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Sample records for exogenously applied ethylene

  1. Exogenous ethylene inhibits sprout growth in onion bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufler, Gebhard

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Exogenous ethylene has recently gained commercial interest as a sprouting inhibitor of onion bulbs. The role of ethylene in dormancy and sprouting of onions, however, is not known. Methods A cultivar (Allium cepa ‘Copra’) with a true period of dormancy was used. Dormant and sprouting states of onion bulbs were treated with supposedly saturating doses of ethylene or with the ethylene-action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Initial sprouting was determined during storage at 18 °C by monitoring leaf blade elongation in a specific size class of leaf sheaths. Changes in ATP content and sucrose synthase activity in the sprout leaves, indicators of the sprouting state, were determined. CO2 and ethylene production of onion bulbs during storage were recorded. Key results Exogenous ethylene suppressed sprout growth of both dormant and already sprouting onion bulbs by inhibiting leaf blade elongation. In contrast to this growth-inhibiting effect, ethylene stimulated CO2 production by the bulbs about 2-fold. The duration of dormancy was not significantly affected by exogenous ethylene. However, treatment of dormant bulbs with 1-MCP caused premature sprouting. Conclusions Exogenous ethylene proved to be a powerful inhibitor of sprout growth in onion bulbs. The dormancy breaking effect of 1-MCP indicates a regulatory role of endogenous ethylene in onion bulb dormancy. PMID:18940850

  2. Longevity and sensitivity of heliconia ‘Golden Torch’ to exogenous ethylene

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    Sandra Oliveira de Souza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the effect of exogenous ethylene on longevity and sensitivity of heliconia ‘Golden Torch’ stored under ambient conditions. Inflorescences were harvested with two expanded bracts and one closed bract, from a commercial area, located in Petrolina, Pernambuco State, Brazil. The treatments consisted of doses of ethephon (0, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1,000 mg L-1 and evaluation time (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days, at 20.4 ± 3.7 ºC and 49 ± 11% RH. The experimental design was a completely randomized, in a 6 x 6 factorial arrangement with four replications of four stems. It was observed a decrease on fresh weight, appearance, lightness and chroma of bracts when the concentrations of ethephon and evaluation time increased. The Hue angle of the bracts that received 100 and 1.000 mg L-1 of ethephon indicated a lighter orange color. The water uptake of the inflorescences decreased with storage time, independent of the treatments with ethephon. The longevity of inflorescences was reduced only with the higher doses: 100 and 1.000 mg L-1 of ethephon, which restricted it to two and four days, respectively. For those reasons, the heliconia ‘Golden Torch’ bracts were characterized as low sensitive to ethylene.

  3. Exogenous ethylene influences flower opening of cut roses (Rosa hybrida) by regulating the genes encoding ethylene biosynthesis enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nan; Cai, Lei; Lu, Wangjin; Tan, Hui; Gao, Junping

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the differential responses of flower opening to ethylene in two cut rose cultivars, 'Samantha', whose opening process is promoted, and 'Kardinal', whose opening process is inhibited by ethylene. Ethylene production and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase and oxidase activities were determined first. After ethylene treatment, ethylene production, ACC synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase (ACO) activities in petals increased and peaked at the earlier stage (stage 3) in 'Samantha', and they were much more dramatically enhanced and peaked at the later stage (stage 4) in 'Kardinal' than control during vasing. cDNA fragments of three Rh-ACSs and one Rh-ACO genes were cloned and designated as Rh-ACS1, Rh-ACS2, Rh-ACS3 and Rh-ACO1 respectively. Northern blotting analysis revealed that, among three genes of ACS, ethylene-in- duced expression patterns of Rh-ACS3 gene corresponded to ACS activity and ethylene production in both cultivars. A more dramatic accumulation of Rh-ACS3 mRNA was induced by ethylene in 'Kardinal' than that of 'Samantha'. As an ethylene action inhibitor, STS at concentration of 0.2 mmol/L generally inhibited the expression of Rh-ACSs and Rh-ACO in both cultivars, although it induced the expression of Rh-ACS3 transiently in 'Kardinal'. Our results suggests that 'Kardinal' is more sensitive to ethylene than 'Samantha'; and the changes of Rh-ACS3 expression caused by ethylene might be related to the acceleration of flower opening in 'Samantha' and the inhibition in 'Kardinal'. Additional results indicated that three Rh-ACSs genes were differentially associated with flower opening and senescence as well as wounding

  4. AfAP2-1, An Age-Dependent Gene of Aechmea fasciata, Responds to Exogenous Ethylene Treatment

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    Ming Lei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Bromeliaceae family is one of the most morphologically diverse families with a pantropical distribution. To schedule an appropriate flowering time for bromeliads, ethylene is commonly used to initiate flower development in adult plants. However, the mechanism by which ethylene induces flowering in adult bromeliads remains unknown. Here, we identified an APETALA2 (AP2-like gene, AfAP2-1, in Aechmea fasciata. AfAP2-1 contains two AP2 domains and is a nuclear-localized protein. It functions as a transcriptional activator, and the activation domain is located in the C-terminal region. The expression level of AfAP2-1 is higher in juvenile plants than in adult plants, and the AfAP2-1 transcript level was rapidly and transiently reduced in plants treated with exogenous ethylene. Overexpression of AfAP2-1 in Arabidopsis thaliana results in an extremely delayed flowering phenotype. These results suggested that AfAP2-1 responds to ethylene and is a putative age-dependent flowering regulator in A. fasciata.

  5. AfAP2-1, An Age-Dependent Gene of Aechmea fasciata, Responds to Exogenous Ethylene Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ming; Li, Zhi-Ying; Wang, Jia-Bin; Fu, Yun-Liu; Ao, Meng-Fei; Xu, Li

    2016-02-27

    The Bromeliaceae family is one of the most morphologically diverse families with a pantropical distribution. To schedule an appropriate flowering time for bromeliads, ethylene is commonly used to initiate flower development in adult plants. However, the mechanism by which ethylene induces flowering in adult bromeliads remains unknown. Here, we identified an APETALA2 (AP2)-like gene, AfAP2-1, in Aechmea fasciata. AfAP2-1 contains two AP2 domains and is a nuclear-localized protein. It functions as a transcriptional activator, and the activation domain is located in the C-terminal region. The expression level of AfAP2-1 is higher in juvenile plants than in adult plants, and the AfAP2-1 transcript level was rapidly and transiently reduced in plants treated with exogenous ethylene. Overexpression of AfAP2-1 in Arabidopsis thaliana results in an extremely delayed flowering phenotype. These results suggested that AfAP2-1 responds to ethylene and is a putative age-dependent flowering regulator in A. fasciata.

  6. Transformation of miniature potted rose (Rosa hybrida cv. Linda) with P( SAG12 )-ipt gene delays leaf senescence and enhances resistance to exogenous ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakizadeh, Hedayat; Lütken, Henrik; Sriskandarajah, Sridevy; Serek, Margrethe; Müller, Renate

    2013-02-01

    KEY MESSAGE : The P ( SAG12 ) -ipt gene was transferred to miniature rose, as the first woody species, resulting in increased ethylene resistance due to specific up-regulation of the ipt gene under senescence promoting conditions. Transgenic plants of Rosa hybrida 'Linda' were obtained via transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain harboring the binary vector pSG529(+) containing the P( SAG12 )-ipt construct. A. tumefaciens strains AGL1, GV3850 and LBA4404 (containing P(35S)-INTGUS gene) were used for transformation of embryogenic callus, but transgenic shoots were obtained only when AGL1 was applied. The highest transformation frequency was 10 % and it was achieved when half MS medium was used for the dilution of overnight culture of Agrobacterium. Southern blot confirmed integration of 1-6 copies of the nptII gene into the rose genome in the tested lines. Four transgenic lines were obtained which were morphologically true-to-type and indistinguishable from Wt shoots while they were in in vitro cultures. Adventitious root induction was more difficult in transgenic shoots compared to the Wt shoots, however, one of the transgenic lines (line 6) was rooted and subsequently analyzed phenotypically. The ipt expression levels were determined in this line after exposure to exogenous ethylene (3.5 μl l(-1)) and/or darkness. Darkness resulted in twofold up-regulation of ipt expression, whereas darkness combined with ethylene caused eightfold up-regulation in line 6 compared to Wt plants. The transgenic line had significantly higher content of chlorophyll at the end of the treatment period compared to Wt plants.

  7. Modulatory Effects of Exogenously Applied Polyamines on Postharvest Physiology, Antioxidant System and Shelf Life of Fruits: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunil; Pareek, Sunil; Sagar, Narashans Alok; Valero, Daniel; Serrano, Maria

    2017-08-17

    Polyamines (PAs) are natural compounds involved in many growth and developmental processes in plants, and, specifically in fruits, play a vital role regulating its development, ripening and senescence processes. Putrescine (PUT), spermine (SPE), and spermidine (SPD) are prominent PAs applied exogenously to extend shelf life of fruits. They also originate endogenously during developmental phases of horticultural crops and simultaneously affect the quality attributes and shelf life. Their anti-ethylene nature is being exploited to enhance the shelf life when exogenously applied on fruits. In growth and development of fruits, PA levels generally fall, which marks the beginning of senescence at postharvest phase. PUT, SPE and SPD treatments are being applied during postharvest phase to prolong the shelf life. They enhance the shelf life of fruits by reducing respiration rate, ethylene release and enhance firmness and quality attributes in fruits. PAs have a mitigating impact on biotic and abiotic stresses including chilling injury (CI) in tropical and sub-tropical fruits. PAs are environment friendly in nature and are biodegradable without showing any negative effect on environment. Biotechnological interventions by using chimeric gene constructs of PA encoding genes has boosted the research to develop transgenic fruits and vegetables which would possess inherent or in situ mechanism of enhanced biosynthesis of PAs at different stages of development and thereby will enhance the shelf life and quality in fruits. Internal and external quality attributes of fruits are improved by modulation of antioxidant system and by strengthening biophysical morphology of fruits by electrostatic interaction between PAs and phospholipids in the cell wall.

  8. Modulatory Effects of Exogenously Applied Polyamines on Postharvest Physiology, Antioxidant System and Shelf Life of Fruits: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Sharma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyamines (PAs are natural compounds involved in many growth and developmental processes in plants, and, specifically in fruits, play a vital role regulating its development, ripening and senescence processes. Putrescine (PUT, spermine (SPE, and spermidine (SPD are prominent PAs applied exogenously to extend shelf life of fruits. They also originate endogenously during developmental phases of horticultural crops and simultaneously affect the quality attributes and shelf life. Their anti-ethylene nature is being exploited to enhance the shelf life when exogenously applied on fruits. In growth and development of fruits, PA levels generally fall, which marks the beginning of senescence at postharvest phase. PUT, SPE and SPD treatments are being applied during postharvest phase to prolong the shelf life. They enhance the shelf life of fruits by reducing respiration rate, ethylene release and enhance firmness and quality attributes in fruits. PAs have a mitigating impact on biotic and abiotic stresses including chilling injury (CI in tropical and sub-tropical fruits. PAs are environment friendly in nature and are biodegradable without showing any negative effect on environment. Biotechnological interventions by using chimeric gene constructs of PA encoding genes has boosted the research to develop transgenic fruits and vegetables which would possess inherent or in situ mechanism of enhanced biosynthesis of PAs at different stages of development and thereby will enhance the shelf life and quality in fruits. Internal and external quality attributes of fruits are improved by modulation of antioxidant system and by strengthening biophysical morphology of fruits by electrostatic interaction between PAs and phospholipids in the cell wall.

  9. Leaves Of Cut Rose Flower Convert Exogenously Applied Glucose To Sucrose And Translocate It To Petals

    OpenAIRE

    Horibe Takanori; Yamaki Shohei; Yamada Kunio

    2014-01-01

    To understand the role that the leaves play in the translocation of soluble carbohydrates in cut rose flowers, we first evaluated the effect of leaf removal on flower quality and the sugar content in petals. Cut rose flowers with leaves had higher soluble sugar content in petals compared with cut flower without leaves. Next, we treated cut flowers with radioactive glucose to clarify translocation routes of exogenously applied sugar. There was no significant difference between the specific rad...

  10. Leaves Of Cut Rose Flower Convert Exogenously Applied Glucose To Sucrose And Translocate It To Petals

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    Horibe Takanori

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To understand the role that the leaves play in the translocation of soluble carbohydrates in cut rose flowers, we first evaluated the effect of leaf removal on flower quality and the sugar content in petals. Cut rose flowers with leaves had higher soluble sugar content in petals compared with cut flower without leaves. Next, we treated cut flowers with radioactive glucose to clarify translocation routes of exogenously applied sugar. There was no significant difference between the specific radioactivity of sucrose and glucose in leaves, but specific radioactivity of sucrose in petals was much higher than that of glucose. These results suggested that most of the exogenously applied glucose first moved to the leaves, where it was converted into sucrose and then the synthesised sucrose was translocated to the petals. Our results showed that the leaves of cut rose flowers play an important role in the metabolism and transportation of exogenously applied soluble carbohydrates toward the petals, thus contributing to sustaining the post-harvest quality.

  11. Conventional and advanced exergoeconomic analyses applied to ethylene refrigeration system of an existing olefin plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palizdar, A.; Sadrameli, S.M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Conventional and advanced exergoeconomic analyses were applied. • Investment cost for most of the components is larger than exergy destruction cost. • Most of exergy destruction and investment costs are avoidable and endogenous. • Distillation column and compressor have the highest priority to improve. - Abstract: Ethylene refrigeration system of a light olefins production plant was investigated using the conventional and advanced exergoeconomic analyses. In advanced analysis, investment and exergy destruction costs of system components are divided into endogenous/exogenous and avoidable/unavoidable parts to improve our knowledge about the refrigeration system. Results of the exergoeconomic analysis represent that the total cost of column T-1 (1217.67 $/h), compressor C-3 (864.88 $/h), compressor C-2 (250.43 $/h) and multi stream heat exchanger MSHE-1 (154.19 $/h) are larger than other components. Results of the advanced exergoeconomic analysis reveal that most of the total costs of components are endogenous and can be reduced only for column T-1 and compressor C-3. With increasing the efficiency of these two components, investment and exergy destruction costs has been decreased (1381.74 $/h). Large amounts of endogenous exergy destruction cost of components represent that the interactions between the components are not a main reason for exergy destruction. Therefore, an appropriate strategy for the enhancement of the system efficiency and profitability is to improve their performance. Based on the above results, column T-1 and compressor C-3 have the highest priority to improve the performance. Sensitivity of the analysis parameters to some important operating variables have also been investigated.

  12. Exogenously Applied Plant Growth Regulators Enhance the Morpho-Physiological Growth and Yield of Rice under High Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Saud, Shah; Hassan, Shah; Ihsan, Zahid; Shah, Adnan N.; Wu, Chao; Yousaf, Muhammad; Nasim, Wajid; Alharby, Hesham; Alghabari, Fahad; Huang, Jianliang

    2016-01-01

    A two-year experiment was conducted to ascertain the effects of exogenously applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on rice growth and yield attributes under high day (HDT) and high night temperature (HNT). Two rice cultivars (IR-64 and Huanghuazhan) were subjected to temperature treatments in controlled growth chambers and four different combinations of ascorbic acid (Vc), alpha-tocopherol (Ve), brassinosteroids (Br), methyl jasmonates (MeJA) and triazoles (Tr) were applied. High temperature s...

  13. Applying of spectroscopy 1HNMR in analysis of block copolymers of propylene oxide and ethylene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janik, R.; Plucinski, J.

    1980-01-01

    It was examined the precision and conformity of results of determination of ethylene oxide content in block copolymers of propylene oxide and ethylene oxide (nonionic surface active agents of Pluronic type) by means of spectroscopy 1 HNMR. It was found a full suitability of this method for preparations containing ca. 6/80% by weight of ethylene oxide in molecule, what corresponds to the range appearing in the commercial products. (author)

  14. An evaluation of the effects of exogenous ethephon, an ethylene releasing compound, on photosynthesis of mustard (Brassica juncea cultivars that differ in photosynthetic capacity

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    Khan NA

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The stimulatory effect of CO2 on ethylene evolution in plants is known, but the extent to which ethylene controls photosynthesis is not clear. Studies on the effects of ethylene on CO2 metabolism have shown conflicting results. Increase or inhibition of photosynthesis by ethylene has been reported. To understand the physiological processes responsible for ethylene-mediated changes in photosynthesis, stomatal and mesophyll effects on photosynthesis and ethylene biosynthesis in response to ethephon treatment in mustard (Brassica juncea cultivars differing in photosynthetic capacity were studied. Results The effects of ethephon on photosynthetic rate (PN, stomatal conductance (gS, carbonic anhydrase (CA activity, 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid synthase (ACS activity and ethylene evolution were similar in both the cultivars. Increasing ethephon concentration up to 1.5 mM increased PN, gS and CA maximally, whereas 3.0 mM ethephon proved inhibitory. ACS activity and ethylene evolution increased with increasing concentrations of ethephon. The corresponding changes in gs and CA activity suggest that the changes in photosynthesis in response to ethephon were triggered by altered stomatal and mesophyll processes. Stomatal conductance changed in parallel with changes in mesophyll photosynthetic properties. In both the cultivars ACS activity and ethylene increased up to 3.0 mM ethephon, but 1.5 mM ethephon caused maximum effects on photosynthetic parameters. Conclusion These results suggest that ethephon affects foliar gas exchange responses. The changes in photosynthesis in response to ethephon were due to stomatal and mesophyll effects. The changes in gS were a response maintaining stable intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci under the given treatment in both the cultivars. Also, the high photosynthetic capacity cultivar, Varuna responded less to ethephon than the low photosynthetic capacity cultivar, RH30. The photosynthetic

  15. Exogenously Applied Plant Growth Regulators Enhance the Morpho-Physiological Growth and Yield of Rice under High Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Saud, Shah; Hassan, Shah; Ihsan, Zahid; Shah, Adnan N; Wu, Chao; Yousaf, Muhammad; Nasim, Wajid; Alharby, Hesham; Alghabari, Fahad; Huang, Jianliang

    2016-01-01

    A 2-year experiment was conducted to ascertain the effects of exogenously applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on rice growth and yield attributes under high day (HDT) and high night temperature (HNT). Two rice cultivars (IR-64 and Huanghuazhan) were subjected to temperature treatments in controlled growth chambers and four different combinations of ascorbic acid (Vc), alpha-tocopherol (Ve), brassinosteroids (Br), methyl jasmonates (MeJA), and triazoles (Tr) were applied. High temperature severely affected rice morphology, and also reduced leaf area, above-, and below-ground biomass, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency, while increased the leaf water potential of both rice cultivars. Grain yield and its related attributes except number of panicles, were reduced under high temperature. The HDT posed more negative effects on rice physiological attributes, while HNT was more detrimental for grain formation and yield. The Huanghuazhan performed better than IR-64 under high temperature stress with better growth and higher grain yield. Exogenous application of PGRs was helpful in alleviating the adverse effects of high temperature. Among PGR combinations, the Vc+Ve+MejA+Br was the most effective treatment for both cultivars under high temperature stress. The highest grain production by Vc+Ve+MejA+Br treated plants was due to enhanced photosynthesis, spikelet fertility and grain filling, which compensated the adversities of high temperature stress. Taken together, these results will be of worth for further understanding the adaptation and survival mechanisms of rice to high temperature and will assist in developing heat-resistant rice germplasm in future.

  16. Exogenously applied plant growth regulators enhance the morpho-physiological growth and yield of rice under high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Fahad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A two-year experiment was conducted to ascertain the effects of exogenously applied plant growth regulators (PGR on rice growth and yield attributes under high day (HDT and high night temperature (HNT. Two rice cultivars (IR-64 and Huanghuazhan were subjected to temperature treatments in controlled growth chambers and four different combinations of ascorbic acid (Vc, alpha-tocopherol (Ve, brassinosteroids (Br, methyl jasmonates (MeJA and triazoles (Tr were applied. High temperature severely affected rice morphology, and also reduced leaf area, above- and below-ground biomass, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency, while increased the leaf water potential of both rice cultivars. Grain yield and its related attributes except number of panicles, were reduced under high temperature. The HDT posed more negative effects on rice physiological attributes, while HNT was more detrimental for grain formation and yield. The Huanghuazhan performed better than IR-64 under high temperature stress with better growth and higher grain yield. Exogenous application of PGRs was helpful in alleviating the adverse effects of high temperature. Among PGR combinations, the Vc+Ve+MejA+Br was the most effective treatment for both cultivars under high temperature stress. The highest grain production by Vc+Ve+MejA+Br treated plants was due to enhanced photosynthesis, spikelet fertility and grain filling, which compensated the adversities of high temperature stress. Taken together, these results will be of worth for further understanding the adaptation and survival mechanisms of rice to high temperature and will assist in developing heat-resistant rice germplasm in future.

  17. Analyzing the in vivo status of exogenously applied auxins: a HPLC-based method to characterize the intracellularly localized auxin transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Sibu; Skůpa, Petr; Dobrev, Petre I; Petrášek, Jan; Zažímalová, Eva; Friml, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Exogenous application of biologically important molecules for plant growth promotion and/or regulation is very common both in plant research and horticulture. Plant hormones such as auxins and cytokinins are classes of compounds which are often applied exogenously. Nevertheless, plants possess a well-established machinery to regulate the active pool of exogenously applied compounds by converting them to metabolites and conjugates. Consequently, it is often very useful to know the in vivo status of applied compounds to connect them with some of the regulatory events in plant developmental processes. The in vivo status of applied compounds can be measured by incubating plants with radiolabeled compounds, followed by extraction, purification, and HPLC metabolic profiling of plant extracts. Recently we have used this method to characterize the intracellularly localized PIN protein, PIN5. Here we explain the method in detail, with a focus on general application.

  18. Synthesis, transport, and metabolism of serotonin formed from exogenously applied 5-HTP after spinal cord injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaqing; Li, Lisa; Stephens, Marilee J; Zenner, Dwight; Murray, Katherine C; Winship, Ian R; Vavrek, Romana; Baker, Glen B; Fouad, Karim; Bennett, David J

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord transection leads to elimination of brain stem-derived monoamine fibers that normally synthesize most of the monoamines in the spinal cord, including serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) synthesized from tryptophan by enzymes tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH, synthesizing 5-hydroxytryptophan, 5-HTP) and aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC, synthesizing 5-HT from 5-HTP). Here we examine whether spinal cord caudal to transection remains able to manufacture and metabolize 5-HT. Immunolabeling for AADC reveals that, while most AADC is confined to brain stem-derived monoamine fibers in spinal cords from normal rats, caudal to transection AADC is primarily found in blood vessel endothelial cells and pericytes as well as a novel group of neurons (NeuN positive and GFAP negative), all of which strongly upregulate AADC with injury. However, immunolabeling for 5-HT reveals that there is no detectable endogenous 5-HT synthesis in any structure in the spinal cord caudal to a chronic transection, including in AADC-containing vessels and neurons, consistent with a lack of TPH. In contrast, when we applied exogenous 5-HTP (in vitro or in vivo), AADC-containing vessels and neurons synthesized 5-HT, which contributed to increased motoneuron activity and muscle spasms (long-lasting reflexes, LLRs), by acting on 5-HT2 receptors (SB206553 sensitive) located on motoneurons (TTX resistant). Blocking monoamine oxidase (MAO) markedly increased the sensitivity of the motoneurons (LLR) to 5-HTP, more than it increased the sensitivity of motoneurons to 5-HT, suggesting that 5-HT synthesized from AADC is largely metabolized in AADC-containing neurons and vessels. In summary, after spinal cord injury AADC is upregulated in vessels, pericytes, and neurons but does not endogenously produce 5-HT, whereas when exogenous 5-HTP is provided AADC does produce functional amounts of 5-HT, some of which is able to escape metabolism by MAO, diffuse out of these AADC-containing cells, and

  19. Poly(ethylene-co-butylene) functionalized multi walled carbon nanotubes applied in polypropylene nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Marín, Jose Manuel Roman

    2012-01-01

    A novel functionalized multi walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) was prepared through grafting with α-azido-poly(ethylene-co-butylene) (PEB-N3). The PEB-N3 was prepared through a two step procedure and grafted onto an industrial grade multi walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) through a highly efficient...

  20. Group I mGlu receptors potentiate synaptosomal [3H]glutamate release independently of exogenously applied arachidonic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, M.E.; Toms, N.J.; Bedingfield, J.S.; Roberts, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    In the current study, we have characterized group I metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor enhancement of 4-aminopyridine (4AP)-evoked [ 3 H]glutamate release from rat cerebrocortical synaptosomes. The broad spectrum mGlu receptor agonist (1S,3R)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid ((1S,3R)-ACPD, 10 μM) increased 4AP-evoked [ 3 H]glutamate release (143.32±2.73% control) only in the presence of exogenously applied arachidonic acid; an effect reversed by the inclusion of bovine serum albumin (BSA, fatty acid free). In contrast, the selective group I mGlu receptor agonist (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) potentiated (EC 50 =1.60±0.25 μM; E max =147.61±10.96% control) 4AP-evoked [ 3 H]glutamate release, in the absence of arachidonic acid. This potentiation could be abolished by either the selective mGlu 1 receptor antagonist (R,S)-1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid (AIDA, 1 mM) or the selective PKC inhibitor (Ro 31-8220, 10 μM) and was BSA-insensitive. The selective mGlu 5 receptor agonist (R,S)-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine (CHPG, 300μM) was without effect. DHPG (100 μM) also potentiated both 30 mM and 50 mM K + -evoked [ 3 H]glutamate release (121.60±12.77% and 121.50±4.45% control, respectively). DHPG (100 μM) failed to influence both 4AP-stimulated 45 Ca 2+ influx and 50 mM K + -induced changes in synaptosomal membrane potential. Possible group I mGlu receptor suppression of tonic adenosine A 1 receptor, group II/III mGlu receptors or GABA B receptor activity is unlikely since 4AP-evoked [ 3 H]glutamate release was insensitive to the selective inhibitory receptor antagonists 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine, (R,S)-α-cyclopropyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine or CGP55845A, respectively. These data suggest an 'mGlu 1 receptor-like' receptor potentiates [ 3 H]glutamate release from cerebrocortical synaptosomes in the absence of exogenously applied arachidonic acid. This PKC dependent effect is unlikely to be via modulation of synaptosomal membrane

  1. Influence of exogenously applied abscisic acid on carotenoid content and water uptake in flowers of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldermann, Susanne; Yang, Ziyin; Sakai, Miwa; Fleischmann, Peter; Morita, Akio; Todoroki, Yasushi; Watanabe, Naoharu

    2013-05-01

    Carotenoids are a major class of plant pigments and fulfill many functions in different organisms that either produce or consume them. Although the color of the stamina of tea (Camellia sinensis) flowers is clearly due to the presence of carotenoids, the carotenoid profile and content remain to be discovered. We investigated the carotenoid profile of tea flowers and determined changes in concentrations over the floral development. The flowers contained oxygenated xanthophylls such as neoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin, as well as the hydrocarbons β-carotene and α-carotene. Flowers of the tea plant contain to vegetables comparable amounts of carotenoids. The content of 9'-cis-epoxycarotenoids, which serve as abscisic acid precursors, as well as changes in concentration of abscisic acid were studied. The concentrations of carotenoids decreased whereas the abscisic acid content increased over the floral development. Exogenously applied S-abscisic acid affected water uptake, flower opening and carotenoid accumulation. In summary, this paper reports, for the first time, the carotenoid profile and content of tea flowers. The study revealed that carotenoids in tea flowers are an interesting target in respect of possible applications of tea flower extracts as well as biological functions of abscisic acid during floral development. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Role of ethylene in responses of plants to nitrogen availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M I R; Trivellini, Alice; Fatma, Mehar; Masood, Asim; Francini, Alessandra; Iqbal, Noushina; Ferrante, Antonio; Khan, Nafees A

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene is a plant hormone involved in several physiological processes and regulates the plant development during the whole life. Stressful conditions usually activate ethylene biosynthesis and signaling in plants. The availability of nutrients, shortage or excess, influences plant metabolism and ethylene plays an important role in plant adaptation under suboptimal conditions. Among the plant nutrients, the nitrogen (N) is one the most important mineral element required for plant growth and development. The availability of N significantly influences plant metabolism, including ethylene biology. The interaction between ethylene and N affects several physiological processes such as leaf gas exchanges, roots architecture, leaf, fruits, and flowers development. Low plant N use efficiency (NUE) leads to N loss and N deprivation, which affect ethylene biosynthesis and tissues sensitivity, inducing cell damage and ultimately lysis. Plants may respond differently to N availability balancing ethylene production through its signaling network. This review discusses the recent advances in the interaction between N availability and ethylene at whole plant and different organ levels, and explores how N availability induces ethylene biology and plant responses. Exogenously applied ethylene seems to cope the stress conditions and improves plant physiological performance. This can be explained considering the expression of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling genes under different N availability. A greater understanding of the regulation of N by means of ethylene modulation may help to increase NUE and directly influence crop productivity under conditions of limited N availability, leading to positive effects on the environment. Moreover, efforts should be focused on the effect of N deficiency or excess in fruit trees, where ethylene can have detrimental effects especially during postharvest.

  3. ROLE OF ETHYLENE IN RESPONSES OF PLANTS TO NITROGEN AVAILABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Iqbal R Khan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene is a plant hormone involved in several physiological processes and regulates the plant development during the whole life. Stressful conditions usually activate ethylene biosynthesis and signalling in plants. The availability of nutrients, shortage or excess, influences plant metabolism and ethylene plays an important role in plant adaptation under suboptimal conditions. Among the plant nutrients, the nitrogen (N is one the most important mineral element required for plant growth and development. The availability of N significantly influences plant metabolism, including ethylene biology. The interaction between ethylene and N affects several physiological process such as leaf gas exchanges, roots architecture, leaf, fruits and flowers development. Low plant N use efficiency leads to N loss and N deprivation, which affect ethylene biosynthesis and tissues sensitivity, inducing cell damage and ultimately lysis. Plants may respond differently to N availability balancing ethylene production through its signalling network. This review discusses the recent advances in the interaction between N availability and ethylene at whole plant and different organ levels, and explores how N availability induces ethylene biology and plant responses. Exogenously applied ethylene seems to cope the stress conditions and improves plant physiological performance. This can be explained considering the expression of ethylene biosynthesis and signalling genes under different N availability. A greater understanding of the regulation of N by means of ethylene modulation may help to increase N use efficiency and directly influence crop productivity under conditions of limited N availability, leading to positive effects on the environment. Moreover, efforts should be focused on the effect of N deficiency or excess in fruit trees, where ethylene can have detrimental effects especially during postharvest.

  4. Responses of Rapid Viscoanalyzer Profile and Other Rice Grain Qualities to Exogenously Applied Plant Growth Regulators under High Day and High Night Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Saud, Shah; Hassan, Shah; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh; Khan, Fahad; Ihsan, Muhammad Zahid; Ullah, Abid; Wu, Chao; Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Alharby, Hesham; Amanullah; Nasim, Wajid; Shahzad, Babar; Tanveer, Mohsin; Huang, Jianliang

    2016-01-01

    High-temperature stress degrades the grain quality of rice; nevertheless, the exogenous application of plant growth regulators (PGRs) might alleviate the negative effects of high temperatures. In the present study, we investigated the responses of rice grain quality to exogenously applied PGRs under high day temperatures (HDT) and high night temperatures (HNT) under controlled conditions. Four different combinations of ascorbic acid (Vc), alpha-tocopherol (Ve), brassinosteroids (Br), methyl jasmonates (MeJA) and triazoles (Tr) were exogenously applied to two rice cultivars (IR-64 and Huanghuazhan) prior to the high-temperature treatment. A Nothing applied Control (NAC) was included for comparison. The results demonstrated that high-temperature stress was detrimental for grain appearance and milling qualities and that both HDT and HNT reduced the grain length, grain width, grain area, head rice percentage and milled rice percentage but increased the chalkiness percentage and percent area of endosperm chalkiness in both cultivars compared with ambient temperature (AT). Significantly higher grain breakdown, set back, consistence viscosity and gelatinization temperature, and significantly lower peak, trough and final viscosities were observed under high-temperature stress compared with AT. Thus, HNT was more devastating for grain quality than HDT. The exogenous application of PGRs ameliorated the adverse effects of high temperature in both rice cultivars, and Vc+Ve+MejA+Br was the best combination for both cultivars under high temperature stress.

  5. Responses of Rapid Viscoanalyzer Profile and Other Rice Grain Qualities to Exogenously Applied Plant Growth Regulators under High Day and High Night Temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Fahad

    Full Text Available High-temperature stress degrades the grain quality of rice; nevertheless, the exogenous application of plant growth regulators (PGRs might alleviate the negative effects of high temperatures. In the present study, we investigated the responses of rice grain quality to exogenously applied PGRs under high day temperatures (HDT and high night temperatures (HNT under controlled conditions. Four different combinations of ascorbic acid (Vc, alpha-tocopherol (Ve, brassinosteroids (Br, methyl jasmonates (MeJA and triazoles (Tr were exogenously applied to two rice cultivars (IR-64 and Huanghuazhan prior to the high-temperature treatment. A Nothing applied Control (NAC was included for comparison. The results demonstrated that high-temperature stress was detrimental for grain appearance and milling qualities and that both HDT and HNT reduced the grain length, grain width, grain area, head rice percentage and milled rice percentage but increased the chalkiness percentage and percent area of endosperm chalkiness in both cultivars compared with ambient temperature (AT. Significantly higher grain breakdown, set back, consistence viscosity and gelatinization temperature, and significantly lower peak, trough and final viscosities were observed under high-temperature stress compared with AT. Thus, HNT was more devastating for grain quality than HDT. The exogenous application of PGRs ameliorated the adverse effects of high temperature in both rice cultivars, and Vc+Ve+MejA+Br was the best combination for both cultivars under high temperature stress.

  6. Differential sensitivity of light-harnessing photosynthetic events in wheat and sunflower to exogenously applied ionic and nanoparticulate silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardha-Saradhi, P; Shabnam, Nisha; Sharmila, P; Ganguli, Ashok K; Kim, Hyunook

    2018-03-01

    Potential impacts of inevitable leaks of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) into environment on human beings need attention. Owing to the vitality of photosynthesis in maintaining life and ecosystem functioning, impacts of exogenously applied nanoparticulate and Ag + on photosystem (PS)II function, which governs overall photosynthesis, in wheat and sunflower were evaluated. PSII efficiency and related Chl a fluorescence kinetics of these two plants remained unaffected by AgNPs. However, Ag + caused a significant decline in the PSII activity and related fluorescence steps in wheat, but not in sunflower. Electron flow between Q A and PQ pool was found most sensitive to Ag + . Number of active reaction centers, electron transport, trapping of absorbed light for photochemistry, and performance index declined, while dissipation of absorbed light energy as heat significantly increased in wheat exposed to Ag + . Total antioxidant activity in sunflower was least affected by both Ag and AgNPs. In contrast, in the case of wheat, the antioxidant activity was declined by Ag + but not by AgNPs. Further, the amount of silver absorbed by plants exposed to Ag + was higher than that absorbed by plants exposed to AgNPs. While wheat retained majority of Ag in its roots, sunflower showed major Ag accumulation in stem. Photosynthetic events in sunflower, unlike wheat, were least affected as no detectable Ag levels was recorded in their leaves. Our findings revealed that AgNPs seemed non/less-toxic to light harnessing photosynthetic machinery of wheat, compared to Ag + . Photosynthetic events in sunflower were not affected by Ag + , either, as its translocation to leaves was restricted. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The Role of Auxin-Ethylene Crosstalk in Orchestrating Primary Root Elongation in Sugar Beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abts, Willem; Vandenbussche, Bert; De Proft, Maurice P.; Van de Poel, Bram

    2017-01-01

    It is well-established in Arabidopsis and other species that ethylene inhibits root elongation through the action of auxin. In sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) ethylene promotes root elongation in a concentration dependent manner. However, the crosstalk between ethylene and auxin remains unknown during sugar beet seedling development. Our experiments have shown that exogenously applied auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA) also stimulates root elongation. We also show that auxin promotes ethylene biosynthesis leading to longer roots. We have further demonstrated that the auxin treatment stimulates ethylene production by redirecting the pool of available 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) toward ethylene instead of malonyl-ACC (MACC) resulting in a prolonged period of high rates of ethylene production and subsequently a longer root. On the other hand we have also shown that endogenous IAA levels were not affected by an ACC treatment during germination. All together our findings suggest that the general model for auxin-ethylene crosstalk during early root development, where ethylene controls auxin biosynthesis and transport, does not occur in sugar beet. On the contrary, we have shown that the opposite, where auxin stimulates ethylene biosynthesis, is true for sugar beet root development. PMID:28424722

  8. Effect of Lithium on Thigmomorphogenesis in Bryonia dioica Ethylene Production and Sensitivity 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Nicole; Desbiez, Marie-Odile; Hofinger, Michel; Gaspar, Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Rubbing internodes of Bryonia dioica plants reduced their ethylene production but increased their capacity to convert 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) to ethylene. These results were explained by the previously shown rubbing-induced decrease of indoleacetic acid, which controls the level of ACC synthase, and by the increase of membrane-associated peroxidases which would participate in the conversion of ACC-ethylene. Pretreatment of the plants with Li had no significant effect on control plants but counteracted the rubbing-induced decrease of ethylene production and diminished the capacity of the internodes to convert ACC to ethylene. Exogenously applied ethylene induced an increase of peroxidase activity similar to that caused by rubbing. Inasmuch as both effects were reduced by Li, it was concluded that Li inhibition of thigmomorphogenetic processes was essentially due to a Li inhibition of the effect of ethylene formed in response to mechanical stimuli. The decreased ethylene production and ACC conversion capacity in the presence of Li were explained by a cellular redistribution of peroxidases. PMID:16663035

  9. Ethylene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about ethylene oxide, which can raise your risk of lymphoma and leukemia. Exposure may occur through industrial emissions, tobacco smoke, and the use of products sterilized with ethylene oxide, such as certain medical products or cosmetics.

  10. Postharvest responses of cut Dendrobium orchids to exogenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-02-23

    Feb 23, 2012 ... The time to senescence of flowers in Dendrobium hybrids is different and one of the major reasons for this variation in vase life can be related to differences in the level of ethylene sensitivity. This study was conducted to determine the sensitivity of six cut Dendrobium hybrids to exogenous ethylene. The cut.

  11. Effects of exogenously applied salicylic acid and putrescine alone and in combination with rhizobacteria on the phytoremediation of heavy metals and chickpea growth in sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naeem; Bano, Asghari

    2018-04-16

    The present attempt was made to study the role of exogenously applied salicylic acid (SA) and putrescine (Put) on the phytoremediation of heavy metals and on the growth parameters of chickpea grown in sandy soil. The SA and Put were applied alone as well as in combination with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The PGPRs, isolated from the rhizosphere of chickpea, were characterized on the basis of colony morphology and biochemical traits through gram staining, catalase and oxidase tests, and identified by 16S-rRNA gene sequencing as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus megaterium. The chickpea seeds were soaked in 24 h old fresh cultures of isolates for 2-3 h prior to sowing. The growth regulators (PGRs), SA and Put (150 mg/L), were applied to the seedlings as foliar spray at three-leaf stage. The result revealed that plants treated with SA and Put alone or in combination with PGPRs, significantly enhanced the accumulation of heavy metals in plant shoot. PGPR induces Ni accumulation in sensitive variety and Pb in both the varieties, the PGR in combination augment the bioremediation effects of PGPR and both sensitive and tolerant variety showed significant accumulation of Ni, Cd, and Pb. SA was more effective in accumulating Ni and Cd whereas, significant accumulation of Pb was recorded in Put. PGPRs further augmented the PGRs induced accumulation of heavy metals and macronutrients in chickpea shoot and in rhizosphere. SA increased the proline content of tolerant variety while decreasing the lipid peroxidation and proline content of the sensitive variety but decreased the stimulating effect of PGPR in proline production. Interactive effects of PGPR and PGRs are recommended for inducing phytoremediation in chickpea plants under drought stress.

  12. Exogenous Ochronosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi A Bhattar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous ochronosis (EO is a cutaneous disorder characterized by blue-black pigmentation resulting as a complication of long-term application of skin-lightening creams containing hydroquinone but may also occur due to topical contact with phenol or resorcinol in dark-skinned individuals. It can also occur following the use of systemic antimalarials such as quinine. EO is clinically and histologically similar to its endogenous counterpart viz., alkaptonuria, which, however, exhibits systemic effects and is an inherited disorder. Dermoscopy and in vivo skin reflectance confocal microscopy are noninvasive in vivo diagnostic tools. It is very difficult to treat EO, a cosmetically disfiguring and troubling disorder with disappointing treatment options.

  13. Laser textured Co-Cr-Mo alloy stored chitosan/poly(ethylene glycol) composite applied on artificial joints lubrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hailin; Ren, Shanshan; Guo, Junde; Li, Yue; Li, Jianhui; Dong, Guangneng

    2017-09-01

    Arthroplasty brings the wear problems because of body fluid has poor performance as lubricant. Lubricant which is used in artificial joints will rapidly degrade and be absorbed by human body after injecting. To prolong the lubricant's effectiveness, this study prepared chitosan/poly(ethylene glycol) (CS/PEG) and textures to play a role in joint lubrication and wear protection. Chitosan (CS) and poly(ethylene glycol) which have biocompatibility and biodegradability properties can be used in human body. The tribological results shown that CS/PEG sol has excellent performance when this sol was composed by 2wt% CS and 30wt% PEG, the average friction coefficient below 0.016 under the condition of 30-90N load (pressure 4.2-12.6MPa). In this study, CS/PEG was added in the texture of artificial joints, then the surfaces of the CS/PEG formed gel via NaOH solidification effect. The CS/PEG gel film could prevent the CS/PEG sol from diluting in body fluid. Meanwhile, FT-IR, XRD, UV/vis and Raman spectra revealed that CS associated with PEG via hydrogen bond effect may form a particular structure, which leaded the good tribological performance. This study provides a new, simple and green approach to enhance tribological performances of artificial joints. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Effects of abscisic acid on ethylene biosynthesis and perception in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. flower development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivellini, Alice; Ferrante, Antonio; Vernieri, Paolo; Serra, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the complex relationship between ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA) on flower development and senescence in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. was investigated. Ethylene biosynthetic (HrsACS and HrsACO) and receptor (HrsETR and HrsERS) genes were isolated and their expression evaluated in three different floral tissues (petals, style–stigma plus stamens, and ovaries) of detached buds and open flowers. This was achieved through treatment with 0.1 mM 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) solution, 500 nl l−1 methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), and 0.1 mM ABA solution. Treatment with ACC and 1-MCP confirmed that flower senescence in hibiscus is ethylene dependent, and treatment with exogenous ABA suggested that ABA may play a role in this process. The 1-MCP impeded petal in-rolling and decreased ABA content in detached open flowers after 9 h. This was preceded by an earlier and sequential increase in ABA content in 1-MCP-treated petals and style–stigma plus stamens between 1 h and 6 h. ACC treatment markedly accelerated flower senescence and increased ethylene production after 6 h and 9 h, particularly in style–stigma plus stamens. Ethylene evolution was positively correlated in these floral tissues with the induction of the gene expression of ethylene biosynthetic and receptor genes. Finally, ABA negatively affected the ethylene biosynthetic pathway and tissue sensitivity in all flower tissues. Transcript abundance of HrsACS, HrsACO, HrsETR, and HrsERS was reduced by exogenous ABA treatment. This research underlines the regulatory effect of ABA on the ethylene biosynthetic and perception machinery at a physiological and molecular level when inhibitors or promoters of senescence are exogenously applied. PMID:21841180

  15. Pollination increases ethylene production in Lilium hybrida cv. Brindisi flowers but does not affect the time to tepal senescence or tepal abscission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Silvia; Prisa, Domenico; Burchi, Gianluca; van Doorn, Wouter G

    2015-01-15

    In many species, pollination induces a rapid increase in ethylene production, which induces early petal senescence, petal abscission, or flower closure. Cross-pollination in Lilium hybrida cv. Brindisi resulted in a small increase in flower ethylene production. In intact plants and in isolated flowers, pollination had no effect on the time to tepal senescence or tepal abscission. When applied to closed buds of unpollinated flowers, exogenous ethylene slightly hastened the time to tepal senescence and abscission. However, exogenous ethylene had no effect when the flowers had just opened, i.e. at the time of pollination. Experiments with silver thiosulphate, which blocks the ethylene receptor, indicated that endogenous ethylene had a slight effect on the regulation of tepal senescence and tepal abscission, although only at the time the tepals were still inside buds and not in open flowers. Low ethylene-sensitivity after anthesis therefore explains why pollination had no effect on the processes studied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of chemical and mechanical resistance of virgin and recycled poly (ethylene terephthalate and poly(methylene oxide when applied as gravel pack in petroleum wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Zacarias Ignácio Pereira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractNowadays more and more unexpected uses for common materials have been observed, especially when recycled polymers are concerned. In this work, the viability for application of virgin and recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate (PETvir and PETrec, respectively and also poly(methylene oxide (PMO as granular materials (gravel for gravel packing in sand control systems for unconsolidated sandstone reservoirs was studied. Polymer samples were tested in conditions similar to those observed in Campos Basin sandstone formations, in Brazilian Southwest (70 °C and 24.1 MPa. Samples were individually confined in roller cells with chemicals used in formation treatment: hydrochloric acid, pentapotassic DTPA salt (chelant Trilon CK and in a mixture of diesel, xylene and butyl glycol. Mass loss was measured and the changes in molecular mass verified by size exclusion chromatography (SEC. Physical shape and grain size distribution were verified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and sieving tests. The effects over the polymeric gravel pack confinement resistance and permeability were evaluated using an API permeability cell. PMO proved to have a limited use, whereas PETrec and PETvir samples were not significantly affected, suggesting the viability of applying that recycled polymer in gravel packing for sand control in petroleum wells.

  17. Biochemical and physiological responses of lycoris sprengeri bulblets (amaryllidaceae) to exogenously applied N-(2-Chloro-4-Pyridyl)-N1-Phenylurea (CPPU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Z.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, Y.; Zhang, D.; Lv, X.

    2017-01-01

    Bulblets of Lycoris sprengeri (Amaryllidaceae) were obtained by cutting. Six concentrations of N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N1-phenylurea (CPPU) solutions were sprayed on leaves from one-year-old bulblets during their green period. Fresh weight, diameter,carbohydrate content, activity of starch metabolism-related enzymes and levels of endogenous hormones of bulblets were determined. The effects of CPPU treatment on bulblet development and biochemical and physiological indices of L. sprengeri were analyzed using the determined values. The results showed that CPPU treatment at an appropriate concentration promoted the enlargement of L. sprengeri bulblets; the optimal concentration was 7.5 mg L-1. Bulblet growth showed a significant positive correlation with starch content and the activities of soluble starch synthase (SSS) and starch-bound starch synthase (GBSS). Bulblet growth showed anextremely significant positive correlation with the ratio of endogenous gibberellic acid/abscisic acid (GA/ABA). The GA/ABA ratio showed a significant positive correlation with the activities of (a+beta)-amylase and GBSS. The exogenous application of CPPU promoted the synthesis and accumulation of starch in the bulblets of L. sprengeri and the activities of starch metabolism-related enzymes; an increase in the endogenous GA/ABA ratio had a synergistic effect. (author)

  18. Altered cultivar resistance of kimchi cabbage seedlings mediated by salicylic Acid, jasmonic Acid and ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Sang Hee; Yun, Byung-Wook; Hong, Jeum Kyu

    2014-09-01

    Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible) and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant) of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum), black spot (Alternaria brassicicola) and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc) diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner.

  19. Altered Cultivar Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage Seedlings Mediated by Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Hee Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum, black spot (Alternaria brassicicola and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner.

  20. Transformation of miniature potted rose (Rosa hybrida cv. Linda) with PSAG12-ipt gene delays leaf senescence and enhances resistance to exogenous ethylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakizadeh, Hedayatollah; Lütken, Henrik Vlk; Sriskandarajah, Sridevy

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic plants of Rosa hybrida ‘Linda’ were obtained via transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain harboring the binary vector pSG529(+) containing the PSAG12-ipt construct. A. tumefaciens strains AGL1, GV3850 and LBA4404 (containing P35S-INTGUS gene) were used for transformation...... of embryogenic callus, but transgenic shoots were obtained only when AGL1 was applied. The highest transformation frequency was 10 % and it was achieved when half MS medium was used for the dilution of overnight culture of Agrobacterium. Southern blot confirmed integration of 1–6 copies of the nptII gene...

  1. Further studies of auxin and ACC induced feminization in the cucumber plant using ethylene inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H.; Jaffe, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    The present study was designed to establish the role of an essential hormone controlling sex expression in cucumber. A potent anti-ethylene agent, AgNO3, completely inhibited pistillate flower formation caused by IAA, ACC or ethephon. Inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis, AVG and CoCl2 also suppressed feminization due to exogenous IAA or ACC. Though AVG also suppressed ethephon-induced feminization, this may be due to the second effect of AVG rather than the effect on ACC biosynthesis. These results confirm that ethylene is a major factor regulating feminization and that exogenous auxin induces pistillate flower formation through its stimulation of ethylene production, rather than ACC production.

  2. Intensification of ethylene glycol production process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisutwattanaa, Apiwit; Frauzem, Rebecca; Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn

    2017-01-01

    -case design was obtained, resulting in the production of ethylene glycol via two steps: ethylene oxidation synthesis followed by ethylene oxide hydration to produce ethylene glycol. Feasibility of the design was verified and the process was rigorously designed using a computer process simulation program......This study aims to generate an alternative design for ethylene glycol production process focusing on a reduction of operating cost and emissions. To achieve this, the phenomena-based method for process intensification was applied. 3 stages of process intensification were performed. First, the base...... solutions. As the result of intensification method, membrane separation was suggested and applied to the design. With the operation of the new equipment, the ethylene glycol production process was improved for 54.51 percent in terms of energy consumption....

  3. Exogenous Calcium Enhances the Photosystem II Photochemistry Response in Salt Stressed Tall Fescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyang Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium enhances turfgrass response to salt stress. However, little is known about PSII photochemical changes when exogenous calcium was applied in salinity-stressed turfgrass. Here, we probe into the rearrangements of PSII electron transport and endogenous ion accumulation in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreber treated with exogenous calcium under salt stress. Three-month-old seedlings of genotype “TF133” were subjected to the control (CK, salinity (S, salinity + calcium nitrate (SC, and salinity + ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (SE. Calcium nitrate and ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid was used as exogenous calcium donor and calcium chelating agent respectively. At the end of a 5-day duration treatment, samples in SC regime had better photochemistry performance on several parameters than salinity only. Such as the Area (equal to the plastoquinone pool size, N (number of QA- redox turnovers until Fm is reached, ψE0, or δRo (Efficiencdy/probability with which a PSII trapped electron is transferred from QA to QB or PSI acceptors, ABS/RC (Absorbed photon flux per RC. All the above suggested that calcium enhanced the electron transfer of PSII (especially beyond QA- and prevented reaction centers from inactivation in salt-stressed tall fescue. Furthermore, both grass shoot and root tissues generally accumulated more C, N, Ca2+, and K+ in the SC regime than S regime. Interrelated analysis indicated that ψE0, δRo, ABS/RC, C, and N content in shoots was highly correlated to each other and significantly positively related to Ca2+ and K+ content in roots. Besides, high salt increased ATP6E and CAMK2 transcription level in shoot at 1 and 5 day, respectively while exogenous calcium relieved it. In root, CAMK2 level was reduced by Salinity at 5 day and exogenous calcium recovered it. These observations involved in electron transport capacity and ion accumulation assist in understanding better the protective role of exogenous calcium in tall

  4. Effect of exogenous estradiol applied at different embryonic stages on sex determination, growth, and mortality in the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousignant, A; Crews, D

    1994-01-01

    Temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) occurs in three orders of reptiles. Several studies have examined the ability of estradiol to produce female hatchlings incubated at a male-producing temperature. The results of these experiments support the idea that estradiol could be used as a powerful tool in the conservation of endangered species with TSD by manipulating hatchling sex ratios. However, these experiments have concentrated on the mechanism of determination. This experiment was designed to test the efficacy of various dosages of estradiol applied at two different stages to alter the hatchling sex ratio as well as determining the potential use of such manipulation for conservation efforts by monitoring egg mortality and hatchling growth. The leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) exhibits TSD and reaches reproductive maturity in less than one year, making it an excellent model for evaluating the long-term effects of estradiol. The results demonstrate that estradiol has a dose-dependent effect on the hatchling sex ratio while only high dosages applied at the later stage of development showed increased mortality. Estrogen-determined females grew at the same rate as temperature-determined females and have produced viable hatchlings. Estradiol treatment of eggs from endangered species may provide a method of insuring female offspring when the TSD pattern is unknown or equipment for controlled incubation is unavailable.

  5. Degreening and cold storage of ‘Murcott’ tangor as function concentration and exposure time to ethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Lye Jomori

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Degreening treatment has been applied in traditional countries exporters and consumers of fresh citrus to improve rind color of fruit cultivated in regions that no shown low temperature during maturation. In Brazil, this technique is performed empirically, without control of application conditions and fruit shown low extern quality. This study was carried out with the objective to determinate conditions to the technique of postharvest degreening of ‘Murcott’ orange, involving the application of exogenous ethylene. The concentrations 5 and 10 mL L-1 of ethylene was applied inside the chamber for 96 and 120 hours at 25oC and 90% RH. After treatments fruit were stored at 5°C during for 30 days, and after that, plus 3 days at 25ºC. Fruit were evaluated in four periods: after harvest; after degreening treatment, after cold storage and after 3 days at 25°C (simulated marketing. The variable analyzed were: skin color, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, ratio (SS/TA, ascorbic acid, percentage of juice, chlorophyll and carotenoids content, chlorophyllase activity, respiratory rate and ethylene production. The treatments did not affect the soluble solids, titratable acidity, ratio, percentage of juice and ascorbic acid content. Fruit treated with ethylene showed increase of color index concomitant by higher chlorophyllase activity and lower chlorophyll content. There were no differences in the carotenoids content in the periods evaluated. Fruit treated with ethylene at both concentrations had higher ethylene production, whereas the dose of 10 mL L-1 favored the incidence of decay. Ethylene 5 mL L-1 for 96 hours is enough to trigger the process of degreening ‘ Murcott’ tangor and can be used to improve skin color of this cultivar.

  6. (ethylene terephthalate) biomimetic composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Hydroxyapatite/poly(ethylene adipate)-co-poly(ethylene terephthalate) biomaterials (HAp/PEA-co-. PET) have been prepared by ring opening polymerization (ROP) of cyclic oligo(ethylene adipate)-co-oligo(ethylene terephthalate) (C-OEA-co-C-OET) in the porous hydroxyapatite (HAp) scaffolds at 250 ◦C for 24 h ...

  7. Naturally resident and exogenously applied T4-like and T5-like bacteriophages can reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 levels in sheep guts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raya, Raul R; Oot, Rebecca A; Moore-Maley, Ben; Wieland, Serena; Callaway, Todd R; Kutter, Elizabeth M; Brabban, Andrew D

    2011-01-01

    In preparing sheep for an in vivo Escherichia coli O157:H7 eradication trial, we found that 20/39 members of a single flock were naturally colonized by O157:H7-infecting phages. Characterization showed these were all one phage type (subsequently named CEV2) infecting 15/16 O157:H7, 7/72 ECOR and common lab strains. Further characterization by PFGE (genome∼120 kb), restriction enzyme digest (DNA appears unmodified), receptor studies (FhuA but not TonB is required for infection) and sequencing (>95% nucleotide identity) showed it is a close relative of the classically studied coliphage T5. Unlike T5, CEV2 infects O157:H7 in vitro, both aerobically and anaerobically, rapidly adsorbing and killing, but resistant mutants regrew within 24 h. When used together with T4-like CEV1 (MOI ∼2 per phage), bacterial killing was longer lasting. CEV2 did not reproduce when co-infecting the same cell as CEV1, presumably succumbing to CEV1's ability to shut off transcription of cytosine-containing DNA. In vivo sheep trials to remove resident O157:H7 showed that a cocktail of CEV2 and CEV1 (∼10(11) total PFU) applied once orally was more effective (>99.9% reduction) than CEV1 alone (∼99%) compared to the untreated phage-free control. Those sheep naturally carrying CEV2, receiving no additional phage treatment, had the lowest O157:H7 levels (∼99.99% reduction). These data suggest that phage cocktails are more effective than individual phage in removing O157:H7 that have taken residence if the phage work in concert with one another and that naturally resident O157:H7-infecting phages may prevent O157:H7 gut colonization and be one explanation for the transient O157:H7 colonization in ruminants.

  8. MALDI SpiralTOF high-resolution mass spectrometry and Kendrick mass defect analysis applied to the characterization of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Thierry; Nakamura, Sayaka; Sato, Hiroaki

    2016-04-15

    Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) copolymers - usually referred to as EVA - are first class industrial polymers used for applications ranging from padding to photovoltaics as encapsulant for the silicon solar cells. Various techniques have been used for their characterization but the analysis of intact EVA chains using mass spectrometry (MS) has not been reported so far. Three copolymers containing 18, 25 and 40 wt% vinyl acetate (VA) have been characterized using an off-line coupling of size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) spiral-time-of-flight (TOF) high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The representativeness of those results for the entire samples has been checked using (13) C NMR spectroscopy. Lastly, Kendrick mass defect analysis has been proposed as an alternative and user-friendly data treatment method. The shortest chains isolated by SEC fractionation and mass-analyzed by HRMS have been thoroughly described in terms of end-groups (found to be hydrogens) and co-monomeric composition. The VA content was successfully derived from the peak assignments in MS spectra for the EVA 40 wt% and 25 wt% while it tended to be overestimated for the latest EVA 18 wt% (increasing poly(ethylene) character). Similar results have been found using a faster data treatment method relying on the Kendrick mass defect analysis of the MS data. EVA low molecular weight intact oligomers have been extensively characterized by MS for the first time and the structural features confidently extended to the full sample according to NMR data. The Kendrick mass analysis finally constituted an efficient method for a fast evaluation of their VA content with no need for manual assignment. © 2016 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Electrical Impedance Analysis of Tissue Properties Associated with Ethylene Induction by Electric Currents in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, A.; Manabe, T.; Tsuji, H.; Iwamoto, T.

    1995-01-01

    A study based on electrical impedance analysis of tissue properties was conducted in order to understand the relationship between impedance components and ethylene biosynthesis induced by direct current in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit. Impedances were measured at a range of alternating current frequencies from 500 Hz to 1 MHz. We calculated capacitances representing the plasma membranes, C1, and organelle membranes, C2, and resistances representing extracellular space, R1, cytoplasm, R2, and organelle interior, R3. Direct current of 1 to 3 mA induced ethylene synthesis with a sharp peak at 1 h. The rate of production was greater with a stronger current. This abrupt induction of ethylene synthesis was accompanied by an equally abrupt activation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase within 1 h, but not that of ACC oxidase, which was activated only at the later stages of the treatment at a time when ethylene production and ACC synthase activity were declining. Using direct current of 0 to 3 mA, C2, R1, and R2 increased abruptly, and C1 increased gradually after 3 h. The rates of increases were greater with currents of larger magnitude, R3 was not affected during passage of the current. Diazocyclopentadiene, an inhibitor of ethylene action, eliminated the direct current induction of R1 but had no effect on the increases in C2 and R2. Diazocyclopentadiene counteracted the stimulative effects of exogenously applied ethylene with respect to respiration and activities of ACC oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. These results indicate that an externally applied current may generate signal(s) by altering the functions of organelle membranes and/or cytoplasmic pH to induce ACC synthase. PMID:12228354

  10. Ethylene glycol blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003564.htm Ethylene glycol blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... risk any time the skin is broken) Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Ethylene glycol - serum ...

  11. The effect of ethylene on transgenic melon ripening and fruit quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In cell wall expression analysis, MPG1 increased when fruits of transgenic melons were exposed to ethylene; showing they are ethylene- dependent. MPG2 decreased ... Ethylene productions in transgenic fruits were reestablished when ethylene was applied, exhibiting the same behavior as transgenic fruits. Antioxidant ...

  12. Explaining Cigarette Smoking: An Endogenous-Exogenous Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillip, Jack

    Kruglanski's endogenous-exogenous partition, when applied to reasons given by smokers for smoking cigarettes, distinguishes two types of actions: (1) endogenous reasons implying that the behavior of consuming the cigarette is the goal of the action and the actor is positive toward the behavior, and (2) exogenous reasons implying that the behavior…

  13. Exogenous lipid pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernasconi, A.; Gavelli, G.; Zompatori, M.; Galleri, C.; Zanasi, A.; Fabbri, M.; Bazzocchi, F.

    1988-01-01

    Exogenous lipid pneumonia (ELP) is caused by the aspiration of animal, vegetal or, more often, mineral oils. Even though it may also be acute, ELP is most frequently a chronic disease, affecting people with predisposing factors, such as neuromuscular disorders, structural abnormalities and so on; very often exogenous lipid pneumonia is found in tracheotomized patients. The pathology of lipid pneumonia is a chronic inflammatory process evolving in foreign-body-like reaction, and eventually in ''end-stage lung'' condition. Clinically, most patients are asymptomatic; few cases only present with cough, dyspnea and chest pain. Eight cases of ELP, studied over the past 3 years, are described in this paper. All the patients were examined by chest radiographs and standard tomograms; 3 patients underwent CT. X-ray features were mono/bilateral consolidation of the lower zones, with air bronchogram and variable reduction in volume. CT density was not specific for fat tissue. In all cases the diagnosis was confirmed at biopsy. In 5 patients, followed for at least one year, clinical-radiological features showed no change. Thus, complications of ELP (especially malignant evolution) could be excluded. The authors conclude that lipid pneumonia must be considered in differential diagnosis of patients with history of usage of oils and compatible X-ray findings. The usefulness of an accurate follow-up is stressed

  14. Ethylene mediates brassinosteroid-induced stomatal closure via Gα protein-activated hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide production in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chenyu; Qi, Cheng; Ren, Hongyan; Huang, Aixia; Hei, Shumei; She, Xiaoping

    2015-04-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are essential for plant growth and development; however, whether and how they promote stomatal closure is not fully clear. In this study, we report that 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), a bioactive BR, induces stomatal closure in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by triggering a signal transduction pathway including ethylene synthesis, the activation of Gα protein, and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and nitric oxide (NO) production. EBR initiated a marked rise in ethylene, H(2)O(2) and NO levels, necessary for stomatal closure in the wild type. These effects were abolished in mutant bri1-301, and EBR failed to close the stomata of gpa1 mutants. Next, we found that both ethylene and Gα mediate the inductive effects of EBR on H(2)O(2) and NO production. EBR-triggered H(2)O(2) and NO accumulation were canceled in the etr1 and gpa1 mutants, but were strengthened in the eto1-1 mutant and the cGα line (constitutively overexpressing the G protein α-subunit AtGPA1). Exogenously applied H(2)O(2) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP) rescued the defects of etr1-3 and gpa1 or etr1 and gpa1 mutants in EBR-induced stomatal closure, whereas the stomata of eto1-1/AtrbohF and cGα/AtrbohF or eto1-1/nia1-2 and cGα/nia1-2 constructs had an analogous response to H(2)O(2) or SNP as those of AtrbohF or Nia1-2 mutants. Moreover, we provided evidence that Gα plays an important role in the responses of guard cells to ethylene. Gα activator CTX largely restored the lesion of the etr1-3 mutant, but ethylene precursor ACC failed to rescue the defects of gpa1 mutants in EBR-induced stomatal closure. Lastly, we demonstrated that Gα-activated H(2)O(2) production is required for NO synthesis. EBR failed to induce NO synthesis in mutant AtrbohF, but it led to H(2)O(2) production in mutant Nia1-2. Exogenously applied SNP rescued the defect of AtrbohF in EBR-induced stomatal closure, but H(2)O(2) did not reverse the lesion of EBR-induced stomatal closure in Nia1-2. Together, our

  15. Auxin and ethylene regulation of diameter growth in trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savidge, R A

    1988-12-01

    Recent studies on the phytohormonal regulation of seasonal cell-division activity in the cambium, primary-wall radial expansion of cambial derivatives, differentiation of xylem cells, and growth of the cortex in forest trees of the north temperate zone are reviewed. Indol-3-ylacetic acid (IAA, auxin) has been characterized by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the cambial region of Abies balsamea, Pinus densiflora, Pinus sylvestris and Quercus robur. All of the evidence supports the hypothesis that developing leaves and extending shoots are primary sources of IAA. The rate of ethylene emanation varies among conifer species when adjoining phloem and cambial tissues are incubated in vitro. The cambium from young cuttings of Abies balsamea produces more ethylene than that from older cuttings. Ethylene production by seven-year-old Abies balsamea cambium is substantially increased in vitro when the tissue is provided with exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and IAA. In response to elevated ethylene concentrations, cortex growth is accelerated in both hardwood and conifer seedlings. Ethrel (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) increases ray size and ray-cell number and promotes traumatic resin-canal development in xylem. In Ulmus americana, endogenous ethylene concentrations are inversely correlated with cambial activity. Ethylene decreases vessel diameter in Acer negundo, Acer platanoides and Ulmus americana. Several studies suggest that ethylene has a role in regulating reaction-wood formation in both conifers and hardwoods.

  16. The Effect of Ethylene Glycol to Soy Polyurethane Foam Classifications

    OpenAIRE

    Flora Elvistia Firdaus

    2012-01-01

    Soy polyol obtained from hydroxylation of soy epoxide with ethylene glycol were prepared as pre-polyurethane. The two step process method were applied in the polyurethane synthesis. The blending of soy polyol with synthetic polyol then simultaneously carried out to TDI (2,4): MDI (4,4-) (80:20), blowing agent, and surfactant. Ethylene glycol were not taking part in the polyurethane synthesis. The inclusion of ethylene glycol were used as a control. Characterization of pol...

  17. Nitric Oxide, Ethylene, and Auxin Cross Talk Mediates Greening and Plastid Development in Deetiolating Tomato Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Nielda K G; Bianchetti, Ricardo E; Lira, Bruno S; Oliveira, Paulo M R; Zuccarelli, Rafael; Dias, Devisson L O; Demarco, Diego; Peres, Lazaro E P; Rossi, Magdalena; Freschi, Luciano

    2016-04-01

    The transition from etiolated to green seedlings involves the conversion of etioplasts into mature chloroplasts via a multifaceted, light-driven process comprising multiple, tightly coordinated signaling networks. Here, we demonstrate that light-induced greening and chloroplast differentiation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seedlings are mediated by an intricate cross talk among phytochromes, nitric oxide (NO), ethylene, and auxins. Genetic and pharmacological evidence indicated that either endogenously produced or exogenously applied NO promotes seedling greening by repressing ethylene biosynthesis and inducing auxin accumulation in tomato cotyledons. Analysis performed in hormonal tomato mutants also demonstrated that NO production itself is negatively and positively regulated by ethylene and auxins, respectively. Representing a major biosynthetic source of NO in tomato cotyledons, nitrate reductase was shown to be under strict control of both phytochrome and hormonal signals. A close NO-phytochrome interaction was revealed by the almost complete recovery of the etiolated phenotype of red light-grown seedlings of the tomato phytochrome-deficient aurea mutant upon NO fumigation. In this mutant, NO supplementation induced cotyledon greening, chloroplast differentiation, and hormonal and gene expression alterations similar to those detected in light-exposed wild-type seedlings. NO negatively impacted the transcript accumulation of genes encoding phytochromes, photomorphogenesis-repressor factors, and plastid division proteins, revealing that this free radical can mimic transcriptional changes typically triggered by phytochrome-dependent light perception. Therefore, our data indicate that negative and positive regulatory feedback loops orchestrate ethylene-NO and auxin-NO interactions, respectively, during the conversion of colorless etiolated seedlings into green, photosynthetically competent young plants. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights

  18. Novel gaseous ethylene binding inhibitor prevents ethylene effects in potted flowering plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serek, M.; Reid, M.S. (Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Horticulture); Sisler, E.C. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry)

    1994-11-01

    A 6-hour fumigation of flowering Begonia xelatior hybrida Fotsch. Najada' and Rosa', B. xtuberhybrida Voss. Non-Stop', Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln. Tropicana', and Rosa hybrida L. Victory Parade' plants with 1-MCP, (formerly designated as SIS-X), a gaseous nonreversible ethylene binding inhibitor, strongly inhibited exogenous ethylene effects such as bud and flower drop, leaf abscission, and accelerated flower senescence. The inhibitory effects of 1-MCP increased linearly with concentration, and at 20 nl-liter[sup [minus]1] this compound gave equal protection to that afforded by spraying the plants with a 0.5 STS mM solution. Chemical names used: 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), silver thiosulfate (STS).

  19. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of children. Alternative Names Intoxication - ethylene ... Essentials of Toxicology . 3rd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education; 2015:chap 33. White SR. Toxic alcohols. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, ...

  20. Derivation of endogenous equivalent values to support risk assessment and risk management decisions for an endogenous carcinogen: Ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirman, C R; Hays, S M

    2017-12-01

    An approach is presented for ethylene oxide (EO) to derive endogenous equivalent (EE) values, which are endogenous levels normally found within the body expressed in terms of exogenous exposures. EE values can be used to support risk assessment and risk management decisions for chemicals such as EO that have both endogenous and exogenous exposure pathways. EE values were derived using a meta-analysis of data from the published literature characterizing the distribution for an EO biomarker of exposure, hemoglobin N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-valine (HEV), in unexposed populations. These levels are compared to the those reported in exposed populations (smokers, workers). Correlation between the biomarker of exposure and external exposures of EO were applied to this distribution to determine corresponding EE values, which range from 0.13 to 6.9 ppb for EO in air. These values are orders of magnitude higher than risk-based concentration values derived for EO using default methods, and are provided as a pragmatic, data-driven alternative approach to managing the potential risks from exogenous exposures to EO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Acceleration of membrane senescence in cut carnation flowers by treatment with ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J E; Mayak, S; Shinitzky, M; Halevy, A H

    1982-04-01

    The lipid microviscosity of microsomal membranes from senescing cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. White Sim) flowers rises with advancing senescence. The increase in membrane microviscosity is initiated within 3 to 4 days of cutting the flowers and coincides temporally with petal-inrolling denoting the climacteric-like rise in ethylene production. Treatment of young cut flowers with aminoethoxyvinylglycine prevented the appearance of petal-inrolling and delayed the rise in membrane microviscosity until day 9 after cutting. When freshly cut flowers or aminoethoxyvinylglycine-treated flowers were exposed to exogenous ethylene (1 microliter per liter), the microviscosity of microsomal membranes rose sharply within 24 hours, and inrolling of petals was clearly evident. Thus, treatment with ethylene accelerates membrane rigidification. Silver thiosulphate, a potent anti-ethylene agent, delayed the rise in microsomal membrane microviscosity even when the flowers were exposed to exogenous ethylene. Membrane rigidification in both naturally senescing and ethylene-treated flowers was accompanied by an increased sterol:phospholipid ratio reflecting the selective loss of membrane phospholipid that accompanies senescence. The results collectively indicate that the climacteric-like surge in ethylene production during senescence of carnation flowers facilitates physical changes in membrane lipids that presumably lead to loss of membrane function.

  2. The mechanism of ethylene signaling induced by endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 mediating sesquiterpenoids biosynthesis in Atractylodes lancea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie eYuan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene, the first known gaseous phytohormone, is involved in plant growth, development as well as responses to environmental signals. However, limited information is available on the role of ethylene in endophytic fungi induced secondary metabolites biosynthesis. Atractylodes lancea is a traditional Chinese herb, and its quality depends on the main active compounds sesquiterpenoids. This work showed that the endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 induced ethylene production in Atractylodes lancea. Pre-treatment of plantlets with ethylene inhibiter aminooxyacetic acid (AOA suppressed endophytic fungi induced accumulation of ethylene and sesquiterpenoids. Plantlets were further treated with AOA, salicylic acid (SA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PAC, jasmonic acid inhibitor ibuprofen (IBU, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 scavenger catalase (CAT, nitric oxide (NO-specific scavenger 2-(4-Carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO. With endophytic fungi inoculation, IBU or PAC did not inhibit ethylene production, and JA and SA generation were suppressed by AOA, showing that ethylene may act as an upstream signal of JA and SA pathway. With endophytic fungi inoculation, CAT or cPTIO suppressed ethylene production, and H2O2 or NO generation was not affected by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC, showing that ethylene may act as a downstream signal of H2O2 and NO pathway. Then, plantlets were treated with ethylene donor ACC, JA, SA, H2O2, NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP. Exogenous ACC could trigger JA and SA generation, whereas exogenous JA or SA did not affect ethylene production, and the induced sesquiterpenoids accumulation triggered by ACC was partly suppressed by IBU and PAC, showing that ethylene acted as an upstream signal of JA and SA pathway. Exogenous ACC did not affect H2O2 or NO generation, whereas exogenous H2O2 and SNP induced ethylene production, and the induced sesquiterpenoids

  3. Measurement of ethylene emission from Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) under field conditions in NOx-polluted areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, A.; Nakatani, N.; Tsuboi, N.; Nakane, K.; Sakurai, N.; Nakagawa, N.; Sakugawa, H.

    2001-01-01

    Emission of ethylene from the needles of Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, was measured in air-polluted areas in Hiroshima, Japan. We applied a suitable protocol to determine the rate of ethylene emission from the excised needles. The influence of excision of needles on ethylene emission was not detected during the first 4 h of incubation at 20degC. Ethylene emissions were low in the unpolluted (Clean) areas regardless of the altitude or season. The emission of stress ethylene increased with the atmospheric NO 2 concentration, suggesting that atmospheric NO x or related substances induced the higher ethylene emission in the polluted areas (near urban and industrial areas). In all cases, 1-year-old needles emitted significantly larger amounts of ethylene than the current needles. Ethylene emission did not increase evenly in the polluted areas, but the frequency of trees emitting high ethylene increased. Therefore, threshold rates for the baseline ethylene emission were proposed. (Author)

  4. Static magnetic field reduced exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by spermatozoa using magnetic nanoparticle gene delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katebi, Samira; Esmaeili, Abolghasem, E-mail: aesmaeili@sci.ui.ac.ir; Ghaedi, Kamran

    2016-03-15

    Spermatozoa could introduce exogenous oligonucleotides of interest to the oocyte. The most important reason of low efficiency of sperm mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is low uptake of exogenous DNA by spermatozoa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of static magnetic field on exogenous oligonucleotide uptake of spermatozoa using magnetofection method. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) associated with the labeled oligonucleotides were used to increase the efficiency of exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa. We used high-field/high-gradient magnet (NdFeB) to enhance and accelerate exogenous DNA sedimentation at the spermatozoa surface. Flow cytometry analysis was performed to measure viability and percentage of exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by sperm. Flow cytometry analysis showed a significant increase in exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa (P<0.001) when spermatozoa were incubated in exogenous oligonucleotide solution and MNPs. However, by applying static magnetic field during magnetofection method, a significant decrease in exogenous oligonucleotide uptake was observed (P<0.05). Findings of this study showed that MNPs were effective to increase exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa; however unlike others studies, static magnetic field, was not only ineffective to enhance exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa but also led to reduction in efficiency of magnetic nanoparticles in gene transfer. - Highlights: • Core/shell type Iron oxide nanoparticles were used as a novel and efficient method. • This method increases exogenous DNA uptake by rooster spermatozoa. • Static magnetic field decreased DNA uptake by rooster spermatozoa.

  5. Catalytic dehydration of ethanol to ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Ying; Jin, Zhaosheng; Shen, Wei [SINOPEC Shanghai Research Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2011-07-01

    The different routes of ethylene production were briefly introduced and the advantage of ethanol to ethylene (ETE) route was explained. Followed by that, the upgraded catalyst applied in this route developed by SINOPEC Shanghai Research Institute of Petrochemical Technology (SRIPT) was introduced together with the development of the ethanol to ethylene process. The core technologies involved in this process development were discussed, such as isothermal fixed-bed reactor, water scrubber and alkaline wash column, two columns of low-temperature separation as well as process heat integration. Furthermore, the performance of one of ethanol industrial plants licensed by SRIPT was reviewed. It is as follows, conversion of ethanol reaches 99% while selectivity of ethylene is over 96% at the reaction temperature of 350{approx}450 C, the liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV)of 0.5{approx}1.0 h{sup -1} and atmosphere pressure. Meanwhile, the catalyst shows its life time of one year. This route is considered not only as an economical and practical process but also as an environmentfriendly path to ethylene production. (orig.)

  6. Ethylene Oxide Gaseous Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Robert R.; Shull, James J.

    1962-01-01

    The duration of the equilibration period between admission of water vapor and subsequent introduction of gaseous ethylene oxide to an evacuated sterilizer chamber was studied with respect to its effect on the inactivation of spores of Bacillus subtilis var. niger under simulated practical conditions. Introduction of a water-adsorbing cotton barrier between the spores and an incoming gas mixture of water vapor and ethylene oxide caused a marked increase in the observed thermochemical death time of the spore populations. This effect was negated by admission of water vapor one or more minutes prior to introduction of ethylene oxide gas. Increases in temperature and relative humidity of the system promoted passage of water vapor through the cotton barriers and diminished their effect. PMID:13890660

  7. Nitric Oxide, Ethylene, and Auxin Cross Talk Mediates Greening and Plastid Development in Deetiolating Tomato Seedlings1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Nielda K.G.; Bianchetti, Ricardo E.; Oliveira, Paulo M.R.; Demarco, Diego

    2016-01-01

    The transition from etiolated to green seedlings involves the conversion of etioplasts into mature chloroplasts via a multifaceted, light-driven process comprising multiple, tightly coordinated signaling networks. Here, we demonstrate that light-induced greening and chloroplast differentiation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seedlings are mediated by an intricate cross talk among phytochromes, nitric oxide (NO), ethylene, and auxins. Genetic and pharmacological evidence indicated that either endogenously produced or exogenously applied NO promotes seedling greening by repressing ethylene biosynthesis and inducing auxin accumulation in tomato cotyledons. Analysis performed in hormonal tomato mutants also demonstrated that NO production itself is negatively and positively regulated by ethylene and auxins, respectively. Representing a major biosynthetic source of NO in tomato cotyledons, nitrate reductase was shown to be under strict control of both phytochrome and hormonal signals. A close NO-phytochrome interaction was revealed by the almost complete recovery of the etiolated phenotype of red light-grown seedlings of the tomato phytochrome-deficient aurea mutant upon NO fumigation. In this mutant, NO supplementation induced cotyledon greening, chloroplast differentiation, and hormonal and gene expression alterations similar to those detected in light-exposed wild-type seedlings. NO negatively impacted the transcript accumulation of genes encoding phytochromes, photomorphogenesis-repressor factors, and plastid division proteins, revealing that this free radical can mimic transcriptional changes typically triggered by phytochrome-dependent light perception. Therefore, our data indicate that negative and positive regulatory feedback loops orchestrate ethylene-NO and auxin-NO interactions, respectively, during the conversion of colorless etiolated seedlings into green, photosynthetically competent young plants. PMID:26829981

  8. Exogenously applied D-pinitol and D-chiro-inositol modifies the accumulation of α-D-galactosides in developing tiny vetch (Vicia hirsuta [L.] S.F. Gray seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesław B. Lahuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we have investigated the effect of exogenous cyclitols on the accumulation of their galactosides and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs, as well as on some enzymes important for their biosynthesis in seeds of tiny vetch (Vicia hirsuta [L.] S.F. Gray. Immature seeds during 6-day incubation with D-chiro-inositol (naturally does not appear in seeds of tiny vetch were accumulated cyclitol and its galactosides (fagopyritols: B1 and B2. Short 4-hour incubation with D-chiro-inositol, and subsequent slow desiccation process caused accumulation of free cyclitol only, without biosynthesis of its galactosides. Feeding D-chiro-inositol to pods of tiny vetch induced accumulation of high levels of its galactosides (fagopyritol B1, B2 and B3 in maturing seeds. Similarly, feeding D-pinitol increased accumulation of its mono-, di- and tri-galactosides: GPA, GPB, DGPA and TGPA in tiny vetch seed. Accumulation of both cyclitols and their galactosides drastically reduced accumulation of verbascose. Inhibition of RFOs biosynthesis by elevated levels of free cyclitols suggests some competition between formation of both types of galactosides and similarity of both biosynthetic routes in tiny vetch seeds. Galactinol synthase (GolS from tiny vetch seeds demonstrated ability to utilize D-chiro-inositol as galactosyl acceptor, instead of myo-inositol. Presence of both cyclitols, as substrates for GolS, caused synthesis of their galactosides: fagopyritol B1 and galactinol. However, formation of galactinol was more efficient than fagopyritol B1. D-chiro-Inositol and D-pinitol at concentrations several-fold higher than myo-inositol had inhibitory effect on GolS. Thus, we suggest that a level of free cyclitols can have an influence on the rate of galactinol biosynthesis and further accumulation of RFOs and galactosyl cyclitols in tiny vetch seeds.

  9. Ethylene-induced stabilization of ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 and EIN3-LIKE1 is mediated by proteasomal degradation of EIN3 binding F-box 1 and 2 that requires EIN2 in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Fengying; Zhao, Qiong; Ji, Yusi; Li, Wenyang; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Yu, Xiangchun; Zhang, Chen; Han, Ying; He, Wenrong; Liu, Yidong; Zhang, Shuqun; Ecker, Joseph R; Guo, Hongwei

    2010-07-01

    Plant responses to ethylene are mediated by regulation of EBF1/2-dependent degradation of the ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) transcription factor. Here, we report that the level of EIL1 protein is upregulated by ethylene through an EBF1/2-dependent pathway. Genetic analysis revealed that EIL1 and EIN3 cooperatively but differentially regulate a wide array of ethylene responses, with EIL1 mainly inhibiting leaf expansion and stem elongation in adult plants and EIN3 largely regulating a multitude of ethylene responses in seedlings. When EBF1 and EBF2 are disrupted, EIL1 and EIN3 constitutively accumulate in the nucleus and remain unresponsive to exogenous ethylene application. Further study revealed that the levels of EBF1 and EBF2 proteins are downregulated by ethylene and upregulated by silver ion and MG132, suggesting that ethylene stabilizes EIN3/EIL1 by promoting EBF1 and EBF2 proteasomal degradation. Also, we found that EIN2 is indispensable for mediating ethylene-induced EIN3/EIL1 accumulation and EBF1/2 degradation, whereas MKK9 is not required for ethylene signal transduction, contrary to a previous report. Together, our studies demonstrate that ethylene similarly regulates EIN3 and EIL1, the two master transcription factors coordinating myriad ethylene responses, and clarify that EIN2 but not MKK9 is required for ethylene-induced EIN3/EIL1 stabilization. Our results also reveal that EBF1 and EBF2 act as essential ethylene signal transducers that by themselves are subject to proteasomal degradation.

  10. Involvement of the ethylene response pathway in dormancy induction in chrysanthemum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumitomo, Katsuhiko; Satoh, Shigeru; Hisamatsu, Tamotsu

    2008-01-01

    Temperature plays a significant role in the annual cycling between growth and dormancy of the herbaceous perennial chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.). After exposure to high summer temperatures, cool temperature triggers dormancy. The cessation of flowering and rosette formation by the cessation of elongation are characteristic of dormant plants, and can be stimulated by exogenous ethylene. Thus, the ethylene response pathway may be involved in temperature-induced dormancy of chrysanthemum. Transgenic chrysanthemums expressing a mutated ethylene receptor gene were used to assess this involvement. The transgenic lines showed reduced ethylene sensitivity: ethylene causes leaf yellowing in wild-type chrysanthemums, but leaves remained green in the transgenic lines. Extension growth and flowering of wild-type and transgenic lines varied between temperatures: at 20 °C, the transgenic lines showed the same stem elongation and flowering as the wild type; at cooler temperatures, the wild type formed rosettes with an inability to flower and entered dormancy, but some transgenic lines continued to elongate and flower. This supports the involvement of the ethylene response pathway in the temperature-induced dormancy of chrysanthemum. At the highest dosage of ethephon, an ethylene-releasing agent, wild-type plants formed rosettes with an inability to flower and became dormant, but one transgenic line did not. This confirms that dormancy is induced via the ethylene response pathway. PMID:18952907

  11. Ethylene potentiates sulfur-mediated reversal of cadmium inhibited photosynthetic responses in mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafees A Khan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential of exogenous ethylene and sulfur (S in reversal of cadmium (Cd-inhibited photosynthetic and growth responses in mustard (Brassica juncea L. cv. Pusa Jai Kisan were studied. Plants grown with 50 µM Cd showed increased superoxide and H2O2 accumulation and lipid peroxidation together with increased activity of 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid synthase (ACS and ethylene production and inhibition of photosynthesis and growth. Application of 1 mM SO42− or 200 µL L−1 ethephon (ethylene source influenced photosynthetic and growth performance equally in presence or absence of Cd. However, their combined application synergistically improved photosynthetic performance more in presence of Cd and reduced oxidative stress (lower superoxide and H2O2 accumulation by decreasing ethylene and glucose sensitivity with the increase in cysteine and methionineand a non-proteinogenic thiol (reduced glutathione; GSH contents. The central role of ethylene in potentiating S-mediated reversal of Cd-induced oxidative stress was evident with the use ethylene action inhibitor, norbornadiene (NBD. The application of NBD resulted in decreased thiol production and photosynthetic responses. This suggests that ethylene promotes the effects of S in reversal of adverse effects of Cd, and thus, ethylene modulation may be considered as potential tool to substantiate the S effects in reversal of Cd inhibited photosynthesis and growth in mustard.

  12. Comprehensive Proteomics Analysis of Laticifer Latex Reveals New Insights into Ethylene Stimulation of Natural Rubber Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuchu; Wang, Dan; Sun, Yong; Yang, Qian; Chang, Lili; Wang, Limin; Meng, Xueru; Huang, Qixing; Jin, Xiang; Tong, Zheng

    2015-09-08

    Ethylene is a stimulant to increase natural rubber latex. After ethylene application, both fresh yield and dry matter of latex are substantially improved. Moreover, we found that ethylene improves the generation of small rubber particles. However, most genes involved in rubber biosynthesis are inhibited by exogenous ethylene. Therefore, we conducted a proteomics analysis of ethylene-stimulated rubber latex, and identified 287 abundant proteins as well as 143 ethylene responsive latex proteins (ERLPs) with mass spectrometry from the 2-DE and DIGE gels, respectively. In addition, more than 1,600 proteins, including 404 ERLPs, were identified by iTRAQ. Functional classification of ERLPs revealed that enzymes involved in post-translational modification, carbohydrate metabolism, hydrolase activity, and kinase activity were overrepresented. Some enzymes for rubber particle aggregation were inhibited to prolong latex flow, and thus finally improved latex production. Phosphoproteomics analysis identified 59 differential phosphoproteins; notably, specific isoforms of rubber elongation factor and small rubber particle protein that were phosphorylated mainly at serine residues. This post-translational modification and isoform-specific phosphorylation might be important for ethylene-stimulated latex production. These results not only deepen our understanding of the rubber latex proteome but also provide new insights into the use of ethylene to stimulate rubber latex production.

  13. Parkinsonism secondary to ethylene oxide exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egberto R. Barbosa

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene oxide is a gas widely used in the production of industrial chemicals. It is also used to sterilize heat-sensitive medical supplies. Previous reports of acute and chronic exposure have described neurotoxic effects like peripheral neuropathy and cognitive impairment. We describe a pure parkinsonian syndrome following acute ethylene oxide intoxication. A 39-years-old male was referred to our Movement Disorders Clinic tor evaluation of a parkinsonian syndrome. He was acutely exposed to ethylene oxide four years before and remained comatose for three days, and gradually regained consciousness.. At that time he showed a global parkinsonian syndrome including bradykinesia, rigidity and rest tremor, with a severe motor disability; no other neurological disorders were found. The symptomatology was partially controlled with biperidene and levodopa plus carbidopa. Two years later he developed L-dopa induced dyskinesias. Four years after the intoxication he was evaluated at our clinic. General examination showed no abnormalities. Neurologic examination revealed a normal menta1 status. Motor evaluation disclosed moderate bradykinesia, rigidity and rest tremor, shuffling gait, poor facial mimic, stooped posture, and his speech was low and monotonous; deep tendon reflexes were brisk. The Hoehn-Yahr disability score was degree IV. Routine laboratory and radiological exams showed results within normal limits. The CSF examination was normal. Brain computed tomography and magnetic ressonance were normal. A trial with bromocriptine and levodopa plus carbidopa did not improve dyskinesia, and he was put on a schedule including amantadine and biperidene with improvement to grade III in Hoehn-Yahr scale. In the present case there was a clear relation between the acute exogenous intoxication and irreversible parkinsonism. No other causes for the condition were identified.

  14. Treatment of plants with gaseous ethylene and gaseous inhibitors of ethylene action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethylene is an interesting plant hormone to work with. It’s a gas! Literally. And this affects not only its role in plant biology but also how you treat plants with the hormone. In many ways, it simplifies the treatment problem. Other hormones have to be made up in solution and applied to some ...

  15. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethylene glycol poisoning. A 22-year-old male presented to the emergency centre after drinking 300 ml of antifreeze. Clinical examination was unremarkable except for a respiratory rate of 28 bpm, GCS of 9 and slight nystagmus. Arterial blood gas revealed: pH 7.167, pCO2. 3.01 kPa, pO2 13.0 kPa (on room air), HCO3-.

  16. Exogenic and endogenic Europa minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard-Casely, H. E.; Brand, H. E. A.; Wilson, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) identified a significant `non-ice' component upon the surface of Jupiter's moon Europa. Current explanations invoke both endogenic and exogenic origins for this material. It has long been suggested that magnesium and sodium sulfate minerals could have leached from the rock below a putative ocean (endogenic) 1 and that sulfuric acid hydrate minerals could have been radiologically produced from ionised sulfur originally from Io's volcanoes (exogenic) 2. However, a more recent theory proposes that the `non-ice' component could be radiation damaged NaCl leached from Europa's speculative ocean 3. What if the minerals are actually from combination of both endogenic and exogenic sources? To investigate this possibility we have focused on discovering new minerals that might form in the combination of the latter two cases, that is a mixture of leached sulfates hydrates with radiologically produced sulfuric acid. To this end we have explored a number of solutions in the MgSO4-H2SO4-H2O and Na2SO4-H2SO4-H2O systems, between 80 and 280 K with synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction. We report a number of new materials formed in this these ternary systems. This suggests that it should be considered that the `non-ice' component of the Europa's surface could be a material derived from endogenic and exogenic components. 1 Kargel, J. S. Brine volcanism and the interior structures of asteroids and icy satellites. Icarus 94, 368-390 (1991). 2 Carlson, R. W., Anderson, M. S., Mehlman, R. & Johnson, R. E. Distribution of hydrate on Europa: Further evidence for sulfuric acid hydrate. Icarus 177, 461-471, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2005.03.026 (2005). 3 Hand, K. P. & Carlson, R. W. Europa's surface color suggests an ocean rich with sodium chloride. Geophysical Research Letters, 2015GL063559, doi:10.1002/2015gl063559 (2015).

  17. Effect of exogenous application of salicylic acid on proline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, during the exogenously applied SA to salt stress, proline metabolism was significantly altered and the extent of alteration varied between the SA and salt stress, leading to the maintenance of the turgor by accumulating higher levels of free proline accumulation in C. recutita, supporting its protection from salt ...

  18. Static magnetic field reduced exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by spermatozoa using magnetic nanoparticle gene delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katebi, Samira; Esmaeili, Abolghasem; Ghaedi, Kamran

    2016-03-01

    Spermatozoa could introduce exogenous oligonucleotides of interest to the oocyte. The most important reason of low efficiency of sperm mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is low uptake of exogenous DNA by spermatozoa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of static magnetic field on exogenous oligonucleotide uptake of spermatozoa using magnetofection method. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) associated with the labeled oligonucleotides were used to increase the efficiency of exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa. We used high-field/high-gradient magnet (NdFeB) to enhance and accelerate exogenous DNA sedimentation at the spermatozoa surface. Flow cytometry analysis was performed to measure viability and percentage of exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by sperm. Flow cytometry analysis showed a significant increase in exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa (Pspermatozoa were incubated in exogenous oligonucleotide solution and MNPs. However, by applying static magnetic field during magnetofection method, a significant decrease in exogenous oligonucleotide uptake was observed (Pspermatozoa; however unlike others studies, static magnetic field, was not only ineffective to enhance exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa but also led to reduction in efficiency of magnetic nanoparticles in gene transfer.

  19. Ethylene and carbon dioxide exchange in leaves and whole plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodrow, L.

    1989-01-01

    This investigation addresses the interactions between CO{sub 2}, ethylene, and photosynthetic carbon metabolism in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. and Xanthium strumarium L. Rates of ethylene release were examined at alternate leaf positions on vegetative tomato plants. The rates of endogenous and ACC-stimulated ethylene release per unit leaf area were highest in the young, rapidly expanding leaves. When plants were grown under CO{sub 2} enrichment rates of ethylene release from the leaf tissue were consistently higher than from tissue grown at ambient levels. Elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations during short-term incubations further enhanced the rates of ethylene release. Ethylene release from ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) applied to intact tomato plants provided a model system in which to study the effects of ethylene on photosynthetic metabolism and carbon partitioning. The ethephon treated plants exhibited leaf epinasty, flower bud abscission, inhibition of leaf expansion, adventitious root development, and reduction of dry matter accumulation and growth over time. Rates of steady state photosynthesis, respiration, photorespiration, transpiration, and partitioning of recently fixed {sup 14}C into neutral, acidic, basic, and insoluble leaf fractions were unaltered 24 h after ethephon application.

  20. Ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene differentially regulate gene expression during onion sprout suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, Katherine; Chope, Gemma A; Hammond, John P; Thompson, Andrew J; Terry, Leon A

    2011-07-01

    Onion (Allium cepa) is regarded as a nonclimacteric vegetable. In onions, however, ethylene can suppress sprouting while the ethylene-binding inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) can also suppress sprout growth; yet, it is unknown how ethylene and 1-MCP elicit the same response. In this study, onions were treated with 10 μL L(-1) ethylene or 1 μL L(-1) 1-MCP individually or in combination for 24 h at 20°C before or after curing (6 weeks) at 20°C or 28°C and then stored at 1°C. Following curing, a subset of these same onions was stored separately under continuous air or ethylene (10 μL L(-1)) at 1°C. Onions treated with ethylene and 1-MCP in combination after curing for 24 h had reduced sprout growth as compared with the control 25 weeks after harvest. Sprout growth following storage beyond 25 weeks was only reduced through continuous ethylene treatment. This observation was supported by a higher proportion of down-regulated genes characterized as being involved in photosynthesis, measured using a newly developed onion microarray. Physiological and biochemical data suggested that ethylene was being perceived in the presence of 1-MCP, since sprout growth was reduced in onions treated with 1-MCP and ethylene applied in combination but not when applied individually. A cluster of probes representing transcripts up-regulated by 1-MCP alone but down-regulated by ethylene alone or in the presence of 1-MCP support this suggestion. Ethylene and 1-MCP both down-regulated a probe tentatively annotated as an ethylene receptor as well as ethylene-insensitive 3, suggesting that both treatments down-regulate the perception and signaling events of ethylene.

  1. Ethylene and 1-Methylcyclopropene Differentially Regulate Gene Expression during Onion Sprout Suppression1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, Katherine; Chope, Gemma A.; Hammond, John P.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Terry, Leon A.

    2011-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa) is regarded as a nonclimacteric vegetable. In onions, however, ethylene can suppress sprouting while the ethylene-binding inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) can also suppress sprout growth; yet, it is unknown how ethylene and 1-MCP elicit the same response. In this study, onions were treated with 10 μL L−1 ethylene or 1 μL L−1 1-MCP individually or in combination for 24 h at 20°C before or after curing (6 weeks) at 20°C or 28°C and then stored at 1°C. Following curing, a subset of these same onions was stored separately under continuous air or ethylene (10 μL L−1) at 1°C. Onions treated with ethylene and 1-MCP in combination after curing for 24 h had reduced sprout growth as compared with the control 25 weeks after harvest. Sprout growth following storage beyond 25 weeks was only reduced through continuous ethylene treatment. This observation was supported by a higher proportion of down-regulated genes characterized as being involved in photosynthesis, measured using a newly developed onion microarray. Physiological and biochemical data suggested that ethylene was being perceived in the presence of 1-MCP, since sprout growth was reduced in onions treated with 1-MCP and ethylene applied in combination but not when applied individually. A cluster of probes representing transcripts up-regulated by 1-MCP alone but down-regulated by ethylene alone or in the presence of 1-MCP support this suggestion. Ethylene and 1-MCP both down-regulated a probe tentatively annotated as an ethylene receptor as well as ethylene-insensitive 3, suggesting that both treatments down-regulate the perception and signaling events of ethylene. PMID:21593215

  2. Requirement for ethylene synthesis and action during relief of thermoinhibition of lettuce seed germination by combinations of gibberellic acid, kinetin, and carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, H.S.; Consolacion, E.D.; Bassi, P.K.; Spencer, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    Application of exogenous ethylene in combination with gibberellic acid (GA 3 ), kinetin (KIN), and/or CO 2 has been reported to induce germination of lettuce seeds at supraoptimal temperatures. However, it is not clear whether endogenous ethylene also plays a mediatory role when germination under these conditions is induced by treatment regimes that do not include ethylene. Therefore, possible involvement of endogenous ethylene during the relief of thermoinhibition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv Grand Rapids) seed germination at 32°C was investigated. Combinations of GA 3 (0.5 millimolar), KIN (0.05 millimolar), and CO 2 (10%) were used to induce germination. Little germination occurred in controls or upon treatment with ethylene, KIN, or CO 2 . Neither KIN nor CO 2 affected the rate of ethylene production by seeds. Both germination and ethylene production were slightly promoted by GA 3 . Treatments with GA 3 + CO 2 , GA 3 + KIN, or GA 3 + CO 2 + KIN resulted in approximately 10- to 40-fold increases in ethylene production and 50 to 100% promotion of germination as compared to controls. Initial ethylene evolution from the treated seeds was greater than from the controls and a major surge in ethylene evolution occurred at the time of visible germination. Application of 1 millimolar 2-aminoethoxyvinyl glycine (AVG), an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis, in combination with any of above three treatments inhibited the ethylene production to below control levels. This was accompanied by a marked decline in germination percentage. Germination was also inhibited by 2,5-norbornadiene (0.25-2 milliliters per liter), a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. Application of exogenous ethylene (1-100 microliters per liter) overcame the inhibitory effects of AVG and 2,5-norbornadiene on germination. The results demonstrate that endogenous ethylene synthesis and action are essential for the alleviation of thermoinhibition of lettuce seeds by combinations of GA 3 , KIN, and CO

  3. Release of sunflower seed dormancy by cyanide: cross-talk with ethylene signalling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oracz, Krystyna; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Bogatek, Renata; Bailly, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    Freshly harvested sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds are considered to be dormant because they fail to germinate at relatively low temperatures (10 °C). This dormancy results mainly from an embryo dormancy and disappears during dry storage. Although endogenous ethylene is known to be involved in sunflower seed alleviation of dormancy, little attention had been paid to the possible role of cyanide, which is produced by the conversion of 1-aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylic acid to ethylene, in this process. The aims of this work were to investigate whether exogenous cyanide could improve the germination of dormant sunflower seeds and to elucidate its putative mechanisms of action. Naked dormant seeds became able to germinate at 10 °C when they were incubated in the presence of 1 mM gaseous cyanide. Other respiratory inhibitors showed that this effect did not result from an activation of the pentose phosphate pathway or the cyanide-insensitive pathway. Cyanide stimulated germination of dormant seeds in the presence of inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis, but its improving effect required functional ethylene receptors. It did not significantly affect ethylene production and the expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis or in the first steps of ethylene signalling pathway. However, the expression of the transcription factor Ethylene Response Factor 1 (ERF1) was markedly stimulated in the presence of gaseous cyanide. It is proposed that the mode of action of cyanide in sunflower seed dormancy alleviation does not involve ethylene production and that ERF1 is a common component of the ethylene and cyanide signalling pathways. PMID:18448476

  4. Ethylene reduces gas exchange and growth of lettuce plants under hypobaric and normal atmospheric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chuanjiu; Davies, Fred T; Lacey, Ronald E

    2009-03-01

    Elevated levels of ethylene occur in controlled environment agriculture and in spaceflight environments, leading to adverse plant growth and sterility. The objectives of this research were to characterize the influence of ethylene on carbon dioxide (CO(2)) assimilation (C(A)), dark period respiration (DPR) and growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Buttercrunch) under ambient and low total pressure conditions. Lettuce plants were grown under variable total gas pressures of 25 kPa (hypobaric) and 101 kPa (ambient) pressure. Endogenously produced ethylene accumulated and reduced C(A), DPR and plant growth of ambient and hypobaric plants. There was a negative linear correlation between increasing ethylene concentrations [from 0 to around 1000 nmol mol(-1) (ppb)] on C(A), DPR and growth of ambient and hypobaric plants. Declines in C(A) and DPR occurred with both exogenous and endogenous ethylene treatments. C(A) was more sensitive to increasing ethylene concentration than DPR. There was a direct, negative effect of increasing ethylene concentration reducing gas exchange as well as an indirect ethylene effect on leaf epinasty, which reduced light capture and C(A). While the C(A) was comparable, there was a lower DPR in hypobaric than ambient pressure plants - independent of ethylene and under non-limiting CO(2) levels (100 Pa pCO(2), nearly three-fold that in normal air). This research shows that lettuce can be grown under hypobaria ( congruent with25% of normal earth ambient total pressure); however, hypobaria caused no significant reduction of endogenous ethylene production.

  5. Effects of aminoisobutyric acid on 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid uptake, ethylene production and content of ACC in water-stressed tomato plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalantari, Kh.M.; Bolourani, P.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of water stress on the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis has not yet clearly been established. Both the formation and utilization of aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, ACC, are considered to be major regulatory points in ethylene biosynthesis. There is evidence that ACC synthase is the key control enzyme in response to various stimuli associated with the induction of ethylene biosynthesis. It has been reported that aminoisobutyric acid, AIB, inhibits ethylene production in some plants and AIB may inhibit the conversion of ACC to ethylene. For this reason, the possibility of inhibition of ACC uptake in the presence of AIB was examined. It was observed that the rate of 14 C-ACC uptake decreased with an increase in the concentration of AIB in the solution. Calculating the percentage of ACC converted to ethylene on the basis of uptake shows that AIB inhibits the conversion of 14 C-ACC to ethylene and that this inhibition is increased with an increase in the concentration of AIB in the solution. This suggests that a portion of the inhibition of the conversion of ACC to ethylene in the presence of AIB is partly due to the competition for absorption. However, the ability of AIB to inhibit ethylene production in leaf tissue without an exogenous supply of ACC clearly indicates that AIB inhibits ethylene production. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in water-stressed plants and the results are discussed

  6. Effects of ethylene on the kinetics of curvature and auxin redistribution in gravistimulated roots of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. S.; Evans, M. L.

    1990-01-01

    We tested the involvement of ethylene in maize (Zea mays L.) root gravitropism by measuring the kinetics of curvature and lateral auxin movement in roots treated with ethylene, inhibitors of ethylene synthesis, or inhibitors of ethylene action. In the presence of ethylene the latent period of gravitropic curvature appeared to be increased somewhat. However, ethylene-treated roots continued to curve after control roots had reached their final angle of curvature. Consequently, maximum curvature in the presence of ethylene was much greater in ethylene-treated roots than in controls. Inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis or action had effects on the kinetics of curvature opposite to that of ethylene, i.e. the latent period appeared to be shortened somewhat while total curvature was reduced relative to that of controls. Label from applied 3H-indole-3-acetic acid was preferentially transported toward the lower side of stimulated roots. In parallel with effects on curvature, ethylene treatment delayed the development of gravity-induced asymmetric auxin movement across the root but extended its duration once initiated. The auxin transport inhibitor, 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid reduced both gravitropic curvature and the effect of ethylene on curvature. Since neither ethylene nor inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis or action prevented curvature, we conclude that ethylene does not mediate the primary differential growth response causing curvature. Because ethylene affects curvature and auxin transport in parallel, we suggest that ethylene modifies curvature by affecting gravity-induced lateral transport of auxin, perhaps by interfering with adaptation of the auxin transport system to the gravistimulus.

  7. Melatonin Enhances Phenolics Accumulation Partially via Ethylene Signaling and Resulted in High Antioxidant Capacity in Grape Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Xu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the primary impacts of exogenous melatonin (MT treatment on grape berry metabolism. Exogenous MT treatment increased the endogenous MT content and modified berry ripening. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the processes of polyphenol metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and ethylene biosynthesis and signaling were the three most significantly altered biological processes upon MT treatment. Further experiments verified that MT treatment increased the contents of total anthocyanins, phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins in berries. Additionally, the contents of 18 of the 22 detected individual phenolic compounds were enhanced by MT treatment; particularly, the resveratrol content was largely increased concomitantly with the up-regulation of STS gene expression. Meanwhile, MT treatment enhanced the antioxidant capacity of berries. On the other hand, it was indicated that ethylene participated in the regulation of polyphenol metabolism and antioxidant capacity under MT treatment in grape berries. In summary, MT enhances the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of grape berries partially via ethylene signaling.

  8. Monofunctional hyperbranched ethylene oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Thomas; Voit, Gregor; Tchernook, Alexandra; Roesle, Philipp; Göttker-Schnetmann, Inigo; Mecking, Stefan

    2014-02-05

    The neutral κ(2)N,O-salicylaldiminato Ni(II) complexes [κ(2)N,O-{(2,6-(3',5'-R2C6H3)2C6H3-N═C(H)-(3,5-I2-2-O-C6H2)}]NiCH3(pyridine)] (1a-pyr, R = Me; 1b-pyr, R = Et; 1c-pyr, R = iPr) convert ethylene to hyperbranched low-molecular-weight oligomers (Mn ca. 1000 g mol(-1)) with high productivities. While all three catalysts are capable of generating hyperbranched structures, branching densities decrease significantly with the nature of the remote substituent along Me > Et > iPr and oligomer molecular weights increase. Consequently, only 1a-pyr forms hyperbranched structures over a wide range of reaction conditions (ethylene pressure 5-30 atm and 20-70 °C). An in situ catalyst system achieves similar activities and identical highly branched oligomer microstructures, eliminating the bottleneck given by the preparation and isolation of Ni-Me catalyst precursor species. Selective introduction of one primary carboxylic acid ester functional group per highly branched oligoethylene molecule was achieved by isomerizing ethoxycarbonylation and alternatively cross metathesis with ethyl acrylate followed by hydrogenation. The latter approach results in complete functionalization and no essential loss of branched oligomer material and molecular weight, as the reacting double bonds are close to a chain end. Reduction yielded a monoalcohol-functionalized oligomer. Introduction of one reactive epoxide group per branched oligomer occurs completely and selectively under mild conditions. All reaction steps involved in oligomerization and monofunctionalization are efficient and readily scalable.

  9. Ethylene and nitric oxide are involved in maintaining ion homeostasis in Arabidopsis callus under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huahua; Liang, Xiaolei; Wan, Qi; Wang, Xiaomin; Bi, Yurong

    2009-07-01

    In the present study, the role of ethylene in nitric oxide (NO)-mediated protection by modulating ion homeostasis in Arabidopsis callus under salt stress was investigated. Results showed that the ethylene-insensitive mutant etr1-3 was more sensitive to salt stress than the wild type (WT). Under 100 mM NaCl, etr1-3 callus displayed a greater electrolyte leakage and Na(+)/K(+) ratio but a lower plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase activity compared to WT callus. Application of exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC, an ethylene precursor) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a NO donor) alleviated NaCl-induced injury by maintaining a lower Na(+)/K(+) ratio and an increased PM H(+)-ATPase activity in WT callus but not in etr1-3 callus. The SNP actions in NaCl stress were attenuated by a specific NO scavenger or an ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor in WT callus. Under 100 mM NaCl, the NO accumulation and ethylene emission appeared at early time, and NO production greatly stimulated ethylene emission in WT callus. In addition, ethylene induced the expression of PM H(+)-ATPase genes under salt stress. The recovery experiment showed that NaCl-induced injury was reversible, as signaled by the similar recovery of Na(+)/K(+) ratio and PM H(+)-ATPase activity in WT callus. Taken together, the results indicate that ethylene and NO cooperate in stimulating PM H(+)-ATPase activity to modulate ion homeostasis for salt tolerance, and ethylene may be a part of the downstream signal molecular in NO action.

  10. Thap Maeo bananas: Fast ripening and full ethylene perception at low doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Lorenzo A; Castelan, Florence P; Gomes, Bruna L; Purgatto, Eduardo; Cordenunsi-Lysenko, Beatriz R

    2018-03-01

    Brazil is a major producer and consumer of various banana types. Thap Maeo is a promising cultivar for the market due to its resistance to Black and Yellow Sigatoka disease. However, a lack of information and postharvest technologies concerning Thap Maeo physiology seems to be a significant problem limiting its expansion in the market. Thus, this study aims to establish Thap Maeo fruit's physical, biochemical, and physiological aspects, defining the best ethylene dosage for treatment considering fruit ripening parameters. Bananas were harvested and monitored during both natural and ethylene-induced ripening processes. Assessments of pulp firmness, peel color and endogenous ethylene production showed different profiles between ethylene-treated and non-treated fruits, whereas the ethylene responses concerning the carbohydrates and hormones profiles, as well as the ethylene receptors expression, were observed in all ethylene-treated fruits, even applying low concentrations of the hormone. It thus indicated the high ethylene-sensitivity of Thap Maeo cultivar. Such postharvest behaviors reverberate in lower ethylene requirements for treatment, which was established at 10μLL -1 . Ethylene-inducible changes in fruit volatile compounds throughout ripening are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of Network Topologies Underlying Ethylene Growth Response Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Aaron M; McCollough, Forest W; Eldreth, Bryan L; Binder, Brad M; Abel, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Most models for ethylene signaling involve a linear pathway. However, measurements of seedling growth kinetics when ethylene is applied and removed have resulted in more complex network models that include coherent feedforward, negative feedback, and positive feedback motifs. The dynamical responses of the proposed networks have not been explored in a quantitative manner. Here, we explore (i) whether any of the proposed models are capable of producing growth-response behaviors consistent with experimental observations and (ii) what mechanistic roles various parts of the network topologies play in ethylene signaling. To address this, we used computational methods to explore two general network topologies: The first contains a coherent feedforward loop that inhibits growth and a negative feedback from growth onto itself (CFF/NFB). In the second, ethylene promotes the cleavage of EIN2, with the product of the cleavage inhibiting growth and promoting the production of EIN2 through a positive feedback loop (PFB). Since few network parameters for ethylene signaling are known in detail, we used an evolutionary algorithm to explore sets of parameters that produce behaviors similar to experimental growth response kinetics of both wildtype and mutant seedlings. We generated a library of parameter sets by independently running the evolutionary algorithm many times. Both network topologies produce behavior consistent with experimental observations, and analysis of the parameter sets allows us to identify important network interactions and parameter constraints. We additionally screened these parameter sets for growth recovery in the presence of sub-saturating ethylene doses, which is an experimentally-observed property that emerges in some of the evolved parameter sets. Finally, we probed simplified networks maintaining key features of the CFF/NFB and PFB topologies. From this, we verified observations drawn from the larger networks about mechanisms underlying ethylene

  12. Analysis of Network Topologies Underlying Ethylene Growth Response Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron M. Prescott

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most models for ethylene signaling involve a linear pathway. However, measurements of seedling growth kinetics when ethylene is applied and removed have resulted in more complex network models that include coherent feedforward, negative feedback, and positive feedback motifs. However, the dynamical responses of the proposed networks have not been explored in a quantitative manner. Here, we explore (i whether any of the proposed models are capable of producing growth-response behaviors consistent with experimental observations and (ii what mechanistic roles various parts of the network topologies play in ethylene signaling. To address this, we used computational methods to explore two general network topologies: The first contains a coherent feedforward loop that inhibits growth and a negative feedback from growth onto itself (CFF/NFB. In the second, ethylene promotes the cleavage of EIN2, with the product of the cleavage inhibiting growth and promoting the production of EIN2 through a positive feedback loop (PFB. Since few network parameters for ethylene signaling are known in detail, we used an evolutionary algorithm to explore sets of parameters that produce behaviors similar to experimental growth response kinetics of both wildtype and mutant seedlings. We generated a library of parameter sets by independently running the evolutionary algorithm many times. Both network topologies produce behavior consistent with experimental observations and analysis of the parameter sets allows us to identify important network interactions and parameter constraints. We additionally screened these parameter sets for growth recovery in the presence of sub-saturating ethylene doses, which is an experimentally-observed property that emerges in some of the evolved parameter sets. Finally, we probed simplified networks maintaining key features of the CFF/NFB and PFB topologies. From this, we verified observations drawn from the larger networks about mechanisms

  13. 46 CFR 154.1725 - Ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethylene oxide. 154.1725 Section 154.1725 Shipping COAST....1725 Ethylene oxide. (a) A vessel carrying ethylene oxide must: (1) Have cargo piping, vent piping, and... space of an ethylene oxide cargo tank for a period of 30 days under the condition of paragraph (e) of...

  14. Dataset on exogenous application of salicylic acid and methyljasmonate and the accumulation of caffeine in young leaf tissues and catabolically inactive endosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Kumar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous exposure of coffee plants to 50 μM and 500 μM salicylic acid through liquid hydroponic medium or the exposure to volatile fumes of methyljasmonate was carried out to study the role of salicylic acid and methyljasmonate on the accumulation of caffeine and other methylxanthines like 7-methylxanthine, theobromine and theophylline. Transcript levels of the first, second and third N-methyltransferase involved in the core caffeine biosynthetic pathway namely, xanthosine methyltransferase (XMT, methylxanthine methyltransferase (MXMT and di-methylxanthine methyltransferase (DXMT was investigated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR for validating the reason behind the changes of caffeine biosynthetic potential under the influence of the two analogues of plant phytohormones. Maturing coffee fruits are known to be biologically inactive with respect to caffeine biosynthetic activity in the endosperms. To understand this, fruits were treated with different doses of salicylic acid in a time-course manner and the de-repression of tissue maturation-mediated knockdown of caffeine biosynthesis by exogenously applied salicylic acid was achieved. In our companion paper [1] it was shown that the repression of NMT genes during the dry weight accumulation phase of maturing endosperm could be relaxed by the exogenous application of salicylic acid and methyljasmonate. A probable model based on the work carried out therein and based on other literature [2–4] was proposed to describe that the crosstalk between salicylic acid or methyljasmonate and the ABA/ethylene pathway and might involve transcription factors downstream to the signaling cascade.

  15. Exogenous melatonin administration is beneficial for male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A concern in the use of exogenous melatonin as a therapeutic intervention is that it may interfere with reproductive function. Herein, we report that chronic exogenous melatonin administration does not impair male reproductive function during ageing and at old age in male Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: ...

  16. Exogenous melatonin administration is beneficial for male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Background: A concern in the use of exogenous melatonin as a therapeutic intervention is that it may interfere with reproductive function. Herein, we report that chronic exogenous melatonin administration does not impair male reproductive function during ageing and at old age in male Sprague Dawley rats.

  17. Computational analysis for biodegradation of exogenously depolymerizable polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, M.; Kawai, F.

    2018-03-01

    This study shows that microbial growth and decay in a biodegradation process of exogenously depolymerizable polymer are controlled by consumption of monomer units. Experimental outcomes for residual polymer were incorporated in inverse analysis for a degradation rate. The Gauss-Newton method was applied to an inverse problem for two parameter values associated with the microbial population. A biodegradation process of polyethylene glycol was analyzed numerically, and numerical outcomes were obtained.

  18. Ethylene promotes germination of Arabidopsis seed under salinity by decreasing reactive oxygen species: evidence for the involvement of nitric oxide simulated by sodium nitroprusside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yingchao; Yang, Lei; Paul, Matthew; Zu, Yuangang; Tang, Zhonghua

    2013-12-01

    Both ethylene and nitric oxide (NO) are involved in modulating seed germination in adverse environments. However, the mechanisms by which they interact and affect germination have not been explained. In this study, the relationship between ethylene and NO during germination of Arabidopsis seed under salinity was analysed. Application of exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC, a precursor of ethylene biosynthesis) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an NO donor) largely overcame the inhibition of germination induced by salinity. The effects of ACC and SNP were decreased by 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO), a specific NO scavenger, or by aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis, indicating that ethylene and NO interact during germination under salinity. Further, we demonstrated that ACC increased NO production and that SNP greatly induced the expression of the ACS2 gene involved in ethylene synthesis in Arabidopsis seeds germinating under salinity stress, suggesting that each substance influences the production of the other. Application of exogenous ACC increased germination under oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) while SNP had a much smaller effect on wild-type Arabidopsis (Col-0) and no effect on the ethylene insensitive mutant (ein3-1) seeds, respectively. This shows that NO increased germination under salinity indirectly through H2O2 acting via the ethylene pathway. The endogenous concentration of H2O2 was increased by salinity in germinating seeds but was decreased by exogenous ACC, which stimulated germination ultimately. To explain all these results and the regulation of germination of Arabidopsis seed under salinity we propose a model involving ethylene, NO and H2O2 interaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Ethylene Antagonizes Salt-Induced Growth Retardation and Cell Death Process via Transcriptional Controlling of Ethylene-, BAG- and Senescence-Associated Genes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ya-Jie; Liu, Ling; Lin, Ying-Chao; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Li, Lei-Peng; Tang, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The existing question whether ethylene is involved in the modulation of salt-induced cell death to mediate plant salt tolerance is important for understanding the salt tolerance mechanisms. Here, we employed Arabidopsis plants to study the possible role of ethylene in salt-induced growth inhibition and programmed cell death (PCD) profiles. The root length, DNA ladder and cell death indicated by Evan's blue detection were measured by compared to the control or salt-stressed seedlings. Secondly, the protoplasts isolated from plant leaves and dyed with Annexin V-FITC were subjected to flow cytometric (FCM) assay. Our results showed that ethylene works effectively in seedling protoplasts, antagonizing salt-included root retardation and restraining cell death both in seedlings or protoplasts. Due to salinity, the entire or partial insensitivity of ethylene signaling resulted in an elevated levels of cell death in ein2-5 and ein3-1 plants and the event were amended in ctr1-1 plants after salt treatment. The subsequent experiment with exogenous ACC further corroborated that ethylene could modulate salt-induced PCD process actively. Plant Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG) family genes are recently identified to play an extensive role in plant PCD processes ranging from growth, development to stress responses and even cell death. Our result showed that salinity alone significantly suppressed the transcripts of BAG6, BAG7 and addition of ACC in the saline solution could obviously re-activate BAG6 and BAG7 expressions, which might play a key role to inhibit the salt-induced cell death. In summary, our research implies that ethylene and salinity antagonistically control BAG family-, ethylene-, and senescence-related genes to alleviate the salt-induced cell death.

  20. Characterization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase containing Methylobacterium oryzae and interactions with auxins and ACC regulation of ethylene in canola (Brassica campestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Poonguzhali, Selvaraj; Sa, Tongmin

    2007-09-01

    The possible interaction of the plant hormones auxin and ethylene and the role of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase containing bacteria on ethylene production in canola (Brassica campestris) in the presence of inhibitory concentrations of growth regulators were investigated. The effects of auxin (indole-3-acetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid), auxin transport inhibitor 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid, ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate and ethylene synthesis inhibitor L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl)glycine hydrochloride on root elongation were concentration dependent. Exogenous addition of growth regulators influences the enzyme activities of ethylene production and we have presented here evidences that support the hypothesis that inhibitory effects of auxin on root elongation are independent of ethylene. Additionally, we have proved that inoculation of ACC deaminase containing Methylobacterium oryzae sequester ACC exuded from roots and hydrolyze them lowering the concentration of ACC in root exudates. However, the inhibitory actions of exogenous additions of auxins could not be ameliorated by bacterial inoculation that reduces ethylene concentration in canola seedlings.

  1. Exogenous melatonin improves Malus resistance to Marssonina apple blotch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lihua; Wang, Ping; Li, Mingjun; Ke, Xiwang; Li, Cuiying; Liang, Dong; Wu, Shan; Ma, Xinli; Li, Chao; Zou, Yangjun; Ma, Fengwang

    2013-05-01

    We examined whether exogenously applied melatonin could improve resistance to Marssonina apple blotch (Diplocarpon mali) by apple [Malus prunifolia (Willd.) Borkh. cv. Donghongguo]. This serious disease leads to premature defoliation in the main regions of apple production. When plants were pretreated with melatonin, resistance was increased in the leaves. We investigated the potential roles for melatonin in modulating levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), as well the activities of antioxidant enzymes and pathogenesis-related proteins during these plant-pathogen interactions. Pretreatment enabled plants to maintain intracellular H2O2 concentrations at steady-state levels and enhance the activities of plant defence-related enzymes, possibly improving disease resistance. Because melatonin is safe and beneficial to animals and humans, exogenous pretreatment might represent a promising cultivation strategy to protect plants against this pathogen infection. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Effect of ethylene treatment on phytochemical and ethylene-related gene expression during ripening in strawberry fruit Fragaria x ananassa cv. Camino Real.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, P Z; Fornazzari, I M; Almeida, A T; Galvão, C W; Etto, R M; Inaba, J; Ayub, R A

    2015-12-07

    In contrast to climacteric fruits, in which ethylene is known to be pivotal, the regulation of ripening in non-climacteric fruits is not well understood. The strawberry is a typical example of a non-climacteric fruit, which has been used as a model system of these types of fruit. In this study, the effect of exogenous ethephon on the expression of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling genes, FaERF2 and FaACO1, was analyzed in the Fragaria ananassa cultivar Camino Real by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the physicochemical and phytochemical characteristics of fruits were evaluated in field trials and postharvest tests. Transcript accumulation was influenced by exogenous treatment with ethephon, which affected the pattern of gene expression during different stages of growth and fruit development, with the highest expression occurring during postharvest tests. In addition, ethephon significantly influenced the phytochemical profile of sugars, anthocyanins, phenolic compounds, and vitamin C contents both in the field- and postharvest-treated fruits at different stages. These results indicate that ethylene regulates the phenylpropanoid maturation pathway in strawberry fruit.

  3. Poly[(ethylene oxide)-co-(methylene ethylene oxide)]: A hydrolytically-degradable poly(ethylene oxide) platform

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Pontus; Lee, Bongjae F.; van den Berg, Sebastiaan A.; Pressly, Eric D.; Lee, Annabelle; Hawker, Craig J.; Lynd, Nathaniel A.

    2012-01-01

    A facile method for imparting hydrolytic degradability to poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), compatible with current PEGylation strategies, is presented. By incorporating methylene ethylene oxide (MEO) units into the parent PEO backbone, complete degradation was defined by the molar incorporation of MEO, and the structure of the degradation byproducts was consistent with an acid-catalyzed vinyl-ether hydrolysis mechanism. The hydrolytic degradation of poly[(ethylene oxide)-co-(methylene ethylene oxi...

  4. Is Money Really Exogenous? Testing for Weak Exogeneity in Swiss Money Demand.

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Andreas M

    1993-01-01

    Although exogeneity is often associated with controllable policy variables, Engle, Hendry, and Richard (1983) show that the one condition is neither necessary nor sufficient for the other. Whether variables such as monetary aggregates are (weakly) exogenous depends on the conditioning properties of the data generating process. Testing exogeneity claims represents an important step in analyzing money demand functions. Although Switzerland adheres to fairly strict monetarist prescriptions, we r...

  5. Reducing ethylene levels along the food supply chain: a key to reducing food waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Michael M

    2014-09-01

    Excessive waste along the food supply chain of 71 (UK, Netherlands) to 82 (Germany) kg per head per year sparked widespread criticism of the agricultural food business and provides a great challenge and task for all its players and stakeholders. Origins of this food waste include private households, restaurants and canteens, as well as supermarkets, and indicate that 59-65% of this food waste can be avoided. Since ∼50% of the food waste is fruit and vegetables, monitoring and control of their natural ripening gas - ethylene - is suggested here as one possible key to reducing food waste. Ethylene accelerates ripening of climacteric fruits, and accumulation of ethylene in the supply chain can lead to fruit decay and waste. While ethylene was determined using a stationary gas chromatograph with gas cylinders, the new generation of portable sensor-based instruments now enables continuous in situ determination of ethylene along the food chain, a prerequisite to managing and maintaining the quality and ripeness of fruits and identifying hot spots of ethylene accumulation along the supply chain. Ethylene levels were measured in a first trial, along the supply chain of apple fruit from harvest to the consumer, and ranged from 10 ppb in the CA fruit store with an ethylene scrubber, 70 ppb in the fruit bin, to 500 ppb on the sorting belt in the grading facility, to ppm levels in perforated plastic bags of apples. This paper also takes into account exogenous ethylene originating from sources other than the fruit itself. Countermeasures are discussed, such as the potential of breeding for low-ethylene fruit, applications of ethylene inhibitors (e.g. 1-MCP) and absorber strips (e.g. 'It's Fresh', Ryan'), packages (e.g. 'Peakfresh'), both at the wholesale and retail level, vents and cooling for the supply chain, sale of class II produce ('Wunderlinge'), collection (rather than waste) of produce on the 'sell by' date ('Die Tafel') and whole crop purchase (WCP) to aid reducing

  6. Ethylene binding site affinity in ripening apples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenship, S.M. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Horticultural Science); Sisler, E.C. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Scatchard plots for ethylene binding in apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), which were harvested weekly for 5 weeks to include the ethylene climacteric rise, showed C[sub 50] values (concentration of ethylene needed to occupy 50% of the ethylene binding sites) of 0.10, 0.11, 0.34, 0.40, and 0.57 [mu]l ethylene/liter[sup [minus]1], respectively, for each of the 5 weeks. Higher ethylene concentrations were required to saturate the binding sites during the climacteric rise than at other times. Diffusion of [sup 14]C-ethylene from the binding sites was curvilinear and did not show any indication of multiple binding sites. Ethylene was not metabolized by apple tissue.

  7. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  8. Methanol and ethylene glycol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, James A

    2012-10-01

    Accidental or intentional ingestion of substances containing methanol and ethylene glycol can result in death, and some survivors are left with blindness, renal dysfunction, and chronic brain injury. However, even in large ingestions, a favorable outcome is possible if the patient arrives at the hospital early enough and the poisoning is identified and appropriately treated in a timely manner. This review covers the common circumstances of exposure, the involved toxic mechanisms, and the clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and treatment of methanol and ethylene glycol intoxication. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cancer mortality in ethylene oxide workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Bisanti, L; Maggini, M; Raschetti, R; Alegiani, S S; Ippolito, F M; Caffari, B; Segnan, N; Ponti, A

    1993-01-01

    A cohort of 1971 chemical workers licensed to handle ethylene oxide was followed up retrospectively from 1940 to 1984 and the vital status of each subject was ascertained. No quantitative information on exposure was available and therefore cohort members were considered as presumably exposed to ethylene oxide. The cohort comprised 637 subjects allowed to handle only ethylene oxide and 1334 subjects who obtained a licence valid for ethylene oxide as well as other toxic gases. Potential confoun...

  10. Synthesis of novel bis(perfluorophenyl azides) coupling agents: Evaluation of their performance by crosslinking of poly(ethylene oxide)

    KAUST Repository

    Mehenni, Hakim

    2011-11-01

    Novel bis(perfluorophenyl azides) coupling agents, containing spacer arms from ethylene or ethylene glycol subunits, were successfully synthesized. Nitrenes photogenerated from these novel bis(PFPA) coupling agents were applied successfully to the cross-linking of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO10,000) in either aqueous medium or at the solid state, thus, we demonstrated the potential of these bis(PFPA) molecules as promising coupling agents in surface engineering. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 49 CFR 173.323 - Ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethylene oxide. 173.323 Section 173.323... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.323 Ethylene oxide. (a) For packaging ethylene oxide in non-bulk packagings, silver mercury or any of its alloys or copper may not be used in any...

  12. Role of ethylene metabolism in Amaranthus retroflexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskin, I.; Beyer, E. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    14 C-Ethylene was metabolized by etiolated pigweed seedlings (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) in the manner similar to that observed in other plants. The hormone was oxidized to 14 CO 2 and incorporated into 14 -tissue components. Selected cyclic olefins with differing abilities to block ethylene action were used to determine if ethylene metabolism in pigweed is necessary for ethylene action. 2,5-Norbornadiene and 1,3-cyclohexadiene were effective inhibitors of ethylene action at 800 and 6400 μ1/1, respectively, in the gas phase, while 1,4-cyclohexadiene and cyclohexene were not. However, all four cyclic olefins inhibited the incorporation and conversion of 14 C-ethylene to 14 CO 2 by 95% with I 50 values below 100 μ1/1. The results indicate that total ethylene metabolism does not directly correlate with changes in ethylene action. Additionally, the fact that inhibition of ethylene metabolism by the cyclic olefins did not result in a corresponding increase in ethylene evolution, indicates that ethylene metabolism does not serve to significantly reduce endogenous ethylene levels

  13. (ethylene terephthalate) degradation in phenol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No abstract available. The evaluation of the acid number, ash content and melting temperature of poly (ethylene terephthalate) has been reported (Otaigbe et al, 2003). The polymer was dissolved in phenol: 1,2 dichlorobenzene solvent mixture of 35%: 65% and 50%: 50% by weight and then degraded at 143±2oC.

  14. Heterogeneous Catalytic Oligomerization of Ethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Oliver Dennis

    Throughout this work, we report results for the oligomerization of ethylene over Ni-Hbeta in a packed bed reactor. We performed a parameterized study over temperature (30ºC-190ºC), pressure (8.5-25.6 bar), and weighted hourly space velocity (2.0-5.5 hr-1). We observed that the ethylene conversion increased with reaction pressure due primarily to the slower velocities at higher pressures. Increasing the temperature of the reactor led to the formation of larger oligomers and coke, but its effect on the conversion was small. The space velocity played an important role on ethylene conversion and product selectivity, with higher conversions observed at lower space velocities and higher selectivities to butene at higher space velocities. We also conducted a long experiment to determine the activity of the Ni-Hbeta catalyst over 72 hours-on-stream at 19.0 bar partial pressure of ethylene, 120ºC, and 3.1 hr-1 WHSV. We observed that catalyst deactivation occurred only during the startup period largely due to coke formation. Despite this initial deactivation, negligible coke formation occurred after 8 hours time-on-stream, as the conversion remained steady at 47% for the duration of the experiment. We also carried out oligomerization of ethylene using Ni-Hbeta in a laboratory-scale packed bed reactor for the synthesis of liquid hydrocarbons. We evaluated the effect of several process variables (temperature, pressure, weighted hourly space velocity, and nickel loading) on the liquid hydrocarbon/coke yield, ethylene conversion, and oligomeric product selectivity. Increases in pressure resulted in higher ethylene conversion, corresponding to a liquid yield of 12.4 wt.% with 5.7 wt.% coke. As the pressure increased, the selectivity towards octenes doubled alongside a decrease in butenes, which suggested that higher pressures promoted butene dimerization. Under the conditions studied, a minimum temperature of 120ºC was required to produce liquid hydrocarbons. The liquid yield

  15. Inhibition of auxin-induced ethylene production by lycoricidinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Bin-G.; Lee, June-S.; Oh, Seung-Eun; Horiuchi, Yuko; Imaseki, Hidemasa.

    1984-01-01

    Lycoricidinol, a natural growth inhibitor isolated from bulbs of Lycoris radiata Herb. strongly suppressed auxin-induced ethylene production from the hypocotyl segments of etiolated mung bean (Vigna radiata Wilczek) seedlings. The inhibitor did not significantly inhibit ethylene formation from its immediate precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), during short-term (up to 4h) incubation. The ACC content in tissue treated with IAA was reduced by lycoricidinol in close parallel with the inhibition of ethylene production. Examination of radioactive metabolites in tissues labeled with 3,4- 14 C-methionine indicated that reduction of the ACC content was not due to any possible promotive effect of lycoricidinol on conjugation of ACC with malonate. Lycoricidinol showed no inhibitory effect on the activity of ACC synthase if applied in vitro, but it almost completely abolished the increase in the enzyme activity when applied in vivo during incubation of the tissue with IAA. Lycoricidinol also strongly inhibited incorporation of 14 C-leucine into protein in the tissue. The suppression of the enzyme induction and, in turn, that of ethylene production by lycoricidinol were interpreted as being due to the inhibition of protein synthesis. (author)

  16. Hormonal control of root development on epiphyllous plantlets of Bryophyllum (Kalanchoe) marnierianum: role of auxin and ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulka, Richard G

    2008-01-01

    Epiphyllous plantlets develop on leaves of Bryophyllum marnierianum when they are excised from the plant. Shortly after leaf excision, plantlet shoots develop from primordia located near the leaf margin. After the shoots have enlarged for several days, roots appear at their base. In this investigation, factors regulating plantlet root development were studied. The auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) abolished root formation without markedly affecting shoot growth. This suggested that auxin transport from the plantlet shoot induces root development. Excision of plantlet apical buds inhibits root development. Application of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in lanolin at the site of the apical buds restores root outgrowth. Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), a synthetic auxin, reverses TIBA inhibition of plantlet root emergence on leaf explants. Both of these observations support the hypothesis that auxin, produced by the plantlet, induces root development. Exogenous ethylene causes precocious root development several days before that of a control without hormone. Ethylene treatment cannot bypass the TIBA block of root formation. Therefore, ethylene does not act downstream of auxin in root induction. However, ethylene amplifies the effects of low concentrations of NAA, which in the absence of ethylene do not induce roots. Ag(2)S(2)O(3), an ethylene blocker, and CoCl(2), an ethylene synthesis inhibitor, do not abolish plantlet root development. It is therefore unlikely that ethylene is essential for root formation. Taken together, the experiments suggest that roots develop when auxin transport from the shoot reaches a certain threshold. Ethylene may augment this effect by lowering the threshold and may come into play when the parent leaf senesces.

  17. Developmental toxicity of four glycol ethers applied cutaneously to rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Hardin, B D; Goad, P T; Burg, J R

    1984-01-01

    Previous NIOSH studies demonstrated the embryo- and fetotoxicity and teratogenicity of ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGEE) applied to the shaved skin of pregnant rats. In the present study ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGEEA), ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE), and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (diEGEE) were tested in the same experimental model, using distilled water as the negative control and EGEE as a positive control. Water or undiluted glycols were applied four ti...

  18. ABA- and ethylene-mediated responses in osmotically stressed tomato are regulated by the TSS2 and TOS1 loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Abel; Amaya, Iraida; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Cuartero, Jesús; Botella, Miguel A; Borsani, Omar

    2006-01-01

    The study of mutants impaired in the sensitivity or synthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) has become a powerful tool to analyse the interactions occurring between the ABA and ethylene signalling pathways, with potential to change the traditional view of the role of ABA as just being involved in growth inhibition. The tss2 tomato mutant, which is hypersensitive to NaCl and osmotic stress, shows enhanced growth inhibition in the presence of exogenous ABA. The tos1 tomato mutant is also hypersensitive to osmotic stress, but in contrast to tss2, shows decreased sensitivity to ABA. Surprisingly, blocking ethylene signalling suppresses the growth defect of tss2 seedlings on ABA, NaCl, and osmotic stress, but not the osmotic hypersensitivity of tos1. The ethylene production of tss2 seedlings is increased compared with that of control seedlings under osmotic stress. In addition, the tss2 plants are hypersensitive to root growth inhibition by the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). This suggests that, in addition to ABA regulation, TSS2 acts as a negative regulator of endogenous ethylene accumulation. As previously shown in Arabidopsis, it is shown here that extensive cross-talk occurs between the ABA and ethylene signalling pathways in tomato and that the TSS2 and TOS1 loci appear as regulators of this cross-talk.

  19. Generation of Stoichiometric Ethylene and Isotopic Derivatives and Application in Transition Metal-Catalyzed Vinylation and Enyne Metathesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Min, Geanna; Bjerglund, Klaus Meier; Kramer, Søren

    2013-01-01

    labeled ethylene, from simple alkene precursors by using Ru catalysis. Applying a two-chamber reactor allows both the synthesis of ethylene and its immediate consumption in a chemical transformation permitting reactions to be performed with only stoichiometric amounts of this two carbon olefin...

  20. Relationship between Rh-RTH1 and ethylene receptor gene expression in response to ethylene in cut rose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yixun; Wang, Jing; Wang, Huinan; Zhang, Zhaoqi; Liu, Juanxu

    2010-08-01

    A cDNA clone encoding a putative RTE1-like protein (Rh-RTH1) was obtained from total RNA isolated from senescing rose (Rosa hybrida cv. Tineke) petals using RT-PCR and RACE techniques. The cDNA (1,061 bp) contained an open reading frame of 684 bp corresponding to 227 amino acids. The amino acid sequence had 60.0, 49.6, 61.2, 42.5 and 39.8% identity with that of Arabidopsis RTH, RTE1, tomato GRL2, GRL1 and GR, respectively. Northern hybridization indicated that Rh-RTH1 expression is enhanced by endogenous and exogenous ethylene and inhibited by 1-MCP in petals and gynoecia. Rh-RTH1 expression partly correlated with sites of the ethylene receptor gene Rh-ETR1 and Rh-ETR3 expression, such as the petals, gynoecia, roots, and buds. The induction of Rh-RTH1 and Rh-ETR3 expression was substantially suppressed by 1-MCP treatment, while Rh-ETR1 expression was not reduced by 1-MCP treatment. Following treatment of flowers with sucrose, the level of Rh-RTH1 and Rh-ETR3 mRNA was only slightly decreased in petals and gynoecia. Upon wounding treatment, Rh-RTH1, Rh-ETR1 and Rh-ETR3 showed a quick increase in mRNA accumulation which was positively correlated with the increase in ethylene production. The expression of Rh-RTH1 showed partial correlation with that of Rh-ETR1 and Rh-ETR3.

  1. Electron collisions with ethylene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, T C; Bettega, M H F

    2009-01-01

    We present elastic cross sections for electron collisions with ethylene oxide. Our results compare well in shape with the experimental total cross section obtained by Szmytkowski et al.. We found a shape resonance at around 5 eV, which is in agreement with the observations of Allan and Andric and Szmytkowski et al.. Allan and Andric reported another low energy shape resonance which is not present in our results.

  2. Electron collisions with ethylene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, T C; Bettega, M H F, E-mail: tcf03@fisica.ufpr.b, E-mail: bettega@fisica.ufpr.b [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, CP 19044, 81531-990 Curitiba, Parana (Brazil)

    2009-11-01

    We present elastic cross sections for electron collisions with ethylene oxide. Our results compare well in shape with the experimental total cross section obtained by Szmytkowski et al.. We found a shape resonance at around 5 eV, which is in agreement with the observations of Allan and Andric and Szmytkowski et al.. Allan and Andric reported another low energy shape resonance which is not present in our results.

  3. Open Syllable Once Again. Endogenous or Exogenous?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Caldarelli

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available After a brief reply to some critical remarks raised by Mario Enrietti in a paper published in “Studi Slavistici”, VI (2009, the Author tries to explain why Enrietti’s theory of an exogenous, namely Romance origin of the Slavic open syllable structure should be rejected.

  4. Exogenous fibrolytic enzymes to unlock nutrients: Histological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a need for a better understanding of the mode-of-action of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) used as additives in ruminant feeds. Four forages, treated with EFE, were evaluated in vitro and histologically, in an attempt to determine the effect of EFE on tissue degradation. Weeping love grass, kikuyu leaf material, ...

  5. integrating indigenous and exogenous communication channels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    of how endogenous and exogenous communication channels can effectively complement each other to enhance success. Mass media such as radio, newspapers and television are generally the least expensive media for transmitting messages to large numbers of people (Van den Ban and Hawkins, 1996). Mass.

  6. The role of stamens in ethylene production in Ipomoea nil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, H.G.

    1989-01-01

    Ethylene production inhibits filament and corolla growth during young stages in flower development, and it promotes corolla unfolding and senescence in Ipomoea nil. Initial studies with the in vitro application of gibberellic acid (GA 3 ), demonstrated that decreased filament growth occurred when the anthers remained attached to the filaments during the young stages in development. The removal of the anthers from intact plants did not enhance filament growth until the synthesis of wound ethylene was inhibited by applied aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) or cobalt chloride. It was hypothesized that the anthers were source tissues and that the filaments were transport vectors for the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to regulate growth events in the various floral organs. To test this hypothesis, endogenous IAA and ACC and ethylene production were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or gas chromatography. The transport of 14 C-IAA and 14 C-ACC through filament segments and filaments within intact flower buds also was examined during flower development

  7. Sculpting the maturation, softening and ethylene pathway: The influences of microRNAs on tomato fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuo Jinhua

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a ubiquitous class of short RNAs, play vital roles in physiological and biochemical processes in plants by mediating gene silencing at post-transcriptional (PTGS level. Tomato is a model system to study molecular basis of fleshy fruit ripening and senescence, ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction owing to its genetic and molecular tractability. To study the functions of miRNAs in tomato fruit ripening and senescence, and their possible roles in ethylene response, the next generation sequencing method was employed to identify miRNAs in tomato fruit. Bioinformatics and molecular biology approaches were combined to profile the miRNAs expression patterns at three different fruit ripening stages and by exogenous ethylene treatment. Results In addition to 7 novel miRNA families, 103 conserved miRNAs belonging to 24 families and 10 non-conserved miRNAs matching 9 families were identified in our libraries. The targets of many these miRNAs were predicted to be transcriptional factors. Other targets are known to play roles in the regulation of metabolic processes. Interestingly, some targets were predicted to be involved in fruit ripening and softening, such as Pectate Lyase, beta-galactosidase, while a few others were predicted to be involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathway, such as ACS, EIN2 and CTR1. The expression patterns of a number of such miRNAs at three ripening stages were confirmed by stem-loop RT-PCR, which showed a strong negative correlation with that of their targets. The regulation of exogenous ethylene on miRNAs expression profiles were analyzed simultaneously, and 3 down-regulated, 5 up-regulated miRNAs were found in this study. Conclusions A combination of high throughput sequencing and molecular biology approaches was used to explore the involvement of miRNAs during fruit ripening. Several miRNAs showed differential expression profiles during fruit ripening, and a number of

  8. Thigmomorphogenesis: the role of ethylene in the response of Pinus taeda and Abies fraseri to mechanical perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telewski, F. W.; Jaffe, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Ethylene production was monitored for 48 h in two half-sibs of Pinus taeda L. grown in the greenhouse and given mechanical perturbation (MP) by flexing; and for 22 h in Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. grown in the field and exposed to wind-mediated MP. Both species produced a peak of ethylene 18 h after MP. Seedlings of P. taeda exposed to MP for the duration of the growing season (preconditioned) produced less ethylene compared to non-MP controls, with a peak production at 8 h. One half-sib which responded to MP by an increase in radial growth produced 16 times more ethylene than another half-sib which had no significant change in radial growth. Preconditioned A. fraseri produced no significant quantities of ethylene after MP. The production of wound ethylene appears to be different from MP-induced ethylene. When an ethylene-generating solution was applied to P. taeda seedlings, it mimicked many of the morphological and mechanical characteristics of MP seedlings. The putative role of ethylene in the thigmomorphogenetic response is addressed.

  9. Method of deuterium isotope separation using ethylene and ethylene dichloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, S.W.

    1982-01-01

    Compounds enriched in deuterium may be obtained from ethylene, vinyl chloride, 1,2-dichloroethane, or propylene by laser isotope separation. Normal molecules of these organic compounds are exposed to infrared laser radiation of a suitable wavelength. Substantially all of the deuterium-containing molecules exposed to the laser can be selectively dissociated and the deuterium-containing products separated from the starting material and other reaction products. The deuterium-containing molecules can be burned to form water with an enriched deuterium content, or pyrolized to form hydrogen gas enriched in deuterium

  10. Biocatalytic conversion of ethylene to ethylene oxide using an engineered toluene monooxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, D A; Bertolani, S J; Siegel, J B

    2015-02-11

    Mutants of toluene o-xylene monooxygenase are demonstrated to oxidize ethylene to ethylene oxide in vivo at yields of >99%. The best mutant increases ethylene oxidation activity by >5500-fold relative to the native enzyme. This is the first report of a recombinant enzyme capable of carrying out this industrially significant chemical conversion.

  11. Biocatalytic conversion of ethylene to ethylene oxide using an engineered toluene monooxygenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlin, DA; Bertolani, SJ; Siegel, JB

    2015-01-01

    Mutants of toluene o-xylene monooxygenase are demonstrated to oxidize ethylene to ethylene oxide in vivo at yields of >99%. The best mutant increases ethylene oxidation activity by >5500-fold relative to the native enzyme. This is the first report of a recombinant enzyme capable of carrying out this industrially significant chemical conversion.

  12. Endogenous vs. exogenous regulations in the commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abatayo, Anna Lou; Lynham, John

    2016-01-01

    potential confounds in previous experiments. A key feature of our experimental design is to have the exact same regulations chosen endogenously as those that are imposed exogenously. When we compare the same regulations chosen endogenously to those externally imposed, we observe no differences in extraction...... levels among CPR users in a laboratory experiment. We also observe no differences between weak external regulations and no regulations, after controlling for a potential confound. However, when we add communication to our endogenous treatment, we observe significant behavioral differences between...... endogenous regulations with communication and exogenous regulations without communication. Our results suggest that externally imposed regulations do not crowd out intrinsic motivations in the lab and they confirm that communication facilitates cooperation to reduce extraction....

  13. Growth Control by Ethylene: Adjusting Phenotypes to the Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, R.; Sasidharan, R.; Voesenek, L.A.C.J.

    2007-01-01

    Plants phenotypically adjust to environmental challenges, and the gaseous plant hormone ethylene modulates many of these growth adjustments. Ethylene can be involved in environmentally induced growth inhibition as well as growth stimulation. Still, ethylene has long been considered a growth

  14. Is the natural rate of growth exogenous?

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Leon-Ledesma; Anthony P. Thirlwall

    2000-01-01

    In mainstream growth theory, including endogenous growth theory, the naturalrate of growth as defined by Harrod, is still treated as exogenous. In practice, however, both the growth of the labour force and the growth of labour productivity are endogenous to demand. This has theoretical implications for the adjustment process between the actual, warranted and natural growth rates. It also has serious implications for the way in which the growth process is viewed: whether from the supply side o...

  15. Poly(ethylene oxide) functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Russell Clayton

    2014-04-08

    A simple procedure is provided by which the hydroxyl termini of poly(ethylene oxide) can be appended with functional groups to a useful extent by reaction and precipitation. The polymer is dissolved in warmed toluene, treated with an excess of organic base and somewhat less of an excess of a reactive acylating reagent, reacted for several hours, then precipitated in isopropanol so that the product can be isolated as a solid, and salt byproducts are washed away. This procedure enables functionalization of the polymer while not requiring laborious purification steps such as solvent-solvent extraction or dialysis to remove undesirable side products.

  16. 29 CFR 1926.1147 - Ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethylene oxide. 1926.1147 Section 1926.1147 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Ethylene oxide. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.1047 - Ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethylene oxide. 1915.1047 Section 1915.1047 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1047 Ethylene oxide. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section...

  18. Ethylene Glycol, Hazardous Substance in the Household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Patočka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene glycol is a colorless, odorless, sweet-tasting but poisonous type of alcohol found in many household products. The major use of ethylene glycol is as an antifreeze in, for example, automobiles, in air conditioning systems, in de-icing fluid for windshields, and else. People sometimes drink ethylene glycol mistakenly or on purpose as a substitute for alcohol. Ethylene glycol is toxic, and its drinking should be considered a medical emergency. The major danger from ethylene glycol is following ingestion. Due to its sweet taste, peoples and occasionally animals will sometimes consume large quantities of it if given access to antifreeze. While ethylene glycol itself has a relatively low degree of toxicity, its metabolites are responsible for extensive cellular damage to various tissues, especially the kidneys. This injury is caused by the metabolites, glycolic and oxalic acid and their respective salts, through crystal formation and possibly other mechanisms. Toxic metabolites of ethylene glycol can damage the brain, liver, kidneys, and lungs. The poisoning causes disturbances in the metabolism pathways, including metabolic acidosis. The disturbances may be severe enough to cause profound shock, organ failure, and death. Ethylene glycol is a common poisoning requiring antidotal treatment.

  19. A panel Granger-causality test of endogenous vs. exogenous growth

    OpenAIRE

    Jochen Hartwig

    2009-01-01

    The paper proposes a new test of endogenous vs. exogenous growth theories based on the Granger-causality methodology and applies it to a panel of 20 OECD countries. The test yields divergent evidence with respect to physical and human capital. For physical capital, the test results favor Solow-type exogenous growth theory over AK-type endogenous growth models. On the other hand, the test results lend support to human capital oriented endogenous growth models - like the Uzawa-Lucas model - rat...

  20. Expression of ethylene biosynthetic and receptor genes in rose floral tissues during ethylene-enhanced flower opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jingqi; Li, Yunhui; Tan, Hui; Yang, Feng; Ma, Nan; Gao, Junping

    2008-01-01

    Ethylene production, as well as the expression of ethylene biosynthetic (Rh-ACS1-4 and Rh-ACO1) and receptor (Rh-ETR1-5) genes, was determined in five different floral tissues (sepals, petals, stamens, gynoecia, and receptacles) of cut rose (Rosa hybrida cv. Samantha upon treatment with ethylene or the ethylene inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Ethylene-enhanced ethylene production occurred only in gynoecia, petals, and receptacles, with gynoecia showing the greatest enhancement in the early stage of ethylene treatment. However, 1-MCP did not suppress ethylene production in these three tissues. In sepals, ethylene production was highly decreased by ethylene treatment, and increased dramatically by 1-MCP. Ethylene production in stamens remained unchanged after ethylene or 1-MCP treatment. Induction of certain ethylene biosynthetic genes by ethylene in different floral tissues was positively correlated with the ethylene production, and this induction was also not suppressed by 1-MCP. The expression of Rh-ACS2 and Rh-ACS3 was quickly induced by ethylene in gynoecia, but neither Rh-ACS1 nor Rh-ACS4 was induced by ethylene in any of the five tissues. In addition, Rh-ACO1 was induced by ethylene in all floral tissues except sepals. The induced expression of ethylene receptor genes by ethylene was much faster in gynoecia than in petals, and the expression of Rh-ETR3 was strongly suppressed by 1-MCP in all floral tissues. These results indicate that ethylene biosynthesis in gynoecia is regulated developmentally, rather than autocatalytically. The response of rose flowers to ethylene occurs initially in gynoecia, and ethylene may regulate flower opening mainly through the Rh-ETR3 gene in gynoecia.

  1. Endogenous and exogenous factors in national development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endogenous and exogenous factors in national development: inferences from the metaphor of witchcraft (Àjé) in Olátúbòsún. Oládàpò's poetry. This work engages political commentary in the work of Olátúbòsún Oládàpò, a Yorùbá poet. Its focus is on the way that political ideas and values that are rooted in Nigerian culture ...

  2. ENDOGENOUS OR EXOGENOUS INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT IN INDUSTRY ON REGIONAL LEVEL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Świadek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available At the moment endogenous growth theory has become increasingly popular in the world of science, particularly in developed countries. This article aims to show, for two regions case, the needs and sense of applying this theory in the polish regions. Due to the low level of economic development of many Polish regions, they are unable to growth in a comparable rate as regions in developed countries. This explains the economic divergence between polish regions and the highly developed regions of Europe and the World. Stimulating economic growth is insufficient in such cases, because of the weakness of its internal factors. Therefore it is important to strengthen an external impact to keep internal development. It means that the endogenous growth theory is no reason to exist, in conditions of poor polish regions. Without external inputs there can’t be convergences processes. Therefore, the economic development of the Polish regions should be based on the exogenous growth theory.

  3. Ethylene glycol metabolism by Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mückschel, Björn; Simon, Oliver; Klebensberger, Janosch; Graf, Nadja; Rosche, Bettina; Altenbuchner, Josef; Pfannstiel, Jens; Huber, Armin; Hauer, Bernhard

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the metabolism of ethylene glycol in the Pseudomonas putida strains KT2440 and JM37 by employing growth and bioconversion experiments, directed mutagenesis, and proteome analysis. We found that strain JM37 grew rapidly with ethylene glycol as a sole source of carbon and energy, while strain KT2440 did not grow within 2 days of incubation under the same conditions. However, bioconversion experiments revealed metabolism of ethylene glycol by both strains, with the temporal accumulation of glycolic acid and glyoxylic acid for strain KT2440. This accumulation was further increased by targeted mutagenesis. The key enzymes and specific differences between the two strains were identified by comparative proteomics. In P. putida JM37, tartronate semialdehyde synthase (Gcl), malate synthase (GlcB), and isocitrate lyase (AceA) were found to be induced in the presence of ethylene glycol or glyoxylic acid. Under the same conditions, strain KT2440 showed induction of AceA only. Despite this difference, the two strains were found to use similar periplasmic dehydrogenases for the initial oxidation step of ethylene glycol, namely, the two redundant pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent enzymes PedE and PedH. From these results we constructed a new pathway for the metabolism of ethylene glycol in P. putida. Furthermore, we conclude that Pseudomonas putida might serve as a useful platform from which to establish a whole-cell biocatalyst for the production of glyoxylic acid from ethylene glycol.

  4. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals distinct ethylene-independent regulation of ripening in response to low temperature in kiwifruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiche, William O; Mitalo, Oscar W; Kasahara, Yuka; Tosa, Yasuaki; Mworia, Eric G; Owino, Willis O; Ushijima, Koichiro; Nakano, Ryohei; Yano, Kentaro; Kubo, Yasutaka

    2018-03-21

    Kiwifruit are classified as climacteric since exogenous ethylene (or its analogue propylene) induces rapid ripening accompanied by ethylene production under positive feedback regulation. However, most of the ripening-associated changes (Phase 1 ripening) in kiwifruit during storage and on-vine occur largely in the absence of any detectable ethylene. This ripening behavior is often attributed to basal levels of system I ethylene, although it is suggested to be modulated by low temperature. To elucidate the mechanisms regulating Phase 1 ripening in kiwifruit, a comparative transcriptome analysis using fruit continuously exposed to propylene (at 20 °C), and during storage at 5 °C and 20 °C was conducted. Propylene exposure induced kiwifruit softening, reduction of titratable acidity (TA), increase in soluble solids content (SSC) and ethylene production within 5 days. During storage, softening and reduction of TA occurred faster in fruit at 5 °C compared to 20 °C although no endogenous ethylene production was detected. Transcriptome analysis revealed 3761 ripening-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs), of which 2742 were up-regulated by propylene while 1058 were up-regulated by low temperature. Propylene exclusively up-regulated 2112 DEGs including those associated with ethylene biosynthesis and ripening such as AcACS1, AcACO2, AcPL1, AcXET1, Acβ-GAL, AcAAT, AcERF6 and AcNAC7. Similarly, low temperature exclusively up-regulated 467 DEGS including AcACO3, AcPL2, AcPMEi, AcADH, Acβ-AMY2, AcGA2ox2, AcNAC5 and AcbZIP2 among others. A considerable number of DEGs such as AcPG, AcEXP1, AcXET2, Acβ-AMY1, AcGA2ox1, AcNAC6, AcMADS1 and AcbZIP1 were up-regulated by either propylene or low temperature. Frequent 1-MCP treatments failed to inhibit the accelerated ripening and up-regulation of associated DEGs by low temperature indicating that the changes were independent of ethylene. On-vine kiwifruit ripening proceeded in the absence of any detectable

  5. Ethylene-auxin interactions regulate lateral root initiation and emergence in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanchenko, Maria G; Muday, Gloria K; Dubrovsky, Joseph G

    2008-07-01

    Plant root systems display considerable plasticity in response to endogenous and environmental signals. Auxin stimulates pericycle cells within elongating primary roots to enter de novo organogenesis, leading to the establishment of new lateral root meristems. Crosstalk between auxin and ethylene in root elongation has been demonstrated, but interactions between these hormones in root branching are not well characterized. We find that enhanced ethylene synthesis, resulting from the application of low concentrations of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), promotes the initiation of lateral root primordia. Treatment with higher doses of ACC strongly inhibits the ability of pericycle cells to initiate new lateral root primordia, but promotes the emergence of existing lateral root primordia: behaviour that is also seen in the eto1 mutation. These effects are correlated with decreased pericycle cell length and increased lateral root primordia cell width. When auxin is applied simultaneously with ACC, ACC is unable to prevent the auxin stimulation of lateral root formation in the root tissues formed prior to ACC exposure. However, in root tissues formed after transfer to ACC, in which elongation is reduced, auxin does not rescue the ethylene inhibition of primordia initiation, but instead increases it by several fold. Mutations that block auxin responses, slr1 and arf7 arf19, render initiation of lateral root primordia insensitive to the promoting effect of low ethylene levels, and mutations that inhibit ethylene-stimulated auxin biosynthesis, wei2 and wei7, reduce the inhibitory effect of higher ethylene levels, consistent with ethylene regulating root branching through interactions with auxin.

  6. Auxin, ethylene and light in gravitropic growth: new insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Hg; Sabovljevic, A.; Njio, G.; Roth, U.

    The regulation mechanism of gravitropic differential plant growth is commonly divided into three sequential processes: the perception of the gravistimulus (generally attributed to amyloplast sedimentation), the transduction of the perceived signal (of which very little is known), and the adequate differential growth response (generally attributed to asymmetric auxin redistribution). The detailled mechanism is still unresolved and remains to be elucidated in significant parts. Employing 2D SDS-PAGE /Q-TOF amongst other methods and strategies we studied the effect of different auxins on gravitropism of coleoptiles and hypocotyls. We also analyzed the effects of light and ethylene (synthesis and perception) on gravitropic growth of primary shoots and roots and analyzed the protein pattern with respect to the observed physiological effects. In coleoptiles, under the applied experimental conditions the effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4 D) on gravitropism differed from the effect of indolylacetic acid (IAA), which was similar to the one observed in sunflower hypocotyls. In roots, the relevance of ethylene for gravitropic differential growth and the capacity to evade mechanical barriers during horizontal gravistimulation was analyzed in detail. A special focus was addressed on the physiological significance of the root cap. We will show that the relevance of ethylene for gravitropism has hitherto been misjudged. Further new findings and their implications for the regulation mechanism of gravitropism will be presented and discussed. Kramer et al., (2003) J. Ex. Bot. 54, (393), 2723-2732 Edelmann, H.G., (2002) J. Ex. Bot. 53, (375), 1825-1828

  7. Atmospheric chemistry of ethane and ethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikin, A. C.; Herman, J. R.; Maier, E. J.; Mcquillan, C. J.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown by a study of ethane and ethylene photochemistry that the loss of ethane is controlled by OH in the troposphere and Cl in the stratosphere. Ethane observations indicating free Cl concentrations below 30 km that are only 10% of the value predicted by the present model calculations cannot be explained by heterogeneous aerosol concentration processes, and contradict current stratospheric photochemistry. The chemical destruction of ethane and ethylene leads to the generation of such compounds as carbon monoxide and formaldehyde, and it is found that the tropospheric concentrations of the latter are enhanced by nearly a factor of three for an ethylene mixing ratio of 2 ppb.

  8. 21 CFR 880.6860 - Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. 880.6860 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6860 Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. (a) Identification. An ethylene gas sterilizer is a nonportable device intended for use by a health care provider that uses ethylene oxide (ETO) to...

  9. 46 CFR 151.50-12 - Ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethylene oxide. 151.50-12 Section 151.50-12 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-12 Ethylene oxide. (a)(1) Ethylene... otherwise provided for in paragraph (a)(3) of this section. (2) Ethylene oxide shall be loaded at a...

  10. 21 CFR 172.770 - Ethylene oxide polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene oxide polymer. 172.770 Section 172.770... CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.770 Ethylene oxide polymer. The polymer of ethylene oxide may... conditions. (a) It is the polymer of ethylene oxide having a minimum viscosity of 1,500 centipoises in a 1...

  11. The role of ethylene perception in plant disease resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraats, Bart Peter Johan

    2003-01-01

    Ethylene is a plant hormone that is involved in responses of the plant to various stress situations, such as pathogen attack. The role of ethylene in plant-pathogen interactions seems to be diverse. Exposure of plants to ethylene can induce disease resistance, but treatment with ethylene during

  12. ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 Integrates Signals from Ethylene and Jasmonate Pathways in Plant DefenseW⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Oscar; Piqueras, Raquel; Sánchez-Serrano, Jose J.; Solano, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Cross-talk between ethylene and jasmonate signaling pathways determines the activation of a set of defense responses against pathogens and herbivores. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie this cross-talk are poorly understood. Here, we show that ethylene and jasmonate pathways converge in the transcriptional activation of ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (ERF1), which encodes a transcription factor that regulates the expression of pathogen response genes that prevent disease progression. The expression of ERF1 can be activated rapidly by ethylene or jasmonate and can be activated synergistically by both hormones. In addition, both signaling pathways are required simultaneously to activate ERF1, because mutations that block any of them prevent ERF1 induction by any of these hormones either alone or in combination. Furthermore, 35S:ERF1 expression can rescue the defense response defects of coi1 (coronative insensitive1) and ein2 (ethylene insensitive2); therefore, it is a likely downstream component of both ethylene and jasmonate signaling pathways. Transcriptome analysis in Col;35S:ERF1 transgenic plants and ethylene/jasmonate-treated wild-type plants further supports the notion that ERF1 regulates in vivo the expression of a large number of genes responsive to both ethylene and jasmonate. These results suggest that ERF1 acts downstream of the intersection between ethylene and jasmonate pathways and suggest that this transcription factor is a key element in the integration of both signals for the regulation of defense response genes. PMID:12509529

  13. Ethylene Glycol and Metabolite Concentrations in Fatal Ethylene Glycol Poisonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viinamäki, Jenni; Sajantila, Antti; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene glycol (EG) is used in antifreeze and other industrial products. It metabolizes to glycolic acid (GA) and oxalic acid (OX) that cause metabolic acidosis and are mainly responsible for the toxicity of EG. During 2010-2014, EG or GA was found in 25 postmortem cases in Finland. Of these cases, 21 were classified as fatal EG poisonings and 3 were classified as methanol (MeOH) poisonings. In this study, we report the concentrations of EG and GA in postmortem blood and urine samples of fatal EG or mixed MeOH/EG poisonings. In the fatal EG poisonings, the median EG and GA concentrations were 0.87 and 1.6 g/L in blood and 4.3 and 5.3 g/L in urine. The median urine-blood ratios were 3.8 and 3.1 for EG and GA. These results warrant the use of urine as a primary matrix for screening. In EG positive cases, the quantification of both EG and GA in blood is crucial as GA concentration appears to best indicate a fatal poisoning with an approximate threshold of 1.5 g/L. The measurement of urinary OX does not offer much additional value to toxic alcohol screening as it may originate from varying dietary conditions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Polyamines attenuate ethylene-mediated defense responses to abrogate resistance to Botrytis cinerea in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambeesan, Savithri; AbuQamar, Synan; Laluk, Kristin; Mattoo, Autar K; Mickelbart, Michael V; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Mengiste, Tesfaye; Handa, Avtar K

    2012-02-01

    Transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) lines overexpressing yeast spermidine synthase (ySpdSyn), an enzyme involved in polyamine (PA) biosynthesis, were developed. These transgenic lines accumulate higher levels of spermidine (Spd) than the wild-type plants and were examined for responses to the fungal necrotrophs Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria solani, bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000, and larvae of the chewing insect tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta). The Spd-accumulating transgenic tomato lines were more susceptible to B. cinerea than the wild-type plants; however, responses to A. solani, P. syringae, or M. sexta were similar to the wild-type plants. Exogenous application of ethylene precursors, S-adenosyl-Met and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, or PA biosynthesis inhibitors reversed the response of the transgenic plants to B. cinerea. The increased susceptibility of the ySpdSyn transgenic tomato to B. cinerea was associated with down-regulation of gene transcripts involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signaling. These data suggest that PA-mediated susceptibility to B. cinerea is linked to interference with the functions of ethylene in plant defense.

  15. Nitrous Oxide Ethane Ethylene Engine, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrous Oxide Ethane-Ethylene (NEE) engine is a proposed technology designed to provide spacecraft with non-toxic non-cryogenic high-performance propulsion. With...

  16. Contamination control by use of ethylene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, R. H.; Lyle, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    The uses of ethylene oxide as a decontaminating agent for planetary quarantine related applications are reported. Aspects discussed include: applications and limitations, chemical and physical properties, germicidal activity, methods of applications, and effects on personnel.

  17. ARC team investigates crop response to ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaomei

    1998-01-01

    A three-year study is being conducted at the Alberta Research Council (ARC) to assess the impact of ethylene on Alberta's major crop plants. Barley, wheat, canola, field pea and oats are among the crops to be studied. The study is in cooperation with the Alberta Environmental Protection and the petrochemical industry which produces ethylene in their manufacturing process. Ethylene, which can be produced from man-made sources or naturally from crops, has been shown to affect plant yield and growth. The effects can be positive or negative depending on the amount of exposure, the type of plant and its stage of growth. Greenhouses will be used to determine the effects of ethylene emissions on the crops. This controlled environment will allow for the tracking of temperature, light, relative humidity, light intensity, water and nutrients. 1 fig

  18. 21 CFR 173.230 - Ethylene dichloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.230 Ethylene dichloride. A tolerance of...

  19. Enhanced antioxidant defense after exogenous application of Ca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-10-19

    Oct 19, 2011 ... rate of water loss from excised leaves. of growth leading .... immediately weighed with analytical balance to obtain fresh weight. (Wf). The leaf ..... Arabidopsis have found that K+ starvation induces ethylene synthesis, and that ethylene inhibits ABA action on stomatal closure (Tanaka et al., 2005). Thus, the.

  20. Postharvest responses of cut Dendrobium orchids to exogenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water loss, vase life, anthocyanin contents and ethylene production were determined after the treatments. The results indicated that different hybrids showed distinct variances in ethylene sensitivities and degrees of deterioration. Dendrobium 'Darren Glory' and D. 'Jaquelyne Concert' × D. 'Rinappa' exhibited the utmost ...

  1. Endogenous and exogenous fluorescence of gastrointestinal tumors: initial clinical observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Ekaterina; Plamenova, Lilia; Keremedchiev, Momchil; Vladimirov, Borislav; Avramov, Latchezar

    2013-03-01

    The limitations of standard endoscopy for detection and evaluation of cancerous changes in gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are significant challenge and initiate development of new diagnostic modalities. Therefore many spectral and optical techniques are applied recently into the clinical practice for obtaining qualitatively and quantitatively new data from gastrointestinal neoplasia with different level of clinical applicability and diagnostic success. One of the most promising approaches is fluorescence detection using naturally existing fluorescent molecules or added fluorescent markers. Deltaaminolevulinic acid / protoporphyrin IX is applied for exogenous fluorescent tumor detection in the upper part of gastrointestinal tract. The 5-ALA is administered per os six hours before measurements at dose 20mg/kg weight. Highpower light-emitting diode at 405 nm is used as a source and the excitation light is passed through the light-guide of standard video-endoscopic system to obtain 2-D visualization. Both kinds of spectra - autofluorescence signals and protoporphyrin IX signal are recorded and stored using a fiber-optic microspectrometer, as in endoscopy instrumental channel a fiber is applied to return information about fluorescence signals. In such way 1-D detection and 2-D visualization of the lesions' fluorescence are received. The results from in vivo detection show significant differentiation between normal and abnormal tissues in 1-D spectroscopic regime, but only moderate discrimination in 2-D imaging.

  2. Parkinsonism secondary to ethylene oxide exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa,Egberto R.; Comerlatti,Luiz R.; Haddad,Monica S.; Scaff,Milberto

    1992-01-01

    Ethylene oxide is a gas widely used in the production of industrial chemicals. It is also used to sterilize heat-sensitive medical supplies. Previous reports of acute and chronic exposure have described neurotoxic effects like peripheral neuropathy and cognitive impairment. We describe a pure parkinsonian syndrome following acute ethylene oxide intoxication. A 39-years-old male was referred to our Movement Disorders Clinic tor evaluation of a parkinsonian syndrome. He was acutely exposed to e...

  3. Enthalpies of solvation of ethylene oxide oligomers CH3O(CH2CH2O)nCH3 (n = 1 to 4) in different H-bonding solvents: Methanol, chloroform, and water. Group contribution method as applied to the polar oligomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barannikov, Vladimir P.; Guseynov, Sabir S.; Vyugin, Anatoliy I.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Solvation enthalpy is found for ethylene oxide oligomers in chloroform and methanol. → Coefficients of solute-solute interaction are determined for oligomers in methanol. → Enthalpies of hydrogen bonding of oligomers with chloroform and water are estimated. → Additivity scheme is developed for describing enthalpies of solvation of oligomers. - Abstract: The enthalpies of solution and solvation of ethylene oxide oligomers CH 3 O(CH 2 CH 2 O) n CH 3 (n = 1 to 4) in methanol and chloroform have been determined from calorimetric measurements at T = 298.15 K. The enthalpic coefficients of pairwise solute-solute interaction for methanol solutions have been calculated. The enthalpic characteristics of the oligomers in methanol, chloroform, water and tetrachloromethane have been compared. The hydrogen bonding of the oligomers with chloroform and water molecules is exhibited in the values of solvation enthalpy and coefficient of solute-solute interaction. This effect is not observed for methanol solvent. The thermochemical data evidence an existence of multi-centred hydrogen bonds in associates of polyethers with the solvent molecules. Enthalpies of hydrogen bonding of the oligomers with chloroform and water have been estimated. The additivity scheme has been developed to describe the enthalpies of solvation of ethylene oxide oligomers, unbranched monoethers and n-alkanes in chloroform, methanol, water, and tetrachloromethane. The correction parameters for contribution of repeated polar groups and correction term for methoxy-compounds have been introduced. The obtained group contributions permit to describe the enthalpies of solvation of unbranched monoethers and ethylene oxide oligomers in the solvents with standard deviation up to 0.6 kJ . mol -1 . The values of group contributions and corrections are strongly influenced by solvent properties.

  4. Enthalpies of solvation of ethylene oxide oligomers CH{sub 3}O(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O){sub n}CH{sub 3} (n = 1 to 4) in different H-bonding solvents: Methanol, chloroform, and water. Group contribution method as applied to the polar oligomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barannikov, Vladimir P., E-mail: vpb@isc-ras.ru [Institute of Solution Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Academicheskaya Str. 1, Ivanovo 153045 (Russian Federation); Guseynov, Sabir S.; Vyugin, Anatoliy I. [Institute of Solution Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Academicheskaya Str. 1, Ivanovo 153045 (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > Solvation enthalpy is found for ethylene oxide oligomers in chloroform and methanol. > Coefficients of solute-solute interaction are determined for oligomers in methanol. > Enthalpies of hydrogen bonding of oligomers with chloroform and water are estimated. > Additivity scheme is developed for describing enthalpies of solvation of oligomers. - Abstract: The enthalpies of solution and solvation of ethylene oxide oligomers CH{sub 3}O(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O){sub n}CH{sub 3} (n = 1 to 4) in methanol and chloroform have been determined from calorimetric measurements at T = 298.15 K. The enthalpic coefficients of pairwise solute-solute interaction for methanol solutions have been calculated. The enthalpic characteristics of the oligomers in methanol, chloroform, water and tetrachloromethane have been compared. The hydrogen bonding of the oligomers with chloroform and water molecules is exhibited in the values of solvation enthalpy and coefficient of solute-solute interaction. This effect is not observed for methanol solvent. The thermochemical data evidence an existence of multi-centred hydrogen bonds in associates of polyethers with the solvent molecules. Enthalpies of hydrogen bonding of the oligomers with chloroform and water have been estimated. The additivity scheme has been developed to describe the enthalpies of solvation of ethylene oxide oligomers, unbranched monoethers and n-alkanes in chloroform, methanol, water, and tetrachloromethane. The correction parameters for contribution of repeated polar groups and correction term for methoxy-compounds have been introduced. The obtained group contributions permit to describe the enthalpies of solvation of unbranched monoethers and ethylene oxide oligomers in the solvents with standard deviation up to 0.6 kJ . mol{sup -1}. The values of group contributions and corrections are strongly influenced by solvent properties.

  5. Solar UV-B radiation and ethylene play a key role in modulating effective defenses against Anticarsia gemmatalis larvae in field-grown soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Francisco M; Tejedor, M Daniela; Ilina, Natalia; Chludil, Hugo D; Mithöfer, Axel; Pagano, Eduardo A; Zavala, Jorge A

    2018-02-01

    Solar UV-B radiation has been reported to enhance plant defenses against herbivore insects in many species. However, the mechanism and traits involved in the UV-B mediated increment of plant resistance are unknown in crops species, such as soybean. Here, we studied defense-related responses in undamaged and Anticarsia gemmatalis larvae-damaged leaves of two soybean cultivars grown under attenuated or full solar UV-B radiation. We determined changes in jasmonates, ethylene (ET), salicylic acid, trypsin protease inhibitor activity, flavonoids, and mRNA expression of genes related with defenses. ET emission induced by Anticarsia gemmatalis damage was synergistically increased in plants grown under solar UV-B radiation and was positively correlated with malonyl genistin concentration, trypsin proteinase inhibitor activity and expression of IFS2, and the pathogenesis protein PR2, while was negatively correlated with leaf consumption. The precursor of ET, aminocyclopropane-carboxylic acid, applied exogenously to soybean was sufficient to strongly induce leaf isoflavonoids. Our results showed that in field-grown soybean isoflavonoids were regulated by both herbivory and solar UV-B inducible ET, whereas flavonols were regulated by solar UV-B radiation only and not by herbivory or ET. Our study suggests that, although ET can modulate UV-B-mediated priming of inducible plant defenses, some plant defenses, such as isoflavonoids, are regulated by ET alone. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Plant insects and mites uptake double-stranded RNA upon its exogenous application on tomato leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Anupam; Sarmah, Nomi; Kaldis, Athanasios; Perdikis, Dionysios; Voloudakis, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    Exogenously applied double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules onto tomato leaves, moved rapidly from local to systemic leaves and were uptaken by agricultural pests namely aphids, whiteflies and mites. Four small interfering RNAs, deriving from the applied dsRNA, were molecularly detected in plants, aphids and mites but not in whiteflies. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) acts as the elicitor molecule of the RNA silencing (RNA interference, RNAi), the endogenous and evolutionary conserved surveillance system present in all eukaryotes. DsRNAs and their subsequent degradation products, namely the small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), act in a sequence-specific manner to control gene expression. Exogenous application of dsRNAs onto plants elicits resistance against plant viruses. In the present work, exogenously applied dsRNA molecules, derived from Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) HC-Pro region, onto tomato plants were detected in aphids (Myzus persicae), whiteflies (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) and mites (Tetranychus urticae) that were fed on treated as well as systemic tomato leaves. Furthermore, four siRNAs, deriving from the dsRNA applied, were detected in tomato and the agricultural pests fed on treated tomato plants. More specifically, dsRNA was detected in agricultural pests at 3 and 10 dpt (days post treatment) in dsRNA-treated leaves and at 14 dpt in systemic leaves. In addition, using stem-loop RT-PCR, siRNAs were detected in agricultural pests at 3 and 10 dpt in aphids and mites. Surprisingly, in whiteflies carrying the applied dsRNA, siRNAs were not molecularly detected. Our results showed that, upon exogenous application of dsRNAs molecules, these moved rapidly within tomato and were uptaken by agricultural pests fed on treated tomato. As a result, this non-transgenic method has the potential to control important crop pests via RNA silencing of vital genes of the respective pests.

  7. Heterogeneous selective hydrogenation of ethylene carbonate to methanol and ethylene glycol over a copper chromite nanocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Chao; Ren, Fumin; Liu, Yuxi; Zhao, Guofeng; Ji, Yongjun; Rong, Hongpan; Jia, Wei; Ma, Lei; Lu, Haiyuan; Wang, Dingsheng; Li, Yadong

    2015-01-25

    Heterogeneous selective hydrogenation of ethylene carbonate (EC), a key step in indirect conversion of CO2, was realized over a copper chromite nanocatalyst prepared via a hydrothermal method followed by calcination. The selectivities towards methanol (60%) and ethylene glycol (93%) were higher than those achieved over other usual hydrogenation catalysts.

  8. The effects of exogenous proline and osmotic stress on morpho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For evaluation of growth parameters of strawberry callus under osmotic stress and exogenous proline, embryonic calli were transferred to Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing four sucrose (osmotic stress) treatments including 3, 6, 9 and 12% and various concentrations of exogenous Lproline (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 ...

  9. Effect Of Exogenous Progesterone On Blood Chemistry Of Large ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exogenous hormones are major economic factors in swine production. This study evaluate the effects of exogenous administration of progesterone on the blood chemistry of pigs.Experiment involved weekly injections of progesterone to 24 pigs (12 males and 12 females)from day old to 24 weeks and only corn oil to another ...

  10. The Endogenous-Exogenous Partition in Attribution Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglanski, Arie W.

    1975-01-01

    Within lay explanation of actions, several significant inferences are assumed to follow from the partition between endogenous and exogenous attributions. An endogenous action is judged to constitute an end in itself; an exogenous action is judged to serve as a means to some further end. (Editor/RK)

  11. Inheritance and segregation of exogenous genes in transgenic cotton

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results confirm inheritance and segregation of. the exogenous Bt gene in transgenic CCRI 30 and NewCott 33B, governing resistance to bollworm, and; the exogenous tfdA gene in transgenic TFD, governing resistance to the herbicide 2,4-D. Both resistance characters were governed by a single dominant nuclear gene ...

  12. The effects of exogenous proline and osmotic stress on morpho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... For evaluation of growth parameters of strawberry callus under osmotic stress and exogenous proline, embryonic calli were transferred to Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing four sucrose. (osmotic stress) treatments including 3, 6, 9 and 12% and various concentrations of exogenous L- proline ...

  13. Highly Selective Continuous Gas-Phase Methoxycarbonylation of Ethylene with Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khokarale, Santosh Govind; Garcia Suárez, Eduardo José; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) technology was applied for the first time to the Pd-catalyzed continuous, gas-phase methoxycarbonylation of ethylene to selectively produce methyl propanoate (MP) in high yields. The influence of catalyst and reaction parameters such as, for example, ionic liquid...

  14. Selective ethylene trimerization : A study into the mechanism and the reduction of PE formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen, H.; Kretschmer, WP; van Buren, FR; Hessen, B; Oeffelen, Dominicus A. van

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the titanium-catalyzed ethylene trimerization in general, and more specifically, the concomitant PE formation have been studied. The polymer formation is undesirable as it not only will lead to lower I-hexene yields, but it can cause reactor fouling under the applied conditions

  15. Fast growing aspens in the development of a plant micropropagation system based on plant-produced ethylene action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Žiauka, Jonas; Kuusienė, Sigutė; Šilininkas, Mindaugas

    2013-01-01

    Representatives of the genus Populus (poplars), such as Populus tremula L. (European aspen) and its fast-growing hybrids, are recognized as being among the most suitable tree species for short rotation coppicing in Northern Europe. Several technologies have been developed for fast propagation of selected aspen genotypes, including laboratory (in vitro) micropropagation, which is usually based on the action of exogenous plant hormones. Seeking to minimize the use of the latter, the present study was designed to test if the conditions suitable for increased accumulation of plant-produced gas, including the gaseous plant hormone ethylene, inside a culture vessel could contribute to commercially desirable changes in aspen development. Shoot cultures of several European and hybrid (Populus tremuloides Michx. × P. tremula) aspen genotypes were studied using two different types of culture vessels: tightly sealed Petri dishes (15 × 54 mm) designed to provide restricted gas exchange (RGE) conditions, and capped (but not sealed) test tubes (150 × 18 mm) providing control conditions. Under RGE conditions, not only the positive impact of the ethylene precursors 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid (ACC) and ethephon on shoot proliferation was demonstrated but also a several-fold increase, compared to the control conditions, in the mean shoot number per explant was recorded even on the hormone-free nutrient medium. Moreover, the shoots developed under RGE conditions were distinguished by superior rooting ability in the subsequent culture. These results suggest that a plant micropropagation system based on the action of plant-produced ethylene rather than of exogenous hormones is possible. -- Highlights: ► Aspen in vitro cultures were grown in different vessels. ► Small-volume vessels were used for restriction of gas exchange. ► Aspen explants produced most shoots in small-volume vessels. ► Shoot proliferation was increased due to explant response to ethylene.

  16. Correlation between ethylene emission and skin colour changes during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Vitoria, A. P.; Corrêa, S. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Campostrini, E.; Santos, E. O.; Cavalli, A.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    The skin colour changes and ethylene emission rates were monitored during papaya (C. papaya L.) fruit ripening. Two groups of papaya (‘Formosa’ and ‘Solo’) were applied in this study. The total colour difference was used as measured parameter and the corresponding half time of its saturation was used as correlation parameter. A high correlation factor between the saturation half time and corresponding climacteric peak time was found. It was concluded that high ethylene emission rate in ‘Solo’ fruit promotes a quick change of the total colour difference.

  17. ETHYLENE GLYCOL POISONING WITH CONCURRENT ETHANOL INGESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Lainščak

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ethylene glycol, usually ingested by coincidence, causes uncommon but serious poisoning which could have fatal consequences without prompt diagnosis and treatment. Ethylene glycol itself has a low toxicity but is rapidly degraded to toxic metabolites, that are responsible for typical clinical presentation. Metabolic acidosis, increased anion and osmolal gap are typical laboratory findings. Application of antidotes ethanol and fomepizol, hemodyalisis and correction of metabolic acidosis are mainstays of therapy.Patients and methods. A case of concurrent ethanol and ethylene glycol ingestion is presented. On admission diagnosis of ethylene glycol poisoning was supported by heteroanamnestic data, typical clinical presentation and laboratory findings and latter confirmed with body fluid analysis. Despite therapy with ethanol, sodium hydrogencarbonate and parenteral hydration patient developed acute renal failure which required hemodyalisis.Conclusions. Concurrent ingestion of spirit improved prognosis of ingestion of lethal ethylene glycol dose. Due to late arrival adequate and immediate in-hospital management could not prevent acute renal failure and subsequent hemodyalisis.

  18. Ethylene sensing and gene activation in Botrytis cinerea: a missing link in ethylene regulation of fungus-plant interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagué, Véronique; Danit, Levanoni-Visel; Siewers, Verena; Schulze-Gronover, Christian; Tudzynski, Paul; Tudzynski, Bettina; Sharon, Amir

    2006-01-01

    Ethylene production by infected plants is an early resistance response leading to activation of plant defense pathways. However, plant pathogens also are capable of producing ethylene, and ethylene might have an effect not only on the plant but on the pathogen as well. Therefore, ethylene may play a dual role in fungus-plant interactions by affecting the plant as well as the pathogen. To address this question, we studied the effects of ethylene on the gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea and the disease it causes on Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Exposure of B. cinerea to ethylene inhibited mycelium growth in vitro and caused transcriptional changes in a large number of fungal genes. A screen of fungal signaling mutants revealed a Galpha null mutant (deltabcg1) which was ethylene insensitive, overproduced ethylene in vitro, and showed considerable transcriptional changes in response to ethylene compared with the wild type. Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG)-treated, ethylene-nonproducing N. benthamiana plants developed much larger necroses than ethylene-producing plants, whereas addition of ethylene to AVG-treated leaves restricted disease spreading. Ethylene also affected fungal gene expression in planta. Expression of a putative pathogenicity fungal gene, bcspl1, was enhanced 24 h after inoculation in ethylene-producing plants but only 48 h after inoculation in ethylene-nonproducing plants. Our results show that the responses of B. cinerea to ethylene are partly mediated by a G protein signaling pathway, and that ethylene-induced plant resistance might involve effects of plant ethylene on both the plant and the fungus.

  19. [Exogenous surfactant therapy: new synthetic surfactants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaze-Masmonteil, Th

    2008-06-01

    There are numerous pulmonary conditions in which qualitative or quantitative anomalies of the surfactant system have been demonstrated. In premature newborns with immature lungs, a functional deficit in surfactant is the main physiopathologic mechanism of the neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Since the landmark pilot study of Fujiwara, published more than 20 years ago, the efficacy of exogenous surfactant for the treatment of neonatal RDS has been established by numerous controlled studies and meta-analyses. Enlightened by a growing insight into both the structure and function of the different surfactant components, a new generation of synthetic surfactants has been developed. Various complementary approaches have confirmed the fundamental role of the two hydrophobic proteins, SP-B and SP-C, in the surfactant system, thus opening the way to the design of analogues, either by chemical synthesis or expression in a prokaryotic system. An example of these peptide-containing synthetic surfactant preparations, lucinactant (Surfaxin), has been recently tested in comparison to a synthetic surfactant that does not contain protein as well as to animal derived surfactant preparations. Major clinical outcomes between lucinactant and animal-derived surfactant preparations were fund similar in two randomized controlled trials, opening the way to a new generation of synthetic surfactants in the near future.

  20. Ethylene Production by Botrytis cinerea In Vitro and in Tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristescu, Simona M.; De Martinis, Domenico; te Lintel Hekkert, Sacco; Parker, David H.; Harren, Frans J. M.

    2002-01-01

    A laser-based ethylene detector was used for on-line monitoring of ethylene released by the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea in vitro and in tomato fruit. Ethylene data were combined with the results of a cytological analysis of germination of B. cinerea conidia and hyphal growth. We found that aminoethoxyvinylglycine and aminooxyacetic acid, which are competitive inhibitors of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid pathway, did not inhibit the ethylene emission by B. cinerea and that the fungus most likely produces ethylene via the 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyric acid pathway. B. cinerea is able to produce ethylene in vitro, and the emission of ethylene follows the pattern that is associated with hyphal growth rather than the germination of conidia. Ethylene production in vitro depended on the l-methionine concentration added to the plating medium. Higher values and higher emission rates were observed when the concentration of conidia was increased. Compared with the ethylene released by the fungus, the infection-related ethylene produced by two tomato cultivars (cultivars Money Maker and Daniela) followed a similar pattern, but the levels of emission were 100-fold higher. The time evolution of enhanced ethylene production by the infected tomatoes and the cytological observations indicate that ethylene emission by the tomato-fungus system is not triggered by the ethylene produced by B. cinerea, although it is strongly synchronized with the growth rate of the fungus inside the tomato. PMID:12406723

  1. APC implementation in Chandra Asri - ethylene plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidiq, Mochamad; Mustofa, Ali

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays, the modern process plants are continuously improved for maximizing production, Optimization of the energy and raw material and reducing the risk. Due to many disturbances appearance between the process units, hence, the failure of one unit might have a bad effect on the overall productivity. Ethylene Plant have significant opportunities for using Advanced Process Control (APC) technologies to improve operation stability, push closer to quality or equipment limit, and improve the capability of process units to handle disturbances. APC implementation had considered a best answer for solving multivariable control problem. PT. Chandra Asri Petrochemical, Tbk (CAP) operates a large naphtha cracker complex at Cilegon, Indonesia. To optimize the plant operation and to enhance the benefit, Chandra Asri has been decided to implement Advance Process Control (APC) for ethylene plant. The APC implementation technology scopes at CAP are as follows: 1. Hot Section : Furnaces, Quench Tower 2. Cold Section : Demethanizer, Deethanizer, Acetylene Converter, Ethylene Fractionator, Depropanizer, Propylene Fractionator, Debutanizer

  2. Mechanistic investigations of the ethylene tetramerisation reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overett, Matthew J; Blann, Kevin; Bollmann, Annette; Dixon, John T; Haasbroek, Daleen; Killian, Esna; Maumela, Hulisani; McGuinness, David S; Morgan, David H

    2005-08-03

    The unprecedented selective tetramerisation of ethylene to 1-octene was recently reported. In the present study various mechanistic aspects of this novel transformation were investigated. The unusually high 1-octene selectivity in chromium-catalyzed ethylene tetramerisation reactions is caused by the unique extended metallacyclic mechanism in operation. Both 1-octene and higher 1-alkenes are formed by further ethylene insertion into a metallacycloheptane intermediate, whereas 1-hexene is formed by elimination from this species as in other reported trimerisation reactions. This is supported by deuterium labeling studies, analysis of the molar distribution of 1-alkene products, and identification of secondary co-oligomerization reaction products. In addition, the formation of two C6 cyclic products, methylenecyclopentane and methylcyclopentane, is discussed, and a bimetallic disproportionation mechanism to account for the available data is proposed.

  3. Effects of exogenous polyamines and inhibitors of polyamine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    1-carboxylic acid. (mACC), the precursor of ethylene biosynthesis and ... carboxylic acid; MGBG, methylglyoxal bis-(guanylhydrazone); ...... combination with simulated acid rain on functional activity of photosynthetic apparatus.

  4. Association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onasanya, Oluwadamilola; Iyer, Geetha; Lucas, Eleanor; Lin, Dora; Singh, Sonal; Alexander, G Caleb

    2016-11-01

    Given the conflicting evidence regarding the association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events, we systematically assessed published systematic reviews for evidence of the association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Collaboration Clinical Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the US Food and Drug Administration website for systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials published up to July 19, 2016. Two independent reviewers screened 954 full texts from 29 335 abstracts to identify systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials in which the cardiovascular effects of exogenous testosterone on men aged 18 years or older were examined. We extracted data for study characteristics, analytic methods, and key findings, and applied the AMSTAR (A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews) checklist to assess methodological quality of each review. Our primary outcome measure was the direction and magnitude of association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events. We identified seven reviews and meta-analyses, which had substantial clinical heterogeneity, differing statistical methods, and variable methodological quality and quality of data abstraction. AMSTAR scores ranged from 3 to 9 out of 11. Six systematic reviews that each included a meta-analysis showed no significant association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events, with summary estimates ranging from 1·07 to 1·82 and imprecise confidence intervals. Two of these six meta-analyses showed increased risk in subgroup analyses of oral testosterone and men aged 65 years or older during their first treatment year. One meta-analysis showed a significant association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events, in men aged 18 years or older generally, with a summary estimate of 1·54 (95% CI 1·09-2·18). Our optimal information size analysis showed that any randomised controlled

  5. Plant defense genes are regulated by ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecker, J.R.; Davis, R.W.

    1987-08-01

    One of the earliest detectable events during plant-pathogen interaction is a rapid increase in ethylene biosynthesis. This gaseous plant stress hormone may be a signal for plants to activate defense mechanisms against invading pathogens such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The effect of ethylene on four plant genes involved in three separate plant defense response pathways was examined; these included (i and ii) genes that encode L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.5) and 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4-coumarate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming), EC 6.2.1.12), enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway, (iii) the gene encoding chalcone synthase, an enzyme of the flavonoid glycoside pathway, and (iv) the genes encoding hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein, a major protein component(s) of plant cell walls. Blot hybridization analysis of mRNA from ethylene-treated carrot roots reveals marked increases in the levels of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase mRNA, 4-coumarate CoA ligase mRNA, chalcone synthase mRNA, and certain hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein transcripts. The effect of ethylene on hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein mRNA accumulation was different from that of wounding. Ethylene induces two hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein mRNAs (1.8 and 4.0 kilobases), whereas wounding of carrot root leads to accumulation of an additional hydroxyproline-rich mRNA (1.5 kilobases). These results indicate that at least two distinct signals, ethylene and a wound signal, can affect the expression of plant defense-response genes.

  6. Polyurethane networks based on poly (ethylene oxide)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulfiqar, S.; Quddos, A.

    1993-01-01

    A wide range of infinite urethane polymer networks were prepared from poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) and hexamethylene disocyanate (HMDI) using 1,1,1, tris (hydroxymethyl) ethane (THME) as crosslinking agent. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that the hydrate formation depends quantitatively upon the weight fraction on poly(ethylene oxide) in the gel. It has been shown that the crosslinked polyurethanes crystallize only with definite ranges of chain length between the knots. In this range with the increase of the degree of crosslinking and crystallinity on the swelling character of the polymeric materials has also been discussed. (author)

  7. Assessment of exogenous pigmentation in colourless elastic ligatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Alline Birra Nolasco; Ruellas, Antônio Carlos Oliveira; Araújo, Marcus Vinicius Almeida; Sant'Anna, Eduardo Franzotti; Elias, Carlos Nelson

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate colour alteration of transparent elastic ligatures submitted to exogenous pigmentation. Forty test specimens were divided into eight groups corresponding to one commercial brand with five test specimens in each group. The test specimens were immersed into coffee and black tea solutions with the purpose of assessing colour alteration using a portable digital spectrophotometer (Vita Easyshade Compact). The surfaces of the ligatures under scanning electron microscope (SEM) at ×30, ×150 and ×20,000 magnification were evaluated with the purpose of observing the differences in porosity of the ligatures. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for normality was applied followed by the one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) and the level of significance adopted was 95%. All the groups showed modified initial colour that was perceptible to the human eye. The brand that showed greater colour alteration, in comparison with its initial colour, was the American® pearl elastic ligature and the ligatures that presented the smallest colour variation were the Ortho-Organizer®. The surface evaluations of the ligatures showed differences with regard to the topography evidencing more porosity in the ligatures that showed greater staining. The group that changed colour significantly was the one that presented the highest porosity, and the brand that was the least altered was the one that showed the lowest porosity. © 2014 British Orthodontic Society.

  8. Surface coordination polymerization of ethylene by hydrozirconation-immobilized metallocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Wang, Yanhui; Ye, Lin; Lin, Yichao; Tang, Tao; Zhang, Jidong

    2014-07-01

    Hydrozirconation on vinyl-terminated substrates (silicon wafer and nanosilica sphere) is employed as an efficient way for immobilization of zirconocene catalyst through Zr-C bonds, which is applied in surface coordination ethylene polymerization producing surface-tethered polyethylene (PE). The formation of Zr-C σ bond induced by hydrozirconation provides an initiator precursor for growing a layer of PE covalently linked onto substrates. The results from SEM, AFM, and TEM show that the surface polymerization is controlled by hydrozirconation. Surface pattern or core-shell structure with crystalline PE coating can be formed, when silicon wafer is selectively functionalized with vinyl-groups or vinyl-modified nanosilica is applied. It is believed that hydrozirconation for the synthesis of zirconocene initiator can be a versatile route to prepare polyolefin hybrid materials. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. 40 CFR 180.151 - Ethylene oxide; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethylene oxide; tolerances for... § 180.151 Ethylene oxide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of the antimicrobial agent and insecticide ethylene oxide, when used as a postharvest fumigant in...

  10. 21 CFR 880.6100 - Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. 880.6100... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6100 Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. (a) Identification. An ethyene oxide gas... required to remove residual ethylene oxide (ETO) from wrapped medical devices that have undergone ETO...

  11. The role of ethylene in plants under salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Jun eTao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the roles of ethylene in plant response to salinity and other stresses have been extensively studied, there are still some obscure points left to be clarified. Generally, in Arabidopsis and many other terrestrial plants, ethylene signaling is indispensable for plant rapid response and tolerance to salinity stress. However, a few studies showed that functional knock-out of some ACSs increased plant salinity-tolerance, while overexpression of them caused more sensitivity. This seems to be contradictory to the known opinion that ethylene plays positive roles in salinity response. Differently, ethylene in rice may play negative roles in regulating seedling tolerance to salinity. The main positive ethylene signaling components MHZ7/OsEIN2, MHZ6/OsEIL1 and OsEIL2 all negatively regulate the salinity-tolerance of rice seedlings. Recently, several different research groups all proposed a negative feedback mechanism of coordinating plant growth and ethylene response, in which several ethylene-inducible proteins (including NtTCTP, NEIP2, SAUR76/77/78 and ARGOS act as inhibitors of ethylene response but activators of plant growth. Therefore, in addition to a summary of the general roles of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling in salinity response, this review mainly focused on discussing (i the discrepancies between ethylene biosynthesis and signaling in salinity response, (ii the divergence between rice and Arabidopsis in regulation of salinity response by ethylene, and (iii the possible negative feedback mechanism of coordinating plant growth and salinity response by ethylene.

  12. Induction by ethylene of cyanide-resistant respiration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomos, T.; Laties, G.G.

    1976-05-17

    Ethylene and cyanide induce an increase in respiration in a variety of plant tissues, whereas ethylene has no effect on tissues whose respiration is strongly inhibited by cyanide. It is suggested that the existence of a cyanide-insensitive electron transport path is a prerequisite for stimulation of respiration by ethylene.

  13. Ethylene, an early marker of systemic inflammation in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paardekooper, L.M.; Bogaart, G. van den; Kox, M.; Dingjan, I.; Neerincx, A.H.; Bendix, M.B.; Beest, M.T.; Harren, F.J.M; Risby, T.; Pickkers, P.; Marczin, N.; Cristescu, S.M.

    2017-01-01

    Ethylene is a major plant hormone mediating developmental processes and stress responses to stimuli such as infection. We show here that ethylene is also produced during systemic inflammation in humans and is released in exhaled breath. Traces of ethylene were detected by laser spectroscopy both in

  14. Induction of virus resistance by exogenous application of double-stranded RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitter, Neena; Worrall, Elizabeth A; Robinson, Karl E; Xu, Zhi Ping; Carroll, Bernard J

    2017-10-01

    Exogenous application of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) for virus resistance in plants represents a very attractive alternative to virus resistant transgenic crops or pesticides targeting virus vectors. However, the instability of dsRNA sprayed onto plants is a major challenge as spraying naked dsRNA onto plants provides protection against homologous viruses for only 5 days. Innovative approaches, such as the use of nanoparticles as carriers of dsRNA for improved stability and sustained release, are emerging as key disruptive technologies. Knowledge is still limited about the mechanism of entry, transport and processing of exogenously applied dsRNA in plants. Cost of dsRNA and regulatory framework will be key influencers towards practical adoption of this technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of exogenous IAA on radiation-induced seedling growth in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Shakuntala; Shama Rao, H.K.

    1978-01-01

    Rice seeds of var. D-6-2-2 were used to ascertain the interaction between exogenous IAA and low and high dose of γ-rays on seedling growth. Low doses of radiation (1,2 kR) and low concentrations of IAA(5,10 ppm) stimulated growth when applied independently. However, they proved inhibitory in combination, indicating the possibility of native IAA involvement at optimum level in radiation-induced stimulation. At a higher dose (5 kR), higher concentrations of exogenous IAA (50,100 ppm) resulted in a significant growth recovery over control. These results suggest that low doses of ionizing radiations probably accelerate the IAA synthesizing system leading to stimulation. (author)

  16. Polymerization of ethylene oxide using yttrium isopropoxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, Young K.; Stevels, W.M.; Ankone, Martinus J.K.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Kim, Sung W.; Feijen, Jan

    1996-01-01

    Well defined poly(ethylene oxide)s were prepared using yttrium isopropoxide as an initiator. End group analysis using 1H- and 13C NMR spectroscopy revealed that only polymers with isopropyl ether and hydroxyl end groups were produced. The molecular weight is controlled by the initial amount of

  17. Ethylene-mediated acclimations to flooding stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasidharan, Rashmi; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J

    2015-01-01

    Flooding is detrimental for plants, primarily because of restricted gas exchange underwater, which leads to an energy and carbohydrate deficit. Impeded gas exchange also causes rapid accumulation of the volatile ethylene in all flooded plant cells. Although several internal changes in the plant can

  18. Effect of exogenously added rhamnolipids on citric acid production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of exogenously added rhamnolipids on citric acid production yield. Wojciech Białas, Roman Marecik, Alicja Szulc, Łukasz Ławniczak, Łukasz Chrzanowski, Filip Ciesielczyk, Teofil Jesionowski, Andreas Aurich ...

  19. Effects of exogenous polyamines and inhibitors of polyamine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) and dicyclohexylamine (DCHA) or three exogenous polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) were added into a modified HLM-1 maturation medium inoculated with embryogenic tissues. Medium responses were ...

  20. Mixed Causal-Noncausal Autoregressions with Strictly Exogenous Regressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hecq, Alain; Issler, J.V.; Telg, Sean

    2017-01-01

    The mixed autoregressive causal-noncausal model (MAR) has been proposed to estimate economic relationships involving explosive roots in their autoregressive part, as they have stationary forward solutions. In previous work, possible exogenous variables in economic relationships are substituted into

  1. Minnesota urban partnership agreement national evaluation : exogenous factors test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-17

    This report presents the exogenous factors test plan for the national evaluation of the Minnesota Urban Partnership Agreement (UPA) under the United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) UPA Program. The Minnesota UPA projects focus on reduc...

  2. Isolating Exogenous and Endogenous Modes of Temporal Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Michael A.; Klein, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    The differential allocation of information processing resources over time, here termed "temporal attention," may be achieved by relatively automatic "exogenous" or controlled "endogenous" mechanisms. Over 100 years of research has confounded these theoretically distinct dimensions of temporal attention. The current…

  3. The use of exogenous microbial species to enhance the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    film bioreactor with exogenous bacterial and diatoma species would increase the removal of chemical oxygen demand, nitrogenous compounds and suspended solids from a real-time coal gasification wastewater to meet environmental ...

  4. Effects of abscisic acid, ethylene and sugars on the mobilization of storage proteins and carbohydrates in seeds of the tropical tree Sesbania virgata (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, Patricia Pinho; Purgatto, Eduardo; Buckeridge, Marcos Silveira

    2010-10-01

    Endospermic legumes are abundant in tropical forests and their establishment is closely related to the mobilization of cell-wall storage polysaccharides. Endosperm cells also store large numbers of protein bodies that play an important role as a nitrogen reserve in this seed. In this work, a systems approach was adopted to evaluate some of the changes in carbohydrates and hormones during the development of seedlings of the rain forest tree Sesbania virgata during the period of establishment. Seeds imbibed abscisic acid (ABA), glucose and sucrose in an atmosphere of ethylene, and the effects of these compounds on the protein contents, α-galactosidase activity and endogenous production of ABA and ethylene by the seeds were observed. The presence of exogenous ABA retarded the degradation of storage protein in the endosperm and decreased α-galactosidase activity in the same tissue during galactomannan degradation, suggesting that ABA represses enzyme action. On the other hand, exogenous ethylene increased α-galactosidase activity in both the endosperm and testa during galactomannan degradation, suggesting an inducing effect of this hormone on the hydrolytic enzymes. Furthermore, the detection of endogenous ABA and ethylene production during the period of storage mobilization and the changes observed in the production of these endogenous hormones in the presence of glucose and sucrose, suggested a correlation between the signalling pathway of these hormones and the sugars. These findings suggest that ABA, ethylene and sugars play a role in the control of the hydrolytic enzyme activities in seeds of S. virgata, controlling the process of storage degradation. This is thought to ensure a balanced flow of the carbon and nitrogen for seedling development.

  5. Ethylene pre-harvest application in ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ produced in the region of “Dom Pedrito” – RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Jansen Moreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thus this work was to evaluate the use of ethylene application in pre-harvest grapes of Cabernet Sauvignon cultivar. Applying ethylene by spraying with ethylene solution in different periods with the following treatments; (T1 without application of ethylene; (T2 10 ppm of ethylene in the fruit only on the day of collection; (T3 two applications of 10 ppm ethylene (one day before harvest and once on the day of harvest and; (T4 three applications of 10 ppm ethylene (two days prior to harvest, one day prior to harvest and the other on the day of harvest. For each treatment were made four replications in the field, with 07 plants each. The physicochemical analyses in must and wine as pH, total soluble solids (TSS, expressed acidity malic acid, expressed as acid into lactic acid, total acid and ethanol were made by infrared spectrometry Fourier transform (FTIR. There were significant differences between treatments in physical and chemical composition of must and wine. These preliminary results suggest that ethylene pre-harvest application modify somehow the malic acid content, modifying the total acidity and pH of the must and wine in Cabernet Sauvignon, promoting a slight modification in the TSS and thus in ethanol.

  6. A model of the ethylene signaling pathway and its gene response in Arabidopsis thaliana: Pathway cross-talk and noise-filtering properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, José; Álvarez-Buylla, Elena R.

    2006-06-01

    Dynamic models of molecular networks and pathways enable in silico evaluations of the consistency of proposed interactions and the outcomes of perturbations as well as of hypotheses on system-level structure and function. We postulate a continuous model of the activation dynamics of the ethylene response factor 1 (ERF1) gene in response to ethylene signaling. This activation elicits the response of the plant defensin 1 (PDF1) gene, which also responds to jasmonic acid, and the inhibition of the putative auxin responsive factor 2 (ARF2) gene, that also responds to auxin. Our model allows the effect of different ethylene concentrations in eliciting contrasting genetic and phenotypic responses to be evaluated allows the effect of different ethylene concentrations in eliciting contrasting genetic and phenotypic responses to be evaluated and seems to consider key components of the ethylene pathway because the ERF1 dose-response curve that we predict has the same qualitative form as the phenotypic dose-response curves obtained experimentally. Therefore, our model suggests that the phenotypic dose-response curves obtained experimentally could be due, at least in part, to ERF1 changes to different ethylene concentrations. Stability analyses show that the model's results are robust to parameter estimates. Of interest is that our model predicts that the ethylene pathway may filter stochastic and rapid chaotic fluctuations in ethylene availability. This novel approach may be applied to any cellular signaling and response pathway in plants and animals.

  7. Endogenous versus Exogenous Growth Factor Regulation of Articular Chondrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Shuiliang; Chan, Albert G.; Mercer, Scott; Eckert, George J.; Trippel, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    Anabolic growth factors that regulate the function of articular chondrocytes are candidates for articular cartilage repair. Such factors may be delivered by pharmacotherapy in the form of exogenous proteins, or by gene therapy as endogenous proteins. It is unknown whether delivery method influences growth factor effectiveness in regulating articular chondrocyte reparative functions. We treated adult bovine articular chondrocytes with exogenous recombinant insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) ...

  8. Experimental simulations of ethylene evaporites on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplinski, E.; Farnsworth, K.; Singh, S.; Chevrier, V.

    2017-12-01

    Titan has an abundance of lakes and seas, as identified by the Cassini spacecraft. Major components of these liquid bodies include methane (CH4) and ethane (C2H6), however minor constituents are also thought to exist (e.g. ethylene (C2H4)). As the lakes and seas evaporate, 5-μm-bright deposits, resembling evaporite deposits on Earth, are left behind in a "bathtub ring" fashion. Previous studies include models of evaporites, and observations of the 5-μm-bright regions, but the community is still lacking a complete suite of experimental evaporite studies. In this study, we experimentally investigate evaporites in order to determine their composition and how they affect infrared spectra during the evaporation process. The University of Arkansas owns a specialized chamber that simulates the surface conditions of Titan ( 90 K and 1.5 bar). Gaseous hydrocarbons are condensed within the chamber and analyzed with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and band depth calculations. In this study, three types of experiments were performed: ethane/ethylene, methane/ethylene, and methane/ethane/ethylene. For these experiments, methane was the only species that readily evaporated at Titan conditions (due to its high volatility), while ethane, being the more stable solvent, did not readily evaporate. Therefore, we will present spectral results of ethylene evaporite formation within these mixtures. Our results imply that evaporite formation is strongly dependent on the composition of the solvent. The north polar lakes of Titan are predicted to be methane-rich, indicating that they may be more likely to form evaporites. Alternatively, Ontario Lacus, a south polar lake, is predominately composed of ethane, which may make it more difficult to form evaporites. As we continue to study Titan's mysterious lakes and seas, we hope to draw insights on their exact composition, conditions for evaporite formation, habitability potential, and comparing Titan to prebiotic Earth.

  9. The effect of methyl jasmonate on ethylene production and CO2 evolution in Jonagold apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Miszczak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Apples cv. Jonagold were harvested at the beginning of October and stored at 0°C until treatment between the beginning of December and the end of January. Methyl jasmonate (JA-Me at the concentration of l,0, 0,5, 0,1, 0,05, and 0,01% in lanolin paste were applied to the surface ofintact apples. During five days from treatment, samples of cortex with skin (area about 2,0 cm2 were cut off at a depth of about 2 mm and used for determination of ethylene production, ACC oxidase activity and respiration determined as CO2 evolution. The production of endogenous ethylene was highest at mid-January ( 100, 280, and 250 nl/g*h at December, mid-January, and the end of January, respectively. During December and at the beginning of January, JA-Me initially ( 1 -2 days after treatment stimulated ethylene production and then the production was inhibited. The lower concentration of JA-Me caused initially the greater stimulation and then Iower inhibition of ethylene production. However, at the time of maximum production of endogenous ethylene (mid-January and later. stimulatory effect of JA-Me disappeared. The effect of various concentrations and time of application of JA-Me on ACC oxidase activity had similar trend as endogenous ethylene production. Methyl jasmonate stimulated respiration and this effect was dependent on JA-Me concentration and independent on time of application. The metabolic significance of these findings is discussed.

  10. Early detection of spontaneous combustion of coal in underground coal mines with development of an ethylene enriching system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Jun; Xue, Sheng [CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, Kenmore (Australia); Cheng, Weimin; Wang, Gang [Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China)

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous combustion of coal (sponcom) is a major hazard in underground coal mining operations. If not detected early and managed properly, it can seriously affect mine safety and productivity. Gaseous products of sponcom, such as carbon monoxide, ethylene and hydrogen, are commonly used in coal mines as indicators to reflect the state of the sponcom. Studies have shown that ethylene starts to occur when sponcom reaches a characteristic temperature. However, due to dilution of ventilation air and detection limits of the instruments used for gas analysis at coal mines, ethylene cannot be detected until the sponcom has developed past its early stage, missing an optimum opportunity for mine operators to control the hazard. To address the issue, an ethylene-enriching system, based on its physical adsorption and desorption properties, has been developed to increase detection sensitivity of the ethylene concentration in mine air by about 10 times. This system has successfully been applied in a number of underground coal mines in China to detect sponcom at its early stage and enable mine operators to take effective control measures. This paper describes the ethylene enriching system and its application. (author)

  11. Ethylene, a key factor in the regulation of seed dormancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbineau, Françoise; Xia, Qiong; Bailly, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Ethylene is an important component of the gaseous environment, and regulates numerous plant developmental processes including seed germination and seedling establishment. Dormancy, the inability to germinate in apparently favorable conditions, has been demonstrated to be regulated by the hormonal balance between abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs). Ethylene plays a key role in dormancy release in numerous species, the effective concentrations allowing the germination of dormant seeds ranging between 0.1 and 200 μL L-1. Studies using inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis or of ethylene action and analysis of mutant lines altered in genes involved in the ethylene signaling pathway (etr1, ein2, ain1, etr1, and erf1) demonstrate the involvement of ethylene in the regulation of germination and dormancy. Ethylene counteracts ABA effects through a regulation of ABA metabolism and signaling pathways. Moreover, ethylene insensitive mutants in Arabidopsis are more sensitive to ABA and the seeds are more dormant. Numerous data also show an interaction between ABA, GAs and ethylene metabolism and signaling pathways. It has been increasingly demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may play a significant role in the regulation of seed germination interacting with hormonal signaling pathways. In the present review the responsiveness of seeds to ethylene will be described, and the key role of ethylene in the regulation of seed dormancy via a crosstalk between hormones and other signals will be discussed. PMID:25346747

  12. Modelling and predicting electricity consumption in Spain using the stochastic Gamma diffusion process with exogenous factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nafidi, A.; Gutiérrez, R.; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, R.; Ramos-Ábalos, E.; El Hachimi, S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to model electric power consumption during a period of economic crisis, characterised by declining gross domestic product. A novel aspect of this study is its use of a Gamma-type diffusion process for short and medium-term forecasting – other techniques that have been used to describe such consumption patterns are not valid in this situation. In this study, we consider a new extension of the stochastic Gamma diffusion process by introducing time functions (exogenous factors) that affect its trend. This extension is defined in terms of Kolmogorov backward and forward equations. After obtaining the transition probability density function and the moments (specifically, the trend function), the inference on the process parameters is obtained by discrete sampling of the sample paths. Finally, this stochastic process is applied to model total net electricity consumption in Spain, when affected by the following set of exogenous factors: Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF) and Final Domestic Consumption (FDC). - Highlights: • The aim is modelling and predicting electricity consumption in Spain. • We propose a Gamma-type diffusion process for short and medium-term forecasting. • We compared the fit using diffusion processes with different exogenous factors.

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of four genes encoding ethylene receptors associated with pineapple (Ananas comosus L. flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhe eLi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous ethylene, or ethephon, has been widely used to induce pineapple flowering, but the molecular mechanism behind ethephon induction is still unclear. In this study, we cloned four genes encoding ethylene receptors (designated AcERS1a, AcERS1b, AcETR2a and AcETR2b. The 5′ flanking sequences of these four genes were also cloned by self-formed adaptor PCR and SiteFinding-PCR, and a group of putative cis-acting elements was identified. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that AcERS1a, AcERS1b, AcETR2a and AcETR2b belonged to the plant ERS1s and ETR2/EIN4-like groups. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that AcETR2a and AcETR2b (subfamily 2 were more sensitive to ethylene treatment compared with AcERS1a and AcERS1b (subfamily 1. The relative expression of AcERS1b, AcETR2a and AcETR2b was significantly increased during the earlier period of pineapple inflorescence formation, especially at 1-9 days after ethylene treatment (DAET, whereas AcERS1a expression changed less than these three genes. In situ hybridization results showed that bract primordia (BP and flower primordia (FP appeared at 9 and 21 DAET, respectively, and flowers were formed at 37 DAET. AcERS1a, AcERS1b, AcETR2a and AcETR2b were mainly expressed in the shoot apex at 1-4 DAET; thereafter, with the appearance of BP and FP, higher expression of these genes was found in these new structures. Finally, at 37 DAET, the expression of these genes was mainly focused in the flower but was also low in other structures. These findings indicate that these four ethylene receptor genes, especially AcERS1b, AcETR2a and AcETR2b, play important roles during pineapple flowering induced by exogenous ethephon.

  14. Polyamines Attenuate Ethylene-Mediated Defense Responses to Abrogate Resistance to Botrytis cinerea in Tomato1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambeesan, Savithri; AbuQamar, Synan; Laluk, Kristin; Mattoo, Autar K.; Mickelbart, Michael V.; Ferruzzi, Mario G.; Mengiste, Tesfaye; Handa, Avtar K.

    2012-01-01

    Transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) lines overexpressing yeast spermidine synthase (ySpdSyn), an enzyme involved in polyamine (PA) biosynthesis, were developed. These transgenic lines accumulate higher levels of spermidine (Spd) than the wild-type plants and were examined for responses to the fungal necrotrophs Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria solani, bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000, and larvae of the chewing insect tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta). The Spd-accumulating transgenic tomato lines were more susceptible to B. cinerea than the wild-type plants; however, responses to A. solani, P. syringae, or M. sexta were similar to the wild-type plants. Exogenous application of ethylene precursors, S-adenosyl-Met and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, or PA biosynthesis inhibitors reversed the response of the transgenic plants to B. cinerea. The increased susceptibility of the ySpdSyn transgenic tomato to B. cinerea was associated with down-regulation of gene transcripts involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signaling. These data suggest that PA-mediated susceptibility to B. cinerea is linked to interference with the functions of ethylene in plant defense. PMID:22128140

  15. A Nitrilase-Like Protein Interacts with GCC Box DNA-Binding Proteins Involved in Ethylene and Defense Responses1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Narasimhan, Meena L.; Samson, Teresa; Coca, Maria A.; Huh, Gyung-Hye; Zhou, Jianmin; Martin, Gregory B.; Hasegawa, Paul M.; Bressan, Ray A.

    1998-01-01

    Ethylene-responsive element-binding proteins (EREBPs) of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) bind to the GCC box of many pathogenesis-related (PR) gene promoters, including osmotin (PR-5). The two GCC boxes on the osmotin promoter are known to be required, but not sufficient, for maximal ethylene responsiveness. EREBPs participate in the signal transduction pathway leading from exogenous ethylene application and pathogen infection to PR gene induction. In this study EREBP3 was used as bait in a yeast two-hybrid interaction trap with a tobacco cDNA library as prey to isolate signal transduction pathway intermediates that interact with EREBPs. One of the strongest interactors was found to encode a nitrilase-like protein (NLP). Nitrilase is an enzyme involved in auxin biosynthesis. NLP interacted with other EREBP family members, namely tobacco EREBP2 and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) Pti4/5/6. The EREBP2-EREBP3 interaction with NLP required part of the DNA-binding domain. The specificity of interaction was further confirmed by protein-binding studies in solution. We propose that the EREBP-NLP interaction serves to regulate PR gene expression by sequestration of EREBPs in the cytoplasm. PMID:9808731

  16. Temperature dependent Dielectric studies of Poly(Ethylene Oxide)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva Kumar, B. P.; Gurumurthy, T. M.; Praveen, D.

    2018-02-01

    Polymers are known to be better materials for dielectric applications. Various polymers with different molecular weights are being studied for dielectric applications. In the present paper, we report the dielectric measurements of Poly(Ethylene Oxide) {PEO} using Impedance spectroscopy studies. The dielectric studies of PEO were carried out on pellets as a function of temperature. It was found that the dielectric constant seems to be negligibly varying with increase in temperature at high frequencies, however, at low frequencies, dielectric constant varies increases with temperature. This may be due to the fact that with the thermal energy provided to the system, more and more dipoles participate and hence the net dielectric constant of the material is also higher at higher temperature. Also at very high frequencies, due to many non-responsive dipoles for fast switching of the applied signal, net dielectric constant of the material also does vary much with temperatures.

  17. Exogenous hydrogen sulfide promotes cell proliferation and differentiation by modulating autophagy in human keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Xin [Department of Dermatology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150086, Heilongjiang Province (China); Dai, Hui [Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150001, Heilongjiang Province (China); Zhuang, Binyu [Department of Dermatology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150086, Heilongjiang Province (China); Chai, Li; Xie, Yanguang [Institute of Dermatology of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin, 150001, Heilongjiang Province (China); Li, Yuzhen, E-mail: liyuzhen@medmail.com.cn [Department of Dermatology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150086, Heilongjiang Province (China)

    2016-04-08

    The effects and the underlying mechanisms of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) on keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation are still less known. In the current study, we investigated the effects and the underlying mechanisms of exogenous H{sub 2}S on keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. Human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) were treated with various concentrations (0.05, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mM) of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a donor of H{sub 2}S) for 24 h. A CCK-8 assay was used to assess cell viability. Western blot analysis was performed to determine the expression levels of proteins associated with differentiation and autophagy. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to observe autophagic vacuoles, and flow cytometry was applied to evaluate apoptosis. NaHS promoted the viability, induced the differentiation, and enhanced autophagic activity in a dose-dependent manner in HaCaT cells but had no effect on cell apoptosis. Blockage of autophagy by ATG5 siRNA inhibited NaHS-induced cell proliferation and differentiation. The current study demonstrated that autophagy in response to exogenous H{sub 2}S treatment promoted keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. Our results provide additional insights into the potential role of autophagy in keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. - Highlights: • Exogenous H{sub 2}S promotes keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. • The effects of H{sub 2}S on proliferation and differentiation is modulated by autophagy. • Exogenous H{sub 2}S has no effect on keratinocyte apoptosis.

  18. Bacteria in crude oil survived autoclaving and stimulated differentially by exogenous bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Cui Gong

    Full Text Available Autoclaving of crude oil is often used to evaluate the hydrocarbon-degrading abilities of bacteria. This may be potentially useful for bioaugmentation and microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR. However, it is not entirely clear if "endogenous" bacteria (e.g., spores in/on crude oil survive the autoclaving process, or influence subsequent evaluation of the hydrocarbon-degradation abilities of the "exogenous" bacterial strains. To test this, we inoculated autoclaved crude oil medium with six exogenous bacterial strains (three Dietzia strains, two Acinetobacter strains, and one Pseudomonas strain. The survival of the spore-forming Bacillus and Paenibacillus and the non-spore-forming mesophilic Pseudomonas, Dietzia, Alcaligenes, and Microbacterium was detected using a 16S rRNA gene clone library and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis. However, neither bacteria nor bacterial activity was detected in three controls consisting of non-inoculated autoclaved crude oil medium. These results suggest that detection of endogenous bacteria was stimulated by the six inoculated strains. In addition, inoculation with Acinetobacter spp. stimulated detection of Bacillus, while inoculation with Dietzia spp. and Pseudomonas sp. stimulated the detection of more Pseudomonas. In contrast, similar exogenous bacteria stimulated similar endogenous bacteria at the genus level. Based on these results, special emphasis should be applied to evaluate the influence of bacteria capable of surviving autoclaving on the hydrocarbon-degrading abilities of exogenous bacteria, in particular, with regard to bioaugmentation and MEOR. Bioaugmentation and MEOR technologies could then be developed to more accurately direct the growth of specific endogenous bacteria that may then improve the efficiency of treatment or recovery of crude oil.

  19. Magnetic hyperthermia enhances cell toxicity with respect to exogenous heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Beatriz; Calatayud, M Pilar; Torres, Teobaldo E; Fanarraga, Mónica L; Ibarra, M Ricardo; Goya, Gerardo F

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic hyperthermia is a new type of cancer treatment designed for overcoming resistance to chemotherapy during the treatment of solid, inaccessible human tumors. The main challenge of this technology is increasing the local tumoral temperature with minimal side effects on the surrounding healthy tissue. This work consists of an in vitro study that compared the effect of hyperthermia in response to the application of exogenous heating (EHT) sources with the corresponding effect produced by magnetic hyperthermia (MHT) at the same target temperatures. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were loaded with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and packed into dense pellets to generate an environment that is crudely similar to that expected in solid micro-tumors, and the above-mentioned protocols were applied to these cells. These experiments showed that for the same target temperatures, MHT induces a decrease in cell viability that is larger than the corresponding EHT, up to a maximum difference of approximately 45% at T = 46 °C. An analysis of the data in terms of temperature efficiency demonstrated that MHT requires an average temperature that is 6 °C lower than that required with EHT to produce a similar cytotoxic effect. An analysis of electron microscopy images of the cells after the EHT and MHT treatments indicated that the enhanced effectiveness observed with MHT is associated with local cell destruction triggered by the magnetic nano-heaters. The present study is an essential step toward the development of innovative adjuvant anti-cancer therapies based on local hyperthermia treatments using magnetic particles as nano-heaters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ethylene copolymers analysis by fractionation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escher, Fernanda F.N.; Silva, Luciana P.; Galland, Griselda B.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of ethylene 1-butene copolymer,produced in laboratory by different processes using Ziegler-Natta catalysts, ethylene-1-hexene and metallocenes catalysts were fractionated according to molecular size by direct extraction by different solvents and at different temperatures. These samples were also fractionated by differences on crystallinity using a DSC calorimeter. The obtained fractions were characterized by 13 C-NMR, FTIR, GPC and DSC. The polyethylene copolymers produced by Ziegler-Natta catalyst were found more heterogeneous when compared with the one produced by metallocenes catalysts. The commercial resin produced by UCC process with Ziegler-Natta catalysts showed a more homogeneous incorporation of comonomer compared with the one obtained by the Spherilene process. The supported metallocenes catalyst gave a more homogeneous product than the homogeneous metallocene one. (author)

  1. Fragmentation pathways of ethylene after core ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaire, B.; Bocharova, I.; Sturm, F. P.; Gehrken, N.; Haxton, D. J.; Belkacem, A.; Weber, Th.; Zohrabi, M.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Gatton, A.; Williams, J.; Reedy, D.; Nook, C.; Landers, A.; Gassert, H.; Zeller, S.; Voigtsberger, J.; Jahnke, T.; Doerner, R.

    2014-05-01

    We have measured the Auger electrons in coincidence with the recoil ions, resulting from the core ionization of ethylene molecules, by employing the COLd Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy (COLTRIMS) method. The Auger-electron and recoil-ion energy maps are used to identify the fragmentation pathways and they are compared to the valence photo-double-ionization of ethylene. The dicationic electronic states favored by the propensity rules are identified and their role on the fragmentation pathways is discussed. The molecular-frame Auger electron angular distribution provides further insight into the breakup of this molecule after core ionization. Supported by the Director, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, and by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences of the U.S. Department of Energy at LBNL under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  2. Poly(ethylene glycol) interactions with proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hašek, Jindřich

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 23 (2006), s. 613-618 ISSN 0044-2968. [European Powder Diffraction Conference /9./. Prague, 02.09.2004-05.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/02/0843 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : poly(ethylene glycol) * PEO * protein-polymer interaction Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.897, year: 2006

  3. Ethylene Oxide Gas Sterilization of Medical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Hideharu

    2017-01-01

     Ethylene oxide gas is an agent in the sterilization of medical devices due to its effectiveness and compatibility with most materials. The advantages and disadvantages, as well as its recommended uses, are explored in this review article. The variables and their relevance on process optimization are described, the types of processing cycles are detailed and emphasis is given to the design and validation of the sterilization process.

  4. Poly(ethylene oxide) surfactant polymers

    OpenAIRE

    VACHEETHASANEE, KATANCHALEE; WANG, SHUWU; QIU, YONGXING; MARCHANT, ROGER E.

    2004-01-01

    We report on a series of structurally well-defined surfactant polymers that undergo surface-induced self-assembly on hydrophobic biomaterial surfaces. The surfactant polymers consist of a poly(vinyl amine) backbone with poly(ethylene oxide) and hexanal pendant groups. The poly(vinyl amine) (PVAm) was synthesized by hydrolysis of poly(N-vinyl formamide) following free radical polymerization of N-vinyl formamide. Hexanal and aldehyde-terminated poly (ethyleneoxide) (PEO) were simultaneously att...

  5. Crude oil to ethylene in one step

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, R.O.

    1983-02-01

    Reports that the most important feature of the partial combustion cracking (PCC) process is its ability to convert heavy petroleum fractions to light olefins with minimum residue. Presents diagram of the PCC process; graph of feedstock cost vs. return on investment (ROI); and tables with average ethylene yields, cracking yields, and PCC vs. LPG and naphtha cracking. Finds that the 10% difference in capital between the PCC and the naphtha feed case is due mainly to the cost of the acid gas and sulfur handling sections required for the PCC, but not for a naphtha cracker. The very favorable ROI and ethylene costs are due to the relative difference in feedstock pricing. Sensitivity of ROI to changes in feedstock was also studied for the PCC cases. The ratio of cost of high-sulfur fuel oil (HSFO) to average crude price is used to indicate the substantial effect of feedstock price on the attractiveness of the project. Concludes that with HSFO at 85 to 100% of crude value, the PCC represents an excellent investment for future ethylene needs.

  6. Exogenous hydrogen peroxide reversibly inhibits root gravitropism and induces horizontal curvature of primary root during grass pea germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jinglong; Su, Miao; Wang, Liyan; Jiao, Chengjin; Sun, Zhengxi; Cheng, Wei; Li, Fengmin; Wang, Chongying

    2012-04-01

    During germination in distilled water (dH(2)O) on a horizontally positioned Petri dish, emerging primary roots of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) grew perpendicular to the bottom of the Petri dish, due to gravitropism. However, when germinated in exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), the primary roots grew parallel to the bottom of the Petri dish and asymmetrically, forming a horizontal curvature. Time-course experiments showed that the effect was strongest when H(2)O(2) was applied prior to the emergence of the primary root. H(2)O(2) failed to induce root curvature when applied post-germination. Dosage studies revealed that the frequency of primary root curvature was significantly enhanced with increased H(2)O(2) concentrations. This curvature could be directly counteracted by dimethylthiourea (DMTU), a scavenger of H(2)O(2), but not by diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and pyridine, inhibitors of H(2)O(2) production. Exogenous H(2)O(2) treatment caused both an increase in the activities of H(2)O(2)-scavenging enzymes [including ascorbate peroxidase (APX: EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6) and peroxidase (POD: EC 1.11.1.7)] and a reduction in endogenous H(2)O(2) levels and root vitality. Although grass pea seeds absorbed exogenous H(2)O(2) during seed germination, DAB staining of paraffin sections revealed that exogenous H(2)O(2) only entered the root epidermis and not inner tissues. These data indicated that exogenously applied H(2)O(2) could lead to a reversible loss of the root gravitropic response and a horizontal curvature in primary roots during radicle emergence of the seedling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Ethylene and the regulation of plant development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaller G

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Often considered an 'aging' hormone due to its role in accelerating such developmental processes as ripening, senescence, and abscission, the plant hormone ethylene also regulates many aspects of growth and development throughout the life cycle of the plant. Multiple mechanisms have been identified by which transcriptional output from the ethylene signaling pathway can be tailored to meet the needs of particular developmental pathways. Of special interest is the report by Lumba et al. in BMC Biology on how vegetative transitions are regulated through the effect of the transcription factor FUSCA3 on ethylene-controlled gene expression, providing an elegant example of how hormonal control can be integrated into a developmental pathway. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/10/8 Commentary One of the amazing qualities of plants is their phenotypic plasticity. Consider, for example, how a pine tree will grow to a towering hundreds of feet in height in Yosemite Valley, but to only a gnarled few feet in height up near the timberline. This diversity of form, though originating from the same genotype, points to the degree to which plant growth and development can be modulated. Much of this control is mediated by a small group of plant hormones that include auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, abscisic acid, brassinosteroid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene 1. These are often considered 'classical' plant hormones because they were discovered decades ago; indeed, the presence of some was inferred over a century ago. Their early discovery is no doubt due in part to their general function throughout the life cycle of the plant. More recently, and in the remarkably short period of time since the advent of Arabidopsis as a genetic model, key elements in the primary signaling pathways of these plant hormones have been uncovered. The important question is no longer simply how are these hormones perceived, but how are the hormonal signals

  8. Neuronal Rat Brain Damage Caused by Endogenous and Exogenous Hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Aydın

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Hyperthermia may induce pathologic alterations within body systems and organs including brain. In this study, neuronal effects of endogenous and exogenous hyperthermia (41°C were studied in rats. METHODS: The endogenous hyperthermia (41°C was induced by lipopolysaccharide and the exogenous by an (electric heater. Possible neuronal damage was evaluated by examining healthy, apoptotic and necrotic cells, and heat shock proteins (HSP 27, HSP 70 in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hypothalamus RESULTS: At cellular level, when all neuronal tissues are taken into account; (i a significant increase in the necrotic cells was observed in the both groups (p0.05. CONCLUSION: The neural tissue of brain can show different degree of response to hyperthermia. But we can conclude that endogenous hyperthermia is more harmful to central nervous system than exogenous hyperthermia

  9. Dynamics of tuberculosis transmission with exogenous reinfections and endogenous reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajanchi, Subhas; Das, Dhiraj Kumar; Kar, Tapan Kumar

    2018-05-01

    We propose and analyze a mathematical model for tuberculosis (TB) transmission to study the role of exogenous reinfection and endogenous reactivation. The model exhibits two equilibria: a disease free and an endemic equilibria. We observe that the TB model exhibits transcritical bifurcation when basic reproduction number R0 = 1. Our results demonstrate that the disease transmission rate β and exogenous reinfection rate α plays an important role to change the qualitative dynamics of TB. The disease transmission rate β give rises to the possibility of backward bifurcation for R0 < 1, and hence the existence of multiple endemic equilibria one of which is stable and another one is unstable. Our analysis suggests that R0 < 1 may not be sufficient to completely eliminate the disease. We also investigate that our TB transmission model undergoes Hopf-bifurcation with respect to the contact rate β and the exogenous reinfection rate α. We conducted some numerical simulations to support our analytical findings.

  10. A non-newtonian examination of the theory of exogenous economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Filip; Cyrille Piatecki

    2014-01-01

    17; The development of the newtonian calculus has unexpectedly be a locked-in in such a way that the additive derivative approach of Newton and Leibnitz could have been replaced by a multiplicative one, more adapted to growth phenomenon. In this paper, we have tried to present how a non-newtonian calculus could be applied to re-postulate and analyse the neoclassical exogenous growth model.; Le développement de l'analyse newtonienne est de manière inattendue un "lcked-in" parce que la dérivati...

  11. Nitric oxide counters ethylene effects on ripening fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, Girigowda; Gupta, Kapuganti J; Lokesh, Veeresh; Mur, Luis A J; Neelwarne, Bhagyalakshmi

    2012-04-01

    Ethylene plays a key role in promoting fruit ripening, so altering its biosynthesis/signaling could be an important means to delay this process. Nitric oxide (NO)-generated signals are now being shown to regulate ethylene pathways. NO signals have been shown to transcriptionally repress the expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis enzymes and post-translationally modify methionine adenosyl transferase (MAT) activity through S-nitrosylation to reduce the availably of methyl groups required to produce ethylene. Additionally, NO cross-talks with plant hormones and other signal molecules and act to orchestrate the suppression of ethylene effects by modulating enzymes/proteins that are generally triggered by ethylene signaling at post-climacteric stage. Thus, medication of endogenous NO production is suggested as a strategy to postpone the climacteric stage of many tropical fruits.

  12. Neuropsychiatric findings in Cushing syndrome and exogenous glucocorticoid administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkman, Monica N

    2013-09-01

    This article reviews the neuropsychiatric presentations elicited by spontaneous hypercortisolism and exogenous supraphysiologic glucocorticoids. Patients with Cushing disease and syndrome develop a depressive syndrome: irritable and depressed mood, decreased libido, disrupted sleep and cognitive decrements. Exogenous short-term glucocorticoid administration may elicit a hypomanic syndrome with mood, sleep and cognitive disruptions. Treatment options are discussed. Brain imaging and neuropsychological studies indicate elevated cortisol and other glucocorticoids are especially deleterious to hippocampus and frontal lobe. The research findings also shed light on neuropsychiatric abnormalities in conditions that have substantial subgroups exhibiting elevated and dysregulated cortisol: aging, major depressive disorder and Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Complex patterns of synchrony in networks undergoing exogenous drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Jack; Zochowski, Michal

    2007-03-01

    It has been established that various exogenous oscillatory drives modulate neural activity (and potentially information processing) in the brain. We explore the effect of an exogenous drive on the spatio-temporal pattern formation of a network of coupled non-identical R"ossler oscillators. We investigate the formation and properties of the phase locked states, dependent on the network properties as well as those of the external drive. We have found that such drive has a complex effect on the pattern formation in the network, depending on the coupling strength between the oscillators, drive strength as well as its frequency relative to the oscillators.

  14. Ethylene production with engineered Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veetil, Vinod Puthan; Angermayr, S Andreas; Hellingwerf, Klaas J

    2017-02-23

    Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology of cyanobacteria offer a promising sustainable alternative approach for fossil-based ethylene production, by using sunlight via oxygenic photosynthesis, to convert carbon dioxide directly into ethylene. Towards this, both well-studied cyanobacteria, i.e., Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, have been engineered to produce ethylene by introducing the ethylene-forming enzyme (Efe) from Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola PK2 (the Kudzu strain), which catalyzes the conversion of the ubiquitous tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate 2-oxoglutarate into ethylene. This study focuses on Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 and shows stable ethylene production through the integration of a codon-optimized version of the efe gene under control of the Ptrc promoter and the core Shine-Dalgarno sequence (5'-AGGAGG-3') as the ribosome-binding site (RBS), at the slr0168 neutral site. We have increased ethylene production twofold by RBS screening and further investigated improving ethylene production from a single gene copy of efe, using multiple tandem promoters and by putting our best construct on an RSF1010-based broad-host-self-replicating plasmid, which has a higher copy number than the genome. Moreover, to raise the intracellular amounts of the key Efe substrate, 2-oxoglutarate, from which ethylene is formed, we constructed a glycogen-synthesis knockout mutant (ΔglgC) and introduced the ethylene biosynthetic pathway in it. Under nitrogen limiting conditions, the glycogen knockout strain has increased intracellular 2-oxoglutarate levels; however, surprisingly, ethylene production was lower in this strain than in the wild-type background. Making use of different RBS sequences, production of ethylene ranging over a 20-fold difference has been achieved. However, a further increase of production through multiple tandem promoters and a broad-host plasmid was not achieved speculating that the transcription strength and

  15. Nickel-catalyzed reactions of enone with ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, A; Haba, T; Ohashi, M; Ogoshi, S

    2010-01-01

    The reaction of (E)-1-phenylbut-2-en-1-one with ethylene in the presence of a catalytic amount of Ni(cod) 2 and PCy 3 at room temperature gave two kinds of three-component addition products; one is 1,6-enone composed of an enone and two ethylene molecules, and the other is 1,5-diketone composed of two enones and an ethylene. The reactions might proceed via oxidative cyclization of an enone and an ethylene with nickel(0).

  16. Ethylene regulates the timing of anther dehiscence in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieu, I; Wolters-Arts, M; Derksen, J; Mariani, C; Weterings, K

    2003-05-01

    We investigated the involvement of ethylene signaling in the development of the reproductive structures in tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum L.) by studying flowers that were insensitive to ethylene. Ethylene-insensitivity was generated either by expression of the mutant etr1-1 ethylene-receptor allele from Arabidopsis thaliana or by treatment with the ethylene-perception inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (MCP). Development of ovaries and ovules was unaffected by ethylene-insensitivity. Anther development was also unaffected, but the final event of dehiscence was delayed and was no longer synchronous with flower opening. We showed that in these anthers degeneration of the stomium cells and dehydration were delayed. In addition, we found that MCP-treatment of detached flowers and isolated, almost mature anthers delayed dehiscence whereas ethylene-treatment accelerated dehiscence. This indicated that ethylene has a direct effect on a process that takes place in the anthers just before dehiscence. Because a similar function has been described for jasmonic acid in Arabidopsis, we suggest that ethylene acts similarly to or perhaps even in concurrence with jasmonic acid as a signaling molecule controlling the processes that lead to anther dehiscence in tobacco.

  17. Characterization and parametrical study of Rh-TPPTS supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) catalysts for ethylene hydroformylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanh, Nguyen Thi Ha; Duc, Duc Truong; Thang, Vu Dao

    2012-01-01

    The supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) catalysis technology was applied to continuous, gas-phase hydroformylation of ethylene. Rh-TPPTS SILP catalysts with relatively low ionic liquid loading were shown to be stable and highly activity for ethylene hydroformylation. However, the catalytic activity......, BET surface area and pore morphology of the catalysts depended on the content of ionic liquid. Hence, catalysts with high ionic liquid loading content showed deactivation at high reaction temperatures, possibly caused by redistribution of ionic liquid out of the pores under these conditions. (C) 2012...

  18. Mechanical and optical effects of elastomer interaction in polypropylene modification: Ethylene-propylene rubber, poly-(ethylene-co-octene and styrene-butadiene elastomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gahleitner

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between binary combinations of three different elastomer classes commonly applied in impact modification of isotactic polypropylene (iPP was studied. Blends based on a homogeneous ethylene-propylene (EP random copolymer (EP-RACO and a heterophasic EP impact copolymer comprising ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR with different external elastomer types, one homogeneous ethylene-1-octene copolymer (EOC, and two hydrogenated styrenebutadiene-styrene triblock copolymers (SEBS with different styrene content, were prepared. The phase morphology, mobility as a function of temperature, mechanical and optical properties were studied. Special effects could be achieved for the combination of two different elastomer types. The results clearly demonstrate the possibility to achieve attractive property combinations in ternary systems consisting of a crystalline PP matrix and two different types of elastomer, EPR or EOC on the one hand and SEBS on the other hand. A combination of density matching and compatibilization effects allows reaching good low temperature impact strength together with a transparency close to matrix level when selecting a butadiene-rich SEBS type.

  19. How does exogenously applied cytokinin type affect growth and endogenous cytokinins in micropropagated Merwilla plumbea?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aremu, A.O.; Plačková, Lenka; Bairu, M. W.; Novák, Ondřej; Plíhalová, Lucie; Doležal, Karel; Finnie, J. F.; van Staden, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 2 (2014), s. 245-256 ISSN 0167-6857 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Conservation * Medicinal plant * Micropropagation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.125, year: 2014

  20. Enhanced antioxidant defense after exogenous application of Ca 2+ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both of these nutrients play an important role in ameliorating drought stress in crop plants. This experiment was designed to study whether exogenous application of Ca2+ and K+ before the drought could enhance the potential of plants to survive under limiting water conditions. Brassica napus L. cv Bulbul-98 seedlings ...

  1. Optimizing Multireservoir System Operating Policies Using Exogenous Hydrologic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Jasson; Tilmant, Amaury; Côté, Pascal

    2017-11-01

    Stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP) is one of the few available algorithms to optimize the operating policies of large-scale hydropower systems. This paper presents a variant, called SDDPX, in which exogenous hydrologic variables, such as snow water equivalent and/or sea surface temperature, are included in the state space vector together with the traditional (endogenous) variables, i.e., past inflows. A reoptimization procedure is also proposed in which SDDPX-derived benefit-to-go functions are employed within a simulation carried out over the historical record of both the endogenous and exogenous hydrologic variables. In SDDPX, release policies are now a function of storages, past inflows, and relevant exogenous variables that potentially capture more complex hydrological processes than those found in traditional SDDP formulations. To illustrate the potential gain associated with the use of exogenous variables when operating a multireservoir system, the 3,137 MW hydropower system of Rio Tinto (RT) located in the Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean River Basin in Quebec (Canada) is used as a case study. The performance of the system is assessed for various combinations of hydrologic state variables, ranging from the simple lag-one autoregressive model to more complex formulations involving past inflows, snow water equivalent, and winter precipitation.

  2. The use of exogenous microbial species to enhance the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to determine whether inoculating a hybrid fixed-film bioreactor with exogenous bacterial and diatoma species would increase the removal of chemical oxygen demand, nitrogenous compounds and suspended solids from a real-time coal gasification wastewater to meet ...

  3. Metabolic response to exogenous ethanol in yeast: An in vivo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-08-02

    Aug 2, 2012 ... exogenous ethanol on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentative metabolism. We show that the STOCSY analysis correctly identifies the different types of correlations among the enriched metabolites involved in the fermentation, and that these correlations are quite stable even in presence of a stressing ...

  4. Inheritance and segregation of exogenous genes in transgenic cotton

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    were not damaged by bollworms. The results (table 1) indicate that they are all insect-resistant plants. The results confirm that the insect-resistance character controlled by the exogenous Bt gene is a dominant character. It did not matter whether the transgenic insect-resistant cotton cultivars CCRI 30 and NewCott 33B were ...

  5. Do endogenous and exogenous action control compete for perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Roland; Heinemann, Alexander; Kiesel, Andrea; Thomaschke, Roland; Janczyk, Markus

    2012-04-01

    Human actions are guided either by endogenous action plans or by external stimuli in the environment. These two types of action control seem to be mediated by neurophysiologically and functionally distinct systems that interfere if an endogenously planned action suddenly has to be performed in response to an exogenous stimulus. In this case, the endogenous representation has to be deactivated first to give way to the exogenous system. Here we show that interference of endogenous and exogenous action control is not limited to motor-related aspects but also affects the perception of action-related stimuli. Participants associated two actions with contingent sensory effects in learning blocks. In subsequent test blocks, preparing one of these actions specifically impaired responding to the associated effect in an exogenous speeded detection task, yielding a blindness-like effect for arbitrary, learned action effects. In accordance with the theory of event coding, this finding suggests that action planning influences perception even in the absence of any physical similarities between action and to-be-perceived stimuli.

  6. Exogenous application of natural extracts of persimmon (Diospyros ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-28

    May 28, 2014 ... as compared to the commercially available synthetic preservatives. Key words: Exogenous application, natural ... Sulfur dioxide remained in food causes asthma or allergic reaction to some people. To reduce ... competitiveness of harmful chemical-free persimmon products. MATERIALS AND METHODS.

  7. Diuretic action of exogenous hydrogen sulfide in spontaneously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diuretic action of exogenous hydrogen sulfide in spontaneously hypertensive diabetic rats. F ud Din Ahmad, MA Sattar, HA Rathore, S Akhter, O Hui Jin, EJ Johns. Abstract. Purpose: To examine the hypothesis that in hypertensive diabetic rats hydrogen sulphide (H2S) reduces blood pressure through diuretic action in ...

  8. Offshoring as an Exogenous Shock to the Services Production System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Kristin; Mol, Michael; Petersen, Bent

    Production of services involves three key elements, an output for the client, resources of a provider and task execution. Offshoring of services acts as an exogenous shock to such a production system. Using multiple case methodology we investigate how task output, execution, and resources change...

  9. Effects of whey, molasses and exogenous enzymes on the ensiling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ensiling maize cobs with molasses, whey and exogenous enzymes resulted in lower DM and fibre levels in the maize cobs, which could enhance intake and digestibility of nutrients when offered to pigs as a component of a balanced diet. Further investigations using higher concentrations of whey and molasses are ...

  10. Endogenous versus exogenous growth factor regulation of articular chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shuiliang; Chan, Albert G; Mercer, Scott; Eckert, George J; Trippel, Stephen B

    2014-01-01

    Anabolic growth factors that regulate the function of articular chondrocytes are candidates for articular cartilage repair. Such factors may be delivered by pharmacotherapy in the form of exogenous proteins, or by gene therapy as endogenous proteins. It is unknown whether delivery method influences growth factor effectiveness in regulating articular chondrocyte reparative functions. We treated adult bovine articular chondrocytes with exogenous recombinant insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1), or with the genes encoding these growth factors for endogenous production. Treatment effects were measured as change in chondrocyte DNA content, glycosaminoglycan production, and aggrecan gene expression. We found that IGF-I stimulated chondrocyte biosynthesis similarly when delivered by either exogenous or endogenous means. In contrast, exogenous TGF-β1 stimulated these reparative functions, while endogenous TGF-β1 had little effect. Endogenous TGF-β1 became more bioactive following activation of the transgene protein product. These data indicate that effective mechanisms of growth factor delivery for articular cartilage repair may differ for different growth factors. In the case of IGF-I, gene therapy or protein therapy appear to be viable options. In contrast, TGF-β1 gene therapy may be constrained by a limited ability of chondrocytes to convert latent complexes to an active form. Published 2013 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the Orthopaedic Research Society. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Exogenous bridging and nonbridging in Cu(II) complexes of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    This observation is in contrast with similar studies with other binucleating ligands in which mono (µ-acetato) ... dinitrite complex (4) in which there is no exogenous bridging between the two Cu(II) atoms. The lack of ... possess only an endogenous phenolate (or alcoholate) bridging oxygen atom 6–10. Suzuki et al 6 and ...

  12. Metabolic response to exogenous ethanol in yeast: An in vivo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 37; Issue 4. Metabolic response to exogenous ethanol in yeast: An in vivo statistical total correlation NMR spectroscopy approach. Maso Ricci Marianna Aggravi Claudia Bonechi Silvia Martini Anna Maria Claudio Rossi. Articles Volume 37 Issue 4 September 2012 pp 749- ...

  13. Do Endogenous and Exogenous Action Control Compete for Perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Roland; Heinemann, Alexander; Kiesel, Andrea; Thomaschke, Roland; Janczyk, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Human actions are guided either by endogenous action plans or by external stimuli in the environment. These two types of action control seem to be mediated by neurophysiologically and functionally distinct systems that interfere if an endogenously planned action suddenly has to be performed in response to an exogenous stimulus. In this case, the…

  14. Exogenous cycilc AMP and cycilc GMP influence the metabolism of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... To characterize the dynamic distribution and metabolism of endogenous glycerol in vivo, the exogenous glycerol labeled by ... endogenous tracers for the study of protein and lipid metabolism since mid 1980s (Cryer et al., 1985; ..... of a defined muscle and fat co-culture system. Tiss. cell Res. 29: 517-. 524.

  15. ADVANCED CONTROL FOR A ETHYLENE REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru POPESCU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is the design and implementation of control solutions for petrochemical processes, namely the control and optimization of a pyrolysis reactor, the key-installation in the petrochemical industry. We present the technological characteristics of this petrochemical process and some aspects about the proposed control system solution for the ethylene plant. Finally, an optimal operating point for the reactor is found, considering that the process has a nonlinear multi-variable structure. The results have been implemented on an assembly of pyrolysis reactors on a petrochemical platform from Romania.

  16. The influence of endogenous and exogenous sex hormones on systemic lupus erythematosus in pre- and postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogna Grygiel-Górniak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus is a chronic inflammatory disease that occurs mainly in women. Typically, symptoms appear within the first few years of adolescence, but currently an increase can be observed in the percentage of postmenopausal women with this condition. This is possibly due to the sophisticated treatment of the disease, which significantly improves the survival curve and prognosis. Genetic and environmental factors are involved in the development of SLE. Both regulation of the immune system and the activity of this disease are influenced by a variety of hormones, including: 17-estradiol, testosterone, prolactin, progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA. Early menarche, menstrual cyclicity, the total number of years characterized by ovulatory cycles and early menopause are correlated with the development of SLE. Because of the health risks, attempts are increasingly being made to evaluate the impact of exogenous hormones (especially those applied exogenously on the course of SLE. In particular, the role of estrogens is being highlighted, either endo- or exogenous, including oral contraceptives (OC, therapy used in the treatment of infertility, and hormonal replacement therapy (HRT. The purpose of this manuscript is the revision of the literature concerning the impact of both endo- and exogenous estrogens on the development of lupus, inducement of flares and any possible complications.

  17. Experimental studies on toxicity of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers in Japan.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagano, K; Nakayama, E; Oobayashi, H; Nishizawa, T; Okuda, H; Yamazaki, K

    1984-01-01

    Past studies on the toxicological effects of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers as well as the recent data on these chemicals in Japan are reviewed. Only a few researchers have participated in the study of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers in Japan. The effects of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers on testis and embryotoxic effects of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGM) have been studied, as has the teratogenicity of ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (EGdM). Studies on ethylene glycol alkyl ethers and related...

  18. Application of nonlinear autoregressive moving average exogenous input models to Geospace: Advances in understanding and space weather forecasts

    OpenAIRE

    Boynton, RJ; Balikhin, MA; Billings, SA; Amariutei, OA

    2013-01-01

    The nonlinear autoregressive moving average with exogenous inputs (NARMAX) system identification technique is applied to various aspects of the magnetospheres dynamics. It is shown, from an example system, how the inputs to a system can be found from the error reduction ratio (ERR) analysis, a key concept of the NARMAX approach. The application of the NARMAX approach to the Dst (disturbance storm time) index and the electron fluxes at geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) are reviewed, revealing ne...

  19. Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has finalized its Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide. This assessment addresses the potential carcinogenicity from long-term inhalation exposure to ethylene oxide. Now final, this assessment updates the carcinogenicity information in EPA’s 1985 Hea...

  20. Novel production methods for ethylene, light hydrocarbons, and aromatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, L.F.; Crynes, B.L.; Nowak, S.

    1992-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: catalytic production of ethylene; oxidative coupling of methane over Sm 2 O 3 ; balancing heat flow in natural gas conversion; olefin production; methanol/hydrocarbon cracking; flash pyrolysis and methanolysis of biomass for production of ethylene, benzene, and methanol

  1. Defining sale ethylene for long term storage of tulip bulbs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de H.P.J.; Peppelenbos, H.W.; Dijkstra, M.H.G.E.; Gude, H.

    2002-01-01

    The maximum ethylene level that can be permitted in storage rooms, without causing damage to tulip bulbs, is not exactly known. Therefore, a zero-tolerance for the presence of ethylene during storage of tulip bulbs is common practice. This results in excessive ventilation and coherent large energy

  2. Role of polyamines and ethylene as modulators of plant senescence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    They suggested that both, salicylic acid and PAs may specifically regulate ethylene biosynthesis at the level of ACC synthase transcript accumulation. No rela- tion between endogenous PAs levels and ethylene were observed during post bloom period in Pyrus communis flowers (Crisosto et al 1992). In contrast to the usual.

  3. Metal oxides modified NiO catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane to ethylene

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Haibo

    2014-06-01

    The sol-gel method was applied to the synthesis of Zr, Ti, Mo, W, and V modified NiO based catalysts for the ethane oxidative dehydrogenation reaction. The synthesized catalysts were characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption, SEM and TPR techniques. The results showed that the doping metals could be highly dispersed into NiO domains without the formation of large amount of other bulk metal oxide. The modified NiO materials have small particle size, larger surface area, and higher reduction temperature in contrast to pure NiO. The introduction of group IV, V and VI transition metals into NiO decreases the catalytic activity in ethane ODH. However, the ethylene selectivity is enhanced with the highest level for the Ni-W-O and Ni-Ti-O catalysts. As a result, these two catalysts show improved efficiency of ethylene production in the ethane ODH reaction. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Novel Protein-Protein Inhibitor Based Approach to Control Plant Ethylene Responses: Synthetic Peptides for Ripening Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Kessenbrock

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene signaling is decisive for many plant developmental processes. Among these, control of senescence, abscission and fruit ripening are of fundamental relevance for global agriculture. Consequently, detailed knowledge of the signaling network along with the molecular processes of signal perception and transfer are expected to have high impact on future food production and agriculture. Recent advances in ethylene research have demonstrated that signaling of the plant hormone critically depends on the interaction of the ethylene receptor family with the NRAMP-like membrane protein ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 2 (EIN2 at the ER membrane, phosphorylation-dependent proteolytic processing of ER-localized EIN2 and subsequent translocation of the cleaved EIN2 C-terminal polypeptide (EIN2-CEND to the nucleus. EIN2 nuclear transport, but also interaction with the receptors sensing the ethylene signal, both, depend on a nuclear localization signal (NLS located at the EIN2 C-terminus. Loss of the tight interaction between receptors and EIN2 affects ethylene signaling and impairs plant ethylene responses. Synthetic peptides derived from the NLS sequence interfere with the EIN2–receptor interaction and have utility in controlling plant ethylene responses such as ripening. Here, we report that a synthetic peptide (NOP-1 corresponding to the NLS motif of Arabidopsis EIN2 (aa 1262–1269 efficiently binds to tomato ethylene receptors LeETR4 and NR and delays ripening in the post-harvest phase when applied to the surface of sampled green fruits pre-harvest. In particular, degradation of chlorophylls was delayed by several days, as monitored by optical sensors and confirmed by analytical methods. Similarly, accumulation of β-carotene and lycopene in the fruit pulp after NOP-1 application was delayed, without having impact on the total pigment concentration in the completely ripe fruits. Likewise, the peptide had no negative effects on fruit quality. Our molecular

  5. Combined gas-phase oxidation of methane and ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogosyan, N.M.; Pogosyan, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    It is established that depending on the reaction conditions combined oxidation of methane and ethylene may result in ethylene and propylene oxides with high selectivity with respect to the process, where in the initial reaction mixture methane is replaced by the same quantity of nitrogen. The formed additional methyl radicals increase the yield of all reaction products except CO. At low temperatures methyl radicals react with oxygen resulting in methyl peroxide radicals, which in turn, reacting with ethylene provide its epoxidation and formation of other oxygen-containing products. At high temperatures as a result of addition reaction between methyl radicals and ethylene, propyl radicals are formed that, in turn yield propylene. Alongside with positive influence on the yield of reaction products, methane exerts negative influence upon the conversion, that is it decreases the rate of ethylene and oxygen conversion, simultaneously decreasing significantly the yield of CO

  6. Understanding tantalum-catalyzed ethylene trimerization: When things go wrong

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yin

    2013-06-07

    Ethylene oligomerization to linear low-molecular-mass α-olefins is an open industrial challenge. Ta-based catalysts are promising systems, but the unclear understanding of their behavior prevents systematic advances in the field. We demonstrate here that a well-defined (î -SiO)3Ta III species is able to promote ethylene oligo-/polymerization without any cocatalyst, confirming that the active species in Ta systems corresponds to a TaIII species. DFT calculations on a series of Ta systems ranging from ethylene trimerization to ethylene polymerization catalysts highlight the key factors controlling their experimental behavior. Comparison of these Ta systems allows one to set general rules for the rational development of new ethylene Ta oligomerization catalysts. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  7. Thermal decomposition of cesium-ethylene-ternary graphite intercalation compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, R.; Oishi, Y.; Arii, T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the thermal decomposition of air-stable Cs-ethylene-ternary graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) is discussed. The air stability of Cs-GICs is improved remarkably after the absorption of ethylene into their interlayer nanospace, because the ethylene molecules oligomerize and block the movement of Cs atoms. In addition, the evaporation of Cs atoms from the Cs-ethylene-ternary GICs is observed above 400 o C under a N 2 atmosphere of 100 Pa by ion attachment mass spectrometry. Although the results indicate that Cs-ethylene-ternary GICs remain stable up to approximately 400 o C, their thermal stability is not very high as compared to that of Cs-GICs.

  8. Root and shoot gas exchange respond additively to moderate ozone and methyl jasmonate without induction of ethylene: ethylene is induced at higher O3 concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantz, D.A.; Vu, H.-B.

    2012-01-01

    The available literature is conflicting on the potential protection of plants against ozone (O3) injury by exogenous jasmonates, including methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Protective antagonistic interactions of O3 and MeJA have been observed in some systems and purely additive effects in others. Here it is shown that chronic exposure to low to moderate O3 concentrations (4–114 ppb; 12 h mean) and to MeJA induced additive reductions in carbon assimilation (A n) and root respiration (R r), and in calculated whole plant carbon balance. Neither this chronic O3 regime nor MeJA induced emission of ethylene (ET) from the youngest fully expanded leaves. ET emission was induced by acute 3 h pulse exposure to much higher O3 concentrations (685 ppb). ET emission was further enhanced in plants treated with MeJA. Responses of growth, allocation, photosynthesis, and respiration to moderate O3 concentrations and to MeJA appear to be independent and additive, and not associated with emission of ET. These results suggest that responses of Pima cotton to environmentally relevant O3 are not mediated by signalling pathways associated with ET and MeJA, though these pathways are inducible in this species and exhibit a synergistic O3×MeJA interaction at very high O3 concentrations. PMID:22563119

  9. Assessment of ethylene vinyl-acetate copolymer samples exposed to γ-rays via linearity analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Lucas N. de; Nascimento, Eriberto O. do; Schimidt, Fernando; Antonio, Patrícia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2017-01-01

    Materials with the potential to become dosimeters are of interest in radiation physics. In this research, the materials were analyzed and compared in relation to their linearity ranges. Samples of ethylene vinyl-acetate copolymer (EVA) were irradiated with doses from 10 Gy to 10 kGy using a 60 Co Gamma-Cell system 220 and evaluated with the FTIR technique. The linearity analyses were applied through two methodologies, searching for linear regions in their response. The results show that both applied analyses indicate linear regions in defined dose interval. The radiation detectors EVA can be useful for radiation dosimetry in intermediate and high doses. (author)

  10. Research tools: ethylene preparation. In: Chi-Kuang Wen editor. Ethylene in plants. Springer Netherlands. Springer Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethylene is a plant hormone that regulates many aspects of plant growth and development, germination, fruit ripening, senescence, sex determination, abscission, defense, gravitropism, epinasty, and more. For experimental purposes, one needs to treat plant material with ethylene and its inhibitors t...

  11. Role of Endogenous and Exogenous Tocopherols in the Lipid Stability of Marine Oil Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Miroslava Suárez-Jiménez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In marine organisms primarily intended for human consumption, the quality of the muscle and the extracted oils may be affected by lipid oxidation during storage, even at low temperatures. This has led to a search for alternatives to maintain quality. In this sense, antioxidant compounds have been used to prevent such lipid deterioration. Among the most used compounds are tocopherols, which, due to their natural origin, have become an excellent alternative to prevent or retard lipid oxidation and maintain the quality of marine products. Tocopherols as antioxidants have been studied both exogenously and endogenously. Exogenous tocopherols are often used by incorporating them into plastic packaging films or adding them directly to fish oil. It has been observed that exogenous tocopherols incorporated in low concentrations maintain the quality of both muscle and the extracted oils during food storage. However, it has been reported that tocopherols applied at higher concentrations act as a prooxidant molecule, probably because their reactions with singlet oxygen may generate free radicals and cause the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oils. However, when tocopherols are included in a fish diet (endogenous tocopherols, the antioxidant effect on the muscle lipids is more effective due to their incorporation into the membrane lipids, which can help extend the shelf life of seafood by reducing the lipid deterioration that occurs due to antioxidant synergy with other phenolic compounds used supplements in fish muscle. This review focuses on the most important studies in this field and highlights the potential of using tocopherols as antioxidants in marine oils.

  12. A taxonomy of endogenous and exogenous uncertainty in high-risk, high-impact contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alison, Laurence; Power, Nicola; van den Heuvel, Claudia; Waring, Sara

    2015-07-01

    By reference to a live hostage negotiation exercise, this study presents a taxonomy of uncertainty that can be usefully applied to assist in the categorization and application of findings from decision-making research conducted in naturalistic (specifically critical incident) settings. Uncertainty was measured via observational methods (during the exercise and by reference to video footage), decision logs, and postincident simulated recall interviews with trainee police officers. Transcripts were coded and analyzed thematically. Uncertainty was dichotomized as deriving from either endogenous sources (about the problem situation itself) or exogenous sources (about the operating system that is dealing with the incident). Overall, exogenous uncertainty (75%) was more prevalent than endogenous uncertainty (25%), specifically during discussions on plan formulation and execution. It was also qualitatively associated with poor role understanding and trust. Endogenous uncertainty was more prevalent during discussions on situation assessment and plan formulation. The taxonomy provides a useful way for organizational researchers to categorize uncertainty during the naturalistic observations of workplace interactions and decision making. It reduces the complexity associated with observational research to allow organizational psychologists to better tailor their recommendations for reducing uncertainty. Dealing with endogenous uncertainties would entail targeting decision making specific to the problem incident (e.g., introduce training or policy to reduce redundant fixation on rote-repetitive superordinate goals and focus on more short-term actionable goals during situation assessments). Dealing with exogenous uncertainties would entail improving decision making relating to management and team processes across critical incidents (e.g., training to clarify distributed roles in critical incident teams to aid plan formulation and execution). Organizational researchers interested

  13. Treatment with exogenous surfactant stimulates endogenous surfactant synthesis in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, JEH; Carnielli, VP; Janssen, DJ; Wattimena, JLD; Hop, WC; Sauer, PJ; Zimmermann, LJI

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) with exogenous surfactant has greatly improved clinical outcome. Some infants require multiple doses, and it has not been studied whether these large amounts of exogenous surfactant disturb endogenous surfactant

  14. Root cap-mediated evaluation of soil resistance towards graviresponding roots of maize (Zea mays L.) and the relevance of ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Julian; Edelmann, Hans G

    2018-01-23

    Besides biological and chemical impacts, mechanical resistance represents an important obstacle that growing roots face. Graviresponding roots must assess the mechanical resistance of the substrate and take decisions on whether they change growth direction and grow around obstacles or tolerate growth conditions impaired to varying degrees. To test the significance of the root cap, we measured pressure and growth behaviour of single intact, as well as decapped, roots encountering diverse mechanical obstacles. We examined ethylene emission in intact roots as well as roots without a root cap, thereby lacking the capacity to deviate. Roots of fixed seedlings were grown vertically onto diverse mechanical obstacles. Developing pressure profiles of vertically growing roots encountering horizontal mechanical obstacles were measured employing electronic milligram scales, with and without root caps in given local environmental conditions. The evolution of root-borne ethylene was measured in intact roots and roots without the root cap. In contrast to decapped roots, intact roots develop a tentative, short-lasting pressure profile, the resolution of which is characterized by a definite change of growth direction. Similarly, pressure profiles and strengths of roots facing gradually differing surface resistances differ significantly between the two. This correlates in the short term with root cap-dependent ethylene emission which is lacking in roots without caps. The way gravistimulated and graviresponding roots cope with exogenous stimuli depends on whether and how they adapt to these impacts. With respect to mechanical hindrances, roots without caps do not seem to be able to evaluate soil strengths in order to respond adequately. On encountering resistance, roots with intact caps emit ethylene, which is not observed in decapped roots. It therefore appears that it is the root cap which specifically orchestrates the resistance needed to overcome mechanical resistance by

  15. On the fate of exogenously supplied bacterial DNA in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luyindula Ndiku

    1980-01-01

    The fate of exogenously supplied radiolabelled DNA from agrobacterium tumefaciens and micrococcus lysodeikticus was investigated in soybean tissues growing under various physiological conditions. The following observations are made: a) Rapid degradation and reutilization of the donor DNA was observed in callus tissue culture. b) Germinating seeds and five-day old seedlings were shown to degrade DNA in the incubation medium and to ultilize these degradation products for their own DNA synthesis. Reutilization could be almost totally suppressed the addition of unlabelled thymidine as a competitor. This allowed a detection of significant amounts of residuel donor closely but transiently associated with the plant tissues. c) In soybean shoots dipped into a solution of donor DNA, partly this DNA was found to first migrate to the leaves where mostly labelled endogenous DNA was later found. Very large amounts of polymerized exogenous DNA were found in the regenerated roots after 12 days of culture. (author)

  16. Analyzing Bullwhip Effect in Supply Networks under Exogenous Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Darvish

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains a model for analyzing and measuring the propagation of order amplifications (i.e. bullwhip effect for a single-product supply network topology considering exogenous uncertainty and linear and time-invariant inventory management policies for network entities. The stream of orders placed by each entity of the network is characterized assuming customer demand is ergodic. In fact, we propose an exact formula in order to measure the bullwhip effect in the addressed supply network topology considering the system in Markovian chain framework and presenting a matrix of network member relationships and relevant order sequences. The formula turns out using a mathematical method called frequency domain analysis. The major contribution of this paper is analyzing the bullwhip effect considering exogenous uncertainty in supply networks and using the Fourier transform in order to simplify the relevant calculations. We present a number of numerical examples to assess the analytical results accuracy in quantifying the bullwhip effect.

  17. Theory of endogenous and exogenous motivation in L2 migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambon, Obadele Bakari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Implied in theories of Second Language Acquisition (SLA is the notion that language learning is analogous to obtaining or acquiring a possession – thus the use of the term ‘acquisition.’ While this interpretation has gone relatively unchallenged in the literature, this article introduces a new analogy whereby language learning is seen as analogous to a process of permanent or semi-permanent migration towards a new socio-linguistic L2 space. As such, a theory of endogenous and exogenous motivation is delineated, entailing a dynamic interplay between internal (primarily psychological and external (primarily sociological push-pull factors. Endogenous and exogenous push-pull factors, together with various other personal factors, contribute to learner decisions to migrate towards, move away from or remain inert with regard to the target language. Further, motivation is framed in the larger theoretical context of causation.

  18. Differentiation of stem cells upon deprivation of exogenous FGF2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjartansdóttir, Kristín Rós; Gabrielsen, Anette; Reda, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Establishing a model for in vitro differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) towards the germ cell lineage could be used to identify molecular mechanisms behind germ cell differentiation that may help in understanding human infertility. Here, we evaluate whether a lack of exogenous...... fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is supporting spontaneous differentiation of hESCs cultured on human foreskin fibroblast (hFF) monolayers towards germ cell lineage. Additionally to depriving the hESCs of exogenous FGF2, cells were stimulated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). To get a more comprehensive...... impression on effects of removal of FGF2 and stimulation with ATRA, we combined the results of three cell lines for each experimental setting. When combining gene expression profiles of three cell lines for 96 genes, only 6 genes showed a significant up-regulation in all cell lines, when no FGF2 was added...

  19. Speculative prototypes and exogenous ethnographies: Experiencing relationships beyond the human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Li; Ulv Lenskjold, Tau

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with the role that speculative design prototypes have as means to intervene in contexts of everyday life in order to explore, and possibly facilitate, new types of relationships between human and non-human beings. Focusing on an off-centered design of the human, it seeks to exp...... to explore what types of new possibilities may arise when speculation in design meets the practice of doing what might be termed an "exogenous ethnography"....

  20. Tenacity of exogenous human papillomavirus DNA in sperm washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossfield, J E; Chan, P J; Patton, W C; King, A

    1999-07-01

    Sperm cells have been shown to take up exogenous DNA readily. The hypothesis was that sperm washing would remove exogenous viral DNA infecting sperm cells. The objective was to compare three types of sperm washing procedures for their capacity to remove exogenous human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA from infected sperm. Prewashed sperm were equally divided and sperm in one portion were exposed to L1 HPV DNA fragments for 30 min at 37 degrees C. Untreated washed sperm served as the control. After transfection, the sperm were washed by either centrifuge, two-layer Isolate colloid wash, or test-yolk buffer procedures. Sperm parameters were measured on a Hamilton Thorn HTM-C analyzer. Sperm DNA were extracted and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out targeting the L1 consensus gene of HPV and the designated sentinel gene, 17q21 spanning the D17S855 gene. Amplified products were analyzed in 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. PCR analyses detected the consensus L1 HPV gene in sperm after they were processed through either of the three procedures. Controls were negative for the L1 gene. Extracted DNA were verified by PCR amplification of 17q21 spanning the D17S855 gene. Transfected sperm had higher percentages of total motility and progression compared with the control. Centrifuged, washed, transfected sperm exhibited a greater curvilinear velocity and hyperactivation. The data showed that washing would not remove exogenous HPV DNA from sperm cells. The viral DNA was tenaciously bound to the sperm, suggesting an internalization into the sperm. The viral DNA also increased the motility of the sperm by affecting the velocity and progression of the sperm, which suggested either an increase in metabolism, an enhancement of the calcium-regulated motility mechanism, or an artifact of PCR reagents. More studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of DNA stimulated sperm motility.

  1. Managers with and without Style: Evidence Using Exogenous Variation

    OpenAIRE

    C. Edward Fee; Charles J. Hadlock; Joshua R. Pierce

    2013-01-01

    In a large panel of Compustat firms, we find that firm policy changes after exogenous CEO departures do not display abnormally high levels of variability, casting doubt on the presence of idiosyncratic-style effects in policy choices. After endogenous CEO departures, we do detect abnormally large policy changes. These changes are larger when the firm is likely to draw from a deeper pool of replacement CEO candidates, suggesting the presence of causal-style effects that are anticipated by the ...

  2. Exogenous glucocorticoids and adverse cerebral effects in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsted, Sara K; Born, A P; Paulson, Olaf B; Uldall, Peter

    2011-11-01

    Glucocorticoids are commonly used in treatment of paediatric diseases, but evidence of associated adverse cerebral effects is accumulating. The various pharmacokinetic profiles of the exogenous glucocorticoids and the changes in pharmacodynamics during childhood, result in different exposure of nervous tissue to exogenous glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids activate two types of intracellular receptors, the mineralocorticoid receptor and the glucocorticoid receptor. The two receptors differ in cerebral distribution, affinity and effects. Exogenous glucocorticoids favor activation of the glucocorticoid receptor, which is associated with unfavorable cellular outcomes. Prenatal treatment with glucocorticoids can compromise brain growth and is associated with periventricular leukomalacia, attentions deficits and poorer cognitive performance. In the neonatal period exposure to glucocorticoids reduces neurogenesis and cerebral volume, impairs memory and increases the incidence of cerebral palsy. Cerebral effects of glucocorticoids in later childhood have been less thoroughly studied, but apparent brain atrophy, reduced size of limbic structures and neuropsychiatric symptoms have been reported. Glucocortioids affect several cellular structures and functions, which may explain the observed adverse effects. Glucocorticoids can impair neuronal glucose uptake, decrease excitability, cause atrophy of dendrites, compromise development of myelin-producing oligodendrocytes and disturb important cellular structures involved in axonal transport, long-term potentiation and neuronal plasticity. Significant maturation of the brain continues throughout childhood and we hypothesize that exposure to exogenous glucocorticoids during preschool and school age causes adverse cerebral effects. It is our opinion that studies of associations between exposure to glucocorticoids during childhood and impaired neurodevelopment are highly relevant. Copyright © 2011 European Paediatric Neurology

  3. Poly (ethylene oxide) - poly (ethylene glycol) blended cellulose electroactive paper actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadeva, Suresha K.; Nayak, Jyoti; Kim, Jaehwan

    2008-03-01

    Cellulose based Electroactive paper (EAPap) has been reported as a smart material that can be used as sensors and actuator materials. It has merits in terms of lightweight, biodegradability, large displacement and low actuation voltage. Actuation principle of EAPap is a combination of piezoelectric and ion migration effect. However, the performance of actuator is sensitive to humidity levels, in other words it produces large bending displacement at high humidity levels. Thus, we made an attempt to develop an EAPap which produces large displacement at low humidity level by blending cellulose with small amount of poly (ethylene oxide)-poly (ethylene glycol) [PEO-PEG]. The interaction between cellulose and PEO-PEG is studied by means of SEM and FT-IR. The potential application of PEO-PEG/ cellulose blend film as an actuator working at low humidity level is demonstrated by testing the actuator performance in terms of bending displacement, power consumption with respect to actuation voltage, frequency and humidity level.

  4. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia: high-resolution CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.S.; Song, K.S.; Lim, T.H.; Im, J.G.; Seo, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of exogenous lipoid pneumonia. High-resolution computed tomography was obtained in 25 patients with proven exogenous lipoid pneumonia resulting from aspiration of squalene (derived from shark liver oil). Diagnosis was based on biopsy (n = 9), bronchoalveolar lavage (n = 8), or sputum cytology and clinical findings (n = 8). The clinical history of taking squalene was confirmed in all patients. The CT findings were classified into three patterns: diffuse ground-glass opacity, consolidation, and interstitial abnormalities. Distribution of the abnormalities, duration of taking squalene, predisposing factors for aspiration, and route of administration were analyzed. Ten patients showed diffuse ground-glass opacity pattern. Seven of 10 patients had predisposing conditions such as unconsciousness, pharyngeal dysmotility, or motor disturbances, and 6 patients had a recent history of taking large amount of squalene through nasal route. Seven patients who had consolidation pattern had a history of taking squalene for several months and did not have any predisposing factor. All of the 5 patients who had a pattern of interstitial abnormalities had a history of taking squalene longer than 1 year and showed segmental distribution of interstitial thickening with interposing ground-glass opacities. Three patients simultaneously had two different patterns at different lobes of the lung. The HRCT findings of lipoid pneumonia are ground-glass opacities, consolidation, and interstitial abnormalities. These HRCT findings with appropriate inquiries could be useful for diagnosis of exogeneous lipoid pneumonia. (orig.)

  5. [Exogenous Sr2+ sedimentation on otolith of chum salmon embryos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Liu, Wei; Zhan, Pei-rong; Wang, Ji-long; Li, Pei-lun

    2015-10-01

    To explore the exogenous Sr2+ sedimentation on otolith of chum salmon embryos, chum salmon embryos were exposed to culture water contained Sr2+ at Sr2+ concentration of 50, 100, 200 or 400 mg . L-1 for 48 h to imitate Sr2+ sedimentation. After a culturing period of 12 d and 100 d, the otoliths of the chum salmon were taken to detect exogenous Sr2+ sedimentation with electro-probe microanalyzer (EPMA). The results showed that obvious deep red strontium signatures were produced in the otolith of chum salmon at different concentrations of Sr2+. The mean and extreme values of peak strontium area were not stable for the same Sr2+ dose, but the lowest of all the peak values was 35.1 times as much as that of control. Overall, the strontium value increased with the increase of Sr2+concentration. The strontium peak had no signs of abating after a culture period of 100 d. The results also showed that strontium was gradually deposited in the otolith, and had obvious hysteresis to immersion. Strontium sedimentation could also return to a normal level after the peak. These characteristics accorded exactly with the requirement of discharge tag technology, which indicated that exogenous Sr2+ was suitable in the marking of salmon otolith.

  6. Function of endothelium at adolescents with constitutional exogenous obesity before and after rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Miroshnichenko, O.

    2011-01-01

    Function of endothelium at 43 adolescents with constitutional exogenous obesity before rehabilitation and at 33 healthy adolescents has been studied. Disorder of endothelial function has been established in 32 (74.4%) adolescents with constitutional exogenous obesity and in 7 (21.2%) healthy adolescents. We showed the efficiency of the rehabilitation program on restoration of endothelial function at adolescents with constitutional exogenous obesity.

  7. Transcriptional regulation of ethylene and jasmonate mediated defense response in apple (Malus domestica) root during Pythium ultimum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sungbong; Lv, Jingyi; Fazio, Gennaro; Mazzola, Mark; Zhu, Yanmin

    2014-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is a significant economic restraint to the successful re-establishment of new apple orchards on sites previously planted to the same crop. Pythium ultimum, an oomycete, is a significant component of the ARD pathogen complex. Although ethylene (ET)- and jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated defense responses are intensively studied in the foliar pathosystem, the transferability of this knowledge to the interaction between a perennial root system and soilborne pathogens is unknown. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the ET/JA-mediated defense response is conserved in roots of tree crops in response to infection by P. ultimum. Apple genes with the annotated function of ET/JA biosynthesis, MdERF (ethylene response factor) for signaling transduction and a gene encoding a pathogenesis-related (PR) protein (β-chitinase, the target of ERF) were identified from the apple genome sequences. The transcriptional profiles of these genes during P. ultimum infection and after exogenous ET and/or JA treatment were characterized using qRT-PCR. Several genes showed a 10- to 60-fold upregulation in apple root tissue 24-48 h post inoculation (hpi). Exogenous ET and JA treatment exhibited either a positive or negative influence on expression of ET or JA biosynthesis genes, depending upon gene isoforms and the tissue types, while the expression of MdERF and the PR protein encoding gene was upregulated by both ET and JA treatment. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that ET/JA-mediated defense pathways are functional in the root system of perennial tree species defending soilborne pathogens.

  8. Information theory and the ethylene genetic network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, José S; Díaz, José

    2011-10-01

    information content in the input message that the cell's genetic machinery is processing during a given time interval. Furthermore, combining Information Theory with the frequency response analysis of dynamical systems we can examine the cell's genetic response to input signals with varying frequencies, amplitude and form, in order to determine if the cell can distinguish between different regimes of information flow from the environment. In the particular case of the ethylene signaling pathway, the amount of information managed by the root cell of Arabidopsis can be correlated with the frequency of the input signal. The ethylene signaling pathway cuts off very low and very high frequencies, allowing a window of frequency response in which the nucleus reads the incoming message as a varying input. Outside of this window the nucleus reads the input message as an approximately non-varying one. This frequency response analysis is also useful to estimate the rate of information transfer during the transport of each new ERF1 molecule into the nucleus. Additionally, application of Information Theory to analysis of the flow of information in the ethylene signaling pathway provides a deeper insight in the form in which the transition between auxin and ethylene hormonal activity occurs during a circadian cycle. An ambitious goal for the future would be to use Information Theory as a theoretical foundation for a suitable model of the information flow that runs at each level and through all levels of biological organization.

  9. Ethanol, isopropanol, methanol, and ethylene glycol poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobert, S

    2000-12-01

    Alcohol intoxication, commonly encountered in emergency department and clinic settings, is by no means a benign condition. Ethanol ingested alone or in combination with other CNS depressants (eg, isopropanol, methanol, ethylene glycol, sedatives, opioids) can be fatal. Obtaining the patient's history and careful observation for clinical signs and symptoms, along with appropriate analysis of results of laboratory tests, are the key to determining and differentiating the agent ingested. It is critical that poisoning due to ethanol and/or other related alcohols should be recognized early in order to initiate appropriate treatments and prevent fatalities. Emergency department nurses may be the first persons to collect the essential data, and it is incumbent upon them to plan and initiate appropriate care. In continuing management for these patients, critical care nurses must understand the factors contributing to the observed signs and symptoms in order to initiate and monitor ongoing care and prevent serious complications.

  10. Ethylene glycol, methanol and isopropyl alcohol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammalamadaka, Divakar; Raissi, Sina

    2010-03-01

    In clinical practice, poisoning with ethylene glycol, methanol, and isopropyl alcohol is common. These alcohol-related intoxications can present with high anion gap metabolic acidosis and increased osmolality. Toxicity and clinical symptoms are due to the accumulation of their metabolites, causing increased anion gap, rather than the parent compounds that are associated with an increase of serum osmolality. Clinical manifestations result from abnormalities of neurologic, cardiopulmonary, and renal function. Laboratory abnormalities when present are helpful for diagnosis but may be absent depending on the time of ingestion and time of presentation. Fomepizole and ethanol are potent inhibitors of alcohol dehydrogenase and reduce generation of toxic metabolites. Hemodialysis is an effective way of detoxification because it can remove unmetabolized alcohol in addition to the organic anions. High index of suspicion and early diagnosis can prevent the significant morbidity and mortality associated with these intoxications.

  11. Production of ethanol from excess ethylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadhim, Adam S.; Carlsen, Kim B.; Bisgaard, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    will focus on the synthetic method, which employs direct hydration of ethylene. A conceptual process design of an ethyl alcohol producing plant is performed in a MSc-level course on Process Design at the Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering at DTU. In the designed process, 190 proof ethyl...... with respect to heat integration and process optimization (tasks 10-11). In the final task-12, the environmental impact of the process design is evaluated together with some of the key sustainability measures. In addition to PRO/II, the following software is used: ICAS (for property prediction, analysis......) and ECON (cost and economic analysis). This design therefore covers all stages of conceptual design, starting from the consideration of qualitative aspects of the process flowsheet and preliminary calculations to detailed process simulations, equipment sizing, costing and an economic evaluation...

  12. Genomic profiling of exogenous abscisic acid-responsive microRNAs in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai-Yang; Wang, Yan; Tao, Xiang; Fan, Yan-Fen; Dai, Ya; Yang, Hong; Ma, Xin-Rong

    2016-06-03

    Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in various biological pathways and stress responses as negative regulators at the posttranscriptional level. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a key signaling molecule that mediates plant stress response by activating many stress-related genes. Although some miRNAs in plants are previously identified to respond to ABA, a comprehensive profile of ABA-responsive miRNAs has not yet been elucidated. Here, we identified miRNAs responding to exogenous application of ABA, and their predicted target genes in the model plant organism tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Deep sequencing of small RNAs from ABA-treated and untreated tomatoes revealed that miRNAs can be up- or down-regulated upon treatment with ABA. A total of 1067 miRNAs were detected (including 365 known and 702 candidate novel miRNAs), of those, 416 miRNAs which had an abundance over two TPM (transcripts per million) were selected for differential expression analysis. We identified 269 (180 known and 89 novel) miRNAs that respond to exogenous ABA treatment with a change in expression level of |log2FC|≥0.25. 136 of these miRNAs (90 known and 46 novel) were expressed at significantly different levels |log2FC|≥1 between treatments. Furthermore, stem-loop RT-PCR was applied to validate the RNA-seq data. Target prediction and analysis of the corresponding ABA-responsive transcriptome data uncovered that differentially expressed miRNAs are involved in condition stress and pathogen resistance, growth and development. Among them, approximately 90 miRNAs were predicted to target transcription factors and pathogen resistance genes. Some miRNAs had functional overlap in biotic and abiotic stress. Most of these miRNAs were down-regulated following exposure to exogenous ABA, while their related target genes were inversely up-regulated, which is consistent with their negative regulatory role in gene expression. Exogenous ABA application influences the composition and expression level of tomato mi

  13. Aging tests of ethylene contaminated argon/ethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atac, M.; Bauer, G.

    1994-01-01

    We report on aging tests of argon/ethane gas with a minor (1800 ppM) component of ethylene. The measurements were first conducted with the addition of alcohol to test the suppression of aging by this additive, with exposure up to ∼1.5 C/cm. Tests have included: a proportional tube with ethanol, another with isopropyl alcohol, and for comparison a tube has also been run with ethanol and argon/ethane from CDF's old (ethylene-free) ethane supply. The aging test with ethanol showed no difference between the ethylene-free and the ethylene tube. Furthermore, raw aging rates of argon/ethane and argon/ethane/ethylene were measured by exposing tubes without the addition of alcohol to about 0.1 C/cm. Again, no significant difference was observed. In conclusion, we see no evidence that ethylene contamination up to 1800 ppM has any adverse effect on wire aging. However, this level of ethylene does seem to significantly suppress the gas gain

  14. Ethylene oxide removal by sorption on aluminium oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsenijević Zorana Lj.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of ethylene oxide sorption and desorption on Al2O3 sorbent were investigated. The investigations of ethylene oxide sorption on Al2O3 show that significant sorption appeared above 125°C. The removal of sorbed ethylene oxide from Al2O3 was achieved by continuous increasing of the temperature up to 450°C in air stream. The analysis of desorbed products show that 90% of adsorbed ethylene oxide is converted to CO2 and the rest consists of the three derivatives of ethylene oxide. The exact composition of desorbed organic products will be determined in further investigation. The desorption temperature profiles point out the presence of two exothermic picks, as was confirmed by detection of CO2 and derivates of ethylene oxide at these temperatures. Investigation of textural characteristics and thermal stability of Al2O3 sorbent show that there are no changes of any characteristics of Al2O3 in sorption/desorption operating temperatures regimes. Only at 700°C the specific surface area of Al2O3 decreases of about 10%. This indicates that the investigated Al2O3 is convenient material for removal of ethylene oxide by sorption.

  15. Impact of exogenous ascorbic acid on biochemical activities of rice callus treated with salt stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhasnawi, Arshad Naji; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Kadhimi, Ahsan A.; Isahak, Anizan; Mohamad, Azhar; Ashraf, Mehdi Farshad; Doni, Febri; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2016-11-01

    The application of in vitro systems can lead to new methods of crop amelioration. This method has been widely utilized for breeding tenacities, particularly for stress tolerance selection. Salinity causes oxidative stress in callus by enhancing the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), resulting in an efficient antioxidant system. The exogenous application of ascorbic acid (AsA) is an important requirement for tolerance. The present study aimed to examine in vitro selection strategy for callus induction in rice mature embryo culture on MS culture medium and to produce salt-tolerant callus under sodium chloride (NaCl) and AsA conditions in callus rice variety, MR269. This study also highlights changes in the activities of proline and antioxidants peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of callus under NaCl stress to understand their possible role in salt tolerance. However, various levels of exogenously applied AsA under saline conditions improved callus, and the antioxidant enzyme activities of AsA are related to resistance to oxidative stress. Our results provide strong support for the hypothesis that AsA-dependent antioxidant enzymes play a significant role in the salinity tolerance of callus rice.

  16. Limit Theory for Panel Data Models with Cross Sectional Dependence and Sequential Exogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuersteiner, Guido M; Prucha, Ingmar R

    2013-06-01

    The paper derives a general Central Limit Theorem (CLT) and asymptotic distributions for sample moments related to panel data models with large n . The results allow for the data to be cross sectionally dependent, while at the same time allowing the regressors to be only sequentially rather than strictly exogenous. The setup is sufficiently general to accommodate situations where cross sectional dependence stems from spatial interactions and/or from the presence of common factors. The latter leads to the need for random norming. The limit theorem for sample moments is derived by showing that the moment conditions can be recast such that a martingale difference array central limit theorem can be applied. We prove such a central limit theorem by first extending results for stable convergence in Hall and Hedye (1980) to non-nested martingale arrays relevant for our applications. We illustrate our result by establishing a generalized estimation theory for GMM estimators of a fixed effect panel model without imposing i.i.d. or strict exogeneity conditions. We also discuss a class of Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimators that can be analyzed using our CLT.

  17. Estimation of single-kidney glomerular filtration rate without exogenous contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiang; Aghayev, Ayaz; Gumus, Serter; Ty Bae, K

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of single-kidney filtration fraction and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) without exogenous contrast is clinically important to assess renal function and pathophysiology, especially for patients with comprised renal function. The objective of this study is to develop a novel MR-based tool for noninvasive quantification of renal function using conventional MR arterial spin labeling water as endogenous tracer. The regional differentiation of the arterial spin labeling water between the glomerular capsular space and the renal parenchyma was characterized and measured according to their MR relaxation properties (T1ρ or T2 ), and applied to the estimation of filtration fraction and single-kidney GFR. The proposed approach was tested to quantify GFR in healthy volunteers at baseline and after a protein-loading challenge. Biexponential decay of the cortical arterial spin labeling water MR signal was observed. The major component decays the same as parenchyma water; the minor component decays much slower as expected from glomerular ultra-filtrates. The mean single-kidney GFR was estimated to be 49 ± 9 mL/min at baseline and increased by 28% after a protein-loading challenge. We developed an arterial spin labeling-based MR imaging method that allows us to estimate renal filtration fraction and singe-kidney GFR without use of exogenous contrast. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Detection of ethylene gas in exhaled breath of people living in landfill using CO{sub 2} laser photoacoustic spectroscopy with multicomponent analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oktafiani, Fitri, E-mail: fitri.oktafiani@mail.ugm.ac.id; Stiyabudi, Rizky; Amin, Mochamad Nurul; Mitrayana [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara BLS 21, Yogyakarta, 55281 Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2016-06-17

    The photoacoustic spectrometer (PAS) had been built and the performance had been determined. The research was based on the conversion of the absorbed middle infra red (IR) radiation by gas confined in a closed PAS cell into standing acoustic wave, which could be detected by a suitable electroacoustic transducer such as a microphone. The lowest detection limit for this setup was (57,1 ± 0,3) ppb and quality factor was (14,5 ± 0,6) for ethylene gas in 10P14 CO{sub 2} laser line. Then, this PAS was used to measure of ethylene gas concentration in breath sample of people living in near the Piyungan Bantul Yogyakarta landfill. The result from multicomponent analysis showed that PAS enable to measure the lowest concentration of volatile organic compound (VOC), such as ethylene, which occured on ambien air in Piyungan landfill. Variaty of distance area applied in this research. In the range of ±0,5 km from landfill, we obtained the concentration of ethylene gas concentration for human breath was (1,520 ± 0,002) ppm, while in the range of ±45 km, the ethylene gas concentration for human breath was (0,424 ± 0,002) ppm. Ethylene gas concentrations in exhaled gas decreased along with increasing distance variation of the landfill.

  19. The effect of exogenous 24-epibrassinolide on the ecdysteroid content in the leaves of Spinacia oleracea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamlar, Marek; Rothova, Olga; Salajkova, Sarka; Tarkowska, Dana; Drasar, Pavel; Kocova, Marie; Harmatha, Juraj; Hola, Dana; Kohout, Ladislav; Macek, Tomas

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to show whether/how the application of exogenous 24-epibrassinolide can affect the content of ecdysteroids in spinach leaves. Brassinosteroids and ecdysteroids, structurally related phytosterols, show effect on a range of processes in plants. Brassinosteroids increase biomass yield in some species, photosynthesis and resistance to stress, and ecdysteroids show effect on proteins responsible for binding of CO2 or water cleavage. The mutual interaction of these sterols in plants is unclear. The UPLC-(+)ESI-MS/MS analyses of extracts of treated and untreated spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves show that the application of exogenous 24-epibrassinolide does influence the ecdysteroid content in plant tissues. The response differs for the major ecdysteroids and also differs from that for the minor ones and is dependent on the developmental stage of the leaves within the same plant or the 24-epibrassinolide concentration applied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Solubility of sodium 4-nitrotoluene-2-sulfonate in (propanol + water) and (ethylene glycol + water) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lingxin; Yu Xiaoman; Xia Qing; Zhang Fengbao; Zhang Guoliang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → The solubilities of NTSNa in 2 binary solvent mixtures are experimental determined. → The E-NRTL model and modified Apelblat model are used to describe systems. → The effect of solvents on the reaction of oxidation NTS to DNS was discussed. - Abstract: The solubility data of sodium 4-nitrotoluene-2-sulfonate (NTSNa) in aqueous organic solutions (propanol + water) and (ethylene glycol + water) were measured at temperatures ranging from (290 to 351) K using a dynamic method. The mole fraction of water in solvent mixtures ranged from 0 to 0.8. The solubility values are correlated with the electrolyte non-random two-liquid (E-NRTL) model. From the results obtained, the E-NRTL model provides a satisfactory mathematical representation of the experimental results for the (NTSNa + propanol + water) system and an unsatisfactory result for the (NTSNa + ethylene glycol + water) system. Thus, the modified Apelblat model is applied to describe the (NTSNa + ethylene glycol + water) system also. The calculated (solid + liquid) equilibrium temperatures with the modified Apelblat model are in good agreement with the experimental results. The root-mean-square deviations of solubility temperature varied from (0.08 to 0.94) K for two models. The effect of different aqueous organic solutions on the reaction of oxidation 4-nitrotoluene-2-sulfonic acid (NTS) to 4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DNS) was discussed.

  1. Reactions of organic zinc- and cadmium elementoxides with ethylene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodonov, V.A.; Krasnov, Yu.N.

    1980-01-01

    Studied are reactions of triphenylmethoxy, -triphenylsiloxyethylzinc and -cadmium with ethylene oxide in ratio of 1:1. Reactions have been carried out in tolyene solutions in ampules sealed in argon atmosphere. It is found that interaction of triphenylsiloxy-, triphenylmethoxyethylcadmium and triphenylsiloxyethylzinc with ethylene oxide occurs at the metal-carbon bond with formation of implantation products. Triphenylmethoxyethylzinc reacts with ethylene oxide both at the metal-carbon and metal-oxygen bonds. Alkoxytriphenylsiloxyderivatives of zinc and cadmium are thermally instable and decompose under the conditions of reaction (130 deg C) with migration of phenyl group from silicon to zinc or cadmium, giving alkoxyphenylderivative and with bensene splitting out

  2. The molecular basis of ethylene signalling in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woeste, K.; Kieber, J. J.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The simple gas ethylene profoundly influences plants at nearly every stage of growth and development. In the past ten years, the use of a genetic approach, based on the triple response phenotype, has been a powerful tool for investigating the molecular events that underlie these effects. Several fundamental elements of the pathway have been described: a receptor with homology to bacterial two-component histidine kinases (ETR1), elements of a MAP kinase cascade (CTR1) and a putative transcription factor (EIN3). Taken together, these elements can be assembled into a simple, linear model for ethylene signalling that accounts for most of the well-characterized ethylene mediated responses.

  3. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R.; Steinberg, M.

    This invention relates to high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280/sup 0/C and containing as little as 36 mo1% ethylene and about 41 to 51 mo1% sulfur dioxide, and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10 to 50/sup 0/C, and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  4. Carbon dioxide action on ethylene biosynthesis of preclimacteric and climacteric pear fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de J.P.J.; Otma, E.C.; Peppelenbos, H.W.

    2003-01-01

    Ethylene production in pear fruit was studied at 2 °C. Several observations showed that the inhibiting effect of CO2 on ethylene production did not operate only via the binding site of the ethylene binding protein. Ethylene production of freshly harvested pears was stimulated by 1-methylcyclopropene

  5. In situ ring-opening polymerization of hydroxyapatite/poly (ethylene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Hydroxyapatite/poly(ethylene adipate)--poly(ethylene terephthalate) biomaterials (HAp/PEA--PET) have been prepared by ring opening polymerization (ROP) of cyclic oligo(ethylene adipate)--oligo(ethylene terephthalate) (C-OEA--C-OET) in the porous hydroxyapatite (HAp) scaffolds at 250 ...

  6. In situ ring-opening polymerization of hydroxyapatite/poly (ethylene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydroxyapatite/poly(ethylene adipate)--poly(ethylene terephthalate) biomaterials (HAp/PEA--PET) have been prepared by ring opening polymerization (ROP) of cyclic oligo(ethylene adipate)--oligo(ethylene terephthalate) (C-OEA--C-OET) in the porous hydroxyapatite (HAp) scaffolds at 250 °C for 24 h under ...

  7. Contrasting effects of ethylene biosynthesis on induced plant resistance against a chewing and a piercing-sucking herbivore in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Li, Jiancai; Ju, Hongping; Liu, Xiaoli; Erb, Matthias; Wang, Xia; Lou, Yonggen

    2014-11-01

    Ethylene is a stress hormone with contrasting effects on herbivore resistance. However, it remains unknown whether these differences are plant- or herbivore-specific. We cloned a rice 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase gene, OsACS2, whose transcripts were rapidly up-regulated in response to mechanical wounding and infestation by two important pests: the striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis and the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens. Antisense expression of OsACS2 (as-acs) reduced elicited ethylene emission, SSB-elicited trypsin protease inhibitor (TrypPI) activity, SSB-induced volatile release, and SSB resistance. Exogenous application of ACC restored TrypPI activity and SSB resistance. In contrast to SSB, BPH infestation increased volatile emission in as-acs lines. Accordingly, BPH preferred to feed and oviposit on wild-type (WT) plants--an effect that could be attributed to two repellent volatiles, 2-heptanone and 2-heptanol, that were emitted in higher amounts by as-acs plants. BPH honeydew excretion was reduced and natural enemy attraction was enhanced in as-acs lines, resulting in higher overall resistance to BPH. These results demonstrate that ethylene signaling has contrasting, herbivore-specific effects on rice defense responses and resistance against a chewing and a piercing-sucking insect, and may mediate resistance trade-offs between herbivores of different feeding guilds in rice. © The Author 2014. Published by the Molecular Plant Shanghai Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of CSPB and IPPE, SIBS, CAS.

  8. Effect of gamma radiation and ethylene oxide on neomycin sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopal, N.G.S.; Rajagopalan, S.

    1981-01-01

    Neomycin is affected by ethylene oxide but not by gamma radiation (2.75 Mrad). Differential refractometry is more advantageous in quantitating neomycin A, B and C than is the ninhydrin method. (Auth.)

  9. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as... prescribed for polyethylene in § 177.1520. (1) Specifications—(i) Infrared identification. Ethylene-ethyl...

  10. Interactions between ethylene, abscisic acid and cytokinin during ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Santner et al. 2009). Interactions ... Arabidopsis seeds of ecotype Columbia germinate within two days following cold imbibition and transfer to ... ETR1 encodes the ethylene receptor whereas EIN2 encodes a large protein with transmembrane ...

  11. Treatment of the alcohol intoxications: ethylene glycol, methanol and isopropanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, S; Singh, A K

    2000-11-01

    Intoxications with ethylene glycol, methanol, and isopropanol are among the most common ingestions, in the treatment of which a nephrologist plays an important role. These three substances have the ideal characteristics for intervention by hemodialysis, and the three parent compounds and their metabolites are readily dialyzable. Two of the three substances, ethylene glycol and methanol, are metabolized to more toxic substances, so that an early treatment strategy that removes the parent compound or blocks its metabolism can prevent the development of many of the adverse events that are often seen in these ingestions. Fomepizole, an inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase, slows the metabolism of these substances and is now approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in ethylene glycol intoxication. The present review addresses recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of intoxication with ethylene glycol, methanol and isopropanol.

  12. Intercalation of ethylene glycol into yttrium hydroxide layered materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yuanzhou; Davis, Robert J

    2010-04-19

    Intercalation of ethylene glycol into layered yttrium hydroxide containing nitrate counterions was accomplished by heating the reagents in a methanol solution of sodium methoxide under autogenous pressure at 413 K for 20 h. The resulting crystalline material had an expanded interlayer distance of 10.96 A, confirming the intercalation of an ethylene glycol derived species. Characterization of the material by FT-IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and the catalytic transesterification of tributyrin with methanol was consistent with direct bonding of ethylene glycolate anions (O(2)C(2)H(5)(-)) to the yttrium hydroxide layers, forming Y-O-C bonds. The layers of the material are proposed to be held together by H-bonding between the hydroxyls of grafted ethylene glycol molecules attached to adjacent layers. Glycerol can also be intercalated into yttrium hydroxide layered materials by a similar method.

  13. Interactions between ethylene, abscisic acid and cytokinin during ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Interactions between ethylene, abscisic acid and cytokinin during germination and seedling establishment in Arabidopsis. VEERAPUTHIRAN SUBBIAH and KARINGU JANARDHAN REDDY. J. Biosci. 35(3), September 2010, 451–459 © Indian Academy of Sciences. Supplementary figure. Supplementary figure 1.

  14. Nitrous Ethane-Ethylene Rocket with Hypergolic Ignition, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrous Ethane-Ethylene Rocket with Hypergolic Ignition (NEERHI) engine is a proposed technology designed to provide small spacecraft with non-toxic,...

  15. Nitrous Ethane-Ethylene Rocket with Hypergolic Ignition, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrous Ethane-Ethylene Rocket with Hypergolic Ignition (NEERHI) engine is a proposed technology designed to provide small spacecraft with non-toxic,...

  16. Improved control of exogenous attention in action video game players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Matthew S; Prinzmetal, William; Shimamura, Arthur P; Landau, Ayelet N

    2014-01-01

    Action video game players (VGPs) have demonstrated a number of attentional advantages over non-players. Here, we propose that many of those benefits might be underpinned by improved control over exogenous (i.e., stimulus-driven) attention. To test this we used an anti-cueing task, in which a sudden-onset cue indicated that the target would likely appear in a separate location on the opposite side of the fixation point. When the time between the cue onset and the target onset was short (40 ms), non-players (nVGPs) showed a typical exogenous attention effect. Their response times were faster to targets presented at the cued (but less probable) location compared with the opposite (more probable) location. VGPs, however, were less likely to have their attention drawn to the location of the cue. When the onset asynchrony was long (600 ms), VGPs and nVGPs were equally able to endogenously shift their attention to the likely (opposite) target location. In order to rule out processing-speed differences as an explanation for this result, we also tested VGPs and nVGPs on an attentional blink (AB) task. In a version of the AB task that minimized demands on task switching and iconic memory, VGPs and nVGPs did not differ in second target identification performance (i.e., VGPs had the same magnitude of AB as nVGPs), suggesting that the anti-cueing results were due to flexible control over exogenous attention rather than to more general speed-of-processing differences.

  17. Improved control of exogenous attention in action video game players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Cain

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Action video game players have demonstrated a number of attentional advantages over non-players. Here, we propose that many of those benefits might be underpinned by improved control over exogenous (i.e., stimulus-driven attention. To test this we used an anti-cuing task, in which a sudden-onset cue indicated that the target would likely appear in a separate location on the opposite side of the fixation point. When the time between the cue onset and the target onset was short (40 ms, non-players (nVGPs showed a typical exogenous attention effect. Their response times were faster to targets presented at the cued (but less probable location compared with the opposite (more probable location. Video game players (VGPs, however, were less likely to have their attention drawn to the location of the cue. When the onset asynchrony was long (600 ms, VGPs and nVGPs were equally able to endogenously shift their attention to the likely (opposite target location. In order to rule out processing-speed differences as an explanation for this result, we also tested VGPs and nVGPs on an attentional blink task. In a version of the attentional blink task that minimized demands on task switching and iconic memory, VGPs and nVGPs did not differ in second target identification performance (i.e., VGPs had the same magnitude of attentional blink as nVGPs, suggesting that the anti-cuing results were due to flexible control over exogenous attention rather than to more general speed-of-processing differences.

  18. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia: HRCT, MR, and pathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, F.; Philippe, J.C. [Department of Medical Imaging, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Bordeaux (France); Vergier, B. [Department of Pathology, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); Granger-Veron, B.; Darpeix, B.; Vergeret, J.; Blanc, P. [Department of Pneumology, University of Bordeaux, F-33000 Bordeaux (France); Velly, J.F. [Department of Thoracic Surgery, University of Bordeaux, F-33000 Bordeaux (France)

    1999-08-01

    The objective of this study was to describe high-resolution CT (HRCT) and MR findings of exogenous lipoid pneumonia and to correlate them with pathologic findings. A retrospective review of the medical records of our institution revealed seven patients with a diagnosis of lipoid pneumonia based on clinical data, chest films, bronchoalveolar lavage, and follow-up. Both HRCT and MR imaging were reviewed by two readers. Pathologic examination of the resected specimen or surgical biopsies were also reviewed in the four available cases. The HRCT findings were pulmonary consolidations (n = 6) with fatty (n = 3) or unspecific but low attenuation values (n = 3), areas of ground-glass opacities (n = 5), septal lines, and centrilobular interstitial thickening (n = 5). In five of the seven cases, a crazy-paving pattern of various spread was also present, either isolated (n = 1) or surrounding a pulmonary consolidation. In two cases traction bronchiectasis and cystic changes consistent with fibrosis were seen. At MR imaging (n = 2) a pulmonary consolidation of high signal intensity on T1-weighted image consistent with lipid content was present in one case. Pathologic examination (n = 4) showed the coexistence of lobules with lesions of various ages, sometimes in contiguous lobules, within the same patient. Recent lesions were those with alveolar fill-in by spumous macrophages and almost normal alveolar walls and septae. In more advanced lesions, lobules were filled in with larger vacuoles often surrounded by inflammatory infiltrates of alveolar walls, bronchiolar walls, and septa. The oldest lesions were characterized by fibrosis and parenchymal distortion around large lipid-containing vacuoles. The HRCT findings reflect pathologic findings in exogenous lipoid pneumonia. Although non-specific, consolidation areas of low attenuation values and crazy-paving pattern are frequently associated in exogenous lipoid pneumonia and are indicative of the diagnosis. (orig.) With 3 figs

  19. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia: HRCT, MR, and pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, F.; Philippe, J.C.; Vergier, B.; Granger-Veron, B.; Darpeix, B.; Vergeret, J.; Blanc, P.; Velly, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe high-resolution CT (HRCT) and MR findings of exogenous lipoid pneumonia and to correlate them with pathologic findings. A retrospective review of the medical records of our institution revealed seven patients with a diagnosis of lipoid pneumonia based on clinical data, chest films, bronchoalveolar lavage, and follow-up. Both HRCT and MR imaging were reviewed by two readers. Pathologic examination of the resected specimen or surgical biopsies were also reviewed in the four available cases. The HRCT findings were pulmonary consolidations (n = 6) with fatty (n = 3) or unspecific but low attenuation values (n = 3), areas of ground-glass opacities (n = 5), septal lines, and centrilobular interstitial thickening (n = 5). In five of the seven cases, a crazy-paving pattern of various spread was also present, either isolated (n = 1) or surrounding a pulmonary consolidation. In two cases traction bronchiectasis and cystic changes consistent with fibrosis were seen. At MR imaging (n = 2) a pulmonary consolidation of high signal intensity on T1-weighted image consistent with lipid content was present in one case. Pathologic examination (n = 4) showed the coexistence of lobules with lesions of various ages, sometimes in contiguous lobules, within the same patient. Recent lesions were those with alveolar fill-in by spumous macrophages and almost normal alveolar walls and septae. In more advanced lesions, lobules were filled in with larger vacuoles often surrounded by inflammatory infiltrates of alveolar walls, bronchiolar walls, and septa. The oldest lesions were characterized by fibrosis and parenchymal distortion around large lipid-containing vacuoles. The HRCT findings reflect pathologic findings in exogenous lipoid pneumonia. Although non-specific, consolidation areas of low attenuation values and crazy-paving pattern are frequently associated in exogenous lipoid pneumonia and are indicative of the diagnosis. (orig.)

  20. Ethylene epoxidation catalyzed by chlorine-promoted silver oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozbek, M O; Onal, I; Van Santen, R A

    2011-01-01

    It is demonstrated that, on a silver oxide surface, direct formation of ethylene oxide (EO) through the reaction between gas phase ethylene and surface oxygen is possible. The direct reaction channel produces EO selectively without competing with acetaldehyde (AA) formation. The oxometallacycle (OMC) forms on an oxygen vacant surface and reduces EO selectivity. Cl adsorption removes these surface vacant sites and hence prevents the formation of the OMC intermediate.

  1. Exogenous pyruvate accelerates glycolysis and promotes capacitation in human spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hereng, T.H.; Elgstøen, K.B.P.; Cederkvist, F.H.; Eide, L.; Jahnsen, T.; Skålhegg, B.S.; Rosendal, K.R.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND There has been an ongoing debate in the reproductive field about whether mammalian spermatozoa rely on glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation or both for their energy production. Recent studies have proposed that human spermatozoa depend mainly on glucose for motility and fertilization but the mechanism behind an efficient glycolysis in human spermatozoa is not well understood. Here, we demonstrate how human spermatozoa utilize exogenous pyruvate to enhance glycolytic ATP production, motility, hyperactivation and capacitation, events that are crucial for male fertility. METHODS Purified human spermatozoa from healthy donors were incubated under capacitating conditions (including albumin, bicarbonate and glucose) and tested for changes in ATP levels, motility, hyperactivation and tyrosine phosphorylation after treatment with pyruvate. The experiments were repeated in the presence of sodium cyanide in order to assess the contribution from mitochondrial respiration. The metabolism of 13C labeled glucose and pyruvate was traced by a combination of liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. RESULTS The treatment of human spermatozoa with exogenous pyruvate increased intracellular ATP levels, progressive motility and hyperactivation by 56, 21 and 130%, respectively. In addition, added pyruvate induced a significant increase in tyrosine phosphorylation levels. Blocking of the electron transport chain did not markedly affect the results, indicating that the mechanism is independent of oxidative phosphorylation. However, the observed effects could be counteracted by oxamate, an inhibitor of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Metabolic tracing experiments revealed that the observed rise in ATP concentration resulted from an enhanced glycolytic flux, which was increased by more than 50% in the presence of exogenous pyruvate. Moreover, all consumed 13C labeled pyruvate added was converted to lactate rather than oxidized in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. CONCLUSIONS Human

  2. Capture of exogenous attention modulates the attentional blink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon; Andersen, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    When two targets (T1 & T2) are presented in rapid succession, observers often fail to report T2 if they attend to T1. Bottleneck theories propose that this attentional blink (AB) is due to T1 occupying a slow processing stage when T2 is presented. Accordingly, if increasing T1 difficulty increases...... the AB have reported inconsistent results. For example, some found a negative correlation between T1 contrast and T2 performance (Chua, 2005) where others find a positive correlation (Christmann & Leuthold, 2004). Here, we use additive Gaussian noise to tease apart the exogenous capture effect from...

  3. Capture of exogenous attention modulates the attentional blink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon; Andersen, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    the AB have reported inconsistent results. For example, some found a negative correlation between T1 contrast and T2 performance (Chua, 2005) where others find a positive correlation (Christmann & Leuthold, 2004). Here, we use additive Gaussian noise to tease apart the exogenous capture effect from...... the effect of T1 contrast. The capture effect is varied by the overall contrast energy for signal and noise. In two T1 conditions we adjust T1 performance to 60% by signal to noise ratio (SNR) but vary T1 contrast energy between conditions. From 17 observers we find that T2 performance correlates negatively...

  4. EXOGENOUS ADMINISTRATION OF OXYTOCIN AND ITS RESIDUAL EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. IJAZ AND M. ALEEM

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin is a peptide hormone which is synthesized in the hypothalamic neurons and released from the posterior pituitary gland. This hormone has a wide range of applications in human and veterinary medicine. Whether secreted endogenously or administered exogenously, it produces the desired effects within minutes and is metabolized rapidly into inactive products. If at all oxytocin is secreted in the milk and is ingested alongwith milk, it is degraded by the gut enzymes and can not reach blood circulation in biologically active form. Thus, there seems to be no harm in consuming milk from oxytocin-treated dairy animals. However, its use in pregnant animals should be discouraged.

  5. Applied Macroeconomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    This book contains a course in applied macroeconomics. Macroeconomic theory is applied to real world cases. Students are expected to compute model results with the help of a spreadsheet program. To that end the book also contains descriptions of the spreadsheet applications used, such as linear

  6. Applied Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, H.; Marinova, I.; Cingoski, V.

    2002-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics

  7. The role of ethylene and wound signaling in resistance of tomato to Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, José; ten Have, Arjen; van Kan, Jan A L

    2002-07-01

    Ethylene, jasmonate, and salicylate play important roles in plant defense responses to pathogens. To investigate the contributions of these compounds in resistance of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) to the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, three types of experiments were conducted: (a) quantitative disease assays with plants pretreated with ethylene, inhibitors of ethylene perception, or salicylate; (b) quantitative disease assays with mutants or transgenes affected in the production of or the response to either ethylene or jasmonate; and (c) expression analysis of defense-related genes before and after inoculation of plants with B. cinerea. Plants pretreated with ethylene showed a decreased susceptibility toward B. cinerea, whereas pretreatment with 1-methylcyclopropene, an inhibitor of ethylene perception, resulted in increased susceptibility. Ethylene pretreatment induced expression of several pathogenesis-related protein genes before B. cinerea infection. Proteinase inhibitor I expression was repressed by ethylene and induced by 1-methylcyclopropene. Ethylene also induced resistance in the mutant Never ripe. RNA analysis showed that Never ripe retained some ethylene sensitivity. The mutant Epinastic, constitutively activated in a subset of ethylene responses, and a transgenic line producing negligible ethylene were also tested. The results confirmed that ethylene responses are important for resistance of tomato to B. cinerea. The mutant Defenseless, impaired in jasmonate biosynthesis, showed increased susceptibility to B. cinerea. A transgenic line with reduced prosystemin expression showed similar susceptibility as Defenseless, whereas a prosystemin-overexpressing transgene was highly resistant. Ethylene and wound signaling acted independently on resistance. Salicylate and ethylene acted synergistically on defense gene expression, but antagonistically on resistance.

  8. Experimental studies on toxicity of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, K; Nakayama, E; Oobayashi, H; Nishizawa, T; Okuda, H; Yamazaki, K

    1984-08-01

    Past studies on the toxicological effects of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers as well as the recent data on these chemicals in Japan are reviewed. Only a few researchers have participated in the study of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers in Japan. The effects of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers on testis and embryotoxic effects of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGM) have been studied, as has the teratogenicity of ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (EGdM). Studies on ethylene glycol alkyl ethers and related compounds administered to mice by oral gavage revealed the occurrence of testicular atrophy and decreased white blood cell count by EGM, EGdM, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate, ethylene glycol monoethyl ether and ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate, and the toxicity was related to their chemical structure. On the other hand, ethylene glycol, ethylene glycol monopropyl ether, ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, ethylene glycol monophenyl ether, ethylene glycol monoacetate or ethylene glycol diacetate showed no such an effect. Studies on EGM using hamsters or guinea pigs revealed the occurrence of testicular atrophy similar to that observed in mice. In regard to the methyl ethers of other glycols, there is no convincing evidence that propylene glycol monomethyl ether, diethylene glycol monomethyl ether or diethylene glycol dimethyl ether causes testicular atrophy in mice. Teratological studies of EGM and EGdM revealed embryotoxic effects in mice.

  9. Mechanistic studies of ethylene biosynthesis in higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGeehan, G.M.

    1986-01-01

    Ethylene is a plant hormone that elicits a wide variety of responses in plant tissue. Among these responses are the hastening of abscission, ripening and senescence. In 1979 it was discovered that 1-amino-1-cyclopropane carboxylic acid is the immediate biosynthetic precursor to ethylene. Given the obvious economic significance of ethylene production the authors concentrated their studies on the conversion of ACC to ethylene. They delved into mechanistic aspects of ACC oxidation and they studied potential inhibitors of ethylene forming enzyme (EFE). They synthesized various analogs of ACC and found that EFE shows good stereodiscrimination among alkyl substituted ACC analogs with the 1R, 2S stereoisomer being processed nine times faster than the 1S, 2R isomer in the MeACC series. They also synthesized 2-cyclopropyl ACC which is a good competitive inhibitor of EFE. This compound also causes time dependent loss of EFE activity leading us to believe it is an irreversible inhibitor of ethylene formation. The synthesis of these analogs has also allowed them to develop a spectroscopic technique to assign the relative stereochemistry of alkyl groups. 13 C NMR allows them to assign the alkyl stereochemistry based upon gamma-shielding effects on the carbonyl resonance. Lastly, they measured kinetic isotope effects on the oxidation of ACC in vivo and in vitro and found that ACC is oxidized by a rate-determining 1-electron removal from nitrogen in close accord with mechanisms for the oxidation of other alkyl amines

  10. Ethylene Formation by Catalytic Dehydration of Ethanol with Industrial Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Shing Wu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene is the primary component in most plastics, making it economically valuable. It is produced primarily by steam-cracking of hydrocarbons, but can alternatively be produced by the dehydration of ethanol, which can be produced from fermentation processes using renewable substrates such as glucose, starch and others. Due to rising oil prices, researchers now look at alternative reactions to produce green ethylene, but the process is far from being as economically competitive as using fossil fuels. Many studies have investigated catalysts and new reaction engineering technologies to increase ethylene yield and to lower reaction temperature, in an effort to make the reaction applicable in industry and most cost-efficient. This paper presents various lab synthesized catalysts, reaction conditions, and reactor technologies that achieved high ethylene yield at reasonable reaction temperatures, and evaluates their practicality in industrial application in comparison with steam-cracking plants. The most promising were found to be a nanoscale catalyst HZSM-5 with 99.7% ethylene selectivity at 240 °C and 630 h lifespan, using a microreactor technology with mechanical vapor recompression, and algae-produced ethanol to make ethylene.

  11. The size and germination of eggplant seed in relation to fruit maturity at harvest, after-ripening and ethylene application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despoina MAKROGIANNI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In eggplant cultivars Black Beauty, Emi, Long Negro and Tsakoniki cultivated for seed, flower induction and flower weight decreased in the presence of developing fruit on the plant. Harvesting prior to maturity (25-35 days after anthesis, aimed at increasing flower induction and fruit set, resulted in small seeds that failed to germinate or germinated poorly. When these fruit were stored for 20 days at 25±30C before seed extraction, seed size and germination increased indicating seed filling and maturation (‘after-ripening’ within the harvested fruit. In year 1, a single application of ethylene before storage increased the germination of Black Beauty and Long Negro harvested 25-35 days after anthesis, but reduced that of Emi and Tsakoniki. In year 2, ethylene application once before the storage of fruits harvested 35 days after anthesis promoted the germination of Tsakoniki and Emi, and when ethylene was applied three times germination was increased further. The possible applications of early harvest, fruit storage prior to seed extraction and ethylene treatment to eggplant seed production are discussed.

  12. Synthesis of poly(ethylene furandicarboxylate) polyester using monomers derived from renewable resources: thermal behavior comparison with PET and PEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, George Z; Tsanaktsis, Vasilios; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N

    2014-05-07

    Poly(ethylene-2,5-furandicarboxylate) (PEF) is a new alipharomatic polyester that can be prepared from monomers derived from renewable resources like furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural. For this reason it has gained high interest recently. In the present work it was synthesized from the dimethylester of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid and ethylene glycol by applying the two-stage melt polycondensation method. The thermal behavior of PEF was studied in comparison to its terephthalate and naphthalate homologues poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN), which were also synthesized following the same procedure. The equilibrium melting point of PEF was found to be 265 °C while the heat of fusion for the pure crystalline PEF was estimated to be about 137 J g(-1). The crystallization kinetics was analyzed using various models. PET showed faster crystallization rates than PEN and this in turn showed faster crystallization than PEF, under both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. The spherulitic morphology of PEF during isothermal crystallization was investigated by polarized light microscopy (PLM). A large nucleation density and a small spherulite size were observed for PEF even at low supercoolings, in contrast to PET or PEN. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that PEF is thermally stable up to 325 °C and the temperature for the maximum degradation rate was 438 °C. These values were a little lower than those for PET or PEN.

  13. Poly(ethylene glycol)/carbon quantum dot composite solid films exhibiting intense and tunable blue–red emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Yanling; Gan, Zhixing; Xu, Jiaqing; Wu, Xinglong; Chu, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Poly(ethylene glycol)/carbon quantum dots (PEG/CQDs) composite solid films exhibiting strong and tunable blue–red emission were prepared. Successful preparation of tunable emitting CQDs solid films can extend the application of carbon quantum dots in photoelectric devices. • The mechanism of the tunable emission from the PEG/CQDs composite solid films was discussed. • On the basis of the characteristics of the PL from solid films in this work, the complex PL origins of CQDs were further defined. The PL mechanism provides insights into the fluorescence mechanism of CQDs and may promotes their applications. • Poly(ethylene glycol); carbon quantum dots; Strong and tunable blue-red emission; The fluorescent quantum yield of 12.6%. - Abstract: Although carbon quantum dots (CQDs) possess excellent luminescence properties, it is a challenge to apply water-soluble CQDs to tunable luminescent devices. Herein, quaternary CQDs are incorporated into poly(ethylene glycol) to produce poly(ethylene glycol)/CQD composite solid films which exhibit strong and tunable blue–red emission. The fluorescent quantum yield reaches 12.6% which is comparable to that of many liquid CQDs and the photoluminescence characteristics are determined to elucidate the fluorescence mechanism. The CQD solid films with tunable optical properties bode well for photoelectric devices especially displays

  14. Exogenous trehalose improves growth under limiting nitrogen through upregulation of nitrogen metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yingchao; Zhang, Jie; Gao, Weichang; Chen, Yi; Li, Hongxun; Lawlor, David W; Paul, Matthew J; Pan, Wenjie

    2017-12-19

    The trehalose (Tre) pathway has strong effects on growth and development in plants through regulation of carbon metabolism. Altering either Tre or trehalose 6-phosphate (T6P) can improve growth and productivity of plants as observed under different water availability. As yet, there are no reports of the effects of modification of Tre orT6P on plant performance under limiting nutrition. Here we report that nitrogen (N) metabolism is positively affected by exogenous application of Tre in nitrogen-deficient growing conditions. Spraying foliage of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) with trehalose partially alleviated symptoms of nitrogen deficiency through upregulation of nitrate and ammonia assimilation and increasing activities of nitrate reductase (NR), glycolate oxidase (GO), glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase (GOGAT) with concomitant changes in ammonium (NH 4 + ) and nitrate (NO 3 - ) concentrations, glutamine and amino acids. Chlorophyll and total nitrogen content of leaves and rates of photosynthesis were increased compared to nitrogen-deficient plants without applied Tre. Total plant biomass accumulation was also higher in Tre -fed nitrogen-deficient plants, with a smaller proportion of dry weight partitioned to roots, compared to nitrogen-deficient plants without applied Tre. Consistent with higher nitrogen assimilation and growth, Tre application reduced foliar starch. Minimal effects of Tre feeding were observed on nitrogen-sufficient plants. The data show, for the first time, significant stimulatory effects of exogenous Tre on nitrogen metabolism and growth in plants growing under deficient nitrogen. Under such adverse conditions metabolism is regulated for survival rather than productivity. Application of Tre can alter this regulation towards maintenance of productive functions under low nitrogen. This has implications for considering approaches to modifying the Tre pathway for to improve crop nitrogen-use efficiency and

  15. Differential effects of 10-Hz and 40-Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) on endogenous versus exogenous attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfinger, Joseph B; Parsons, Jonathan; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2017-04-01

    Previous electrophysiological studies implicate both alpha (8-12 Hz) and gamma (>30 Hz) neural oscillations in the mechanisms of selective attention. Here, participants preformed two separate visual attention tasks, one endogenous and one exogenous, while transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), at 10 Hz, 40 Hz, or sham, was applied to the right parietal lobe. Our results provide new evidence for the roles of gamma and alpha oscillations in voluntary versus involuntary shifts of attention. Gamma (40 Hz) stimulation resulted in improved disengagement from invalidly cued targets in the endogenous attention task, whereas alpha stimulation (10 Hz) had no effect on endogenous attention, but increased the exogenous cuing effect. These findings agree with previous studies suggesting that right inferior parietal regions may be especially important for the disengagement of attention, and go further to provide details about the specific type of oscillatory neural activity within that brain region that is differentially involved in endogenous versus exogenous attention. Our results also have potential implications for the plasticity and training of attention systems.

  16. Effects of exogenous testosterone on isolated rabbit corpus cavernosum penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, S; Utkan, T; Yildirim, K; Sarioglu, Y

    2000-02-01

    To study the effects of exogenous excess of testosterone on the constricting effect of phenylephrine and endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxing effects of different agonists in the corpus cavernosum penis (CCP). Specimens of the CCP were obtained from rabbits testosterone for 1 and 2 months and untreated for 2 months after testosterone-treatment for 2 months. Preparations were mounted between two parallel platinum electrodes in organ baths. Responses to phenylephrine, carbachol, and sodium nitroprusside were obtained by adding the reagent cumulatively to the bath. The phenylephrine-induced contractions were decreased with no change in agonist potency (pD2 value) after both 1 and 2 month testosterone-treatment and did not return to control values in corpus cavernosum obtained from rabbits untreated for 2 months after testosterone-treatment for 2 months. Testosterone treatment for 1 or 2 months increased the endothelium-dependent relaxations induced by carbachol and decreased the relaxations elicited by electric stimulation but did not affect the relaxations induced by sodium nitroprusside. These relaxant responses to carbachol and electric stimulation did not return to control values in corpus cavernosum obtained from rabbits untreated for 2 months after testosterone-treatment for 2 months. There were no significant changes in the pD2 values calculated by agonist-induced relaxation responses in all testosterone-treatment groups compared with control group. The exogenous excess of testosterone plays an important role in erectile function by a direct action on the relaxant and contractile responses of CCP.

  17. Exogenous orienting of visual-spatial attention in ADHD children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Rodrigo; López, Vladimir; Carrasco, Ximena; Anllo-Vento, Lourdes; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2013-02-01

    Visual spatial orienting of attention towards exogenous cues has been one of the attentional functions considered to be spared in ADHD. Here we present a design in which 60 (30 ADHD) children, age: 10.9±1.4, were asked to covertly orient their attention to one or two (out of four) cued locations, and search for a target stimulus in one of these locations, while recording behavioral responses and EEG/ERP. In all conditions, ADHD children showed delayed reaction times and poorer behavioral performance. They also exhibited larger cue-elicited P2 but reduced CNV in the preparation stage. Larger amplitude of CNV predicted better performance in the task. Target-elicited N1 and selection negativity were also reduced in the ADHD group compared to non-ADHD. Groups also differed in the early and late P3 time-windows. The present results suggest that exogenous orienting of attention could be dysfunctional in ADHD under certain conditions. This limitation is not necessarily caused by an impairment of the orienting process itself, but instead by a difficulty in maintaining the relevant information acquired during the early preparation stage through the target processing stage, when it is really needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The interactions of multisensory integration with endogenous and exogenous attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoyu; Wu, Jinglong; Shen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Stimuli from multiple sensory organs can be integrated into a coherent representation through multiple phases of multisensory processing; this phenomenon is called multisensory integration. Multisensory integration can interact with attention. Here, we propose a framework in which attention modulates multisensory processing in both endogenous (goal-driven) and exogenous (stimulus-driven) ways. Moreover, multisensory integration exerts not only bottom-up but also top-down control over attention. Specifically, we propose the following: (1) endogenous attentional selectivity acts on multiple levels of multisensory processing to determine the extent to which simultaneous stimuli from different modalities can be integrated; (2) integrated multisensory events exert top-down control on attentional capture via multisensory search templates that are stored in the brain; (3) integrated multisensory events can capture attention efficiently, even in quite complex circumstances, due to their increased salience compared to unimodal events and can thus improve search accuracy; and (4) within a multisensory object, endogenous attention can spread from one modality to another in an exogenous manner. PMID:26546734

  19. The interactions of multisensory integration with endogenous and exogenous attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoyu; Wu, Jinglong; Shen, Yong

    2016-02-01

    Stimuli from multiple sensory organs can be integrated into a coherent representation through multiple phases of multisensory processing; this phenomenon is called multisensory integration. Multisensory integration can interact with attention. Here, we propose a framework in which attention modulates multisensory processing in both endogenous (goal-driven) and exogenous (stimulus-driven) ways. Moreover, multisensory integration exerts not only bottom-up but also top-down control over attention. Specifically, we propose the following: (1) endogenous attentional selectivity acts on multiple levels of multisensory processing to determine the extent to which simultaneous stimuli from different modalities can be integrated; (2) integrated multisensory events exert top-down control on attentional capture via multisensory search templates that are stored in the brain; (3) integrated multisensory events can capture attention efficiently, even in quite complex circumstances, due to their increased salience compared to unimodal events and can thus improve search accuracy; and (4) within a multisensory object, endogenous attention can spread from one modality to another in an exogenous manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Electrophysiological evidence for inhibition of return effect in exogenous orienting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong; Yao, Shuxia; Ding, Cody; Qi, Senqing; Lei, Yan

    2012-09-01

    Although the inhibition of return (IOR) effect in exogenous orienting has been investigated extensively with the Posnerian cuing paradigm, there has been little evidence for the role of attentional processes in the IOR effect. The N2pc component was used as a marker of the deployment of spatial attention to isolate attentional processes in the IOR effect. Participants responded to task-relevant target displays that were preceded by cue displays in a non-predictive, exogenous cuing paradigm. A 1,000 ms of stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was designed to investigate the IOR effect. Behavioral results indicate that the SOA was sufficiently long to cause an IOR effect in the discrimination task. As for ERP patterns elicited by targets, the N2pc amplitudes were similar across cue types, but the N2pc latency was delayed when targets appeared at the cued location rather than at the uncued location. N2pc patterns demonstrated that the spatial attentional process is indeed an important mechanism underlying the IOR effect. The delayed N2pc for targets in the valid cue type suggested that IOR effect may reflect a delayed deployment of spatial attention to targets appearing at recently cued locations.

  1. Dynamic Financial Constraints: Distinguishing Mechanism Design from Exogenously Incomplete Regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaivanov, Alexander; Townsend, Robert M

    2014-05-01

    We formulate and solve a range of dynamic models of constrained credit/insurance that allow for moral hazard and limited commitment. We compare them to full insurance and exogenously incomplete financial regimes (autarky, saving only, borrowing and lending in a single asset). We develop computational methods based on mechanism design, linear programming, and maximum likelihood to estimate, compare, and statistically test these alternative dynamic models with financial/information constraints. Our methods can use both cross-sectional and panel data and allow for measurement error and unobserved heterogeneity. We estimate the models using data on Thai households running small businesses from two separate samples. We find that in the rural sample, the exogenously incomplete saving only and borrowing regimes provide the best fit using data on consumption, business assets, investment, and income. Family and other networks help consumption smoothing there, as in a moral hazard constrained regime. In contrast, in urban areas, we find mechanism design financial/information regimes that are decidedly less constrained, with the moral hazard model fitting best combined business and consumption data. We perform numerous robustness checks in both the Thai data and in Monte Carlo simulations and compare our maximum likelihood criterion with results from other metrics and data not used in the estimation. A prototypical counterfactual policy evaluation exercise using the estimation results is also featured.

  2. Exogenous Testosterone Enhances the Reactivity to Social Provocation in Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Wagels

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone affects human social behavior in various ways. While testosterone effects are generally associated with muscular strength and aggressiveness, human studies also point towards enhanced status–seeking motives after testosterone administration. The current study tested the causal influence of exogenous testosterone on male behavior during a competitive provocation paradigm. In this double blind, randomized, placebo (PL-controlled study, 103 males were assigned to a PL or testosterone group receiving a colorless PL or testosterone gel. To induce provocation, males played a rigged reaction time game against an ostensible opponent. When participants lost, the opponent subtracted money from the participant who in return could subtract money from the ostensible opponent. Participants subjectively indicated anger and self-estimated treatment affiliation (testosterone or PL administration. A trial-by-trial analysis demonstrated that provocation and success during the repeated games had a stronger influence on participants’ choice to reduce money from the opponent if they had received testosterone. Participants who believed to be in the testosterone group were angrier after the experiment and increased monetary reductions during the task course. In line with theories about mechanisms of testosterone in humans, provocation is shown to be necessary for the agency of exogenous testosterone. Thus, testosterone reinforces the conditional adjustment of aggressive behavior but not aggressive behavior per se. In contrast undirected frustration is not increased by testosterone but probably interferes with cognitive appraisals about biological mechanisms of testosterone.

  3. Exogenous Testosterone Enhances the Reactivity to Social Provocation in Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagels, Lisa; Votinov, Mikhail; Kellermann, Thilo; Eisert, Albrecht; Beyer, Cordian; Habel, Ute

    2018-01-01

    Testosterone affects human social behavior in various ways. While testosterone effects are generally associated with muscular strength and aggressiveness, human studies also point towards enhanced status-seeking motives after testosterone administration. The current study tested the causal influence of exogenous testosterone on male behavior during a competitive provocation paradigm. In this double blind, randomized, placebo (PL)-controlled study, 103 males were assigned to a PL or testosterone group receiving a colorless PL or testosterone gel. To induce provocation, males played a rigged reaction time game against an ostensible opponent. When participants lost, the opponent subtracted money from the participant who in return could subtract money from the ostensible opponent. Participants subjectively indicated anger and self-estimated treatment affiliation (testosterone or PL administration). A trial-by-trial analysis demonstrated that provocation and success during the repeated games had a stronger influence on participants' choice to reduce money from the opponent if they had received testosterone. Participants who believed to be in the testosterone group were angrier after the experiment and increased monetary reductions during the task course. In line with theories about mechanisms of testosterone in humans, provocation is shown to be necessary for the agency of exogenous testosterone. Thus, testosterone reinforces the conditional adjustment of aggressive behavior but not aggressive behavior per se . In contrast undirected frustration is not increased by testosterone but probably interferes with cognitive appraisals about biological mechanisms of testosterone.

  4. Does exogenous carbon extend the realized niche of canopy lichens? Evidence from sub-boreal forests in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jocelyn; Bengtson, Per; Fredeen, Arthur L; Coxson, Darwyn S; Prescott, Cindy E

    2013-05-01

    Foliose lichens with cyanobacterial bionts (bipartite and tripartite) form a distinct assemblage of epiphytes strongly associated with humid microclimatic conditions in inland British Columbia. Previous research showed that these cyano- and cephalolichen communities are disproportionately abundant and species-rich on conifer saplings beneath Populus compared to beneath other tree species. More revealing, lichens with cyanobacterial bionts were observed beneath Populus even in stands that did not otherwise support them. We experimentally test the hypothesis that this association is due to the interception of glucose-rich nectar that is exuded from Populus extra-floral nectaries (EFN). Using CO2 flux measurements and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis with experimental applications of 13C6-labeled glucose, we demonstrate that cyano- and cephalolichens have a strong respiratory response to glucose. Lichens treated with glucose had lower net photosynthesis and higher establishment rates than control thalli. Furthermore, lichens with cyanobacterial bionts rapidly incorporate exogenous 13C into lichen fatty acid tissues. A large proportion of the 13C taken up by the lichens was incorporated into fungal biomarkers, suggesting that the mycobiont absorbed and assimilated the majority of applied 13C6 glucose. Our observations suggest that both cyanolichens and cephalolichens may utilize an exogenous source of glucose, made available by poplar EFNs. The exogenous C may enable these lichens to become established by providing a source of C for fungal respiration despite drought-induced inactivity of the cyanobacterial partner. As such, the mycobiont may adopt an alternative nutritional strategy, using available exogenous carbon to extend its realized niche.

  5. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L

    1975-01-01

    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  6. Radiation-induced oxidation of polyethylene, ethylene-butene copolymer, and ethylene-propylene copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, K.; Seguchi, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Hayakawa, N.

    1982-01-01

    Oxygen consumption and yield of oxidation products during ν-irradiation were studied on five types of polyethylene (PE), ethylene-butene copolymer (EB), and ethylene-propylene copolymer (EPR) using gas chromatography, mass spectrography, and high-resolution NMR. Samples were irradiated in oxygen under pressure from 0 to 500 torr by 60 Co ν-rays up to 20 Mrad at 22-25 0 C. In enough oxygen, oxygen consumption and yield of oxidation products are independent of oxygen pressure for low-density PE, EB, and EPR. The G values of oxygen consumption were 14-18.4 for PE, 11.6 for EB at 1 x 10 6 rad/h, and 8.3 for EPR at 2 x 10 5 rad/h. The oxidation products determined were carboxylic acid (-CH 2 -CO-OH), H 2 O, CO 2 , and CO. The oxygen consumption and oxidation products for PE were found to increase with increasing crystallinity

  7. Drinking water guideline for ethylene thiourea, a metabolite of ethylene bisdithiocarbamate fungicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frakes, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    The ethylene bisdithiocarbamate fungicides are the most heavily used pesticides in Maine. Ethylene thiourea (ETU) is a metabolite and environmental decomposition product of these compounds, is highly water soluble, and has been detected in groundwater in the state. ETU is a recognized animal carcinogen and teratogen. When administered in the diet, ETU produced a significant increase in thyroid carcinomas in rats in two studies. Two strains of mice fed ETU in the diet developed an increased incidence of hepatomas and a slight increase in lymphomas. Application of the linearized multistage model resulted in virtually safe doses (10(-5) lifetime cancer risk) of 0.25 to 1.6 micrograms/kg/day. The major teratologic effect has been the development of hydrocephalus and other CNS defects postnatally, resulting in a high mortality rate among the offspring. The NOEL for this effect was 5 mg/kg in a single oral dose. Retarded parietal ossification was observed at 5 mg/kg/day. Serious nononcogenic thyroid effects, such as goiter, decreased 131I uptake, and reduced thyroxine production, have been observed. Thyroid hyperplasia was produced at doses as low as 0.3 mg/kg/day ETU ingested in the diet. Based on protection against thyroid and/or liver tumors and alteration in thyroid function, the recommended Drinking Water Guideline for ETU is determined to be 3 ppb. This will also provide protection against developmental effects, since these occur at doses that are one to two orders of magnitude higher. 37 references

  8. Development of Emission Factors for Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate and Ethylene-Methyl Acrylate Copolymer Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Anthony; Moss, Pamela; Parker, Earl; Schroer, Thomas; Holdren, Mike; Adams, Kenneth

    1997-10-01

    Emission factors for selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate emissions were developed over a range of temperatures during extrusion of three mixtures of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymers and two mixtures of ethylene-methyl acrylate (EMA) copolymers. A mixture of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) resins was used as a control. EVAs with 9, 18, and 28% vinyl acetate (VA) were used. The EMA mixtures were both 20% methyl acrylate. A small commercial extruder was used. Polymer melt temperatures were run at 340 °F for LDPE and both 18 and 28% EVAs. The 9% EVA mixture was extruded at 435 °F melt temperature. The EMA mixtures were extruded at 350 and 565 °F melt temperatures. An emission rate for each substance was calculated, measured, and reported as pounds released to the atmosphere per million pounds of polymer processed [ppm (wt/wt)]. Based on production volumes, these emission factors can be used by processors to estimate emission quantities from EVA and EMA extrusion operations that are similar to the resins and the conditions used in the study.

  9. Evaluation of workers exposed to ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jiyoung; Yoon, Chungsik; Byun, Hyaejeong; Kim, Yangho; Park, Donguk; Ha, Kwonchul; Lee, Sang man; Park, Sungki; Chung, Eunkyo

    2012-01-01

    Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (EGMEA) are widely used in industries as solvents for coatings, paint and ink, but exposure data are limited because they are minor components out of mixed solvents, as well as because of inconsistency in desorption solvent use. The objective of this study was to investigate the worker exposure profile of EGME and EGMEA. Our study investigated 27 workplaces from June to September 2008 and detected EGME and EGMEA in 20 and 13, respectively. Both personal and area sampling were conducted using a charcoal tube to collect EGME and EGMEA. Gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector was used to analyze these compounds after desorption using a mixture of methylene chloride and methanol. The arithmetic mean concentrations of EGME and EGMEA during periods of full work shifts were 2.59 ppm and 0.33 ppm, respectively. The exposure levels were lower than the Korean Ministry of Labor (MOL) OEL (5 ppm) but higher than the ACGIH TLV (0.1 ppm). In general, the working environments were poor and required much improvement, including the use of personal protective equipment. Only 50% of the workplaces had local exhaust ventilation systems in operation. The average capture velocity of the operating local exhaust ventilation systems was 0.27 m/s, which did not meet the legal requirement of 0.5 m/s. Educating workers to clearly understand the handling and use of hazardous chemicals and improving working conditions are strongly suggested.

  10. pH-sensitive degradable nanoparticles for highly efficient intracellular delivery of exogenous protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu D

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dan Xu,1 Fei Wu,1 Yinghui Chen,2,* Liangming Wei,3,* Weien Yuan1,* 1School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 2Department of Neurology, Jinshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 3Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of the Ministry of Education, Institute of Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Encapsulating exogenous proteins into a nanosized particulate system for delivery into cells is a great challenge. To address this issue, we developed a novel nanoparticle delivery method that differs from the nanoparticles reported to date because its core was composed of cross-linked dextran glassy nanoparticles which had pH in endosome-responsive environment and the protein was loaded in the core of cross-linked dextran glassy nanoparticles.Methods: In this study, dextran in a poly(ethylene glycol aqueous two-phase system created a different chemical environment in which proteins were encapsulated very efficiently (84.3% and 89.6% for enhanced green fluorescent protein and bovine serum albumin, respectively by thermodynamically favored partition. The structures of the nanoparticles were confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.Results: The nanoparticles had a normal size distribution and a mean diameter of 186 nm. MTT assays showed that the nanoparticles were nontoxic up to a concentration of 2000 µg/mL in human hepatocarcinoma cell line SMMC-7721, HeLa, and BRL-3A cells. Of note, confocal laser scanning microscopy studies showed that nanoparticles loaded with fluorescein isothiocyanate-bovine serum albumin were efficiently delivered and released proteins into the cytoplasm of HeLa cells. Flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assays showed that nanoparticles with a functional protein (apoptin efficiently induced

  11. Transcriptional regulation of ethylene receptor and CTR genes involved in ethylene-induced flower opening in cut rose (Rosa hybrida) cv. Samantha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nan; Tan, Hui; Liu, Xiaohui; Xue, Jingqi; Li, Yunhui; Gao, Junping

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the effect of ethylene on flower opening of cut rose (Rosa hybrida) cv. Samantha was studied. However, although ethylene hastened the process of flower opening, 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene), an ethylene action inhibitor, impeded it. Ethylene promoted ethylene production in petals, but 1-MCP did not inhibit this process. Of the four ethylene biosynthetic genes tested, Rh-ACS1 and Rh-ACS2 were undetectable; Rh-ACS3 and Rh-ACO1 expression was enhanced by ethylene slightly and greatly, respectively. However, their mRNA amounts were not inhibited by 1-MCP compared with controls. Expression of seven signalling component genes was also studied, including three ethylene receptors (Rh-ETR1, Rh-ETR3, and Rh-ETR5), two CTRs (Rh-CTR1 and Rh-CTR2), and two transcription factors (Rh-EIN3-1 and Rh-EIN3-2). Transcripts of Rh-ETR5, Rh-EIN3-1, and Rh-EIN3-2 were accumulated in a constitutive manner and had no or little response to ethylene or 1-MCP, while transcript levels of Rh-ETR1 and Rh-CTR1 were substantially elevated by ethylene, and those of Rh-ETR3 and Rh-CTR2 were greatly enhanced by ethylene; 1-MCP reduced all the four genes to levels much less than those in control flowers. These results show that ethylene triggers physiological responses related to flower opening in cut rose cv. Samantha, and that continued ethylene perception results in flower opening. Ethylene may regulate flower opening mainly through expression of two ethylene receptor genes (Rh-ETR1 and Rh-ETR3) and two CTR (Rh-CTR1 and Rh-CTR2) genes.

  12. Exogenous DNA internalisation by sperm cells is improved by combining lipofection and restriction enzyme mediated integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchil, R R; Gupta, J; Singh, A; Sharma, D

    2011-06-01

    1. Three types of exogenous DNA inserts, i.e. complete linearised pVIVO2-GFP/LacZ vector (9620 bp), the LacZ gene (5317 bp) and the GFP gene (2152 bp) were used to transfect chicken spermatozoa through simple incubation of sperm cells with insert. 2. PCR assay, Dot Blot hybridisation and Southern hybridisation showed the successful internalisation of exogenous DNA by chicken sperm cells. 3. Lipofection and Restriction Enzyme Mediated Integration (REMI) were used to improve the rate of internalisation of exogenous DNA by sperm cells. 4. Results from dot blot as well as Southern hybridisation were semi-quantified and improved exogenous DNA uptake by sperm cells through lipofection and REMI. Stronger signals were observed from hybridisation of LacZ as well as GFP specific probe with the DNA from lipofected exogenous DNA transfected sperm DNA in comparison with those transfected with nude exogenous DNA.

  13. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia after ingestion of shark liver oil: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae Bum; Seong, Hyeon Lim; Park, Chan Sup; Park, Yang Hee; Lee, Sang Sun

    1991-01-01

    Exogenous lipoid pneumonia was first described in 1925 by Laughlen and a sizeable literature developed, reaching a peak in the 1940s. Two cases of exogenous lipoid pneumonia in children were reported domestically. We wish to report a case of exogenous lipoid pneumonia presented with bilateral air-space consolidation in a 53-year-old man who had a long history of ingestion of shark liver oil. This report describes its radiological findings, along with a review of the literature

  14. Applied mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition"Future mathematicians, scientists, and engineers should find the book to be an excellent introductory text for coursework or self-study as well as worth its shelf space for reference." -MAA Reviews Applied Mathematics, Fourth Edition is a thoroughly updated and revised edition on the applications of modeling and analyzing natural, social, and technological processes. The book covers a wide range of key topics in mathematical methods and modeling and highlights the connections between mathematics and the applied and nat

  15. Ethylene-Related Gene Expression Networks in Wood Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Seyfferth

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Thickening of tree stems is the result of secondary growth, accomplished by the meristematic activity of the vascular cambium. Secondary growth of the stem entails developmental cascades resulting in the formation of secondary phloem outwards and secondary xylem (i.e., wood inwards of the stem. Signaling and transcriptional reprogramming by the phytohormone ethylene modifies cambial growth and cell differentiation, but the molecular link between ethylene and secondary growth remains unknown. We addressed this shortcoming by analyzing expression profiles and co-expression networks of ethylene pathway genes using the AspWood transcriptome database which covers all stages of secondary growth in aspen (Populus tremula stems. ACC synthase expression suggests that the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC is synthesized during xylem expansion and xylem cell maturation. Ethylene-mediated transcriptional reprogramming occurs during all stages of secondary growth, as deduced from AspWood expression profiles of ethylene-responsive genes. A network centrality analysis of the AspWood dataset identified EIN3D and 11 ERFs as hubs. No overlap was found between the co-expressed genes of the EIN3 and ERF hubs, suggesting target diversification and hence independent roles for these transcription factor families during normal wood formation. The EIN3D hub was part of a large co-expression gene module, which contained 16 transcription factors, among them several new candidates that have not been earlier connected to wood formation and a VND-INTERACTING 2 (VNI2 homolog. We experimentally demonstrated Populus EIN3D function in ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. The ERF hubs ERF118 and ERF119 were connected on the basis of their expression pattern and gene co-expression module composition to xylem cell expansion and secondary cell wall formation, respectively. We hereby establish data resources for ethylene-responsive genes and

  16. Novel and existing data for a future physiological toxicokinetic model of ethylene and its metabolite ethylene oxide in mouse, rat, and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filser, Johannes Georg; Artati, Anna; Li, Qiang; Pütz, Christian; Semder, Brigitte; Klein, Dominik; Kessler, Winfried

    2015-11-05

    The olefin ethylene is a ubiquitously found gas. It originates predominantly from plants, combustion processes and industrial sources. In mammals, inhaled ethylene is metabolized by cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases, particularly by cytochrome P450 2E1, to ethylene oxide, an epoxide that directly alkylates proteins and DNA. Ethylene oxide was mutagenic in vitro and in vivo in insects and mammals and carcinogenic in rats and mice. A physiological toxicokinetic model is a most useful tool for estimating the ethylene oxide burden in ethylene-exposed rodents and humans. The only published physiological toxicokinetic model for ethylene and metabolically produced ethylene oxide is discussed. Additionally, existing data required for the development of a future model and for testing its predictive accuracy are reviewed and extended by new gas uptake studies with ethylene and ethylene oxide in B6C3F1 mice and with ethylene in F344 rats. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Atherosclerosis in familial lines of pigeons fed exogenous cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, N M; Brown, R V; Middleton, C C

    1975-01-01

    Exogenous cholesterol was fed to F1 pigeons of high and low serum cholesterol differentiated lines of White Carneau and Racing Homer pigeons that had previously been developed by selection and positive assortive mating. The serum cholesterol response of the various high and low lines was dependent upon the breed and the amount of cholesterol in the diet. Racing Homer pigeons were found to be more resistant to aortic atherosclerosis and more susceptible to coronary atherosclerosis than White Carneau pigeons. Data from necropsy examinations showed significant differences in both aortic and coronary atherosclerosis between lines within the White Carneau breed, but no differences between lines of the Racing Homer breed. Mean organ weights for the 4 lines of pigeons were reported.

  18. Transient expression of exogenous gus gene in Porphyra yezoensis (Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Mei; Wang, Su-Juan; Li, Yao; Shen, Da-Leng; Zeng, Cheng-Kui

    1998-03-01

    Electroporation, PEC, PEG plus electroporation and Biolistics methods were tested in gene transformation of P. yezoensis. The exogenous gus was from plasmid of pBI121 and pCAMBIA1301, both contain the CaMV35S promoter. The receptors included the protoplasts, tissues and free-living conchocelis filaments of P. yezoensis. Several factors, for example, the voltage, capacitance and bivalent cations, etc., were studied. Results show that these four methods are all efficient for gene transformation in P. yezoensis; and that PEG is the best one, with transformation efficiency of up to 4×10-5. GUS activity was detected 26 days after transformation by using PEG method.

  19. Exogenous endothelial cells as accelerators of hematopoietic reconstitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizer J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the successes of recombinant hematopoietic-stimulatory factors at accelerating bone marrow reconstitution and shortening the neutropenic period post-transplantation, significant challenges remain such as cost, inability to reconstitute thrombocytic lineages, and lack of efficacy in conditions such as aplastic anemia. A possible means of accelerating hematopoietic reconstitution would be administration of cells capable of secreting hematopoietic growth factors. Advantages of this approach would include: a ability to regulate secretion of cytokines based on biological need; b long term, localized production of growth factors, alleviating need for systemic administration of factors that possess unintended adverse effects; and c potential to actively repair the hematopoietic stem cell niche. Here we overview the field of hematopoietic growth factors, discuss previous experiences with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC in accelerating hematopoiesis, and conclude by putting forth the rationale of utilizing exogenous endothelial cells as a novel cellular therapy for acceleration of hematopoietic recovery.

  20. Exogenous glucocorticoids and adverse cerebral effects in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsted, Sara K.; Born, A P; Paulson, Olaf B

    2011-01-01

    structures involved in axonal transport, long-term potentiation and neuronal plasticity. Significant maturation of the brain continues throughout childhood and we hypothesize that exposure to exogenous glucocorticoids during preschool and school age causes adverse cerebral effects. It is our opinion...... of the glucocorticoid receptor, which is associated with unfavorable cellular outcomes. Prenatal treatment with glucocorticoids can compromise brain growth and is associated with periventricular leukomalacia, attentions deficits and poorer cognitive performance. In the neonatal period exposure to glucocorticoids...... reduces neurogenesis and cerebral volume, impairs memory and increases the incidence of cerebral palsy. Cerebral effects of glucocorticoids in later childhood have been less thoroughly studied, but apparent brain atrophy, reduced size of limbic structures and neuropsychiatric symptoms have been reported...

  1. Rewards modulate saccade latency but not exogenous spatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Stephen; Ellison, Amanda; Smith, Daniel T

    2015-01-01

    The eye movement system is sensitive to reward. However, whilst the eye movement system is extremely flexible, the extent to which changes to oculomotor behavior induced by reward paradigms persist beyond the training period or transfer to other oculomotor tasks is unclear. To address these issues we examined the effects of presenting feedback that represented small monetary rewards to spatial locations on the latency of saccadic eye movements, the time-course of learning and extinction of the effects of rewarding saccades on exogenous spatial attention and oculomotor inhibition of return. Reward feedback produced a relative facilitation of saccadic latency in a stimulus driven saccade task which persisted for three blocks of extinction trials. However, this hemifield-specific effect failed to transfer to peripheral cueing tasks. We conclude that rewarding specific spatial locations is unlikely to induce long-term, systemic changes to the human oculomotor or attention systems.

  2. A sensitive competitive binding assay for exogenous and endogenous heparins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawes, J.; Pepper, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    A new type of assay for heparins has been devised, in which the test material competes with 125 I-labelled heparin for binding to protamine-Sepharose. The assay is very sensitive and will measure heparin concentrations down to 10 ng ml-1. It responds to both the degree of sulphation and the molecular weight of acidic polysaccharides, but is independent of their biological activities. It can be used to quantitate heparins in biological fluids after pretreatment of the samples with protease. In this way endogenous heparins were measured in normal human serum, plasma and urine. The assay is extremely versatile and has great potential for the investigation of endogenous and exogenous heparins

  3. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Exogenous hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, J F; Dreyer, L; Tryggvadottir, L

    1997-01-01

    aged 15-45 years in 1985 ranging between 6% (Norway) and 19% (Sweden) and proportions of current users in 1994 ranging between 20% (Norway) and 28% (Sweden). Such data on the current and long-term use of oral contraceptives by the female populations, linked with relative estimates of adverse (cancers...... of the breast and uterine cervix) and beneficial effects (protection against cancers of the ovary and endometrium), indicate that 95 cases of breast cancer and 40 of cervical cancer will be caused by oral contraceptives annually around 2000 in the Nordic countries, which corresponds to 0.6% of all breast......The well-described influence of several aspects of reproductive life on the risk for cancer in the reproductive organs has raised concern regarding the safety of exogenous hormones, particularly since sex hormones have become one of the most widely used drugs among women in the western world...

  4. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Exogenous hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, J F; Dreyer, L; Tryggvadottir, L

    1997-01-01

    The well-described influence of several aspects of reproductive life on the risk for cancer in the reproductive organs has raised concern regarding the safety of exogenous hormones, particularly since sex hormones have become one of the most widely used drugs among women in the western world....... The major areas of application include oral contraception and hormone replacement therapy in women with menopausal symptoms. Since the introduction of oral contraceptives onto the Nordic market in the late 1960s, the number of users has grown steadily, to reach proportions of long-term users among women...... years) of hormone replacement therapy among Nordic women aged 40-69 in 1995 was estimated to be 10-11%, which on the basis of an associated relative risk for breast cancer ranging from 1.2-1.5 suggests than an annual total of 260 cases of breast cancer could be avoided in the Nordic countries around...

  5. Applied Macroeconometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Nektarios Aslanidis

    2017-01-01

    This book treats econometric methods for analysis of applied econometrics with a particular focus on applications in macroeconomics. Topics include macroeconomic data, panel data models, unobserved heterogeneity, model comparison, endogeneity, dynamic econometric models, vector autoregressions, forecast evaluation, structural identification. The books provides undergraduate students with the necessary knowledge to be able to undertake econometric analysis in modern macroeconomic research.

  6. GA(3) enhances root responsiveness to exogenous IAA by modulating auxin transport and signalling in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guijun; Zhu, Changhua; Gan, Lijun; Ng, Denny; Xia, Kai

    2015-03-01

    We used auxin-signalling mutants, auxin transport mutants, and auxin-related marker lines to show that exogenously applied GA enhances auxin-induced root inhibition by affecting auxin signalling and transport. Variation in root elongation is valuable when studying the interactions of phytohormones. Auxins influence the biosynthesis and signalling of gibberellins (GAs), but the influence of GAs on auxins in root elongation is poorly understood. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of GA3 on Arabidopsis root elongation in the presence of auxin. Root elongation was inhibited in roots treated with both IAA and GA3, compared to IAA alone, and the effect was dose dependent. Further experiments showed that GA3 could modulate auxin signalling based on root elongation in auxin-signalling mutants and the expression of auxin-responsive reporters. The GA3-enhanced inhibition of root elongation observed in the wild type was not found in the auxin-signalling mutants tir1-1 and axr1-3. GA3 increased DR5::GUS expression in the root meristem and elongation zones, and IAA2::GUS in the columella. The DR5rev::GFP signal was enhanced in columella cells of the root caps and in the elongation zone in GA3-treated seedling roots. A reduction was observed in the stele of PAC-treated roots. We also examined the effect of GA3 on auxin transport. The enhanced responsiveness caused by GA3 was not observed in the auxin influx mutant aux1-7 or the efflux mutant eir1-1. Additional molecular data demonstrated that GA3 could promote auxin transport via AUX1 and PIN proteins. However, GA3-induced PIN gene expression did not fully explain GA-enhanced PIN protein accumulation. These results suggest that GA3 is involved in auxin-mediated primary root elongation by modulating auxin signalling and transport, and thus enhances root responsiveness to exogenous IAA.

  7. The ARGOS gene family functions in a negative feedback loop to desensitize plants to ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Muneeza Iqbal; Wang, Xiaomin; Thibault, Derek M; Kim, Hyo Jung; Bombyk, Matthew M; Binder, Brad M; Shakeel, Samina N; Schaller, G Eric

    2015-06-24

    Ethylene plays critical roles in plant growth and development, including the regulation of cell expansion, senescence, and the response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Elements of the initial signal transduction pathway have been determined, but we are still defining regulatory mechanisms by which the sensitivity of plants to ethylene is modulated. We report here that members of the ARGOS gene family of Arabidopsis, previously implicated in the regulation of plant growth and biomass, function as negative feedback regulators of ethylene signaling. Expression of all four members of the ARGOS family is induced by ethylene, but this induction is blocked in ethylene-insensitive mutants. The dose dependence for ethylene induction varies among the ARGOS family members, suggesting that they could modulate responses across a range of ethylene concentrations. GFP-fusions of ARGOS and ARL localize to the endoplasmic reticulum, the same subcellular location as the ethylene receptors and other initial components of the ethylene signaling pathway. Seedlings with increased expression of ARGOS family members exhibit reduced ethylene sensitivity based on physiological and molecular responses. These results support a model in which the ARGOS gene family functions as part of a negative feedback circuit to desensitize the plant to ethylene, thereby expanding the range of ethylene concentrations to which the plant can respond. These results also indicate that the effects of the ARGOS gene family on plant growth and biomass are mediated through effects on ethylene signal transduction.

  8. Applied dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schiehlen, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Applied Dynamics is an important branch of engineering mechanics widely applied to mechanical and automotive engineering, aerospace and biomechanics as well as control engineering and mechatronics. The computational methods presented are based on common fundamentals. For this purpose analytical mechanics turns out to be very useful where D’Alembert’s principle in the Lagrangian formulation proves to be most efficient. The method of multibody systems, finite element systems and continuous systems are treated consistently. Thus, students get a much better understanding of dynamical phenomena, and engineers in design and development departments using computer codes may check the results more easily by choosing models of different complexity for vibration and stress analysis.

  9. Relationships between respiration, ethylene, and aroma production in ripening banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, J B; Shearer, D; McGlasson, W B; Wyllie, S G

    1999-04-01

    Mature green bananas were treated with the ethylene antagonist 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) at intervals during the 24 h period after initiation of ripening with propylene. Following 1-MCP treatment, the fruits were ripened in either air or propylene while ethylene, carbon dioxide, and volatile production and composition were monitored at regular intervals. The application of 1-MCP significantly delayed and suppressed the onset and magnitude of fruit respiration and volatile production. The 1-MCP treatments also caused a quantitative change in the composition of the aroma volatiles, resulting in a substantial increase in the concentration of alcohols and a decrease in their related esters. The results showed that ethylene has a continuing role in integrating many of the biochemical processes that take place during the ripening of bananas.

  10. A physiologically based toxicokinetic model for inhaled ethylene and ethylene oxide in mouse, rat, and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filser, Johannes Georg; Klein, Dominik

    2018-04-01

    Ethylene (ET) is the largest volume organic chemical. Mammals metabolize the olefin to ethylene oxide (EO), another important industrial chemical. The epoxide alkylates macromolecules and has mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. In order to estimate the EO burden in mice, rats, and humans resulting from inhalation exposure to gaseous ET or EO, a physiological toxicokinetic model was developed. It consists of the compartments lung, richly perfused tissues, kidneys, muscle, fat, arterial blood, venous blood, and liver containing the sub-compartment endoplasmic reticulum. Modeled ET metabolism is mediated by hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1, EO metabolism by hepatic microsomal epoxide hydrolase or cytosolic glutathione S-transferase in various tissues. EO is also spontaneously hydrolyzed or conjugated with glutathione. The model was validated on experimental data collected in mice, rats, and humans. Modeled were uptake by inhalation, wash-in-wash-out effect in the upper respiratory airways, distribution into tissues and organs, elimination via exhalation and metabolism, and formation of 2-hydroxyethyl adducts with hemoglobin and DNA. Simulated concentration-time courses of ET or EO in inhaled (gas uptake studies) or exhaled air, and of EO in blood during exposures to ET or EO agreed excellently with measured data. Predicted levels of adducts with DNA and hemoglobin, induced by ET or EO, agreed with reported levels. Exposures to 10000 ppm ET were predicted to induce the same adduct levels as EO exposures to 3.95 (mice), 5.67 (rats), or 0.313 ppm (humans). The model is concluded to be applicable for assessing health risks from inhalation exposure to ET or EO. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Applied optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orszag, A.; Antonetti, A.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report, of the Applied Optics laboratory, of the (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The optical fiber activities are focused on the development of an optical gyrometer, containing a resonance cavity. The following domains are included, in the research program: the infrared laser physics, the laser sources, the semiconductor physics, the multiple-photon ionization and the nonlinear optics. Investigations on the biomedical, the biological and biophysical domains are carried out. The published papers and the congress communications are listed [fr

  12. Association between Use of Exogenous Testosterone Therapy and Risk of Venous Thrombotic Events among Exogenous Testosterone Treated and Untreated Men with Hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hu; Benoit, Karin; Wang, Wei; Motsko, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Limited information exists about whether exogenous testosterone therapy is associated with a risk of venous thrombotic events. We investigated via cohort and nested case-control analyses whether exogenous testosterone therapy is associated with the risk of venous thrombotic events in men with hypogonadism. Databases were reviewed to identify men prescribed exogenous testosterone therapy and/or men with a hypogonadism diagnosis. Propensity score 1:1 matching was used to select patients for cohort analysis. Cases (men with venous thrombotic events) were matched 1:4 with controls (men without venous thrombotic events) for the nested case-control analysis. Primary outcome was defined as incident idiopathic venous thrombotic events. Cox regression and conditional logistic regression were used to assess HRs and ORs, respectively. Sensitivity analyses were also performed. A total of 102,650 exogenous testosterone treated and 102,650 untreated patients were included in cohort analysis after matching, and 2,785 cases and 11,119 controls were included in case-control analysis. Cohort analysis revealed a HR of 1.08 for all testosterone treated patients (95% CI 0.91, 1.27, p = 0.378). Case-control analysis resulted in an OR of 1.02 (95% CI 0.92, 1.13, p = 0.702) for current exogenous testosterone therapy exposure and an OR of 0.92 (95% CI 0.82, 1.03, p = 0.145) for past exogenous testosterone therapy exposure. These results remained nonstatistically significant after stratifying by exogenous testosterone therapy administration route and age category. Most sensitivity analyses yielded consistent results. No significant association was found between exogenous testosterone therapy and incidents of idiopathic or overall venous thrombotic events in men with hypogonadism. However, some discrepant findings exist for the association between injectable formulations and the risk of overall venous thrombotic events. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research

  13. Plant water stress: Associations between ethylene and abscisic acid response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Salazar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is severely impacted by water stress due either to excess (hypoxia/anoxia or deficit of water availability. Hypoxia/anoxia is associated with oxygen (O2 deficiency or depletion, inducing several anatomical, morphological, physiological, and molecular changes. The majority of these alterations are adaptive mechanisms to cope with low O2 availability; among them, alterations in shoot length, aerenchyma formation and adventitious roots have been described in several studies. The aim of this review was to address the association between abscisic acid (ABA and ethylene in function of water availability in plants. The major physiological responses to low O2 are associated with changes in root respiration, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, and fermentation pathways in roots. In addition, several changes in gene expression have been associated with pathways that are not present under normal O2 supply. The expression of ethylene receptor genes is up-regulated by low O2, and ethylene seems to have a crucial role in anatomical and physiological effects during hypoxia/anoxia. During O2 depletion, ethylene accumulation down-regulates ABA by inhibiting rate-limiting enzymes in ABA biosynthesis and by activating ABA breakdown to phaseic acid. With regard to water deficit, drought is primarily sensed by the roots, inducing a signal cascade to the shoots via xylem causing physiological and morphological changes. Several genes are regulated up or down with osmotic stress; the majority of these responsive genes can be driven by either an ABA-dependent or ABA-independent pathway. Some studies suggest that ethylene shuts down leaf growth very fast after the plant senses limited water availability. Ethylene accumulation can antagonize the control of gas exchange and leaf growth upon drought and ABA accumulation.

  14. Novel insights of ethylene role in strawberry cell wall metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Natalia M; Marina, María; Nardi, Cristina F; Civello, Pedro M; Martínez, Gustavo A

    2016-11-01

    Due to its organoleptic and nutraceutical qualities, strawberry fruit (Fragaria x ananassa, Duch) is a worldwide important commodity. The role of ethylene in the regulation of strawberry cell wall metabolism was studied in fruit from Toyonoka cultivar harvested at white stage, when most changes associated with fruit ripening have begun. Fruit were treated with ethephon, an ethylene-releasing reagent, or with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action, maintaining a set of non-treated fruit as controls for each condition. Ethephon treated-fruit showed higher contents of hemicelluloses, cellulose and neutral sugars regarding controls, while 1-MCP-treated fruit showed a lower amount of those fractions. On the other hand, ethephon-treated fruit presented a lower quantity of galacturonic acid from ionically and covalently bound pectins regarding controls, while 1-MCP-treated fruit showed higher contents of those components. We also explored the ethylene effect over the mRNA accumulation of genes related to pectins and hemicelluloses metabolism, and a relationship between gene expression patterns and cell wall polysaccharides contents was shown. Moreover, we detected that strawberry necrotrophic pathogens growth more easily on plates containing cell walls from ethephon-treated fruit regarding controls, while a lower growth rate was observed when cell walls from 1-MCP treated fruit were used as the only carbon source, suggesting an effect of ethylene on cell wall structure. Around 60% of strawberry cell wall is made up of pectins, which in turns is 70% made by homogalacturonans. Our findings support the idea of a central role for pectins on strawberry fruit softening and a participation of ethylene in the regulation of this process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A natural frameshift mutation in Campanula EIL2 correlates with ethylene insensitivity in flowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Line; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Olsen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The phytohormone ethylene plays a central role in development and senescence of climacteric flowers. In ornamental plant production, ethylene sensitive plants are usually protected against negative effects of ethylene by application of chemical inhibitors. In Campanula, flowers...... are sensitive to even minute concentrations of ethylene. RESULTS: Monitoring flower longevity in three Campanula species revealed C. portenschlagiana (Cp) as ethylene sensitive, C. formanekiana (Cf) with intermediate sensitivity and C. medium (Cm) as ethylene insensitive. We identified key elements in ethylene...... and in response to ethylene. In contrast, EIL2 was found only in Cf and Cm. We identified a natural mutation in Cmeil2 causing a frameshift which resulted in difference in expression levels of EIL2, with more than 100-fold change between Cf and Cm in young flowers. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the naturally...

  16. Heterogeneous phase gamma irradiation of ethylene-hydrogen mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, M.A.; Lires, O.A.; Videla, G.J.

    1975-11-01

    Experiments of radioinduced ethylene hydrogenation were performed. The G yield of volatile saturated hydrocarbons was 0,49 for silica-gel with simultaneous irradiation and 0,09-0,05 for the other solids (silica-alumina and molecular sieve 5A). The highest yield corresponds to 4,5% of saturated products in relation to initial ammount of ethylene (silica-gel). Polymerization was the most important reaction, with yields as high as 95%. Changes in color and appearance of silica-aluminia in contact with moisture was observed, after the irradiation process. (author) [es

  17. Rotational spectrum of the tetrafluoromethane-ethylene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Qian; Feng, Gang; Evangelisti, Luca; Caminati, Walther

    2017-05-01

    The rotational spectrum of one conformer of the CF4-ethylene oxide complex has been measured by using a pulsed jet Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer. The observed conformer is stabilized by a CF3⋯O halogen bond, with a distance rC⋯O of ∼3.341 Å. No experimental evidence of the internal rotation of CF4 with respect to ethylene oxide has been observed, but it is expected to be almost free (V3 ∼ 14 cm-1 from ab initio calculations).

  18. Study of Non-Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Biodegradable Poly(ethylene adipate/SiO2 Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Memarzadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ethylene adipte and poly(ethylene adipate/silica nanocomposite (PEAd/SiO2 containing 3 wt. % SiO2  were prepared by an in situ method. The examinations on the non-isothermal crystallization kinetic behavior have been conducted by means of differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. The Avrami, Ozawa, and combined Avrami and Ozawa equations were applied to describe the crystallization kinetics and to determine the crystallization parameters of the prepared PEAd/SiO2 nanocomposites. It is found that the inclusion of the silica nanoparticles can accelerate the nucleation rate due to heterogeneous nucleation effect of silica on the polymer matrix. According to the obtained results, the combined Avrami and Ozawa equation shown that the better model for examination of this system.

  19. Analysis of hemoglobin adducts from acrylamide, glycidamide, and ethylene oxide in paired mother/cord blood samples from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Stedingk, Hans; Vikström, Anna C; Rydberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    for analysis of Hb adducts by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, the adduct FIRE procedure, was applied to measurements of adducts from these compounds in maternal blood samples (n = 87) and umbilical cord blood samples (n = 219). The adduct levels from the three compounds, acrylamide, glycidamide......, and ethylene oxide, were increased in tobacco smokers. Highly significant correlations were found between cord and maternal blood with regard to measured adduct levels of the three compounds. The mean cord/maternal hemoglobin adduct level ratios were 0.48 (range 0.27-0.86) for acrylamide, 0.38 (range 0.......20-0.73) for glycidamide, and 0.43 (range 0.17-1.34) for ethylene oxide. In vitro studies with acrylamide and glycidamide showed a lower (0.38-0.48) rate of adduct formation with Hb in cord blood than with Hb in maternal blood, which is compatible with the structural differences in fetal and adult Hb. Together...

  20. The roles of poly(ethylene oxide) electrode buffers in efficient polymer photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeng, Jun-Yuan; Lin, Ming-Wei; Guo, Tzung-Fang [Institute of Electro-Optical Science and Engineering, Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Yao-Jane [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Wen, Ten-Chin [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2011-11-15

    The role of poly(ethylene oxide) polymer is investigated as an effective buffer with Al electrodes to markedly improve the electrode interface and enhance the open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) and the power conversion efficiency (PCE, {eta}) of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM)-based bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. A unique process is developed by thermally co-evaporating the poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (PEGDE, Mn ca. 2000) polymer with Al metal simultaneously at different ratios in vacuum (10{sup -6} Torr) to prepare the electrode buffers. The instant formation of a carbide-like junction at the ethylene oxide/Al interface during the thermal evaporation is of essential importance to the extraction of electrons through the Al electrode. The performance of P3HT:PCBM-based solar cells can be optimized by modulating the co-evaporation ratios of the PEGDE polymer with Al metal due to the changes in the work functions of the electrodes. The V{sub OC} and {eta} for devices fabricated with Al electrode are 0.44 V and 1.64%, respectively, and significantly improve to 0.58 V and 4.00% when applying the PEGDE:Al(2:1)/Al electrode. This research leads to a novel electrode design - free of salts, additives, complicated syntheses, and having tunable work function - for fabricating high-performance photovoltaic cells. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Exogenous melatonin improves corn (Zea mays L.) embryo proteome in seeds subjected to chilling stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziejczyk, Izabela; Dzitko, Katarzyna; Szewczyk, Rafał; Posmyk, Małgorzata M

    2016-04-01

    Melatonin (MEL; N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) plays an important role in plant stress defense. Various plant species rich in this indoleamine have shown a higher capacity for stress tolerance. Moreover, it has great potential for plant biostimulation, is biodegradable and non-toxic for the environment. All this indicates that our concept of seed enrichment with exogenous MEL is justified. This work concerns the effects of corn (Zea mays L.) seed pre-sowing treatments supplemented with MEL. Non-treated seeds (nt), and those hydroprimed with water (H) or with MEL solutions 50 and 500 μM (HMel50, HMel500) were compared. Positive effects of seed priming are particularly apparent during germination under suboptimal conditions. The impact of MEL applied by priming on seed protein profiles during imbibition/germination at low temperature has not been investigated to date. In order to identify changes in the corn seed proteome after applying hydropriming techniques, purified protein extracts of chilling stressed seed embryos (14 days, 5°C) were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Then proteome maps were graphically and statistically compared and selected protein spots were qualitatively analyzed using mass spectrometry techniques and identified. This study aimed to analyze the priming-induced changes in maize embryo proteome and at identifying priming-associated and MEL-associated proteins in maize seeds subjected to chilling. We attempt to explain how MEL expands plant capacity for stress tolerance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Exogenous application of ascorbic acid stimulates growth and photosynthesis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samina Malik and Muhammad Ashraf

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought causes considerable reduction in plant growth. A hydroponic experiment was conducted to appraise the potential role of exogenously applied ascorbic acid in alleviating the effect of drought on wheat. Two contrasting wheat genotypes, a drought tolerant cultivar Chakwal-86 and a drought sensitive strain 6544-6 were used in the study. Drought was induced by dissolving 20% Polyethylene glycol (PEG8000 in the nutrient solution producing -0.6MPa osmotic stress. Drought caused a significant decrease in chlorophyll pigments and net photosynthesis resulting in growth reduction of both wheat genotypes. However, this decrease was more severe in the genotype 6544-6 compared to Chakwal-86. Ascorbic acid (AsA was applied through rooting medium, as a foliar spray and seed soaking treatment. Ascorbic acid treated seedlings of both genotypes maintained higher chlorophyll contents, net photosynthesis and growth compared to the non-treated plants. Of the three different modes of ascorbic acid application, rooting medium was more effective in alleviating the adversities of drought in wheat. `

  3. Improvement in solvent tolerance by exogenous glycerol in Pseudomonas sp. BCNU 106.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H J; Lim, B R; Park, Y J; Joo, W H

    2017-08-01

    Solvent hypertolerant Pseudomonas sp. BCNU 106 still has some underlying growth limitation in solvents. Therefore, efficient mass cultivation methods are needed to pursue its applications in biotechnology. Pseudomonas sp. BCNU 106 was cultured in a medium supplemented with 0·05 mol l -1 glycerol and cell survival was monitored during its cultivation in the presence of 1% (v/v) toluene. Exogenously supplemented glycerol provided more protection against damage caused by toluene stress and conferred higher solvent tolerance of Pseudomonas sp. BCNU 106 to toluene compared to control Pseudomonas sp. BCNU 106 without the supplementation of glycerol. This low-cost mass cultivation method can be used to efficiently apply solvent-tolerant bacteria in biotransformation and biodegradation. Protection against toluene and improvement in bacterial cell growth by supplementation of glycerol in the presence of toluene are demonstrated in this study. This result can be used to solve growth-related hindrances of solvent-tolerant bacteria and establish their low-cost mass cultivation, thereby broadening their industrial and environmental applications. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Exogenous nitric oxide donor protects Artemisia annua from oxidative stress generated by boron and aluminium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M Masroor A; Naeem, M; Idrees, Mohd; Moinuddin; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Ram, M

    2012-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signal molecule modulating the response of plants to environmental stress. Here we report the effects of boron (B) and aluminium (Al) contamination in soil, carried out with or without application of exogenous SNP (NO donor), on various plant processes in Artemisia annua, including changes in artemisinin content. The addition of B or Al to soil medium significantly reduced the yield and growth of plants and lowered the values of net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, internal CO(2) concentration and total chlorophyll content. The follow-up treatment of NO donor favoured growth and improved the photosynthetic efficiency in stressed as well as non-stressed plants. Artemisinin content was enhanced by 24.6% and 43.8% at 1mmole of soil-applied B or Al. When SNP was applied at 2mmole concentration together with either 1mmole of B and/or Al, it further stimulated artemisinin biosynthesis compared to the control. Application of B+Al+SNP proved to be the best treatment combination for the artemisinin content in Artemisia annua leaves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Aspergillus spp. exogenous fibrolytic enzymes on in vitro fermentation of tropical forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, Fernanda D A; Reis, Victor R A; Roth, Anna Paula; Magalhães, Karla A; Peixoto-Nogueira, Simone C; Casagrande, Daniel R; Reis, Ricardo A; Polizeli, Maria de Lourdes T M

    2012-09-01

    Cellulose and hemicellulose are quantitatively the most important structural carbohydrates present in ruminant diets. Rumen micro-organisms produce enzymes that catalyse their hydrolysis, but the complex network formed by structural carbohydrates and lignin reduces their digestibility and restricts efficient utilisation of feeds by ruminants. This study aimed to produce two enzymatic extracts, apply them in ruminant diets to determine the best levels for ruminal digestibility and evaluate their effects on in vitro digestibility. In experiment 1 a two-stage in vitro technique was used to examine the effects of different enzymatic levels of Aspergillus japonicus and Aspergillus terricola on tropical forages. Enzyme addition had minor effects on corn silage at the highest enzymatic level. In experiment 2 an in vitro gas production (GP) technique was applied to determine apparent in vitro organic matter digestibility and metabolisable energy. The addition of enzymes in GP showed interesting results. Good data were obtained using sugar cane and Tifton-85 hay supplemented with extracts of A. japonicus and A. terricola respectively. Overall, the study suggests that addition of crude extracts containing exogenous fibrolytic enzymes to ruminant diets enhances the effective utilisation of ruminant feedstuffs such as forages. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. USING PROPYLENE OXIDE AND ETHYLENE OXIDE BLOCK COPOLYMERS FOR DISINTEGRATION OF PETROLEUM EMULSIONS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    SURFACE ACTIVE SUBSTANCES, PETROLEUM PRODUCTS), (*PETROLEUM PRODUCTS, SURFACE ACTIVE SUBSTANCES), COLLOIDS, ETHYLENE OXIDE , ETHYLENEDIAMINE, GLYCOLS, COPOLYMERIZATION, POLYETHYLENE PLASTICS, DESALINATION, USSR

  7. Action of ethylene, 1-methylcyclopropene and silver thiosulfate in two developmental stages of potted ornamental pepper(

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Cristina Carvalho Lima; Milena Maria Tomaz Oliveira; Wellington Souto Ribeiro; Lucas Cavalcante Costa; Fernando Luiz Finger

    2017-01-01

    The species of Capsicum genus have great genetic variability with enormous potential for marketing as ornamental potted plants. The exposure at ethylene induces various deleterious responses during plants life cycle, but there are few studies on how the ethylene affects early developmental stages of these ornamental plants. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of the application of ethylene and ethylene inhibitors, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and silver thiosulphate (STS) in two ea...

  8. Maize and Arabidopsis ARGOS Proteins Interact with Ethylene Receptor Signaling Complex, Supporting a Regulatory Role for ARGOS in Ethylene Signal Transduction[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinrui; Wang, Hongyu; Habben, Jeffrey E.

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone ethylene regulates plant growth and development as well as plant response to environmental cues. ARGOS genes reduce plant sensitivity to ethylene when overexpressed in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and maize (Zea mays). A previous genetic study suggested that the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi-localized maize ARGOS1 targets the ethylene signal transduction components at or upstream of CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1, but the mechanism of ARGOS modulating ethylene signaling is unknown. Here, we demonstrate in Arabidopsis that ZmARGOS1, as well as the Arabidopsis ARGOS homolog ORGAN SIZE RELATED1, physically interacts with Arabidopsis REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1 (RTE1), an ethylene receptor interacting protein that regulates the activity of ETHYLENE RESPONSE1. The protein-protein interaction was also detected with the yeast split-ubiquitin two-hybrid system. Using the same yeast assay, we found that maize RTE1 homolog REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1 LIKE4 (ZmRTL4) and ZmRTL2 also interact with maize and Arabidopsis ARGOS proteins. Like AtRTE1 in Arabidopsis, ZmRTL4 and ZmRTL2 reduce ethylene responses when overexpressed in maize, indicating a similar mechanism for ARGOS regulating ethylene signaling in maize. A polypeptide fragment derived from ZmARGOS8, consisting of a Pro-rich motif flanked by two transmembrane helices that are conserved among members of the ARGOS family, can interact with AtRTE1 and maize RTL proteins in Arabidopsis. The conserved domain is necessary and sufficient to reduce ethylene sensitivity in Arabidopsis and maize. Overall, these results suggest a physical association between ARGOS and the ethylene receptor signaling complex via AtRTE1 and maize RTL proteins, supporting a role for ARGOS in regulating ethylene perception and the early steps of signal transduction in Arabidopsis and maize. PMID:27268962

  9. Maize and Arabidopsis ARGOS Proteins Interact with Ethylene Receptor Signaling Complex, Supporting a Regulatory Role for ARGOS in Ethylene Signal Transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinrui; Drummond, Bruce J; Wang, Hongyu; Archibald, Rayeann L; Habben, Jeffrey E

    2016-08-01

    The phytohormone ethylene regulates plant growth and development as well as plant response to environmental cues. ARGOS genes reduce plant sensitivity to ethylene when overexpressed in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and maize (Zea mays). A previous genetic study suggested that the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi-localized maize ARGOS1 targets the ethylene signal transduction components at or upstream of CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1, but the mechanism of ARGOS modulating ethylene signaling is unknown. Here, we demonstrate in Arabidopsis that ZmARGOS1, as well as the Arabidopsis ARGOS homolog ORGAN SIZE RELATED1, physically interacts with Arabidopsis REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1 (RTE1), an ethylene receptor interacting protein that regulates the activity of ETHYLENE RESPONSE1. The protein-protein interaction was also detected with the yeast split-ubiquitin two-hybrid system. Using the same yeast assay, we found that maize RTE1 homolog REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1 LIKE4 (ZmRTL4) and ZmRTL2 also interact with maize and Arabidopsis ARGOS proteins. Like AtRTE1 in Arabidopsis, ZmRTL4 and ZmRTL2 reduce ethylene responses when overexpressed in maize, indicating a similar mechanism for ARGOS regulating ethylene signaling in maize. A polypeptide fragment derived from ZmARGOS8, consisting of a Pro-rich motif flanked by two transmembrane helices that are conserved among members of the ARGOS family, can interact with AtRTE1 and maize RTL proteins in Arabidopsis. The conserved domain is necessary and sufficient to reduce ethylene sensitivity in Arabidopsis and maize. Overall, these results suggest a physical association between ARGOS and the ethylene receptor signaling complex via AtRTE1 and maize RTL proteins, supporting a role for ARGOS in regulating ethylene perception and the early steps of signal transduction in Arabidopsis and maize. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Ethylene production and constitutive expression of ethylene receptors and ethylene signal transduction during grain filling in apical and basal spikelets of compact-and lax-panicle rice (Oryza sativa cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhanshu Sekhar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Grain yields in modern super rice cultivars do not always meet the expectations because many spikelets are located on secondary branches in closely packed homogeneous distribution in these plants, and they do not fill properly. The factors limiting grain filling of such spikelets, especially in the lower panicle branches, are elusive. Two long-duration rice cultivars differing in panicle density, Mahalaxmi (compact and Upahar (lax were cultivated in an open field plot. Grain filling, ethylene production and constitutive expression of ethylene receptors and ethylene signal transducers in apical and basal spikelets of the panicle were compared during the early post-anthesis stage, which is the most critical period for grain development. In another experiment, a similar assessment was made for the medium-duration cultivars compact-panicle OR-1918 and lax-panicle Lalat. Grain weight of the apical spikelets was always higher than that of the basal spikelets. This gradient of grain weight was wide in the compact-panicle cultivars and narrow in the lax-panicle cultivars. Compared to apical spikelets, the basal spikelets produced more ethylene at anthesis and retained the capacity for post-anthesis expression of ethylene receptors and ethylene signal transducers longer. High ethylene production enhanced the expression of the RSR1 gene, but reduced expression of the GBSS1 gene. Ethylene inhibited the partitioning of assimilates of developing grains resulting in low starch biosynthesis and high accumulation of soluble carbohydrates. It is concluded that an increase in grain/spikelet density in rice panicles reduces apical dominance to the detriment of grain filling by production of ethylene and/or enhanced perception of the ethylene signal. Ethylene could be a second messenger for apical dominance in grain filling. The manipulation of the ethylene signal would possibly improve rice grain yield.

  11. First principles molecular dynamics applied to homogeneous catalysis: on ethylene insertion mechanisms and metathesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meier, R.J.; Aagaard, O.M.; Buda, F.

    2000-01-01

    We have summarized part of our work involving first principles molecular dynamics simulations on organometallic-based homogeneous catalysts. Explicit dynamics effects can be uniquely extracted from such simulations, and related to structure and reactivity. Examples given deal with metallocene-based

  12. Spatial attention triggered by unimodal, crossmodal, and bimodal exogenous cues: a comparison of reflexive orienting mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santangelo, Valerio; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Postma, Albert

    The aim of this study was to establish whether spatial attention triggered by bimodal exogenous cues acts differently as compared to unimodal and crossmodal exogenous cues due to crossmodal integration. In order to investigate this issue, we examined cuing effects in discrimination tasks and

  13. Exogenous mRNA encoding tetanus or botulinum neurotoxins expressed in Aplysia neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mochida, Sumiko; Poulain, Bernard; Eisel, Ulrich; Binz, Thomas; Kurazono, Hisao; Niemann, Heiner; Tauc, Ladislav; Bullock, Theodore H.

    1990-01-01

    Injection of exogenous mRNA purified from various tissue preparations into cellular translation systems such as Xenopus oocytes has allowed expression of complex proteins (e.g., receptors for neurotransmitters). No evidence for expression of injected exogenous mRNA, however, has been reported in

  14. Exogenous stimuli and circadian peak expiratory flow variation in allergic asthmatic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, DS; VanderHeide, S; DeReus, DM; Koeter, GH; VanAalderen, WMC; Meijer, G.

    The influence of exogenous factors in the home on the circadian variation of airway obstruction has not been fully assessed in children with asthma. The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of exogenous stimuli to the degree of peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability during 24

  15. The ethylene response factor Pti5 contributes to potato aphid resistance in tomato independent of ethylene signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chengjun; Avila, Carlos A.; Goggin, Fiona L.

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene response factors (ERFs) comprise a large family of transcription factors that regulate numerous biological processes including growth, development, and response to environmental stresses. Here, we report that Pti5, an ERF in tomato [Solanum lycopersicum (Linnaeus)] was transcriptionally upregulated in response to the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), and contributed to plant defences that limited the population growth of this phloem-feeding insect. Virus-induced gene silencing of Pti5 enhanced aphid population growth on tomato, both on an aphid-susceptible cultivar and on a near-isogenic genotype that carried the Mi-1.2 resistance (R) gene. These results indicate that Pti5 contributes to basal resistance in susceptible plants and also can synergize with other R gene-mediated defences to limit aphid survival and reproduction. Although Pti5 contains the ERF motif, induction of this gene by aphids was independent of ethylene, since the ACC deaminase (ACD) transgene, which inhibits ethylene synthesis, did not diminish the responsiveness of Pti5 to aphid infestation. Furthermore, experiments with inhibitors of ethylene synthesis revealed that Pti5 and ethylene have distinctly different roles in plant responses to aphids. Whereas Pti5 contributed to antibiotic plant defences that limited aphid survival and reproduction on both resistant (Mi-1.2+) and susceptible (Mi-1.2–) genotypes, ethylene signalling promoted aphid infestation on susceptible plants but contributed to antixenotic defences that deterred the early stages of aphid host selection on resistant plants. These findings suggest that the antixenotic defences that inhibit aphid settling and the antibiotic defences that depress fecundity and promote mortality are regulated through different signalling pathways. PMID:25504643

  16. The ethylene response factor Pti5 contributes to potato aphid resistance in tomato independent of ethylene signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chengjun; Avila, Carlos A; Goggin, Fiona L

    2015-02-01

    Ethylene response factors (ERFs) comprise a large family of transcription factors that regulate numerous biological processes including growth, development, and response to environmental stresses. Here, we report that Pti5, an ERF in tomato [Solanum lycopersicum (Linnaeus)] was transcriptionally upregulated in response to the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), and contributed to plant defences that limited the population growth of this phloem-feeding insect. Virus-induced gene silencing of Pti5 enhanced aphid population growth on tomato, both on an aphid-susceptible cultivar and on a near-isogenic genotype that carried the Mi-1.2 resistance (R) gene. These results indicate that Pti5 contributes to basal resistance in susceptible plants and also can synergize with other R gene-mediated defences to limit aphid survival and reproduction. Although Pti5 contains the ERF motif, induction of this gene by aphids was independent of ethylene, since the ACC deaminase (ACD) transgene, which inhibits ethylene synthesis, did not diminish the responsiveness of Pti5 to aphid infestation. Furthermore, experiments with inhibitors of ethylene synthesis revealed that Pti5 and ethylene have distinctly different roles in plant responses to aphids. Whereas Pti5 contributed to antibiotic plant defences that limited aphid survival and reproduction on both resistant (Mi-1.2+) and susceptible (Mi-1.2-) genotypes, ethylene signalling promoted aphid infestation on susceptible plants but contributed to antixenotic defences that deterred the early stages of aphid host selection on resistant plants. These findings suggest that the antixenotic defences that inhibit aphid settling and the antibiotic defences that depress fecundity and promote mortality are regulated through different signalling pathways. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  17. Tandem mass spectrometry of doubly charged poly(ethylene oxide) oligomers produced by electrospray ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girod, Marion; Carissan, Yannick; Humbel, Stéphane; Charles, Laurence

    2008-04-01

    Electrospray ionization combined with collision-induced dissociation has been applied to characterize fragmentation pathways of doubly charged poly(ethylene oxide) polymers. MS/MS spectra of doubly lithiated precursors were shown to provide the most informative data for this polymer structural analysis. Most fragment ions could be accounted for by applying the mechanisms proposed in the literature for singly charged oligomers. Although MS/MS experiments were conducted in a low collision energy regime, radical cationic fragments were also detected and were shown to further dissociate. This consecutive dissociation was explored performing hydrogen/deuterium exchange experiments and ab initio studies. Two different mechanisms had to be envisaged depending on the size of the fragmenting radical cationic species.

  18. On the Metabolism of Exogenous Ketones in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Brianna J; Cox, Pete J; Evans, Rhys D; Santer, Peter; Miller, Jack J; Faull, Olivia K; Magor-Elliott, Snapper; Hiyama, Satoshi; Stirling, Matthew; Clarke, Kieran

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Currently there is considerable interest in ketone metabolism owing to recently reported benefits of ketosis for human health. Traditionally, ketosis has been achieved by following a high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diet, but adherence to such diets can be difficult. An alternative way to increase blood D-β-hydroxybutyrate (D-βHB) concentrations is ketone drinks, but the metabolic effects of exogenous ketones are relatively unknown. Here, healthy human volunteers took part in three randomized metabolic studies of drinks containing a ketone ester (KE); (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate, or ketone salts (KS); sodium plus potassium βHB. Methods and Results: In the first study, 15 participants consumed KE or KS drinks that delivered ~12 or ~24 g of βHB. Both drinks elevated blood D-βHB concentrations (D-βHB C max : KE 2.8 mM, KS 1.0 mM, P < 0.001), which returned to baseline within 3-4 h. KS drinks were found to contain 50% of the L-βHB isoform, which remained elevated in blood for over 8 h, but was not detectable after 24 h. Urinary excretion of both D-βHB and L-βHB was <1.5% of the total βHB ingested and was in proportion to the blood AUC. D-βHB, but not L-βHB, was slowly converted to breath acetone. The KE drink decreased blood pH by 0.10 and the KS drink increased urinary pH from 5.7 to 8.5. In the second study, the effect of a meal before a KE drink on blood D-βHB concentrations was determined in 16 participants. Food lowered blood D-βHB C max by 33% (Fed 2.2 mM, Fasted 3.3 mM, P < 0.001), but did not alter acetoacetate or breath acetone concentrations. All ketone drinks lowered blood glucose, free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations, and had similar effects on blood electrolytes, which remained normal. In the final study, participants were given KE over 9 h as three drinks ( n = 12) or a continuous nasogastric infusion ( n = 4) to maintain blood D-βHB concentrations greater than 1 mM. Both drinks and

  19. Controversial Effects of Exogenous Testosterone on Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khazaali, Ali; Arora, Rohit; Muttar, Saad

    The use of testosterone (T) among men aged 40 years or older was increased more than 3 times from 0.81% in 2001 to 2.91% in 2011. Until recently, the majority of the studies did not show any increased cardiovascular (CV) risk by using T in male patients with hypogonadism. What is more, some studies had observed a protective effect of using T against CV diseases. However, in 2010, a randomized clinical trial (RCT) was intended to study the advantage of T gel in older men with limitations in mobility; the study was stopped due to unexpected high prevalence of CV adverse outcome. These findings were confirmed by 2 other studies published in November of 2013 and January of 2014. Consequently, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) had announced in January 2014 that it will reassess the safety of those treatments. Meanwhile, the agency had not reached to a definitive conclusion that FDA-approved testosterone therapy raises the risk of stroke, heart attack, or death. A report released in the broadcast of the NBC Nightly News in September of this year that the FDA says "there's little evidence that T boosting drugs taken by millions of American men are actually effective." NBC notes that the agency also pointed out that it was not convinced that they carry serious risk either. "The condition has been marketed as low 'T', and the medications are offered to help with low sex drive and fatigue among some men," notes NBC. The European Medicines Agency EMA's Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee has also responded to the concern of potential CV adverse outcomes associated with the use of T, and they have concluded in their October meeting of this year that the use of T in men who do not produce enough T raises the risk of heart diseases. In our review, we highlighted the association between exogenous T and major adverse CV outcomes. Additionally, we focused on the interplay between exogenous T and some endocrine abnormalities such as diabetes mellitus type 2, metabolic

  20. On the Metabolism of Exogenous Ketones in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna J. Stubbs

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Currently there is considerable interest in ketone metabolism owing to recently reported benefits of ketosis for human health. Traditionally, ketosis has been achieved by following a high-fat, low-carbohydrate “ketogenic” diet, but adherence to such diets can be difficult. An alternative way to increase blood D-β-hydroxybutyrate (D-βHB concentrations is ketone drinks, but the metabolic effects of exogenous ketones are relatively unknown. Here, healthy human volunteers took part in three randomized metabolic studies of drinks containing a ketone ester (KE; (R-3-hydroxybutyl (R-3-hydroxybutyrate, or ketone salts (KS; sodium plus potassium βHB.Methods and Results: In the first study, 15 participants consumed KE or KS drinks that delivered ~12 or ~24 g of βHB. Both drinks elevated blood D-βHB concentrations (D-βHB Cmax: KE 2.8 mM, KS 1.0 mM, P < 0.001, which returned to baseline within 3–4 h. KS drinks were found to contain 50% of the L-βHB isoform, which remained elevated in blood for over 8 h, but was not detectable after 24 h. Urinary excretion of both D-βHB and L-βHB was <1.5% of the total βHB ingested and was in proportion to the blood AUC. D-βHB, but not L-βHB, was slowly converted to breath acetone. The KE drink decreased blood pH by 0.10 and the KS drink increased urinary pH from 5.7 to 8.5. In the second study, the effect of a meal before a KE drink on blood D-βHB concentrations was determined in 16 participants. Food lowered blood D-βHB Cmax by 33% (Fed 2.2 mM, Fasted 3.3 mM, P < 0.001, but did not alter acetoacetate or breath acetone concentrations. All ketone drinks lowered blood glucose, free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations, and had similar effects on blood electrolytes, which remained normal. In the final study, participants were given KE over 9 h as three drinks (n = 12 or a continuous nasogastric infusion (n = 4 to maintain blood D-βHB concentrations greater than 1 mM. Both drinks

  1. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ether, and ethylene oxide. 721.7000 Section 721.7000 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ethylene oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide (P-91...

  2. 78 FR 46260 - Sorbitan Monooleate Ethylene Oxide Adduct; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... Monooleate Ethylene Oxide Adduct; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance AGENCY: Environmental...-ethanediyl) derivs., (Z)- (CAS Reg. No 9005-65-6) (also known as ``sorbitan monooleate ethylene oxide adduct... residues of sorbitan monooleate ethylene oxide adduct. DATES: This regulation is effective July 31, 2013...

  3. 21 CFR 872.3410 - Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or....3410 Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive. (a) Identification. An ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive is a device...

  4. 46 CFR 154.1730 - Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. 154.1730... Operating Requirements § 154.1730 Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. (a) The master shall ensure that before ethylene oxide is loaded into a cargo tank: (1) The tank is thoroughly clean, dry, and free of...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3700 - Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3700 Section 721.3700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., ethylene oxide adduct. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with... identified generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol (PMN P-91-442) is...

  7. 21 CFR 172.808 - Copolymer condensates of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Copolymer condensates of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide. 172.808 Section 172.808 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... ethylene oxide and propylene oxide. Copolymer condensates of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide may be...

  8. 78 FR 24738 - Ethylene Oxide; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption, Solicitation of Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2013-0276; FRL-9385-2] Ethylene Oxide; Receipt of... ethylene oxide (CAS No. 75-21-8) to sterilize the interior surfaces of enclosed animal isolator units to... APHIS has requested the EPA Administrator to issue a quarantine exemption for the use of ethylene oxide...

  9. 21 CFR 872.3450 - Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or karaya denture adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or karaya denture... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3450 Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or karaya denture adhesive. (a) Identification. Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or karaya...

  10. A noble additive cum compatibilizer for dispersion of nanoclay into ethylene octene elastomer

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mondal, S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a poly(ethylene-co-octene)-poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) double network hybrid as a noble additive cum compatibilizer for poly(ethylene-co-octene) (POE). The addition of only 0.5 mass% of the hybrid into POE has raised...

  11. EFFECT OF EXOGENOUS POLYAMINE DIETHYLENETRIAMINE ON OXIDATIVE CHANGES AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN AS-TREATED MAIZE PLANTS (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N STOEVA

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant effect of the exogenous polyamine Diethylentriamine (DETA on the oxidative changes in young maize plants treated with different As concentrations was studied. The plants were grown in a climatic box in a Hogland-Arnon nutrient solution. Arsenic was applied as Na3As04 in concentrations 0, 2 and 5 mg dm-3 (pH 5.5. The polyamine DETA (concentration 10-4 М was added to the nutrient environment of some of the plants 24 hours prior to the As treatment. Five days later the lipid peroxidation level, the peroxidase activity, the growth and leaf gasexchange, and the protein and plastid pigments content were studied. The physiological analyses proved that DETA had positive effect on the As-treated maize plants by increasing the leaf gas-exchange, the plastid pigments content and soluble protein. The exogenous polyamine DETA, applied 24 hours prior to the As treatment, decreased considerably the lipid peroxidation level and the peroxidase itself in maize plants. DETA had protective effect on the As-induced oxidative stress, but in order to clarify its role as an antioxidant, more detailed and profound studies should be made.

  12. Applied mathematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedelec, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Applied Mathematics center (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The research fields of the Center are the scientific calculus, the probabilities and statistics and the video image synthesis. The research topics developed are: the analysis of numerical methods, the mathematical analysis of the physics and mechanics fundamental models, the numerical solution of complex models related to the industrial problems, the stochastic calculus and the brownian movement, the stochastic partial differential equations, the identification of the adaptive filtering parameters, the discrete element systems, statistics, the stochastic control and the development, the image synthesis techniques for education and research programs. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are listed [fr

  13. Atypical hyperplasia, proliferative fibrocystic change, and exogenous hormone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zera, R T; Danielson, D; Van Camp, J M; Schmidt-Steinbrunn, B; Hong, J; McCoy, M; Anderson, W R; Linzie, B M; Rodriguez, J L

    2001-10-01

    The association between breast cancer development and exogenous hormone use (EHU) is suggested by indirect clinical evidence. We undertook this study to better define the relationship that EHU has with proliferative fibrocystic change (PFC) and atypical hyperplasia (AH). Women diagnosed with AH without associated carcinoma from January 1990 to December 1999 were compared with control subjects who underwent breast biopsy procedures during the same interval and who were diagnosed with either a proliferative fibrocystic change (PFC) or a nonproliferative fibrocystic change (NPFC). EHU was defined as the use of estrogen or progesterone taken together or separately within 3 months of biopsy. EHU was significantly higher in patients with AH compared with women with NPFC (P =.01). This observation was also significant if all proliferative change (both AH and PFC) was compared with NPFC (P =.03); it was not significant when PFC alone was compared with NPFC. No significant difference in EHU was demonstrated between women with AH and those with PFC. There is strong association between AH and EHU. These results support the theory that a continuum exists between hyperplasia and carcinoma and that EHU may influence the transition from one to the other in an undefined subset of women. We encourage our patients with AH to discontinue EHU.

  14. Reprogramming with Small Molecules instead of Exogenous Transcription Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongxiang Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs could be employed in the creation of patient-specific stem cells, which could subsequently be used in various basic and clinical applications. However, current iPSC methodologies present significant hidden risks with respect to genetic mutations and abnormal expression which are a barrier in realizing the full potential of iPSCs. A chemical approach is thought to be a promising strategy for safety and efficiency of iPSC generation. Many small molecules have been identified that can be used in place of exogenous transcription factors and significantly improve iPSC reprogramming efficiency and quality. Recent studies have shown that the use of small molecules results in the generation of chemically induced pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. These studies might lead to new areas of stem cell research and medical applications, not only human iPSC by chemicals alone, but also safe generation of somatic stem cells for cell based clinical trials and other researches. In this paper, we have reviewed the recent advances in small molecule approaches for the generation of iPSCs.

  15. Endogenous or exogenous origin of vaginal candidiasis in Polish women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnichowska-Polanowskai, Magdalena; Wojciechowska-Koszko, Iwona; Klimowicz, Bogumia; Szymaniak, Ludmia; Krasnodebska-Szponder, Barbara; Szych, Zbigniew; Giedrys-Kalemba, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal candidiasis is a common problem of clinical practice. Many studies have been conducted to explain its origin but only a few have included Polish women. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and similarity of oral, anal and vaginal Candida albicans strains isolated from Polish women with vaginal candidiasis. The study involved 20 from 37 recruited women. Swab samples were collected from their vagina, anus, and oral cavity at two-month intervals. All the women were treated with nystatin. Yeast were recovered and identified by the germ-tube test, API /Vitek system, typed by API ZYM and RAPD-PCR. Chi-square test was used to analyze the data. A total of 170 Candida albicans isolates were recovered from 180 samples collected 3 times from 3 sites of 20 women. Positive yeast vaginal cultures were found in all patients before administration of nystatin. Vaginal yeast recovery rate was decreased statistically significant in both follow-up visits (p= 0.001; p= 0.003). The same and different genotypes/biotypes were found concomitantly in a few body sites and/ or repeatedly at time interval from the same body site. The results support the concept of dynamic exchange of yeast within one woman and endogenous or exogenous origin of vaginal candidiasis.

  16. Lung Regeneration: Endogenous and Exogenous Stem Cell Mediated Therapeutic Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Khondoker M; Patel, Neil; Spiteri, Monica A; Forsyth, Nicholas R

    2016-01-19

    The tissue turnover of unperturbed adult lung is remarkably slow. However, after injury or insult, a specialised group of facultative lung progenitors become activated to replenish damaged tissue through a reparative process called regeneration. Disruption in this process results in healing by fibrosis causing aberrant lung remodelling and organ dysfunction. Post-insult failure of regeneration leads to various incurable lung diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Therefore, identification of true endogenous lung progenitors/stem cells, and their regenerative pathway are crucial for next-generation therapeutic development. Recent studies provide exciting and novel insights into postnatal lung development and post-injury lung regeneration by native lung progenitors. Furthermore, exogenous application of bone marrow stem cells, embryonic stem cells and inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) show evidences of their regenerative capacity in the repair of injured and diseased lungs. With the advent of modern tissue engineering techniques, whole lung regeneration in the lab using de-cellularised tissue scaffold and stem cells is now becoming reality. In this review, we will highlight the advancement of our understanding in lung regeneration and development of stem cell mediated therapeutic strategies in combating incurable lung diseases.

  17. SAR11 marine bacteria require exogenous reduced sulphur for growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, H James; Kitner, Joshua B; Schwalbach, Michael S; Dacey, John W H; Wilhelm, Larry J; Giovannoni, Stephen J

    2008-04-10

    Sulphur is a universally required cell nutrient found in two amino acids and other small organic molecules. All aerobic marine bacteria are known to use assimilatory sulphate reduction to supply sulphur for biosynthesis, although many can assimilate sulphur from organic compounds that contain reduced sulphur atoms. An analysis of three complete 'Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique' genomes, and public ocean metagenomic data sets, suggested that members of the ubiquitous and abundant SAR11 alphaproteobacterial clade are deficient in assimilatory sulphate reduction genes. Here we show that SAR11 requires exogenous sources of reduced sulphur, such as methionine or 3-dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) for growth. Titrations of the algal osmolyte DMSP in seawater medium containing all other macronutrients in excess showed that 1.5 x 10(8) SAR11 cells are produced per nanomole of DMSP. Although it has been shown that other marine alphaproteobacteria use sulphur from DMSP in preference to sulphate, our results indicate that 'Cand. P. ubique' relies exclusively on reduced sulphur compounds that originate from other plankton.

  18. Ethylene and Carbon Monoxide Production by Septoria musiva

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Brown-Skrobot; L. R. Brown; T. H. Filer

    1984-01-01

    An investigation into the mechanism by which Septoria musiva causes the premature defoliation of cottonwood trees was undertaken. Gas-chromatograpic analysis of the atmosphere overlying the original culture indicated that this fungus produced significant quantities of ethylene and carbon monoxide. Subcultures failed to produce either gas on a variety...

  19. 21 CFR 177.2210 - Ethylene polymer, chloro-sulfonated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reference. Copies of the ASTM method may be obtained from the American Society for Testing Materials, 100... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene polymer, chloro-sulfonated. 177.2210... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use Only...

  20. Isolation and molecular characterization of an ethylene response

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Apetala2/Ethylene Response Factors (AP2/ERF) play important roles in regulating gene expression under abiotic and biotic stress in the plant kingdom. Here, we isolated a member of the AP2/ERF transcription factors, NtERF1-1, from Nicotiana tabcum cv. Xanthi NN carrying the N gene, which is resistant to Tobacco ...

  1. Quantum chemical study of the mechanisms of oxidation of ethylene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results also indicate that a dichloride is not a likely product in the oxidation of ethyleneby molybdyl chloride. However, in the case of WO2Cl2, the formation of a dichloride may not be precluded.The formation of acetaldehyde and vinyl alcohol from the oxidation of ethylene does not appear energeticallyfeasible with M o ...

  2. Investigation of surface modifications in ethylene propylene diene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In the present work, tracking phenomena has been studied with the ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) material under the a.c. and d.c. voltages, with ammonium chloride/acid rain solution as the contaminant. It is noticed that the tracking time depends on the conductivity and flow rate of the contaminant.

  3. RTE1, A Novel Regulator of Ethylene Receptor Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caren Chang (PI)

    2013-02-05

    RTE1 is a novel conserved gene found in both plants and animals. The main aims of this project were to: 1) examine Arabidopsis RTE1 function using genetic and cell biological analyses, and 2) determine whether the Arabidopsis RTH gene plays a role similar to that of RTE1 in ethylene signaling.

  4. Polyketones and polysulfones for conservation in the ethylene polymer market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, M.

    1976-04-01

    Because of the increase in cost of foreign oil, ethylene costs have increased markedly within the last several years. There is a sizable incentive to reduce raw material cost for basic polymer manufacture. Polyketones, synthesized from ethylene and CO, and polysulfones, synthesized from ethylene and SO 2 , utilizing high energy radiation, offers one such possibility. CO and SO 2 , usually considered as wastes and pollutants from fossil fuel burning power plants, are converted to useful materials. The polyketones and polysulfones formed from the gas phase below 100 0 C have found to be high molecular weight polymers which, depending on composition, either melt with difficulty, or decompose at temperatures of 250 0 C or higher. The higher temperature (greater than 100 0 C) catalyzed reaction produces low molecular weight waxes. Design calculations indicate that for a G value of 10,000 and 50 percent energy deposition efficiency, it would take 331 MCi of 60 Co to conserve 2 billion pounds of ethylene or 25 percent of the overall U. S. consumption in the PE market by substituting CO and SO 2 . This savings amounts to as much as $280 million at today's market price. Electron machine radiation with a 25 percent energy deposition efficiency requires a total beam power of 9800 kW

  5. Anaphylaxis to ethylene oxide - a rare and overlooked phenomenon?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Søren; Petersen, J T; Garvey, L H

    2011-01-01

    Spina bifida patients have been reported to be at increased risk of anaphylactic reactions during general anaesthesia. Following a reaction, latex is often incriminated as spina bifida patients are known to have an increased incidence of latex allergy. Ethylene oxide (EO) has recently been sugges...

  6. Polyamine levels and tomato fruit development: possible interaction with ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saftner, R A; Baldi, B G

    1990-02-01

    Fruits of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Liberty, ripen slowly and have a prolonged keeping quality. Ethylene production and the levels of polyamines in pericarp of cv Liberty, Pik Red, and Rutgers were measured in relation to fruit development. Depending on the stage of fruit development, Liberty produced between 16 and 38% of the ethylene produced by Pik Red and Rutgers. The polyamines putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were present in all cultivars. Cadaverine was detected only in Rutgers. Levels of putrescine and spermidine declined between the immature and mature green stages of development and prior to the onset of climacteric ethylene production. In Pik Red and Rutgers, the decline persisted, whereas in Liberty, the putrescine level increased during ripening. Ripe pericarp of Liberty contained about three and six times more free (unconjugated) polyamines than Pik Red and Rutgers, respectively. No pronounced changes in spermidine or cadaverine occurred during ripening. The increase in the free polyamine level in ripe pericarp of Liberty may account for the reduction of climacteric ethylene production, and prolonged storage life.

  7. Optical properties, ethylene production and softening in mango fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eccher Zerbini, P.C.; Vanoli, M.; Rizzolo, A.; Grassi, M.; Meirelles de Azevedo Pementel, A.; Spinelli, L.; Torricelli, A.

    2015-01-01

    Firmness decay, chlorophyll breakdown and carotenoid accumulation, controlled by ethylene, are major ripening events in mango fruit. Pigment content and tissue structure affect the optical properties of the mesocarp, which can be measured nondestructively in the intact fruit by time-resolved

  8. Synthesis and characterization of folate-poly(ethylene glycol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-04

    Jul 4, 2011 ... The use of chitosan and chitosan derivatives for gene delivery is limited due to the low transfection efficiency and difficulty in transfecting into a variety of cell types, including some cancer cells overexpressing folate receptor (FRs). In order to solve this problem, folate (FA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) ...

  9. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono Butyl ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono Butyl Ether: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health. N/A

  10. Ethylene homo- and copolymerization chain-transfers: A perspective ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    coordination environments of the metallocene transition metal. We, therefore ..... and/or to the catalyst transition metal Zr (β-agostic interaction). ... Ethylene polymerization chain-transfer mechanism revisited. 723 transfer to the active metal centre. CH2. CHCH2. Pn. H. Growing polymer chain. H. H. H. Pn. H complex. H. H. Pn.

  11. FERMENTATION OF ETHYLENE GLYCOL BY CLOSTRIDIUM GLYCOLICUM, SP. N1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Lamont W.; Stadtman, E. R.

    1963-01-01

    Gaston, Lamont W. (National Heart Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md.) and E. R. Stadtman. Fermentation of ethylene glycol by Clostridium glycolicum, sp. n. J. Bacteriol. 85:356–362. 1963.—An anaerobic organism which utilizes ethylene glycol as a source of energy and carbon has been isolated from mud. It is a long (5 μ), slender, motile, gram-positive, spore-forming rod, with peritrichous flagellae. It grows well from 22 to 37 C at pH 7.4 to 7.6, and ferments glucose, fructose, sorbitol, dulcitol, and cellulose. It does not reduce nitrates, form indole, or cause hemolysis or proteolysis except for a slight attack on coagulated egg albumin. Fifteen amino acids and the vitamins biotin and pantothenate are required for optimal growth on ethylene glycol. Analogues other than propylene glycol do not support growth. Ethylene glycol and propylene glycol are stoichiometrically converted to equal amounts of the respective acid and alcohol. PMID:13946772

  12. Feasibility of ethylene synthesis via oxidative coupling of methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhasin, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    Shortages of prime feedstocks for ethylene manufacture have spawned numerous attempts to use alternate raw materials. Methane is one such raw material that is the most abundant component of natural gas, usually comprising up to --90 mole % of the hydrocarbon fraction, Thus, methane represents a considerably more abundant source for ethylene than ethane/propane, the two most widely used raw materials. Dehydrogenative coupling of methane requires temperatures in excess of 800 0 C for practical conversions along with a high endothermic heat of 53 Kcal/g mol - quite difficult to generate at temperatures of 0 C. Oxidative coupling removes the thermodynamic barrier of straight dehydrogenative coupling and heat-of-reaction problem. The primary objective of the early Union Carbide study was to uncover selective catalysts for coupling of methane to form C/sub 2/'s, and principally ethylene. Synthesis of ethylene (and some ethane) has been demonstrated by catalytic oxidative coupling of methane at atmospheric pressure and temperatures of 500 - 1000 0 C. A great number of metal oxides, supported on alpha-alumina support, have been screened for activity and selectivity in the normal, concurrent feeding mode of reactants, as well as, in the sequential or feed programming mode

  13. 21 CFR 177.1312 - Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD 20740, or at the National... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. 177.1312 Section 177.1312 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  14. The Role of Ethylene and Wound Signaling in Resistance of Tomato to Botrytis cinerea1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, José; ten Have, Arjen; van Kan, Jan A.L.

    2002-01-01

    Ethylene, jasmonate, and salicylate play important roles in plant defense responses to pathogens. To investigate the contributions of these compounds in resistance of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) to the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, three types of experiments were conducted: (a) quantitative disease assays with plants pretreated with ethylene, inhibitors of ethylene perception, or salicylate; (b) quantitative disease assays with mutants or transgenes affected in the production of or the response to either ethylene or jasmonate; and (c) expression analysis of defense-related genes before and after inoculation of plants with B. cinerea. Plants pretreated with ethylene showed a decreased susceptibility toward B. cinerea, whereas pretreatment with 1-methylcyclopropene, an inhibitor of ethylene perception, resulted in increased susceptibility. Ethylene pretreatment induced expression of several pathogenesis-related protein genes before B. cinerea infection. Proteinase inhibitor I expression was repressed by ethylene and induced by 1-methylcyclopropene. Ethylene also induced resistance in the mutant Never ripe. RNA analysis showed that Never ripe retained some ethylene sensitivity. The mutant Epinastic, constitutively activated in a subset of ethylene responses, and a transgenic line producing negligible ethylene were also tested. The results confirmed that ethylene responses are important for resistance of tomato to B. cinerea. The mutant Defenseless, impaired in jasmonate biosynthesis, showed increased susceptibility to B. cinerea. A transgenic line with reduced prosystemin expression showed similar susceptibility as Defenseless, whereas a prosystemin-overexpressing transgene was highly resistant. Ethylene and wound signaling acted independently on resistance. Salicylate and ethylene acted synergistically on defense gene expression, but antagonistically on resistance. PMID:12114587

  15. Atomistic simulation of CO 2 solubility in poly(ethylene oxide) oligomers

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Bingbing

    2013-10-02

    We have performed atomistic molecular dynamics simulations coupled with thermodynamic integration to obtain the excess chemical potential and pressure-composition phase diagrams for CO2 in poly(ethylene oxide) oligomers. Poly(ethylene oxide) dimethyl ether, CH3O(CH 2CH2O)nCH3 (PEO for short) is a widely applied physical solvent that forms the major organic constituent of a class of novel nanoparticle-based absorbents. Good predictions were obtained for pressure-composition-density relations for CO2 + PEO oligomers (2 ≤ n ≤ 12), using the Potoff force field for PEO [J. Chem. Phys. 136, 044514 (2012)] together with the TraPPE model for CO2 [AIChE J. 47, 1676 (2001)]. Water effects on Henrys constant of CO2 in PEO have also been investigated. Addition of modest amounts of water in PEO produces a relatively small increase in Henrys constant. Dependence of the calculated Henrys constant on the weight percentage of water falls on a temperature-dependent master curve, irrespective of PEO chain length. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

  16. Plant hormones including ethylene are recruited in calyx inflation in Solanaceous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Ramzan; Hu, Jinyong; He, Chaoying

    2012-07-01

    Plant hormones direct many processes of floral and post-floral morphogenesis in Angiosperms. However, their role in shaping floral morphological novelties, such as inflated calyx syndrome (ICS) exhibited by a few genera of the Solanaceae, remains unknown. In Withania and Physalis, sepals resume growth after pollination and encapsulate the mature fruit to form a balloon-like structure, i.e. ICS. The epidermal cells of calyx show enlargement and lobation post-fertilization. Application of hormones to depistillated flower buds of Withania revealed that cytokinins and gibberellins mimic fertilization signals. The ICS development is a synchronous step with fruit development; both processes are under the control of more or less the same set of hormones, including cytokinins and gibberellic acids. Interestingly, inhibition of ethylene in the system is sufficient to yield inflated calyx in Withania. In contrast, Tubocapsicum, a closely related species and an evolutionary natural loss mutant of ICS - showed no response to applied hormones, and ethylene led to inflation of the receptacle indirectly. In addition to hormones, the expression of an MPF2-like MADS-box transcription factor in sepals is essential for ICS formation. Nevertheless, the interactions between MPF2-like genes and hormones are barely detectable at the transcript level. Our data provide insight into the role of hormones in generating floral morphological diversity during evolution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Ethylene-dependent effects on generative organ abscission of Lupinus luteus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Frankowski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The abscission of certain organs from the plant is part of the fulfilment of its developmental programs. The separation process occurs in a specialized abscission zone usually formed at the base of detached organ. The changing level of phytohormones, particularly ethylene, is the element responsible for coordinating anatomical and physiological transformation that accompanies organ abscission. The application of ethylene (ET on Lupinus luteus stimulates flower abortion. However, the treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC – direct ET precursor – does not cause such a strong physiological response. In turn, when applied on the pedicels both ET biosynthesis (2-aminoethoxyvinylglycine; AVG and action (norbornadiene; NBD inhibitors reversed the stimulatory effect of ET on generative organ separation. In order to determine ET role in the flower abscission process in L. luteus, we identified the sequences coding for synthase (LlACS and oxidase (LlACO of ACC and measured their expression levels. Abscission zone activation is accompanied by a considerable increase both in LlACS and LlACO cDNAs and also ACC content, which is specifically localized in the dividing cells at the base of the flower being detached. Obtained results suggest that ET is a strong stimulator of flower abortion in L. luteus.

  18. Applying radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.; Jung, R.G.; Applebaum, D.C.; Fairand, B.P.; Gallagher, W.J.; Uecker, R.L.; Muckerheide, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    The invention discloses a method and apparatus for applying radiation by producing X-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity and directing them to a desired location. Radiant energy is directed from a laser onto a target to produce such X-rays at the target, which is so positioned adjacent to the desired location as to emit the X-rays toward the desired location; or such X-rays are produced in a region away from the desired location, and are channeled to the desired location. The radiant energy directing means may be shaped (as with bends; adjustable, if desired) to circumvent any obstruction between the laser and the target. Similarly, the X-ray channeling means may be shaped (as with fixed or adjustable bends) to circumvent any obstruction between the region where the X-rays are produced and the desired location. For producing a radiograph in a living organism the X-rays are provided in a short pulse to avoid any blurring of the radiograph from movement of or in the organism. For altering tissue in a living organism the selected spectrum and intensity are such as to affect substantially the tissue in a preselected volume without injuring nearby tissue. Typically, the selected spectrum comprises the range of about 0.1 to 100 keV, and the intensity is selected to provide about 100 to 1000 rads at the desired location. The X-rays may be produced by stimulated emission thereof, typically in a single direction

  19. Exogenous Application of Citric Acid Ameliorates the Adverse Effect of Heat Stress in Tall Fescue (Lolium arundinaceum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longxing; Zhang, Zhifei; Xiang, Zuoxiang; Yang, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Citric acid may be involved in plant response to high temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate whether exogenous citric acid could improve heat tolerance in a cool-season turfgrass species, tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum), and to determine the physiological mechanisms of citric acid effects on heat stress tolerance. The grasses were subjected to four citric acid levels (0, 0.2, 2, and 20 mM) and two temperature levels (25/20 and 35/30 ± 0.5°C, day/night) treatments in growth chambers. Heat stress increased an electrolyte leakage (EL) and malonaldehyde (MDA) content, while reduced plant growth, chlorophyll (Chl) content, photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), root activity and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD). External citric acid alleviated the detrimental effects of heat stress on tall fescue, which was evidenced by decreased EL and MDA content, and improved plant growth under stress conditions. Additionally, the reduction in Chl content, Fv/Fm, SOD, POD, CAT and root activity were ameliorated in citric acid treated plants under heat stressed conditions. High temperature induced the expression of heat shock protein (HSP) genes, which exhibited greater expression levels after citric acid treatment under heat stress. These results suggest that exogenous citric acid application may alleviate growth and physiological damage caused by high temperature. In addition, the exogenously applied citric acid might be responsible for maintaining membrane stability, root activity, and activation of antioxidant response and HSP genes which could contribute to the protective roles of citric acid in tall fescue responses to heat stress. PMID:26925085

  20. Exogenous γ-aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Application Improved Early Growth, Net Photosynthesis, and Associated Physio-Biochemical Events in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wu; Liu, Jianhua; Ashraf, Umair; Li, Gaoke; Li, Yuliang; Lu, Wenjia; Gao, Lei; Han, Fuguang; Hu, Jianguang

    2016-01-01

    γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an endogenous signaling molecule and involved in growth regulations and plant development, however, a little information is available on the consequences of exogenous GABA application on growth, development, and associated physio-biochemical processes in maize. The present study examined the GABA-induced regulations in early growth, net photosynthetic rate, gas exchange, osmoregulation, and enzymatic activities in three maize cultivars, i.e., Yuecainuo 6, Zhengtian 68, and Yuecainuo 2. Two levels of GABA, i.e., 0 mg L(-1) and 50 mg L(-1), in solution form, with total application volume of 100 ml per pot containing 15 maize seedlings were exogenously applied. Results revealed that exogenous GABA application improved seedling growth in terms of seedling length and biomass accumulation in all maize cultivars at both 3 and 7 days after treatment (DAT). It also promoted net photosynthesis and variably affected gas exchange attributes, i.e., stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), and transpiration rate (Tr), as well as leaves SPAD value. Furthermore, lipid peroxidation [in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA)] under GABA treated maize seedlings were also remained variable; however, osmolyte accumulation (protein and proline) and activities of anti-oxidants enzymes, i.e., super-oxide dismutase and peroxidase were also affected differently at both 3 and 7 DAT in all maize cultivars. Furthermore, enzymes involved in nitrogen metabolism, e.g., nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase were improved. These results suggest the involvement of GABA in various physio-metablical mechanisms which might lead to improvement in morphological growth of maize. In future, research is still needed at molecular and genetic levels to unravel the involvement of GABA-mediated regulations in growth and its associated physio-biochemical mechanisms.

  1. Exogenous Application of Citric Acid Ameliorates the Adverse Effect of Heat Stress in Tall Fescue (Lolium arundinaceum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longxing; Zhang, Zhifei; Xiang, Zuoxiang; Yang, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Citric acid may be involved in plant response to high temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate whether exogenous citric acid could improve heat tolerance in a cool-season turfgrass species, tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum), and to determine the physiological mechanisms of citric acid effects on heat stress tolerance. The grasses were subjected to four citric acid levels (0, 0.2, 2, and 20 mM) and two temperature levels (25/20 and 35/30 ± 0.5°C, day/night) treatments in growth chambers. Heat stress increased an electrolyte leakage (EL) and malonaldehyde (MDA) content, while reduced plant growth, chlorophyll (Chl) content, photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), root activity and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD). External citric acid alleviated the detrimental effects of heat stress on tall fescue, which was evidenced by decreased EL and MDA content, and improved plant growth under stress conditions. Additionally, the reduction in Chl content, Fv/Fm, SOD, POD, CAT and root activity were ameliorated in citric acid treated plants under heat stressed conditions. High temperature induced the expression of heat shock protein (HSP) genes, which exhibited greater expression levels after citric acid treatment under heat stress. These results suggest that exogenous citric acid application may alleviate growth and physiological damage caused by high temperature. In addition, the exogenously applied citric acid might be responsible for maintaining membrane stability, root activity, and activation of antioxidant response and HSP genes which could contribute to the protective roles of citric acid in tall fescue responses to heat stress.

  2. Exogenous Application of Citric Acid Ameliorates the Adverse Effect of Heat Stress in Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longxing eHu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Citric acid may be involved in plant response to high temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate whether exogenous citric acid could improve heat tolerance in a cool‐season turfgrass species, tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum, and to determine the physiological mechanisms of citric acid effects on heat stress tolerance. The grasses were subjected to four citric acid levels (0, 0.2, 2 and 20 mM and two temperature levels (25/20 and 35/30 ± 0.5 ̊C, day/night treatments in growth chambers. Heat stress increased an electrolyte leakage (EL and malonaldehyde (MDA content, while reduced plant growth, chlorophyll (Chl content, photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm, root activity and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD. External citric acid alleviated the detrimental effects of heat stress on tall fescue, which was evidenced by decreased EL and MDA content, and improved plant growth under stress conditions. Additionally, the reduction in Chl content, Fv/Fm, SOD, POD, CAT and root activity were ameliorated in citric acid treated plants under heat stressed conditions. High temperature induced the expression of heat shock protein (HSP genes, which exhibited greater expression levels after citric acid treatment under heat stress. These results suggest that exogenous citric acid application may alleviate growth and physiological damage caused by high temperature. In addition, the exogenously applied citric acid might be responsible for maintaining membrane stability, root activity, and activation of antioxidant response and HSP genes which could contribute to the protective roles of citric acid in tall fescue responses to heat stress.

  3. Exogenous low-dose hydrogen peroxide enhances drought tolerance of soybean (Glycine max L.) through inducing antioxidant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Neslihan Saruhan; Pehlivan, Necla

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) functions as a signal molecule in plants under abiotic and biotic stress. In this study, the role of exogenous H(2)O(2) in improving drought tolerance in two soybean cultivars (Glycine max L. Merrill) differing in their tolerance to drought was evaluated. Plants were grown in plastic pots with normal irrigation in a phytotron. Four weeks after radicle emergence, either 1 mM H(2)O(2) or distilled water was sprayed as foliar onto the leaves of each plant, after drought stress was applied. Leaf samples were harvested on the 4(th) and 7(th) days of the drought. Antioxidant-related enzyme activity, such as the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content was measured during the drought period. Drought stress decreased leaf water potential, relative water content and photosynthetic pigment content but enhanced lipid peroxidation and endogenous H(2)O(2) concentration. By contrast, exogenous low dose H(2)O(2) improved water status, pigment content and lipid peroxidation under drought stress. Endogenous H(2)O(2) concentration was reduced by exogenous H(2)O(2) as compared to drought treatment alone. H(2)O(2) pre-treatment induced all the antioxidant enzyme activities, to a greater extent than the control leaves, during drought. H(2)O(2) pretreatment further enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the tolerant cultivar compared to the sensitive cultivar. Results suggested that low dose H(2)O(2) pre-treatment alleviated water loss and H(2)O(2) content and increased drought stress tolerance by inducing the antioxidant system.

  4. Preparation of gold nanosheets using poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymers via photoreduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Sang-Ho; Kim, Jong-Uk; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Lee, Jong-Chan

    2007-01-01

    Gold nanosheets having single crystalline structure were successfully synthesized using the bulk phase mixture of HAuCl 4 and poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymers through the irradiation of a glow lamp for 5 days. When the molar ratio of propylene oxide to ethylene oxide block units in the block copolymer is about 1.75, mostly gold nanosheets were obtained. Gold nanosheets with an average width of 8 and 5 μm were obtained from the when the molar ratio of gold salt to the ethylene oxide units in the block copolymer were 1/80 and 1/160, respectively

  5. A genome-wide screen for ethylene-induced ethylene response factors (ERFs) in hybrid aspen stem identifies ERF genes that modify stem growth and wood properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahala, Jorma; Felten, Judith; Love, Jonathan; Gorzsás, András; Gerber, Lorenz; Lamminmäki, Airi; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Sundberg, Björn

    2013-10-01

    Ethylene Response Factors (ERFs) are a large family of transcription factors that mediate responses to ethylene. Ethylene affects many aspects of wood development and is involved in tension wood formation. Thus ERFs could be key players connecting ethylene action to wood development. We identified 170 gene models encoding ERFs in the Populus trichocarpa genome. The transcriptional responses of ERF genes to ethylene treatments were determined in stem tissues of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloides) by qPCR. Selected ethylene-responsive ERFs were overexpressed in wood-forming tissues and characterized for growth and wood chemotypes by FT-IR. Fifty ERFs in Populus showed more than five-fold increased transcript accumulation in response to ethylene treatments. Twenty-six ERFs were selected for further analyses. A majority of these were induced during tension wood formation. Overexpression of ERFs 18, 21, 30, 85 and 139 in wood-forming tissues of hybrid aspen modified the wood chemotype. Moreover, overexpression of ERF139 caused a dwarf-phenotype with altered wood development, and overexpression of ERF18, 34 and 35 slightly increased stem diameter. We identified ethylene-induced ERFs that respond to tension wood formation, and modify wood formation when overexpressed. This provides support for their role in ethylene-mediated regulation of wood development. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Thermal decomposition of ethylene oxide on Pd(111). Comparison of the pathways for the selective oxidation of ethylene and olefin metathesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, R.M. (Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Ormerod, R.M. (Univ. of Keele (United Kingdom)); Tysoe, W.T. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States))

    1994-03-01

    The product distribution detected in the multimass temperature-programmed desorption of a saturated overlayer of ethylene oxide adsorbed on Pd(111) at [approximately] 180 K indicates that it decomposes to yield ethylene and acetaldehyde. These observations are interpreted by postulating that ethylene oxide reacts to form an oxymetallocycle. This is proposed to thermally decompose in a manner analogous to carbometallocycles that form during olefin metathesis catalysis by the reaction between an alkene and a surface carbene. Thus, the metallocycle can decompose to yield ethylene and deposit adsorbed atomic oxygen or undergo a [beta]-hydrogen transfer to form acetaldehyde. 25 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Study of Ethylene/Vinyl Acetate Transformation to Ethylene/Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer by NMR and DSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Salehi Mobarakeh

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer in alkaline conditions using two systems of NaOH/methanol and KOH/isopropanol has been studied and the formation of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer was systematically examined using NMR spectroscopy and DSC measurements. Vinyl acetate weight percentage and the degree of hydrolysis were calculated from NMR spectroscopy and it is shown that hydrolysis by NaOH/methanol system has higher rate and reaches a maximum of nearly 100 percent compared with KOH/isopropanol system. DSC was used to follow melting temperatureand ΔH of the hydrolysis products. The results have shown that the obtained copolymers have higher melting temperature and ΔH indicating that ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer is converted to ethylene-vinyl alcohol. Moreover, DSC confirms the results of NMR in which higher degree of hydrolysis is reached using NaOH/methanol system. Based on the experimental results and system used, the hydrolysis is reached its maximum between 10 and 30 min in this study.

  8. Formation of Poly(ethylene phosphates) in Polycondensation of H3PO4 with Ethylene Glycol. Kinetic and Mechanistic Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pretula, Julia; Kaluzynski, Krzysztof; Wisniewski, Blazej; Szymanski, Ryszard; Loontjens, Ton; Penczek, Stanislaw

    2008-01-01

    Conditions of synthesis of poly(ethylene phosphates) in reaction of H3PO4 with HOCH2CH2OH (EG), the actual path of polycondensation, and structure of the obtained polymers (mostly oligomers) and kinetics of reaction are described. Preliminary kinetic information, based on the comparison of the

  9. Laser transmission welding of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and biodegradable poly(ethylene terephthalate) - Based blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisario, Annamaria; Veniali, Francesco; Barletta, Massimiliano; Tagliaferri, Vincenzo; Vesco, Silvia

    2017-03-01

    Joining of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) PET and its biodegradable derivatives is of high relevance to ensure good productive rate, low cost and operational safety for fabrication of medical and electronic devices, sport equipments as well as for manufacturing of food and drug packaging solutions. In the present investigation, granules of PET and PETs modified by organic additives, which promote biodegradation of the polymeric chains, were prepared by extrusion compounding. The achieved granules were subsequently re-extruded to shape thin (330 μm) flat sheets. Substrates cut from these sheets were joined by Laser Transmission Welding (LTW) with a continuous wave High Power Diode Laser (cw-HPDL). First, based on a qualitative evaluation of the welded joints, the most suitable operational windows for PETs laser joining were identified. Second, characterization of the mechanical properties of the welded joints was performed by tensile tests. Accordingly, Young's modulus of PET and biodegradable PET blends was studied by Takayanagi's model and, based on the experimental results, a novel predicting analytical model derived from the mixture rule was developed. Lastly, material degradation of the polymeric joints was evaluated by FT-IR analysis, thus allowing to identify the main routes to thermal degradation of PET and, especially, of biodegradable PET blends during laser processing.

  10. Genotype-dependent metabolism of exogenous testosterone - new biomarkers result in prolonged detectability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Thomas; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2016-11-01

    Testosterone (T) misuse still represents a major problem in sports drug testing. Many strategies have been developed and applied to routine doping controls in recent years to enable both to identify suspicious samples in initial testing procedures and to confirm the exogenous origin of urinary T by means of carbon isotope ratio (CIR) determinations. Depending on the tested individual's genotype of UGT2B17, significantly different amounts of T are glucuronidated and excreted, which results in unaffected T/epitestosterone ratios after T misuse in those subjects with the deletion/deletion polymorphism (del/del). The aim of this study was to investigate differences in metabolic pathways of orally administered T between persons of del/del and insertion/insertion (ins/ins) genetic polymorphism. Therefore, a recently established method using hydrogen isotope ratios together with high-resolution and high-accuracy mass spectrometry was applied after administration of deuterated T to n = 4 subjects including both genotypes. Participants collected urine specimens directly before and for up to 8 days after the application. Urine aliquots were prepared to yield unconjugated, glucuronidated, and sulphoconjugated fractions of urinary steroids. Besides the significant difference in the excretion of T-glucuronide, all measured metabolites varied rather on an individual basis than due to a genotype difference. New T metabolites (both methylated and de-methylated) were detected and investigated regarding their potential to enhance the screening for T misuse. Sulphoconjugated epiandrosterone was further identified as the biomarker allowing for a prolonged retrospective detection of T misuse by means of CIR determinations for up to 5 days compared to 1 day if currently applied sports drug testing procedures were used. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Preventive effects of chronic exogenous growth hormone levels on diet-induced hepatic steatosis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Ya-ping

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, which is characterized by hepatic steatosis, can be reversed by early treatment. Several case reports have indicated that the administration of recombinant growth hormone (GH could improve fatty liver in GH-deficient patients. Here, we investigated whether chronic exogenous GH levels could improve hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet in rats, and explored the underlying mechanisms. Results High-fat diet-fed rats developed abdominal obesity, fatty liver and insulin resistance. Chronic exogenous GH improved fatty liver, by reversing dyslipidaemia, fat accumulation and insulin resistance. Exogenous GH also reduced serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha levels, and ameliorated hepatic lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. Hepatic fat deposition was also reduced by exogenous GH levels, as was the expression of adipocyte-derived adipokines (adiponectin, leptin and resistin, which might improve lipid metabolism and hepatic steatosis. Exogenous GH seems to improve fatty liver by reducing fat weight, improving insulin sensitivity and correcting oxidative stress, which may be achieved through phosphorylation or dephosphorylation of a group of signal transducers and activators of hepatic signal transduction pathways. Conclusions Chronic exogenous GH has positive effects on fatty liver and may be a potential clinical application in the prevention or reversal of fatty liver. However, chronic secretion of exogenous GH, even at a low level, may increase serum glucose and insulin levels in rats fed a standard diet, and thus increase the risk of insulin resistance.

  12. Ethylene Production and Petiole Growth in Rumex Plants Induced by Soil Waterlogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voesenek, Laurentius A. C. J.; Harren, Frans J. M.; Bögemann, Gerald M.; Blom, Cornelius W. P. M.; Reuss, Jörg

    1990-01-01

    Petiole growth of Rumex acetosa L., Rumex crispus L., and Rumex palustris Sm. in response to soil waterlogging was studied in relation to production of the gaseous plant hormone ethylene. Ethylene production was monitored in a flow-through system and a recently developed laser driven photoacoustic detection system, which allowed ethylene measurements as low as 6 picoliters per liter. R. acetosa showed a two-fold increase in ethylene production correlated with a slight enhancement of the growth of the petiole that developed during the waterlogging treatment. Both R. crispus and R. palustris showed a strong petiole elongation of existing as well as newly formed petioles, which was correlated with a 20-fold increase in ethylene production after approximately 7 days. Increased rates of ethylene production in R. palustris were related to a strong increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) concentration and a slight, but detectable, increase in ethylene forming enzyme activity. In R. acetosa on the other hand, only a very small increase in ACC concentration was observed. Changes in ethylene production in Rumex are strongly correlated with variation in ACC content and ethylene forming enzyme activity. The interaction between ethylene production/internal concentration and ethylene sensitivity of the three Rumex species is discussed in relation to their field location in a flooding gradient and their differential resistance toward waterlogging and submergence. PMID:16667798

  13. Paper spray and Kendrick mass defect analysis of block and random ethylene oxide/propylene oxide copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, Robert B; Fouquet, Thierry

    2017-10-09

    Paper spray ionization coupled with a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer was applied to the analysis of 13 block and 2 random ethylene oxide/propylene oxide (EO/PO) copolymers as well as to standard samples of poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide) homopolymers. Paper spray mass spectra could be obtained rapidly and, unlike electrospray ionization, were not subject to contamination and sample carryover. For comparison, polyether samples were also measured on a MALDI/TOF system with ultrahigh mass resolving power. MALDI/high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry exhibited single-charge ions characteristic of the polymer distributions whereas the paper spray mass spectra exhibited charge states ranging from one to six charges. Kendrick mass defect plots of the multiple-charge ions in the paper spray mass spectra exhibit isotopic splitting of the Kendrick mass defects, facilitating visualization of the number of charges in each series. The slope of the KMD plots can be used to estimate the percentage of ethylene oxide in the copolymers. In-source fragmentation permitted the distinction between block and random copolymers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Kinetics of shoot inversion-induced ethylene production in Pharbitis nil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, T. K.; Cline, M. G.

    1986-01-01

    Shoot inversion promotes a significant increase in ethylene production in the inverted part of the Pharbitis nil main shoot. The latent period for shoot inversion-induced ethylene production is ca. 2.75 h. Our results indicate that the shoot-inversion ethylene response is not persistent and can be terminated and rapidly reinitiated by appropriate alteration of the orientation of the main shoot regardless of prolonged previous exposures of the shoot to various orientations. The time course of the production of ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid), the immediate precursor of ethylene, follows a pattern similar to that of ethylene during the various alterations of shoot orientation. Excised stem segments and intact stems are capable of induction, inhibition, and reinduction of ethylene evolution. Ethylene production reported here for shoot inversion does not result from segmenting (wounding) of the tissue.

  15. Ethylene Supports Colonization of Plant Roots by the Mutualistic Fungus Piriformospora indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatabi, Behnam; Molitor, Alexandra; Lindermayr, Christian; Pfiffi, Stefanie; Durner, Jörg; von Wettstein, Diter; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schäfer, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The mutualistic basidiomycete Piriformospora indica colonizes roots of mono- and dicotyledonous plants, and thereby improves plant health and yield. Given the capability of P. indica to colonize a broad range of hosts, it must be anticipated that the fungus has evolved efficient strategies to overcome plant immunity and to establish a proper environment for nutrient acquisition and reproduction. Global gene expression studies in barley identified various ethylene synthesis and signaling components that were differentially regulated in P. indica-colonized roots. Based on these findings we examined the impact of ethylene in the symbiotic association. The data presented here suggest that P. indica induces ethylene synthesis in barley and Arabidopsis roots during colonization. Moreover, impaired ethylene signaling resulted in reduced root colonization, Arabidopsis mutants exhibiting constitutive ethylene signaling, -synthesis or ethylene-related defense were hyper-susceptible to P. indica. Our data suggest that ethylene signaling is required for symbiotic root colonization by P. indica. PMID:22536394

  16. Ozone Concentration Prediction via Spatiotemporal Autoregressive Model With Exogenous Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamoun, W.; Senoussi, R.

    2009-04-01

    Forecast of environmental variables are nowadays of main concern for public health or agricultural management. In this context a large literature is devoted to spatio-temporal modelling of these variables using different statistical approaches. However, most of studies ignored the potential contribution of local (e.g. meteorological and/or geographical) covariables as well as the dynamical characteristics of observations. In this study, we present a spatiotemporal short term forecasting model for ozone concentration based on regularly observed covariables in predefined geographical sites. Our driving system simply combines a multidimensional second order autoregressive structured process with a linear regression model over influent exogenous factors and reads as follows: ‘2 ‘q j Z (t) = A (Î&,cedil;D )Ã- [ αiZ(t- i)]+ B (Î&,cedil;D )Ã- [ βjX (t)]+ ɛ(t) i=1 j=1 Z(t)=(Z1(t),…,Zn(t)) represents the vector of ozone concentration at time t of the n geographical sites, whereas Xj(t)=(X1j(t),…,Xnj(t)) denotes the jth exogenous variable observed over these sites. The nxn matrix functions A and B account for the spatial relationships between sites through the inter site distance matrix D and a vector parameter Î&.cedil; Multidimensional white noise ɛ is assumed to be Gaussian and spatially correlated but temporally independent. A covariance structure of Z that takes account of noise spatial dependences is deduced under a stationary hypothesis and then included in the likelihood function. Statistical model and estimation procedure: Contrarily to the widely used choice of a {0,1}-valued neighbour matrix A, we put forward two more natural choices of exponential or power decay. Moreover, the model revealed enough stable to readily accommodate the crude observations without the usual tedious and somewhat arbitrarily variable transformations. Data set and preliminary analysis: In our case, ozone variable represents here the daily maximum ozone

  17. Neural correlates of endogenous attention, exogenous attention and inhibition of return in touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander; Forster, Bettina

    2014-07-01

    Selective attention helps process the myriad of information constantly touching our body. Both endogenous and exogenous mechanisms are relied upon to effectively process this information; however, it is unclear how they relate in the sense of touch. In three tasks we contrasted endogenous and exogenous event-related potential (ERP) and behavioural effects. Unilateral tactile cues were followed by a tactile target at the same or opposite hand. Clear behavioural effects showed facilitation of expected targets both when the cue predicted targets at the same (endogenous predictive task) and opposite hand (endogenous counter-predictive task), and these effects also correlated with ERP effects of endogenous attention. In an exogenous task, where the cue was non-informative, inhibition of return (IOR) was observed. The electrophysiological results demonstrated early effects of exogenous attention followed by later endogenous attention modulations. These effects were independent in both the endogenous predictive and exogenous tasks. However, voluntarily directing attention away from a cued body part influenced the early exogenous marker (N80). This suggests that the two mechanisms are interdependent, at least when the task requires more demanding shifts of attention. The early marker of exogenous tactile attention, the N80, was not directly related to IOR, which may suggest that exogenous attention and IOR are not necessarily two sides of the same coin. This study adds valuable new insight into how we process and select information presented to our body, showing both independent and interdependent effects of endogenous and exogenous attention in touch. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Dimethyl Sulfide-Dimethyl Ether and Ethylene Oxide-Ethylene Sulfide Complexes Investigated by Fourier Transform Microwave Spectroscopy and AB Initio Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Yoshiyuki; Tatamitani, Yoshio; Mase, Takayuki; Hirota, Eizi

    2015-06-01

    The ground-state rotational spectra of the dimethyl sulfide-dimethyl ether (DMS-DME) and the ethylene oxide and ethylene sulfide (EO-ES) complexes were observed by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy, and a-type and c-type transitions were assigned for the normal, 34S, and three 13C species of the DMS-DME and a-type and b-type rotational transitions for the normal, 34S, and two 13C species of the EO-ES. The observed transitions were analyzed by using an S-reduced asymmetric-top rotational Hamiltonian. The rotational parameters thus derived for the DMS-DME were found consistent with a structure of Cs symmetry with the DMS bound to the DME by two C-H(DMS)---O and one S---H-C(DME) hydrogen bonds. The barrier height V3 to internal rotation of the "free" methyl group in the DME was determined to be 915.4 (23) wn, which is smaller than that of the DME monomer, 951.72 (70) wn, and larger than that of the DME dimer, 785.4 (52) wn. For the EO-ES complex the observed data were interpreted in the terms of an antiparallel Cs geometry with the EO bound to the ES by two C-H(ES)---O and two S---H-C(EO) hydrogen bonds. We have applied a natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis to the DMS-DME and EO-ES to calculate the stabilization energy CT (= ΔEσσ*), which were closely correlated with the binding energy EB, as found for other related complexes. Y. Niide and M. Hayashi, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 220, 65-79 (2003). Y. Tatamitani, B. Liu, J. Shimada, T. Ogata, P. Ottaviani, A. Maris, W. Caminati, and J. L. Alonso, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 2739-2743 (2002).

  19. Exogenous neurotensin modulates sperm function in Japanese Black cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezu, Kohei; Hiradate, Yuuki; Oikawa, Toshinori; Ishiguro, Hirotoshi; Numabe, Takashi; Hara, Kenshiro; Tanemura, Kentaro

    2016-08-25

    Recently, the conception rates after artificial insemination have been pointed out to decline continuously. To overcome this problem, the control of frozen and thawed sperm quality is required. However, the mechanism of bovine sperm functional regulation is still largely unknown. In mammals, the ejaculated sperm are capable of showing fertilizing ability during migration in the female reproductive organs. It is well known that these female organs secrete several factors contributing to sperm capacitation. We previously reported that neurotensin (NT) secreted from the oviduct and cumulus cells enhanced sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction in mice. In this study, we confirmed the expression of the NT receptor (NTR1) in the bovine sperm neck region and the secretion of NT in the bovine uterus and oviduct. The similar expression patterns of NT and NTR1 suggests a conserved mechanism of sperm functional regulation between mouse and cattle. Thus, we examined the effects of exogenous NT on the bovine sperm functions. First, we showed that NT induced sperm protein tyrosine phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that NT enhances sperm capacitation. Second, we showed that NT induced acrosome reactions of capacitated sperm in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that NT facilitates acrosome reaction. Finally, we used a computer-aided sperm analysis system to show that NT did not have a great effect on sperm motility. These results suggest that NT acts as a facilitator of sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction in the female reproductive tracts in cattle, highlighting the importance of NT-mediated signaling to regulate sperm functions.

  20. The Relationship between the Expression of Ethylene-Related Genes and Papaya Fruit Ripening Disorder Caused by Chilling Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuan; Zhang, Lin; Rao, Shen; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Ye, Lanlan; Chen, Weixin; Li, Xueping

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is sensitive to low temperature and easy to be subjected to chilling injury, which causes fruit ripening disorder. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the expression of genes related to ethylene and fruit ripening disorder caused by chilling injury. Papaya fruits were firstly stored at 7°C and 12°C for 25 and 30 days, respectively, then treated with exogenous ethylene and followed by ripening at 25°C for 5 days. Chilling injury symptoms such as pulp water soaking were observed in fruit stored at 7°C on 20 days, whereas the coloration and softening were completely blocked after 25 days, Large differences in the changes in the expression levels of twenty two genes involved in ethylene were seen during 7°C-storage with chilling injury. Those genes with altered expression could be divided into three groups: the group of genes that were up-regulated, including ACS1/2/3, EIN2, EIN3s/EIL1, CTR1/2/3, and ERF1/3/4; the group of genes that were down-regulated, including ACO3, ETR1, CTR4, EBF2, and ERF2; and the group of genes that were un-regulated, including ACO1/2, ERS, and EBF1. The results also showed that pulp firmness had a significantly positive correlation with the expression of ACS2, ACO1, CTR1/4, EIN3a/b, and EBF1/2 in fruit without chilling injury. This positive correlation was changed to negative one in fruit after storage at 7°C for 25 days with chilling injury. The coloring index displayed significantly negative correlations with the expression levels of ACS2, ACO1/2, CTR4, EIN3a/b, ERF3 in fruit without chilling injury, but these correlations were changed into the positive ones in fruit after storage at 7°C for 25 days with chilling injury. All together, these results indicate that these genes may play important roles in the abnormal softening and coloration with chilling injury in papaya. PMID:25542021

  1. Plants as biofactories: Postharvest Stress-Induced Accumulation of Phenolic Compounds and Glucosinolates in Broccoli Subjected to Wounding Stress and Exogenous Phytohormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eVillarreal-García

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli contains high levels of bioactive molecules and is considered a functional food. In this study, postharvest treatments to enhance the concentration of glucosinolates and phenolic compounds were evaluated. Broccoli whole heads were wounded to obtain florets and wounded florets (florets cut into four even pieces and stored for 24 h at 20 ºC with or without exogenous ethylene (ET, 1000 ppm or methyl jasmonate (MeJA, 250 ppm. Whole heads were used as a control for wounding treatments. Regarding glucosinolate accumulation, ET selectively induced the 4-hydroxylation of glucobrassicin in whole heads, resulting in ~223% higher 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin than time 0 h samples. Additionally, glucoraphanin was increased by ~53% in whole heads treated with ET, while neoglucobrassicin was greatly accumulated in wounded florets treated with ET or MeJA, showing increases of ~193% and ~286%, respectively. On the other hand, although only whole heads stored without phytohormones showed higher concentrations of phenolic compounds, which was reflected in ~33%, ~30%, and 46% higher levels of 1,2,2-trisinapoylgentiobose, 1,2-diferulolylgentiobiose, and 1,2-disinapoyl-2-ferulolylgentiobiose, respectively; broccoli florets stored under air control conditions showed enhanced concentrations of 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 1,2-disinapoylgentiobiose, and 1,2-disinapoyl-2-ferulolylgentiobiose (~22%, ~185%, and ~65% more, respectively. However, exogenous ET and MeJA impeded individual phenolics accumulation. Results allowed the elucidation of simple and effective postharvest treatment to enhance the content of individual glucosinolates and phenolic compounds in broccoli. The stressed-broccoli tissue could be subjected to downstream processing in order to extract and purify bioactive molecules with applications in the dietary supplements, agrochemical and cosmetics markets.

  2. Plants as Biofactories: Postharvest Stress-Induced Accumulation of Phenolic Compounds and Glucosinolates in Broccoli Subjected to Wounding Stress and Exogenous Phytohormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal-García, Daniel; Nair, Vimal; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Broccoli contains high levels of bioactive molecules and is considered a functional food. In this study, postharvest treatments to enhance the concentration of glucosinolates and phenolic compounds were evaluated. Broccoli whole heads were wounded to obtain florets and wounded florets (florets cut into four even pieces) and stored for 24 h at 20 °C with or without exogenous ethylene (ET, 1000 ppm) or methyl jasmonate (MeJA, 250 ppm). Whole heads were used as a control for wounding treatments. Regarding glucosinolate accumulation, ET selectively induced the 4-hydroxylation of glucobrassicin in whole heads, resulting in ∼223% higher 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin than time 0 h samples. Additionally, glucoraphanin was increased by ∼53% in whole heads treated with ET, while neoglucobrassicin was greatly accumulated in wounded florets treated with ET or MeJA, showing increases of ∼193 and ∼286%, respectively. On the other hand, although only whole heads stored without phytohormones showed higher concentrations of phenolic compounds, which was reflected in ∼33, ∼30, and ∼46% higher levels of 1,2,2-trisinapoylgentiobose, 1,2-diferulolylgentiobiose, and 1,2-disinapoyl-2-ferulolylgentiobiose, respectively; broccoli florets stored under air control conditions showed enhanced concentrations of 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 1,2-disinapoylgentiobiose, and 1,2-disinapoyl-2-ferulolylgentiobiose (∼22, ∼185, and ∼65% more, respectively). Furthermore, exogenous ET and MeJA impeded individual phenolics accumulation. Results allowed the elucidation of simple and effective postharvest treatment to enhance the content of individual glucosinolates and phenolic compounds in broccoli. The stressed-broccoli tissue could be subjected to downstream processing in order to extract and purify bioactive molecules with applications in the dietary supplements, agrochemical and cosmetics markets. PMID:26904036

  3. Effects of glucose and ethylene on root hair initiation and elongation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harigaya, Wakana; Takahashi, Hidenori

    2017-12-13

    Root hair formation occurs in lettuce seedlings after transfer to an acidic medium (pH 4.0). This process requires cortical microtubule (CMT) randomization in root epidermal cells and the plant hormone ethylene. We investigated the interaction between ethylene and glucose, a new signaling molecule in plants, in lettuce root development, with an emphasis on root hair formation. Dark-grown seedlings were used to exclude the effect of photosynthetically produced glucose. In the dark, neither root hair formation nor the CMT randomization preceding it occurred, even after transfer to the acidic medium (pH 4.0). Adding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid (ACC) to the medium rescued the induction, while adding glucose did not. Although CMT randomization occurred when glucose was applied together with ACC, it was somewhat suppressed compared to that in ACC-treated seedlings. This was not due to a decrease in the speed of randomization, but due to lowering of the maximum degree of randomization. Despite the negative effect of glucose on ACC-induced CMT randomization, the density and length of ACC-induced root hairs increased when glucose was also added. The hair-cell length of the ACC-treated seedlings was comparable to that in the combined-treatment seedlings, indicating that the increase in hair density caused by glucose results from an increase in the root hair number. Furthermore, quantitative RT-PCR revealed that glucose suppressed ethylene signaling. These results suggest that glucose has a negative and positive effect on the earlier and later stages of root hair formation, respectively, and that the promotion of the initiation and elongation of root hairs by glucose may be mediated in an ethylene-independent manner.

  4. Heat stress differentially modifies ethylene biosynthesis and signaling in pea floral and fruit tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savada, Raghavendra P; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Jayasinghege, Charitha P A; Waduthanthri, Kosala D; Reinecke, Dennis M

    2017-10-01

    Ethylene biosynthesis is regulated in reproductive tissues in response to heat stress in a manner to optimize resource allocation to pollinated fruits with developing seeds. High temperatures during reproductive development are particularly detrimental to crop fruit/seed production. Ethylene plays vital roles in plant development and abiotic stress responses; however, little is known about ethylene's role in reproductive tissues during development under heat stress. We assessed ethylene biosynthesis and signaling regulation within the reproductive and associated tissues of pea during the developmental phase that sets the stage for fruit-set and seed development under normal and heat-stress conditions. The transcript abundance profiles of PsACS [encode enzymes that convert S-adenosyl-L-methionine to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)] and PsACO (encode enzymes that convert ACC to ethylene), and ethylene evolution were developmentally, environmentally, and tissue-specifically regulated in the floral/fruit/pedicel tissues of pea. Higher transcript abundance of PsACS and PsACO in the ovaries, and PsACO in the pedicels was correlated with higher ethylene evolution and ovary senescence and pedicel abscission in fruits that were not pollinated under control temperature conditions. Under heat-stress conditions, up-regulation of ethylene biosynthesis gene expression in pre-pollinated ovaries was also associated with higher ethylene evolution and lower retention of these fruits. Following successful pollination and ovule fertilization, heat-stress modified PsACS and PsACO transcript profiles in a manner that suppressed ovary ethylene evolution. The normal ethylene burst in the stigma/style and petals following pollination was also suppressed by heat-stress. Transcript abundance profiles of ethylene receptor and signaling-related genes acted as qualitative markers of tissue ethylene signaling events. These data support the hypothesis that ethylene biosynthesis is

  5. Expression Profiling of Strawberry Allergen Fra a during Fruit Ripening Controlled by Exogenous Auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Misaki; Yoshikawa, Hiroki; Uno, Yuichi

    2017-06-02

    Strawberry fruit contain the allergenic Fra a proteins, members of the pathogenesis-related 10 protein family that causes oral allergic syndrome symptoms. Fra a proteins are involved in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, which might be important for color development in fruits. Auxin is an important plant hormone in strawberry fruit that controls fruit fleshiness and ripening. In this study, we treated strawberry fruits with exogenous auxin or auxin inhibitors at pre- and post-harvest stages, and analyzed Fra a transcriptional and translational expression levels during fruit development by real-time PCR and immunoblotting. Pre-harvest treatment with 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) alone did not affect Fra a expression, but applied in conjunction with achene removal NAA promoted fruit pigmentation and Fra a protein accumulation. The response was developmental stage-specific: Fra a 1 was highly expressed in immature fruit, whereas Fra a 2 was expressed in young to ripe fruit. In post-harvest treatments, auxin did not contribute to Fra a induction. Auxin inhibitors delayed fruit ripening; as a result, they seemed to influence Fra a 1 expression. Thus, Fra a expression was not directly regulated by auxin, but might be associated with the ripening process and/or external factors in a paralog-specific manner.

  6. Exogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) reduces synaptic depression during repetitive stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Neus; Santafé, Manel M; Tomàs, Marta; Priego, Mercedes; Obis, Teresa; Lanuza, Maria A; Besalduch, Nuria; Tomàs, Josep

    2012-09-01

    It has been shown that ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has trophic and maintenance effects on several types of peripheral and central neurons, glia, and cells outside the nervous system. Both CNTF and its receptor, CNTF-Rα, are expressed in the muscle. We use confocal immunocytochemistry to show that the trophic cytokine and its receptor are present in the pre- and post-synaptic sites of the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). Applied CNTF (7.5-200 ng/ml, 60 min-3 h) does not acutely affect spontaneous potentials (size or frequency) or quantal content of the evoked acetylcholine release from post-natal (in weak or strong axonal inputs on dually innervated end plates or in the most mature singly innervated synapses at P6) or adult (P30) NMJ of Levator auris longus muscle of the mice. However, CNTF reduces roughly 50% the depression produced by repetitive stimulation (40 Hz, 2 min) on the adult NMJs. Our findings indicate that, unlike neurotrophins, exogenous CNTF does not acutely modulate transmitter release locally at the mammalian neuromuscular synapse but can protect mature end plates from activity-induced synaptic depression. © 2012 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  7. Manageable cytotoxicity of nanocapsules immobilizing D-amino acid oxidase via exogenous administration of nontoxic prodrug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Zhu, Yingchun; Fu, Jingke

    2014-02-01

    D-Amino acid oxidase (DAO), which could catalyze generation of hydrogen peroxide with strong oxidbility and cytotoxicity, has become of interest as a biocatalyst for therapeutic treatments. Herein we report that amino-functional hollow mesoporous silica with large pore size (10.27 nm) and positively charged surface effectively immobilize DAO with negative charge. The adsorption, activity and stability of DAO are demonstrated to depend mainly on the amino-functionalization of surface. Significant cancer cell killing effect is observed when the cells are treated by the nanocapsules entrapping DAO together with D-alanine, showing distinct dose-dependency on concentration of the nanocapsules entrapping DAO or D-alanine. Nevertheless, the toxicity is completely neutralized by the addition of catalase, and anti-tumor effect is not observed when either the nanocapsules entrapping DAO or D-alanine is applied alone. The results indicate that cytotoxicity of the nanocapsules entrapping DAO could be managed by exogenous administration of nontoxic prodrug to tumor tissue, due to the stereoselectivity of DAO and the scarcity of its substrates in mammalian organisms. Thus, the method might be exploited as a potential treatment for cancer therapy.

  8. Methanol and ethylene glycol acute poisonings - predictors of mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Carolyn V; Farquhar, Sarah E; McSherry, Claire M; Isbister, Geoffrey K; Duffull, Stephen B

    2011-12-01

    Methanol and ethylene glycol cause significant mortality post-ingestion. Predicting prognosis based on the biomarkers osmolal gap, anion gap and pH is beneficial. To evaluate the relationship between biomarkers, measured post-methanol and ethylene glycol exposure, and clinical outcomes. A review of the literature identified cases where methanol or ethylene glycol had been ingested and clinical outcomes were recorded. Biomarkers were extracted including osmolal gap, anion gap and pH, with clinical outcomes categorised as recovered, recovered with adverse sequelae and death. Biomarkers were analysed using the Mann-Whitney test for two samples; sensitivity and specificity were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. In total, 119 cases of methanol and 88 of ethylene glycol poisoning were identified; 21 methanol and 19 ethylene glycol patients died. For methanol ingestion the mean values, for survival compared to death, were 48 (range: 6-138) and 90 (range: 49-159) mOsm/kg water for osmolal gap (p=0.0052), 31 (range: 11-50) and 41 (range: 30-53) mmol/L for anion gap (p=0.0065) and 7.21 (range: 6.60-7.50) and 6.70 (range: 6.34-7.22) for arterial pH (pethylene glycol, these were 49 (range: 0-189) and 79 (range: 25-184) mOsm/kg water for osmolal gap (p=0.050), 28 (range: 6-48) and 38 (range: 20-66) mmol/L for anion gap (p=0.0037) and 7.08 (range: 6.46-7.39) and 6.98 (range: 6.50-7.16) for pH (p=0.072), for survival compared to death. The area under the ROC curve was highest for anion gap, 0.73 (95% CI: 0.60-0.87). Post-methanol ingestion a large osmolal gap, anion gap and low pH (ethylene glycol ingestion, both osmolal gap and anion gap were associated with increased mortality.

  9. Role of Ethylene and Its Cross Talk with Other Signaling Molecules in Plant Responses to Heavy Metal Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Khan, M Iqbal R; Thu, Nguyen Binh Anh; Hoang, Xuan Lan Thi; Asgher, Mohd; Khan, Nafees A; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2015-09-01

    Excessive heavy metals (HMs) in agricultural lands cause toxicities to plants, resulting in declines in crop productivity. Recent advances in ethylene biology research have established that ethylene is not only responsible for many important physiological activities in plants but also plays a pivotal role in HM stress tolerance. The manipulation of ethylene in plants to cope with HM stress through various approaches targeting either ethylene biosynthesis or the ethylene signaling pathway has brought promising outcomes. This review covers ethylene production and signal transduction in plant responses to HM stress, cross talk between ethylene and other signaling molecules under adverse HM stress conditions, and approaches to modify ethylene action to improve HM tolerance. From our current understanding about ethylene and its regulatory activities, it is believed that the optimization of endogenous ethylene levels in plants under HM stress would pave the way for developing transgenic crops with improved HM tolerance. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Role of Ethylene and Its Cross Talk with Other Signaling Molecules in Plant Responses to Heavy Metal Stress1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Khan, M. Iqbal R.; Thu, Nguyen Binh Anh; Hoang, Xuan Lan Thi; Asgher, Mohd; Khan, Nafees A.; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2015-01-01

    Excessive heavy metals (HMs) in agricultural lands cause toxicities to plants, resulting in declines in crop productivity. Recent advances in ethylene biology research have established that ethylene is not only responsible for many important physiological activities in plants but also plays a pivotal role in HM stress tolerance. The manipulation of ethylene in plants to cope with HM stress through various approaches targeting either ethylene biosynthesis or the ethylene signaling pathway has brought promising outcomes. This review covers ethylene production and signal transduction in plant responses to HM stress, cross talk between ethylene and other signaling molecules under adverse HM stress conditions, and approaches to modify ethylene action to improve HM tolerance. From our current understanding about ethylene and its regulatory activities, it is believed that the optimization of endogenous ethylene levels in plants under HM stress would pave the way for developing transgenic crops with improved HM tolerance. PMID:26246451

  11. Exogenous ROS-induced cell sheet transfer based on hematoporphyrin-polyketone film via a one-step process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Min-Ah; Lee, Mi Hee; Kwon, Byeong-Ju; Seon, Gyeung Mi; Kim, Min Sung; Kim, Dohyun; Nam, Ki Chang; Park, Jong-Chul

    2018-04-01

    To date, most of invasive cell sheet harvesting methods have used culture surface property variations, such as wettability, pH, electricity, and magnetism, to induce cell detachment. These methods that rely on surface property changes are effective when cell detachment prior to application is necessary, but of limited use when used for cell sheet transfer to target regions. The study reports a new reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced strategy based on hematoporphyrin-incorporated polyketone film (Hp-PK film) to transfer cell sheets directly to target areas without an intermediate harvesting process. After green LED (510 nm) irradiation, production of exogenous ROS from the Hp-PK films induces cell sheet detachment and transfer. The study suggests that ROS-induced cell detachment property of the Hp-PK film is closely related to conformational changes of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Also, this strategy with the Hp-PK film can be applied by regulating production rate of exogenous ROS in various types of cells, including fibroblasts, mesenchymal stem cells and keratinocytes. In conclusion, ROS-induced method using the Hp-PK film can be used for one-step cell sheet transplantation and has potential in biomedical applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physiological and biochemical responses to the exogenous application of proline of tomato plants irrigated with saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kahlaoui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In scope of crop salinity tolerance, an experiment was carried out in a field using saline water (6.57 dS m−1 and subsurface drip irrigation (SDI on two tomato cultivars (Solanum lycopersicum, cv. Rio Grande and Heinz-2274 in a salty clay soil. Exogenous application of proline was done by foliar spray at two concentrations: 10 and 20 mg L−1, with a control (saline water without proline, during the flowering stage. Significant higher increases in proline and total soluble protein contents, glutamine synthetase (GS, EC6.3.1.2 activities and decreases in proline oxidase (l-proline: O2 Oxidoreductase, EC1.4.3.1 activities were detected in both tomato cultivars when irrigated with saline water (6.57 dS m−1 and exogenously applied by the lower concentration of proline. Taking in consideration the obtained results, it was concluded that the foliar spray of low concentration of proline can increase the tolerance of both cultivars of tomato to salinity under field conditions.

  13. Electrospinning chitosan/poly(ethylene oxide) solutions with essential oils: Correlating solution rheology to nanofiber formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Katrina A; Birch, Nathan P; Schiffman, Jessica D

    2016-03-30

    Electrospinning hydrophilic nanofiber mats that deliver hydrophobic agents would enable the development of new therapeutic wound dressings. However, the correlation between precursor solution properties and nanofiber morphology for polymer solutions electrospun with or without hydrophobic oils has not yet been demonstrated. Here, cinnamaldehyde (CIN) and hydrocinnamic alcohol (H-CIN) were electrospun in chitosan (CS)/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) nanofiber mats as a function of CS molecular weight and degree of acetylation (DA). Viscosity stress sweeps determined how the oils affected solution viscosity and chain entanglement (Ce) concentration. Experimentally, the maximum polymer:oil mass ratio electrospun was 1:3 and 1:6 for CS/PEO:CIN and:H-CIN, respectively; a higher chitosan DA increased the incorporation of H-CIN only. The correlations determined for electrospinning plant-derived oils could potentially be applied to other hydrophobic molecules, thus broadening the delivery of therapeutics from electrospun nanofiber mats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect Of Ethylene Oxide, Autoclave and Ultra Violet Sterilizations On Surface Topography Of Pet Electrospun Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebnem DUZYER

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study to investigate the effects of different sterilization methods on electrospun polyester. Ethylene oxide (EO, autoclave (AU and ultraviolet (UV sterilization methods were applied to electrospun fibers produced from polyethylene terephthalate (PET solutions with concentrations of 10, 15 and 20 wt.%. The surface characteristics of the fibers were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM, atomic force microscope (AFM, surface pore size studies and contact angle measurements. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC tests were carried out to characterize the thermal properties. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR tests were performed to analyze the micro structural properties. SEM studies showed that different sterilization methods made significant changes on the surfaces of the fibers depending on the PET concentration. Although the effects were decreased with the increasing polymer concentration, the fiber structure was damaged especially with the EO sterilization. The contact angle values were decreased with the UV sterilization method the most.

  15. Isothermal crystallization kinetics of poly(ethylene terephthalate and poly(methyl methacrylate blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Different kinetic models like the Avrami, Tobin and Urbanovici-Segal models have been applied for determining the isothermal crystallization kinetics of virgin poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET and PET/poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA blends. The different compositions investigated were PET90/PMMA10, PET75/PMMA25 and PET50/PMMA50 [wt/wt%]. The experimental data was fitted using Solver, a non-linear multi-variable regression program and linearization method. The effect of composition variation of PET/PMMA on parameters like crystallization rate constant and crystallization exponent were investigated. Urbanovici-Segal and Avrami models gave the best fit to the experimental data. Tobin model does not seem to fit the experimental data for the systems under investigation. Experimental results indicated that the crystallization rate constant values increased with decreasing temperatures.

  16. Cross-species extrapolation of prediction model for lead transfer from soil to corn grain under stress of exogenous lead.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaojun Li

    Full Text Available There has been increasing concern in recent years regarding lead (Pb transfer in the soil-plant system. In this study the transfer of Pb (exogenous salts was investigated from a wide range of Chinese soils to corn grain (Zhengdan 958. Prediction models were developed with combination of the Pb bioconcentration factor (BCF of Zhengdan 958, and soil pH, organic matter (OM content, and cation exchange capacity (CEC through multiple stepwise regressions. Moreover, these prediction models from Zhengdan 958 were applied to other non-model corn species through cross-species extrapolation approach. The results showed that the soil pH and OM were the major factors that controlled Pb transfer from soil to corn grain. The lower pH and OM could improve the bioaccumulation of Pb in corn grain. No significant differences were found between two prediction models derived from the different exogenous Pb contents. When the prediction models were applied to other non-model corn species, the ratio ranges between the predicted BCF values and the measured BCF values were within an interval of 2-fold and close to the solid line of 1∶1 relationship. Moreover, the prediction model i.e. Log[BCF] = -0.098 pH-0.150 log[OM] -1.894 at the treatment of high Pb can effectively reduce the measured BCF intra-species variability for all non-model corn species. These suggested that this prediction model derived from the high Pb content was more adaptable to be applied to other non-model corn species to predict the Pb bioconcentration in corn grain and assess the ecological risk of Pb in different agricultural soils.

  17. Raster image cross-correlation analysis for spatiotemporal visualization of intracellular degradation activities against exogenous DNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Akira; Yamamoto, Johtaro; Jin, Takashi; Kinjo, Masataka

    2015-09-24

    Reducing intracellular DNA degradation is critical to enhance the efficiency of gene therapy. Exogenous DNA incorporation into cells is strictly blocked by the defense machinery of intracellular nuclease activity. Raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) and raster image cross-correlation spectroscopy (cross-correlation RICS; ccRICS) are image-based correlation methods. These powerful tools allow the study of spatiotemporal molecular dynamics. Here we performed spatiotemporal ccRICS analyses of fluorescent DNA and directly monitored the process of exogenous DNA degradation in living cell cytoplasm. Such direct monitors of DNA degradation allow us to determine the fate of the exogenous DNA in living cells. On comparing the process in living cells, our study shows that cytoplasmic nuclease activity differs between cell lines; therefore, we propose that the difference of nuclease activity in cytoplasm dictates a different resistance to exogenous DNA incorporation. New insight on efficient gene delivery can be provided with our study.

  18. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity to Cole (Brassica campestris L. Cruciferae) by exogenous glutathione

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Huang, Bin; Chen, Xin; Shi, Yi

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we determined the influence of exogenous GSH on cadmium toxicity to cole. GSH addition had beneficial effect on plant development and growth, especially on aboveground biomass and root length. Despite that exogenous GSH insignificantly promoted Cd uptake by the plant, it could decrease of Cd root-to-shoot transport and ameliorate Cd toxicity to the plant. At 6 mg Cd kg-1 soil, GSH addition well countered the Cd-induced significant reduction in CAT activity, but only insignificantly decreased MDA content, suggesting exogenous GSH might indirectly protect plant against oxidative stress via regulating antioxidative enzyme activities. However, at 12 mg Cd kg-1 soil, GSH application insignificantly increased the antioxidant activities but significantly decreased MDA content, indicating external GSH could directly participate in removing radical oxygen species. The results suggest exogenous GSH may have the potential of decreasing Cd accumulation in the edible parts of cultivars and alleviating Cd toxicity.

  19. San Francisco urban partnership agreement, national evaluation : exogenous factors test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This report presents the test plan for collecting and analyzing exogenous factors data for the San Francisco Urban : Partnership Agreement (UPA) under the United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) UPA Program. : The San Francisco UPA proj...

  20. Effect of exogenous phytase on degradation of inositol phosphate in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask-Pedersen, Dorte Buus; Glitsø, Lene Vibe; Skov, L.K.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of exogenous phytase on inositol phosphate degradation in the rumen of dairy cows was investigated in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Four lactating Danish Holstein cows fitted with ruminal, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were offered a total mixed ration (TMR) with a high content of inositol......, and high phytase doses, respectively). It was not possible to distinguish between the degradation of inositol phosphate occurring in the TMR and in the rumen. Exogenous phytase had no effect on total P intake or flow of total P to the duodenum and ileum, whereas exogenous phytase increased flow...... of microbial P to the duodenum and total fecal P excretion. None of the investigated rumen variables (pH, degradability of neutral detergent fiber, and rumen kinetics for neutral detergent fiber) were affected by treatment. Rumen and total-tract degradations of inositol phosphate were increased when exogenous...

  1. Kinetic modelling of radiochemical ageing of ethylene-propylene copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, Xavier; Richaud, Emmanuel; Verdu, Jacques; Monchy-Leroy, Carole

    2010-01-01

    A non-empirical kinetic model has been built for describing the general trends of radiooxidation kinetics of ethylene-propylene copolymers (EPR) at low γ dose rate and low temperature. It is derived from a radical chain oxidation mechanism composed of 30 elementary reactions: 19 relative to oxidation of methylene and methyne units plus 11 relative to their eventual cooxidation. The validity of this model has been already checked successfully elsewhere for one homopolymer: polyethylene (PE) (; ). In the present study, it is now checked for polypropylene (PP) and a series of three EPR differing essentially by their mole fraction of ethylene (37%, 73% and 86%) and their crystallinity degree (0%, 5% and 26%). Predicted values of radiation-chemical yields are in good agreement with experimental ones published in the last half past century.

  2. A kinetic study of the electrochemical hydrogenation of ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedighi, S.; Gardner, C.L.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we have examined the kinetics of the electrochemical hydrogenation of ethylene in a PEM reactor. While in itself this reaction is of little industrial interest, this reaction can be looked upon as a model reaction for many of the important hydrogenation processes including the refining of heavy oils and the hydrogenation of vegetable oils. To study the electrochemical hydrogenation of ethylene, several experimental techniques have been used including polarization measurements, measurement of the composition of the exit gases and potential step, transient measurements. The results show that the hydrogenation reaction proceeds rapidly and essentially to completion. By fitting the experimental transient data to the results from a zero-dimensional mathematical model of the process, a set of kinetic parameters for the reactions has been obtained that give generally good agreement with the experimental results. It seems probable that similar experimental techniques could be used to study the electrochemical hydrogenation of other unsaturated organic molecules of more industrial significance.

  3. A bacterium that degrades and assimilates poly(ethylene terephthalate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shosuke; Hiraga, Kazumi; Takehana, Toshihiko; Taniguchi, Ikuo; Yamaji, Hironao; Maeda, Yasuhito; Toyohara, Kiyotsuna; Miyamoto, Kenji; Kimura, Yoshiharu; Oda, Kohei

    2016-03-11

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is used extensively worldwide in plastic products, and its accumulation in the environment has become a global concern. Because the ability to enzymatically degrade PET has been thought to be limited to a few fungal species, biodegradation is not yet a viable remediation or recycling strategy. By screening natural microbial communities exposed to PET in the environment, we isolated a novel bacterium, Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6, that is able to use PET as its major energy and carbon source. When grown on PET, this strain produces two enzymes capable of hydrolyzing PET and the reaction intermediate, mono(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalic acid. Both enzymes are required to enzymatically convert PET efficiently into its two environmentally benign monomers, terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Deformation of confined poly(ethylene oxide) in multilayer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chuan-Yar; Hiltner, Anne; Baer, Eric; Korley, LaShanda T J

    2012-04-01

    The effect of confinement on the deformation behavior of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) was studied using melt processed coextruded poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) (EAA) and PEO multilayer films with varying PEO layer thicknesses from 3600 to 25 nm. The deformation mechanism was found to shift as layer thickness was decreased between 510 and 125 nm, from typical axial alignment of the crystalline fraction, as seen in bulk materials, to nonuniform micronecking mechanisms found in solution-grown single crystals. This change was evaluated via tensile testing, wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). With the commercially relevant method of melt coextrusion, we were able to overcome the limitations to the testing of solution-grown single crystals, and the artifacts that occur from their handling, and bridged the gap in knowledge between thick bulk materials and thin single crystals.

  5. Direct, nonoxidative conversion of methane to ethylene, aromatics, and hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoguang; Fang, Guangzong; Li, Gang; Ma, Hao; Fan, Hongjun; Yu, Liang; Ma, Chao; Wu, Xing; Deng, Dehui; Wei, Mingming; Tan, Dali; Si, Rui; Zhang, Shuo; Li, Jianqi; Sun, Litao; Tang, Zichao; Pan, Xiulian; Bao, Xinhe

    2014-05-09

    The efficient use of natural gas will require catalysts that can activate the first C-H bond of methane while suppressing complete dehydrogenation and avoiding overoxidation. We report that single iron sites embedded in a silica matrix enable direct, nonoxidative conversion of methane, exclusively to ethylene and aromatics. The reaction is initiated by catalytic generation of methyl radicals, followed by a series of gas-phase reactions. The absence of adjacent iron sites prevents catalytic C-C coupling, further oligomerization, and hence, coke deposition. At 1363 kelvin, methane conversion reached a maximum at 48.1% and ethylene selectivity peaked at 48.4%, whereas the total hydrocarbon selectivity exceeded 99%, representing an atom-economical transformation process of methane. The lattice-confined single iron sites delivered stable performance, with no deactivation observed during a 60-hour test.

  6. Alkylation of isobutane by ethylene: A thermodynamic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goupil, J.M.; Poirier, J.L.; Cornet, D. (Univ. of Caen (France). Lab. Catalyse et Spectrochimie)

    1994-03-01

    Alkylation of isobutane by ethylene produces mainly hexanes, but a variety of other compounds, alkanes or alkenes, may be formed by secondary reactions such as successive alkylations, isomerization, and ethylene polymerization. The equilibrium distribution of products is evaluated in the temperature range 280--680 K and at various initial compositions and pressures. Isomer groups are treated using Alberty's formulation. Calculations show that alkenes are thermodynamically unstable under usual reaction conditions. The equilibrium amounts of alkanes are such that C[sub 6] [much gt] C[sub 8] [much gt] C[sub 10] and heavy alkanes also appear unstable. The selective formation of particular isomers (dimethylbutanes, trimethylpentanes) is also integrated in the equilibrium equations. The calculated compositions (C[sub 6]:C[sub 8]:C[sub 10]) are compared with experimental data.

  7. Adenosine A1 Receptor Antagonism Abolished the Anti-seizure Effects of Exogenous Ketone Supplementation in Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Zsolt; D'Agostino, Dominic P; Dobolyi, Arpád; Ari, Csilla

    2017-01-01

    The state of therapeutic ketosis can be achieved by using the ketogenic diet (KD) or exogenous ketone supplementation. It was suggested previously that the adenosinergic system may be involved in the mediating effect of KD on suppressing seizure activity in different types of epilepsies, likely by means of adenosine A 1 receptors (A 1 Rs). Thus, we tested in the present study whether exogenous ketone supplements (ketone ester: KE, 2.5 g/kg/day; ketone salt/KS + medium chain triglyceride/MCT: KSMCT, 2.5 g/kg/day) applied sub-chronically (for 7 days) by intragastric gavage can modulate absence epileptic activity in genetically absence epileptic Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. The number of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) significantly and similarly decreased after both KE and KSMCT treatment between 3rd and 7th days of gavage. Moreover, blood beta-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) levels were significantly increased alike after KE and KSMCT gavage, compared to control levels. The SWD number and βHB levels returned to the baseline levels on the first day without ketone supplementation. To determine whether A 1 Rs can modify ketone supplement-evoked changes in absence epileptic activity, we applied a non-pro-epileptic dose of a specific A 1 R antagonist DPCPX (1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine) (intraperitoneal/i.p. 0.2 mg/kg) in combination with KSMCT (2.5 g/kg/day, gavage). As expected, DPCPX abolished the KSMCT-evoked decrease in SWD number. Thus, we concluded that application of exogenous ketone supplements may decrease absence epileptic activity in WAG/Rij rats. Moreover, our results suggest that among others the adenosinergic system, likely via A 1 Rs, may modulate the exogenous ketone supplements-evoked anti-seizure effects.

  8. Adenosine A1 Receptor Antagonism Abolished the Anti-seizure Effects of Exogenous Ketone Supplementation in Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Kovács

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The state of therapeutic ketosis can be achieved by using the ketogenic diet (KD or exogenous ketone supplementation. It was suggested previously that the adenosinergic system may be involved in the mediating effect of KD on suppressing seizure activity in different types of epilepsies, likely by means of adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs. Thus, we tested in the present study whether exogenous ketone supplements (ketone ester: KE, 2.5 g/kg/day; ketone salt/KS + medium chain triglyceride/MCT: KSMCT, 2.5 g/kg/day applied sub-chronically (for 7 days by intragastric gavage can modulate absence epileptic activity in genetically absence epileptic Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij rats. The number of spike-wave discharges (SWDs significantly and similarly decreased after both KE and KSMCT treatment between 3rd and 7th days of gavage. Moreover, blood beta-hydroxybutyrate (βHB levels were significantly increased alike after KE and KSMCT gavage, compared to control levels. The SWD number and βHB levels returned to the baseline levels on the first day without ketone supplementation. To determine whether A1Rs can modify ketone supplement-evoked changes in absence epileptic activity, we applied a non-pro-epileptic dose of a specific A1R antagonist DPCPX (1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (intraperitoneal/i.p. 0.2 mg/kg in combination with KSMCT (2.5 g/kg/day, gavage. As expected, DPCPX abolished the KSMCT-evoked decrease in SWD number. Thus, we concluded that application of exogenous ketone supplements may decrease absence epileptic activity in WAG/Rij rats. Moreover, our results suggest that among others the adenosinergic system, likely via A1Rs, may modulate the exogenous ketone supplements-evoked anti-seizure effects.

  9. Metabolic response to exogenous ethanol in yeast: An in vivo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-08-02

    statistical total correlation spec- troscopy' analysis (STOCSY), are valuable tools to collect and interpret the metabolic responses of a living organism to external stimuli. In this study, we applied this approach to evaluate the ...

  10. Self-consistent-field analysis of the micellization of carboxy-modified poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauw, Y.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The micellization properties of carboxy-modified Pluronics P85 (poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock copolymers) are investigated by means of a molecularly realistic self-consistent-field theory. We consider the, so-called, carboxylic acid

  11. Altered growth response to exogenous auxin and gibberellic acid by gravistimulation in pulvini of Avena sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, T. G.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1988-01-01

    Pulvini of excised segments from oats (Avena sativa L. cv Victory) were treated unilaterally with indoleacetic acid (IAA) or gibberellic acid (GA3) with or without gravistimulation to assess the effect of gravistimulation on hormone action. Optimum pulvinus elongation growth (millimeters) and segment curvature (degrees) over 24 hours were produced by 100 micromolar IAA in vertical segments. The curvature response to IAA at levels greater than 100 micromolar, applied to the lower sides of gravistimulated (90 degrees) pulvini, was significantly less than the response to identical levels in vertical segments. Furthermore, the bending response of pulvini to 100 micromolar IAA did not vary significantly over a range of presentation angles between 0 and 90 degrees. In contrast, the response to IAA at levels less than 10 micromolar, with gravistimulation, was approximately the sum of the responses to gravistimulation alone and to IAA without gravistimulation. This was observed over a range of presentation angles. Also, GA3 (0.3-30 micromolar) applied to the lower sides of horizontal segments significantly enhanced pulvinus growth and segment curvature, although exogenous GA3 over a range of concentrations had no effect on pulvinus elongation growth or segment curvature in vertical segments. The response to GA3 (10 micromolar) plus IAA (1.0 or 100 micromolar) was additive for either vertical or horizontal segments. These results indicate that gravistimulation produces changes in pulvinus responsiveness to both IAA and GA3 and that the changes are unique for each growth regulator. It is suggested that the changes in responsiveness may result from processes at the cellular level other than changes in hormonal sensitivity.

  12. Ion-molecule reactions in the binary mixture of ethylene oxide and trioxane, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, Minoru; Sugiura, Toshio.

    1977-01-01

    The formation mechanism of protonated molecular ions by cross-reactions in ethylene oxide-trioxane mixtures has been studied with use of a modified time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The precursors of the product ions were determined by analysis of the fine structure of their ionization efficiency curves using deuterated ethylene oxide. Protonated ethylene oxide is formed by the hydrogen atom transfer reaction of ethylene oxide molecular ion with trioxane, and protonated trioxane by the proton transfer reaction of CHO + (from ethylene oxide) with trioxane. In the ion-molecule reactions of ethylene-d 4 oxide-trioxane mixtures, appreciable isotope effect was observed. The CHO + from ethylene oxide is an important reactant ion as compared with that from trioxane in the proton transfer reaction, and CHO + from ethylene oxide was suggested as a thermal reactive ion. The order of proton affinity could be estimated from the proton transfer reactions involving CHO + . It was found that the proton affinity of trioxane is smaller than that of ethylene oxide. (auth.)

  13. Nitric oxide acts upstream of ethylene in cell wall phosphorus reutilization in phosphorus-deficient rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao Fang; Zhu, Chun Quan; Wang, Chao; Dong, Xiao Ying; Shen, Ren Fang

    2017-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and ethylene are both involved in cell wall phosphorus (P) reutilization in P-deficient rice; however, the crosstalk between them remains unclear. In the present study using P-deficient 'Nipponbare' (Nip), root NO accumulation significantly increased after 1 h and reached a maximum at 3 h, while ethylene production significantly increased after 3 h and reached a maximum at 6 h, indicating NO responded more quickly than ethylene. Irrespective of P status, addition of the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) significantly increased while the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO) significantly decreased the production of ethylene, while neither the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) nor the ethylene inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) had any influence on NO accumulation, suggesting NO acted upstream of ethylene. Under P-deficient conditions, SNP and ACC alone significantly increased root soluble P content through increasing pectin content, and c-PTIO addition to the ACC treatment still showed the same tendency; however, AVG+SNP treatment had no effect, further indicating that ethylene was the downstream signal affecting pectin content. The expression of the phosphate transporter gene OsPT2 showed the same tendency as the NO-ethylene-pectin pathway. Taken together, we conclude that ethylene functions downstream of NO in cell wall P reutilization in P-deficient rice. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  14. Involvement of ethylene in sex expression and female flower development in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Susana; Martínez, Cecilia; García, Juan Manuel; Megías, Zoraida; Jamilena, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Although it is known that ethylene has a masculinizing effect on watermelon, the specific role of this hormone in sex expression and flower development has not been analyzed in depth. By using different approaches the present work demonstrates that ethylene regulates differentially two sex-related developmental processes: sexual expression, i.e. the earliness and the number of female flowers per plant, and the development of individual floral buds. Ethylene production in the shoot apex as well as in male, female and bisexual flowers demonstrated that the female flower requires much more ethylene than the male one to develop, and that bisexual flowers result from a decrease in ethylene production in the female floral bud. The occurrence of bisexual flowers was found to be associated with elevated temperatures in the greenhouse, concomitantly with a reduction of ethylene production in the shoot apex. External treatments with ethephon and AVG, and the use of Cucurbita rootstocks with different ethylene production and sensitivity, confirmed that, as occurs in other cucurbit species, ethylene is required to arrest the development of stamens in the female flower. Nevertheless, in watermelon ethylene inhibits the transition from male to female flowering and reduces the number of pistillate flowers per plant, which runs contrary to findings in other cucurbit species. The use of Cucurbita rootstocks with elevated ethylene production delayed the production of female flowers but reduced the number of bisexual flowers, which is associated with a reduced fruit set and altered fruit shape.

  15. Don’t forget the exogenous microbial transglutaminases: it is immunogenic and potentially pathogenic

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron Lerner; Torsten Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The exogenous microbial transglutaminase that imitates extensively the functions of the endogenous transglutaminases, is a universal protein cross-linker and translational modifier of peptides. The intestinal microbiome, dysbiome, pathobiome, probiotics and industrial processed food are at the origin of the luminal microbial transglutaminase daily cargo. It is hypothesized that those exogenous enzymes, are potential drivers of neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases via the gut lumin...

  16. Adult onset pseudohypoparathyroidism type-1b with normal phosphaturic response to exogenous parathyroid hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kharb

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudohypoparathyroidism type-1b is a hereditary disorder of clinical hypoparathyroidism without AHO phenotype, characterized by blunted nephrogenous cyclic-AMP (cAMP response to exogenous parathyroid hormone (PTH. Here we report a young adult presenting with hypocalcemic tetany with raised PTH levels. His urinary cAMP response to exogenous PTH (recombinant 1-34 was blunted; however, phosphaturic response was normal.

  17. Removal of ethylene oxide from waste gases by absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsenijević Zorana Lj.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene oxide (EtO is an organic compound, which is used as starting material in the production of polymers and as sterilizing agent for thermolabile materials. Although ethylene oxide is not common as an organic pollutant, its removal from numerous emission sources (e.g. ethylene oxide production plants or food and pharmaceutical sterilizing units is of the crucial importance because of its mutagenic, teratogenic and cancerogenic effect on human health. The objective of this paper is the experimental investigation of ethylene oxide (EtO absorption in diluted aqueous solution of sulfuric acid in order to evaluate the applicability of this procedure as well as to obtain project parameters for industrial plant realization. It was found that absorption is suitable as the fist step in the purification treatment of high EtO concentrations in the emission gases. According to the literature data, the basic parameter that defines the scrubber efficiency is the contact time, i.e. the ratio of packing height in scrubber and velocity of gas mixture. To investigate the characteristics of wet treatment in a broad range of contact time, part of experimental studies were conducted in the system with two and with three scrubbers in series. The obtained experimental results show that the high degree of EtO removal can be achieved (>98% when the contact time is sufficiently long (about 25 s. The process is effective until the concentration of formed glycol in the solution reaches value of about 20%. The process is safe and there is no danger of ignition and explosion of air and EtO mixture, although at the entrance to the scrubber EtO concentrations are significantly above the lower explosive limit.

  18. Performance limitations of polymer electrolytes based on ethylene oxide polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buriez, Olivier; Han, Yong Bong; Hou, Jun; Kerr, John B.; Qiao, Jun; Sloop, Steven E.; Tian, Minmin; Wang, Shanger

    1999-01-01

    Studies of polymer electrolyte solutions for lithium-polymer batteries are described. Two different salts, lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiTf), were dissolved in a variety of polymers. The structures were all based upon the ethylene oxide unit for lithium ion solvation and both linear and comb-branch polymer architectures have been examined. Conductivity, salt diffusion coefficient and transference number measurements demonstrate the superior transport properties of the LiTFSI salt over LiTf. Data obtained on all of these polymers combined with LiTFSI salts suggest that there is a limit to the conductivity achievable at room temperature, at least for hosts containing ethylene oxide units. The apparent conductivity limit is 5 x 10-5 S/cm at 25 C. Providing that the polymer chain segment containing the ethylene oxide units is at least 5-6 units long there appears to be little influence of the polymer framework to which the solvating groups are attached. To provide adequate separator function, the mechanical properties may be disconnected from the transport properties by selection of an appropriate architecture combined with an adequately long ethylene oxide chain. For both bulk and interfacial transport of the lithium ions, conductivity data alone is insufficient to understand the processes that occur. Lithium ion transference numbers and salt diffusion coefficients also play a major role in the observed behavior and the transport properties of these polymer electrolyte solutions appear to be quite inadequate for ambient temperature performance. At present, this restricts the use of such systems to high temperature applications. Several suggestions are given to overcome these obstacles

  19. Ethylene Polymerisation by Ni-Diphosphine Azine Complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carvalho, M.F.N.N.; Čermák, Jan; Fernandes, A.C.; Ferreira, A.S.; Galvao, A.M.; Matos, I.; Marques, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 5 (2007), s. 613-620 ISSN 0959-8103 Grant - others:POCTI(PT) 45104/EQU/02; IM(PT) BD/10338/2002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Source of funding: O - operačné programy ; O - operačné programy Keywords : polymerization * ethylene * catalysis Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.557, year: 2007

  20. Vibrational dynamics of solid poly(ethylene oxide)

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, M.; Balasubramanian, S.

    2003-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of crystalline poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) have been carried out in order to study its vibrational properties. The vibrational density of states has been calculated using a normal mode analysis (NMA) and also through the velocity autocorrelation function of the atoms. Results agree well with experimental spectroscopic data. System size effects in the crystalline state, studied through a comparison between results for 16 unit cells and that for one unit cell ...