Riffat Yasmin; Sadia Shakeel; Wajiha Iffat; Shaima Hasnat; Tehseen Quds

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate awareness and significance of pictograms among pharmacy and non-pharmacy students. The study was conducted in two public and private sector institutes of Karachi during July to Oct 2013. Altogether 306 pharmacy and non pharmacy students participated in the study. A self administered questionnaire was used for this purpose. Nineteen pictograms from the USP-DI and corresponding set of 19 locally developed pictograms conveying the same medicatio...

  13. Financial risk management of pharmacy benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikami, D

    1997-10-01

    Financial risk management of pharmacy benefits in integrated health systems is explained. A managed care organization should assume financial risk for pharmacy benefits only if it can manage the risk. Horizontally integrated organizations often do not have much control over the management of drug utilization and costs. Vertically integrated organizations have the greatest ability to manage pharmacy financial risk; virtual integration may also be compatible. Contracts can be established in which the provider is incentivized or placed at partial or full risk. The main concerns that health plans have with respect to pharmacy capitation are formulary management and the question of who should receive rebates from manufacturers. The components needed to managed pharmacy financial risk depend on the type of contract negotiated. Health-system pharmacists are uniquely positioned to take advantage of opportunities opening up through pharmacy risk contracting. Functions most organizations must provide when assuming pharmacy financial risk can be divided into internal and external categories. Internally performed functions include formulary management, clinical pharmacy services and utilization management, and utilization reports for physicians. Functions that can be outsourced include claims processing and administration, provider- and customer support services, and rebates. Organizations that integrate the pharmacy benefit across the health care continuum will be more effective in controlling costs and improving outcomes than organizations that handle this benefit as separate from others. Patient care should not focus on payment mechanisms and unit costs but on developing superior processes and systems that improve health care.

  14. Communication Capacity Building through Pharmacy Practice Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Fejzic, Jasmina; Barker, Michelle; Hills, Ruth; Priddle, Alannah

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To examine the effectiveness of simulated learning modules (SLMs) encompassing EXcellence in Cultural Experiential Learning and Leadership (EXCELL) core competencies in enhancing pharmacy students’ professional communication skills.

  15. Knowledge, Skills, and Resources for Pharmacy Informatics Education

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Brent I.; Flynn, Allen J.; Fortier, Christopher R.; Clauson, Kevin A.

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacy has an established history of technology use to support business processes. Pharmacy informatics education within doctor of pharmacy programs, however, is inconsistent, despite its inclusion as a requirement in the 2007 Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education Standards and Guidelines. This manuscript describes pharmacy informatics knowledge and skills that all graduating pharmacy students should possess, conceptualized within the framework of the medication use process. Addition...

  16. What pharmacy practitioners need to know about ethics in scientific publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunic, Lejla; Masic, Izet

    2014-10-01

    Pharmacy practice is an ever-changing science and profession. We are witnessing many advancement of pharmacy technology, drug-related information and applied clinical pharmacy literature, which influence our every day's life. Thus, new knowledge generated by research and clinical experience widen the knowledge; change the understanding of drugs and their application in therapeutics and every days life. Thus, policy makers, pharmacists, clinicians and researchers must evaluate and use the information existing in the literature to implement in their healthcare delivery. This paper is prepared for pharmacy researchers and pharmacy students and analyzes the major principles of ethical conduct in general science and also closely related topics on ghost authorship, conflict of interest, assigning co-authorship, redundant/repetitive and duplicate publication. Furthermore, the paper provides an insight into fabrication and falsification of data, as the most common form of scientific fraud. Scientific misconduct goes against everything that normal scientific method wants to reach for and pharmacy practitioners as one the first line available health care professionals all round the world should be enough aware of its importance and details when they want to evaluate the medical and pharmaceutical literature and deliver unbiased and ethically published knowledge of drugs both for the research or during consultations for patients care.

  17. Career Progression of the Pharmacy/MBA Professional: Characterization and Perceptions of the Combined Degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Christopher J; Tierney, Sarah-Elizabeth L; O'Brien, Erin; Fiebelkorn, Karl D; Jacobs, David M

    2017-05-01

    Objectives. To characterize pharmacy/MBA professionals during their entry-level and current positions and to describe their attitudes and perceptions toward their combined degree. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of University at Buffalo (UB) alumni who obtained both pharmacy and MBA degrees was used. An electronic survey was developed through collaboration with the UB School of Management and administered in winter 2015. Results. A total of 68/115 (59% response rate) pharmacy/MBA professionals responded to the survey. Post-graduate training was completed by 24% of respondents, and most commonly it was a residency program. After adjusting for inflation to 2014 dollars, the median entry-level salary for pharmacy/MBA professionals was $140,123 (mean = $144,327) and this increased to $179,947 (mean = $205,623) for those in their current position. Practice settings for entry-level professionals included pharmaceutical industry (25%) and chain pharmacies (18%). Most respondents believed that a combined degree helped in career advancement (85%) and made them more competitive in the job market (90%). Conclusion. Pharmacy/MBA professionals are well-compensated, work in a wide-range of professional settings, and have a high-level of satisfaction with their combined degree.

  18. Multiple pharmacy use and types of pharmacies used to obtain prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Look, Kevin A; Mott, David A

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate trends and patterns in the prevalence of multiple pharmacy use (MPU) and to describe the number and types of pharmacies used by multiple pharmacy users from 2003 to 2009. Retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive study. United States from 2003 to 2009. 89,941 responses to the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey over 7 years. Analysis of respondent pharmacy use behaviors. Annual use of more than one pharmacy and number and types of pharmacies used. MPU among patients using medications increased significantly during the study period (from 36.4% [95% CI 35.2-37.6] in 2003 to 43.2% [41.9-44.4] in 2009)-a relative increase of 18.7% ( P = 0.01). Multiple pharmacy users used between 2 and 17 different pharmacies per year to obtain prescription medications. Although approximately 70% of multiple pharmacy users used only two pharmacies, the proportion using three or more pharmacies increased from 24.1% (22.5-25.7) in 2003 to 29.1% (27.4-30.8) in 2009. Mail service pharmacy use had the largest relative increase among multiple pharmacy users during the study period (27.2%), and MPU was nearly twice as high (75%) among mail service users compared with non-mail service users. MPU is common on a national level and has increased greatly in recent years. Patient use of pharmacies that have the potential to share medication information electronically is low among multiple pharmacy users, suggesting increased workload for pharmacists and potential medication safety concerns. This has important implications for pharmacists, as it potentially impedes their ability to maintain accurate medication profiles for patients.

  19. Knowledge, skills, and resources for pharmacy informatics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Brent I; Flynn, Allen J; Fortier, Christopher R; Clauson, Kevin A

    2011-06-10

    Pharmacy has an established history of technology use to support business processes. Pharmacy informatics education within doctor of pharmacy programs, however, is inconsistent, despite its inclusion as a requirement in the 2007 Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education Standards and Guidelines. This manuscript describes pharmacy informatics knowledge and skills that all graduating pharmacy students should possess, conceptualized within the framework of the medication use process. Additionally, we suggest core source materials and specific learning activities to support pharmacy informatics education. We conclude with a brief discussion of emerging changes in the practice model. These changes are facilitated by pharmacy informatics and will inevitably become commonplace in our graduates' practice environment.

  20. Key Role of Drug Shops and Pharmacies for Family Planning in Urban Nigeria and Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corroon, Meghan; Kebede, Essete; Spektor, Gean; Speizer, Ilene

    2016-12-23

    under-leveraged mechanism for expanding family planning access to women in urban Nigeria and Kenya, and potentially elsewhere. Vulnerable and harder-to-reach groups such as younger, unmarried women and women who do not yet have children are the most likely to benefit from increased access to family planning at drug shops and pharmacies. © Corroon et al.

  1. The Future of Clinical Pharmacy: Developing a Holistic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Shane

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This concept paper discusses the untapped promise of often overlooked humanistic skills to advance the practice of pharmacy. It highlights the seminal work that is, increasingly, integrated into medical and nursing education. The work of these educators and the growing empirical evidence that validates the importance of humanistic skills is raising questions for the future of pharmacy education and practice. To potentiate humanistic professional competencies, e.g., compassion, empathy, and emotional intelligence, how do we develop a more holistic model that integrates reflective and affective skills? There are many historical and current transitions in the profession and practice of pharmacy. If our education model is refocused with an emphasis on pharmacy’s therapeutic roots, the field has the opportunity to play a vital role in improving health outcomes and patient-centered care. Beyond the metrics of treatment effects, achieving greater patient-centeredness will require transformations that improve care processes and invest in patients’ experiences of the treatment and care they receive. Is layering on additional science sufficient to yield better health outcomes if we neglect the power of empathic interactions in the healing process?

  2. What Expands in an Expanding Universe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ A. DE FREITAS PACHECO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present investigation, the possible effects of the expansion of the Universe on systems bonded either by gravitational or electromagnetic forces, are reconsidered. It will be shown that the acceleration (positive or negative of the expanding background, is the determinant factor affecting planetary orbits and atomic sizes. In the presently accepted cosmology (ΛCDM all bonded systems are expanding at a decreasing rate that tends to be zero as the universe enters in a de Sitter phase. It is worth mentioning that the estimated expansion rates are rather small and they can be neglected for all practical purposes.

  3. What Expands in an Expanding Universe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, José A De Freitas

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation, the possible effects of the expansion of the Universe on systems bonded either by gravitational or electromagnetic forces, are reconsidered. It will be shown that the acceleration (positive or negative) of the expanding background, is the determinant factor affecting planetary orbits and atomic sizes. In the presently accepted cosmology (ΛCDM) all bonded systems are expanding at a decreasing rate that tends to be zero as the universe enters in a de Sitter phase. It is worth mentioning that the estimated expansion rates are rather small and they can be neglected for all practical purposes.

  4. Social Pharmacy Research in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Kildemoes, Helle Wallach

    2016-01-01

    Social Pharmacy (SP) is a multidisciplinary field to promote the adequate use of medicine. The field of SP is increasingly important due to a numbers of new trends all posing challenges to society. The SP group at the University of Copenhagen has for several years used a broad approach to SP...... teaching and research, often illustrated by the four levels: individual, group, organizational, and societal. In this paper the relevance of maintaining a broad approach to SP research is argued for and examples of the importance of such type of research is presented....

  5. Collaborative pharmacy practice: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Law AV

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anandi V Law, Eric K Gupta, Micah Hata, Karl M Hess, Roger S Klotz, Quang A Le, Emmanuelle Schwartzman, Bik-Wai Bilvick Tai Department of Pharmacy Practice and Administration, College of Pharmacy, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA, USA Abstract: Collaborative practice among health professionals is slowly coming of age, given the global focus on efficiency and effectiveness of care to achieve positive patient outcomes and to reduce the economic burden of fragmented care. Collaborative pharmacy practice (CPP is accordingly evolving within different models including: disease management, medication therapy management, patient centered medical home, and accountable care organizations. Pharmacist roles in these models relate to drug therapy management and include therapy introduction, adjustment, or discontinuation, patient counseling and education, and identification, resolution, and prevention of problems leading to drug interactions and adverse reactions. Most forms of CPP occur with physicians in various settings. Collaborative practice agreements exist in many states in the US and are mentioned in the International Pharmaceutical Federation policy statement. Impetus for CPP comes from health system and economic concerns, as well as from a regulatory push. There are positive examples in community, ambulatory care, and inpatient settings that have well documented protocols, indicators of care, and measurement and reporting of clinical, economic, and patient reported outcomes; however, implementation of the practice is still not widespread. Conceptual and implementation challenges include health professional training, attitudes, confidence and comfort levels, power and communication issues, logistic barriers of time, workload, proximity, resistance to establish and adopt regulations, and importantly, payment models. Some of the attitudinal and perceptual challenges can be mitigated by incorporation of interprofessional concepts and

  6. Action research in pharmacy practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sørensen, Ellen Westh

    2015-01-01

    Action research (AR) is based on a collaborative problem-solving relationship between researcher and client, and the aims of this research are to solve the problem and to generate new knowledge. The chapter describes and shows how several different methods might be used for data collection in an AR......-based study. Concepts related to AR are described; in addition, the multifaceted role of the action researcher is described, along with a set of data quality criteria for evaluating the quality of an AR-based study. Then follows a thorough description of a Danish AR-based pharmacy practice study. The chapter...

  7. Developing patient education in community pharmacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, A.T.G.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis deals with the development of patient education in the community pharmacy. The research questions concentrate on the determinants of technicians’ patient education behavior and the effects of a one-year lasting intervention program on the patient education activities in the pharmacy.

  8. Assessing Consumer Preference using Community Pharmacy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing Consumer Preference using Community Pharmacy Preference Evaluation Questionnaire (ComPETe): A Pilot Survey in a Malaysia City. ... the consumer preference for community pharmacy (CP) for filling prescription, and purchasing over-the-counter (OTC) and health products among customers frequenting eight ...

  9. Audiovisual Instruction in Pediatric Pharmacy Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutchie, Kelly D.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A pharmacy practice program added to the core baccalaureate curriculum at the University of Utah College of Pharmacy which includes a practice in pediatrics is described. An audiovisual program in pediatric diseases and drug therapy was developed. This program allows the presentation of more material without reducing clerkship time. (Author/MLW)

  10. Teaching about Confidentiality in Pharmacy Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Evelyn S.

    1989-01-01

    The recent shift in pharmacy practice from product to information orientation, patients' desires to know more about medications, computerized access to records, and increased third-party payments may result in serious ethical dilemmas for pharmacists. Pharmacy schools must provide background in the responsibilities of health care professionals to…

  11. Pharmacy Practice and Education in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova, Valentina; Atkinson, Jeffrey

    2017-06-22

    Pharmacies in Bulgaria have a monopoly on the dispensing of medicinal products that are authorized in the Republic of Bulgaria, as well as medical devices, food additives, cosmetics, and sanitary/hygienic articles. Aptekari (pharmacists) act as responsible pharmacists, pharmacy owners, and managers. They follow a five year Masters of Science in Pharmacy (M.Sc. Pharm.) degree course with a six month traineeship. Pomoshnik-farmacevti (assistant pharmacists) follow a three year degree with a six month traineeship. They can prepare medicines and dispense OTC medicines under the supervision of a pharmacist. The first and second year of the M.Sc. Pharm. degree are devoted to chemical sciences, mathematics, botany and medical sciences. Years three and four center on pharmaceutical technology, pharmacology, pharmacognosy, pharmaco-economics, and social pharmacy, while year five focuses on pharmaceutical care, patient counselling, pharmacotherapy, and medical sciences. A six month traineeship finishes the fifth year together with redaction of a master thesis, and the four state examinations with which university studies end. Industrial pharmacy and clinical (hospital) pharmacy practice are integrated disciplines in some Bulgarian higher education institutions such as the Faculty of Pharmacy of the Medical University of Sofia. Pharmacy practice and education in Bulgaria are organized in a fashion very similar to that in most member states of the European Union.

  12. State of Pharmacy Education in Bangladesh

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. All rights reserved. ... Keywords: Pharmacy education, Community pharmacists, National development, Public and Private. Sectors, Policy. Tropical Journal ... started with the provision of higher education supported by regulatory ...

  13. Pharmacy Practice and Education in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Petkova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacies in Bulgaria have a monopoly on the dispensing of medicinal products that are authorized in the Republic of Bulgaria, as well as medical devices, food additives, cosmetics, and sanitary/hygienic articles. Aptekari (pharmacists act as responsible pharmacists, pharmacy owners, and managers. They follow a five year Masters of Science in Pharmacy (M.Sc. Pharm. degree course with a six month traineeship. Pomoshnik-farmacevti (assistant pharmacists follow a three year degree with a six month traineeship. They can prepare medicines and dispense OTC medicines under the supervision of a pharmacist. The first and second year of the M.Sc. Pharm. degree are devoted to chemical sciences, mathematics, botany and medical sciences. Years three and four center on pharmaceutical technology, pharmacology, pharmacognosy, pharmaco-economics, and social pharmacy, while year five focuses on pharmaceutical care, patient counselling, pharmacotherapy, and medical sciences. A six month traineeship finishes the fifth year together with redaction of a master thesis, and the four state examinations with which university studies end. Industrial pharmacy and clinical (hospital pharmacy practice are integrated disciplines in some Bulgarian higher education institutions such as the Faculty of Pharmacy of the Medical University of Sofia. Pharmacy practice and education in Bulgaria are organized in a fashion very similar to that in most member states of the European Union.

  14. Pharmacists' awareness of clinical decision support in pharmacy information systems: an exploratory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Lisa E; Saverno, Kim R; Warholak, Terri L; Taylor, Ann; Grizzle, Amy J; Murphy, John E; Malone, Daniel C

    2011-12-01

    Clinical decision support (CDS), such as drug-drug interaction (DDI) and drug-allergy checking, has been used in pharmacy information systems for several decades; however, there has been limited research on CDS use by practicing pharmacists. The purpose of this study was to document pharmacists' awareness of DDI and other medication-related CDS features available within pharmacy information systems. Researchers conducted on-site interviews with pharmacists throughout the state of Arizona from December 2008 to November 2009 regarding their pharmacy information systems features. Pharmacists were asked to provide information about DDI and other medication-related decision support features of the pharmacy software at their practice site. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize interview responses. Sixty-one pharmacists from a variety of practice settings completed the interview. All respondents indicated that their pharmacy system provided drug-allergy and DDI alerts. Approximately 60% of the pharmacists reported that their DDI decision support systems included recommendations for managing drug interactions. Two-thirds of respondents reported that their pharmacy's computer system permitted the addition of medications from other pharmacies and/or over-the-counter products to a patient's profile. Approximately 40% of the pharmacists reported that some drugs entered into the pharmacy computer system were not included in (or linked to) the electronic DDI checking. Most pharmacists indicated the presence of other medication-related decision support features, such as drug-disease (78%), drug-age precautions (67%), and inappropriate dosage alerts (79%). However, fewer pharmacists reported more advanced functionality, such as laboratory recommendations (34%) and pediatric dosing (39%). Overall, pharmacists' awareness regarding the many decision support functionalities of their systems was limited. Based on the study findings, it appears that there are a number of

  15. Pharmacy students' perceptions of natural science and mathematics subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Julie; Wilson, Sarah Ellen; Wan, Kai-Wai

    2014-08-15

    To determine the level of importance pharmacy students placed on science and mathematics subjects for pursuing a career in pharmacy. Two hundred fifty-four students completed a survey instrument developed to investigate students' perceptions of the relevance of science and mathematics subjects to a career in pharmacy. Pharmacy students in all 4 years of a master of pharmacy (MPharm) degree program were invited to complete the survey instrument. Students viewed chemistry-based and biology-based subjects as relevant to a pharmacy career, whereas mathematics subjects such as physics, logarithms, statistics, and algebra were not viewed important to a career in pharmacy. Students' experience in pharmacy and year of study influenced their perceptions of subjects relevant to a pharmacy career. Pharmacy educators need to consider how they can help students recognize the importance of scientific knowledge earlier in the pharmacy curriculum.

  16. Discounting of medicines in Australian community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Loc P; Vitry, Agnes I; Moss, John R

    2014-11-01

    There are many medicines listed on the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) in which point of sale price is less than the level of the general patient co-payment. In these circumstances, the patient covers the total cost of the medicine from their own pocket with no government subsidy. The aim of the present study was to compare the consumer prices of under general co-payment prescription medicines between banner group pharmacies with open discounting policies and community pharmacies without; and to assess the impact of the April 2012 PBS price disclosure policies on the discounts offered. The consumer prices of 31 under co-payment medicines were collected from banner group pharmacy websites and individual pharmacies both before and after April 2012. PBS maximum prices were obtained from the PBS website. Absolute and relative price differences between PBS and pharmacy groups were calculated. Before April 2012, banner group pharmacies provided discounts to patients of around 40% per prescription, whereas other pharmacies provided discounts of around 15%. Total price savings were on average $9 per prescription at banner group pharmacies and $3.50 at other pharmacies. Percentage discounts did not change greatly after April 2012, when price decreases occurred on the PBS. Banner group pharmacies with pricing strategies are able to provide greater discounts to patients compared with other pharmacies. Community pharmacies still have the ability to provide substantial discounts after the April 2012 price reductions. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC?: There is currently little known about the under co-payment medicines market in Australia and the price discounts available to patients. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD?: This research shows that patients who purchase under co-payment medicines are able to save money if they purchase from pharmacies with openly advertised discounting policies. Price reductions related to the implementation of the price disclosure policy had a

  17. Methods Used by Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy to Prepare Student Pharmacists for Careers in Academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Seena L; Dy-Boarman, Eliza A; Clifford, Kalin M; Summa, Maria A; Willson, Megan N; Boyle, Jaclyn A; Peeters, Michael J

    2017-02-25

    Objective. To identify the methods used by US colleges and schools of pharmacy to prepare student pharmacists for academic careers. Method. An 18-item survey instrument was developed and distributed to US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Representatives were asked about faculty responsibilities, experiences in academia currently offered to student pharmacists, and representatives' perception of their student pharmacists' preparedness for careers in academia, including barriers in current programming. Results. Representatives from 96 colleges/schools responded. The vast majority (96%) provided academia-focused advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs), 40% provided didactic coursework in academia, 28% offered a longitudinal research track, and 42% offered academia-focused independent studies. Teaching methods and creating learning objectives were the most common pedagogical content, while assessment activities were diverse. Time was the most prevalent barrier to providing training for academic careers; however, degree of student pharmacist interest, faculty inexperience, and lack of leadership support were also commonly reported. Conclusions: Colleges and schools of pharmacy vary in the extent to which they prepare student pharmacists for careers in academia. Advanced pharmacy practice experiences were the most common method of training offered. Standardization of training for academia may better promote this career path to student pharmacists.

  18. Pharmaceutical policy and the pharmacy profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine Marie; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors look at the relationship between pharmaceutical policy and the pharmacy profession with focus on pharmacy practice and pharmacists in the health care sector. Pharmaceutical policy encompasses three major policy inputs: public health policy, health care policy...... and industrial policy. In order to analyse and understand pharmaceutical policy, it is important to know how policymakers view pharmacy and pharmacists. The authors look at the issues that arise when policy regulates pharmacy as a business, and what this means for the profession. The perspective of pharmacy...... as a health care profession, as well as what it means when we view pharmaceutical policy in the context of the health sector labour market, is discussed. The authors also discuss how factors external to the profession are affecting its purpose and realm of practice, including the current trend...

  19. New DEA rules expand options for controlled substance disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David M

    2015-03-01

    Prescription drug abuse and overdose are rapidly growing problems in the United States. The United States federal Disposal of Controlled Substances Rule became effective 9 October 2014, implementing the Secure and Responsible Drug Disposal Act of 2010 (Disposal Act). These regulations target escalating prescription drug misuse by reducing accumulation of unused controlled substances that may be abused, diverted or accidentally ingested. Clinical areas that can now participate in collecting unused controlled substances include retail pharmacies, hospitals or clinics with an onsite pharmacy, and narcotic treatment programs. Collection methods include placing a controlled substance collection receptacle or instituting a mail-back program. Because prompt onsite destruction of collected items is required of mail-back programs, collection receptacles are more likely to be used in clinical areas. Retail pharmacies and hospitals or clinics with an onsite pharmacy may also place and maintain collection receptacles at long-term care facilities. The Act and Rule are intended to increase controlled substance disposal methods and expand local involvement in collection of unused controlled substances. Potential barriers to participating in controlled substance collection include acquisition of suitable collection receptacles and liners, lack of available space meeting the necessary criteria, lack of employee time for verification and inventory requirements, and program costs.

  20. Health literacy in the pharmacy setting: defining pharmacotherapy literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King SR

    2011-12-01

    -changing pharmacy environment continues to advance and become more complex in nature, a definition of health literacy specific to the pharmacy setting—thereby providing a name and a focus—may improve medication consumption, medication safety, and the patient-pharmacist relationship.

  1. Tobacco and alcohol sales in community pharmacies: policy statements from U.S. professional pharmacy associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corelli, Robin L; Chai, Tiffany; Karic, Alda; Fairman, Melinda; Baez, Karina; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek

    2014-01-01

    To characterize the extent to which state and national professional pharmacy associations have implemented formal policies addressing the sale of tobacco and alcohol products in community pharmacies. To determine existence of tobacco and alcohol policies, national professional pharmacy associations (n = 10) and state-level pharmacy associations (n = 86) affiliated with the American Pharmacists Association (APhA) and/or the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) were contacted via telephone and/or e-mail, and a search of the association websites was conducted. Of 95 responding associations (99%), 14% have a formal policy opposing the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies and 5% have a formal policy opposing the sale of alcohol in pharmacies. Of the associations representing major tobacco-producing states, 40% have a formal policy against tobacco sales in pharmacies, significantly more than the 8% of non-tobacco state associations with such policies. Among national professional pharmacy associations, only APhA and ASHP have formal policy statements opposing the sale of both tobacco and alcohol in pharmacies. Most state-level professional pharmacy associations affiliated with these two national organizations have no formal policy statement or position.

  2. Exploring the intentions of pharmacy students towards pharmacy ownership by using theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram; Fayyaz, Muhammad; Ashraf, Nida; Bhagavathula, Akshaya

    2016-03-22

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of the constructs of theory of planned behaviour (behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs, control beliefs) and demographic variables with the intentions of pharmacy students to become pharmacy owner. A cross sectional study was conducted between October and November, 2014, using a pretested, self-administered questionnaire delivered to a sample of 350 pharmacy students at a private university of Pakistan. Behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs and control beliefs were assessed on four point Likert scale of agreement. The scores were summed and dichotomized based on an arbitrary 50% cut-off score to assess positive and negative beliefs. Binary logistic regression was used to analyse the data. A total of 313 participants (89.4%) responded to the questionnaire. Participants' behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs and control beliefs were negative towards pharmacy ownership with the mean scores of 13.90 ± 0.41 (score range: 6-24), 9.66 ± 0.49 (score range: 4-16) and 16.88 ± 0.40 (score range: 7-28) respectively. Professional year and family business were significantly associated with intentions of pharmacy students to own a pharmacy (p < 0.05). Behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs and control beliefs were negative towards pharmacy ownership. Implementation of entrepreneurship course in pharmacy school may transform the beliefs of pharmacy students towards pharmacy ownership.

  3. Community pharmacy: an untapped patient data resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright DJ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available David John Wright, Michael James Twigg School of Pharmacy, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK Abstract: As community pharmacy services become more patient centered, they will be increasingly reliant on access to good quality patient information. This review describes how the information that is currently available in community pharmacies can be used to enhance service delivery and patient care. With integration of community pharmacy and medical practice records on the horizon, the opportunities this will provide are also considered. The community pharmacy held patient medication record, which is the central information repository and has been used to identify non-adherence, prompts the pharmacist to clinically review prescriptions, identify patients for additional services, and identify those patients at greater risk of adverse drug events. While active recording of patient consultations for treatment over the counter may improve the quality of consultations and information held, the lost benefits of anonymity afforded by community pharmacies need to be considered. Recording of pharmacy staff activities enables the workload to be monitored, remuneration to be justified, critical incidents to be learned from, but is not routine practice. Centralization of records between community pharmacies enables practices to be compared and consistent problems to be identified. By integrating pharmacy and medical practice records, patient behavior with respect to medicines can be more closely monitored and should prevent duplication of effort. When using patient information stored in a community pharmacy, it is, however, important to consider the reason why the information was recorded in the first instance and whether it is appropriate to use it for a different purpose without additional patient consent. Currently, community pharmacies have access to large amounts of information, which, if stored and used appropriately, can significantly enhance the

  4. Value of community pharmacy residency programs: college of pharmacy and practice site perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schommer, Jon C; Bonnarens, Joseph K; Brown, Lawrence M; Goode, Jean-Venable Kelly R

    2010-01-01

    To describe and compare perceptions of key informants representing U.S. colleges/schools of pharmacy and community pharmacy practice sites regarding (1) value associated with community pharmacy residency programs (CPRPs) and (2) barriers to offering CPRPs . Descriptive, non-experimental, cross-sectional study. United States, June 13, 2009, through July 13, 2009. 554 respondents to a Web-based survey. Key informants representing the following four organizational groups were surveyed: (1) colleges/schools of pharmacy participating in CPRPs, (2) colleges/schools of pharmacy not participating in CPRPs, (3) CPRP community pharmacy practice sites, and (4) non-CPRP community pharmacy practice sites. Value of CPRPs to participating pharmacies, value of CPRPs to participating colleges/schools of pharmacy, and barriers to offering CPRPs. Overall, 267 key informants from colleges/schools of pharmacy and 287 key informants from pharmacy practice sites responded to the survey (n = 554 total respondents). Of these, 334 responders provided data that were usable for analysis. The most important types of value to the respondents were altruistic in nature (e.g., pharmacy education development, pharmacy profession development, community engagement). However, barriers to offering CPRPs were more practical and included challenges related to accreditation and operational issues. Further, evidence indicated that (1) lack of leadership, (2) lack of revenue generated from such programs, and (3) the cost of reimbursement for residents may be fundamental, multidimensional barriers to implementing CPRPs. Guidelines for starting and continuing CPRPs, "industry norms" that would require CPRP training for certain types of employment, and creation of models for patient care revenue would help develop and position CPRPs in the future.

  5. The need for redesigned pharmacy practice courses in Pakistan: the perspectives of senior pharmacy students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umair Khan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In Pakistan, courses in pharmacy practice, which are an essential component of the PharmD curriculum, were launched with the aim of strengthening pharmacy practice overall and enabling pharmacy students to cope with the challenges involved in meeting real-world healthcare needs. Since very little research has assessed the efficacy of such courses, we aimed to evaluate students’ perceptions of pharmacy practice courses and their opinions about whether their current knowledge of the topics covered in pharmacy practice courses is adequate for future practice. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted over two months among the senior pharmacy students of two pharmacy colleges. A content- and face-validated questionnaire was used to collect data, which were then analysed using SPSS version 20. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were performed. Results: Research in pharmacy practice (30.2%, applied drug information (34.4%, health policy (38.1%, public health and epidemiology (39.5%, pharmacovigilance (45.6%, and pharmacoeconomics (47.9% were the major courses that were covered to the least extent in the PharmD curriculum. However, hospital pharmacy practice (94.4%, pharmacotherapeutics (88.8%, and community pharmacy practice (82.8% were covered well. Although 94% of students considered these courses important, only 37.2% considered themselves to be competent in the corresponding topics. Of the participants, 87.9% agreed that the pharmacy courses in the present curriculum should be redesigned. Conclusion: Our results showed that the pharmacy practice courses in the current PharmD curriculum do not encompass some important core subjects. A nationwide study is warranted to further establish the necessity for remodelling pharmacy practice courses in Pakistan.

  6. Sowing the seeds for improved Pharmacy education in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sowing the seeds for improved Pharmacy education in Nigeria: development of ICT at university of Benin Faculty of Pharmacy. ... For today\\'s pharmacy graduates to function effectively in an ever increasing technological world, pharmacy students must be trained to use computer facilities as they will always encounter the ...

  7. 45 CFR 162.1901 - Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. 162... STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Medicaid Pharmacy Subrogation § 162.1901 Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. The Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction is the...

  8. The Relationship between Student Engagement and Professionalism in Pharmacy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Anne Guerin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between student engagement (as measured by the National Survey of Student Engagement benchmarks) and pharmacy student professionalism (as measured by the Pharmacy Professionalism Domain instrument) in first and third year pharmacy students at seven different schools of pharmacy. Engagement provides the…

  9. 21 CFR 1311.205 - Pharmacy application requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pharmacy application requirements. 1311.205... ELECTRONIC ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS (Eff. 6-1-10) Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.205 Pharmacy application requirements. (a) The pharmacy may only use a pharmacy application that meets the requirements in paragraph (b...

  10. The Approach of Pharmacy Students Towards Communication of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Dow College of Pharmacy, Dow University of Health Sciences, 2Faculty of Pharmacy, Zia uddin Medical University, 3Faculty of ... Purpose: To assess pharmacy students' knowledge of communicating medication errors in Karachi, ... Keywords: Communication, Medication error, Pharmacy students, Standardized training.

  11. A Research Elective Course on Dietary Supplements to Engage Doctor of Pharmacy Students in Primary Literature Evaluation and Scholarly Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed A; Gunaseelan, Simi; Khan, Seher A

    2015-12-01

    To develop and implement a research elective course to enhance skills of pharmacy students on primary literature evaluation and evidence-based practice on dietary supplements and generate scholarly publications. A 2 credit hour independent research elective course was designed and implemented in the third-year doctor of pharmacy curriculum. The course involved student-led research activities that included formulating research project, reviewing of primary literature, collection and evaluation of data, and writing of review articles for publication in peer-reviewed journals. An online survey was administered to evaluate students' perceptions of the course. Students successfully completed the course. The course resulted in peer-reviewed publications through student-faculty collaboration. Pharmacy students enrolled in the elective course perceived that the course helped them enhance their analytical reasoning, critical thinking and drug-literature evaluation skills, gain evidence-based knowledge, and apply the knowledge into practice during their advanced pharmacy practice experiences community pharmacy rotations. The course provided opportunity to the pharmacy students to not only critically search and evaluate the literature but also publish in peer-reviewed journals. Other pharmacy schools/colleges can adopt this course model to create opportunities for student-faculty collaborations toward scholarly accomplishments. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Pharmacy Practice and Education in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Sandulovici

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The PHARMINE (“Pharmacy Education in Europe” project examined the organisation of pharmacy practice and education in the European Union (EU. An electronic survey was sent out to representatives of different sectors (community, hospital, industrial pharmacists, university staff, and students in each individual EU member state. This paper presents the results of the PHARMINE survey on pharmacy practice and education in Romania. In the light of this data we examine to what extent harmonisation of practice and education with EU norms has occurred, whether this has promoted mobility of pharmacy professionals, academics and students, and what impact it has had on healthcare in Romania. The survey reveals the substantial changes in Romanian pharmacy practice and education since the 1989 change in government and Romania joining the EU in 2007. Romania remains, however, a poor country with expenditure on healthcare less than one-third of the EU average. This factor also impacts pharmacy practice. Although practice seems aligned with EU norms, this masks the substantial imbalance between the situation in the richer capital, Bucharest, and that of the poorer countryside. Harmonisation to EU norms in pharmacy education has not promoted student exchange and mobility but, rather, a brain drain in pharmaceutical graduates to other EU countries. Specialisation in industrial practice has been lost since 1989 with pharmacists being replaced by chemists. In hospitals the hospital pharmacist is being replaced by the clinical pharmacist.

  13. Layouts of Expander Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Dujmović, Vida; Sidiropoulos, Anastasios; Wood, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Bourgain and Yehudayoff recently constructed $O(1)$-monotone bipartite expanders. By combining this result with a generalisation of the unraveling method of Kannan, we construct 3-monotone bipartite expanders, which is best possible. We then show that the same graphs admit 3-page book embeddings, 2-queue layouts, 4-track layouts, and have simple thickness 2. All these results are best possible.

  14. Palliative radiotherapy in addition to self-expanding metal stent for improving dysphagia and survival in advanced oesophageal cancer (ROCS: Radiotherapy after Oesophageal Cancer Stenting): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Douglas; Blazeby, Jane; Nelson, Annmarie; Hurt, Chris; Nixon, Lisette; Fitzgibbon, Jim; Crosby, Tom; Staffurth, John; Evans, Mim; Kelly, Noreen Hopewell; Cohen, David; Griffiths, Gareth; Byrne, Anthony

    2014-10-22

    The single most distressing symptom for patients with advanced esophageal cancer is dysphagia. Amongst the more effective treatments for relief of dysphagia is insertion of a self-expanding metal stent (SEMS). It is possible that the addition of a palliative dose of external beam radiotherapy may prolong the relief of dysphagia and provide additional survival benefit. The ROCS trial will assess the effect of adding palliative radiotherapy after esophageal stent insertion. The study is a randomized multicenter phase III trial, with an internal pilot phase, comparing stent alone versus stent plus palliative radiotherapy in patients with incurable esophageal cancer. Eligible participants are those with advanced esophageal cancer who are in need of stent insertion for primary management of dysphagia. Radiotherapy will be administered as 20 Gray (Gy) in five fractions over one week or 30 Gy in 10 fractions over two weeks, within four weeks of stent insertion. The internal pilot will assess rates and methods of recruitment; pre-agreed criteria will determine progression to the main trial. In total, 496 patients will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio with follow up until death. The primary outcome is time to progression of patient-reported dysphagia. Secondary outcomes include survival, toxicity, health resource utilization, and quality of life. An embedded qualitative study will explore the feasibility of patient recruitment by examining patients' motivations for involvement and their experiences of consent and recruitment, including reasons for not consenting. It will also explore patients' experiences of each trial arm. The ROCS study will be a challenging trial studying palliation in patients with a poor prognosis. The internal pilot design will optimize methods for recruitment and data collection to ensure that the main trial is completed on time. As a pragmatic trial, study strengths include collection of all follow-up data in the usual place of care, and a focus on

  15. Chance-constrained model predictive control applied to inventory management in hospitalary pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, Jose Maria; Ocampo-Martinez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This extended abstract addresses the preliminary results of applying uncertainty handling strategies and advanced control techniques to the inventary management of hospitality pharmacy. Inventory management is one of the main tasks that a pharmacy department has to carry out in a hospital. It is a complex problem because it requires to establish a tradeoff between contradictory optimization criteria. The final goal of the proposed research is to update the inventory management system of hospitals such that it is possible to reduce the average inventory while maintaining preestablished clinical guarantees.

  16. Organizational factors influencing pharmacy practice change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, William R; Nevins, Justin C; Gaither, Caroline; Kreling, David H; Mott, David A; Pedersen, Craig A; Schommer, Jon C

    2012-01-01

    Some pharmacists have changed the focus of their practice from solely dispensing. Emerging services they have added include medication therapy management and other pharmacy services. To assess the effect of entrepreneurial orientation, resource adequacy, and pharmacy staffing on pharmacy practice change. A total of 1847 licensed U.S. pharmacists received 2 mail surveys as part of a larger national pharmacist survey. The core survey collected information about practice setting, prescription volume, and staffing. The supplemental survey assessed how the pharmacy had changed over the past 2 years to enable the delivery of pharmacy services. The amount of change was assessed by 12 items, which were summed to provide an aggregate change index. Five variables from organizational change literature were assessed as influences on practice change: proactiveness, risk taking, autonomy, work ethic, and adequacy of resources. In addition, the associations of pharmacist and technician staffing with practice change were assessed. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed with the aggregate change index as the dependent variable and the 7 potential influences on change as the independent variables. Four hundred usable surveys were analyzed. At least some level of practice change was reported in 60% of pharmacies surveyed. The linear regression analysis of the model was significant (Pentrepreneurial orientation-proactiveness and autonomy-as well as adequacy of resources and pharmacy technician staffing. Many pharmacies reported that some aspects of their practice have changed, such as collecting patient information and documenting care. Few reported changes in asking patients to pay for pharmacy services. These findings support previous results, which show that the capacity for organizational change can be augmented by increasing proactiveness, autonomy among employees, and the availability of adequate and appropriate resources. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  17. Challenges in the management of community pharmacies in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kho BP

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The provision of professional pharmacy services by community pharmacists continues to be limited, particularly in low and middle income countries. It was postulated that multiple management challenges faced by community pharmacists contribute to this situation. Objective: The primary aim of the research was to determine the challenges faced in the management of community pharmacies in Sarawak (the largest state in Malaysia, and practical strategies to cope and overcome the challenges. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with community pharmacists practising in Sarawak. Purposive and snowball sampling were employed to ensure a diverse group of informants. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim, with the resultant data analysed using thematic analysis. Data collection, coding, interpretation were carried out iteratively until theoretical saturation. Results: Twenty respondents from different demographic characteristics were recruited. Six major themes were identified. Management challenges faced by community pharmacists traverse five major domains: market competition, legislative issues, customers’ knowledge and expectations, macroeconomic impacts and operational challenges. Most of these challenges require government intervention to be resolved. In the meantime, improving customer service and expanding the range of professional services were seen as the most viable strategies to cope with existing challenges. The main concern is that current legislative and economic landscape may hinder these strategies. Enactment of dispensing separation and more protective measures against market competition were suggested to alleviate the challenges faced. Conclusion: Numerous management challenges faced by community pharmacists that distract them from delivering professional pharmacy services have been highlighted. Urgent affirmative actions by the government are warranted in supporting community pharmacists

  18. Qualitative methods in pharmacy practice research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine Marie

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative research within pharmacy practice is concerned with understanding the behavior of actors such as pharmacy staff, pharmacy owners, patients, other healthcare professionals, and politicians to explore various types of existing practices and beliefs in order to improve them. As qualitative...... research attempts to answer the “why” questions, it is useful for describing, in rich detail, complex phenomena that are situated and embedded in local contexts. Typical methods include interviews, observation, document analysis, and netnography. Qualitative research has to live up to a set of rigid...... quality criteria of research conduct to provide trustworthy results that contribute to the further development of the area....

  19. Future methods in pharmacy practice research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdottir, A B; Babar, Z U D

    2016-01-01

    research. These are demographics, technology and professional standards. Second, deriving from this, it seeks to predict and forecast the future shifts in use of methodologies. Third, new research areas and availability of data impacting on future methods are discussed. These include the impact of aging...... of the trends for pharmacy practice research methods are discussed. © 2016, Springer International Publishing.......This article describes the current and future practice of pharmacy scenario underpinning and guiding this research and then suggests future directions and strategies for such research. First, it sets the scene by discussing the key drivers which could influence the change in pharmacy practice...

  20. FDA Expands List of "Do Not Compound" Drug Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    EDITOR'S ABSTRACT On October 3, 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration published in the Federal Register an expanded list of drug products that are not to be used in compounding extemporaneous dosage forms. This list contains numerous analgesic or anti-inflammatory agents and other chemicals sometimes used to manage pain and related symptoms. Because pharmacies are licensed by the states and other jurisdictions (districts, territories) as opposed to the federal government, regulation of extemporaneous compounding is inconsistent across the nation and minimal to nonexistent is some jurisdictions. Clinicians are urged to assure that pharmacies they and their patients use adhere to this list and compound only dosage forms for which there is good evidence of both safety and efficacy.

  1. Emergency contraception in a public health emergency: exploring pharmacy availability in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Marilia P; Foster, Angel M

    2016-08-01

    Dedicated progestin-only emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) have been available with a prescription in Brazil since 1999. However, utilization of emergency contraception has been limited. We conducted a mystery client study at retail pharmacies in three regions to assess current availability. Using a predetermined client profile, we approached a random sample of chain and independent pharmacies in urban areas in the southeastern, northeastern and central-west regions. We documented product availability, price and the client-pharmacy representative interaction at each site. We analyzed these data with descriptive statistics and for content and themes. We visited 122 pharmacies in early 2016. All but three pharmacies (97.5%) had ECPs in stock at the time of the interaction and offered our client the medication without a prescription. In general, pharmacy representatives did not ask questions or provide our client with information about emergency contraception. When prompted, over one third of the pharmacy representatives (37.7%) inaccurately reported that levonorgestrel ECPs could only be used immediately or within 12, 24 or 48h from the time of intercourse. Despite the current regulatory status, our findings suggest that progestin-only ECPs are widely available without a prescription. Additional efforts to ensure that women have up-to-date and medically accurate information about progestin-only ECPs appear warranted. Our findings suggest that more work needs to be done to align national regulatory policies with international standards and evidence-based practices. The Zika virus epidemic has shined a spotlight on the importance of providing timely access to emergency contraception in Latin America. This public health emergency offers a window of opportunity to advance national policies and practices to ensure that Brazilian women have access to a full range of reproductive health services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Curricular Integration in Pharmacy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Marion L.; Hubball, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the concepts of curricular integration and integrative learning. These concepts have reemerged in contemporary higher education reforms and are crucial in pharmacy programs where students are expected to acquire the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed for competent practice in a complex environment. Enhancing integration requires negotiating obstacles, including institutional traditions of disciplinary structures and disciplinary differences in understandings of knowledge and approaches to teaching and learning; investing the time and effort to design and implement integrated curricula; and using learning-centered pedagogical strategies. Evidence supporting the value of such efforts is not compelling, as much because of insufficient research as lackluster findings. Future avenues of scholarly inquiry are suggested to evaluate curricular integration, distinguishing between the curriculum espoused by planners, the curriculum enacted by instructors, and the curriculum experienced by students. PMID:23275669

  3. Curricular integration in pharmacy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Marion L; Hubball, Harry T

    2012-12-12

    This article reviews the concepts of curricular integration and integrative learning. These concepts have reemerged in contemporary higher education reforms and are crucial in pharmacy programs where students are expected to acquire the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed for competent practice in a complex environment. Enhancing integration requires negotiating obstacles, including institutional traditions of disciplinary structures and disciplinary differences in understandings of knowledge and approaches to teaching and learning; investing the time and effort to design and implement integrated curricula; and using learning-centered pedagogical strategies. Evidence supporting the value of such efforts is not compelling, as much because of insufficient research as lackluster findings. Future avenues of scholarly inquiry are suggested to evaluate curricular integration, distinguishing between the curriculum espoused by planners, the curriculum enacted by instructors, and the curriculum experienced by students.

  4. The Roles of Pharmacy and Clinical Pharmacy in Providing Healthcare Services to the People

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Haroon Sarwar; Muhammad Farhan Sarwar; Muhammad TaimoorKhalid; Muhammad Sarwar

    2015-01-01

    Article describes a brief outline explaining the profession of Pharmacy, Clinical Pharmacy and the important role of a Pharmacist. This profession, therefore, requires a complex and well developed set of competencies to explore one of the most health and financially rewarding careers. Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing and dispensing drugs. This is a health profession that links health sciences with chemical sciences and it aims to ensure the safe and effective use of Pharmace...

  5. Parenteral nutrition in hospital pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoue, Maram Gamal; Al-Taweel, Dalal; Matar, Kamal Mohamed; Kombian, Samuel B

    2016-07-11

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore parenteral nutrition (PN) practices in hospital pharmacies of Kuwait and identify potential avenues for quality improvement in this service. Design/methodology/approach - A descriptive, qualitative study about PN practices was conducted from June 2012 to February 2013 in Kuwait. Data were collected via in-depth semi-structured interviews with the head total parenteral nutrition (TPN) pharmacists at seven hospitals using a developed questionnaire. The questionnaire obtained information about the PN service at each hospital including the existence of nutritional support teams (NSTs), PN preparation practices, quality controls and guidelines/protocols. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed for content. Findings - Seven hospitals in Kuwait provided PN preparation service through TPN units within hospital pharmacies. Functional NSTs did not exist in any of these hospitals. All TPN units used paper-based standard PN order forms for requesting PN. The content of PN order forms and PN formulas labeling information were inconsistent across hospitals. Most of the prepared PN formulas were tailor-made and packed in single compartment bags. Quality controls used included gravimetric analysis and visual inspection of PN formulations, and less consistently reported periodic evaluation of the aseptic techniques. Six TPN units independently developed PN guidelines/protocols. Originality/value - This study revealed variations in many aspects of PN practices among the hospitals in Kuwait and provided recommendations to improve this service. Standardization of PN practices would enhance the quality of care provided to patients receiving PN and facilitate national monitoring. This can be accomplished through the involvement of healthcare professionals with expertise in nutrition support working within proactive NSTs.

  6. The future of community pharmacy practice in South Africa in the light of the proposed new qualification for pharmacists: implications and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malangu, Ntambwe

    2014-08-15

    Community or retail pharmacies are regarded as one of the most common sources of health services throughout the world. In South Africa, community pharmacies have been providing some primary health care services to clients who could afford to pay. These services included screening, family planning, and emergency care for minor ailments. With the introduction of the new qualification, community pharmacies are poised to become providers of expanded services.  This paper describes the contents, the implications and challenges of the new qualification in light with future directions for community pharmacy practice in South Africa. Its purpose is to inform relevant stakeholders in South Africa and those outside South Africa that may pursue similar offerings. Published papers were identified through searches in MEDLINE and Google Scholar using a combination of search terms, namely: 'community, retail pharmacy, pharmacist/non-medical prescribing, South Africa'. Only articles published in English were considered. In addition, documents from the Ministry of Health of South Africa, the South African Pharmacy Council and curricula materials from schools of pharmacy were also reviewed. Laureates of the new qualification will essentially have the right to examine, diagnose, prescribe and monitor the treatment of their clients or patients. In doing so, this expanded function of prescribing for primary healthcare will imply several practice and infrastructural adjustments; and with many challenges laying ahead in need to be addressed. In conclusion, the authorized pharmacist prescriber qualification augurs a new era for community pharmacy practice in South Africa. This has many implications and some challenges that need to be managed. The pharmacy profession, academia, legislators and political decision-makers need to work together to resolve outstanding issues in a constructive manner.

  7. The Impact of a Student-Run Journal Club on Pharmacy Students' Self-Assessment of Critical Appraisal Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Macayla; Springer, Sydney; Estus, Erica; Ward, Kristina

    2015-06-01

    After attending an educational session on hosting journal clubs at the 2013 Annual Meeting & Exhibition, American Society of Consultant Pharmacists, Seattle, Washington, two third-year professional pharmacy students created a student-run journal club through the University of Rhode Island's ASCP student chapter. Three journal club sessions were held during the spring semester and were open to all pharmacy students. Students completed an anonymous pre- and post-survey to assess confidence in evaluating medical literature. Of the 18 participants, 5 were lost to follow-up. Significant improvements were found among all participants in their confidence in critically evaluating clinical research, interpreting statistical methods, and completing a journal club during Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience rotations. This activity can be replicated in academic settings as well as workplace environments where pharmacy students are involved.

  8. The Importance of Research and Scholarly Activity in Pharmacy Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Eli N; Stranges, Paul M; Maxwell, Whitney D; Bacci, Jennifer; Ashjian, Emily J; DeRemer, David L; Kane-Gill, Sandra L; Norgard, Nicholas B; Dombrowski, Lauren; Parker, Robert B

    2016-12-01

    Regardless of practice setting, it is imperative that pharmacists be able to either participate in generating new knowledge or use the ever-expanding body of literature to guide patient care. However, competing priorities in Pharm.D. curricula and residency training programs have resulted in limited emphasis on acquiring research and scholarly skills. Factors likely contributing to this reduced focus include the lack of curricular and postgraduate training standards emphasizing the development of research skills, time to commit to scholarly activity, and accessibility to experienced mentors. Strategies for increasing scholarly activity for pharmacy students and residents should therefore continue to be a focus of professional degree and residency training programs. Several resources are available for academic planners, program directors, and institutions to augment scholarly experience for pharmacy trainees and clinicians. This commentary highlights the importance of providing research opportunities for students and residents, describes the potential barriers to these activities, and provides recommendations on how to increase the instruction and mentoring of trainees to generate and use research. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  9. Assuming a Pharmacy Organization Leadership Position: A Guide for Pharmacy Leaders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shay, Blake; Weber, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Important and influential pharmacy organization leadership positions, such as president, board member, or committee chair, are volunteer positions and require a commitment of personal and professional time...

  10. National Survey Regarding the Importance of Leadership in PGY1 Pharmacy Practice Residency Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jonathan C; Girnys, Jonathan P

    2015-11-01

    Leadership is considered a professional obligation for all pharmacists. It is important to integrate leadership training in residency programs to meet the leadership needs and requirements of the profession. To evaluate the importance of leadership development during postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) pharmacy practice residency training as perceived by new practitioners. A 15-question online survey was distributed to residency-trained new practitioners to assess (1) amount of time dedicated to leadership training during residency training, (2) different leadership tools utilized, (3) residents' participation in various committees or councils, (4) perceived benefit of increased leadership training, (5) importance of having a mentor, (6) understanding of the residency organization's strategic objectives, (7) discussion of Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative (PPMI) during residency training, and (8) adequacy of leadership training in preparation to become a pharmacy practice leader. Although the majority of resident respondents had less than 20% of their residency devoted to leadership, nearly all survey participants acknowledged that leadership is an important component of PGY1 residency training. Residents agreed that their residency experience would have benefited from increased leadership opportunities. Most residents were knowledgeable about their organization's strategic objectives but did not have a full understanding of pharmacy initiatives such as the PPMI. Feedback from residents indicates that an optimal dedication to leadership training would range between 20% and 30% of the residency year. Increased focus on PPMI, mentorship, and expanded use of leadership tools can serve as a way to help meet the future leadership needs of the pharmacy profession and help to better prepare residents to become pharmacy practice leaders.

  11. REFLECTIONS ON THE ROLE OF THE PHARMACY REGULATORY AUTHORITY IN ENHANCING QUALITY RELATED EVENT REPORTING IN COMMUNITY PHARMACIESi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Todd A.; Bishop, Andrea C.; Mahaffey, Thomas; MacKinnon, Neil J.; Ashcroft, Darren; Zwicker, Bev; Reid, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Background Given the demanding nature of providing pharmacy services, coupled with the expanded scope of practice of the professions in jurisdictions around the world, greater commitment to continuous quality improvement through adoption of quality related event (QRE) reporting is necessary to ensure patient safety. Pharmacy regulatory authorities (PRAs) are in a unique position to enhance QRE reporting and learning through the standardization of expected practice Objective This study aims to better understand the perceived roles of PRAs in enhancing QRE reporting and learning in community pharmacies and identifying regulatory best practices to execute such roles. Methods A purposive case sampling approach was used to identify PRA staff members from two groups (deputy registrars and pharmacy inspectors) in 10 Canadian jurisdictions to participate in focus groups in the fall of 2011. Focus groups were used to explore perceptions of the role of PRAs in enhancing and promoting QRE reporting and learning, and perceived barriers to effective implementation in practice. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. Results Two focus groups were conducted, one with seven deputy registrars/practice managers and one with nine pharmacy inspectors. Five themes were identified, including (1) defining QRE reporting and compliance, (2) navigating role conflict, (3) educating for enhanced QRE reporting and learning, (4) promoting the positive/removing the fear of QREs, and (5) tailoring QRE reporting and learning consistency. Conclusions Overall, participants perceived a strong role for PRAs in enhancing QRE reporting and learning and providing education for pharmacies to support their compliance with reporting standards. However, PRAs must navigate the conflict inherent in both educating and promoting a process for achieving a standard while simultaneously inspecting compliance to that standard. Ensuring pharmacies have autonomy in operationalizing standards may

  12. Effectiveness of educational technology to improve patient care in pharmacy curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael A; Benedict, Neal

    2015-02-17

    A review of the literature on the effectiveness of educational technologies to teach patient care skills to pharmacy students was conducted. Nineteen articles met inclusion criteria for the review. Seven of the articles included computer-aided instruction, 4 utilized human-patient simulation, 1 used both computer-aided instruction and human-patient simulation, and 7 utilized virtual patients. Educational technology was employed with more than 2700 students at 12 colleges and schools of pharmacy in courses including pharmacotherapeutics, skills and patient care laboratories, drug diversion, and advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) orientation. Students who learned by means of human-patient simulation and virtual patients reported enjoying the learning activity, whereas the results with computer-aided instruction were mixed. Moreover, the effect on learning was significant in the human-patient simulation and virtual patient studies, while conflicting data emerged on the effectiveness of computer-aided instruction.

  13. An exploration of the utility of appraisals for the revalidation of pharmacy professionals in community pharmacy in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Samuel D; Jacobs, Sally; Schafheutle, Ellen I; Elvey, Rebecca; Hassell, Karen; Noyce, Peter R

    2013-01-01

    With revalidation in pharmacy in the United Kingdom fast approaching, appropriate systems of revalidation in community pharmacy are required. With little known about the potential use of appraisals for evaluating fitness to practice in pharmacy professionals (pharmacists and pharmacy technicians) in this sector, research was undertaken to explore their potential utility in a revalidation process. To examine existing structures and processes in community pharmacy appraisals in Great Britain (ie, England, Scotland, and Wales) and consider the views of pharmacy stakeholders on if, and how, appraisals could contribute to revalidation of pharmacy professionals. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with senior staff (eg, superintendents and professional development managers) from chain community pharmacies as well as pharmacy managers/owners from independent pharmacies. Senior staff from locum agencies and pharmacy technician stakeholders were also interviewed. Appraisals were in place for pharmacists in most chain pharmacies but not in independent pharmacies. Locum pharmacists were not appraised, either by the companies they worked for or by the locum agencies. Pharmacy managers/owners working in independent pharmacies were also not appraised. Pharmacy technicians were appraised in most chain pharmacies but only in some independent pharmacies. Where appraisals were in operation, they were carried out by line managers who may or may not be a pharmacist. Appraisals did not seem to cover areas relevant to fitness to practice but instead focused more on performance related to business targets. This was particularly true for those in more senior positions within the organization such as area managers and superintendent pharmacists. Existing systems of appraisal, on their own, do not seem to be suitable for revalidating a pharmacy professional. Considerable changes to the existing appraisal systems in community pharmacy and employer engagement may be necessary

  14. Development and implementation of a multitiered health informatics curriculum in a college of pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeden, Elizabeth A; Clauson, Kevin A

    2016-07-01

    Standards requiring education in informatics in pharmacy curricula were introduced in the last 10 years by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education. Mirroring difficulties faced by other health professions educators, implementation of these requirements remains fragmented and somewhat limited across colleges of pharmacy in the US. Clinical practice and workforce metrics underline a pronounced need for clinicians with varying competencies in health informatics. In response to these challenges, a multitiered health informatics curriculum was developed and implemented at a college of pharmacy in the Southeast. The multitiered approach is structured to ensure that graduating pharmacists possess core competencies in health informatics, while providing specialized and advanced training opportunities for pharmacy students, health professions students, and working professionals interested in a career path in informatics. The approach described herein offers institutions, administrators, faculty, residents, and students an adaptable model for selected or comprehensive adoption and integration of a multitiered health informatics curriculum. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. A comparison of medical and pharmacy students' knowledge and skills of pharmacology and pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Carolina J P W; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; de Wildt, Dick J; Custers, Eugene J F M; Ten Cate, Olle Th J; Hazen, Ankie C M; Jansen, Paul A F

    2014-10-01

    Pharmacotherapy might be improved if future pharmacists and physicians receive a joint educational programme in pharmacology and pharmacotherapeutics. This study investigated whether there are differences in the pharmacology and pharmacotherapy knowledge and skills of pharmacy and medical students after their undergraduate training. Differences could serve as a starting point from which to develop joint interdisciplinary educational programmes for better prescribing. In a cross-sectional design, the knowledge and skills of advanced pharmacy and medical students were assessed, using a standardized test with three domains (basic pharmacology knowledge, clinical or applied pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills) and eight subdomains (pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, interactions and side-effects, Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification groups, prescribing, prescribing for special groups, drug information, regulations and laws, prescription writing). Four hundred and fifty-one medical and 151 pharmacy students were included between August 2010 and July 2012. The response rate was 81%. Pharmacy students had better knowledge of basic pharmacology than medical students (77.0% vs. 68.2% correct answers; P pharmacology (73.8% vs. 72.2%, P = 0.124, δ = 0.15). Pharmacy students have better knowledge of basic pharmacology, but not of the application of pharmacology knowledge, than medical students, whereas medical students are better at writing prescriptions. Professional differences in knowledge and skills therefore might well stem from their undergraduate education. Knowledge of these differences could be harnessed to develop a joint interdisciplinary education for both students and professionals. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. A Spanish language and culture initiative for a doctor of pharmacy curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanTyle, W Kent; Kennedy, Gala; Vance, Michael A; Hancock, Bruce

    2011-02-10

    To implement a Spanish language and culture initiative in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum that would improve students' Spanish language skills and cultural competence so that graduates could provide competent pharmaceutical care to Spanish-speaking patients. Five elective courses were created and introduced to the curriculum including 2 medical Spanish courses; a medical Spanish service-learning course; a 2-week Spanish language and cultural immersion trip to Mexico; and an advanced practice pharmacy experience (APPE) at a medical care clinic serving a high percentage of Spanish-speaking patients. Advisors placed increased emphasis on encouraging pharmacy students to complete a major or minor in Spanish. Enrollment in the Spanish language courses and the cultural immersion trip has been strong. Twenty-three students have completed the APPE at a Spanish-speaking clinic. Eleven percent of 2010 Butler University pharmacy graduates completed a major or minor in Spanish compared to approximately 1% in 2004 when the initiative began. A Spanish language and culture initiative started in 2004 has resulted in increased Spanish language and cultural competence among pharmacy students and recent graduates.

  17. A pharmaceutical industry elective course on practice experience selection and fellowship pursuit by pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Rhea; Blustein, Leona; Morel, Diane; Davis, Lisa

    2014-08-15

    To design and implement 2 pharmaceutical industry elective courses and assess their impact on students' selection of advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) and pursuit of pharmaceutical industry fellowships. Two 2-credit-hour elective courses that explored careers within the prescription and nonprescription pharmaceutical drug industries were offered for second- and third-year pharmacy students in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program. The impact of the courses on pharmacy students' pursuit of a pharmaceutical industry fellowship was evaluated based on responses to annual graduating students' exit surveys. A greater percentage (17.9%) of students who had taken a pharmaceutical industry elective course pursued a pharmaceutical industry fellowship compared to all PharmD graduates (4.8%). Of the students who enrolled in pharmaceutical industry APPEs, 31% had taken 1 of the 2 elective courses. Exposure to a pharmaceutical industry elective course within a college or school of pharmacy curriculum may increase students' interest in pursuing pharmaceutical industry fellowships and enrolling in pharmaceutical industry APPEs.

  18. Medication Safety: Experiential Learning for Pharmacy Students and Staff in a Hospital Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graudins, Linda V; Dooley, Michael J

    2016-11-17

    Medication Safety has been an established pharmacy specialty in Australian hospitals since the early 2000s and is now one of the ten Australian hospital accreditation standards. Although advances have occurred, medication-related patient harm has not been eradicated. Victorian undergraduate pharmacy programs include some aspects of medication safety, however clinical pharmacy experience, along with interpersonal and project management skills, are required to prepare pharmacists to be confident medication safety practitioners. This article outlines the range of medication safety-related training offered at an Australian tertiary teaching hospital, including; on-site tutorial for undergraduate students, experiential placement for pharmacy interns, orientation for pharmacy staff and resources for credentialing pharmacists for extended roles. Improvements continue to be made, such as electronic medication management systems, which increase the safe use of medications and facilitate patient care. Implementation and evaluation of these systems require medication safety expertise. Patients' engaging in their own care is an acknowledged safety improvement strategy and is enhanced by pharmacist facilitation. Building educator skills and integrating experiential teaching with university curricula should ensure pharmacists have both the knowledge and experience early in their careers, in order to have a leading role in future medication management.

  19. Medication Safety: Experiential Learning for Pharmacy Students and Staff in a Hospital Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda V. Graudins

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Medication Safety has been an established pharmacy specialty in Australian hospitals since the early 2000s and is now one of the ten Australian hospital accreditation standards. Although advances have occurred, medication-related patient harm has not been eradicated. Victorian undergraduate pharmacy programs include some aspects of medication safety, however clinical pharmacy experience, along with interpersonal and project management skills, are required to prepare pharmacists to be confident medication safety practitioners. This article outlines the range of medication safety-related training offered at an Australian tertiary teaching hospital, including; on-site tutorial for undergraduate students, experiential placement for pharmacy interns, orientation for pharmacy staff and resources for credentialing pharmacists for extended roles. Improvements continue to be made, such as electronic medication management systems, which increase the safe use of medications and facilitate patient care. Implementation and evaluation of these systems require medication safety expertise. Patients’ engaging in their own care is an acknowledged safety improvement strategy and is enhanced by pharmacist facilitation. Building educator skills and integrating experiential teaching with university curricula should ensure pharmacists have both the knowledge and experience early in their careers, in order to have a leading role in future medication management.

  20. A Framework for Integrating Biosimilars Into the Didactic Core Requirements of a Doctor of Pharmacy Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Edward; Liu, Jennifer; Ramchandani, Monica

    2017-04-01

    Biologic drugs approved via the abbreviated United States biosimilar approval pathway are anticipated to improve access to medications by addressing increasing health care expenditures. Surveys of health care practitioners indicate that there is inadequate knowledge and understanding about biosimilars; this must be addressed to ensure safe and effective use of this new category of products. Concepts of biosimilar development, manufacturing, regulation, naming, formulary, and inventory considerations, as well as patient and provider education should be included within the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum as preparation for clinical practice. Based on these considerations, we propose that PharmD graduates be required to have knowledge in the following domains regarding biologics and biosimilars: legal definition, development and regulation, state pharmacy practice laws, and pharmacy practice management. We link these general biosimilar concepts to the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) Standards 2016 and Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) Outcomes 2013, and provide example classroom learning objectives, in-class activities, and assessments to guide implementation.

  1. VACCINATION SERVICE IN THE PORTUGUESE PHARMACIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Pimenta Jacinto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Community Pharmacies’ legal framework (regulated by the decree-law nº 307/2007, 31st August established the possibility of provision of pharmaceutical services to promote health and well-being by pharmacies. Due to its characteristics in terms of access and geographical distribution, pharmacies are health providers which can contribute to increase the immunization coverage with benefits in terms of public health. In this article, it is described the national and international framework of the implementation of vaccination services in pharmacies and the results of its implementation. It is also conducted a reflection on strengthening the role of pharmacies and its contribution to the national targets for immunization coverage and public health.

  2. Assessing Emotionally Intelligent Leadership in Pharmacy Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haight, Robert C; Kolar, Claire; Nelson, Michael H; Fierke, Kerry K; Sucher, Brandon J; Janke, Kristin K

    2017-03-25

    Objective. To determine the frequency distribution of pharmacy students across Emotionally Intelligent Leadership Inventory (EILI) measures. Methods. The EILI was administered to 235 pharmacy students at two schools. The instrument was systematically compared to the 2013 CAPE Outcomes and analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis. Results. The EILI has primary connections with pharmacy competencies related to interprofessional communication and leadership. The three facets of the EILI were verified for internal consistency (Context, α=.78; Self, α=.74; Others, α=.79). Student scores were the highest for the consciousness of self facet, with a mean score of 31.4 out of 40. Conclusion. The EILI shows promise as an instrument for use in assessing pharmacy students' emotional intelligence and leadership skills.

  3. The challenges of pharmacy education in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Worafi, Yaser Mohammed

    2014-10-15

    Pharmacy education in Yemen has faced many challenges since its introduction in the 1980s. Most Yemeni pharmacy schools, especially private ones, are experiencing difficulties in providing the right quality and quantity of clinical educational experiences. Most of these challenges are imbedded in a teaching style and curricula that have failed to respond to the needs of the community and country. The slow shift from traditional drug-dispensing to a patient-centered or focused approach in pharmacy practice requires a fundamental change in the roles and responsibilities of both policymakers and educators. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to discuss the challenges facing the pharmacy education in Yemen; (2) to provided recommendations to overcome challenges.

  4. Reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisell, Kristin; Winblad, Ulrika; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, a reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector took place, and a fundamental change in ownership and structure followed. The reregulation provides an opportunity to reveal the politicians' views on pharmacies. The aim of this study was to explore and analyze the political arguments...... for the reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector in 2009. The method used was a qualitative content analysis of written political documents regarding the reregulation. The primary rationales for the reregulation were better availability, efficiency, price pressure, and safe usage of medicines. During...... are better equipped to perform public activities. The results point to that the reform was done almost solely in order to introduce private ownership in the pharmacy sector, and was not initiated in order to solve any general problems, or to enhance patient outcomes of medicine use....

  5. Discriminatory Attitudes of Pharmacy Students and Pharmacists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A cross-sectional survey of pharmacy students and pharmacists (n = 523) to assess discriminatory attitudes towards PLWHA was conducted using a self completed questionnaire. Correlation and ... were contributory. Keywords: Discrimination, HIV/AIDS, Pharmacists, Perception, Professionalism, Stigmatization.

  6. Doctor and pharmacy shopping for controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Gretchen L; Smith, Michael J; Abate, Marie A; Halverson, Joel

    2012-06-01

    Prescription drug abuse is a major health concern nationwide, with West Virginia having one of the highest prescription drug death rates in the United States. Studies are lacking that compare living subjects with persons who died from drug overdose for evidence of doctor and pharmacy shopping for controlled substances. The study objectives were to compare deceased and living subjects in West Virginia for evidence of prior doctor and pharmacy shopping for controlled substances and to identify factors associated with drug-related death. A secondary data study was conducted using controlled substance, Schedule II-IV, prescription data from the West Virginia Controlled Substance Monitoring Program and drug-related death data compiled by the Forensic Drug Database between July 2005 and December 2007. A case-control design compared deceased subjects 18 years and older whose death was drug related with living subjects for prior doctor and pharmacy shopping. Logistic regression identified factors related to the odds of drug-related death. A significantly greater proportion of deceased subjects were doctor shoppers (25.21% vs. 3.58%) and pharmacy shoppers (17.48% vs. 1.30%) than living subjects. Approximately 20.23% of doctor shoppers were also pharmacy shoppers, and 55.60% of pharmacy shoppers were doctor shoppers. Younger age, greater number of prescriptions dispensed, exposure to opioids and benzodiazepines, and doctor and pharmacy shopping were factors with greater odds of drug-related death. Doctor and pharmacy shopping involving controlled substances were identified, and shopping behavior was associated with drug-related death. Prescription monitoring programs may be useful in identifying potential shoppers at the point of care.

  7. Expanding Thurston maps

    CERN Document Server

    Bonk, Mario

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the study of the dynamics of expanding Thurston maps under iteration. A Thurston map is a branched covering map on a two-dimensional topological sphere such that each critical point of the map has a finite orbit under iteration. It is called expanding if, roughly speaking, preimages of a fine open cover of the underlying sphere under iterates of the map become finer and finer as the order of the iterate increases. Every expanding Thurston map gives rise to a fractal space, called its visual sphere. Many dynamical properties of the map are encoded in the geometry of this visual sphere. For example, an expanding Thurston map is topologically conjugate to a rational map if and only if its visual sphere is quasisymmetrically equivalent to the Riemann sphere. This relation between dynamics and fractal geometry is the main focus for the investigations in this work.

  8. Alcohol Use Behaviors Among Pharmacy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Wesley; McGuffey, Grant; Westrick, Salisa C.; Jungnickel, Paul W.; Correia, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To identify reasons for drinking, determine the patterns of alcohol abuse, and explore relationships between drinking motives and alcohol abuse patterns in pharmacy students. Methods. A cross-sectional anonymous, voluntary, self-administered paper survey instrument was administered to first-year (P1) through third-year (P3) pharmacy students as part of a professional seminar. Results. Survey instruments were completed by 349 pharmacy students (95.9% cooperation rate). Using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test criteria, 23.2% of students reported hazardous or harmful use and 67.2% of students reported consuming alcohol at hazardous levels during the past year. Students who were male (37.0%), single (25.3%), and attended the main campus (26.2%) were more likely than their counterparts to report hazardous or harmful alcohol use. Pharmacy students reported social motives as the most common reason for drinking; however, coping and enhancement motives were more predictive of harmful or hazardous alcohol use. Conclusion. Approximately 1 in 4 pharmacy students (23%) reported hazardous or harmful alcohol use. Education about the dangers of alcohol abuse and intervention programs from colleges and schools of pharmacy are recommended to help address this issue. PMID:24672063

  9. University-based sports pharmacy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, K O; Huff, P S; Isetts, B J; Goldwire, M A

    1995-02-01

    Ways for pharmacists to become involved in sports pharmacy are discussed, and a university-based sports pharmacy program is described. Sports pharmacy encompasses treating athletic injuries, distributing drugs and sports-related supplies, counseling patients, and monitoring therapeutic outcomes, along with educating athletes, trainers, and others about drug use and abuse. Pharmacists can contribute their expertise by presenting information at schools, health clubs, and other exercise-related organizations. They can serve on drug-testing crews at collegiate athletic events. Pharmacists can also provide supplies and services to schools or athletic facilities; ideally, this could be a contractual arrangement to provide comprehensive pharmaceutical care. A sports pharmacy program was implemented at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1980. Pharmacists provide drug therapy monitoring and patient education to all patients at the school; patients' level of athletic activity is taken into consideration. Pharmacists also ensure proper use, storage, and distribution of drugs kept in clinics, training rooms, and sports medicine travel bags, as well as identifying and providing drugs and supplies that might be needed at an off-campus event. They provide inservice education to athletic trainers and physicians. The program has improved patient outcomes and helped to ensure adequate drug supplies and minimum waste. There are numerous opportunities for practitioners to become involved in sports pharmacy. A university-based sports pharmacy program improved the care of student athletes and helped contain drug costs.

  10. When procedures meet practice in community pharmacies: qualitative insights from pharmacists and pharmacy support staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christian E L; Phipps, Denham L; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2016-06-06

    Our aim was to explore how members of community pharmacy staff perceive and experience the role of procedures within the workplace in community pharmacies. Community pharmacies in England and Wales. 24 community pharmacy staff including pharmacists and pharmacy support staff were interviewed regarding their view of procedures in community pharmacy. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. 3 main themes were identified. According to the 'dissemination and creation of standard operating procedures' theme, community pharmacy staff were required to follow a large amount of procedures as part of their work. At times, complying with all procedures was not possible. According to the 'complying with procedures' theme, there are several factors that influenced compliance with procedures, including work demands, the high workload and the social norm within the pharmacy. Lack of staff, pressure to hit targets and poor communication also affected how able staff felt to follow procedures. The third theme 'procedural compliance versus using professional judgement' highlighted tensions between the standardisation of practice and the professional autonomy of pharmacists. Pharmacists feared being unsupported by their employer for working outside of procedures, even when acting for patient benefit. Some support staff believed that strictly following procedures would keep patients and themselves safe. Dispensers described following the guidance of the pharmacist which sometimes meant working outside of procedures, but occasionally felt unable to voice concerns about not working to rule. Organisational resilience in community pharmacy was apparent and findings from this study should help to inform policymakers and practitioners regarding factors likely to influence the implementation of procedures in community pharmacy settings. Future research should focus on exploring community pharmacy employees' intentions and attitudes towards rule-breaking behaviour and the impact this

  11. Effect of information, education and communication intervention on awareness about rational pharmacy practice in pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharpure, Kunda; Thawani, Vijay; Sontakke, Smita; Chaudhari, Kiran; Bankar, Mangesh; Diwe, Rajendra

    2011-07-01

    There is a growing indifference among the pharmacy practitioners towards their duty as information providers to the patients. The patients do not always get enough desired information about proper use of medicines from the prescribers also. This contributes to improper use of medicines by the patients. To bring about awareness about rational pharmacy practice in pharmacy students for better service to the patients. The final year students of Bachelor of Pharmacy (B. Pharm) from four colleges of Nagpur were enrolled for the study after informed consent. Their base knowledge was assessed through a written test which comprised of 27 objective questions related to rational pharmacy practice. This was followed by a series of seven articles on rational medicine use, published in leading local English news daily. The participants were reminded to read them on the day of publication of each article. As a backup, the articles were displayed on the notice board of respective colleges. Second intervention was a half day interactive session where series of six lectures were delivered to the participants on the right and wrong approaches in pharmacy practice. Posters about the do's and dont's of rational pharmacy practice were also displayed at the venue. The session was followed by a repeat test using the same pre-test to assess the change. Pre and post intervention data was compared using Fisher's Exact test. It was observed that the intervention did bring about a positive change in the attitude and knowledge of the final year Pharmacy students about rational pharmacy practice. The role of a pharmacist in health care provision is usually overlooked in India. Hence there is strong need for reinforcement in final year B. Pharm when most of the students go in for community service. Such interventions will be helpful in bringing about a positive change towards rational practice of pharmacy. This study showed that a properly timed and meticulously implemented intervention brings

  12. Developing a Business Plan for Critical Care Pharmacy Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erstad, Brian L; Mann, Henry J; Weber, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Critical care medicine has grown from a small group of physicians participating in patient care rounds in surgical and medical intensive care units (ICUs) to a highly technical, interdisciplinary team. Pharmacy's growth in the area of critical care is as exponential. Today's ICU requires a comprehensive pharmaceutical service that includes both operational and clinical services to meet patient medication needs. This article provides the elements for a business plan to justify critical care pharmacy services by describing the pertinent background and benefit of ICU pharmacy services, detailing a current assessment of ICU pharmacy services, listing the essential ICU pharmacy services, describing service metrics, and delineating an appropriate timeline for implementing an ICU pharmacy service. The structure and approach of this business plan can be applied to a variety of pharmacy services. By following the format and information listed in this article, the pharmacy director can move closer to developing patient-centered pharmacy services for ICU patients.

  13. Pharmacy ownership in Canada: implications for the authority and autonomy of community pharmacy managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Roy Thomas; Perepelkin, Jason

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, the number of independently owned pharmacies has declined even as the total number of pharmacies in Canada has increased. With increasing corporate ownership, there is concern that this trend will adversely affect the profession's ability to influence pharmacy practice and practice change. To examine the relationship between ownership type and community pharmacy managers in terms of professional and employer authority, managerial autonomy, decision making, and amount of control. This study consisted of a cross-sectional survey of community pharmacy managers in Canada by means of a self-administered postal questionnaire sent to a stratified sample of community pharmacies. Statistical analysis consisted of exploratory factor analysis with reliability testing on identified constructs. Frequencies, 1-way analyses of variance, Scheffe post hoc tests, and general linear modeling were used to determine significant differences among groups based on ownership type. In total, 646 of 1961 questionnaires from pharmacy managers were completed and returned (response rate 32.9%). Respondents rated their authority similarly across ownership types. Autonomy, decision-making capabilities, and control needed to carry out the professional role appear most limited among corporate respondents and, to a lesser extent, franchise managers. Pharmacy managers currently perceive a high level of authority; but with limited autonomy among corporate managers, it is unclear whether this authority is sufficient to prevent the subordination of both patient and professional interests to financial interests. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence of hazardous alcohol use among pharmacy students at nine U.S. schools of pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    English C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hazardous use of alcohol continues to be recognized as a problem at the university level. Knowledge regarding alcohol consumption in healthcare professional students is limited, especially in regards to pharmacy students. Much of the information available focuses on pharmacy student drinking patterns in specific geographic regions or is simply outdated.Objectives: This study was designed to assess levels of alcohol consumption and estimate the level of hazardous drinking among pharmacy students in a larger sample size that is representative of US pharmacy schools.Methods: An anonymous survey regarding alcohol usage was offered to students at nine school of pharmacy across the United States. The survey consisted of demographic questions, the World Health Organization Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT, and questions that assess particular alcohol-induced behaviorsResults: More than 25% of 1161 respondents had a total AUDIT score = 8, which indicates a risk of alcohol-related problems. Students that were male, in their first or second professional year of school, not married, and without children were statistically more likely to have AUDIT scores in the hazardous drinking range. Grade point average and student housing did not statistically affect student’s AUDIT scores.Conclusion: These results indicate that over one-fourth of pharmacy students surveyed have indicators of harmful alcohol use. Pharmacy schools should continue to address and confront hazardous alcohol use on campuses in order to curtail heavy alcohol consumption and reduce the risk of alcohol-related problems in pharmacy students.

  15. The Economic, Social and Administrative Pharmacy (ESAP) Discipline in US Schools and Colleges of Pharmacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Fadi M.; Latif, David A.; Adkins, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Schools and colleges of pharmacy in the United States have struggled over the past several decades with identifying a consistent title for the broad body of knowledge related to the social, economic, behavioral, and administrative aspects of pharmacy. This paper examines the educational background and professional experience of those teaching…

  16. The role of commercial nuclear pharmacy in the future practice of nuclear medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, R J

    1996-04-01

    It has been estimated that today 70% to 80% of all radiopharmaceutical doses are dispensed through commercial nuclear pharmacy channels. These services are provided by the approximately 250 facilities in the United States, with some multisite corporations dispensing in excess of 20,000 unit-dose prescriptions per day. As pressures mount within health care institutions to reduce manpower, increase cost-effectiveness, increase participation in managed care contracts, and to seek outside vendors for many services that were previously provided in-house, the future role of the commercial nuclear pharmacy in the practice of nuclear medicine will only continue to increase. The essence of nuclear pharmacy practice is the dispensing of a full range of high quality radiopharmaceuticals in patient-specific unit doses. These doses must be delivered in a timely and cost effective manner, without compromising quality or patient safety. Commercial nuclear pharmacies have expanded to provide such varied functions as radiation safety and waste management, as well as consultative and marketing activities directed towards clinicians within a nuclear medicine practitioners own facility. In-service continuing education programs directed towards physicians and technologists are frequently offered by many commercial nuclear pharmacies. Changes in health care economics, merging and down-sizing in the hospital industry, and the overall impact of managed care on the viability of hospitals in general has resulted in slow growth, or even a small decline in the number of institutionally based nuclear pharmacists. As a result, nuclear medicine practitioners will be looking to the commercial nuclear pharmacies to meet a larger portion of their radiopharmaceutical needs, as well as to value added services, such as education and research and development. Specialized practice settings, such as nuclear cardiology and free-standing nuclear medicine clinics, are especially well suited to the services

  17. Replicating an expanded genetic alphabet in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, John C

    2014-09-05

    Recent advances in synthetic biology have made it possible to replicate an unnatural base pair in living cells. This study highlights the technologies developed to create a semisynthetic organism with an expanded genetic alphabet and the potential challenges of moving forward. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Expanding CTE Opportunities through Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinstry, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The global economy, 21st century skills, knowledge society, college and career readiness, digital and project-based learning are all common terms to educators who are expanding their learning environments beyond the classroom to meet the needs of all students. It is common knowledge that the rapid technological advances of this century have…

  19. Pharmacy internship in the Nordic countries – Status and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stig Nørgaard, Lotte; Wallman, Andy; Bjornsdóttir, Ingunn

    2017-01-01

    Pharmacy internship in the Nordic countries – Status and future Conference Paper in Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy 13(3):e14 · May 2017 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2017.02.099 Conference: Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy......Pharmacy internship in the Nordic countries – Status and future Conference Paper in Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy 13(3):e14 · May 2017 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2017.02.099 Conference: Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy...

  20. Innovation in clinical pharmacy practice and opportunities for academic--practice partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbins, Paul O; Micek, Scott T; Badowski, Melissa; Cheng, Judy; Gallagher, Jason; Johnson, Samuel G; Karnes, Jason H; Lyons, Kayley; Moore, Katherine G; Strnad, Kyle

    2014-05-01

    Clinical pharmacy has a rich history of advancing practice through innovation. These innovations helped to mold clinical pharmacy into a patient-centered discipline recognized for its contributions to improving medication therapy outcomes. However, innovations in clinical pharmacy practice have now waned. In our view, the growth of academic–practice partnerships could reverse this trend and stimulate innovation among the next generation of pioneering clinical pharmacists. Although collaboration facilitates innovation,academic institutions and health care systems/organizations are not taking full advantage of this opportunity. The academic–practice partnership can be optimized by making both partners accountable for the desired outcomes of their collaboration, fostering symbiotic relationships that promote value-added clinical pharmacy services and emphasizing continuous quality improvement in the delivery of these services. Optimizing academic–practice collaboration on a broader scale requires both partners to adopt a culture that provides for dedicated time to pursue innovation, establishes mechanisms to incubate ideas, recognizes where motivation and vision align, and supports the purpose of the partnership. With appropriate leadership and support, a shift in current professional education and training practices, and a commitment to cultivate future innovators, the academic–practice partnership can develop new and innovative practice advancements that will improve patient outcomes.

  1. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, A., E-mail: aliman@ppinang.uitm.edu.my; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Ain, M. F. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300,Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-03-30

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  2. TRIPLE ACTION PALATE EXPANDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Yordanova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Malocclusion correction essentially involves expansion of the maxilla, protrusion of anterior teeth and opening the bite. Expansion is often the stage preceding the treatment with fixed appliances. The elevation of the occlusion using accomplished with different devices (bite planes -fixed or removable, composite material on the occlusall surface of molars carries the risk of breaking or debonding them.The present article proposes an expanding appliance with triple action as a therapeutic means of choice in an orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. The expander can simultaneously be used to protrude upper teeth, to expand the upper jaw and disarticulate the occlusion. It can be easily fabricated in clinical conditions, causes no discomfort and does not hamper oral hygiene because it can be removed and cleaned.

  3. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: practice and research in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmer, Daisy; Vendla, Kaidi; Vetka, Andre; Bell, J Simon; Hamilton, David

    2008-07-01

    To describe practice and research related to pharmaceutical care in Estonia following the country's restoration of independence from Russia in 1991. The transition from a Soviet to a free market economy has impacted the healthcare and pharmacy systems in Estonia. Following independence, ownership of community pharmacies was transferred from the State government to individual pharmacists. However, pharmacy ownership is no longer restricted to pharmacists and recent years have seen the emergence of large pharmacy chains. The number of community pharmacies in Estonia increased from 270 in 1992 to 523 in 2007. In addition to dispensing, Estonian pharmacies retain a focus on compounding of extemporaneous products and supply of herbal medications. Research into pharmaceutical care has addressed topics including pharmaceutical policy and the quality of pharmacy services provided at community pharmacies. There has been limited pressure to date from the governmental institutions and patient organizations to introduce extended pharmaceutical services. However, the trend toward providing health services in primary care will create greater responsibilities and new opportunities for community pharmacists. Recent inclusion of clinical pharmacy and interprofessional learning in the undergraduate pharmacy curriculum will help ensure ongoing development of the profession and high-quality pharmacy services in the future. Pharmaceutical care services in Estonian community pharmacies have become more patient-oriented over the past 17 years. However, community pharmacies continue to retain a focus on traditional roles.

  4. Pharmacy practice and injection use in community pharmacies in Pokhara city, Western Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Sudesh; Rathore, Devendra Singh; Adhikari, Kishor; Shankar, Pathiyil Ravi; K C, Vikash Kumar; Basnet, Suyog

    2014-04-28

    Community pharmacies in Nepal serve as the first point of contact for the public with the health care system and provide many services, including administering injections. However, there is a general lack of documented information on pharmacy practice and injection use in these pharmacies. This study aims to provide information about pharmacy practice in terms of service and drug information sources, and injection use, including the disposal of used injection equipment. A mixed method, cross-sectional study was conducted in 54 community pharmacies in Pokhara city. Data was collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire, and also by the direct observation of pharmacy premises. Interviews with pharmacy supervisors (proprietors) were also conducted to obtain additional information about certain points. Interviews were carried out with 54 pharmacy supervisors/proprietors (47 males and 7 females) with a mean age and experience of 35.54 and 11.73 years, respectively. Approximately a half of the studied premises were operated by legally recognized pharmaceutical personnel, while the remainder was run by people who did not have the legal authority to operate pharmacies independently. About a quarter of pharmacies were providing services such as the administration of injections, wound dressing, and laboratory and consultation services in addition to medicine dispensing and counseling services. The 'Current Index of Medical Specialties' was the most commonly used source for drug information. Almost two-thirds of patients visiting the pharmacies were dispensed medicines without a prescription. Tetanus Toxoid, Depot-Medroxy Progesterone Acetate, and Diclofenac were the most commonly-used/administered injections. Most of the generated waste (including sharps) was disposed of in a municipal dump without adhering to the proper procedures for the disposal of hazardous waste. Community pharmacies in Pokhara offer a wide range of services including, but not limited to

  5. Promoting weight management services in community pharmacy: perspectives of the pharmacy team in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmann, Anita Elaine; MacLure, Katie; Marshall, Sarah; Gray, Gwen; Stewart, Derek

    2015-08-01

    Obesity has reached pandemic levels with more than 1.4 billion adults affected worldwide. While there is a need to systematically develop and evaluate community pharmacy based models of weight management, it is imperative to describe and understand the perspectives of pharmacy staff. In the UK, trained and accredited community pharmacy medicines counter assistants (MCAs) are commonly the front line staff involved in patient consultations and sale of over-the-counter medicines. To explore the beliefs and experiences of pharmacists and MCAs in the North-East of Scotland on community pharmacy weight management. All 135 community pharmacies in the North-East of Scotland. A qualitative approach of semi-structured telephone interviews with 31 pharmacists and 20 MCAs in the North-East of Scotland. The semi-structured interview schedule was developed with reference to key domains describing professional practice (i.e. awareness and knowledge, skills, practicalities, motivation, acceptance and beliefs) and contextualised with policy documents and published research on community pharmacy based weight management. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. Pharmacists' and MCAs' beliefs and experiences with delivering weight management services in community pharmacy. There were mixed responses from pharmacists and MCAs around pharmacy based weight management services from positive views of providing the service in community pharmacy to those more reticent who would always favour patients visiting their physician. While all described similar services e.g. measurement of weight, healthy eating advice, supply of products, they acknowledged that support was often opportunistic at the request of customers, with little integration of other providers. Roles described varied from pharmacist only functions to any staff member. While pharmacists generally felt comfortable and confident, MCAs gave more diverse responses. Both Pharmacist and MCAs highlighted

  6. Experience with a Drug Screening Program at a School of Pharmacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Marshall E.; Hogue, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Substance use and abuse among pharmacy students is a concern of pharmacy schools, boards of pharmacy, and training sites alike. Pharmacy students must complete approximately 30% of their academic coursework in experiential settings such as community pharmacies, hospitals, and other health systems as part of any accredited pharmacy school's…

  7. A seminar course on contemporary pharmacy issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Therese I

    2008-04-15

    To implement and evaluate an innovative approach to a pharmacy seminar course intended to develop students' presentation skills and encourage them to think critically about contemporary pharmacy issues. The instructor provided lectures intended to prepare students for their presentations. These lectures included tips on writing abstracts, learning objectives, use of visual aids, and presentation delivery. Pairs of students chose a pharmacy issue, researched their topic including identifying various strengths of evidence to support a perspective, wrote an abstract and learning objectives, prepared their visual aids, and delivered a pro/con perspective. Students also provided peer evaluations for these presentations. A personal response system was used to provide class input on the presentations. Ninety-five percent of the peer evaluations of the presentations were good to excellent. The overall course evaluations indicated achievement of course goals. A pharmacy seminar course intended to develop student presentation skills and critical thinking about contemporary pharmacy issues was demonstrated to be successful. The "taking sides" format was an effective design for accomplishing these objectives.

  8. Pharmacy residents' attitudes toward pharmaceutical industry promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashker, Sumer; Burkiewicz, Jill S

    2007-08-15

    The attitudes of pharmacy residents toward pharmaceutical industry promotion and the perceived effects of such promotion on the knowledge and professional practice of the residents were studied. A questionnaire study of current postgraduate year 1 and postgraduate year 2 pharmacy residents was conducted. Questions were adapted from instruments used in studies of medical student or physician attitudes regarding the pharmaceutical industry. The questionnaire requested demographic information about the resident, information regarding the resident's exposure to specific types of pharmaceutical company-related activities, and the resident's perception of whether the residency program or department had policies or guidelines regarding interactions with the pharmaceutical industry. Questions investigated the attitudes toward pharmaceutical industry promotion and the perceived influence of pharmaceutical industry promotion on the professional knowledge and behavior of the residents. Responses were received from 496 pharmacy residents. Nearly all (89%) residents agreed that pharmaceutical company-sponsored educational events enhance knowledge. Almost half (43%) of the respondents reported that information from educational events influences therapeutic recommendations. One quarter (26%) of the pharmacy residents indicated prior training regarding pharmacist-industry interactions, and most (60%) residents indicated that their institution's residencies or departments have policies regarding interactions with the pharmaceutical industry. Most surveyed pharmacy residents believed that educational events sponsored by pharmaceutical companies enhance knowledge. Respondents whose institutions had policies or who had received training about such events were less likely than other respondents to perceive an influence of the events on their knowledge and behavior.

  9. Pharmacy student perceptions of adverse event reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalari, Sirisha; Dormarunno, Matthew; Zvenigorodsky, Oleg; Mohan, Aparna

    2011-09-10

    To assess US pharmacy students' knowledge and perceptions of adverse event reporting. To gauge pharmacy students' impressions of adverse event reporting, a 10-question survey instrument was administered that addressed student perceptions of the reporting procedures of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and pharmaceutical manufacturers, as well as student understanding of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and its relationship to adverse event reporting. Two hundred twenty-eight pharmacy students responded to the survey. The majority of respondents believed that the FDA is more likely than a pharmaceutical company to take action regarding an adverse event. There were misconceptions relating to the way adverse event reports are handled and the influence of HIPAA regulations on reporting. Communication between the FDA and pharmaceutical manufacturers regarding adverse event reports is not well understood by pharmacy students. Education about adverse event reporting should evolve so that by the time pharmacy students become practitioners, they are well acquainted with the relevance and importance of adverse event reporting.

  10. Pharmacy executives: leadership issues and associated skills, knowledge, and abilities in the U.S. Department of Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Andrew B; Finstuen, Kenn; Hudak, Ronald P

    2003-01-01

    To identify the issues or problems that current and aspiring U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) pharmacy executives will face in the future and to define the skills, knowledge, and abilities (SKAs) required to successfully address these issues. Delphi method for executive decision making. DoD. Ninety-three pharmacists serving in the military grades of lieutenant colonel/commander and colonel/captain, as well as pharmacists selected for promotion to those grades. iterations of the Delphi method for executive decision making separated by an expert panel content analysis. Round 1--participants identified five major issues believed to be of greatest importance to pharmacy executives and reported specific SKAs that might be needed to successfully manage those issues. An expert panel sorted these issues into meaningful domains, then provided an appropriate title for each domain. Round 2--on a 7-point scale, respondents rated the SKA items according to their assessment of how much a future DoD pharmacy executive would need each SKA. Response rates were 44.1% and 46.2% for Delphi rounds 1 and 2, respectively. The first round generated 62 unique issues facing pharmacy executives. The expert panel reviewed and sorted the issues into eight domains and selected an appropriate title for each domain. The domains identified by the panel were human resources, pharmacy operations/business practices, information management and technology, financial resources, formulary management, drug therapy management, pharmacy benefit management, and leadership. During round 2, 73.3% of the top 15 rated SKAs came from the drug therapy management, leadership, and formulary management domains. The three highest-rated SKAs were "ability to see the big picture," "ability to build strong relations with medical staffs," and "skills in both writing and verbal communication." The issues facing future DoD pharmacy executives will require them to expand their clinical abilities as well as their ability to

  11. Expandable gastroretentive dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausner, Eytan A; Lavy, Eran; Friedman, Michael; Hoffman, Amnon

    2003-06-24

    Expandable gastroretentive dosage forms (GRDFs) have been designed for the past 3 decades. They were originally created for possible veterinary use, but later the design was modified for enhanced drug therapy in humans. These GRDFs are easily swallowed and reach a significantly larger size in the stomach due to swelling or unfolding processes that prolong their gastric retention time (GRT). After drug release, their dimensions are minimized with subsequent evacuation from the stomach. Gastroretentivity is enhanced by the combination of substantial dimensions with high rigidity of the dosage form to withstand the peristalsis and mechanical contractility of the stomach. Positive results were obtained in preclinical and clinical studies evaluating GRT of expandable GRDFs. Narrow absorption window drugs compounded in such systems have improved in vivo absorption properties. These findings are an important step towards the implementation of expandable GRDFs in the clinical setting. The current review deals with expandable GRDFs reported in articles and patents, and describes the physiological basis of their design. Using the dog as a preclinical screening model prior to human studies, relevant imaging techniques and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic aspects of such delivery systems are also discussed.

  12. Using the Consumer Experience with Pharmacy Services Survey as a quality metric for ambulatory care pharmacies: older adults' perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyanbola, Olayinka O; Mott, David A; Croes, Kenneth D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe older adults' perceptions of evaluating and comparing pharmacies based on the Consumer Experience with Pharmacy Services Survey (CEPSS), describe older adults' perceived importance of the CEPSS and its specific domains, and explore older adults' perceptions of the influence of specific CEPSS domains in choosing/switching pharmacies. Design Focus group methodology was combined with the administration of a questionnaire. The focus groups explored participants' perceived importance of the CEPSS and their perception of using the CEPSS to choose and/or switch pharmacies. Then, using the questionnaire, participants rated their perceived importance of each CEPSS domain in evaluating a pharmacy, and the likelihood of using CEPSS to switch pharmacies if their current pharmacy had low ratings. Descriptive and thematic analyses were done. Setting 6 semistructured focus groups were conducted in a private meeting room in a Mid-Western state in the USA. Participants 60 English-speaking adults who were at least 65 years, and had filled a prescription at a retail pharmacy within 90 days. Results During the focus groups, the older adults perceived the CEPSS to have advantages and disadvantages in evaluating and comparing pharmacies. Older adults thought the CEPSS was important in choosing the best pharmacies and avoiding the worst pharmacies. The perceived influence of the CEPSS in switching pharmacies varied depending on the older adult's personal experience or trust of other consumers' experience. Questionnaire results showed that participants perceived health/medication-focused communication as very important or extremely important (n=47, 82.5%) in evaluating pharmacies and would be extremely likely (n=21, 36.8%) to switch pharmacies if their pharmacy had low ratings in this domain. Conclusions The older adults in this study are interested in using patient experiences as a quality metric for avoiding the worst pharmacies. Pharmacists' communication

  13. A Postdoctoral Fellowship in Industrial Clinical Pharmacy Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Joseph; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A postdoctoral pharmacy fellowship is described that provides training in industrial clinical pharmacy practice and related tasks associated with the development of new pharmaceuticals, through experience in industrial and hospital settings and in research projects. (MSE) PUBTYPE[141

  14. Arguments for theory-based pharmacy practice research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Traulsen, Janine Marie; Bissell, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Nørgaard LS, Morgall JM, Bissell P. . International Journal of Pharmacy Practice 2000; 8 (2): 77-81.......Nørgaard LS, Morgall JM, Bissell P. . International Journal of Pharmacy Practice 2000; 8 (2): 77-81....

  15. An Elective Course in Community Pharmacy Management with Practitioner Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederholt, Joseph B.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A course in community pharmacy management that involves community pharmacy managers in the instruction of the course found a high degree of pharmacist interest in course projects and in participation in the program. (MSE)

  16. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: practice and research in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herborg, Hanne; Sørensen, Ellen Westh; Frøkjaer, Bente

    2007-01-01

    pharmacy organizations. Reimbursement is sought at the national level, as well as from payers in the new local authority structures in Denmark. The trend in research focuses on collaborative health care, on developing and documenting the value of community pharmacy services, and on optimizing services......OBJECTIVE: To review the current status of Danish community pharmacy in both practice and research and discuss future trends. FINDINGS: Denmark has a social welfare system that provides health care, social services, and pensions to its population. Medical care and surgery are free. Prescription...... medicines are reimbursed by an average of 56%. Community pharmacies are privately owned, but the health authorities regulate drug prices and the number of pharmacies. At present, Denmark has 322 pharmacies, corresponding to 1 pharmacy per 16,700 inhabitants. All pharmacies provide prescription and over...

  17. Integrating pharmacogenomics into pharmacy practice via medication therapy management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Susan M

    2011-01-01

    To explore the application and integration of pharmacogenomics in pharmacy clinical practice via medication therapy management (MTM) to improve patient care. Department of Health & Human Services (HHS) Personalized Health Care Initiative, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) pharmacogenomics activity, and findings from the Utilizing E-Prescribing Technologies to Integrate Pharmacogenomics into Prescribing and Dispensing Practices Stakeholder Workshop, convened by the American Pharmacists Association (APhA) on March 5, 2009. Participants at the Stakeholder Workshop included diverse representatives from pharmacy, medicine, pathology, health information technology (HIT), standards, science, academia, government, and others with a key interest in the clinical application of pharmacogenomics. In 2006, HHS initiated the Personalized Health Care Initiative with the goal of building the foundation for the delivery of gene-based care, which may prove to be more effective for large patient subpopulations. In the years since the initiative was launched, drug manufacturers and FDA have begun to incorporate pharmacogenomic data and applications of this information into the drug development, labeling, and approval processes. New applications and processes for using this emerging pharmacogenomics data are needed to effectively integrate this information into clinical practice. Building from the findings of a stakeholder workshop convened by APhA and the advancement of the pharmacist's collaborative role in patient care through MTM, emerging roles for pharmacists using pharmacogenomic information to improve patient care are taking hold. Realizing the potential role of the pharmacist in pharmacogenomics through MTM will require connectivity of pharmacists into the electronic health record infrastructure to permit the exchange of pertinent health information among all members of a patient's health care team. Addressing current barriers, concerns, and system limitations and developing

  18. Pharmacy student driven detection of adverse drug reactions in the community pharmacy setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Søren Troels; Søndergaard, Birthe; Honoré, Per Hartvig; Bjerrum, Ole Jannik

    2011-04-01

    Post-marketing safety studies of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) form an important part of pharmacovigilance. Countries having a formal pharmacovigilance system to a large extent rely on voluntary ADR reporting from health professionals through spontaneous report systems. The contribution of pharmacists in ADR reporting, although varies significantly among countries. Pharmacists in community pharmacies are in a unique position for detection of experienced ADRs by the drug users. The study reports from a study on community pharmacy internship students' proactive role in ADR detection through direct encountering and questioning with drug users. Pharmacy students undertaking internship in a community pharmacy were approached. Thirteen students from nine community pharmacies participated in the project as data collectors. Prior to the study students attended an educational seminar focusing on ADR detection and reporting in general. Ibuprofen was chosen as the drug of study. Pharmacy students approached recurrent drug users purchasing the drug. Participating users were asked about experienced ADRs linked to ibuprofen use. Reported ADRs were collected and analysed. Hundred and twenty eight ibuprofen users participated in the study out of who thirty three reported forty five ADRs possibly linked to ibuprofen use. The reported ADRs followed earlier reported patterns of distribution with gastric pain showing up as the most commonly reported symptom followed by heartburn, nausea, diarrhoea and constipation. Through adequate training community pharmacy internship students get competencies and are capable of detecting and reporting ADRs through direct questions to drug users. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Pharmacy Education in India: Strategies for a Better Future

    OpenAIRE

    Jishnu, V; Gilhotra, RM; Mishra, DN.

    2011-01-01

    In this world of specialization and globalization the pharmacy education in India is suffering from serious backdrops and flaws. There is an urgent need to initiate an academic exercise aimed at attaining revamping of curriculum, keeping in pace with current and emerging trends in the field of pharmacy. Unfortunately all these years, enough emphasis was not laid on strengthening the components of Community Pharmacy, Hospital and Clinical pharmacy, while designing curriculum at diploma and deg...

  20. Analyzing methods for improved management of workflow in an outpatient pharmacy setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Alex; Eckel, Stephen F

    2012-06-01

    The results of a workflow analysis at a large central outpatient pharmacy are reported, with theoretical modeling of potential efficiencies attainable through workflow enhancements. In keeping with concepts of "lean health care," a time-motion analysis was conducted at a central outpatient pharmacy that dispenses an average of 250 prescriptions per day. Through direct observation over an eight-week period, pharmacists' dispensing-oriented activities were categorized as either value-added (i.e., centered on direct pharmacist-patient contact and, hence, providing increased value to the patient) or non-value-added. The workflow analysis suggested opportunities to derive more value from pharmacists' time by shifting their efforts away from non-value-added activities (i.e., technical dispensing functions) toward value-added activities: engagement of patients on entry into the pharmacy, pharmacist order verification, and patient counseling. The theoretical application of two models of enhanced workflow indicated that model A (expansion of pharmacy technicians' standard duties to include prescription preparation, stock-container retrieval, and prescription processing) could reduce pharmacists' non-value-added time by about 55%, or more than six minutes per prescription, with an even greater (74%) potential reduction offered by model B (technician performance of checkout procedures in addition to expanded standard duties). Although the research site was atypical in its high staffing level relative to prescription volume, the findings suggest that similar workflow enhancements might be applicable in a range of community practice settings. Through analysis of existing workflow in an outpatient pharmacy, opportunities to optimize the use of value-added pharmacist time in the dispensing process were identified.

  1. Specifics of marketing tools application in pharmacies: Case study Pharmacies Subotica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojkov Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of pharmacies in the social and health systems has gone through significant changes in the last decades of the twentieth century. From the place for the production of medicines, through procurement and distribution, pharmacy eventually became the modern health care facilities that participates in the health system and the retail pharmaceutical market. The dualistic role of pharmacy requires adjustment to the demands of contemporary health policy and market principles. Implementation of modern tools of business, such as marketing, was not present to a greater extent until recently in pharmacies, so this study is focused on the example of Pharmacy Subotica, which emphasizes the practical importance and specifics of marketing in pharmaceutical practice. Activities in the implementation of the marketing mix in the period 2009-2012 will be shown in this paper, as well as indicators of business success of Pharmacies Subotica in the same period. Following a four-year period in which strategy related to elements of the marketing mix strategy (4P, was implemented the growth of financial performance indicators (number of issued fiscal receipt and financially volume of business. At the same time, due to the more rigid regulations, the number of prescriptions in 2012 declined in amount. Pharmacy Subotica is one of the first pharmacies in Serbia, which has structured and implemented marketing planning tools for the purpose of positioning in the retail pharmaceutical market. By modeling business policy in line with modern market principles, developments of information technology and the ethics of health care workers, this institution has made pioneering steps in pharmaceutical marketing in the Serbian pharmacy.

  2. The adherence impact of a program offering specialty pharmacy services to patients using retail pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Janice M; Matlin, Olga S; Lotvin, Alan M; Brennan, Troyen A; Falkenrath, Randy; Kymes, Steven; Singh, Surya C; Kyrychenko, Pavlo; Shrank, William H

    2016-01-01

    A new service model integrates the specialty pharmacy's comprehensive service with the retail pharmacy's patient contact, giving patients options for medication delivery to home, pharmacy, or doctor's office. Evaluate the impact of the new service model on medication adherence. Retrospective cohort study One hundred fifteen CVS retail stores in Philadelphia participated in a pilot from May 2012 to October 2013, and 115 matched CVS retail stores from around the nation served as controls. All eligible patients from the intervention and control stores received specialty medications through CVS retail pharmacies prior to implementation of the new service model. The intervention patients were transitioned from retail pharmacy service to the specialty pharmacy with delivery options. The control patients received standard retail pharmacy services. Proportion of days covered and first fill persistence were tracked for 12 months before and after program implementation. Under the new service model, 228 patients new to therapy in the post period had a 17.5% increase in the rate of obtaining a second fill as compared to matched controls. Patients on therapy in both the pre- and the post-periods had a pre-post increase of 6.6% in average adherence rates and a pre-post increase of 10.8% in optimal adherence rates as compared to 326 matched controls. The study demonstrated significant improvement in both adherence to therapy and first-fill persistence among patients in the new service model integrating specialty pharmacy's comprehensive services with the retail pharmacy's patient contact and medication delivery choices. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Self-medication with antibiotics in the Republic of Srpska community pharmacies: pharmacy staff behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković-Peković, Vanda; Grubiša, Nataša

    2012-10-01

    Self-medication with antibiotics adds to the global risk of increased spread of bacterial resistance. Attitudes and behavior of health professionals also may reinforce self-medication with antibiotics. The aim of this study was to determine whether self-medication with antibiotics is possible in our community pharmacies and to what extent, and to evaluate the behavior and service of pharmacy health professionals regarding non-prescription antibiotic dispensation. An observational, cross-section study was conducted, and pseudo-patient methodology was used to establish the kind of professional service provided in case of patient's explicit demand to buy an antibiotic for treatment of self-diagnosed upper respiratory tract infection. Of the total 318 community pharmacies, 131 (41%) were visited and included in the study. Non-prescription antibiotics were dispensed in 76 (58%) pharmacies. Counseling and symptomatic therapy was offered in 88 (67%) pharmacies. In 25% of pharmacies, no symptomatic therapy was offered; instead, only an antibiotic was sold. Amoxicillin was sold in 85% of cases and, mostly, the one of 1.30 Euro per pack. Both oral and written use instructions were given in 78% cases, whereas none was given in 3% of cases. Self-medication with antibiotics occurs in our community pharmacies, despite being illegal. Pharmacy staff behavior can be a factor that puts patients at risk for self-medication with antibiotics. Community pharmacies are failing their tasks in enhancing rational use of antibiotics. Such a practice may be a consequence of weak enforcement and control over the legislation and professional standards. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Changes to supervision in community pharmacy: pharmacist and pharmacy support staff views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Fay; Schafheutle, Ellen I; Willis, Sarah C; Noyce, Peter R

    2013-11-01

    Pharmacists now offer increasing levels and ranges of clinical, diagnostic and public health services, which may require a pharmacist to be absent from the pharmacy premises. Currently, in the UK, many pharmacy activities legally require the direct supervision and physical presence of the pharmacist. This study aimed to explore the potential for changes to supervision, allowing pharmacist absence, and greater utilisation of pharmacy support staff. Four nominal group discussions were conducted in May 2012 with community pharmacists (CPs), community pharmacy support staff, hospital pharmacists and hospital pharmacy support staff, involving 21 participants. Participants were asked to generate pharmacy activities, which they felt could/could not be safely performed by support staff in the absence of a pharmacist, followed by a discussion of these items and voting using an agreement scale. A written record of the items generated and voting scores was made and the group discussion elements were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. The selling of general sales list medicines, assembly of prescriptions and provision of public health services received a high level of agreement between groups, as activities that could be performed. There was greater disagreement about the safety of support staff selling pharmacy medicines and handing out checked and bagged prescription items to patients. Group discussion revealed some of the main challenges to supervision changes, including CPs' perceptions about their presence being critical to patient safety, reluctance to relinquish control, concerns about knowing and trusting the competencies of support staff, and reluctance by support staff to take greater professional responsibility. The findings of this study aim to inform a future consultation on changes to pharmacy supervision in the UK. The empowerment of pharmacy technicians as a professional group may be key to any future change; this may require

  5. Migraine management in community pharmacies: practice patterns and knowledge of pharmacy personnel in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengcharoen, Woranuch; Lerkiatbundit, Sanguan

    2013-10-01

    To describe practice behavior and understanding among pharmacy personnel, both pharmacists and non-pharmacist staff, in the management of mild and moderate migraines. Migraine is recognized as a prevalent and chronic neurological disorder. In developing countries, such as Thailand, community pharmacies are a widely used source of health care for various illnesses including migraine. However, the quality of migraine management and knowledge among pharmacy personnel is unclear. Cross-sectional study. The sample comprised 142 randomly selected community pharmacies in a city in the south of Thailand. Simulated clients visited the pharmacies twice, at least 1 month apart, to ask for the treatment of mild and moderate migraines. After the encounters, question asking, drug dispensing, and advice giving by pharmacy staff were recorded. Subsequently, the providers in 135 pharmacies participated in the interview to evaluate their knowledge in migraine management. The majority of pharmacy personnel were less likely to ask questions in cases of mild migraine when compared with moderate attack (mean score [full score = 12] 1.8 ± 1.6 vs 2.6 ± 1.5, respectively, P knowledge on migraine management. Pharmacists had better knowledge on question asking (mild migraine 5.1 ± 2.1 vs 3.1 ± 1.3, respectively, P knowledge on advice giving but poorer drug dispensing in moderate migraine according to the guidelines, relative to non-pharmacists (20.5% vs 40.3%, P = .014). A large number of community pharmacists and non-pharmacist staff had inappropriate practice behavior and understanding. Continuing education and interventions are important to improve the practice and knowledge of pharmacy personnel, particularly the pharmacists. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  6. Curriculum reform in Finnish pharmacy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katajavuori, Nina; Hakkarainen, Katja; Kuosa, Tiina; Airaksinen, Marja; Hirvonen, Jouni; Holm, Yvonne

    2009-12-17

    To improve pharmacy education through integrating theory and practice, coherent constructively aligned course entities, and enhanced deep-level learning. The reform was conducted collaboratively with faculty and staff members, students, and stakeholders in pharmacy. The curriculum, syllabus, and teaching methods were assessed through evaluations and research, conducting core content analyses, and measuring the workload of pharmacy education courses. The new curriculum, launched in August 2005, consists of 6 strands, comprised of different courses which run through the entire program. Three years after the introduction of the reformed curriculum, the results of the reform are being evaluated. Ongoing assessments of teaching and learning will reveal how the education at the faculty level has developed since the reform. These assessment procedures are an integral part of the faculty's quality assurance program. The integration of practical training and theoretical studies was improved with personal study plans introduced to enhance students' learning.

  7. The new consumer - Implications for pharmacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgall, Janine M.; Almarsdóttir, Anna B.

    1999-01-01

    In this article, we argue that the extended role of the pharmacy profession appears to be driven more by professional interests than by the interests of the consumer. We believe that a better understanding of market trends in general, as well as research into consumer needs, will ultimately give...... the best results for the profession. We focus on the rise of consumerism and what is referred to as the 'new' or 'aggressive' consumer. We argue that unless the pharmacy profession understands this widespread phenomenon, it will continue to shoot wide of its goal to increase public support and to develop...... an appreciation of the pharmacist's professional skills. We propose that pharmacy practice research should analyse the current situation from the consumer perspective within the context of changes in society, specifically within the health care system....

  8. Entrepreneurs: leading the way to pharmacy's future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Caren McHenry

    2011-12-01

    Entrepreneurship has always been central to the practice of pharmacy. Whether opening a new retail store, setting up a unique clinic practice, or researching a novel therapy, pharmacists are continually looking forward and following their visions of how pharmacy can be part of a new direction in health care. In 2011, the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists (ASCP) Foundation--itself the product of entrepreneurship--awarded grants to three entrepreneurs who are seeking to establish a fee-for-service component of their senior care pharmacy practices in the community. The grant recipients, while differing in their approaches, share the common goal of providing safe, effective, and cost-justified medication therapy and education to ambulatory older adults.

  9. Disability in cultural competency pharmacy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W Thomas; Roth, Justin J; Okoro, Olihe; Kimberlin, Carole; Odedina, Folakemi T

    2011-03-10

    Improving health care providers' knowledge and ability to provide culturally competent care can limit the health disparities experienced by disadvantaged populations. As racial and ethnic cultures dominate cultural competency topics in education, alternative cultures such as disability have consistently been underrepresented. This article will make the case that persons with disabilities have a unique cultural identity, and should be addressed as an important component of cultural competency education in pharmacy schools. Examples of efforts in pharmacy education to incorporate cultural competency components are highlighted, many of which contain little or no mention of disability issues. Based on initiatives from other health professions, suggestions and considerations for the development of disability education within pharmacy curricula also are proposed.

  10. Balancing medicine prices and business sustainability: analyses of pharmacy costs, revenues and profit shed light on retail medicine mark-ups in rural Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waning, Brenda; Maddix, Jason; Soucy, Lyne

    2010-07-13

    financial experiences of pharmacy initiatives to inform future projects and advance access to medicines goals.

  11. Pharmacovigilance teaching in UK undergraduate pharmacy programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Melvyn P; Webley, Sherael D

    2013-03-01

    Pharmacists in the UK are able to report spontaneous adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Authority. The level of reporting by UK pharmacists remains low. This could be explained by poor knowledge of ADR reporting. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the level of pharmacovigilance education provided to pharmacy students on undergraduate pharmacy programmes in the UK. A cross-sectional survey was used to obtain data relating to the teaching of pharmacovigilance within schools of pharmacy. The survey was designed to reveal whether core elements pertinent to pharmacovigilance and specifically to spontaneous reporting were taught and to what extent. All of the respondents taught pharmacovigilance within an assessed compulsory module. A small number (23%) did not include pharmacovigilance law within their syllabus. In 54%, the amount of time devoted to teaching pharmacy students about their role in pharmacovigilance was less than 4 h in the 4-year course; only one respondent spent approximately 20 h, the remaining respondents (38%) spent between 4 and 8 h. The amount of time dedicated to the teaching of pharmacovigilance on pharmacy undergraduate degree programmes is low. Considering the importance of spontaneous reporting in drug safety and the shift in the role of the pharmacists, more time may need to be devoted to pharmacovigilance on pharmacy undergraduate courses. By doing so, new pharmacists would be more informed of the important role they play in drug safety and thereby potentially help enhance the level of ADR reporting. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Program for developing leadership in pharmacy residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Patrick D

    2012-07-15

    An innovative, structured approach to incorporating leadership development activities into pharmacy residency training is described. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) has called for increased efforts to make leadership development an integral component of the training of pharmacy students and new practitioners. In 2007, The Nebraska Medical Center (TNMC) took action to systematize leadership training in its pharmacy residency programs by launching a new Leadership Development Series. Throughout the residency year, trainees at TNMC participate in a variety of activities: (1) focused group discussions of selected articles on leadership concepts written by noted leaders of the past and present, (2) a two-day offsite retreat featuring trust-building exercises and physical challenges, (3) a self-assessment designed to help residents identify and use their untapped personal strengths, (4) training on the effective application of different styles of communication and conflict resolution, and (5) education on the history and evolution of health-system pharmacy, including a review and discussion of lectures by recipients of ASHP's Harvey A. K. Whitney Award. Feedback from residents who have completed the series has been positive, with many residents indicating that it has stimulated their professional growth and helped prepared them for leadership roles. A structured Leadership Development Series exposes pharmacy residents to various leadership philosophies and principles and, through the study of Harvey A. K. Whitney Award lectures, to the thoughts of past and present pharmacy leaders. Residents develop an increased self-awareness through a resident fall retreat, a StrengthsFinder assessment, and communication and conflict-mode assessment tools.

  13. Community pharmacy customer segmentation based on factors influencing their selection of pharmacy and over-the-counter medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Phaedon Kevrekidis

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: The community pharmacy market comprised of distinct customer segments that varied in the consumer preferences concerning the selection of pharmacy and OTCs, the evaluation of pharmaceutical services and products, and demographic characteristics.

  14. Dynamic and Regulated Competition in the Portuguese Pharmacy Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gomes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The pharmacy sector in Portugal has faced a time of profound changes and challenges: from market deregulation until the implementation of austerity measures as consequence of the international crisis boosted in 2008 and the signature of the Memorandum of Understanding (2011 between the Portuguese Government and Troika. The economic unsustainability of the sector and in consequence, the increasing number of pharmacies in insolvencies or seizures is a reality. This study analyses the dynamics of the pharmacy market following the introduction of pro-competitive measures and the impact of the economic crisis while the market was adjusting to a new configuration and structure. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted using data from ANF national registries of community pharmacy between 2010 and 2016. Closures were counted for existing pharmacies and openings were counted for new pharmacies and reopenings. Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis were performed. Results: The results show the existence of a dynamic and competitive market, evidenced by the entry and exit of pharmacies. In the last six years 236 pharmacies opened and 147 closed, which shows a positive balance with 89 new pharmacies. The distribution of pharmacies seems to follow citizens’ needs meeting the national health policy goals of equity and access to health care services. Conclusion: These results suggest that pharmacies were able to restructure and adapt to times of change and a mature and fully functioning market. The flexibility of the legal framework promotes a market of regulated competition through the entry and exists of pharmacies.

  15. Statistical Background Needed to Read Professional Pharmacy Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Randy; And Others

    1978-01-01

    An examination of professional pharmacy literature was undertaken to determine types of statistical terminology and analyses presented and compare these with the results of a survey to determine the statistical backgrounds of graduates of schools that grant the Doctor of Pharmacy and/or Master of Science in Hospital Pharmacy. (JMD)

  16. The Implementation of Pharmacy Competence Teaching in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmer, Daisy; Sepp, Kristiina; Veski, Peep; Raal, Ain

    2017-01-01

    Background: The PHAR-QA, “Quality Assurance in European Pharmacy Education and Training”, project has produced the European Pharmacy Competence Framework (EPCF). The aim of this study was to evaluate the existing pharmacy programme at the University of Tartu, using the EPCF. Methods: A qualitative assessment of the pharmacy programme by a convenience sample (n = 14) representing different pharmacy stakeholders in Estonia. EPCF competency levels were determined by using a five-point scale tool adopted from the Dutch competency standards framework. Mean scores of competency levels given by academia and other pharmacy stakeholders were compared. Results: Medical and social sciences, pharmaceutical technology, and pharmacy internship were more frequent subject areas contributing to EPCF competencies. In almost all domains, the competency level was seen higher by academia than by other pharmacy stakeholders. Despite on-board theoretical knowledge, the competency level at graduation could be insufficient for independent professional practice. Other pharmacy stakeholders would improve practical implementation of theoretical knowledge, especially to increase patient care competencies. Conclusions: The EPCF was utilized to evaluate professional competencies of entry-level pharmacists who have completed a traditional pharmacy curriculum. More efficient training methods and involvement of practicing specialists were suggested to reduce the gaps of the existing pharmacy programme. Applicability of competence teaching in Estonia requires more research and collaborative communication within the pharmacy sector. PMID:28970430

  17. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: practice and research in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickhoff, Christiane; Schulz, Martin

    2006-04-01

    To discuss the provision of pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies in Germany including community pharmacy, organization and delivery of health services, pharmacy education, community pharmacy services, research in community pharmacy, and future plans for community pharmacy services. In Germany, cognitive pharmaceutical services have been developed for more than 12 years. Several studies and programs have shown that pharmaceutical care and other pharmaceutical services are feasible in community pharmacy practice and that patients benefit from these services. In 2003, a nationwide contract was established between representatives of the community pharmacy owners and the largest German health insurance fund. In this so-called family pharmacy contract, remuneration of pharmacists for provision of pharmaceutical care services was successfully negotiated for the first time. In 2004, a trilateral integrated care contract was signed that additionally included general practitioners, combining the family pharmacy with the family physician. Within a few months, the vast majority (>17 000) of community pharmacies have registered to participate in this program. German community pharmacies are moving from the image of mainly supplying drugs toward the provision of cognitive pharmaceutical services.

  18. Pharmacy Students Perception of the Application of Learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate pharmacy students' perception of the application of learning management system (LMS) in their education in a Doctor of Pharmacy program in Benin City. Method: In a special ICT class, 165 pharmacy students were introduced to LMS using an open source program, DoceboÓ after which a ...

  19. Selecting a pharmacy layout design using a weighted scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Alissa L; Huang, Yu-Li

    2012-05-01

    A weighted scoring system was used to select a pharmacy layout redesign. Facilities layout design techniques were applied at a local hospital pharmacy using a step-by-step design process. The process involved observing and analyzing the current situation, observing the current available space, completing activity flow charts of the pharmacy processes, completing communication and material relationship charts to detail which areas in the pharmacy were related to one another and how they were related, researching applications in other pharmacies or in scholarly works that could be beneficial, numerically defining space requirements for areas within the pharmacy, measuring the available space within the pharmacy, developing a set of preliminary designs, and modifying preliminary designs so they were all acceptable to the pharmacy staff. To select a final layout that could be implemented in the pharmacy, those layouts were compared via a weighted scoring system. The weighted aspect further allowed additional emphasis on categories based on their effect on pharmacy performance. The results produced a beneficial layout design as determined through simulated models of the pharmacy operation that more effectively allocated and strategically located space to improve transportation distances and materials handling, employee utilization, and ergonomics. Facilities layout designs for a hospital pharmacy were evaluated using a weighted scoring system to identify a design that was superior to both the current layout and alternative layouts in terms of feasibility, cost, patient safety, employee safety, flexibility, robustness, transportation distance, employee utilization, objective adherence, maintainability, usability, and environmental impact.

  20. 76 FR 66965 - Treasure Coast Specialty Pharmacy Decision and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... Enforcement Administration Treasure Coast Specialty Pharmacy Decision and Order On September 14, 2011... Registration, BT9856002, issued to Treasure Coast Specialty Pharmacy, be, and it hereby is, revoked. I further order that any pending application of Treasure Coast Specialty Pharmacy, to renew or modify his...

  1. Smoking cessation medications and cigarettes in Guatemala pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viteri, Ernesto; Barnoya, Joaquin; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Solorzano, Pedro J

    2012-09-01

    Guatemala, a party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), is obliged to promote the wider availability of smoking cessation treatment and to restrict tobacco advertising. Pharmacies are fundamental in providing smoking cessation medications but also might increase the availability of cigarettes. To assess availability of cessation medications and cigarettes and their corresponding advertising in Guatemala pharmacies. In Guatemala City a representative sample was selected from a list of registered pharmacies classified by type (non-profit, chain, independent). In addition, all pharmacies in the neighbouring town of Antigua were included for comparison. Trained surveyors used a checklist to characterise each pharmacy with respect to availability and advertising of cessation medications and cigarettes. A total of 505 pharmacies were evaluated. Cessation medications were available in 115 (22.8%), while cigarettes were available in 29 (5.7%) pharmacies. When available, medications were advertised in 1.7% (2) and cigarettes in 72.4% (21) of pharmacies. Chain pharmacies were significantly more likely to sell cessation medications and cigarettes, and to advertise cigarettes than were non-profit and independent pharmacies. Most pharmacies in Guatemala do not stock cessation medications or cigarettes. Cigarette advertising was more prevalent than advertising for cessation medications. FCTC provisions have not been implemented in Guatemala pharmacies.

  2. Sowing the seeds for improved Pharmacy education in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For today\\'s pharmacy graduates to function effectively in an ever increasing technological world, pharmacy students must be trained to use computer facilities as they will always encounter the application of computerized information resources throughout their educational and professional lives. Similarly, pharmacy ...

  3. The general pharmacy work explored in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mark, M. P.

    Objective To determine the frequency and nature of general pharmacy work at three Dutch community pharmacies. Methods In a purposive and convenience sample of three Dutch community pharmacies the general work was investigated. Multi-dimensional work sampling (MDWS) was used. The study took six

  4. 75 FR 65667 - Lincoln Pharmacy; Revocation of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... Enforcement Administration Lincoln Pharmacy; Revocation of Registration On March 26, 2010, I, the Deputy... Registration (Order) to Lincoln Pharmacy (Respondent), of Edison, New Jersey. The Order proposed the revocation... the following findings. Findings Respondent is a retail pharmacy located at 52 Lincoln Highway, Edison...

  5. 21 CFR 1304.40 - Notification by online pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification by online pharmacies. 1304.40 Section 1304.40 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECORDS AND REPORTS OF REGISTRANTS Online Pharmacies § 1304.40 Notification by online pharmacies. (a) Thirty days prior to offering a...

  6. The Redesign of a Community Pharmacy Internship Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattin, Anthony J; Kelling, Sarah E; Szyskowski, Jim; Izor, Michelle L; Findley, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Pharmacy internships provide students with practical experiences that lead to enhancement of clinical skills and personal growth. To describe the design and implementation of a structured 10-week summer pharmacy internship program in a supermarket chain pharmacy. The pharmacy leadership team developed and piloted a new format of the pharmacy internship during the summer of 2013. Pharmacy students in professional year 1 (P1), 2 (P2), and 4 (P4) were invited to apply for a paid internship. Pharmacy students were recruited from all colleges of pharmacy in the state of Michigan. The goal of the new program was to create a focused learning opportunity that encouraged students to develop knowledge, skills, and abilities about patient care, pharmacy management, and working within a team. A total of 19 interns were recruited (P1 = 7, P2 = 7, and P4 = 5). Students practiced 40 hours per week and participated in the medication dispensing process and employee biometrics screening program. Interns provided approximately 500 assessments on pharmacy employees and all P1 and P2 interns completed a patient care project. The restructured internship program provided pharmacy students with a 10-week program that exposed them to many aspects of community pharmacy practice. The program needs future refinement and assessment measures to verify interns improve skills throughout the program. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Critical Care Pharmacist Market Perceptions: Comparison of Critical Care Program Directors and Directors of Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, David R; Persaud, Rosemary A; Naseman, Ryan W; Choudhary, Kavish; Carter, Kristen E; Hansen, Amanda

    2017-05-01

    Background: While hospital beds continue to decline as patients previously treated as inpatients are stabilized in ambulatory settings, the number of critical care beds available in the United States continues to rise. Growth in pharmacy student graduation, postgraduate year 2 critical care (PGY2 CC) residency programs, and positions has also increased. There is a perception that the critical care trained pharmacist market is saturated, yet this has not been evaluated since the rise in pharmacy graduates and residency programs. Purpose: To describe the current perception of critical care residency program directors (CC RPDs) and directors of pharmacy (DOPs) on the critical care pharmacist job market and to evaluate critical care postresidency placement and anticipated changes in PGY2 CC programs. Methods: Two electronic surveys were distributed from October 2015 to November 2015 through Vizient/University HealthSystem Consortium, American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP), Society of Critical Care Medicine, and American College of Clinical Pharmacy listservs to target 2 groups of respondents: CC RPDs and DOPs. Questions were based on the ASHP Pharmacy Forecast and the Pharmacy Workforce Center's Aggregate Demand Index and were intended to identify perceptions of the critical care market of the 2 groups. Results: Of 116 CC RPDs, there were 66 respondents (56.9% response rate). Respondents have observed an increase in applicants; however, they do not anticipate increasing the number of positions in the next 5 years. The overall perception is that there is a balance in supply and demand in the critical care trained pharmacist market. A total of 82 DOPs responded to the survey. Turnover of critical care pharmacists within respondent organizations is expected to be low. Although a majority of DOPs plan to expand residency training positions, only 9% expect to increase positions in critical care PGY2 training. Overall, DOP respondents indicated a balance of

  8. Background of teaching Pharmacy in Eastern University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma L. Ortega-López

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although Higher Education of Pharmacy in Santiago de Cuba has nearly three decades of existence, so far no study has been made to present the history of pharmacy career chronologically and systematically, so that the objective of this work was to characterize such records on the basis of the review and analysis of existing information in both state and private archives, stating the most relevant aspects of university education of Pharmaceutical Sciences in Santiago de Cuba to the inclusion of such studies in the Universidad de Oriente.

  9. Community Pharmacy Marketing: Strategies for Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Rodis, Pharm.D., B.C.P.S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As community pharmacies are implementing increasingly more clinical services they are faced with a new challenge of marketing these services. This article discusses The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy Clinical Partners Program’s (Clinical Partners experiences in marketing clinical services to patients, barriers encountered through these experiences, and presents suggestions for future marketing of services.Experience: Clinical Partners developed two targeted marketing projects and evaluated impact on patient enrollment in services. In January 2008, the pharmacy ran a series of radio advertisements, newspaper print advertisements, and face to face marketing in the community with the focus of each being patient care services. During this project five individuals expressed interest in Clinical Partners’ services. Four indicated that they heard about Clinical Partners through the radio ad and one through the pharmacy website, though none chose to enroll in services. In 2009 Clinical Partners focused on marketing MTM in the form of a comprehensive medication review to current patients already enrolled in its anticoagulation management service. Following a three month period, 6 patients (8% of the 71 patients receiving the marketing intervention chose to enroll in MTM. Four additional patients have enrolled in MTM since conclusion of the project.Discussion: These projects and a review of available literature revealed barriers that pharmacies encounter when marketing clinical services to patients in an outpatient setting including patients’ unawareness of the role a pharmacist can play outside dispensing medications, patients’ belief they do not need clinical services, and patients’ unwillingness to pay a pharmacist out of pocket for services.Future Implications: To overcome these identified challenges, community pharmacies should consider integration of marketing techniques such as tailoring marketing to a target

  10. Community Pharmacy Marketing: Strategies for Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina D. Wood

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As community pharmacies are implementing increasingly more clinical services they are faced with a new challenge of marketing these services. This article discusses The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy Clinical Partners Program's (Clinical Partners experiences in marketing clinical services to patients, barriers encountered through these experiences, and presents suggestions for future marketing of services. Experience: Clinical Partners developed two targeted marketing projects and evaluated impact on patient enrollment in services. In January 2008, the pharmacy ran a series of radio advertisements, newspaper print advertisements, and face to face marketing in the community with the focus of each being patient care services. During this project five individuals expressed interest in Clinical Partners' services. Four indicated that they heard about Clinical Partners through the radio ad and one through the pharmacy website, though none chose to enroll in services. In 2009 Clinical Partners focused on marketing MTM in the form of a comprehensive medication review to current patients already enrolled in its anticoagulation management service. Following a three month period, 6 patients (8% of the 71 patients receiving the marketing intervention chose to enroll in MTM. Four additional patients have enrolled in MTM since conclusion of the project. Discussion: These projects and a review of available literature revealed barriers that pharmacies encounter when marketing clinical services to patients in an outpatient setting including patients' unawareness of the role a pharmacist can play outside dispensing medications, patients' belief they do not need clinical services, and patients' unwillingness to pay a pharmacist out of pocket for services. Future Implications: To overcome these identified challenges, community pharmacies should consider integration of marketing techniques such as tailoring marketing to a target population

  11. Community pharmacy loyalty among individuals with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzier, Sophie; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Lesage, Alain; Moisan, Jocelyne

    2013-01-01

    Community pharmacists can use medication records to assist individuals who are loyal to their pharmacy in better managing their pharmacotherapy. However, the extent of community pharmacy loyalty among individuals with severe mental illness such as schizophrenia remains unknown. To assess the extent of community pharmacy loyalty among individuals with schizophrenia and identify factors associated with loyalty. Using the Quebec Health Insurance Board databases, a cohort study of individuals with schizophrenia who claimed an antipsychotic drug for the first time between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2005 was conducted. Such individuals were considered loyal to their community pharmacy if they filled all their prescriptions for any drug at the same community pharmacy during the second year after antipsychotics initiation. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with community pharmacy loyalty (measured in the first year after antipsychotics initiation). Of the 6159 individuals in the study, 57.8% were loyal to one pharmacy. Men were more likely to be loyal (Adjusted OR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.16-1.44), as were individuals aged 30-64 years and those aged ≥65 years, when compared to individuals 20-29 years (1.70; 1.48-1.95 and 2.39; 1.97-2.90, respectively). Individuals who filled their antipsychotics on a weekly basis were also more likely to be loyal (1.39; 1.18-1.63). Factors associated with non-loyalty were welfare beneficiary status (0.79; 0.70-0.89), having substance-use disorder (0.69; 0.60-0.80), a greater number of different types of drugs (5-8 types = 0.76; 0.66-0.87; 9-51 = 0.59; 0.50-0.69), and emergency department visits (0.71; 0.60-0.82). Results suggest that medication records in community pharmacies are incomplete for 42.2% of individuals with schizophrenia. Individuals more likely to experience more severe illness were also those less likely to be loyal. Given the potentially severe consequences of medication-related problems

  12. Costs of Loyalty Programmes Implementation in Pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sierpińska

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Receiving the customer is in today’s market realities top marketing companies. The build a sustainable partnership relation between the seller and the buyer is decide on businesses, takings and profit potential. Increasingly, therefore, perpetuates the view that create lasting relationships is an essential factor in improving the effectiveness of marketing activities conducted by modern businesses. The paper presents the implementation costs of loyalty programmes in pharmacies. These costs are presented based on a study of one of the largest pharmacy loyalty programmes in Poland: “I care for health”.

  13. Pharmacy students' views of managed care pharmacy and PBMS: should there be more exposure to managed care in the pharmacy curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittenger, Amy L; Starner, Catherine I; Thompson, Kaj; Gleason, Patrick P

    2010-06-01

    New accreditation standards implemented in 2007 have required schools of pharmacy to evaluate their existing curricula. An issue frequently encountered is the limited amount of content in the pharmacy curriculum specific to managed care and the role and function of pharmacy benefit management companies (PBMs). To determine pharmacy student knowledge and opinions about managed care pharmacy, including the function of PBMs in the delivery of health care, in a college of pharmacy, and to explore tendencies in communication between pharmacy interns and patients in the community setting. Students from all 4 PharmD years (n = 663) in 1 college of pharmacy were invited to complete an online survey consisting of 19 questions on demographics, students' views and understanding of PBMs, and interest in working at a PBM in their career. Follow-up in-person and online focus group sessions with representatives from each pharmacy class year were conducted to collect information from students regarding views and understanding of managed care pharmacy. Focus group data were analyzed using a constant comparative method by 2 independent researchers. Of 374 respondents, 332 (88.8%) answered all of the survey questions and were included in the analysis. Most students (72.0%) indicated that they understand little or nothing about the functions of PBMs; 84.3% rated the amount that they had been taught about PBMs in pharmacy school as "inadequate" or "very inadequate;" and 45.2% indicated little or no interest in a PBM career. Yet, 34.7% (99 of 285) of students with past or current community pharmacy work experience rated the percentage of time that PBMs directly affected their practice worksite during a shift at 50% or greater. Focus group emerging themes confirmed survey data findings that students feel uninformed about managed care but regularly communicate with patients about managed care issues. Focus group findings also suggest that students may perceive managed care to be a

  14. Expandable LED array interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Thomas Cheng-Hsin; Keller, Bernd

    2011-03-01

    A light emitting device that can function as an array element in an expandable array of such devices. The light emitting device comprises a substrate that has a top surface and a plurality of edges. Input and output terminals are mounted to the top surface of the substrate. Both terminals comprise a plurality of contact pads disposed proximate to the edges of the substrate, allowing for easy access to both terminals from multiple edges of the substrate. A lighting element is mounted to the top surface of the substrate. The lighting element is connected between the input and output terminals. The contact pads provide multiple access points to the terminals which allow for greater flexibility in design when the devices are used as array elements in an expandable array.

  15. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  16. Expanding the HAWC Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Johanna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-17

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory is expanding its current array of 300 water tanks to include 350 outrigger tanks to increase sensitivity to gamma rays above 10 TeV. This involves creating and testing hardware with which to build the new tanks, including photomultiplier tubes, high voltage supply units, and flash analog to digital converters. My responsibilities this summer included preparing, testing and calibrating that equipment.

  17. Using Bourdieu’s Theoretical Framework to Examine How the Pharmacy Educator Views Pharmacy Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To explore how different pharmacy educators view pharmacy knowledge within the United Kingdom MPharm program and to relate these findings to Pierre Bourdieu’s theoretical framework. Methods. Twelve qualitative interviews were conducted with 4 faculty members from 3 different types of schools of pharmacy in the United Kingdom: a newer school, an established teaching-based school, and an established research-intensive school. Selection was based on a representation of both science-based and practice-based disciplines, gender balance, and teaching experience. Results. The interview transcripts indicated how these members of the academic community describe knowledge. There was a polarization between science-based and practice-based educators in terms of Bourdieu’s description of field, species of capital, and habitus. Conclusion. A Bourdieusian perspective on the differences among faculty member responses supports our understanding of curriculum integration and offers some practical implications for the future development of pharmacy programs. PMID:26889065

  18. Using Bourdieu's Theoretical Framework to Examine How the Pharmacy Educator Views Pharmacy Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterfield, Jon

    2015-12-25

    To explore how different pharmacy educators view pharmacy knowledge within the United Kingdom MPharm program and to relate these findings to Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework. Twelve qualitative interviews were conducted with 4 faculty members from 3 different types of schools of pharmacy in the United Kingdom: a newer school, an established teaching-based school, and an established research-intensive school. Selection was based on a representation of both science-based and practice-based disciplines, gender balance, and teaching experience. The interview transcripts indicated how these members of the academic community describe knowledge. There was a polarization between science-based and practice-based educators in terms of Bourdieu's description of field, species of capital, and habitus. A Bourdieusian perspective on the differences among faculty member responses supports our understanding of curriculum integration and offers some practical implications for the future development of pharmacy programs.

  19. A Quantitative Professionalism Policy in a Community Pharmacy Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Shtaynberg, Jane; Rivkin, Anastasia; Shah, Bupendra; Rush, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether implementing a quantitative professionalism policy would lead to improved behaviors in an introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) and to evaluate students’ attitudes about professionalism expectations in the IPPE.

  20. The Role and Responsibilities of Pharmacy Student Government Associations in Pharmacy Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Daniel R; Ginsburg, Diane B; Harnois, Nathan J; Spooner, Joshua J

    2015-09-25

    Objective. To identify student government designs used by pharmacy programs and to examine their functions, duties, and relationships with other student organizations. Methods. A 21-question survey was developed and distributed to pharmacy deans, who were asked to forward the survey to the leader of their student government organization. Results were analyzed in aggregate. Results. Seventy-one programs responded (56%). Of respondents, 96% had a pharmacy student government association (PSGA). Programs officers generally consisted of a president (87%), secretary (81%), vice-president (79%), and treasurer (70%). Functions of the PSGAs included oversight of fundraisers (76%), on-campus events (69%), social events (61%), organizational meetings (59%), and off-campus events (57%). Approximately half (45%) of PSGAs were part of a larger, university-wide student government. Conclusion. While student government organizations are nearly universal in pharmacy programs, their oversight of other student organizations, as well as their involvement within a larger university-wide student government, varies greatly.

  1. The role of pharmacognosy in modern medicine and pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William P; Chin, Young-Won; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2006-03-01

    This review details the contribution to modern medicine and pharmacy made by natural products and drugs derived from natural products, with an emphasis on essential medicines and new introductions to the market. Areas covered include recent advances in the development of drugs derived from marine organisms, microbes, terrestrial animals, and vascular plants, and current issues regarding botanical medicines. The role of natural products in drug discovery and development is evaluated, particularly with regard to their value as sources of drug leads with "drug-like" properties. A rationale for the success of natural products research in providing new drugs and drug prototypes is presented, drawing on lines of evidence from chemical informatics and chemical ecology. Several innovative strategies for natural products drug discovery and evaluation of botanical medicines are also reviewed.

  2. Epidemiological study of self-medication and its associated factors among visitors to Birjand pharmacies, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Tahergorabi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Nowadays, scientific and industrial advances in medical field and pharmaceutics have provided access to various types of medications which, without proper monitoring, can lead to willful drug use. The present study aimed at determining self-medication epidemiology and its related factors in pharmacy visitors in Birjand in 2015. Materials and Methods: This analytical descriptive study was conducted on 944 Birjand pharmacy visitors, using stratified randomized sampling in the winter and spring of 2015. The necessary data was obtained by means of a validated and reliable questionnaire. Then, it was fed into SPSS (V:19 software and was analysed using the statistical testes X2 ,independent T, Mann Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis ,and Tukey at the significant level P<0.05. Results: Mean age of the participants was 32.8 ± 10.8 years. Among them, 84.5% from whom 58% were men, expressed their inappropriate self-medication. Common cold, allergy (61.4% and analgesics (43.9% had the highest rate of use. Unavailability of physicians (33%, easy access to medications in pharmacies (44.5% and similar prescriptions (30.6% were the main reasons for inappropriate self- medication. Conclusion: It was found that the inappropriate use of drugs, mainly in common cold, analgesic and antibiotic drugs, was high in the study population. The easy access to medicines pharmacies is probably the most important factor of the self medication.

  3. A Sequence of Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experiences to Address the New Standards for Experiential Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luer, Mark S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To implement an introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) curricular sequence in a manner that optimized preceptor availability, fostered significant learning, and addressed the new standards for experiential education. Design A 4-course, 300+ hour IPPE sequence was developed with 1 module in each semester of the first 2 professional years. Semesters were 18 weeks in length with IPPE taking place in the middle weeks as dedicated time blocks when no concurrent didactic courses were scheduled. Learning exercises were developed to build a progressive foundation in preparation for advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPE). Assessment During 2 academic years, 161 students participated in the IPPE program. Eighty-one students completed the 4-course sequence and another 80 students completed the first 2 courses. Collectively, 486 individual IPPE placements were made at over 120 community pharmacies and 60 hospital pharmacies or alternative practice sites located over a broad geographic region. Student evaluations by preceptors, evaluation of student journals by faculty, and surveys of students and preceptors demonstrated that course objectives were being achieved. Conclusion An innovative approach to scheduling IPPE optimized preceptor availability, exceeded the minimum number of IPPE hours required by current accreditation standards, and achieved development of desired competencies. PMID:19002273

  4. Community pharmacy incident reporting: a new tool for community pharmacies in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Certina; Hung, Patricia; Lee, Gary; Kadija, Medina

    2010-01-01

    Incident reporting offers insight into a variety of intricate processes in healthcare. However, it has been found that medication incidents are under reported in the community pharmacy setting. The Community Pharmacy Incident Reporting (CPhIR) program was created by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices Canada specifically for incident reporting in the community pharmacy setting in Canada. The initial development of key elements for CPhIR included several focus-group teleconferences with pharmacists from Ontario and Nova Scotia. Throughout the development and release of the CPhIR pilot, feedback from pharmacists and pharmacy technicians was constantly incorporated into the reporting program. After several rounds of iterative feedback, testing and consultation with community pharmacy practitioners, a final version of the CPhIR program, together with self-directed training materials, is now ready to launch. The CPhIR program provides users with a one-stop platform to report and record medication incidents, export data for customized analysis and view comparisons of individual and aggregate data. These unique functions allow for a detailed analysis of underlying contributing factors in medication incidents. A communication piece for pharmacies to share their experiences is in the process of development. To ensure the success of the CPhIR program, a patient safety culture must be established. By gaining a deeper understanding of possible causes of medication incidents, community pharmacies can implement system-based strategies for quality improvement and to prevent potential errors from occurring again in the future. This article highlights key features of the CPhIR program that will assist community pharmacies to improve their drug distribution system and, ultimately, enhance patient safety.

  5. Students’ Satisfaction with a Web-Based Pharmacy Program in a Re-Regulated Pharmacy Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Maria; Mattsson, Sofia; Gallego, Gisselle

    2017-01-01

    In response to the shortage of pharmacists in Northern Sweden, a web-based Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy program was established at Umeå University in 2003. In 2009, the Swedish pharmacy market was re-regulated from a state monopoly to an open market, but it is unknown what impact this has had on education satisfaction. The objectives of this study were to examine the level of satisfaction among graduates from a web-based pharmacy program and to describe what subjects and skills students would have liked more or less of in their education. A secondary objective was to compare the level of satisfaction before and after the Swedish pharmacy market was re-regulated. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2015 with all alumni who had graduated from the pharmacy program between 2006 and 2014 (n = 511), and responses to questions about graduates’ satisfaction with the program were analyzed (n = 200). Most graduates (88%) agreed or strongly agreed that the knowledge and skills acquired during their education were useful in their current job. The graduates stated that they would have wanted more applied pharmacy practice and self-care counselling, and fewer social pharmacy and histology courses. Further, 82% stated that they would start the same degree program if they were to choose again today, and 92% agreed or strongly agreed that they would recommend the program to a prospective student. Graduates were more likely to recommend the program after the re-regulation (p = 0.007). In conclusion, pharmacy graduates were very satisfied with their education, and no negative effects of the re-regulation could be observed on program satisfaction. PMID:28970459

  6. Students' Satisfaction with a Web-Based Pharmacy Program in a Re-Regulated Pharmacy Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Maria; Mattsson, Sofia; Gallego, Gisselle

    2017-08-25

    In response to the shortage of pharmacists in Northern Sweden, a web-based Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy program was established at Umeå University in 2003. In 2009, the Swedish pharmacy market was re-regulated from a state monopoly to an open market, but it is unknown what impact this has had on education satisfaction. The objectives of this study were to examine the level of satisfaction among graduates from a web-based pharmacy program and to describe what subjects and skills students would have liked more or less of in their education. A secondary objective was to compare the level of satisfaction before and after the Swedish pharmacy market was re-regulated. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2015 with all alumni who had graduated from the pharmacy program between 2006 and 2014 (n = 511), and responses to questions about graduates' satisfaction with the program were analyzed (n = 200). Most graduates (88%) agreed or strongly agreed that the knowledge and skills acquired during their education were useful in their current job. The graduates stated that they would have wanted more applied pharmacy practice and self-care counselling, and fewer social pharmacy and histology courses. Further, 82% stated that they would start the same degree program if they were to choose again today, and 92% agreed or strongly agreed that they would recommend the program to a prospective student. Graduates were more likely to recommend the program after the re-regulation (p = 0.007). In conclusion, pharmacy graduates were very satisfied with their education, and no negative effects of the re-regulation could be observed on program satisfaction.

  7. Factors associated with pharmacy students' attitudes towards learning communication skills - A study among Nordic pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensberg, Karin; Brandlistuen, Ragnhild Eek; Björnsdottir, Ingunn; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2018-03-01

    Good communication skills are essential for pharmacy students to help patients with their medicines. Students' attitudes towards communication skills learning will influence their willingness to engage in communication training, and their skills when dealing with patients later on in their professional life. The aim of this study was to explore Nordic pharmacy students' attitudes to communication skills learning, and the associations between those attitudes and various student characteristics. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted in 11 Nordic pharmacy schools between April 2015 and January 2016. The overall response rate for the final study population was 77% (367 out of 479 students). Pharmacy students who had fulfilled all mandatory communication training and most of their pharmacy practical experience periods were included. The communication skills attitudes scale was the main outcome. Linear regression models were fitted with the outcome variable and various student characteristics as the predictors, using generalized estimating equations to account for clustering within pharmacy schools. Nordic pharmacy students in general have moderately positive attitudes towards learning communication skills. Positive attitudes towards learning communication skills among pharmacy students were associated with being female (β adjusted 0.42, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.63, p communication skills improvement (β adjusted 0.50, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.71, pcommunication skills are not the result of personality (β adjusted  -0.24, 95% CI -0.44 to -0.04, p=0.017). The study provides important information for faculty members responsible for curriculum improvements and teachers to refine their teaching of communication skills. From this, the teaching can be better tailored to suit different students. The students' chances of being able to effectively help patients in the future will be increased by that. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing Consumer Preference using Community Pharmacy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the consumer preference for community pharmacy (CP) for filling prescription, and purchasing over-the-counter (OTC) and health products among customers frequenting eight departmental stores located in a Malaysian city. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the city of Wakaf Bharu, ...

  9. Running Head: Improving Pharmacy Customer Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-29

    maneuver around, especially for 7someone with a baby stroller , a wheel chair, crutches, a walker, a cane, or any apparatus that accompanies them such as...Satisfaction Measurement, Current Issues and Implications. Lippincott’s Case Management. 7, 5, 194-200. a a ] ]3 Pharmacy Satisfaction 52 1Appendix A

  10. Asynchronous versus Synchronous Learning in Pharmacy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motycka, Carol A.; St. Onge, Erin L.; Williams, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To better understand the technology being used today in pharmacy education through a review of the current methodologies being employed at various institutions. Also, to discuss the benefits and difficulties of asynchronous and synchronous methodologies, which are being utilized at both traditional and distance education campuses.…

  11. Discriminatory Attitudes of Pharmacy Students and Pharmacists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A cross-sectional survey of pharmacy students and pharmacists (n = 523) to assess discriminatory ... assessing discriminatory attitudes among ..... saliva cause HIV?(No). 67.1 63. 5. 65. 1. 63. 6. 75. 2. 64. 7. 68. 8. 72. 9. 79. 4. 91. 2. 85. 2. 90. 0. 70.4. Note: Responses in parenthesis represent correct answers.

  12. Pharmacy Educator Motives to Pursue Pedagogical Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baia, Patricia; Strang, Aimee F

    2016-10-25

    Objective. To investigate motives of pharmacy educators who pursue pedagogical knowledge through professional development programs and to develop a model of motivation to inform future development. Methods. A mixed-methods approach was used to study both qualitative and quantitative data. Written narratives, postmodule quizzes, and survey data were collected during a 5-year period (2010-2014) from pharmacy educators who participated in an online professional development program titled Helping Educators Learn Pedagogy (HELP). Grounded theory was used to create a model of motivation for why pharmacy educators might pursue pedagogical knowledge. Results. Participants reported being driven intrinsically by a passion for their own learning (self-centered motivation) and by the need to improve student learning (student-centered motivation) and extrinsically by program design, funding, and administrator encouragement. Conclusion. A new model of pharmacy educator motivation to pursue pedagogy knowledge, Pedagogical Knowledge Acquisition Theory (PKAT), emerged as a blended intrinsic and extrinsic model, which may have value in developing future professional development programs.

  13. State of Pharmacy Education in Bangladesh

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current state of pharmacy education in Bangladesh and identification of the current gaps in terms of manpower development for the pharmaceutical sector are described in this paper. Information for the preparation of this paper was obtained from documents and interviews of stakeholders drawn from regulatory, ...

  14. Community Pharmacies As Possible Centres For Routine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community Pharmacies As Possible Centres For Routine Immunization. R I Aderemi-Williams, C I Igwilo. Abstract. Background: Nigeria has embraced the primary healthcare movement and has committed its resources to the provision of cost effective community based primary healthcare strategy which recognizes the need ...

  15. [The history of pharmacy in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Chang-Koo; Nam, Young-Hee; Hwang, Seong-Mee

    2008-01-01

    The history of pharmacy in Korea from the era 'Dangun Mythology' to the present day was reviewed briefly with special emphases on the beginning of pharmaceutical education, the introduction of modern pharmaceutical education, the establishment of modern educational institutions, the evolution of a new 6-year pharmaceutical education program, and the separation of drug prescribing and dispensing.

  16. Documentation of pharmacotherapeutic interventions of pharmacy students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King ED

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available During patient care rounds with the medical team, pharmacy students have made positive contributions for the benefit of the patient. However, very little has been documented regarding the impact these future healthcare professionals are making while on clinical rotations.The objective of this study was to assess the impact that clinical interventions made by 6th year pharmacy students had on overall patient outcome. Using a special program for a personal digital assistant (PDA, the students daily recorded the pharmacotherapeutic interventions they made. The interventions ranged from dosage adjustments to providing drug information. Data was collected over a 12-week period from various hospitals and clinics in the Jacksonville, Florida area.In total, there were 89 pharmaceutical interventions performed and recorded by the students. Fifty interventions involved drug modification and fifty-four interventions were in regards to drug information and consulting. Of the drug information and consulting interventions, 15 were drug modification.This study shows the impact pharmacy students make in identifying, recommending, and documenting clinical pharmacotherapeutic interventions. Similar to pharmacists, pharmacy students can also have a positive contribution towards patient care.

  17. A pharmacy student's role as a teaching assistant in an undergraduate medicinal chemistry course - Implementation, evaluation, and unexpected opportunities for educational outreach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaVecchia, Matthew J; Claudio, Alyssa M; Fairclough, Jamie L

    2017-11-01

    To describe 1) a pharmacy student's teaching assistant (TA) role in an undergraduate medicinal chemistry course, 2) an active learning module co-developed by the TA and instructor, and 3) the unexpected opportunities for pharmacy educational outreach that resulted from this collaboration. Medicinal Chemistry (CHM3413) is an undergraduate course offered each fall at Palm Beach Atlantic University (PBA). As a TA for CHM3413, a pharmacy student from the Gregory School of Pharmacy (GSOP) at PBA co-developed and implemented an active learning module emphasizing foundational medicinal chemistry concepts as they pertain to performance enhancing drugs (PEDs). Surveys assessed undergraduate students' perceived knowledge of medicinal chemistry concepts, PEDs, and TA involvement. Students' (total n = 60, three fall semesters) perceived confidence in knowledge of medicinal chemistry concepts and PEDs increased significantly (p Educational/interprofessional outreach opportunities resulted from a pharmacy student TA's involvement in an undergraduate medicinal chemistry course. An advanced pharmacy practice experience elective in sports pharmacy (based on Ambrose's model) begins Fall 2017. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An investigation on pharmacy functions and services affecting satisfaction of patients with prescriptions in community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Hidehiko; Nakajima, Fumio; Tada, Yuichirou; Yoshikawa, Emi; Iwahashi, Yoshiki; Fujita, Kenji; Hayase, Yukitoshi

    2009-05-01

    Various functions expected by patient expects are needed with progress in the system for separation of dispensing and prescribing functions. In this investigation, the relationship between patient satisfaction and pharmacy function were analyzed quantitatively. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 178 community pharmacies. Questions on pharmacy functions and services totaled 87 items concerning information service, amenities, safety, personnel training, etc. The questionnaires for patients had five-grade scales and composed 11 items (observed variables). Based on the results, "the percentage of satisfied patients" was determined. Multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between patient satisfaction and pharmacy functions or services provided, to confirm patient's evaluation of the pharmacy, and how factors affected comprehensive satisfaction. In correlation analysis, "the number of pharmacists" and "comprehensive satisfaction" had a negative correlation. Other interesting results were obtained. As a results of factor analysis, three latent factors were obtained: the "human factor," "patients' convenience," and "environmental factor," Multiple regression analysis showed that the "human factor" affected "comprehensive satisfaction" the most. Various pharmacy functions and services influence patient satisfaction, and improvement in their quality increases patient satisfaction. This will result in the practice of patient-centered medicine.

  19. Medication adherence communications in community pharmacies: A naturalistic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickles, Nathaniel M; Young, Gary J; Hall, Judith A; Noland, Carey; Kim, Ayoung; Peterson, Conner; Hong, Mina; Hale, John

    2016-03-01

    To describe the extent of pharmacy detection and monitoring of medication non-adherence, and solutions offered to improve adherence. Participants were 60 residents of the Boston area who had a generic chronic medication with 30 day supplies from their usual pharmacy. Participants received a duplicate prescription which they filled at a different pharmacy. For 5 months, participants alternated between the two pharmacies, creating gaps in their refill records at both pharmacies but no gaps in their medication adherence. Participants followed a scripted protocol and after each pharmacy visit reported their own and the pharmacy staff's behavior. Across 78 unique community pharmacies and 260 pharmacy visits, pharmacies were inconsistent and inadequate in asking if participants had questions, discussing the importance of adherence, providing adequate consultations with new medication, and detecting and intervening on non-adherence. Insurers rarely contacted the participants about adherence concerns. There is a need for more structured intervention systems to ensure pharmacists are consistently and adequately educating patients and detecting/managing potential medication non-adherence. The present study calls for more attention to building infrastructure in pharmacy practice that helps pharmacists more consistently identify, monitor, and intervene on medication adherence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Australian national strategy for pharmacy preceptor education and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Jennifer; Taylor, Susan; Simpson, Maree; Bull, Rosalind; Galbraith, Kirstie; Howarth, Helen; Leversha, Anne; Best, Dawn; Rose, Miranda

    2005-04-01

    (i) To develop a national strategy for pharmacy preceptor education and support, with special consideration for rural and remote practitioners. (ii) To deliver an innovative national core pharmacist preceptor education and support model that could be customised for specific undergraduate programs. A steering committee, with representatives from four Pharmacy Schools in three Australian states, was established to develop an educational curriculum and implementation strategy. The project was designed to provide an online educational program for preceptors of Australian pharmacy students, particularly those in rural areas. The recipients of this program will primarily be rural pharmacy preceptors but could also be urban practitioners. After consultation with an advisory group, the steering committee considered the educational content, delivery strategy and adaptability of the package to maintain its currency and links to universities, pharmacy boards and professional organisations: an extensive literature search was conducted; writers and an educational designer were employed. The steering committee reviewed and modified the content before transfer of the program to the worldwide web. The development of a Pharmacy Preceptor Education Program suitable for national application and able to fulfil the needs of rural preceptors. A Preceptor Education Program has been developed suitable for use in all Australian states and capable of meeting the needs of rural pharmacy preceptors. Collaboration between four schools of pharmacy and pharmacy professional bodies has resulted in development of a flexible program for preceptors of undergraduate pharmacy students. This program can be developed for use by preceptors of pharmacy graduates, and in other disciplines.

  1. Activity and the Role of Keio University Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Keio University Faculty of Pharmacy opened an insurance pharmacy on its campus in 2001. This pharmacy was opened with the objectives of 1) educating pharmacists to serve the regional community; 2) heightening students' motivation; and 3) providing practical education geared to the needs of actual healthcare settings. Since my appointment as director in 2003, I have led various initiatives to determine an ideal business model for a university pharmacy. This paper reports these initiatives and discusses the mission and future prospects of university pharmacies. In terms of education, all 4th-year students provide medication guidance to simulated patients at our university pharmacy counters, and are briefed by pharmacists about pharmacy administration and dispensing activities. Over three periods each academic year, trainees from other universities have been accepted for long-term on-site training. Students also work at local facilities for elderly persons to learn how to effectively communicate with this demographic and to better understand their unique pharmacokinetic profiles, impaired QOL, etc. Students can also participate in health promotion and drug education courses for regional residents, and support their self-medication. Pharmacies are important points of contact with local communities where residents' lives can be medically monitored. It is important for pharmaceutical universities to operate their own pharmacies in order to determine and stay abreast of the evolving challenges society expects pharmaceutical science to address. University pharmacies need to become models for general community pharmacies.

  2. Expanding Pharmacists' Scope of Practice to Include Immunization in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth O'Reilly

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available On 10 December 2010 An Act to Amend Chapter 36 of the Acts of 2001, the Pharmacy Act (Bill 7 received Royal Assent in Nova Scotia, including an amendment that enabled an expanded scope of pharmacy practice. Expanding pharmacists' scope of practice came about from recommendations by various federal and provincial government bodies as an attempt to improve accessibility to health care and decrease costs. In 2013, pharmacists in Nova Scotia began administering the influenza vaccine as part of the publicly funded program in attempts to improve vaccine coverage rates. Preliminary evaluation in Nova Scotia has shown an increase in influenza vaccination coverage. Although pharmacist administration of influenza vaccination may improve vaccination coverage and reduce demand on physician time, there may be tension created among the professions, which needs to be addressed and managed.

  3. Motivations and Predictors of Cheating in Pharmacy School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kathy; Shah, Bijal M.; Doroudgar, Shadi; Bidwal, Monica K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the prevalence, methods, and motivations for didactic cheating among pharmacy students and to determine predictive factors for cheating in pharmacy colleges and schools. Methods. A 45-item cross-sectional survey was conducted at all four doctor of pharmacy programs in Northern California. For data analysis, t test, Fisher exact test, and logistic regression were used. Results. Overall, 11.8% of students admitted to cheating in pharmacy school. Primary motivations for cheating included fear of failure, procrastination, and stress. In multivariate analysis, the only predictor for cheating in pharmacy school was a history of cheating in undergraduate studies. Conclusion. Cheating occurs in pharmacy schools and is motivated by fear of failure, procrastination, and stress. A history of past cheating predicts pharmacy school cheating. The information presented may help programs better understand their student population and lead to a reassessment of ethical culture, testing procedures, and prevention programs. PMID:27899829

  4. Motivations and Predictors of Cheating in Pharmacy School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Eric J; Nguyen, Kathy; Shah, Bijal M; Doroudgar, Shadi; Bidwal, Monica K

    2016-10-25

    Objective. To assess the prevalence, methods, and motivations for didactic cheating among pharmacy students and to determine predictive factors for cheating in pharmacy colleges and schools. Methods. A 45-item cross-sectional survey was conducted at all four doctor of pharmacy programs in Northern California. For data analysis, t test, Fisher exact test, and logistic regression were used. Results. Overall, 11.8% of students admitted to cheating in pharmacy school. Primary motivations for cheating included fear of failure, procrastination, and stress. In multivariate analysis, the only predictor for cheating in pharmacy school was a history of cheating in undergraduate studies. Conclusion. Cheating occurs in pharmacy schools and is motivated by fear of failure, procrastination, and stress. A history of past cheating predicts pharmacy school cheating. The information presented may help programs better understand their student population and lead to a reassessment of ethical culture, testing procedures, and prevention programs.

  5. Quality of Handoffs in Community Pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Ephrem; Stone, Jamie A; Lester, Corey A; Chui, Michelle A

    2017-04-27

    The aims of the study were to characterize handoffs in community pharmacies and to examine factors that contribute to perceived handoff quality. A cross-sectional study of community pharmacists in a Midwest State of the United States. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on participant and practice setting characteristics. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. A total of 445 completed surveys were returned (response rate, 82%). In almost half of the time, handoffs that occur in a community pharmacy setting were inaccurate or incomplete. Nearly half of the time handoffs occur in environments full of interruptions and distractions. More than 90% of the respondents indicated that they have undergone no formal training on proper ways of handing off information. Nearly 40% of respondents reported that their pharmacy dispensing technology does not have adequate functionality to support handing off information and that at least 50% of the time, poor handoffs result in additional work to the pharmacist because of the need for complete information before providing patient care. Multivariate analysis showed that being very familiar with patients, lower daily prescription volume, not having a 24-hour operation, and larger percentage of handoffs occurring in a synchronous fashion are all associated with better handoff quality. Handoffs occur frequently and are problematic in community pharmacies. Current pharmacy environments offer limited support to conduct good handoffs, and as a result, pharmacists report loss of information. This could present as a significant patient safety hazard. Future interventions should target facilitating better communication during shift changes.

  6. The expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Lew, Kristi

    2011-01-01

    People have always been fascinated with the stars above and the universe that contains them. Over the years, astronomers have developed numerous theories to explain how the universe began, how it works, and what its ultimate fate will be. But all of the scientists' questions are far from answered. The Expanding Universe goes beyond the creation of the universe to explain how scientists think the universe works, grows, and changes, including what great thinkers Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein had to say about its fate. Readers will also learn about how researchers are slowly shedding light on

  7. Expanding Your Horizon 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Kaltenhauser, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Expanding your horizons is a bi-annual “Science Day” for girls aged 11 to 14, held at the University of Geneva on 14 November. The girls had the opportunity to take part in hands-on workshops held by local professional women in the field of science, mathematics, engineering and technology. For the fourth time, CERN was part of this event, offering three workshops as well as a booth at the Discovery Fair, including Higgnite, an interactive visualization of the Higgs Field.

  8. Survey of health-system pharmacy leadership pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Sacha R; Clark, John S

    2009-05-15

    The results of a survey comparing the similarities and differences in health-system pharmacy leadership pathways are reported. The link to an online questionnaire was e-mailed to pharmacy leaders subscribing to ASHP's Pharmacy Practice Manager listserver. All respondents were asked to provide their career pathway, their thoughts on the most valued skill sets to a health-system pharmacy leader, and the influence that their leadership pathway had on these skill sets. Pharmacy middle managers were asked if they desired to become a health-system pharmacy director, and pharmacy directors were asked to provide their hiring preferences for new health-system pharmacy leaders. Two-hundred-five individuals responded to the survey. On-the-job experience (40%) was identified as the most common leadership pathway of current health-system pharmacy leaders. Respondents classified medication-use policy (26%), human resource management (20%), and interpersonal skills (18%) as the most valued skill sets to a health-system pharmacy leader. Residency and degree programs were most thought to prepare future health-system pharmacy leaders for interpersonal relations, ethical decision-making, and finance and budget management. Sixty percent of eligible respondents stated that they were interested in seeking health-system pharmacy director positions. The majority of director of pharmacy respondents stated that they preferred to hire leaders with previous on-the-job experience. On-the-job-experience was identified as the most common leadership pathway by survey respondents. Medication-use policy, human resource management, and interpersonal skills were identified by respondents as the most valued skill sets to a health-system pharmacy leader.

  9. Junior pharmacy faculty members' perceptions of their exposure to postgraduate training and academic careers during pharmacy school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemeier, Nicholas E; Murawski, Matthew M

    2012-04-10

    To determine the perceptions of junior pharmacy faculty members with US doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degrees regarding their exposure to residency, fellowship, and graduate school training options in pharmacy school. Perceptions of exposure to career options and research were also sought. A mixed-mode survey instrument was developed and sent to assistant professors at US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Usable responses were received from 735 pharmacy faculty members. Faculty members perceived decreased exposure to and awareness of fellowship and graduate education training as compared to residency training. Awareness of and exposure to academic careers and research-related fields was low from a faculty recruitment perspective. Ensuring adequate exposure of pharmacy students to career paths and postgraduate training opportunities could increase the number of PharmD graduates who choose academic careers or other pharmacy careers resulting from postgraduate training.

  10. Banning Tobacco Sales at the Retail Pharmacy: Natural Evolution of Drug Store As Responsible Health Provider Or Effective Marketing Strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Trigo, Paula; Khanfar, Nile M; Alameddine, Sarah; Harrington, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    CVS Health has taken a strategic marketing move by banning tobacco sales. They risk losing customers who buy medications and cigarettes at their drugstores. They estimate they will lose 2 billion dollars by banning cigarette sales. CVS Health believes they will benefit from being regarded as health care partner by insurers and banning cigarette sales is an important step in being recognized as such. The Affordable Care Act expanded access to pharmacy-based medical clinics, increased affordability of medications, and expanded the clinical role of pharmacists. CVS Health is positioning itself to take advantage of these changes.

  11. Vaccinations Administered During Off-Clinic Hours at a National Community Pharmacy: Implications for Increasing Patient Access and Convenience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goad, Jeffery A.; Taitel, Michael S.; Fensterheim, Leonard E.; Cannon, Adam E.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Approximately 50,000 adults die annually from vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States. Most traditional vaccine providers (eg, physician offices) administer vaccinations during standard clinic hours, but community pharmacies offer expanded hours that allow patients to be vaccinated at convenient times. We analyzed the types of vaccines administered and patient populations vaccinated during off-clinic hours in a national community pharmacy, and their implications for vaccination access and convenience. METHODS We retrospectively reviewed data for all vaccinations given at the Walgreens pharmacy chain between August 2011 and July 2012. The time of vaccination was categorized as occurring during traditional hours (9:00 am–6:00 pm weekdays) or off-clinic hours, consisting of weekday evenings, weekends, and federal holidays. We compared demographic characteristics and types of vaccine. We used a logistic regression model to identify predictors of being vaccinated during off-clinic hours. RESULTS During the study period, pharmacists administered 6,250,402 vaccinations, of which 30.5% were provided during off-clinic hours: 17.4% were provided on weekends, 10.2% on evenings, and 2.9% on holidays. Patients had significantly higher odds of off-clinic vaccination if they were younger than 65 years of age, were male, resided in an urban area, and did not have any chronic conditions. CONCLUSIONS A large proportion of adults being vaccinated receive their vaccines during evening, weekend, and holiday hours at the pharmacy, when traditional vaccine providers are likely unavailable. Younger, working-aged, healthy adults, in particular, a variety of immunizations during off-clinic hours. With the low rates of adult and adolescent vaccination in the United States, community pharmacies are creating new opportunities for vaccination that expand access and convenience. PMID:24019274

  12. Managing workplace stress in community pharmacy organisations: lessons from a review of the wider stress management and prevention literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Sally; Johnson, Sheena; Hassell, Karen

    2017-03-27

    Workplace stress in community pharmacy is increasing internationally due, in part, to pharmacists' expanding roles and escalating workloads. Whilst the business case for preventing and managing workplace stress by employers is strong, there is little evidence for the effectiveness of organisational stress management interventions in community pharmacy settings. To identify and synthesise existing evidence for the effectiveness of organisational solutions to workplace stress from the wider organisational literature which may be adaptable to community pharmacies. A secondary synthesis of existing reviews. Publications were identified through keyword searches of electronic databases and the internet; inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied; data about setting, intervention, method of evaluation, effectiveness and conclusions (including factors for success) were extracted and synthesised. Eighteen reviews of the stress management and prevention literature were identified. A comprehensive list of organisational interventions to prevent or manage workplace stress, ordered by prevalence of evidence of effectiveness, was produced, together with an ordered list of the benefits both to the individual and employing organisation. An evidence-based model of best practice was derived specifying eight factors for success: top management support, context-specific interventions, combined organisational and individual interventions, a participative approach, clearly delineated tasks and responsibilities, buy-in from middle management, change agents as facilitators and change in organisational culture. This literature review provides community pharmacy organisations with evidence from which to develop effective and successful stress management strategies to support pharmacists and pharmacy staff. Well-designed trials of stress management interventions in community pharmacy organisations are still required. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. Compounding training in pharmacy education in Singapore: Perceptions of final year undergraduate pharmacy students and compounding pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen Teng Choo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the importance of compounding training in today’s pharmacy education in Singapore, this study examined the perception of final year National University of Singapore (NUS pharmacy undergraduates on compounding training in pharmacy education and their awareness of compounding services in Singapore in relation to compounding pharmacists’ perception, practice and role of pharmacy compounding in Singapore. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out between November 2013 and January 2014. It comprised of a questionnaire survey conducted on 134 final year pharmacy undergraduates, and face-to-face interviews conducted on 7 retail compounding pharmacists. Questionnaire responses were analysed using descriptive statistics, while the interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed by thematic coding. Results: Less than 40% of final year pharmacy undergraduates were aware of compounding activities and compounding pharmacies in Singapore. Nonetheless, majority agreed that compounding should be included in the pharmacy curriculum (83.6% as it is an important part of pharmacy education (78.3% and pharmacy profession (61.2%. All the interviewed compounding pharmacists felt that compounding in pharmacy education has provided them with the basics to build on knowledge and skills at work. Compounded medications were also viewed as necessary by 71.4% of the pharmacists in fulfilling the needs of certain patient populations. Conclusion: Compounding training is necessary in pharmacy education. Pharmacy compounding has evolved from its traditional role into a professional speciality of customizing medications to meet different patient needs today. Hence, knowledge and skills in pharmacy compounding remain a relevant foundation for practising pharmacists to enhance pharmaceutical care at work.

  14. Expectations and responsibilities regarding the sale of complementary medicines in pharmacies: perspectives of consumers and pharmacy support staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Priya; McFarland, Reanna; La Caze, Adam

    2017-08-01

    Most sales of complementary medicines within pharmacies are conducted by pharmacy support staff. The absence of rigorous evidence for the effectiveness of many complementary medicines raises a number of ethical questions regarding the sale of complementary medicines in pharmacies. Explore (1) what consumers expect from pharmacists/pharmacies with regard to the sale of complementary medicines, and (2) how pharmacy support staff perceive their responsibilities when selling complementary medicines. One-on-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of pharmacy support staff and consumers in pharmacies in Brisbane. Consumers were asked to describe their expectations when purchasing complementary medicines. Pharmacy support staff were asked to describe their responsibilities when selling complementary medicines. Interviews were conducted and analysed using the techniques developed within Grounded Theory. Thirty-three consumers were recruited from three pharmacies. Consumers described complementary medicine use as a personal health choice. Consumer expectations on the pharmacist included: select the right product for the right person, expert product knowledge and maintaining a wide range of good quality stock. Twenty pharmacy support staff were recruited from four pharmacies. Pharmacy support staff employed processes to ensure consumers receive the right product for the right person. Pharmacy support staff expressed a commitment to aiding consumers, but few evaluated the reliability of effectiveness claims regarding complementary medicines. Pharmacists need to respect the personal health choices of consumers while also putting procedures in place to ensure safe and appropriate use of complementary medicines. This includes providing appropriate support to pharmacy support staff. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  15. Integrated Pharmacy Research and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Adam Todd,1 Jonathan Ling21Wolfson Research Institute, School of Medicine and Health, Queen’s Campus, Durham University, Stockton-on-Tees, UK; 2Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Sunderland, Sunderland, UKBy 2014, the worldwide annual spend on medicines is expected to exceed one trillion dollars, representing an increase of nearly 90% since 2005.1 Thanks to modern medicine and the expanding number of pharmaceutical agents used to treat a wide range of diseases, average life expectancy is also set to increase, with, for example, average life expectancy in the UK increasing to 80 years of age, which is eight years higher than in the 1970s.2 However, despite this success, people around the world fail to use their medicines as they should, with a recent report by the World Health Organization estimating that, in developed countries, around 50% of patients are noncompliant with their long-term medication.3 In developing countries, this percentage is even higher, which is of particular concern because infectious diseases, such as human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis, are spreading rapidly. In view of this, the concept of "pharmaceutical care" has been introduced, and is defined as "the responsible provision of drug therapy for the purpose of achieving definite outcomes that improve (or maintain a patient’s quality of life".4

  16. Description of a medical writing rotation for a postgraduate pharmacy residency program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jamie N; Tiemann, Kelsey A; Ostroff, Jared L

    2014-04-01

    To provide a description of a pharmacy residency rotation dedicated to medical writing developed at a tertiary care academic medical center. Contribution to the medical literature is an important component of professional pharmacy practice, and there are many benefits seen by practitioners actively involved in scholarly activities. Residency programs have an opportunity to expand beyond the standard roles of postgraduate pharmacist training but rarely is there formal instruction on medical writing skills or are scholarship opportunities provided to residents. In order to address this deficiency, a residency program may consider the implementation of a formal Medical Writing rotation. This rotation is designed to introduce the resident to medical writing through active discussion on medical writing foundational topics, engage the resident in a collaborative review of a manuscript submitted to a peer-reviewed professional journal, and support the resident in the design and composition of manuscript of publishable quality. A structured Medical Writing rotation during a pharmacy resident's training can help develop the skills necessary to promote scholarly activities and foster resident interest in future pursuit of professional medical writing.

  17. Innovative models for providing clinical pharmacy services to remote locations using clinical video telehealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdew, Cassie; Erickson, Katie; Litke, Jessica

    2017-07-15

    The use of videoconferencing and other telehealth technologies to expand access to clinical pharmacy services at multiple Veterans Affairs (VA) clinics in rural areas of Alaska and the northwestern United States is described. Beginning in 2014, clinical pharmacy specialists at a regional VA Telehealth Hub based at Boise VA Medical Center in Idaho have provided telehealth services for 16 clinics. In one telehealth model, a pharmacist and other remotely located primary care team members (a medical provider, a medical support assistant, a social worker, and a psychologist) conduct telehealth visits with veterans located at VA clinics, with support provided by clinic-based nursing staff; this model has been used to improve medication management services for veterans in sparsely populated areas. In the second VA telehealth model, a remotely located pharmacist uses telehealth technology to participate in clinical encounters along with primary care team members located at the patient site; this model allows on-demand remote coverage in the event of planned or unplanned absences of clinic-based pharmacists. Since the Telehealth Hub was established, pharmacists have engaged in video encounters and provided other telehealth-based clinical services to more than 1,200 veterans with diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and other chronic conditions. Within the VA healthcare system, telehealth technology has been demonstrated to be a cost-effective and well-received means of providing clinical pharmacy services in rural areas. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of a direct observation of procedural skills rubric for fourth-year pharmacy students in ambulatory care rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linedecker, Sara J; Barner, Jamie; Ridings-Myhra, Jennifer; Garza, Aida; Lopez, Debra; McIntyre, William

    2017-03-01

    The development and implementation of a pilot program requiring direct observation of procedural skills (DOPS) assessments of fourth-year pharmacy students during ambulatory care rotations are described. All fourth-year pharmacy students at the University of Texas at Austin College of Pharmacy who engaged in a required advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in ambulatory care during the period January-May 2015 participated in a DOPS pilot program. The DOPS process required students to select a patient for a medication-focused "workup," evaluate the selected patient case, present the results to a preceptor, and conduct a preceptor-supervised patient interview. Preceptors used a DOPS rubric to rate students' performance in 12 domains. At the time of submission of DOPS evaluation forms, program participants were invited to complete online surveys soliciting feedback on the effectiveness of the DOPS evaluation process and other aspects of the program. A total of 81 students and preceptors participated in the DOPS pilot program, with 47 DOPS evaluation forms submitted; the median ± S.D. score was 90.4% ± 29.7%. Results of the online surveys indicated that the overall perception of the DOPS program was positive, with majorities of both students and preceptors supporting DOPS incorporation into the curriculum for fourth-year pharmacy students. The DOPS rubric was a useful tool for evaluating clinical skills of APPE students on ambulatory care rotations. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Do fourth year pharmacy students use Facebook to form workplace-based learning peer groups during rotations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jennifer; Gettig, Jacob; Goliak, Kristen; Allen, Sheila; Fjortoft, Nancy

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to gain an understanding of whether pharmacy students are using Facebook ® to create formal or informal workplace-based peer groups to learn from each other and share information while completing their advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Fourth-year pharmacy students from two colleges of pharmacy in the same geographical area were recruited by email to participate. Inclusion criteria were: completion of two or more APPEs, current assignment to an APPE rotation in the local area, and a Facebook ® profile. Two focus groups, of eight students each were conducted on each of the two colleges' campuses. An incentive to participate was provided. Thematic analysis was used to analyze responses. Students reported using Facebook ® to learn about rotation expectations, roles/responsibilities, and preceptors. However, frequency and depth of interactions varied among the participants. Most participants noted that they prefer more private methods of communication to learn about APPE experiences. Students found Facebook ® to be a good source of motivation and support during experiential learning. The use of social media sites like Facebook ® may help students form "virtual" workplace-based peer groups during APPEs. Pharmacy schools interested in providing support for formal workplace-based learning groups should consider using social media sites as one component of this program. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of Clinical and Communication Skills of Pharmacy Students and Pharmacists with an Objective Structured Clinical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urteaga, Elizabeth M; Attridge, Rebecca L; Tovar, John M; Witte, Amy P

    2015-10-25

    Objective. To evaluate how effectively pharmacy students and practicing pharmacists communicate and apply knowledge to simulations of commonly encountered patient scenarios using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Design. Second-, third-, and fourth-year pharmacy students completed an OSCE as part of their required courses in 2012 and 2013. All students in both years completed identical OSCE cases. Licensed pharmacists were recruited to complete the OSCE and serve as controls in 2012. A survey assessed student perception and acceptance of the OSCE as well as student confidence in performance. Assessment. Licensed pharmacists had significantly higher clinical and communication skills scores than did pharmacy students. Student progression in communication and clinical skills improved significantly over time. Survey results indicated that students felt the OSCE was well-structured and assessed clinical skills taught in pharmacy school; 86% of students felt confident they could provide these skills. Conclusion. Objective structured clinical examinations can evaluate clinical competence and communication skills among professional students. Implementation of OSCEs may be an effective tool for assessment of the Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education domains.

  1. Characterization of pharmacy services in Portuguese prisons: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandra Monteiro Guerra, Liliana; Façanha da Cruz Fresco, Paula

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to collect reliable information to characterize the pharmacy services in Portuguese prisons. The secondary purpose is to develop a set of suggestions for improving these services and, therefore, improve the health services provided to the inmate population. A three pages survey was developed that included questions covering the characterization of prison health teams, pharmacy services and pharmacy activities. This survey was sent to all Portuguese prisons, with capacity higher than 50 prisoners. The response rate was of 87.5 per cent. It was found that only 6.1 per cent of prisons had pharmacists and that in 63 per cent the guards still participated in pharmacy activities. There were not Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committees in 94 per cent of prisons and 94.4 per cent did not present adequate storage conditions for drugs. Only 51.7 per cent of prisons had computers in the pharmacy and only 3.4 per cent had access to the internet. This study found that there is a gap between public and prison pharmacy services, since most prison pharmacies in Portugal are solely locals of storage and distribution of drugs, with no effective management nor promotion of drug rational use. This paper is the first study about pharmacy services in Portuguese prisons. The information collected could be very useful to improve the Portuguese prison pharmacy services provided to prisoners.

  2. Attitude of Pharmacy Students Towards a Nutrition Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Abdul, Majid Mufaqam

    Today's pharmacists are likely to encounter questions about nutritional products sold in the pharmacy. This is due, in part, to the increased number of pharmacies attached to grocery stores and the availability of pharmacists. Many pharmacists report they lack nutritional knowledge and believe the best time to educate pharmacists about nutrition is during pharmacy school. This study was conducted to determine if today's pharmacy students receive education in nutrition and if they realize the importance of nutrition education. Two hundred and twenty five students from India and ninety five students from the United States currently attending pharmacy school were surveyed. Results showed only 3.5% of students from India and 13.6% of students from the United States received nutrition education during their pharmacy degree curriculum. In addition, 81.8% of students from India and 82.9% of students from the United States who had taken a course in nutrition believed a nutrition course should be incorporated into the pharmacy degree curriculum. When pharmacy-related experience was taken into account, 92.9% of students from India and 73.3% of students from the United States also believed a nutrition course should be incorporated into the pharmacy degree curriculum. Overall, 88% of students from India and 70.5% of students from the United States believed nutrition education was important and should be included in the pharmacy degree curriculum. Results of this study suggest the majority of today's pharmacy students believe a nutrition course should be incorporated into the pharmacy degree curriculum regardless of past nutrition education or pharmacy-related experience.

  3. Relationship between E-Prescriptions and Community Pharmacy Workflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odukoya, Olufunmilola K.; Chui, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To understand how community pharmacists use electronic prescribing (e-prescribing) technology; and to describe the workflow challenges pharmacy personnel encounter as a result of using e-prescribing technology. Design Cross-sectional qualitative study. Setting Seven community pharmacies in Wisconsin from December 2010 to March 2011 Participants 16 pharmacists and 14 pharmacy technicians (in three chain and four independent pharmacies). Interventions Think-aloud protocol and pharmacy group interviews. Main outcome measures Pharmacy staff description of their use of e-prescribing technology and challenges encountered in their daily workflow related to this technology. Results Two contributing factors were perceived to influence e-prescribing workflow: issues stemming from prescribing or transmitting software, and issues from within the pharmacy. Pharmacies experienced both delays in receiving, and inaccurate e-prescriptions from physician offices. Receiving an overwhelming number of e-prescriptions with inaccurate or unclear information resulted in significant time delays for patients as pharmacists contacted physicians to clarify wrong information. In addition, pharmacy personnel reported that lack of formal training and the disconnect between the way pharmacists verify accuracy and conduct drug utilization review and the presentation of e-prescription information on the computer screen significantly influenced the speed of processing an e-prescription. Conclusion E-prescriptions processing can hinder pharmacy workflow. As the number of e-prescriptions transmitted to pharmacies increases due to legislative mandates; it is essential that the technology that supports e-prescriptions (both on the prescriber and pharmacy operating systems) be redesigned to facilitate pharmacy workflow processes and to prevent unintended consequences, such as increased medication errors, user frustration, and stress. PMID:23229979

  4. Expanding hollow metal rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Harold B [Evans, GA; Imrich, Kenneth J [Grovetown, GA

    2009-03-17

    A sealing device that may expand more planar dimensions due to internal thermal expansion of a filler material. The sealing material is of a composition such that when desired environment temperatures and internal actuating pressures are reached, the sealing materials undergoes a permanent deformation. For metallic compounds, this permanent deformation occurs when the material enters the plastic deformation phase. Polymers, and other materials, may be using a sealing mechanism depending on the temperatures and corrosivity of the use. Internal pressures are generated by either rapid thermal expansion or material phase change and may include either liquid or solid to gas phase change, or in the gaseous state with significant pressure generation in accordance with the gas laws. Sealing material thickness and material composition may be used to selectively control geometric expansion of the seal such that expansion is limited to a specific facing and or geometric plane.

  5. Expanding Applications of SERS through Versatile Nanomaterials Engineering (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-22

    directions We expect that advances in synthetic chemistry and materials engineering will continue to provide new directions for answer- ing chemical...biologically relevant molecules by SERS. 6. Conclusions Advances in synthetic chemistry and materials engineering have helped expand the applications of SERS...ROYAL SOCIETY OF CHEMISTRY (STINFO COPY) AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING DIRECTORATE WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE

  6. Using critical realism as a framework in pharmacy education and social pharmacy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmann, Carmen; Boughey, Chrissie

    2012-01-01

    This article challenges the idea that positivism is capable of representing the complexity of social pharmacy and pharmacy education. It is argued that critical realism provides a framework that allows researchers to look at the nature of reality and at mechanisms that produce, or have the tendency to produce, events and experiences of those events. Critical realism is a framework, not a method. It allows researchers to make observations about phenomena and explain the relationships and connections involved. The researcher has to look for mechanisms and structures that could explain why the phenomena, the connections, and the relationships exist (or do not) and then try to show that these mechanisms do exist. This article first contextualizes critical realism, then briefly describes it, and lastly exemplifies the use of critical realism in a discussion of a research project conducted in pharmacy education. Critical realism may be particularly useful in interdisciplinary research, for example, where practitioners and researchers are working together in a social pharmacy or pharmacy education setting. Critical realism requires the practitioners and the researchers to question and make known their assumptions about their own realities and to think of a complex problem or phenomenon in terms of a stratified reality, generative mechanisms, and tendencies. Critical realism may make research more rigorous and also allow researchers to conceive of a greater breadth of research designs for their work. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Advance Directives - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Advance Directives URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/advancedirectives.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  8. Pharmacy students' interpretation of academic integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerton, Lynne; Jiang, Hai; McKauge, Leigh

    2014-08-15

    To explore pharmacy students' recognition and interpretation of situations constituting breaches of academic integrity. A survey instrument comprising 10 hypothetical student(s) scenarios was completed by 852 students in the bachelor of pharmacy program at an Australian university. The scenarios were relevant to current modes of assessment and presented degrees of ambiguity around academic integrity. Identification of the hypothetical student(s) at fault, particularly in the deliberately ambiguous scenarios, was not related to the respondents' year of study or sex. Students with fewer years of postsecondary education were more definitive in their interpretation of contentious cases. Respondents from all 4 years of study reported witnessing many of these behaviors among their peers. This study provided novel insight into the ambiguity surrounding academic integrity and students' perceptions relating to the deliberate or inadvertent involvement of other parties.

  9. Pharmacy Students’ Interpretation of Academic Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hai; McKauge, Leigh

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To explore pharmacy students’ recognition and interpretation of situations constituting breaches of academic integrity. Methods. A survey instrument comprising 10 hypothetical student(s) scenarios was completed by 852 students in the bachelor of pharmacy program at an Australian university. The scenarios were relevant to current modes of assessment and presented degrees of ambiguity around academic integrity. Results. Identification of the hypothetical student(s) at fault, particularly in the deliberately ambiguous scenarios, was not related to the respondents’ year of study or sex. Students with fewer years of postsecondary education were more definitive in their interpretation of contentious cases. Respondents from all 4 years of study reported witnessing many of these behaviors among their peers. Conclusion. This study provided novel insight into the ambiguity surrounding academic integrity and students’ perceptions relating to the deliberate or inadvertent involvement of other parties. PMID:25147391

  10. Mobile computing initiatives within pharmacy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Jeff; Bird, Eleanora R; Jones, Mikael

    2008-08-15

    To identify mobile computing initiatives within pharmacy education, including how devices are obtained, supported, and utilized within the curriculum. An 18-item questionnaire was developed and delivered to academic affairs deans (or closest equivalent) of 98 colleges and schools of pharmacy. Fifty-four colleges and schools completed the questionnaire for a 55% completion rate. Thirteen of those schools have implemented mobile computing requirements for students. Twenty schools reported they were likely to formally consider implementing a mobile computing initiative within 5 years. Numerous models of mobile computing initiatives exist in terms of device obtainment, technical support, infrastructure, and utilization within the curriculum. Responders identified flexibility in teaching and learning as the most positive aspect of the initiatives and computer-aided distraction as the most negative, Numerous factors should be taken into consideration when deciding if and how a mobile computing requirement should be implemented.

  11. Action research methodology in clinical pharmacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sørensen, Ellen Westh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The focus in clinical pharmacy practice is and has for the last 30-35 years been on changing the role of pharmacy staff into service orientation and patient counselling. One way of doing this is by involving staff in change process and as a researcher to take part in the change process...... by establishing partnerships with staff. On the background of the authors' widespread action research (AR)-based experiences, recommendations and comments for how to conduct an AR-study is described, and one of their AR-based studies illustrate the methodology and the research methods used. Methodology AR...... is defined as an approach to research which is based on a problem-solving relationship between researchers and clients, which aims at both solving a problem and at collaboratively generating new knowledge. Research questions relevant in AR-studies are: what was the working process in this change oriented...

  12. A primer on critical care pharmacy services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erstad, Brian L

    2008-12-01

    The intensive care unit (ICU) continues to be a major focus of decentralized pharmacy activities in health systems that care for critically ill patients. This is not surprising, given the need for rapid decision-making involving unstable patients, the large number of powerful medications typically used per patient, the high cost of many drugs used in the ICU and, most importantly, the evidence demonstrating the benefits of having a pharmacist as part of an interdisciplinary team. The purpose of this paper is to highlight important issues to consider when introducing or developing critical care pharmacy services beginning with the establishment of basic services and continuing through practitioner development, guideline/protocol development and implementation, patient safety, residency training, and research.

  13. Creating a hospice pharmacy and therapeutics committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snapp, Janet; Kelley, Debra; Gutgsell, Terence L

    2002-01-01

    Implementing a Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee (P&T) as a management strategy for Hospice of the Bluegrass in Lexington, Kentucky, has proven to be effective in reducing costs and improving patient outcomes. Early efforts of the committee yielded the establishment of protocols and guidelines, educational programs, pharmacy newsletters for nurses, and patient education material. In the spring of 2000, Hospice of the Bluegrass developed a preferred drug list (PDL) consisting of the medications it considered essential for effective pain and symptom control. The addition of a clinical pharmacist and a P&T committee has resulted in significant cost savings and improved pharmacotherapeutic care for patients of Hospice of the Bluegrass. This model is an option for any hospice looking to achieve the same outcomes.

  14. Team-based learning in pharmacy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofstad, William; Brunner, Lane J

    2013-05-13

    Instructors wanting to engage students in the classroom seek methods to augment the delivery of factual information and help students move from being passive recipients to active participants in their own learning. One such method that has gained interest is team-based learning. This method encourages students to be prepared before class and has students work in teams while in the classroom. Key benefits to this pedagogy are student engagement, improved communication skills, and enhanced critical-thinking abilities. In most cases, student satisfaction and academic performance are also noted. This paper reviews the fundamentals of team-based learning in pharmacy education and its implementation in the classroom. Literature reports from medical, nursing, and pharmacy programs are also discussed.

  15. Pharmacy Practice and Education in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtigal, Petr; Šimůnek, Tomáš; Atkinson, Jeffrey

    2017-10-09

    The PHARMINE ("Pharmacy Education in Europe") project studied the organisation of pharmacy education, practice and legislation in the European Union (EU) with the objectives of evaluating to what degree harmonisation had taken place with the EU, and producing documents on each individual EU member state. Part of this work was in the form of a survey of pharmacy education, practice, and legislation in the various member states. We will publish the individual member state surveys as reference documents. This paper presents the results of the PHARMINE survey on pharmacy education, training, and practice in the Czech Republic. Czech community pharmacies sell and provide advice on Rx and Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines; they also provide diagnostic services (e.g., blood pressure measurement). Pharmacists (lékárník in Czech) study for five years and graduate with a Magister (Mgr., equivalent to M.Pharm.) degree. The Mgr. diploma is the only requirement for registration as a pharmacist. Pharmacists can own and manage community pharmacies, or work as responsible pharmacists in pharmacies. All practising pharmacists must be registered with the Czech Chamber of Pharmacists. The ownership of a community pharmacy is not restricted to members of the pharmacy profession; the majority of pharmacies are organised into various pharmacy chains. There are two universities providing higher education in pharmacy in the Czech Republic: the Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove, Charles University, which was established in 1969, and the Faculty of Pharmacy of the University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences in Brno, which was established in 1991. The pharmacy curriculum is organized as a seamless, fully integrated, five-year master degree course. There is a six-month traineeship supervised by the university, which usually takes place during the fifth year. Thus, the pharmacy curriculum is organised in accordance with the EU directive on sectoral professions that lays down the

  16. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: practice and research in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, Lo Tommy; Björk, H Thony

    2006-06-01

    To describe the organization and delivery of community pharmacy and medical care, as well as pharmaceutical care practice and research, in Sweden. The Swedish retail pharmacy system of 800 community pharmacies and nearly 80 hospital pharmacies is unique in that it is organized into one single, government-owned chain, known as Apoteket AB. The pharmacy staff consists of pharmacists, prescriptionists, and pharmacy technicians. Some activities related to pharmaceutical care have been directed toward specific patient groups during annual theme campaigns. In the past few years, there has been a growing emphasis on the identification, resolution, and documentation of drug-related problems (DRPs) in Swedish pharmacy practice. A classification system for documenting DRPs and pharmacy interventions was developed in 1995 and incorporated into the software of all community pharmacies in 2001. A national DRP database (SWE-DRP) was established in 2004 to collect and analyze DRPs and interventions on a nationwide basis. Recently, a new counseling technique composed of key questions to facilitate the detection of DRPs has been tested successfully. Patient medication profiles are kept in 160 pharmacies, and a new national register of drugs dispensed to patients became available in 2006. Most pharmaceutical care studies in Sweden have focused on DRPs and resulting pharmacy interventions. Swedish community pharmacy DRP work is in the international forefront but there is a potential for further developing cognitive services, given the beneficial organization of the country's pharmacies into one single pharmacy chain. The introduction of patient medication profiles has been both late and slow and has only had a marginal effect on pharmaceutical care practice so far. The universities do not appear to have any desire to influence the practice of pharmacy and could potentially take on a more active role in preparing pharmacy students for patient-oriented services. Current threats to

  17. Perceptions of Spanish-speaking clientele of patient care services in a community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olenik, Nicole L; Gonzalvo, Jasmine D; Snyder, Margie E; Nash, Christy L; Smith, Cory T

    2015-01-01

    A paucity of studies exists that have assessed community pharmacy preferences of Spanish-speaking patients living in areas of the U.S. with rapidly growing Hispanic populations. The qualitative approach to this research affords a unique opportunity to further explore perceptions of the Spanish-speaking population. To identify perceptions of Spanish-speaking patients living in the U.S. with a focus on the care provided in community pharmacies, as well as to determine their satisfaction with community pharmacies. Participants were recruited after weekly Spanish-speaking church services for approximately one month. Qualitative, semi-structured individual interviews to identify perceived unmet patient care needs were conducted in Spanish and transcribed/translated verbatim. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to summarize findings. A written questionnaire was administered to collect patient satisfaction and demographic information, summarized using descriptive statistics. Twelve interviews were conducted by the principal investigator. Primary themes included lack of insurance coupled with high medical care costs serving as a barrier for acquisition of health care, difficulty accessing timely and convenient primary care, perceived negative attitudes from pharmacy personnel, lack of Spanish-speaking health care providers, and the provision of verbal and written medication information in English. The results of this study suggest a great need for health care providers, including pharmacists, to expand outreach services to the Spanish-speaking community. Some examples derived from the interview process include increasing marketing efforts of available services in the Spanish language, hiring Spanish-speaking personnel, and offering medical terminology education classes to Spanish-speaking patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Big Data: Implications for Health System Pharmacy

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes, Laura B.; Rogers, Joseph W.; Hertig, John B.; Weber, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Big Data refers to datasets that are so large and complex that traditional methods and hardware for collecting, sharing, and analyzing them are not possible. Big Data that is accurate leads to more confident decision making, improved operational efficiency, and reduced costs. The rapid growth of health care information results in Big Data around health services, treatments, and outcomes, and Big Data can be used to analyze the benefit of health system pharmacy services. The goal of this artic...

  19. Costs of Loyalty Programmes Implementation in Pharmacies

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Sierpińska; Agnieszka Woś

    2010-01-01

    Receiving the customer is in today’s market realities top marketing companies. The build a sustainable partnership relation between the seller and the buyer is decide on businesses, takings and profit potential. Increasingly, therefore, perpetuates the view that create lasting relationships is an essential factor in improving the effectiveness of marketing activities conducted by modern businesses. The paper presents the implementation costs of loyalty programmes in pharmacies. These costs ar...

  20. Blended Learning: Reflections on Teaching Experiences across the Pharmacy Education Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa J. Schindel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Experiences with online learning in higher education have grown due to advancements in technology, technological savviness of students, changes in student expectations, and evolution of teaching approaches in higher education. Blended learning, the thoughtful fusion of face-to-face instruction with online learning, can enhance student learning and provide rewarding teaching experiences for faculty members. Pharmacy educators are beginning to employ blended learning across the continuum of professional education from entry-to-practice programs to continuing professional education programs. The objectives of this paper are to describe our early experiences with blended learning and how it has enhanced our teaching experiences. Possibilities for blended learning are considered as new curricula for pharmacy programs are developed at our institution.

  1. Managing Conflict: A Guide for the Pharmacy Manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haumschild, Ryan J; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J

    2015-06-01

    Managing conflict among a variety of people and groups is a necessary part of creating a high performance pharmacy department. As new pharmacy managers enter the workforce, much of their success depends on how they manage conflict. The goal of this article is to provide a guide for the pharmacy director on conflict in the workplace. By evaluating each type of conflict, we can learn how to respond when it occurs. Resolving conflict requires a unique and individualized approach, and the strategy used may often be based on the situational context and the personality of the employee or manager. The more that pharmacy leaders can engage in conflict resolution with employees and external leaders, the more proactive they can be in achieving positive results. If pharmacy directors understand the source of conflicts and use management strategies to resolve them, they will ensure that conflicts result in a more effective patient-centered pharmacy service.

  2. An Arab pharmacy spring: taking matters in their own hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheir, Nadir

    2013-10-01

    Pharmacy is a profession in the move all over the world, and while there is a lot of unfinished business in pharmacy, a lot had been achieved. However, pharmacy in the developing world is still plauged by the forces that tie it to the ground and pin it to the old routine of counting pills and hope for the best. This commentary reports and analyzes a phenomenon that is sweeping the Arabic speaking Middle East and promises to liberate pharmacy through a pharmacy Arabic spring. Factors that could be contributing to the past, and current, apathy of the practice of pharmacy in the Arab world will be discussed, and signs of a closing-in change in the profession will be shared.

  3. Marketing perspectives of hospital pharmacy directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, D W; Pathak, D S

    1983-06-01

    The familiarity of hospital pharmacy directors (HPDs) with various marketing concepts for the development of pharmaceutical services was assessed. A questionnaire was designed to assess whether (1) HPDs seek input from relevant publics when evaluating or designing pharmaceutical services; (2) HPDs use marketing concepts in the development and implementation of pharmaceutical programs; and (3) marketing perspectives of HPDs differ depending on their institutional affiliations and personal characteristics. The questionnaire was sent to 320 HPDs in seven states. A total of 158 unable questionnaires were received. In response to the questions concerning input from relevant publics, HPDs agreed that they should seek input from all relevant publics with the exception of third-party agencies and patients. HPDs put more emphasis on obtaining information for evaluating existing programs and designing long-term plans from physicians, nurses, patients, and hospital administrators and less emphasis on understanding the needs of third-party agencies. HPDs seem to use marketing concepts in the development and implementation of pharmaceutical programs. HPDs indicated a clear perception of pharmacy goals, target segments among relevant publics, and a dynamic orientation toward changes in the health-care marketplace. Hospital size, level of pharmaceutical education, and years of administrative experience were found to influence the marketing perspectives of HPDs. HPDs were familiar with marketing concepts, and a favorable climate seems to exist for transferring marketing approaches to the hospital pharmacy setting.

  4. Pharmacy student absenteeism and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Levita; Vansal, Sandeep; Kim, Esther; Sullivan, Maureen; Salbu, Rebecca

    2012-02-10

    To assess the association of pharmacy students' personal characteristics with absenteeism and academic performance. A survey instrument was distributed to first- (P1) and second-year (P2) pharmacy students to gather characteristics including employment status, travel time to school, and primary source of educational funding. In addition, absences from specific courses and reasons for not attending classes were assessed. Participants were divided into "high" and "low" performers based on grade point average. One hundred sixty survey instruments were completed and 135 (84.3%) were included in the study analysis. Low performers were significantly more likely than high performers to have missed more than 8 hours in therapeutics courses. Low performers were significantly more likely than high performers to miss class when the class was held before or after an examination and low performers were significantly more likely to believe that participating in class did not benefit them. There was a negative association between the number of hours students' missed and their performance in specific courses. These findings provide further insight into the reasons for students' absenteeism in a college or school of pharmacy setting.

  5. Does a transition in education equate to a transition in practice? Thai stakeholder's perceptions of the introduction of the Doctor of Pharmacy programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanakit, Teeraporn; Low, Bee Yean; Wongpoowarak, Payom; Moolasarn, Summana; Anderson, Claire

    2015-11-19

    Pharmacy education and pharmacy practice are facing remarkable changes following new scientific discoveries, evolving patient needs and the requirements of advanced pharmacy competency for practices. Many countries are introducing or undertaking major transformations in pharmacy education. The Thai pharmacy curriculum has been changed from a 5-year BPharm and a 6-year PharmD to only a 6-year PharmD programme. Curriculum change processes usually involve stakeholders, including both internal and external educational institutions, at all levels. This study aims to understand the experiences and perceptions of stakeholders regarding the transition to an all-PharmD programme in Thailand. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in Thailand with 130 stakeholders (e.g., policy makers, pharmacy experts, educators, health care providers, patients, students and parents) from August-October 2013. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using an inductive thematic analysis. Three main themes were derived from the findings: 1. influences on curriculum change (e.g., the needs of pharmacists to provide better patient care, the US-Thai consortium for the development of pharmacy education); 2. perceived benefits (e.g., improve pharmacy competencies from generalists to specialists, ready to work after graduation, providing a high quality of patient care); and 3. concerns (e.g., the higher costs of study for a longer period of time, the mismatch between the pharmacy graduates' competency and the job market's needs, insufficient preceptors and training sites, lack of practical experience of the faculty members and issues related to the separate licenses that are necessary due to the difference in the graduates' specialties). This is the first study to highlight the issues surrounding the transition to the 6-year PharmD programme in Thailand, which was initiated due to the need for higher levels of competency among the nation's pharmacists. The transition

  6. Pharmacy Students' Attitudes and Perceptions of "Virtual Worlds" as an Instructional Tool for Clinical Pharmacy Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Claire; Gustafsson, Maria; Gallego, Gisselle

    2017-02-05

    The objectives of this study were to explore pharmacy students' perceptions and experiences of three-dimensional virtual worlds (3DVWs) as an instructional tool for clinical pharmacy teaching. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with Master of Science in Pharmacy students who had participated in communicative exercises in a 3DVW. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. More than half of the students were positive to using 3DVWs for educational purposes and see the advantages of having a setting where communication can be practiced in an authentic but 'safe' environment available online. However, many students also reported technical difficulties in using the 3DVW which impacted negatively on the learning experience. Perceived ease of use and usefulness of 3DVWs appears to play an important role for students. The students' level of engagement relates to not only their computer skills, but also to the value they place on 3DVWs as an instructional tool.

  7. Development of clinical pharmacy key performance indicators for hospital pharmacists using a modified Delphi approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Olavo; Gorman, Sean K; Slavik, Richard S; Semchuk, William M; Shalansky, Steve; Bussières, Jean-François; Doucette, Douglas; Bannerman, Heather; Lo, Jennifer; Shukla, Simone; Chan, Winnie W Y; Benninger, Natalie; MacKinnon, Neil J; Bell, Chaim M; Slobodan, Jeremy; Lyder, Catherine; Zed, Peter J; Toombs, Kent

    2015-06-01

    Key performance indicators (KPIs) are quantifiable measures of quality. There are no published, systematically derived clinical pharmacy KPIs (cpKPIs). A group of hospital pharmacists aimed to develop national cpKPIs to advance clinical pharmacy practice and improve patient care. A cpKPI working group established a cpKPI definition, 8 evidence-derived cpKPI critical activity areas, 26 candidate cpKPIs, and 11 cpKPI ideal attributes in addition to 1 overall consensus criterion. Twenty-six clinical pharmacists and hospital pharmacy leaders participated in an internet-based 3-round modified Delphi survey. Panelists rated 26 candidate cpKPIs using 11 cpKPI ideal attributes and 1 overall consensus criterion on a 9-point Likert scale. A meeting was facilitated between rounds 2 and 3 to debate the merits and wording of candidate cpKPIs. Consensus was reached if 75% or more of panelists assigned a score of 7 to 9 on the consensus criterion during the third Delphi round. All panelists completed the 3 Delphi rounds, and 25/26 (96%) attended the meeting. Eight candidate cpKPIs met the consensus definition: (1) performing admission medication reconciliation (including best-possible medication history), (2) participating in interprofessional patient care rounds, (3) completing pharmaceutical care plans, (4) resolving drug therapy problems, (5) providing in-person disease and medication education to patients, (6) providing discharge patient medication education, (7) performing discharge medication reconciliation, and (8) providing bundled, proactive direct patient care activities. A Delphi panel of hospital pharmacists was successful in determining 8 consensus cpKPIs. Measurement and assessment of these cpKPIs will serve to advance clinical pharmacy practice and improve patient care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Patient responses to inhaler advice given by community pharmacies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Susanne; Aarup, Kristine Hallberg Friis; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The value of counseling in community pharmacy depends on its ability to help patients improve their use of medicine and thereby health status, by their adherence to recommendations. Studies showing how patients respond to daily pharmacy counseling are, however, scarce. The aim......, this aspect should be investigated further, as this could help staff providing adequate counseling to patients. Further, pharmacy staff should focus more on supporting patients implementing their health advice at home....

  9. Competition in the German pharmacy market: an empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinsohn, Jörg G; Flessa, Steffen

    2013-10-10

    Pharmaceutical products are an important component of expenditure on public health insurance in the Federal Republic of Germany. For years, German policy makers have regulated public pharmacies in order to limit the increase in costs. One reform has followed another, main objective being to increase competition in the pharmacy market. It is generally assumed that an increase in competition would reduce healthcare costs. However, there is a lack of empirical proof of a stronger orientation of German public pharmacies towards competition thus far. This paper analyses the self-perceptions of owners of German public pharmacies and their orientation towards competition in the pharmacy markets. It is based on a cross-sectional survey (N = 289) and distinguishes between successful and less successful pharmacies, the location of the pharmacies (e.g. West German States and East German States) and the gender of the pharmacy owner. The data are analysed descriptively by survey items and employing bivariate and structural equation modelling. The analysis reveals that the majority of owners of public pharmacies in Germany do not currently perceive very strong competitive pressure in the market. However, the innovativeness of the pharmacist is confirmed as most relevant for net revenue development and the profit margin. Some differences occur between regions, e.g. public pharmacies in West Germany have a significantly higher profit margin. This study provides evidence that the German healthcare reforms aimed at increasing the competition between public pharmacies in Germany have not been completely successful. Many owners of public pharmacies disregard instruments of active customer-orientated management (such as customer loyalty or an offensive position and economies of scale), which could give them a competitive advantage. However, it is clear that those pharmacists who strive for systematic and innovative management and adopt an offensive and competitive stance are quite

  10. Competition in the German pharmacy market: an empirical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Pharmaceutical products are an important component of expenditure on public health insurance in the Federal Republic of Germany. For years, German policy makers have regulated public pharmacies in order to limit the increase in costs. One reform has followed another, main objective being to increase competition in the pharmacy market. It is generally assumed that an increase in competition would reduce healthcare costs. However, there is a lack of empirical proof of a stronger orientation of German public pharmacies towards competition thus far. Methods This paper analyses the self-perceptions of owners of German public pharmacies and their orientation towards competition in the pharmacy markets. It is based on a cross-sectional survey (N = 289) and distinguishes between successful and less successful pharmacies, the location of the pharmacies (e.g. West German States and East German States) and the gender of the pharmacy owner. The data are analysed descriptively by survey items and employing bivariate and structural equation modelling. Results The analysis reveals that the majority of owners of public pharmacies in Germany do not currently perceive very strong competitive pressure in the market. However, the innovativeness of the pharmacist is confirmed as most relevant for net revenue development and the profit margin. Some differences occur between regions, e.g. public pharmacies in West Germany have a significantly higher profit margin. Conclusions This study provides evidence that the German healthcare reforms aimed at increasing the competition between public pharmacies in Germany have not been completely successful. Many owners of public pharmacies disregard instruments of active customer-orientated management (such as customer loyalty or an offensive position and economies of scale), which could give them a competitive advantage. However, it is clear that those pharmacists who strive for systematic and innovative management and adopt an

  11. Is a Pharmacy Student the Customer or the Product?

    OpenAIRE

    Holdford, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Academic entitlement and student consumerism have been described as a cause for unprofessional behavior in higher education. Colleges and schools of pharmacy may inadvertently encourage student consumerism and academic entitlement by misunderstanding who is the primary customer of pharmacy education. Pharmacy colleges and schools who view students as the primary customer can unintentionally pressure faculty members to relax expectations for professionalism and academic performance and thereby...

  12. SOME ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF HOSPITAL PHARMACY ABROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Miroshnichenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We considered a number of aspects of the development of hospital pharmacy abroad. It is revealed that the focus of professional pharmaceutical associations in the information and educational fields creates the basis for creation of strategy of development of hospital pharmacy. The analysis of population dynamics of pharmaceutical staff in hospital pharmaciesis held, and the detailed characteristics of activities of certain categories of specialists of hospital pharmacies is presented.

  13. A Bibliometric Study of Community Pharmacy-Based Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    1. 1.1. NA. Patient Education and Counseling. 1. 1.1. 2.305. Patient Preference and Adherence. 1. 1.1. 1.143. Pharmaceutical Journal. 1. 1.1. NA. Pharmacy Practice. 7. 7.5. NA. Pharmacy World and Science. 7. 7.5. 1.215. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy. 1. 1.1. 2.35. Research Journal of Medical Sciences.

  14. The geographic accessibility of pharmacies in Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Michael R; Heard, Deborah; Fisher, Judith; Douillard, Jay; Muzika, Greg; Sketris, Ingrid S

    2013-01-01

    Geographic proximity is an important component of access to primary care and the pharmaceutical services of community pharmacies. Variations in access to primary care have been found between rural and urban areas in Canadian and international jurisdictions. We studied access to community pharmacies in the province of Nova Scotia. We used information on the locations of 297 community pharmacies operating in Nova Scotia in June 2011. Population estimates at the census block level and network analysis were used to study the number of Nova Scotia residents living within 800 m (walking) and 2 km and 5 km (driving) distances of a pharmacy. We then simulated the impact of pharmacy closures on geographic access in urban and rural areas. We found that 40.3% of Nova Scotia residents lived within walking distance of a pharmacy; 62.6% and 78.8% lived within 2 km and 5 km, respectively. Differences between urban and rural areas were pronounced: 99.2% of urban residents lived within 5 km of a pharmacy compared with 53.3% of rural residents. Simulated pharmacy closures had a greater impact on geographic access to community pharmacies in rural areas than urban areas. The majority of Nova Scotia residents lived within walking or short driving distance of at least 1 community pharmacy. While overall geographic access appears to be lower than in the province of Ontario, the difference appears to be largely driven by the higher proportion of rural dwellers in Nova Scotia. Further studies should examine how geographic proximity to pharmacies influences patients' access to traditional and specialized pharmacy services, as well as health outcomes and adherence to therapy. Can Pharm J 2013;146:39-46.

  15. The Central Endocrine Glands: Intertwining Physiology and Pharmacy

    OpenAIRE

    Emerson, Mitchell R.

    2007-01-01

    The initial courses in didactic pharmacy curriculum are designed to provide core scientific knowledge and develop learning skills that are the basis for highly competent application and practice of pharmacy. Commonly, students interpret this scientific base as ancillary to the practice of pharmacy. Physiology courses present a natural opportunity for the instructor to introduce basic pharmaceutical principles that form the foundation of pharmacological application early in the professional cu...

  16. Exploring relationships among pharmacy service use, patronage motives, and patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Brandon J; Doucette, William R; Urmie, Julie M; McDonough, Randal P

    2013-01-01

    To describe and identify significant relationships among pharmacy service use, general and service-specific patient satisfaction, pharmacy patronage motives, and marketing awareness in a service-oriented, independent community pharmacy. Cross-sectional study. Midwest United States during May through July 2011. Stratified random sample of 500 participants. Self-reported questionnaire mailed to participants. Patient satisfaction, pharmacy service use, patronage motives, marketing awareness, and demographics. Study participants were mostly satisfied with the pharmacy services on global and service-specific measures. Patronage motives of relationships, pharmacy atmosphere, and quality previous experience were associated with increased pharmacy service use at the study pharmacy, while a unique service patronage motivation was associated with decreased pharmacy service use at the study pharmacy. Participants citing pharmacy atmosphere and personnel competency as patronage motives did not use pharmacies other than the study pharmacy more often, whereas participants citing unique services as a patronage motive used pharmacies other than the study pharmacy more often. Direct marketing awareness increased pharmacy service awareness but not use. Offering unique services may not be enough to bring in patients loyal to all services provided in a pharmacy. Pharmacists should focus on developing strong relationships with patients and conveying competence when delivering appropriate, quality pharmacy services in a professional pharmacy atmosphere.

  17. Using the Consumer Experience with Pharmacy Services Survey as a quality metric for ambulatory care pharmacies: older adults' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyanbola, Olayinka O; Mott, David A; Croes, Kenneth D

    2016-05-26

    To describe older adults' perceptions of evaluating and comparing pharmacies based on the Consumer Experience with Pharmacy Services Survey (CEPSS), describe older adults' perceived importance of the CEPSS and its specific domains, and explore older adults' perceptions of the influence of specific CEPSS domains in choosing/switching pharmacies. Focus group methodology was combined with the administration of a questionnaire. The focus groups explored participants' perceived importance of the CEPSS and their perception of using the CEPSS to choose and/or switch pharmacies. Then, using the questionnaire, participants rated their perceived importance of each CEPSS domain in evaluating a pharmacy, and the likelihood of using CEPSS to switch pharmacies if their current pharmacy had low ratings. Descriptive and thematic analyses were done. 6 semistructured focus groups were conducted in a private meeting room in a Mid-Western state in the USA. 60 English-speaking adults who were at least 65 years, and had filled a prescription at a retail pharmacy within 90 days. During the focus groups, the older adults perceived the CEPSS to have advantages and disadvantages in evaluating and comparing pharmacies. Older adults thought the CEPSS was important in choosing the best pharmacies and avoiding the worst pharmacies. The perceived influence of the CEPSS in switching pharmacies varied depending on the older adult's personal experience or trust of other consumers' experience. Questionnaire results showed that participants perceived health/medication-focused communication as very important or extremely important (n=47, 82.5%) in evaluating pharmacies and would be extremely likely (n=21, 36.8%) to switch pharmacies if their pharmacy had low ratings in this domain. The older adults in this study are interested in using patient experiences as a quality metric for avoiding the worst pharmacies. Pharmacists' communication about health and medicines is perceived important and likely

  18. Expander chunked codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bin; Yang, Shenghao; Ye, Baoliu; Yin, Yitong; Lu, Sanglu

    2015-12-01

    Chunked codes are efficient random linear network coding (RLNC) schemes with low computational cost, where the input packets are encoded into small chunks (i.e., subsets of the coded packets). During the network transmission, RLNC is performed within each chunk. In this paper, we first introduce a simple transfer matrix model to characterize the transmission of chunks and derive some basic properties of the model to facilitate the performance analysis. We then focus on the design of overlapped chunked codes, a class of chunked codes whose chunks are non-disjoint subsets of input packets, which are of special interest since they can be encoded with negligible computational cost and in a causal fashion. We propose expander chunked (EC) codes, the first class of overlapped chunked codes that have an analyzable performance, where the construction of the chunks makes use of regular graphs. Numerical and simulation results show that in some practical settings, EC codes can achieve rates within 91 to 97 % of the optimum and outperform the state-of-the-art overlapped chunked codes significantly.

  19. Impact of a debate on pharmacy students' views of online pharmacy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussières, Jean-François; Delicourt, Anais; Belaid, Nedjma; Quirion, Marie-Pierre; Desroches, Julien; Bégin, Josiane; Fragasso-Marquis, Anne-Marie; Lamarre, Diane

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of a debate on pharmacy students' perceptions, using online pharmacy practice as the debate topic. This is a quasi-experimental interrupted time-series study. A 60 min debate was organized as a lunchtime meeting. A four-category Likert scale questionnaire (fully agree, partially agree, partially disagree, fully disagree) measured the debate participants' level of agreement with 25 statements (main issues associated with online pharmacy) in the pre-phase (before the debate), post-phase 1 (after the debate) and post-phase 2 (6 months after the debate). One hundred and seventy-seven students were recruited (response rate of 100% in the pre-phase and post-phase 1, 31% in post-phase 2). Four questions measured the perceptions of the students on this pedagogical technique. The overall proportion of respondents in favour of online pharmacy practice showed little variation among the three phases. However, on average (mean ± SD) 43 ± 8% of the respondents changed their opinion, 21 ± 7% reversed their opinion, 22 ± 4% nuanced their opinion and 1 ± 1% radically changed their opinion. Respectively 98% (post-phase 1) and 96% (post-phase 2) of the respondents were of the opinion that debate was a very useful teaching formula in their pharmacist training and 79 and 66% thought debate significantly changed their opinion of the issue. Few data have been collected on the use of debates as part of healthcare professional training. The impact of a debate on how pharmacy students feel about online pharmacy practice is described. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  20. Health literacy among consumers in community pharmacy: perceptions of pharmacy staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairuz, Therese E; Bellamy, Kim M; Lord, Elisabeth; Ostini, Remo; Emmerton, Lynne M

    2015-10-01

    Low health literacy has important consequences for health status, medication adherence and use of health services. There is little insight from the perspective of pharmacy staff into how they identify the information needs of consumers and particularly the signals and risk factors of limited health literacy that they encounter in their day-to-day communication with consumers. To investigate factors impacting on consumer health literacy, from the perspective of pharmacy staff. The research comprised semi-structured interviews conducted in a convenience sample of pharmacies in the south-east region of Queensland, Australia. Eleven pharmacists and nine pharmacy assistants agreed to participate. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Initial coding of the anonymized transcripts was performed using NVivo(®). Codes were analysed into overarching themes and subthemes, which were then re-named and refined through consensus discussion. Three overarching themes were identified from the coding process: complexity of the health system, clarity of information, and dialogue among consumers and health-care professionals. Two of the themes were system related, namely the health system and pharmacy labels; the health literacy issues included lack of clarity, complexity and misunderstanding. The third theme was related to communication. Complexity of the health system, clarity of information and dialogue among consumers and health-care professionals were identified as factors associated with consumers' health literacy. We call for increased engagement between pharmacy staff and consumers with improved focus on areas of potential confusion, such as medicine labels and navigation of the health system, aiming to minimize negative consequences of limited health literacy and optimize patient health outcomes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Perceptions, use and attitudes of pharmacy customers on complementary medicines and pharmacy practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Michael

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary medicines (CMs are popular amongst Australians and community pharmacy is a major supplier of these products. This study explores pharmacy customer use, attitudes and perceptions of complementary medicines, and their expectations of pharmacists as they relate to these products. Methods Pharmacy customers randomly selected from sixty large and small, metropolitan and rural pharmacies in three Australian states completed an anonymous, self administered questionnaire that had been pre-tested and validated. Results 1,121 customers participated (response rate 62%. 72% had used CMs within the previous 12 months, 61% used prescription medicines daily and 43% had used both concomitantly. Multivitamins, fish oils, vitamin C, glucosamine and probiotics were the five most popular CMs. 72% of people using CMs rated their products as 'very effective' or 'effective enough'. CMs were as frequently used by customers aged 60 years or older as younger customers (69% vs. 72% although the pattern of use shifted with older age. Most customers (92% thought pharmacists should provide safety information about CMs, 90% thought they should routinely check for interactions, 87% thought they should recommend effective CMs, 78% thought CMs should be recorded in customer's medication profile and 58% thought pharmacies stocking CMs should also employ a complementary medicine practitioner. Of those using CMs, 93% thought it important for pharmacists to be knowledgeable about CMs and 48% felt their pharmacist provides useful information about CMs. Conclusions CMs are widely used by pharmacy customers of all ages who want pharmacists to be more involved in providing advice about these products.

  2. Development and Implementation of Critical Thinking Assignments Throughout a Pharmacy Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Marilyn F.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    In a summer faculty development workshop, seven faculty in different pharmacy disciplines (biochemistry, therapeutics, pharmacy management, pharmaceutics, pathophysiology, pharmaceutical analysis, pharmacy administration) clarified critical thinking objectives for their courses, practiced this approach in a faculty workshop, and piloted the…

  3. Social Pharmacy and Clinical Pharmacy—Joining Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Birna Almarsdottir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This commentary seeks to define the areas of social pharmacy and clinical pharmacy to uncover what they have in common and what still sets them apart. Common threats and challenges of the two areas are reviewed in order to understand the forces in play. Forces that still keep clinical and social pharmacy apart are university structures, research traditions, and the management of pharmacy services. There are key (but shrinking differences between clinical and social pharmacy which entail the levels of study within pharmaceutical sciences, the location in which the research is carried out, the choice of research designs and methods, and the theoretical foundations. Common strengths and opportunities are important to know in order to join forces. Finding common ground can be developed in two areas: participating together in multi-disciplinary research, and uniting in a dialogue with internal and external key players in putting forth what is needed for the profession of pharmacy. At the end the question is posed, “What’s in a name?” and we argue that it is important to emphasize what unifies the families of clinical pharmacy and social pharmacy for the benefit of both fields, pharmacy in general, and society at large.

  4. The Utrecht Pharmacy Practice network for Education and Research: a network of community and hospital pharmacies in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Ellen S; Blom, Lyda; Philbert, Daphne; Rump, Willem; Bouvy, Marcel L

    2014-08-01

    Practice-based networks can serve as effective mechanisms for the development of the profession of pharmacists, on the one hand by supporting student internships and on the other hand by collection of research data and implementation of research outcomes among public health practice settings. This paper presents the characteristics and benefits of the Utrecht Pharmacy Practice network for Education and Research, a practice based research network affiliated with the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Utrecht University. Yearly, this network is used to realize approximately 600 student internships (in hospital and community pharmacies) and 20 research projects. To date, most research has been performed in community pharmacy and research questions frequently concerned prescribing behavior or adherence and subjects related to uptake of regulations in the pharmacy setting. Researchers gain access to different types of data from daily practice, pharmacists receive feedback on the functioning of their own pharmacy and students get in depth insight into pharmacy practice.

  5. A quantitative professionalism policy in a community pharmacy introductory pharmacy practice experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtaynberg, Jane; Rivkin, Anastasia; Shah, Bupendra; Rush, Sharon

    2013-12-16

    To determine whether implementing a quantitative professionalism policy would lead to improved behaviors in an introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) and to evaluate students' attitudes about professionalism expectations in the IPPE. A policy using quantitative parameters for assessing unprofessional behaviors was developed and implemented in the community pharmacy IPPE after discrepancies were identified in the way professional expectations were assessed. The quantitative professionalism policy reduced the number of assignments submitted post deadline (p<0.05). There was no change in students' attitudes towards professional behaviors after the implementation of the policy. The quantitative professionalism policy was effective in changing some of the students' professional behaviors in an IPPE.

  6. Racial and ethnic disparities in influenza vaccinations among community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junling; Munshi, Kiraat D; Hong, Song Hee

    2014-01-01

    Since 2009, pharmacists in all 50 states in the U.S. have been authorized to administer vaccinations. This study examined racial and ethnic disparities in the reported receipt of influenza vaccinations within the past year among noninstitutionalized community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents. The 2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey was analyzed. The sample consisted of respondents aged 50 years or older, as per the 2009 recommendations by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the influenza vaccination rates and disparities in receiving influenza vaccinations within past year between non-Hispanic Whites (Whites), non-Hispanic Blacks (Blacks) and Hispanics. The influenza vaccination rates between community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents were also examined. Bivariate analyses found that among the community pharmacy patients, a greater proportion of Whites reported receiving influenza vaccinations compared to Blacks (60.9% vs. 49.1%; P vaccination rates among Whites compared to Blacks (41.0% vs. 24.3%; P vaccinations within the past year among both community pharmacy patients (odds ratio [OR]: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.69-0.95) and non-community pharmacy respondents (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.46-0.94). Sociodemographic characteristics and health status accounted for the disparities between Hispanics and Whites. Overall, community pharmacy patients reported higher influenza vaccination rates compared to non-community pharmacy respondents (59.0% vs. 37.2%; P vaccination rates were higher among community pharmacy patients, there were racial disparities in receiving influenza vaccinations among both community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents. Increased emphasis on educational campaigns among pharmacists and their patients, especially minorities, may be needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Community pharmacy customer segmentation based on factors influencing their selection of pharmacy and over-the-counter medicines

    OpenAIRE

    Kevrekidis, Dimitrios Phaedon; Minarikova, Daniela; Markos, Angelos; Malovecka, Ivona; Minarik, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background: Within the competitive pharmacy market environment, community pharmacies are required to develop efficient marketing strategies based on contemporary information about consumer behavior in order to attract clients and develop customer loyalty. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the consumers’ preferences concerning the selection of pharmacy and over-the-counter (OTC) medicines, and to identify customer segments in relation to these preferences. Methods: A cross-sect...

  8. The Marketing Strategy of Pötting’s Pharmacy Using the Marketing Tool Service Blueprint

    OpenAIRE

    Šilberská, Tereza

    2015-01-01

    The diploma thesis is focused on marketing strategy plan of a private pharmacy using service blueprint as a marketing tool. At the beginning the thesis deals with characteristics of specifics and state regulations of pharmacy marketing. Then the thesis analyses Czech pharmacy market in particular with regard to the expansion of pharmacy chains and also puts emphasis on current pharmacy trends that influence management and marketing of private pharmacies. The main goal is firstly to describe t...

  9. The Artful Universe Expanded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, John D.

    2005-07-01

    Our love of art, writes John Barrow, is the end product of millions of years of evolution. How we react to a beautiful painting or symphony draws upon instincts laid down long before humans existed. Now, in this enhanced edition of the highly popular The Artful Universe , Barrow further explores the close ties between our aesthetic appreciation and the basic nature of the Universe. Barrow argues that the laws of the Universe have imprinted themselves upon our thoughts and actions in subtle and unexpected ways. Why do we like certain types of art or music? What games and puzzles do we find challenging? Why do so many myths and legends have common elements? In this eclectic and entertaining survey, Barrow answers these questions and more as he explains how the landscape of the Universe has influenced the development of philosophy and mythology, and how millions of years of evolutionary history have fashioned our attraction to certain patterns of sound and color. Barrow casts the story of human creativity and thought in a fascinating light, considering such diverse topics as our instinct for language, the origins and uses of color in nature, why we divide time into intervals as we do, the sources of our appreciation of landscape painting, and whether computer-generated fractal art is really art. Drawing on a wide variety of examples, from the theological questions raised by St. Augustine and C.S. Lewis to the relationship between the pure math of Pythagoras and the music of the Beatles, The Artful Universe Expanded covers new ground and enters a wide-ranging debate about the meaning and significance of the links between art and science.

  10. Could community pharmacies help to improve youth health? Service availability and views of pharmacy personnel in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsfield, Emma; Kelly, Fiona; Sheridan, Janie; Stewart, Joanna; Clark, Terryann

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the availability of youth-relevant community pharmacy services in New Zealand (NZ), and the opinions of pharmacy personnel on the appropriateness of these services for young people aged 12-24. Pharmacist and pharmacy support staff (PSS) questionnaires were developed collaboratively with a Youth Advisory Group (YAG) and were mailed to 500 randomly selected community pharmacies in NZ. Response rates for questionnaires were 50.5 % for pharmacists and 37.0 % for PSS. The majority of community pharmacies in NZ offer public health services relevant to youth health including emergency contraception, condoms, smoking cessation, weight management and harm reduction services for drug use. Not all pharmacy personnel believed these services are appropriate for youth, particularly for those aged 16 or under. PSS appeared less likely than pharmacists to feel services were appropriate. Community pharmacies are offering an increasing range of youth-relevant health services, and may, therefore, be able to improve youth healthcare access. More research is required to investigate the barriers to young people accessing services from pharmacies, and also the challenges for pharmacy personnel in providing services to this age group.

  11. Knowledge and Perceptions of Pharmacy Students in Qatar on Anti-Doping in Sports and on Sports Pharmacy in Undergraduate Curricula

    OpenAIRE

    Awaisu, Ahmed; Mottram, David; Rahhal, Alaa; Alemrayat, Bayan; Ahmed,Afif; Stuart, Mark; Khalifa, Sherief

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess pharmacy students’ knowledge and perceptions of doping and anti-doping in sports and to explore the curricular needs for undergraduate pharmacy in the field of sports pharmacy. Methods. A cross-sectional, descriptive, web-based survey of pharmacy students was conducted at Qatar University College of Pharmacy from March to May 2014. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results. Eighty respondents completed the online survey (80% response...

  12. The organizational framework of community pharmacies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Sílvia Filipa; van Mil, J W Foppe; da Costa, Filipa Alves

    2015-10-01

    The role of the pharmacist has undergone profound changes over the recent years. In most European countries, the tendency seems to be that pharmacists are moving from being product-oriented to service-oriented. An interesting series of papers describing care related services of pharmacy in various countries has been published in 2006, but much has changed since then. This paper aims to provide an updated view on the overall health care sector in Europe, with a special focus on services in community pharmacy. To list and compare health care and community pharmacy structure in Europe; and to discuss the facilitators and barriers that can be found in health care systems and may promote or hinder the implementation of new community pharmacy services. European community pharmacy practice. A cross-sectional study was undertaken where data were collected using an online survey sent to a purposive sample of representatives from 27 European countries. Main outcome measure variation in professional community pharmacy services across Europe. Data were obtained from 22 respondents in 19 countries (70.4%). Health care is mainly provided by a form of public National Health Services in 17 of the 19 countries. Demographic criteria for founding new pharmacies were present in 17 countries. Medicines are exclusively available in pharmacies in approximately one third of the countries. Smoking cessation (93.8%), drug waste management (81.3%) and pharmaceutical care programmes for specific diseases (77.8%) were reported as the most widely disseminated services in European pharmacies. There are still major differences between community pharmacy practice in Europe. Differences are mostly due to the legal framework and remuneration issues, which impact on the range of services available from pharmacies to the community of each country.

  13. Pharmacy executive leadership issues and associated skills, knowledge, and abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Andrew B; Maine, Lucinda L; Keyes, Elizabeth K; Pearson, Kathy; Finstuen, Kenn

    2005-01-01

    To identify challenges that current and future pharmacy executives are facing or will face in the future and to define what skills, knowledge, and abilities (SKAs) are required to successfully negotiate these challenges. Delphi method for executive decision making. Civilian pharmacy profession. 110 pharmacists who graduated from the GlaxoSmithKline Executive Management Program for Pharmacy Leaders. Two iterations of the Delphi method for executive decision making separated by an expert panel content analysis. Round 1--participants were asked to identify five major issues they believed to be of greatest importance to pharmacy leaders in the next 5-10 years and name specific SKAs that might be needed by future leaders to successfully deal with those issues. An expert panel reviewed the issues, classified issues into specific domains, and titled each domain. Round 2-participants rated the SKAs on a 7-point scale according to their individual assessment of importance in each domain. For Delphi rounds 1 and 2, response rates were 21.8% and 18.2%, respectively. More than 100 total issue statements were identified. The expert panel sorted the issues into five domains: management and development of the pharmacy workforce, pharmacy finance, total quality management of work-flow systems, influences on the practice of pharmacy, and professional pharmacy leadership. Five of the top 15 SKAs-and all four highest ranked items--came from the professional pharmacy leadership domain, including ability to see the big picture, ability to demonstrate the value of pharmacy services, ability to lead and manage in an ethical manner, and skills for influencing an organization's senior leadership. Through successful integration of communication skills, critical thinking, and problem solving techniques, future public-sector pharmacy executives will be better equipped to effectively position their organizations and the profession for the challenges that lie ahead.

  14. Exploring consumer understanding and preferences for pharmacy quality information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyanbola OO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe consumer understanding of pharmacy quality measures and consumer preferences for pharmacy quality information. Methods: Semi-structured focus group design was combined with survey methods. Adults who filled prescription medications for self-reported chronic illnesses at community pharmacies discussed their understanding of Pharmacy Quality Alliance approved quality measures. Questions examined preference of pharmacy quality information rating systems (e.g. stars versus percentages and desired data display/formats. During the focus group, participants completed a survey examining their understanding of each pharmacy quality measure. All focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis and descriptive statistics. Results: Thirty-four individuals participated (mean age= 62.85; SD=16.05. Participants were unfamiliar with quality measures information and their level of understanding differed for each quality measure. Surveys indicated 94.1% understood “Drug-Drug Interactions” and “Helping Patients Get Needed Medications” better than other measures (e.g., 76.5% understood “Suboptimal Treatment of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes”. Qualitative analysis indicated participants preferred an overall pharmacy rating for quick access and use. However, participants also wanted quality measures information displayed by health conditions. Participants favored comparison of their pharmacy to city data instead of state data. Most participants liked star ratings better than percentages, letter grades, or numerical ratings. Conclusions: Individuals who have a chronic illness and regularly use community pharmacies are interested in pharmacy quality measures. However, specific quality measures were not understood by some participants. Participants had specific preferences for the display of pharmacy quality information which will be helpful in the design of appropriate quality

  15. Assessment of knowledge and practice of community pharmacy personnel on diabetes mellitus management in Kathmandu district: a cross sectional descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, M; Maharjan, R; Prajapati, A; Ghimire, S; Shrestha, N; Banstola, A

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacists are the most reachable healthcare professionals to many chronically ill patients. It has been found that pharmacists see patients with diabetes up to five times more often than any other healthcare provider. Therefore, to provide quality health care to patients it is important that they have appropriate knowledge and practice on diabetes mellitus management. Thus, this study was conducted to assess the knowledge and practice of diabetes mellitus management among community pharmacy personnel involved in retail community pharmacies of Kathmandu. Three hundred and fifteen community pharmacies, selected by systematic random sampling were surveyed by using pre-validated self-administered questionnaires. The first set of questionnaire evaluated the community pharmacy personnel's diabetes knowledge based on a pre-validated 20-item questionnaire. The second set of questionnaire documented about the practice of community pharmacy personnel on diabetes mellitus management which contained 22 questions. Data was entered in EPI Data and analyzed by using SPSS version 20. This survey demonstrated that 76.5 % respondents had poor knowledge and 86.4 % had negative practice on diabetes mellitus (DM) management. Only 26.2 % respondents had good knowledge as well as good practice. 31.4 % of respondents had poor knowledge as well as poor practice on DM management. Laws and regulations regarding community pharmacy personnel need to be implemented. There should be more advanced and experiment based training. Additionally, the provision for further education curriculum in pharmacy education should be implemented which should intensively include disease and proper management. Guidelines covering diabetes care should be distributed and implemented throughout community pharmacies.

  16. Efficacy and safety of palbociclib in combination with letrozole as first-line treatment of ER-positive, HER2-negative, advanced breast cancer: expanded analyses of subgroups from the randomized pivotal trial PALOMA-1/TRIO-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Richard S; Crown, John P; Ettl, Johannes; Schmidt, Marcus; Bondarenko, Igor M; Lang, Istvan; Pinter, Tamas; Boer, Katalin; Patel, Ravindranath; Randolph, Sophia; Kim, Sindy T; Huang, Xin; Schnell, Patrick; Nadanaciva, Sashi; Bartlett, Cynthia Huang; Slamon, Dennis J

    2016-06-28

    Palbociclib is an oral small-molecule inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6. In the randomized, open-label, phase II PALOMA-1/TRIO-18 trial, palbociclib in combination with letrozole improved progression-free survival (PFS) compared with letrozole alone as first-line treatment of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative, advanced breast cancer (20.2 months versus 10.2 months; hazard ratio (HR) = 0.488, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.319-0.748; one-sided p = 0.0004). Grade 3-4 neutropenia was the most common adverse event (AE) in the palbociclib + letrozole arm. We now present efficacy and safety analyses based on several specific patient and tumor characteristics, and present in detail the clinical patterns of neutropenia observed in the palbociclib + letrozole arm of the overall safety population. Postmenopausal women (n = 165) with ER+, HER2-negative, advanced breast cancer who had not received any systemic treatment for their advanced disease were randomized 1:1 to receive either palbociclib in combination with letrozole or letrozole alone. Treatment continued until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, consent withdrawal, or death. The primary endpoint was PFS. We now analyze the difference in PFS for the treatment populations by subgroups, including age, histological type, history of prior neoadjuvant/adjuvant systemic treatment, and sites of distant metastasis, using the Kaplan-Meier method. HR and 95 % CI are derived from a Cox proportional hazards regression model. A clinically meaningful improvement in median PFS and clinical benefit response (CBR) rate was seen with palbociclib + letrozole in every subgroup evaluated. Grade 3-4 neutropenia was the most common AE with palbociclib + letrozole in all subgroups. Analysis of the frequency of neutropenia by grade during the first six cycles of treatment showed that there was a downward trend in Grade 3-4 neutropenia

  17. The Origin, Goals, and Development of a Clinical Pharmacy Emphasis in Pharmacy Education and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Harry A.; Swintosky, Joseph V.

    1983-01-01

    The origin, goals, and development of a clinical emphasis are reviewed, beginning with some fundamental developments in pharmacy practice and education brought about by economic, political, social, scientific, and technological forces. The challenge of fitting the desirable curriculum element into a limited program length is discussed. (MSE)

  18. Pharmacy Characteristics Associated with the Provision of Drug Therapy Services in Nonmetropolitan Community Pharmacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkari, Abhijit S.; Mott, David A.; Kreling, David H.; Bonnarens, Joseph K.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Higher prevalence of chronic diseases and reduced access to other health professionals in rural areas suggest that rural Medicare enrollees will benefit from pharmacist-provided drug therapy services (DTS). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe non-metropolitan community pharmacy sites in Wisconsin, the provision of DTS at…

  19. The Annual Pharmacy Undergraduate Research Seminar at West Virginia University School of Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Carl J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    For 10 years, the undergraduate research seminar has provided an opportunity for presentation and evaluation of undergraduate research projects, enabled students to learn about research activity and graduate study in a variety of pharmacy specialties, and created enthusiasm among students. (MSE)

  20. Interprofessional education in introductory pharmacy practice experiences at US colleges and schools of pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kim M; Blumenthal, Donald K; Burke, John M; Condren, Michelle; Hansen, Richard; Holiday-Goodman, Monica; Peterson, Charles D

    2012-06-18

    To assess the extent to which US colleges and schools of pharmacy are incorporating interprofessional education into their introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs), and to identify barriers to implementation; characterize the format, structure, and assessment; and identify factors associated with incorporating interprofessional education in IPPEs. An electronic survey of 116 US colleges and schools of pharmacy was conducted from March 2011 through May 2011. Interprofessional education is a stated curricular goal in 78% of colleges and schools and consistently occurred in IPPEs in 55%. Most colleges and schools that included interprofessional education in IPPEs (70%) used subjective measures to assess competencies, while 17.5% used standardized outcomes assessment instruments. Barriers cited by respondents from colleges and schools that had not implemented interprofessional education in IPPEs included a lack of access to sufficient healthcare facilities with interprofessional education opportunities (57%) and a lack of required personnel resources (52%). Many US colleges and schools of pharmacy have incorporated interprofessional education into their IPPEs, but there is a need for further expansion of interprofessional education and better assessment related to achievement of interprofessional education competencies in IPPEs.

  1. Advancing advanced practice - clarifying the conceptual confusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasa, Helen; Cashin, Andrew; Buckley, Thomas; Donoghue, Judith

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of nurses holding advanced practice nursing positions. However, the lack of clarity regarding key terms such as 'advanced practice nursing', 'advanced nursing practice', 'scope of practice' and 'extended practice', and international variability in how these terms are used has created significant confusion. This lack of clarity is problematic for nurses, other health professionals, health service consumers, educators and policy makers, particularly given the global mobility of the nursing workforce. 1) To highlight the significant international variability in how advanced practice nursing, and associated terms such as extended and expanded practice, are defined and regulated across a variety of different English speaking countries, including the US, UK, New Zealand, Canada and Australia. 2) To propose innovative formulations for how the nursing profession may attempt to ensure greater precision and agreement around advanced practice terminology. Discursive paper. It was found that there is a considerable lack of clarity regarding the precise definitions of key terms surrounding the discussion of advanced practice. Additionally, there are large disparities in how the five chosen countries regulate advanced practice nursing, and roles such as that of the nurse practitioner. It is suggested that the confusion regarding advanced practice terminology can be reduced definitionally by minimising the use of the term 'expanded practice'; defining advanced practice nursing to refer to the type of practice in defined and regulated advanced practice nursing scopes; and defining advanced nursing practice as expert practice within a regulated nursing scope. © 2013.

  2. The Revised Basel Statements on the Future of Hospital Pharmacy: What Do They Mean for Saudi Arabia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sabban, Hanadi; Al-Jedai, Ahmed; Bajis, Dalia; Penm, Jonathan

    2017-09-06

    To describe the current hospital pharmacy practice in Saudi Arabia according to the revised Basel statements. A review of the available data based on published literature in the subject area was carried out. The original Basel Statements were developed at the 2008 Global Conference on the Future of Hospital Pharmacy in Basel, Switzerland. Representatives from 98 countries, including Saudi Arabia, attended this conference. The revision of the Basel statements simplified and merged many of the original Basel statements. In addition to making the Basel statements more concise, the revision added new statements to reflect global trends and the expanded responsibilities of hospital pharmacists. The release of the Basel statements represents an important opportunity to bring Saudi Arabian practices into complete concurrence with international standards and to identify areas that should be prioritized. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  3. Perceived importance of pharmacy management skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Richard J; MacKinnon, George E; MacKinnon, Neil J; Kennedy, Pamela L

    2005-05-15

    U.S. and Canadian health-system pharmacists' perceptions of the importance of managerial skills and self-ratings of skills were studied. A questionnaire asking recipients to rate the importance of 61 pharmacy management skills and to rate their own skill levels was prepared. The instrument was mailed in 2000 to pharmacy managers in Canada. Participants in the Leadership in Healthcare Administration for Pharmacists conference in Phoenix, Arizona, received the survey at the end of the 2001 and 2002 conferences. Participants in the 2002 Department of Veterans Affairs pharmacists' conference in Memphis, Tennessee, received the survey eight weeks before the conference. The net response rates for the Canadian, Arizona, and Tennessee surveys were 52.7%, 56.9%, and 38.4%, respectively. The five skills rated most important in each of the three surveys were all practice foundation skills and tended to be required by all health care managers. Skills rated least important were also generally similar among the surveys. Only five skills demonstrated a significant mean difference in perceived importance among the surveys. In all three surveys, demonstrating ethical conduct was rated the most important skill and was judged by participants to be their greatest strength. Using an organized system for staying current with managerial literature was cited as the greatest weakness by the Tennessee sample and the second greatest weakness by the Canadian sample. Surveys in the United States and Canada found differences and similarities in pharmacy managers' opinions of the importance of managerial skills and in self-rated managerial strengths. Also identified were gaps in training.

  4. Drug shortage management in Alabama hospital pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver W. Holmes III, Pharm.D. Candidate 2013

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify effective strategies used by Alabama hospitals to manage drug shortages. Moreover, this study aims to determine if there are any relationships among hospital size, utilization of a standard policy for drug shortage management and perceived usefulness of standard procedures for drug shortages.Methods: A paper survey was mailed to 129 hospital pharmacies in Alabama (per the Alabama Hospital Association directory. The survey consisted of 5 demographic questions, questions involving perception of current medication shortages, sources of information about shorted drugs, and frequency of discussion at P&T committee meetings. Most importantly, the survey contained questions about the use of a standard policy for handling drug shortages, the effectiveness of the policy if one is used, and an open-ended question asking the recipient to describe the policy being used.Results: A response rate of 55% was achieved as 71 surveys were completed and returned. Approximately 70% of the survey respondents described the current drug shortage issue as a top priority in their pharmacy department. The pharmacy distributor served as the primary source of information regarding drug shortages for 45% of the facilities. There is a direct relationship between size of hospital and likelihood of utilization of a standard policy or procedure for drug shortage management among the sample. The smaller facilities of the sample perceived their management strategies as effective more frequently than the larger hospitals.Conclusion: Common components of effective management strategies included extensive communication of shortage details and the ability to locate alternative products. The use of portable technology (e.g., Smart phones and tablets along with mobile applications may emerge as popular means for communicating drug product shortage news and updates within a facility or healthcare system.

  5. Quality of pharmacy-specific Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) assignment in pharmacy journals indexed in MEDLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguet, Fernando; Salgado, Teresa M; van den Boogerd, Lucienne; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is the National Library of Medicine (NLM) controlled vocabulary for indexing articles. Inaccuracies in the MeSH thesaurus have been reported for several areas including pharmacy. To assess the quality of pharmacy-specific MeSH assignment to articles indexed in pharmacy journals. The 10 journals containing the highest number of articles published in 2012 indexed under the MeSH 'Pharmacists' were identified. All articles published over a 5-year period (2008-2012) in the 10 previously selected journals were retrieved from PubMed. MeSH terms used to index these articles were extracted and pharmacy-specific MeSH terms were identified. The frequency of use of pharmacy-specific MeSH terms was calculated across journals. A total of 6989 articles were retrieved from the 10 pharmacy journals, of which 328 (4.7%) were articles not fully indexed and therefore did not contain any MeSH terms assigned. Among the 6661 articles fully indexed, the mean number of MeSH terms was 10.1 (SD = 4.0), being 1.0 (SD = 1.3) considered as Major MeSH. Both values significantly varied across journals. The mean number of pharmacy-specific MeSH terms per article was 0.9 (SD = 1.2). A total of 3490 (52.4%) of the 6661 articles were indexed in pharmacy journals without a single pharmacy-specific MeSH. Of the total 67193 MeSH terms assigned to articles, on average 10.5% (SD = 13.9) were pharmacy-specific MeSH. A statistically significant different pattern of pharmacy-specific MeSH assignment was identified across journals (Kruskal-Wallis P MeSH terms to articles indexed in pharmacy journals can be improved to further enhance evidence gathering in pharmacy. Over half of the articles published in the top-10 journals publishing pharmacy literature were indexed without a single pharmacy-specific MeSH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Contested space in the pharmacy: public attitudes to pharmacy harm reduction services in the West of Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidman, Wendy; Coomber, Ross

    2014-01-01

    Internationally, community pharmacies have become increasingly involved in providing harm reduction services and health advice to people who use illicit drugs. This paper considers public opinion of community pharmacy services. It discusses attitudes to harm reduction services in the context of stigmatization of addiction and people who use drugs. This exploratory study involved twenty-six purposively sampled members of the public, from the West of Scotland, participating in one of 5 focus groups. The groups were composed to represent known groups of users and non-users of community pharmacy, none of whom were problem drug users. Three thematic categories were identified: methadone service users in community pharmacies; attitudes to harm reduction policies; contested space. Harm reduction service expansion has resulted in a high volume of drug users in and around some Scottish pharmacies. Even if harm reduction services are provided discretely users' behavior can differentiate them from other pharmacy users. Drug users' behavior in this setting is commonly perceived to be unacceptable and can deter other consumers from using pharmacy services. The results of this study infer that negative public opinion is highly suggestive of stereotyping and stigmatization of people who use drugs. Participants considered that (1) community pharmacies were unsuitable environments for harm reduction service provision, as they are used by older people and those with children; (2) current drug policy is perceived as ineffective, as abstinence is seldom achieved and methadone was reported to be re-sold; (3) people who use drugs were avoided where possible in community pharmacies. Community pharmacy harm reduction services increasingly bring together the public and drug users. Study participants were reluctant to share pharmacy facilities with drug users. This paper concludes by suggesting mechanisms to minimize stigmatization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Community pharmacy customer segmentation based on factors influencing their selection of pharmacy and over-the-counter medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevrekidis, Dimitrios Phaedon; Minarikova, Daniela; Markos, Angelos; Malovecka, Ivona; Minarik, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Within the competitive pharmacy market environment, community pharmacies are required to develop efficient marketing strategies based on contemporary information about consumer behavior in order to attract clients and develop customer loyalty. This study aimed to investigate the consumers' preferences concerning the selection of pharmacy and over-the-counter (OTC) medicines, and to identify customer segments in relation to these preferences. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and March 2016 on a convenient quota sample of 300 participants recruited in the metropolitan area of Thessaloniki, Greece. The main instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire with close-ended, multiple choice questions. To identify customer segments, Two-Step cluster analysis was conducted. Three distinct pharmacy customer clusters emerged. Customers of the largest cluster (49%; 'convenience customers') were mostly younger consumers. They gave moderate to positive ratings to factors affecting the selection of pharmacy and OTCs; convenience, and previous experience and the pharmacist's opinion, received the highest ratings. Customers of the second cluster (35%; 'loyal customers') were mainly retired; most of them reported visiting a single pharmacy. They gave high ratings to all factors that influence pharmacy selection, especially the pharmacy's staff, and factors influencing the purchase of OTCs, particularly previous experience and the pharmacist's opinion. Customers of the smallest cluster (16%; 'convenience and price-sensitive customers') were mainly retired or unemployed with low to moderate education, and low personal income. They gave the lowest ratings to most of the examined factors; convenience among factors influencing pharmacy selection, whereas previous experience, the pharmacist's opinion and product price among those affecting the purchase of OTCs, received the highest ratings. The community pharmacy market comprised of distinct

  8. The Expanding Universe: Dark Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lincoln, Don [Fermilab; Nord, Brian [Fermilab

    2014-09-01

    In 1998, observations of distant supernovae led physicists that not only was the universe expanding, but the expansion was speeding up. In this article, we describe the evidence for an expanding universe and describe what physicists and cosmologists have learned in the intervening years. The target audience for this article is high school physics teachers and college physics professors at teaching institutions.

  9. An integrated course in pain management and palliative care bridging the basic sciences and pharmacy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullgren, Justin; Radhakrishnan, Rajan; Unni, Elizabeth; Hanson, Eric

    2013-08-12

    To describe the development of an integrated pain and palliative care course and to investigate the long-term effectiveness of the course during doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students' advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) and in their practice after graduation. Roseman University College of Pharmacy faculty developed a 3-week elective course in pain and palliative care by integrating relevant clinical and pharmaceutical sciences. Instructional strategies included lectures, team and individual activities, case studies, and student presentations. Students who participated in the course in 2010 and 2011 were surveyed anonymously to gain their perception about the class as well as the utility of the course during their APPEs and in their everyday practice. Traditional and nontraditional assessment of students confirmed that the learning outcomes objectives were achieved. Students taking the integrated course on pain management and palliative care achieved mastery of the learning outcome objectives. Surveys of students and practicing pharmacists who completed the course showed that the learning experience as well as retention was improved with the integrated mode of teaching. Integrating basic and clinical sciences in therapeutic courses is an effective learning strategy.

  10. Exploring Knowledge, Attitudes and Abuse Concerning Doping in Sport among Syrian Pharmacy Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen El-Hammadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess pharmacy students’ knowledge about doping substances used in sport, explore their attitudes toward doping and investigate their misuse of doping drugs. A questionnaire was developed and employed to collect data from bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm students at the International University for Science and Technology (IUST. Two-hundred and eighty students participated in this self-administrated, paper-based survey. Around 90% of the students did not appear to know that narcotics, β-blockers and diuretics were used in sport as doping agents. Additionally, proportions between 60% and 80% considered vitamins, energy drinks and amino acids as substances that possess performance-enhancing effects. The main reason for doping, based on students’ response, was to improve muscular body appearance. The vast majority of students agreed that pharmacists should play a major role in promoting awareness about risks of doping. While students showed negative attitudes toward doping, approximately 15% of them, primarily males, had already tried a doping drug or might do so in the future. More than 60% of the students believed that sports-mates and friends are the most influential in encouraging them to take a doping agent. The study highlights the need to provide pharmacy students with advanced theoretical background and practical training concerning doping. This can be achieved by adopting simple, but essential, changes to the current curricula.

  11. Impact of Patient Empathy Modeling on Pharmacy Students Caring for the Underserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Judy T.; LaLopa, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of the Patient Empathy Modeling pedagogy on students' empathy towards caring for the underserved during an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). Design Pharmacy students completing an APPE at 2 primary care clinics participated in a Patient Empathy Modeling assignment for 10 days. Each student “became the patient,” simulating the life of an actual patient with multiple chronic diseases who was coping with an economic, cultural, or communication barrier to optimal healthcare. Students completed the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) before and after completing the assignment, and wrote daily journal entries and a reflection paper. Assessment Twenty-six students completed the PEM exercises from 2005-2006. Scores on the JSPE improved. Students' comments in journals and reflection papers revealed 3 major themes: greater appreciation of the difficulty patients have with adherence to medication and treatment regimens, increased empathy for patients from different backgrounds and patients with medical and psychosocial challenges, and improved ability to apply the lessons learned in the course to their patient care roles. Conclusion A Patient Empathy Modeling assignment improved pharmacy students' empathy toward underserved populations. Integrating the assignment within an APPE allowed students to immediately begin applying the knowledge and insight gained from the exercise. PMID:18483606

  12. Pharmacy student debt and return on investment of a pharmacy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Jeff; Campbell, Tom; Congdon, Heather Brennan; Hancock, Kim; Kaun, Megan; Lockman, Paul R; Evans, R Lee

    2014-02-12

    To describe the current landscape within the profession of pharmacy regarding student tuition, indebtedness, salaries, and job potential. Pharmacy tuition and student debt data were obtained through the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Institutional Research website. Tuition was defined as average first-year tuition and fees for accredited schools. Debt was defined as the total average amount borrowed. Median salaries and numbers of jobs were obtained from the United States Department of Labor. In-state tuition at public schools rose an average of $1,211 ± 31 (r2 = 0.996), whereas out-of-state tuition at public schools rose significantly faster at $1,838 ± 80 per year (r2 = 0.988). The average tuition cost for pharmacy school has increased 54% in the last 8 years. The average pharmacist salary has risen from $75,000 to over $112,000 since 2002. The increase in salary has been nearly linear (r2 = 0.988) rising $4,409 ± $170 dollars per year. However, average salary in 2011 was $3,064 below the predicted value based upon a linear regression of salaries over 10 years. The number of pharmacist jobs in the United States has risen from 215,000 jobs in 2003 to 275,000 in 2010. However, there were 3,000 fewer positions in 2012 than in 2011. In 2011, average indebtedness for pharmacy students ($114,422) was greater than average first-year salary ($112,160). Rising tuition and student indebtedness is a multifaceted problem requiring attention from a number of parties including students, faculty members, universities, and accreditation and government entities.

  13. Preceptors' Need For Support In Tutoring Pharmacy Students in Finnish Community Pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Löfhjelm

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A pharmacy degree in Finland includes a six-month obligatory internship. The internship is integrated with theoretical studies and adds up to 30 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS credits of the BSc (Pharm degree. Learning is supported by reflective assignments from the university. The preceptors have an important role in organizing the internship and tutoring students successfully in community pharmacy settings. Objective: to assess whether the preceptors of University of Helsinki’s teaching pharmacies need pedagogic support in tutoring and if so, in which core pharmaceutical tasks or tutoring skills. Methods: The survey was sent to all preceptors of University of Helsinki´s teaching pharmacies (n=326 in 2011 (response rate 58%, n=190. The data was analyzed statistically using Excel (version 12.3.6. The open-ended questions were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. Results: The majority of preceptors found their skills in tutoring the students mainly good. However, assessment of learning (27% of the respondents, giving feedback (23% and organizing the learning situations supportive for learning (23% were the areas in which the preceptors mostly indicated a need for support. Teaching current care guidelines and pharmaceutical care (36% and multi-professional collaboration (28% were the areas in which the preceptors expressed that they needed to update their skills. Conclusions: The faculty should focus the support on the pedagogic skills of preceptors, particularly in improving their skills in assessment of learning and in reflective dialogue. In addition, their skills in teaching clinical and patient care aspects of pharmacy practice should be enhanced. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings

  14. [Gods, women and pharmacy in Greek Mythology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vons, J

    2001-01-01

    The study of Greek Mythology fully justifies Herophilus's phrase: "Medicines are the hands of Gods" (third cent. B.C.). A number of Gods are said to be the inventors of the drugs which are useful to men. Their names are still alive in the scholarly or popular appellations of a great many medicinal herbs. However, insofar as the action of a drug (of a Pharmakon) remains mysterious, one finds it in essentially female practices as well as in medicine. The study of these ancient beliefs, which have survived in spite of the progress of twentieth century science, can develop the history of epistemology of pharmacy by stimulating interdisciplinary research.

  15. [Drugs of a Baroque monastery pharmacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drábek, Pavel

    2013-08-01

    This paper deal with a manuscript from the years 1714-1720, originating most probably from the hospital of the Brothers of Mercy in Nové Mesto nad Metují. it contains the records of the hospital pharmacy about the drugs prepared for both patients and monks who operated this hospital. The included drugs were mainly intended for elderly males. The manuscript lists about fifteen hundred drugs and more than three hundred active ingredients, of which about two thirds were of plant origin. The paper presents the compositions of more important drugs and partly deals also with their preparation.

  16. Development of software for handling ship's pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittari, Giulio; Peretti, Alessandro; Sibilio, Fabio; Ioannidis, Nicholas; Amenta, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Ships are required to carry a given amount of medicinal products and medications depending on the flag and the type of vessel. These medicines are stored in the so called ship's "medicine chest" or more properly - a ship pharmacy. Owing to the progress of medical sciences and to the increase in the mean age of seafarers employed on board ships, the number of pharmaceutical products and medical devices required by regulations to be carried on board ships is increasing. This may make handling of the ship's medicine chest a problem primarily on large ships sailing on intercontinental routes due to the difficulty in identifying the correspondence between medicines obtained abroad with those available at the national market. To minimise these problems a tool named Pharmacy Ship (acronym: PARSI) has been developed. The application PARSI is based on a database containing the information about medicines and medical devices required by different countries regulations. In the first application the system was standardised to comply with the Italian regulations issued on the 1st October, 2015 which entered into force on the 18 January 2016. Thanks to PARSI it was possible to standardize the inventory procedures, facilitate the work of maritime health authorities and make it easier for the crew, not professional in the field, to handle the 'medicine chest' correctly by automating the procedures for medicines management. As far as we know there are no other similar tools available at the moment. The application of the software, as well as the automation of different activities, currently carried out manually, will help manage (qualitatively and quantitatively) the ship's pharmacy. The system developed in this study has proved to be an effective tool which serves to guarantee the compliance of the ship pharmacy with regulations of the flag state in terms of medicinal products and medications. Sharing the system with the Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service may result in

  17. Communication between Patients and Pharmacy Staff on Patient Information Leaflets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ad van Dooren; L. van Dijk; M. Vink; A. Faber; J. de Bie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Product Information Leaflets (PILs) are an important source of information for patients on their medication, but may cause confusion and questions. Patients then may seek clarification, for instance from pharmacy technicians. The aim of this study was to explore which questions pharmacy

  18. Communication between patients and pharmacy staff about Product Information Leaflets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooren, A.A. van; Bie, J. de; Vink, M.; Faber, A.; Dijk, L. van

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Product Information Leaflets (PILs) are an important source of information for patients on their medication, but may cause confusion and questions. Patients then may seek clarification, for instance from pharmacy technicians. The aim of this study was to explore which questions pharmacy

  19. Perceived Stress by Students in a Pharmacy Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales-Gonzales, Patricia L.; Kranz, Peter L.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated stress levels experienced by students in a pharmacy curriculum. A survey was used to evaluate perceived levels of stress, factors that contribute to stress, and mechanisms used to cope with stress. Participants were first, second, and third year students enrolled in pharmacy school. Data were collected using an individual…

  20. Impact of Robotic Dispensing Machines in German Pharmacies on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the impact of robotic dispensing machines in community pharmacies on staff efficiency and sales of over-the-counter drugs. Setting: The study was done on 253 community pharmacies in Germany that use a robotic dispensing machine manufactured by ROWA during 2008. Method: Data concerning the financial ...

  1. The Importance of Public Health in Pharmacy Education and Practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Natalie A DiPietro Mager; Karen B Farris

    2016-01-01

    ...), 4.1 (Self-awareness) and 4.2 (Leadership), support the need to include public health concepts in the doctor of pharmacy curriculum.9 In addition, the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) is a member of the Healthy People Curriculum Task Force, convened by the Association for Prevention Teaching and Research, which devel...

  2. Capacity to deliver pharmaceutical care by community pharmacies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacy practice has transcended from largely a dispensary practice to pharmaceutical care practice. The capacity of community pharmacies to deliver pharmaceutical care was studied using pretested self survey methods. Ninety five percent (95%) of the respondents always educated customers on drug related needs, ...

  3. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Pharmacy Students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To identify the prevalence as well as determine gender differences in overweight and obesity among undergraduate pharmacy students of the University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. Methods: Undergraduate pharmacy students (n = 172) of University of Benin, aged 18 years and above, were recruited for the study ...

  4. Pharmacy mass casualty disaster plan implemented after the train wreck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethea, S

    1994-03-01

    The involvement of a hospital pharmacy department in a mass casualty disaster revealed strengths and weaknesses of the department's disaster response plan. Effective communication and notification within the pharmacy department and the need to plan to have pharmacists in the triage area to determine patients' lost medications are important areas that the department had not practiced in disaster drills.

  5. Cigarette sales in pharmacies in the USA (2005-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenberg, Andrew B; Behm, Ilan; Rees, Vaughan W; Connolly, Gregory N

    2012-09-01

    Several US jurisdictions have adopted policies prohibiting pharmacies from selling tobacco products. Little is known about how pharmacies contribute to total cigarette sales. Pharmacy and total cigarette sales in the USA were tabulated from AC Nielsen and Euromonitor, respectively, for the years 2005-2009. Linear regression was used to characterise trends over time, with observed trends extrapolated to 2020. Between 2005 and 2009, pharmacy cigarette sales increased 22.72% (p=0.004), while total cigarette sales decreased 17.43% (p=0.015). In 2005, pharmacy cigarette sales represented 3.05% of total cigarette sales, increasing to 4.54% by 2009. Extrapolation of these findings resulted in estimated pharmacy cigarette sales of 14.59% of total US cigarette sales by 2020. Cigarette sales in American pharmacies have risen in recent years, while cigarette sales nationally have declined. If current trends continue, pharmacy cigarette market share will, by 2020, increase to more than four times the 2005 share.

  6. Pharmacists' liability: what my pharmacy law professor did not cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo, Mike; Seamon, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes a practicing pharmacist's take on the liability of pharmacists in current pharmacy practice. The author, who feels that compounding pharmacists should be held to the same standards as other healthcare providers in civil litigations, provides a look at what he considers "entrapment" by way of legal double standards between independent pharmacy and big pharma.

  7. Teaching and Learning about Ethical Dilemmas in Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Werner

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of ethics instruction in pharmacy practice argues that, because pharmacy students are still rapidly developing cognitively, faculty has an opportunity to help students mature and become socially conscious critical thinkers. The problem-solving process, dealing with alternative solutions, ambiguity, and flexible curriculum construction…

  8. Education on Correct Inhaler Technique in Pharmacy Schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effectiveness of a standard educational module on pharmacy students' inhaler technique demonstration skills. Methods: This investigational study was conducted during the Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics tutorial classes in 2011. All fifth-year students were given placebo inhaler devices and ...

  9. Self-medication among medical and pharmacy students in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Naznin; Saffoon, Nadia; Uddin, Riaz

    2015-12-09

    This cross-sectional survey examined the pattern of self-medication and factors associated with this practice among medical and pharmacy students in context to Bangladesh. The study used a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 500; 250 medical and 250 pharmacy, students participated in the study. As it is a comparative analysis between the medical and pharmacy students, we used independent t test and Chi square test. The findings indicated that the impact of self-medication is almost similar in medical and pharmacy students. It was found that medical students were more careful about getting advice from a physician or seeking professional help from some healthcare personnel. About the safety of self-medication pharmacy students were more aware than medical students were. The study also showed that female and younger medical or pharmacy students were more aware about self-medication. The current study presents a comprehensive picture of self-medication in medical and pharmacy students in Bangladesh. It is clear from the findings that practice of self-medication is highly prevalent in medical and pharmacy students in the country. This may potentially increase misuse or irrational use of medicines.

  10. Pharmacy Students' Attitude and Future Career Choices: A survey of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacy as a health profession has major responsibilities and contributions in maintaining health of the society. Thus, pharmacists have to maintain professional behaviour and attitude that is worthy of the respect the public has for the profession. Studies on pharmacy students' attitude and career choice are important to ...

  11. Capacity to deliver pharmaceutical care by community pharmacies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty (40), 20 and 70 percent of the pharmacies had neat physical appearance, adequate parking spaces and consistent professional signs respectively, while 53% had a private consulting area. One hundred percent of the pharmacies had ceiling in the drug storage areas, while 90, and 63% had at least one functional ...

  12. Pharmacy Education in an Era of Health Care Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benet, Leslie Z.

    1994-01-01

    The president of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy outlines the association's position on national policy concerning health care reform, then looks at some related controversial issues, including changes in the dispensing of prescriptions, pharmacist-managed medication review, adequacy of pharmacy training, and the role of research.…

  13. Information Technology Use in Community Pharmacies in Harare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information technology (IT) has transformed the practice of pharmacy worldwide. This study was undertaken to determine the pharmacists\\' IT use, utilization patterns and their opinions regarding IT use. The majority of pharmacies had networked computers (71.7%) and internet connections (60.9%). Pharmacists had poor ...

  14. Assessment of the attitude of community pharmacists and pharmacy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate community pharmacists' and pharmacy technicians' counselling practices regarding diarrhea in Istanbul-Turkey using a simulated patient study. Methods: This study was conducted in a total of one hundred community pharmacies located in two different districts of Istanbul, Turkey. Diarrhea cases ...

  15. A Prescription for Reframing Continuing Pharmacy Education in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Anita M.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive research indicates that adults learn best when they are motivated, self-directed and choose what and how they learn. This project focuses on continuing pharmacy education and seeks to answer the question: "How can pharmacists be motivated to participate in continuing pharmacy education programs because they want to, not because they…

  16. APOM-project : a survey of pharmacy organization and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mobach, MP; van der Werf, JJ; Tromp, TFJ

    1998-01-01

    In 1994, a Ph.D-study started regarding pharmacy, organization and management (APOM) in the Netherlands. The APOM-project deals with the structuring and steering of pharmacy organization. This article describes the summary of the empirical results of a survey in a relatively I ge sample (n = 169).

  17. Substance Use Attitudes and Behaviors at Three Pharmacy Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Jeffrey N.; Scott, David M.; DeSimone, Edward M., II; Forrester, Joy H.; Fankhauser, Martha P.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to profile and compare alcohol and other drug (AOD) use attitudes and behaviors in three pharmacy colleges. Student surveys of AOD use attitudes and behaviors were conducted at one southwestern and two midwestern pharmacy colleges. Response was 86.5% (566/654). Reported past-year use included alcohol 82.8%, tobacco…

  18. The Quality of Pharmacy Practice Among Dispensers in Private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of pharmacy practice provided by dispensers in private pharmacies was studied. Parameters used include levels of education of the dispensers, access to health information, knowledge and practice regarding dispensing of drugs to patients, and disposal of expired drugs. A total of 150 dispensers selected from ...

  19. Community Pharmacy Users' Characteristics, Reasons for Visit to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nx 6110

    Many respondents did not have adequate knowledge of all the major roles of the pharmacist. Respondents generally held positive views and opinions of community pharmacies and community pharmacists. Key words: Community pharmacy, consumer perceptions, Zimbabwe. INTRODUCTION. Worldwide, pharmacists play ...

  20. Service quality in community pharmacy: an exploration of determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lesley; Klinner, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Although various instruments have been developed to measure customer satisfaction with community pharmacy services, there is limited research regarding pharmacy staffs' understanding of service quality and its determinants. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of pharmacy staff regarding the factors that constitute a high level of service quality using the service quality determinants proposed by the Conceptual Model of Service Quality. Structured interviews were conducted with 27 pharmacy assistants and 6 pharmacists in 3 community pharmacies in Sydney. The interview questions focused on the participants' perceptions of consumer expectations, the translation of these perceptions into service quality specifications, the actual service delivery, and the communication to customers. From the pharmacy staff perspective, service quality is significantly limited by insufficient internal communication and control processes that impede role clarity and the resolution of conflicting role expectations among customer service personnel. Participants indicated that these problems could be alleviated through the implementation of more transparent, realistic, measurable, and accepted quality specifications by pharmacy management. The study indicates that the extent to which pharmacy management sets, maintains, and communicates service quality specifications to staff directly affects role clarity, role conflict, and organizational commitment among customer service staff, which in turn directly influence the level of service quality provided to the customers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.