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Sample records for exit regulator cdc14

  1. The FEAR protein Slk19 restricts Cdc14 phosphatase to the nucleus until the end of anaphase, regulating its participation in mitotic exit in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Marie E Faust

    Full Text Available In Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitosis, the protein Slk19 plays an important role in the initial release of Cdc14 phosphatase from the nucleolus to the nucleus in early anaphase, an event that is critical for proper anaphase progression. A role for Slk19 in later mitotic stages of Cdc14 regulation, however, has not been demonstrated. While investigating the role of Slk19 post-translational modification on Cdc14 regulation, we found that a triple point mutant of SLK19, slk19(3R (three lysine-to-arginine mutations, strongly affects Cdc14 localization during late anaphase and mitotic exit. Using fluorescence live-cell microscopy, we found that, similar to slk19Δ cells, slk19(3R cells exhibit no defect in spindle stability and only a mild defect in spindle elongation dynamics. Unlike slk19Δcells, however, slk19(3R cells exhibit no defect in Cdc14 release from the nucleolus to the nucleus. Instead, slk19(3R cells are defective in the timing of Cdc14 movement from the nucleus to the cytoplasm at the end of anaphase. This mutant has a novel phenotype: slk19(3R causes premature Cdc14 movement to the cytoplasm prior to, rather than concomitant with, spindle disassembly. One consequence of this premature Cdc14 movement is the inappropriate activation of the mitotic exit network, made evident by the fact that slk19(3R partially rescues a mutant of the mitotic exit network kinase Cdc15. In conclusion, in addition to its role in regulating Cdc14 release from the nucleolus to the nucleus, we found that Slk19 is also important for regulating Cdc14 movement from the nucleus to the cytoplasm at the end of anaphase.

  2. Structure and dimerization of the catalytic domain of the protein phosphatase Cdc14p, a key regulator of mitotic exit in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Junya; Matsuura, Yoshiyuki

    2017-10-01

    In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the protein phosphatase Cdc14p orchestrates various events essential for mitotic exit. We have determined the X-ray crystal structures at 1.85 Å resolution of the catalytic domain of Cdc14p in both the apo state, and as a complex with S160-phosphorylated Swi6p peptide. Each asymmetric unit contains two Cdc14p chains arranged in an intimately associated homodimer, consistent with its oligomeric state in solution. The dimerization interface is located on the backside of the substrate-binding cleft. Structure-based mutational analyses indicate that the dimerization of Cdc14p is required for normal growth of yeast cells. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  3. Crystal structure of the karyopherin Kap121p bound to the extreme C-terminus of the protein phosphatase Cdc14p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Junya [Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University (Japan); Hirano, Hidemi [Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University (Japan); Structural Biology Research Center, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University (Japan); Matsuura, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: matsuura.yoshiyuki@d.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University (Japan); Structural Biology Research Center, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University (Japan)

    2015-07-31

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the protein phosphatase Cdc14p is an antagonist of mitotic cyclin-dependent kinases and is a key regulator of late mitotic events such as chromosome segregation, spindle disassembly and cytokinesis. The activity of Cdc14p is controlled by cell-cycle dependent changes in its association with its competitive inhibitor Net1p (also known as Cfi1p) in the nucleolus. For most of the cell cycle up to metaphase, Cdc14p is sequestered in the nucleolus in an inactive state. During anaphase, Cdc14p is released from Net1p, spreads into the nucleus and cytoplasm, and dephosphorylates key mitotic targets. Although regulated nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Cdc14p has been suggested to be important for exit from mitosis, the mechanism underlying Cdc14p nuclear trafficking remains poorly understood. Here we show that the C-terminal region (residues 517–551) of Cdc14p can function as a nuclear localization signal (NLS) in vivo and also binds to Kap121p (also known as Pse1p), an essential nuclear import carrier in yeast, in a Gsp1p-GTP-dependent manner in vitro. Moreover we report a crystal structure, at 2.4 Å resolution, of Kap121p bound to the C-terminal region of Cdc14p. The structure and structure-based mutational analyses suggest that either the last five residues at the extreme C-terminus of Cdc14p (residues 547–551; Gly-Ser-Ile-Lys-Lys) or adjacent residues with similar sequence (residues 540–544; Gly-Gly-Ile-Arg-Lys) can bind to the NLS-binding site of Kap121p, with two residues (Ile in the middle and Lys at the end of the five residues) of Cdc14p making key contributions to the binding specificity. Based on comparison with other structures of Kap121p-ligand complexes, we propose “IK-NLS” as an appropriate term to refer to the Kap121p-specific NLS. - Highlights: • The C-terminus of Cdc14p binds to Kap121p in a Gsp1p-GTP-dependent manner. • The crystal structure of Kap121p-Cdc14p complex is determined. • The structure reveals how

  4. Crystal structure of the karyopherin Kap121p bound to the extreme C-terminus of the protein phosphatase Cdc14p

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Junya; Hirano, Hidemi; Matsuura, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the protein phosphatase Cdc14p is an antagonist of mitotic cyclin-dependent kinases and is a key regulator of late mitotic events such as chromosome segregation, spindle disassembly and cytokinesis. The activity of Cdc14p is controlled by cell-cycle dependent changes in its association with its competitive inhibitor Net1p (also known as Cfi1p) in the nucleolus. For most of the cell cycle up to metaphase, Cdc14p is sequestered in the nucleolus in an inactive state. During anaphase, Cdc14p is released from Net1p, spreads into the nucleus and cytoplasm, and dephosphorylates key mitotic targets. Although regulated nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Cdc14p has been suggested to be important for exit from mitosis, the mechanism underlying Cdc14p nuclear trafficking remains poorly understood. Here we show that the C-terminal region (residues 517–551) of Cdc14p can function as a nuclear localization signal (NLS) in vivo and also binds to Kap121p (also known as Pse1p), an essential nuclear import carrier in yeast, in a Gsp1p-GTP-dependent manner in vitro. Moreover we report a crystal structure, at 2.4 Å resolution, of Kap121p bound to the C-terminal region of Cdc14p. The structure and structure-based mutational analyses suggest that either the last five residues at the extreme C-terminus of Cdc14p (residues 547–551; Gly-Ser-Ile-Lys-Lys) or adjacent residues with similar sequence (residues 540–544; Gly-Gly-Ile-Arg-Lys) can bind to the NLS-binding site of Kap121p, with two residues (Ile in the middle and Lys at the end of the five residues) of Cdc14p making key contributions to the binding specificity. Based on comparison with other structures of Kap121p-ligand complexes, we propose “IK-NLS” as an appropriate term to refer to the Kap121p-specific NLS. - Highlights: • The C-terminus of Cdc14p binds to Kap121p in a Gsp1p-GTP-dependent manner. • The crystal structure of Kap121p-Cdc14p complex is determined. • The structure reveals how

  5. Cdc14 phosphatase directs centrosome re-duplication at the meiosis I to meiosis II transition in budding yeast [version 2; referees: 3 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colette Fox

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Gametes are generated through a specialized cell division called meiosis, in which ploidy is reduced by half because two consecutive rounds of chromosome segregation, meiosis I and meiosis II, occur without intervening DNA replication. This contrasts with the mitotic cell cycle where DNA replication and chromosome segregation alternate to maintain the same ploidy. At the end of mitosis, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs are inactivated. This low CDK state in late mitosis/G1 allows for critical preparatory events for DNA replication and centrosome/spindle pole body (SPB duplication. However, their execution is inhibited until S phase, where further preparatory events are also prevented. This “licensing” ensures that both the chromosomes and the centrosomes/SPBs replicate exactly once per cell cycle, thereby maintaining constant ploidy. Crucially, between meiosis I and meiosis II, centrosomes/SPBs must be re-licensed, but DNA re-replication must be avoided. In budding yeast, the Cdc14 protein phosphatase triggers CDK down regulation to promote exit from mitosis. Cdc14 also regulates the meiosis I to meiosis II transition, though its mode of action has remained unclear. Methods Fluorescence and electron microscopy was combined with proteomics to probe SPB duplication in cells with inactive or hyperactive Cdc14. Results We demonstrate that Cdc14 ensures two successive nuclear divisions by re-licensing SPBs at the meiosis I to meiosis II transition. We show that Cdc14 is asymmetrically enriched on a single SPB during anaphase I and provide evidence that this enrichment promotes SPB re-duplication. Cells with impaired Cdc14 activity fail to promote extension of the SPB half-bridge, the initial step in morphogenesis of a new SPB. Conversely, cells with hyper-active Cdc14 duplicate SPBs, but fail to induce their separation. Conclusion Our findings implicate reversal of key CDK-dependent phosphorylations in the differential licensing of

  6. Spatial signals link exit from mitosis to spindle position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Jill Elaine; Tsuchiya, Dai; Verdaasdonk, Jolien; Lacefield, Soni; Bloom, Kerry; Amon, Angelika

    2016-05-11

    In budding yeast, if the spindle becomes mispositioned, cells prevent exit from mitosis by inhibiting the mitotic exit network (MEN). The MEN is a signaling cascade that localizes to spindle pole bodies (SPBs) and activates the phosphatase Cdc14. There are two competing models that explain MEN regulation by spindle position. In the 'zone model', exit from mitosis occurs when a MEN-bearing SPB enters the bud. The 'cMT-bud neck model' posits that cytoplasmic microtubule (cMT)-bud neck interactions prevent MEN activity. Here we find that 1) eliminating cMT- bud neck interactions does not trigger exit from mitosis and 2) loss of these interactions does not precede Cdc14 activation. Furthermore, using binucleate cells, we show that exit from mitosis occurs when one SPB enters the bud despite the presence of a mispositioned spindle. We conclude that exit from mitosis is triggered by a correctly positioned spindle rather than inhibited by improper spindle position.

  7. New role for Cdc14 phosphatase: localization to basal bodies in the oomycete phytophthora and its evolutionary coinheritance with eukaryotic flagella.

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    Audrey M V Ah-Fong

    Full Text Available Cdc14 protein phosphatases are well known for regulating the eukaryotic cell cycle, particularly during mitosis. Here we reveal a distinctly new role for Cdc14 based on studies of the microbial eukaryote Phytophthora infestans, the Irish potato famine agent. While Cdc14 is transcribed constitutively in yeast and animal cells, the P. infestans ortholog is expressed exclusively in spore stages of the life cycle and not in vegetative hyphae where the bulk of mitosis takes place. PiCdc14 expression is first detected in nuclei at sporulation, and during zoospore formation the protein accumulates at the basal body, which is the site from which flagella develop. The association of PiCdc14 with basal bodies was supported by co-localization studies with the DIP13 basal body protein and flagellar β-tubulin, and by demonstrating the enrichment of PiCdc14 in purified flagella-basal body complexes. Overexpressing PiCdc14 did not cause defects in growth or mitosis in hyphae, but interfered with cytoplasmic partitioning during zoosporogenesis. This cytokinetic defect might relate to its ability to bind microtubules, which was shown using an in vitro cosedimentation assay. The use of gene silencing to reveal the precise function of PiCdc14 in flagella is not possible since we showed previously that silencing prevents the formation of the precursor stage, sporangia. Nevertheless, the association of Cdc14 with flagella and basal bodies is consistent with their phylogenetic distribution in eukaryotes, as species that lack the ability to produce flagella generally also lack Cdc14. An ancestral role of Cdc14 in the flagellar stage of eukaryotes is thereby proposed.

  8. Repressive histone methylation regulates cardiac myocyte cell cycle exit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nachef, Danny; Oyama, Kyohei; Wu, Yun-Yu; Freeman, Miles; Zhang, Yiqiang; Robb MacLellan, W

    2018-05-22

    Mammalian cardiac myocytes (CMs) stop proliferating soon after birth and subsequent heart growth comes from hypertrophy, limiting the adult heart's regenerative potential after injury. The molecular events that mediate CM cell cycle exit are poorly understood. To determine the epigenetic mechanisms limiting CM cycling in adult CMs (ACMs) and whether trimethylation of lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me3), a histone modification associated with repressed chromatin, is required for the silencing of cell cycle genes, we developed a transgenic mouse model where H3K9me3 is specifically removed in CMs by overexpression of histone demethylase, KDM4D. Although H3K9me3 is found across the genome, its loss in CMs preferentially disrupts cell cycle gene silencing. KDM4D binds directly to cell cycle genes and reduces H3K9me3 levels at these promotors. Loss of H3K9me3 preferentially leads to increased cell cycle gene expression resulting in enhanced CM cycling. Heart mass was increased in KDM4D overexpressing mice by postnatal day 14 (P14) and continued to increase until 9-weeks of age. ACM number, but not size, was significantly increased in KDM4D expressing hearts, suggesting CM hyperplasia accounts for the increased heart mass. Inducing KDM4D after normal development specifically in ACMs resulted in increased cell cycle gene expression and cycling. We demonstrated that H3K9me3 is required for CM cell cycle exit and terminal differentiation in ACMs. Depletion of H3K9me3 in adult hearts prevents and reverses permanent cell cycle exit and allows hyperplastic growth in adult hearts in vivo. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Environmental regulations and plant exit: A logit analysis based on established panel data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bioern, E; Golombek, R; Raknerud, A

    1995-12-01

    This publication uses a model to study the relationship between environmental regulations and plant exit. It has the main characteristics of a multinomial qualitative response model of the logit type, but also has elements of a Markov chain model. The model uses Norwegian panel data for establishments in three manufacturing sectors with high shares of units which have been under strict environmental regulations. In two of the sectors, the exit probability of non-regulated establishments is about three times higher than for regulated ones. It is also found that the probability of changing regulation status from non-regulated to regulated depends significantly on economic factors. In particular, establishments with weak profitability are the most likely to become subject to environmental regulation. 12 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. A balance of FGF and BMP signals regulates cell cycle exit and Equarin expression in lens cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrin, Miguel; Pandit, Tanushree; Gunhaga, Lena

    2012-01-01

    In embryonic and adult lenses, a balance of cell proliferation, cell cycle exit, and differentiation is necessary to maintain physical function. The molecular mechanisms regulating the transition of proliferating lens epithelial cells to differentiated primary lens fiber cells are poorly characterized. To investigate this question, we used gain- and loss-of-function analyses to modulate fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and/or bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signals in chick lens/retina explants. Here we show that FGF activity plays a key role for proliferation independent of BMP signals. Moreover, a balance of FGF and BMP signals regulates cell cycle exit and the expression of Ccdc80 (also called Equarin), which is expressed at sites where differentiation of lens fiber cells occurs. BMP activity promotes cell cycle exit and induces Equarin expression in an FGF-dependent manner. In contrast, FGF activity is required but not sufficient to induce cell cycle exit or Equarin expression. Furthermore, our results show that in the absence of BMP activity, lens cells have increased cell cycle length or are arrested in the cell cycle, which leads to decreased cell cycle exit. Taken together, these findings suggest that proliferation, cell cycle exit, and early differentiation of primary lens fiber cells are regulated by counterbalancing BMP and FGF signals. PMID:22718906

  11. PLK1 regulation of PCNT cleavage ensures fidelity of centriole separation during mitotic exit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeyoun; Lee, Kwanwoo; Rhee, Kunsoo

    2015-12-09

    Centrioles are duplicated and segregated in close link to the cell cycle. During mitosis, daughter centrioles are disengaged and eventually separated from mother centrioles. New daughter centrioles may be generated only after centriole separation. Therefore, centriole separation is considered a licensing step for centriole duplication. It was previously known that separase specifically cleaves pericentrin (PCNT) during mitotic exit. Here we report that PCNT has to be phosphorylated by PLK1 to be a suitable substrate of separase. Phospho-resistant mutants of PCNT are not cleaved by separase and eventually inhibit centriole separation. Furthermore, phospho-mimetic PCNT mutants rescue centriole separation even in the presence of a PLK1 inhibitor. On the basis on these results, we propose that PLK1 phosphorylation is a priming step for separase-mediated cleavage of PCNT and eventually for centriole separation. PLK1 phosphorylation of PCNT provides an additional layer of regulatory mechanism to ensure the fidelity of centriole separation during mitotic exit.

  12. Exiting RCRA Subtitle C regulation data for supporting a new regulatory path for immobilized mixed debris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C.L. [Jetseal, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Carson, S.D.; Cheng, Wu-Ching [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents analytical and empirical data that provide technical support for the position that mixed debris (debris contaminated with both radioactive and hazardous constituents) treated by immobilization in accordance with 40 CFR 268.45 can exit RCRA Subtitle C requirements at the time the treatment is complete. Pathways analyses and risk assessments of low-level waste and RCRA mixed waste disposal facilities show that these two types of facilities provide equivalent long-term (> 100 years) performance and protection of human health and the environment. A proposed two-tier approach for waste form performance criteria is discussed.

  13. Exit from contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Bar-Gill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the procedure of exiting the contract its costs and benefits. Methods statistical method comparative analysis. Results free exit from contract is one of the most powerful tools for the consumer rights protection. The procedure frees consumers from bad deals and keeps businesses honest. Yet consumers often choose transactions with lockin provisions trading off exit rights for other perks. This article examines the costs and benefits of free exit as compared to the lockin alternative. According to the authors the present regulation of exit penalties in the USA is poorly tailored to address concerns about lockin particularly in light of increasingly ubiquitous marketbased solutions. The article also calls regulatory attention to loyalty rewards which are shown to be as powerful as exit penalties and equally detrimental. Scientific novelty the article reveals a paradoxical state of the law exit regulations in the USA are used most where they are needed least. Termination penalties present an obvishyous target for regulatory intervention while loyalty programs seem benign not warranting any regulatory attention. Practical significance the article is of interest for the Russian juridical science and lawmaking authorities as in Russia the issue of exiting the contract is as topical as in the USA and requires solution which would impair neither the rights of consumers nor the rights of the sellers ofnbspproducts and services. nbsp

  14. Exit Prostitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Theresa Dyrvig; Aslaug Kjær, Agnete; Christensen, Gunvor

    2015-01-01

    Dette midtvejsnotat omhandler projektet ”Exit prostitution”. Exit-projektet blev påbegyndt i april 2012 og løber til udgangen af 2015 og befinder sig i øjeblikket midtvejs i projektets afprøvningsfase. I projektet anvendes metoden Critical Time Intervention (CTI), der er en evidensbaseret...... til det. Exit-projektet er dermed en central socialpolitisk indsats overfor borgere i prostitution i det danske samfund. I dette notat belyser vi midtvejsresultater for, hvordan udviklingen er for de borgere, der er nået halvt igennem et CTI-forløb. I den afsluttende evaluering af projektet i 2015 vil...

  15. Exit prostitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Line; Aslaug Kjær, Agnete; Amilon, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Dette statusnotat for projektet ”Exit Prostitution” belyser de foreløbige resultater og tendenser for projektet. Exit Prostitution løb oprindeligt fra april 2012 til udgangen af 2015, men med en nylig forlængelse løber projektet til udgangen af 2016. Projektet befinder sig således i slutningen af...... afprøvet med succes i forhold til hjemløshed både nationalt og internationalt. Målet med anvendelsen af metoden i forhold til målgruppen for Exit Prostitution er, at borgere med prostitutionserfaring, som ønsker at ophøre med salg af seksuelle ydelser eller ønsker at opleve en forbedring af deres...

  16. 29 CFR 1917.122 - Employee exits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employee exits. 1917.122 Section 1917.122 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.122 Employee exits. (a) Employee exits shall be clearly marked. (b) If an employee exit is not visible from employees' work stations, directional signs...

  17. Vernalization and the Chilling Requirement to Exit Bud Dormancy: Shared or Separate Regulation?

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    Amy M Brunner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Similarities have long been recognized between vernalization, the prolonged exposure to cold temperatures that promotes the floral transition in many plants, and the chilling requirement to release bud dormancy in woody plants of temperate climates. In both cases the extended chilling period occurring during winter is used to coordinate developmental events to the appropriate seasonal time. However, whether or not these processes share common regulatory components and molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Both gene function and association genetics studies in Populus are beginning to answer this question. In Populus, studies have revealed that orthologs of the antagonistic flowering time genes FT and CEN/TFL1 might have central roles in both processes. We review Populus seasonal shoot development related to dormancy release and the floral transition and evidence for FT/TFL1-mediated regulation of these processes to consider the question of regulatory overlap. In addition, we discuss the potential for and challenges to integrating functional and population genomics studies to uncover the regulatory mechanisms underpinning these processes in woody plant systems.

  18. Cdc14 phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machín, Félix; Quevedo Rodriguez, Oliver; Ramos-Pérez, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    and cancer cells uncontrollably divide, much attention has been put into knocking down CDK activity. However, much less is known on the consequences of interfering with the phosphatases that put an end to the cell cycle. We have addressed in recent years the consequences of transiently inactivating the only...

  19. Cholesterol regulates the endoplasmic reticulum exit of the major membrane protein P0 required for peripheral myelin compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saher, Gesine; Quintes, Susanne; Möbius, Wiebke; Wehr, Michael C; Krämer-Albers, Eva-Maria; Brügger, Britta; Nave, Klaus-Armin

    2009-05-13

    Rapid impulse conduction requires electrical insulation of axons by myelin, a cholesterol-rich extension of the glial cell membrane with a characteristic composition of proteins and lipids. Mutations in several myelin protein genes cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention and disease, presumably attributable to failure of misfolded proteins to pass the ER quality control. Because many myelin proteins partition into cholesterol-rich membrane rafts, their interaction with cholesterol could potentially be part of the ER quality control system. Here, we provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that the major peripheral myelin protein P0 requires cholesterol for exiting the ER and reaching the myelin compartment. Cholesterol dependency of P0 trafficking in heterologous cells is mediated by a cholesterol recognition/interaction amino acid consensus (CRAC) motif. Mutant mice lacking cholesterol biosynthesis in Schwann cells suffer from severe hypomyelination with numerous uncompacted myelin stretches. This demonstrates that high-level cholesterol coordinates P0 export with myelin membrane synthesis, which is required for the correct stoichiometry of myelin components and for myelin compaction.

  20. The circadian molecular clock regulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis by controlling the timing of cell-cycle entry and exit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard-Cannon, Pascale; Mendoza-Viveros, Lucia; Yuen, Andrew; Kærn, Mads; Cheng, Hai-Ying M

    2013-11-27

    The subgranular zone (SGZ) of the adult hippocampus contains a pool of quiescent neural progenitor cells (QNPs) that are capable of entering the cell cycle and producing newborn neurons. The mechanisms that control the timing and extent of adult neurogenesis are not well understood. Here, we show that QNPs of the adult SGZ express molecular-clock components and proliferate in a rhythmic fashion. The clock proteins PERIOD2 and BMAL1 are critical for proper control of neurogenesis. The absence of PERIOD2 abolishes the gating of cell-cycle entrance of QNPs, whereas genetic ablation of bmal1 results in constitutively high levels of proliferation and delayed cell-cycle exit. We use mathematical model simulations to show that these observations may arise from clock-driven expression of a cell-cycle inhibitor that targets the cyclin D/Cdk4-6 complex. Our findings may have broad implications for the circadian clock in timing cell-cycle events of other stem cell populations throughout the body. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Circadian Molecular Clock Regulates Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis by Controlling the Timing of Cell-Cycle Entry and Exit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Bouchard-Cannon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The subgranular zone (SGZ of the adult hippocampus contains a pool of quiescent neural progenitor cells (QNPs that are capable of entering the cell cycle and producing newborn neurons. The mechanisms that control the timing and extent of adult neurogenesis are not well understood. Here, we show that QNPs of the adult SGZ express molecular-clock components and proliferate in a rhythmic fashion. The clock proteins PERIOD2 and BMAL1 are critical for proper control of neurogenesis. The absence of PERIOD2 abolishes the gating of cell-cycle entrance of QNPs, whereas genetic ablation of bmal1 results in constitutively high levels of proliferation and delayed cell-cycle exit. We use mathematical model simulations to show that these observations may arise from clock-driven expression of a cell-cycle inhibitor that targets the cyclin D/Cdk4-6 complex. Our findings may have broad implications for the circadian clock in timing cell-cycle events of other stem cell populations throughout the body.

  2. Narrowing the gap between eye care needs and service provision: a model to dynamically regulate the flow of personnel through a multiple entry and exit training programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masnick Keith

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this paper is to present a complex yet transparent, computable model to simulate the regulation of the flow of personnel through a previously described multiple-entry, multiple-exit eye care training scheme linked to the health workforce. This methodology should be a useful tool for the planner; it can address changes and feedbacks over time and be sensitive to any unexpected consequences of the interactions. The same model template can be applied to calculate the finances associated with the personnel flow. Presentation of the hypothesis The worth of any model or set of concepts of human resources for health is considerably enhanced by actual field application. However, implementation involves the selection of one set of parameters and a large, long-term commitment of resources. A far less expensive and time-consuming, yet still effective, method of testing assumptions and ideas would be to simulate their application using a variety of possible inputs, structural configurations and/or desired outcomes. To that end, this paper presents a computable, dynamic model of personnel flows within a health system. Testing the hypothesis Some testing of the model has been demonstrated in a previous paper. However, the value of the model is that all stakeholders can enter their own data and parameter assumptions and readily review the outcomes. Implications of the hypothesis The complex yet easy-to-use model presented in this paper opens the debate on current and future policy to any stakeholder. A very wide range of scenarios can be considered and a selected option can be monitored and changed dynamically over time.

  3. Exit-strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Palm, Anne-Mette; Sys Møller-Andersen, Camilla

    different empirical sources. To develop and extend an "exit-prototype" about conditions of importance for moving beyond a gang/criminal position, we have analyzed documents (from newspapers and books), involved ex-gang members, social workers and experts as co-researchers in interviews, "gang......This paper is about exit-strategies, constructing a theoretical and empirical informed analysis of current societal conditions that influence motor cycle gangs such as Hells Angels or Bandidos and other ‘wild' youth' possibilities and limitations for moving beyond criminal activities. We especially...... focus on the involved communities in the current Danish gang-conflict, which escalated with deadly killings in 2008, and thereby became a so called "gang-war". We will start out presenting different practice notions of exit, and we will extend and discuss understandings of "exit-strategies" by analyzing...

  4. Exit or revival?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    The answer given by the international representative at the colloquium:'nuclear: exit or revival? ' was tending towards the revival. The international, democratic, ecological and of energy policy stakes are tackled. (N.C.)

  5. Entry and Exit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    1. Introduction R Analyses of industrial competition have attained a new vigor with the application of game -theoretic methods. The process of... competition is represented in models that reflect genuine struggles for entry, market power, and continuing survival. Dynamics and informational effects are...presents a few of the models developed recently to study competitive processes that affect a firm’s entry into a market , and the decision to exit. The

  6. Exit by Afghanisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Hasse

    USA’s exit-strategi fra Afghanistan har båret præg af et italesat hovedmål om overdragelse af ansvar til de nationale myndigheder i landet. Exit-strategien udmærker sig ved sin lighed med USA’s afvikling af sit engagement i Vietnam for snart et halvt århundrede siden, hvor begrebet Vietnamisation...... om national selvbestemmelse. Den amerikanske opinion spillede en afgørende rolle og afslutningen af engagementet i Vietnam kan i lige så høj grad ses som en reaktion på den massive folkelige modstand mod krigen. Omtrent 40 år efter kan Obama-administrationen notere sig en lignende negativ trend i...... Kissinger vidste, at krigen i Vietnam var tabt. Vietnamisation havde i høj grad til formål at slutte USA’s engagement på en måde, der tog hensyn til USA’s internationale renomme. Spørgsmålet er så om de mange strategiske ligheder kan overføres til samme konklusion: krigen er tabt. Briefet har til hensigt...

  7. Promoting Exit from Violent Extremism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    A number of Western countries are currently adding exit programs targeting militant Islamists to their counterterrorism efforts. Drawing on research into voluntary exit from violent extremism, this article identifies themes and issues that seem to cause doubt, leading to exit. It then provides a ...... the influence attempt as subtle as possible, use narratives and self-affirmatory strategies to reduce resistance to persuasion, and consider the possibility to promote attitudinal change via behavioral change as an alternative to seek to influence beliefs directly....

  8. Exit Polls and Voter Turnout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Jensen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    After the 2009 referendum on a proposed change to the Danish Law of Succession, it was widely claimed that the early publication of exit poll results changed the rate of turnout and eventually the outcome. We investigate this claim and contribute to the wider debate on the implications of exit...... polls by setting up and analyzing a formal model. We find that the introduction of an exit poll influences the incentive to vote both before and after the poll is published, but the signs of the effects are generally ambiguous. The observation that exit polls influence the incentive to vote even before...

  9. Heat shock instructs hESCs to exit from the self-renewal program through negative regulation of OCT4 by SAPK/JNK and HSF1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Kyunghee; Kim, Taek-Kyun; Oh, Jeehyun; Bayarsaikhan, Enkhjargal; Kim, Daesik; Lee, Min Young; Pack, Chan-Gi; Hwang, Daehee; Lee, Bonghee

    2013-11-01

    Environmental factors affect self-renewal of stem cells by modulating the components of self-renewal networks. Heat shock, an environmental factor, induces heat shock factors (HSFs), which up-regulate stress response-related genes. However, the link of heat shock to self-renewal of stem cells has not been elucidated yet. Here, we present the direct link of heat shock to a core stem cell regulator, OCT4, in the self-renewal network through SAPK/JNK and HSF1 pathway. We first showed that heat shock initiated differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Gene expression analysis revealed that heat shock increased the expression of many genes involved in cellular processes related to differentiation of stem cells. We then examined the effects of HSFs induced by heat shock on core self-renewal factors. Among HSFs, heat shock induced mainly HSF1 in hESCs. The HSF1 repressed the expression of OCT4, leading to the differentiation of hESCs and the above differentiation-related gene expression change. We further examined the effects of the upstream MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinases of HSF1 on the repression of OCT4 expression by HSF1. Among the MAP kinases, SAPK/JNK controlled predominantly the repression of the OCT4 expression by HSF1. The direct link of heat shock to the core self-renewal regulator through SAPK/JNK and HSF1 provides a fundamental basis for understanding the effect of heat and other stresses involving activation of HSF1 on the self-renewal program and further controlling differentiation of hESCs in a broad spectrum of stem cell applications using these stresses. © 2013.

  10. Technological Progress, Exit and Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    productivity exporters are more likely to continue to export, and market exit is typically preceded by periods of contracting market shares. We show that the simple inclusion of exogenous economy wide technological progress into the standard Melitz (2003) model generates a tractable dynamic framework...

  11. First Degree Pacemaker Exit Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Francis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Usually atrial and ventricular depolarizations follow soon after the pacemaker stimulus (spike on the ECG. But there can be an exit block due to fibrosis at the electrode - tissue interface at the lead tip. This can increase the delay between the spike and atrial or ventricular depolarization.

  12. Exit Planning At Joost El

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nellemann, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    This is a Danish version. This case focuses on an owner-manager's considerations regarding his exit. Carsten Joost established Joost El in 2005. It currently employs 10 people. He has two sons but no intention to hand over the business to them. Rather, he hopes that his key employee eventually...

  13. Exit From the High Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bly, Sarah; Gwozdz, Wencke; Reisch, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    by focusing on a previously under-researched group of consumers – ‘sustainable fashion consumption pioneers’ who actively engage and shape their own discourse around the notion of sustainable fashion consumption. These pioneers actively create and communicate strategies for sustainable fashion behaviour...... of sustainable fashion including such key behaviours as purchasing fewer garments of higher quality, exiting the retail market, purchasing only second-hand fashion goods and sewing or upgrading their own clothing. Central to much of these behaviours is the notion that personal style, rather than fashion, can...... bridge the potential disconnect between sustainability and fashion while also facilitating a sense of well-being not found in traditional fashion consumption. As such, our research suggests that for these consumers sustainability is as much about reducing measurable environmental or social impacts...

  14. Firm Exit, Technological Progress and Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    The dynamics of export market exit and firm closure have found limited attention in the new heterogeneous-firms trade literature. In fact, several of the predictions on firm survival and exit stemming from this new class of models are at odds with the stylized facts. Empirically, higher productiv......The dynamics of export market exit and firm closure have found limited attention in the new heterogeneous-firms trade literature. In fact, several of the predictions on firm survival and exit stemming from this new class of models are at odds with the stylized facts. Empirically, higher...... productivity firms survive longer, most firm closures are young firms, higher productivity exporters are more likely to continue to export compared to less productive exporters and market exits as well as firm closures are typically preceded by periods of contracting market shares. The present paper shows...... liberalization on export market exit and firm closure....

  15. Spoiled Onions: Exposing Malicious Tor Exit Relays

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Philipp; Lindskog, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Several hundred Tor exit relays together push more than 1 GiB/s of network traffic. However, it is easy for exit relays to snoop and tamper with anonymised network traffic and as all relays are run by independent volunteers, not all of them are innocuous. In this paper, we seek to expose malicious exit relays and document their actions. First, we monitored the Tor network after developing a fast and modular exit relay scanner. We implemented several scanning modules for detecting common attac...

  16. Control of the mitotic exit network during meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attner, Michelle A.; Amon, Angelika

    2012-01-01

    The mitotic exit network (MEN) is an essential GTPase signaling pathway that triggers exit from mitosis in budding yeast. We show here that during meiosis, the MEN is dispensable for exit from meiosis I but contributes to the timely exit from meiosis II. Consistent with a role for the MEN during meiosis II, we find that the signaling pathway is active only during meiosis II. Our analysis further shows that MEN signaling is modulated during meiosis in several key ways. Whereas binding of MEN components to spindle pole bodies (SPBs) is necessary for MEN signaling during mitosis, during meiosis MEN signaling occurs off SPBs and does not require the SPB recruitment factor Nud1. Furthermore, unlike during mitosis, MEN signaling is controlled through the regulated interaction between the MEN kinase Dbf20 and its activating subunit Mob1. Our data lead to the conclusion that a pathway essential for vegetative growth is largely dispensable for the specialized meiotic divisions and provide insights into how cell cycle regulatory pathways are modulated to accommodate different modes of cell division. PMID:22718910

  17. Transgenic C. elegans dauer larvae expressing hookworm phospho null DAF-16/FoxO exit dauer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Gelmedin

    Full Text Available Parasitic hookworms and the free-living model nematode Caenorhabtidis elegans share a developmental arrested stage, called the dauer stage in C. elegans and the infective third-stage larva (L3 in hookworms. One of the key transcription factors that regulate entrance to and exit from developmental arrest is the forkhead transcription factor DAF-16/FoxO. During the dauer stage, DAF-16 is activated and localized in the nucleus. DAF-16 is negatively regulated by phosphorylation by the upstream kinase AKT, which causes DAF-16 to localize out of the nucleus and the worm to exit from dauer. DAF-16 is conserved in hookworms, and hypothesized to control recovery from L3 arrest during infection. Lacking reverse genetic techniques for use in hookworms, we used C. elegans complementation assays to investigate the function of Ancylostoma caninum DAF-16 during entrance and exit from L3 developmental arrest. We performed dauer switching assays and observed the restoration of the dauer phenotype when Ac-DAF-16 was expressed in temperature-sensitive dauer defective C. elegans daf-2(e1370;daf-16(mu86 mutants. AKT phosphorylation site mutants of Ac-DAF-16 were also able to restore the dauer phenotype, but surprisingly allowed dauer exit when temperatures were lowered. We used fluorescence microscopy to localize DAF-16 during dauer and exit from dauer in C. elegans DAF-16 mutant worms expressing Ac-DAF-16, and found that Ac-DAF-16 exited the nucleus during dauer exit. Surprisingly, Ac-DAF-16 with mutated AKT phosphorylation sites also exited the nucleus during dauer exit. Our results suggest that another mechanism may be involved in the regulation DAF-16 nuclear localization during recovery from developmental arrest.

  18. Exit selection strategy in pedestrian evacuation simulation with multi-exits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Hao; Zhang Bin-Ya; Shao Chun-Fu; Xing Yan

    2014-01-01

    A mixed strategy of the exit selection in a pedestrian evacuation simulation with multi-exits is constructed by fusing the distance-based and time-based strategies through a cognitive coefficient, in order to reduce the evacuation imbalance caused by the asymmetry of exits or pedestrian layout, to find a critical density to distinguish whether the strategy of exit selection takes effect or not, and to analyze the exit selection results with different cognitive coefficients. The strategy of exit selection is embedded in the computation of the shortest estimated distance in a dynamic parameter model, in which the concept of a jam area layer and the procedure of step-by-step expending are introduced. Simulation results indicate the characteristics of evacuation time gradually varying against cognitive coefficient and the effectiveness of reducing evacuation imbalance caused by the asymmetry of pedestrian or exit layout. It is found that there is a critical density to distinguish whether a pedestrian jam occurs in the evacuation and whether an exit selection strategy is in effect. It is also shown that the strategy of exit selection has no effect on the evacuation process in the no-effect phase with a low density, and that evacuation time and exit selection are dependent on the cognitive coefficient and pedestrian initial density in the in-effect phase with a high density. (general)

  19. Dissuasive exit signage for building fire evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Joakim; Ronchi, Enrico; Lovreglio, Ruggiero; Nilsson, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    This work presents the result of a questionnaire study which investigates the design of dissuasive emergency signage, i.e. signage conveying a message of not utilizing a specific exit door. The work analyses and tests a set of key features of dissuasive emergency signage using the Theory of Affordances. The variables having the largest impact on observer preference, interpretation and noticeability of the signage have been identified. Results show that features which clearly negate the exit-message of the original positive exit signage are most effective, for instance a red X-marking placed across the entirety of the exit signage conveys a clear dissuasive message. Other features of note are red flashing lights and alternation of colour. The sense of urgency conveyed by the sign is largely affected by sensory inputs such as red flashing lights or other features which cause the signs to break the tendencies of normalcy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Exit channels of autoionization resonances in atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, M.O.

    1985-01-01

    In many-electron atoms with open shells strong autoionization resonances occur when an electron from an inner, weakly bound subshell is excited. Usually, the resonance state lies above several ionization thresholds and, hence, will decay into more than one exit or continuum channel. Several cases are discussed in which the resonance state is induced by synchrotron radiation, and the exit channels are differentiated and characterized by the analysis of the ejected electrons

  1. Entry and exit decisions under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Hans Christian

    1996-01-01

    This paper establishes the general deterministic limit that corresponds to Dixit's model of entry and exit decisions under uncertainty. The interlinked nature of decisions is shown to be essential also in the deterministic limit. A numerical example illustrates the result......This paper establishes the general deterministic limit that corresponds to Dixit's model of entry and exit decisions under uncertainty. The interlinked nature of decisions is shown to be essential also in the deterministic limit. A numerical example illustrates the result...

  2. Exit from Synchrony in Joint Improvised Motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assi Dahan

    Full Text Available Motion synchrony correlates with effective and well-rated human interaction. However, people do not remain locked in synchrony; Instead, they repeatedly enter and exit synchrony. In many important interactions, such as therapy, marriage and parent-infant communication, it is the ability to exit and then re-enter synchrony that is thought to build strong relationship. The phenomenon of entry into zero-phase synchrony is well-studied experimentally and in terms of mathematical modeling. In contrast, exit-from-synchrony is under-studied. Here, we focus on human motion coordination, and examine the exit-from-synchrony phenomenon using experimental data from the mirror game paradigm, in which people perform joint improvised motion, and from human tracking of computer-generated stimuli. We present a mathematical mechanism that captures aspects of exit-from-synchrony in human motion. The mechanism adds a random motion component when the accumulated velocity error between the players is small. We introduce this mechanism to several models for human coordinated motion, including the widely studied HKB model, and the predictor-corrector model of Noy, Dekel and Alon. In all models, the new mechanism produces realistic simulated behavior when compared to experimental data from the mirror game and from tracking of computer generated stimuli, including repeated entry and exit from zero-phase synchrony that generates a complexity of motion similar to that of human players. We hope that these results can inform future research on exit-from-synchrony, to better understand the dynamics of coordinated action of people and to enhance human-computer and human-robot interaction.

  3. Stranded costs and exit fees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The New Brunswick Market Design Committee has been directed to examine the issue of stranded costs since it is a major component of restructuring within the electricity sector. When regulated monopolies are faced with competition, they could find that some of their embedded costs cannot be recovered. These costs are referred to as stranded costs. Common sources include large capital investments in uneconomic plants or expensive power purchase contracts or fuel supply contracts. In general, stranded costs do not include gains or losses associated with normal business risks experienced by regulated utilities. This report presents recommendations for mitigation of stranded costs, valuation methodologies and cost-recovery mechanisms. It also presents a summary of experience with stranded costs in other jurisdictions such as California, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania and Ontario. Stranded costs are often recovered through an obligatory charge on all customers, particularly in jurisdictions where retail competition exists. In the New Brunswick market, however, the only customers who can create stranded costs are those eligible to choose their own suppliers. It is argued that since most customers will not have a choice of electricity suppliers, they cannot generate stranded costs and therefore, should not have to pay costs stranded by others. A method to quantify stranded costs is presented, along with a review of transmission-related stranded costs in New Brunswick. Expansion of self-generation in New Brunswick could strand transmission assets. Currently, self-generators only contribute a small amount to fixed charges of the transmission system. However, under new recommended tariffs, the amount could increase. It is likely that the net amount of stranded transmission costs will not be large. 2 refs., 1 fig

  4. Tritium in Exit Signs | RadTown USA | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Many exit signs contain tritium to light the sign without batteries or electricity. Using tritium in exit signs allows the sign to remain lit if the power goes out. Tritium is most dangerous when it is inhaled or swallowed. Never tamper with a tritium exit sign. If a tritium exit sign is broken, leave the area immediately and notify the building maintenance staff.

  5. Exploring the Reasons and Ways to Exit: The Entrepreneur Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parastuty, Zulaicha; Breitenecker, Robert J.; Schwarz, Erich J.; Harms, Rainer; Bögenhold, Dieter; Bonnet, Jean; Dejardin, Marcus; Garcia Perez de Lema, Domingo

    2016-01-01

    Research on entrepreneurial exit has received growing attention recently, attributing to the importance of exit in the entrepreneurial process. Yet, the complex phenomena of exit render the research scattered in the field. This research is aimed at understanding entrepreneurial exit at the

  6. Jet Exit Rig Six Component Force Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Raymond; Wolter, John; Woike, Mark; Booth, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    A new six axis air balance was delivered to the NASA Glenn Research Center. This air balance has an axial force capability of 800 pounds, primary airflow of 10 pounds per second, and a secondary airflow of 3 pounds per second. Its primary use was for the NASA Glenn Jet Exit Rig, a wind tunnel model used to test both low-speed, and high-speed nozzle concepts in a wind tunnel. This report outlines the installation of the balance in the Jet Exit Rig, and the results from an ASME calibration nozzle with an exit area of 8 square-inches. The results demonstrated the stability of the force balance for axial measurements and the repeatability of measurements better than 0.20 percent.

  7. The Political Economy of Early Exit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Carina; Starke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale exit from the labour market began in the 1970s in many OECD countries. The literature indicates that individual early retirement decisions are facilitated by generous and accessible ‘pathways’ into retirement in the public pension system, unemployment insurance or disability benefits....... in the tradable sector, against a more traditional class-based logic of welfare state policy-making. Quantitative analysis of employment outcomes in 21 countries shows that the political economy of early exit clearly rests on the sectoral politics of cost-shifting.......Large-scale exit from the labour market began in the 1970s in many OECD countries. The literature indicates that individual early retirement decisions are facilitated by generous and accessible ‘pathways’ into retirement in the public pension system, unemployment insurance or disability benefits....... It is unclear, however, why early exit became so much more prevalent in some countries than in others and why such differences remain, despite a recent shift back towards higher employment rates and ‘active ageing’. We test a logic of sectoral cost-shifting politics involving cross-class alliances...

  8. 14 CFR 121.585 - Exit seating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... section and related to emergency evacuation provided by the certificate holder in printed or graphic form... include on passenger information cards, presented in the language in which briefings and oral commands are... passenger information cards, at each exit seat— (1) In the primary language in which emergency commands are...

  9. 14 CFR 135.129 - Exit seating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... emergency evacuation provided by the certificate holder in printed or graphic form or the ability to... accordance with this section. (d) Each certificate holder shall include on passenger information cards.... (e) Each certificate holder shall include on passenger information cards, at each exit seat— (1) In...

  10. 30 CFR 56.4530 - Exits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control... a sufficient number of exits to permit prompt escape in case of fire. ...

  11. Epigenetics as a First Exit Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurell, E.; Sneppen, K.

    2002-01-01

    We develop a framework to discuss the stability of epigenetic states as first exit problems in dynamical systems with noise. We consider in particular the stability of the lysogenic state of the λ prophage. The formalism defines a quantitative measure of robustness of inherited states.

  12. Hedgehog signaling acts with the temporal cascade to promote neuroblast cell cycle exit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phing Chian Chai

    Full Text Available In Drosophila postembryonic neuroblasts, transition in gene expression programs of a cascade of transcription factors (also known as the temporal series acts together with the asymmetric division machinery to generate diverse neurons with distinct identities and regulate the end of neuroblast proliferation. However, the underlying mechanism of how this "temporal series" acts during development remains unclear. Here, we show that Hh signaling in the postembryonic brain is temporally regulated; excess (earlier onset of Hh signaling causes premature neuroblast cell cycle exit and under-proliferation, whereas loss of Hh signaling causes delayed cell cycle exit and excess proliferation. Moreover, the Hh pathway functions downstream of Castor but upstream of Grainyhead, two components of the temporal series, to schedule neuroblast cell cycle exit. Interestingly, hh is likely a target of Castor. Hence, Hh signaling provides a link between the temporal series and the asymmetric division machinery in scheduling the end of neurogenesis.

  13. Molecular signature of cell cycle exit induced in human T lymphoblasts by IL-2 withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfeifer Aleksandra

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms of cell cycle exit are poorly understood. Studies on lymphocytes at cell cycle exit after growth factor deprivation have predominantly focused on the initiation of apoptosis. We aimed to study gene expression profile of primary and immortalised IL-2-dependent human T cells forced to exit the cell cycle by growth factor withdrawal, before apoptosis could be evidenced. Results By the Affymetrix microarrays HG-U133 2.0 Plus, 53 genes were distinguished as differentially expressed before and soon after IL-2 deprivation. Among those, PIM1, BCL2, IL-8, HBEGF, DUSP6, OSM, CISH, SOCS2, SOCS3, LIF and IL13 were down-regulated and RPS24, SQSTM1, TMEM1, LRRC8D, ECOP, YY1AP1, C1orf63, ASAH1, SLC25A46 and MIA3 were up-regulated. Genes linked to transcription, cell cycle, cell growth, proliferation and differentiation, cell adhesion, and immune functions were found to be overrepresented within the set of the differentially expressed genes. Conclusion Cell cycle exit of the growth factor-deprived T lymphocytes is characterised by a signature of differentially expressed genes. A coordinate repression of a set of genes known to be induced during T cell activation is observed. However, growth arrest following exit from the cell cycle is actively controlled by several up-regulated genes that enforce the non-dividing state. The identification of genes involved in cell cycle exit and quiescence provides new hints for further studies on the molecular mechanisms regulating the non-dividing state of a cell, the mechanisms closely related to cancer development and to many biological processes.

  14. Turbine-missile casing exit tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, H.R.; Sliter, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear power plant designers are required to provide safety-related components with adequate protection against hypothetical turbine-missile impacts. In plants with a ''peninsula'' arrangement, protection is provided by installing the turbine axis radially from the reactor building, so that potential missile trajectories are not in line with the plant. In plants with a ''non-peninsula'' arrangement (turbine axis perpendicular to a radius), designers rely on the low probability of a missile strike and on the protection provided by reinforced concrete walls in order to demonstrate an adequate level of protection USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.115). One of the critical first steps in demonstrating adequacy is the determination of the energy and spin of the turbine segments as they exit the turbine casing. The spin increases the probability that a subsequent impact with a protective barrier will be off-normal and therefore less severe than the normal impact assumed in plant designs. Two full-scale turbine-missile casing exit tests which were conducted by Sandia Laboratories at their rocket-sled facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico, are described. Because of wide variations in turbine design details, postulated failure conditions, and missile exit scenarios, the conditions for the two tests were carefully selected to be as prototypical as possible, while still maintaining the well-controlled and well-characterized test conditions needed for generating benchmark data

  15. 77 FR 19132 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Bus Emergency Exits and Window Retention and Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... Bird Body Company (Blue Bird), Thomas Built Buses (Thomas Built), the National Truck Equipment....'' (Emphasis added.) That is to say, the agency intended a window or roof exit with one release mechanism to be... make every reasonable effort to ensure that the regulation: (1) Clearly specifies the preemptive effect...

  16. 14 CFR 25.809 - Emergency exit arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... moveable door or hatch in the external walls of the fuselage, allowing an unobstructed opening to the... event of failure of the primary system. Manual operation of the exit (after failure of the primary... during flight. (i) Each emergency exit must have a means to retain the exit in the open position, once...

  17. A smooth exit from eternal inflation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, S. W.; Hertog, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    The usual theory of inflation breaks down in eternal inflation. We derive a dual description of eternal inflation in terms of a deformed Euclidean CFT located at the threshold of eternal inflation. The partition function gives the amplitude of different geometries of the threshold surface in the no-boundary state. Its local and global behavior in dual toy models shows that the amplitude is low for surfaces which are not nearly conformal to the round three-sphere and essentially zero for surfaces with negative curvature. Based on this we conjecture that the exit from eternal inflation does not produce an infinite fractal-like multiverse, but is finite and reasonably smooth.

  18. Probability evolution method for exit location distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinjie; Chen, Zhen; Liu, Xianbin

    2018-03-01

    The exit problem in the framework of the large deviation theory has been a hot topic in the past few decades. The most probable escape path in the weak-noise limit has been clarified by the Freidlin-Wentzell action functional. However, noise in real physical systems cannot be arbitrarily small while noise with finite strength may induce nontrivial phenomena, such as noise-induced shift and noise-induced saddle-point avoidance. Traditional Monte Carlo simulation of noise-induced escape will take exponentially large time as noise approaches zero. The majority of the time is wasted on the uninteresting wandering around the attractors. In this paper, a new method is proposed to decrease the escape simulation time by an exponentially large factor by introducing a series of interfaces and by applying the reinjection on them. This method can be used to calculate the exit location distribution. It is verified by examining two classical examples and is compared with theoretical predictions. The results show that the method performs well for weak noise while may induce certain deviations for large noise. Finally, some possible ways to improve our method are discussed.

  19. Sequence Classification: 890890 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lar protein of unknown function, positive regulator of exit from mitosis; involved in regulating the release of Cdc14p from the nucle...olus in early anaphase; proposed to play similar role in meiosis; Spo12p || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/6321946 ...

  20. Fatal exit the automotive black box debate

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalick, Tom

    2005-01-01

    "Fatal Exit: The Automotive Black Box Debate cuts through thirty years of political wrangling and institutional biases to provide an argument for the Motor Vehicle Event Data Recorder (MVEDR). This automotive equivalent of an airplane's flight recorder or black box is intended to solve the mysteries of car crashes and improve the safety of our roads. The reader is taken inside the automotive industry and the government highway safety establishment to foster an understanding of the politics and the positions on all sides of this safety debate. The author takes an unbiased approach, chronologically presenting each argument and uncovering the agendas and mandates of each of the stakeholders." "This publication is essential reading for all consumers who need to have their voices heard on this critical issue, as well as for attorneys, public safety advocates, public policy administrators, engineers, automotive professionals, journalists, and insurance executives."--Jacket.

  1. Towards A Model of Identity and Role Exit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason S. Milne

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Explanations of role exit often focus on how factors associated with a specific role that affect whether the individual will exit a role or not. Other research explains how identities affect our performance in a role. However, no one has yet to demonstrate the connection between role-set factors and identities, and role exit. Using data from a survey of 940 current and former soccer referees, this paper provides a model of role exit that involves a complex of processes that include role-set factors (structural and cultural factors associated with a specific role and identity processes. Specifically, this paper demonstrates that, other than role conflict, identity processes explain the relationship between role-set factors and role exit. The model provides a beginning method for understanding the connection between identities and role exit.

  2. An Identity Theory of Role Exit among Soccer Referees

    OpenAIRE

    Milne, Jason Syme

    2006-01-01

    This study examines how identity processes affect role exit. I test a model of role exit that situates the identity processes of cognitive processes (reflected appraisals and social comparisons), rewards and costs related to the role, commitment to the role, and identity centrality as mediating factors between role-set and social characteristic background factors, and role exit. Using a sample of 940 current and former soccer referees in Virginia and the District of Columbia, the results s...

  3. Understanding international exit from a non-economic and emotional perspective: the case of Taiwanese entrepreneurs exit China

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yangpei

    2015-01-01

    I investigate why Taiwanese entrepreneurs who have invested in China exit. Viewed from the non-economic perspective, there are three main themes in this thesis. Theme A focuses on the non-economic variables in international exit. Theme B examines how incident-generated emotions shape entrepreneur’s actions in internationalization. Theme C presents an overview of the decision-making of international exit, summarizing the finding in Theme A and Theme B and revisiting the theor...

  4. Analysis of unexpected exits using the Fokker - Planck equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herwaarden, van O.A.

    1996-01-01


    In this thesis exit problems are considered for stochastic dynamical systems with small random fluctuations. We study exit from a domain in the state space through a boundary, or a specified part of the boundary, that is unattainable in the underlying deterministic system. We analyze

  5. Going, Going, Gone. Innovation and Exit in Manufacturing Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Cefis (Elena); O. Marsili (Orietta)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the effect of innovation on the risk of exit of a firm, distinguishing between different modes of exits. Innovation represents a resource and a capability that helps a firm to build competitive advantage and remain in the market. At the same time, the resources and

  6. Exit and Voice: Organizational Loyalty and Dispute Resolution Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    This study compares workplace dispute resolution strategies (exit, voice and toleration) in matched pairs of conventional and worker-owned cooperative organizations operating in three industries--coal mining, taxicab driving and organic food distribution. Building on Hirschman's classic exit, voice and loyalty thesis, this research demonstrates…

  7. Inhibition of the mitotic exit network in response to damaged telomeres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Valerio-Santiago

    Full Text Available When chromosomal DNA is damaged, progression through the cell cycle is halted to provide the cells with time to repair the genetic material before it is distributed between the mother and daughter cells. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this cell cycle arrest occurs at the G2/M transition. However, it is also necessary to restrain exit from mitosis by maintaining Bfa1-Bub2, the inhibitor of the Mitotic Exit Network (MEN, in an active state. While the role of Bfa1 and Bub2 in the inhibition of mitotic exit when the spindle is not properly aligned and the spindle position checkpoint is activated has been extensively studied, the mechanism by which these proteins prevent MEN function after DNA damage is still unclear. Here, we propose that the inhibition of the MEN is specifically required when telomeres are damaged but it is not necessary to face all types of chromosomal DNA damage, which is in agreement with previous data in mammals suggesting the existence of a putative telomere-specific DNA damage response that inhibits mitotic exit. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the mechanism of MEN inhibition when telomeres are damaged relies on the Rad53-dependent inhibition of Bfa1 phosphorylation by the Polo-like kinase Cdc5, establishing a new key role of this kinase in regulating cell cycle progression.

  8. Core exit thermocouple upgrade at Zion station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulinski, T.M.; Ferg, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Following the Three Mile Island accident, the ability of the core exit thermocouple (CET) system to monitor reactor core conditions and core cooling status became a requirement of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Since the thermocouple system at Zion station was not originally required for postaccident monitoring, Commonwealth Edison Company (CECo) committed to upgrading the CET system and to installing a subcooling margin monitoring (SMM) system. The significance of this commitment was that CECo proposed to accomplish the upgrade effort using internal resources and by developing the required in-house expertise instead of procuring integrated packages from several nuclear steam supply system vendors. The result was that CECo was able to demonstrate a number of new capabilities and unique design features with a significant cost savings. These included a qualified connector with an integral thermocouple cold-reference junction temperature compensation; the design, assembly, testing, and installation of a seismically qualified class 1E microprocessor; a commercial-grade dedication/upgrade process for safety-related hardware; a human factors review capability, and a verification and validation program for safety-related software. A discussion of these new capabilities and details of the design features is presented in this paper

  9. Exit examinations, peer academic climate, and adolescents' developmental outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Aprile D

    2013-02-01

    Implications of high school exit examination performance were examined with a sample of 672 racial/ethnic minority students. Exit examination failure in the 10th grade was negatively linked to subsequent grade point average, school engagement, and school belonging one year later, controlling for outcomes prior to taking the examination. Academically incongruent students-those who failed the exit examination but were in schools where their same-race/ethnicity peers were performing well academically-seemed to be at particular risk for struggling grades and poorer socioemotional well-being (e.g., experiencing greater depressive symptoms and loneliness). Findings contribute to the limited research base on exit examinations and highlight the links between exit examination performance and developmental outcomes beyond the oft-studied academic domain. Copyright © 2012 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exiting and Returning to the Parental Home for Boomerang Kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg-Thoma, Sara E; Snyder, Anastasia R; Jang, Bohyun Joy

    2015-06-01

    Young adults commonly exit from and return to the parental home, yet few studies have examined the motivation behind these exits and returns using a life course framework. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, the authors examined associations between mental health problems and economic characteristics and exits from (n = 8,162), and returns to (n = 6,530), the parental home during the transition to adulthood. The average age of the respondents was 24 years. The authors found evidence that mental health and economic characteristics were related to home leaving and returning. Emotional distress was associated with earlier exits from, and returns to, the parental home; alcohol problems were associated with earlier returns to the parental home. The findings regarding economic resources were unexpectedly mixed. Greater economic resources were linked to delayed exits from, and earlier returns to, the parental home. The implications of these findings for young adults are discussed.

  11. Is the publication of exit poll results morally permissible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderholm, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    This article is about exit polls. It addresses the question of whether or not it is morally permissible to publish exit poll results. The conclusion of the article is that an affirmative answer should be given to this question. In section 2, the master argument in favor of the moral permissibility...... of the publication of exit poll results is introduced. This is a strong argument. It is, however, argued that it might be the case that the conclusion of this argument should be rejected if there are other, and weightier, arguments against the idea that the publication of exit poll results is morally permissible....... In section 3, the strongest arguments against the moral permissibility of the publication of exit poll results are outlined and discussed. The conclusion of this section is that all these arguments fail in their intended purpose. The conclusion of the article is therefore justified....

  12. Entry and Exit Dynamics of Nascent Business Owners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Carneiro, Anabela; Varum, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    results suggest that different exit modes can be predicted by business owners’ entry route. Furthermore, different exit modes exhibit different duration dependence patterns according to the entry mode. Additionally, the paper shows that businesses started after a displacement episode are not necessarily......This paper reports a comprehensive study on the dynamics of nascent business owners using a unique longitudinal matched employer–employee dataset. We follow over 157,000 individuals who leave paid employment and become business owners during the period 1992–2007. The contributions of this paper...... are twofold. First, we analyze both entry and exit, identifying and characterizing different profiles of individuals leaving paid employment to become business owners, and distinguishing exits by dissolution from exits by ownership transfer. Second, we provide new evidence on how particular experiences...

  13. 29 CFR 1910.36 - Design and construction requirements for exit routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... construction requirements for exit routes. (a) Basic requirements. Exit routes must meet the following design... your workplace, consult NFPA 101-2000, Life Safety Code. (c) Exit discharge. (1) Each exit discharge... route must be adequate. (1) Exit routes must support the maximum permitted occupant load for each floor...

  14. The determinants of firm exit in the French food industries

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchard, Pierre; Mathieu, Claude

    2012-01-01

    A semi-parametric approach is used to estimate firm propensity to exit. The unobserved individual productivity of a firm is first estimated using the Ackerberg et al. (2006) approach and then introduced as a determinant of firm exit in conjunction with other variables that may serve as barriers to exit, including the firm’s level of sunk costs and the industry concentration. Using an unbalanced panel of data for 5,849 firms in French food industries from 1996 to 2002, we find a signifi...

  15. IPO as an Exit startegy in Management Buyouts

    OpenAIRE

    Sheth, Vidhi Chetan

    2008-01-01

    The basic subject to this research project is,IPO as an exit strategy in management buyouts. The paper provides with an understanding of the various characteristics and factors that have an impact on a buyout exit through an IPO. Discussions on the issues like the IPO versus other exit strategies, performance of a company's pre-IPO as well as post-IPO, the trends in the buyout and the IPO market, etc are done. For a better understanding and an in-depth knowledge about the topic, we have analy...

  16. Timely Endocytosis of Cytokinetic Enzymes Prevents Premature Spindle Breakage during Mitotic Exit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheen Fei Chin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cytokinesis requires the spatio-temporal coordination of membrane deposition and primary septum (PS formation at the division site to drive acto-myosin ring (AMR constriction. It has been demonstrated that AMR constriction invariably occurs only after the mitotic spindle disassembly. It has also been established that Chitin Synthase II (Chs2p neck localization precedes mitotic spindle disassembly during mitotic exit. As AMR constriction depends upon PS formation, the question arises as to how chitin deposition is regulated so as to prevent premature AMR constriction and mitotic spindle breakage. In this study, we propose that cells regulate the coordination between spindle disassembly and AMR constriction via timely endocytosis of cytokinetic enzymes, Chs2p, Chs3p, and Fks1p. Inhibition of endocytosis leads to over accumulation of cytokinetic enzymes during mitotic exit, which accelerates the constriction of the AMR, and causes spindle breakage that eventually could contribute to monopolar spindle formation in the subsequent round of cell division. Intriguingly, the mitotic spindle breakage observed in endocytosis mutants can be rescued either by deleting or inhibiting the activities of, CHS2, CHS3 and FKS1, which are involved in septum formation. The findings from our study highlight the importance of timely endocytosis of cytokinetic enzymes at the division site in safeguarding mitotic spindle integrity during mitotic exit.

  17. A study on surveillance equipment at the exit/entry control point of nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C. S.; Kim, D. Y.; Cha, H. L.; Kim, H. D.; Hong, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    Exit/Entry control is an essential measure at both entrances of the protected area and vital area of nuclear facility at which physical protection is required under the relevant laws and regulations. Especially, when there are heavy traffics of personnel and process equipment in those areas, automated surveillance devices have to be introduced to timely and efficiently screen out internal and external adversaries from achieving their goals of stealing of nuclear material and/or sabotage of the facility. The major portion of this study involves with integration and processing of signals from radiation detector, metal detector, and image monitor. This integrated device together with positive personal identification device which will be reinforced in near future would contribute to the establishment of total exit/entry control point of nuclear facility

  18. Shored gunshot wound of exit. A phenomenon with identity crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, J C

    1983-09-01

    Shored gunshot wound of exit is produced when the outstretched skin is impaled, sandwiched, and crushed between the outgoing bullet and the unyielding object over the exit site, thus leaving an abrasion collar on the wound margin. Proper coaptation of the wound margin is impossible because of the loss of skin just like those observed in entrance wounds. In contrast to the entrance wound, the supported exit wound shows a scalloped or punched-out abrasion collar and sharply contoured skin in between the radiating skin lacerations marginating the abrasion (Fig. 1). Should gunpowder be observed around the exit site, it is often unevenly distributed, and is not associated with searing, gunpowder stippled abrasion, tatooing, and deposition of soot.

  19. Exit, voice and loyalty in Kenya's French bean industry: What ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    response affected their continued participation in the supermarket business. It applies Hirschman's concept of exit, voice and loyalty to assess the strategies used by ... This strategy of compliance with IFSS has since become the model in

  20. Exit, punishment and rewards in commons dilemmas: an experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giangiacomo Bravo

    Full Text Available Commons dilemmas are interaction situations where a common good is provided or exploited by a group of individuals so that optimal collective outcomes clash with private interests. Although in these situations, social norms and institutions exist that might help individuals to cooperate, little is known about the interaction effects between positive and negative incentives and exit options by individuals. We performed a modified public good game experiment to examine the effect of exit, rewards and punishment, as well as the interplay between exit and rewards and punishment. We found that punishment had a stronger effect than rewards on cooperation if considered by itself, whereas rewards had a stronger effect when combined with voluntary participation. This can be explained in terms of the 'framing effect', i.e., as the combination of exit and rewards might induce people to attach higher expected payoffs to cooperative strategies and expect better behaviour from others.

  1. A Diversity Exit Interview/Survey for the Military

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knouse, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    The exit interview and survey are means for identifying organizational problems, including diversity issues, through individuals separating from the organization, who are in a unique position to supply candid feedback...

  2. International Competition and Small-Firm Exit in US Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Robert M Feinberg

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes both the determinants of small firm exit rates in US manufacturing over the 1989–2004 period, especially the reaction of domestic firms to the nature of foreign competition as measured by industry-specific real exchange rate movements (interacted with import penetration by industry). These international pressures seem to lead to increased rates of smallest-firm exit in manufacturing, though the magnitudes of these effects are smaller than sometimes discussed. However, high...

  3. Comparison of exit time moment spectra for extrinsic metric balls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurtado, Ana; Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    We prove explicit upper and lower bounds for the $L^1$-moment spectra for the Brownian motion exit time from extrinsic metric balls of submanifolds $P^m$ in ambient Riemannian spaces $N^n$. We assume that $P$ and $N$ both have controlled radial curvatures (mean curvature and sectional curvature...... obtain new intrinsic comparison results for the exit time spectra for metric balls in the ambient manifolds $N^n$ themselves....

  4. Tunneling time, exit time and exit momentum in strong field tunnel ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teeny, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Tunnel ionization belongs to the fundamental processes of atomic physics. It is still an open question when does the electron tunnel ionize and how long is the duration of tunneling. In this work we solve the time-dependent Schroedinger equation in one and two dimensions and use ab initio quantum calculations in order to answer these questions. Additionally, we determine the exit momentum of the tunnel ionized electron from first principles. We find out results that are different from the assumptions of the commonly employed two-step model, which assumes that the electron ionizes at the instant of electric field maximum with a zero momentum. After determining the quantum final momentum distribution of tunnel ionized electrons we show that the two-step model fails to predict the correct final momentum. Accordingly we suggest how to correct the two-step model. Furthermore, we determine the instant at which tunnel ionization starts, which turns out to be different from the instant usually assumed. From determining the instant at which it is most probable for the electron to enter the tunneling barrier and the instant at which it exits we determine the most probable time spent under the barrier. Moreover, we apply a quantum clock approach in order to determine the duration of tunnel ionization. From the quantum clock we determine an average tunneling time which is different in magnitude and origin with respect to the most probable tunneling time. By defining a probability distribution of tunneling times using virtual detectors we relate both methods and explain the apparent discrepancy. The results found have in general an effect on the interpretation of experiments that measure the spectra of tunnel ionized electrons, and specifically on the calibration of the so called attoclock experiments, because models with imprecise assumptions are usually employed in order to interpret experimental results.

  5. Tunneling time, exit time and exit momentum in strong field tunnel ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teeny, Nicolas

    2016-10-18

    Tunnel ionization belongs to the fundamental processes of atomic physics. It is still an open question when does the electron tunnel ionize and how long is the duration of tunneling. In this work we solve the time-dependent Schroedinger equation in one and two dimensions and use ab initio quantum calculations in order to answer these questions. Additionally, we determine the exit momentum of the tunnel ionized electron from first principles. We find out results that are different from the assumptions of the commonly employed two-step model, which assumes that the electron ionizes at the instant of electric field maximum with a zero momentum. After determining the quantum final momentum distribution of tunnel ionized electrons we show that the two-step model fails to predict the correct final momentum. Accordingly we suggest how to correct the two-step model. Furthermore, we determine the instant at which tunnel ionization starts, which turns out to be different from the instant usually assumed. From determining the instant at which it is most probable for the electron to enter the tunneling barrier and the instant at which it exits we determine the most probable time spent under the barrier. Moreover, we apply a quantum clock approach in order to determine the duration of tunnel ionization. From the quantum clock we determine an average tunneling time which is different in magnitude and origin with respect to the most probable tunneling time. By defining a probability distribution of tunneling times using virtual detectors we relate both methods and explain the apparent discrepancy. The results found have in general an effect on the interpretation of experiments that measure the spectra of tunnel ionized electrons, and specifically on the calibration of the so called attoclock experiments, because models with imprecise assumptions are usually employed in order to interpret experimental results.

  6. Exit interviews to reduce turnover amongst healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Joan; Flint, Anndrea

    2014-08-19

    Exit interviews are widely used in healthcare organisations to identify reasons for staff attrition, yet their usefulness in limiting turnover is unclear. To determine the effectiveness of various exit interview strategies in decreasing turnover rates amongst healthcare professionals. We searched the Cochrane EPOC Group Specialised Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Issue 11, 2012; MEDLINE, Ovid (1950- ); EMBASE, Ovid (1947- ); CINAHL, EbscoHost (1980- ), and PsycINFO, OVID (1806-) between October 31 and November 6, 2012. We also screened the reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews; and searched trial registries for planned and on-going studies. We did not restrict searches by language or publication date. Randomised controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted time series studies comparing turnover rates between healthcare professionals who had undergone one form of exit interview with another form of exit interview or with no interview. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. The original search identified 1560 citations, of which we considered 19 potentially relevant. The two authors independently reviewed the abstracts of these studies and retrieved the full texts of eight studies. We excluded all eight following independent assessment; they were either interviews, commentaries on how to do an exit interview or descriptive studies about reasons for leaving. We found no studies that matched our inclusion criteria. For this first update, we screened 2220 citations and identified no new studies. Evidence about the effectiveness of exit interviews to reduce turnover is currently not available. However, exit interviews may provide useful information about the work environment which, in turn, may be useful in the development of interventions to reduce turnover.

  7. How to make a graceful exit from the merchant function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holder, J.

    1998-01-01

    The impact that deregulation and convergence has had on local distribution companies (LDCs) was discussed. LDCs are getting out of a whole range of business activities, or are turning some of them into new entities while transferring others to affiliates. At the other end of the spectrum, Consumers Gas, Canada's largest LDC, has moved from a gas distribution and an oil pipeline company to becoming a total energy provider. The changes at Consumers Gas began with the Halloween agreement which was based on the following four basic principles: (1) better access for Canadian buyers to gas supply, (2) better access for Canadian producers to gas markets, (3) protection for Canadian consumers for reasonable, foreseeable gas requirements, and (4) a commitment to create a competitive natural gas market in Canada. At the same time, several small niche market players have entered the retail market to compete with large producers such as Sunoco and Shell. Ontario also saw the arrival of large marketers such as Enron, and the development of an active direct purchase market. Today, 65 per cent of the volume of natural gas transport is on behalf of direct purchase customers. The next phase of deregulation was also looked at, focusing primarily on the growing problems with the current regulated local distribution companies' gas supply options and the resulting price volatility and uncertainty due to an increase of direct purchase activity. Various possible ways to resolve this problem are explored, including exiting the merchant function, i.e. to change from an obligation to supply gas to an obligation to deliver gas, all the while ensuring that the consumer is protected. Other problems, such as convergence, unbundling and rebundling will also have to be dealt with in the next phase of deregulation

  8. Collective behavior of mice passing through an exit under panic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Teng; Zhang, Xuelin; Huang, Shenshi; Li, Changhai; Lu, Shouxiang

    2018-04-01

    Collective movement of animal in emergency condition has attracted growing attentions among researchers. However, many rules still need to be confirmed with adequate explanation. Study of collective behavior of mice can improve our understanding about the dynamics of pedestrian movement. However, its rules still need to be confirmed with adequate explanation. In this paper, collective behavior of mice passing through an exit under panic was investigated. The results showed that the total evacuation time decreased with exit width increasing in a certain range. Based on the different tendency of the curve in temporal evolution, the process of mice flow was divided into three stages. The density of mice near the exit peaks at a certain horizontal offset and starts to decrease over time. With the increase of the exit width, the duration of the higher density state decreased. We found that the frequency of time intervals obeyed a lognormal distribution or an exponential decay for different exit widths. In addition, the relationship between the group size and the group flow rate in different scenarios was analyzed. The phenomena found in our experiments show the collective behavioral characteristic of mice under panic. Our analysis in this paper will deepen our understanding of crowd dynamics in emergency condition.

  9. Does Business Cycle Have an Impact on Entrants and Exits?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Sterev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The role of entrants and exits has enlarged indisputably over recent years. The basic explanation is connected to the deepening of innovation's influence on industrial growth. Furthermore, new businesses have to be more effective, and based on products, technological or organizational innovations, and exits have to be ineffective (respectively unprofitable, based on denoted products or technology. Design/methodology/approach: According to the above-mentioned prerequisites, policymakers need to manage the role (respectively the impact that entrants (new start-up companies and exits play in industrial growth. Nevertheless, this impact is not a cornerstone of the Bulgarian National Strategy, or the Europe 2020 Strategy. Findings: The paper tries to answer the following two questions: 1 Do new start-up companies and exits have any role and influence on economic growth in Bulgaria? and 2 Does the role (respectively the impact of entrants and exits in industrial growth change according to economic cycle? Research limitations/implications: In addition, according to the Lisbon Strategy, as well as the European Union's (EU Strategy 2020, the current economic policy supports entrepreneurship and innovations. Thus, the establishment of innovative companies, as well as the development of innovative, incumbent business are core issues of EU economic policy for the past decade. Originality/value: The paper builds on the industrial dynamic methodology and on the understanding of how business decisions (entrepreneurship, innovations, and R&D on micro level correspond to macro level (GDP growth and innovation policy.

  10. Exploring the Relationship of Exit Flow and Jam Density in Panic Scenarios Using Animal Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobhani, A.; Sarvi, M.; Duives, D.C.; Ejtemai, O.; Aghabayk, K.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2014-01-01

    There are few studies investigating crowd dynamics in panic situations. They used measures such as exit flow rate to explore the exit performance in evacuation scenarios. However, there is limited research exploring the relationship of exit flow rate and density behind the exit for panic scenarios.

  11. Comparison of sources of exit fluence variation for IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, Joseph K; Gordon, J James; Wang Song; Siebers, Jeffrey V; Clews, Luke; Greer, Peter B

    2009-01-01

    The fluence exiting a patient during beam delivery can be used as treatment delivery quality assurance, either by direct comparison with expected exit fluences or by backprojection to reconstruct the patient dose. Multiple possible sources of measured exit fluence deviations exist, including changes in the beam delivery and changes in the patient anatomy. The purpose of this work is to compare the deviations caused by these sources. Machine delivery-related variability is measured by acquiring multiple dosimetric portal images (DPIs) of several test fields without a patient/phantom in the field over a time period of 2 months. Patient anatomy-related sources of fluence variability are simulated by computing transmission DPIs for a prostate patient using the same incident fluence for 11 different computed tomography (CT) images of the patient anatomy. The standard deviation (SD) and maximum deviation of the exit fluence, averaged over 5 mm x 5 mm square areas, is calculated for each test set. Machine delivery fluence SDs as large as 1% are observed for a sample patient field and as large as 2.5% for a picket-fence dMLC test field. Simulations indicate that day-to-day patient anatomy variations induce exit fluence SDs as large as 3.5%. The largest observed machine delivery deviations are 4% for the sample patient field and 7% for the picket-fence field, while the largest difference for the patient anatomy-related source is 8.5%. Since daily changes in patient anatomy can result in substantial exit fluence deviations, care should be taken when applying fluence back-projection to ensure that such deviations are properly attributed to their source. (note)

  12. Criticality safety analysis of a calciner exit chute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haught, C.F.; Basoglu, B.; Brewer, R.W.; Hollenback, D.F.; Wilkinson, A.D.; Dodds, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    Calcination of uranyl nitrate into uranium oxide is part of normal operations of some enrichment plants. Typically, a calciner discharges uranium oxide powder (U 3 O 8 ) into an exit chute that directs the powder into a receiving can located in a glove box. One possible scenario for a criticality accident is the exit chute becoming blocked with powder near its discharge. The blockage restricts the flow of powder causing the exit chute to become filled with the powder. If blockage does occur, the height of the powder could reach a level that would not be safe from a criticality point of view. In this analysis, the subcritical height limit is examined for 98% enriched U 3 O 8 in the exit chute with full water reflection and optimal water moderation. The height limit for ensuring criticality safety during such an accumulation is 28.2 cm above the top of the discharge pipe at the bottom of the chute. Chute design variations are also evaluated with full water reflection and optimal water moderation. Subcritical configurations for the exit chute variation are developed, but the configurations are not safe when combined with the calciner. To ensure criticality safety, modifications must be made to the calciner tube or safety measures must be implemented if these designs are to be utilized with 98% enriched material. A geometrically safe configuration for the exit chute is developed for a blockage of 20% enriched powder with full water reflection and optimal water moderation, and this configuration is safe when combined with the existing calciner

  13. STIMULATION METHODS IMPROVEMENT OF EXIT ROUTE ON RAILWAY TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Verlan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the article is to assess the costs, which are redistributed in the system «shipper−railroad−consignee» during routing of rail transportation and the development of tariff simulation methods of shippers to the exit routes formation. Methodology. Using economic and mathematical analysis the distribution of costs among the various participants of transportation process during the exit routes formation is investigated in the article. Findings. For implementation of the tariff simulation methods of exit routes and retention of the existing tariff structure it is proposed to provide in the «Tariff catalogue for freight transportation by railway transport of Ukraine» the discount, differentiated from haulage distance. A new method for determining the fees amount for cars supply and removal on approach tracks by train locomotives was also offered. Originality. As a result of the research a new method for determination of the exit rout efficiency that, unlike the existing one, takes into account the various interests of the individual participants in the transportation process was proposed. The dependence of the correction factors to the tariff for freight transportation in their own cars by direct exit routes from distance haulage was obtained. Implementation of these coefficients provides an approximation of railway tariffs to the traffic handling costs. A method for determination the rate of fees for cars supply and removal on approach tracks by train locomotives was offered. Practical value. InUkraine creation of the tariff discounts system for freight transportation by exit routes consistent with international practice and allows bringing the tariff to the real traffic handling cost. This change on the one hand will provide stimulation for private capital investments in infrastructure development and shunting means of approach tracks, on the other – it will fix the shippers to the railroads and stop their outflow

  14. Effects of injection nozzle exit width on rotating detonation engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Zhou, Jin; Liu, Shijie; Lin, Zhiyong; Cai, Jianhua

    2017-11-01

    A series of numerical simulations of RDE modeling real injection nozzles with different exit widths are performed in this paper. The effects of nozzle exit width on chamber inlet state, plenum flowfield and detonation propagation are analyzed. The results are compared with that using an ideal injection model. Although the ideal injection model is a good approximation method to model RDE inlet, the two-dimensional effects of real nozzles are ignored in the ideal injection model so that some complicated phenomena such as the reflected waves caused by the nozzle walls and the reversed flow into the nozzles can not be modeled accurately. Additionally, the ideal injection model overpredicts the block ratio. In all the cases that stabilize at one-wave mode, the block ratio increases as the nozzle exit width gets smaller. The dual-wave mode case also has a relatively high block ratio. A pressure oscillation in the plenum with the same main frequency with the rotating detonation wave is observed. A parameter σ is applied to describe the non-uniformity in the plenum. σ increases as the nozzle exit width gets larger. Under some condition, the heat release on the interface of fresh premixed gas layer and detonation products can be strong enough to induce a new detonation wave. A spontaneous mode-transition process is observed for the smallest exit width case. Due to the detonation products existing in the premixed gas layer before the detonation wave, the detonation wave will propagate through reactants and products alternately, and therefore its strength will vary with time, especially near the chamber inlet. This tendency gets weaker as the injection nozzle exit width increases.

  15. EXIT Chart Analysis of Binary Message-Passing Decoders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lechner, Gottfried; Pedersen, Troels; Kramer, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Binary message-passing decoders for LDPC codes are analyzed using EXIT charts. For the analysis, the variable node decoder performs all computations in the L-value domain. For the special case of a hard decision channel, this leads to the well know Gallager B algorithm, while the analysis can...... be extended to channels with larger output alphabets. By increasing the output alphabet from hard decisions to four symbols, a gain of more than 1.0 dB is achieved using optimized codes. For this code optimization, the mixing property of EXIT functions has to be modified to the case of binary message......-passing decoders....

  16. Entrance, exit, and reentrance of one shot with a shotgun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulmann, C; Hougen, H P

    1999-01-01

    The case being reported is one of a homicidal shotgun fatality with an unusual wound pattern. A 34-year-old man was shot at close range with a 12-gauge shotgun armed with No. 5 birdshot ammunition. The shot entered the left axillary region, exited through the left infraclavicular region, and ther......The case being reported is one of a homicidal shotgun fatality with an unusual wound pattern. A 34-year-old man was shot at close range with a 12-gauge shotgun armed with No. 5 birdshot ammunition. The shot entered the left axillary region, exited through the left infraclavicular region...

  17. Exits from Temporary Jobs in Europe: A Competing Risks Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Addio, Anna Christina; Rosholm, Michael

    2005-01-01

    We study transitions out of temporary jobs using the waves 1994-1999 of the European Community Household Panel applying a discrete time duration model. Specifically, we use a multinomial logitmodel distinguishing between exits into permanent employment and non-employment. Two different specificat......We study transitions out of temporary jobs using the waves 1994-1999 of the European Community Household Panel applying a discrete time duration model. Specifically, we use a multinomial logitmodel distinguishing between exits into permanent employment and non-employment. Two different...

  18. SEC16 in COPII coat dynamics at ER exit sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprangers, Joep; Rabouille, Catherine

    Protein export from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the first step in protein transport through the secretory pathway, is mediated by coatomer protein II (COPII)-coated vesicles at ER exit sites. COPII coat assembly on the ER is well understood and the conserved large hydrophilic protein Sec16

  19. Estimation of exit temperatures in the isentropic compression of real ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the estimation of exit temperatures in the isentropic compression of real gases based on the Peng-Robinson equation of state and entropy balance method. The methods were applied to Ar, N2, CH4, CO2, C2H4 and C2H6. Data obtained revealed that isentropic exponent method provides useful results ...

  20. 49 CFR 238.113 - Emergency window exits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., electrical locker, or kitchen); and (B) There are no more than eight seats in the seating area. (4) Cars with...), a bathroom, kitchen, or locomotive cab is not considered a “compartment.” (b) Ease of operability. On or after November 8, 1999, each emergency window exit shall be designed to permit rapid and easy...

  1. After exit: Academic achievement patterns of former English language learners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester J. de Jong

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available With few exceptions, accountability systems for programs for English language learners (ELLs have focused on the achievement patterns of ELLs who are still considered “limited English proficient” and program evaluations have been unable to answer the question whether ELLs actually catch up with English proficient peers after attending a bilingual or English as a Second Language (ESL program. Disaggregating data for former ELLs can therefore provide important information for long-term district and program accountability. The study was concerned with the achievement patterns in English language arts, Math, and Science of former ELLs who attended a bilingual and a English as a Second Language (ESL program. It also explored whether length of program participation and grade level exited played a significant role in predicting academic achievement patterns for these exited students. Results indicate that 4th grade students more closely paralleled non- ELL students’ achievement patterns than 8th grade students, particularly for the BE students. While length of program participation is not a significant predictor of former ELLs’ academic success, exit grade does emerge as an important variable to take into consideration in setting exit guidelines.

  2. 14 CFR 23.805 - Flightcrew emergency exits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... emergency exit must be located to allow rapid evacuation of the crew and have a size and shape of at least a... than six feet from the ground, an assisting means must be provided. The assisting means may be a rope...

  3. Stor forskel på kommuners bande-exit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche

    2015-01-01

    DEBAT: Kommunerne har meget forskellige exit-tilbud til bande- og rockermedlemmer. Der er brug for mere indgående forskning, så vi ved, hvad der virker bedst, skriver Line Lerche Mørck, lektor i pædagogisk psykologi....

  4. Some Features of Aerodynamics of Cyclonic Chamber with Free Exit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Orekhov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper cites results of an experimental research in aerodynamics of a cyclonic chamber with a free exit that has a large relative length. Distributions of aerodynamic stream characteristics depending on geometry of working volume of the cyclonic chamber are given in the paper. Calculative dependences are proposed in the paper.

  5. 45 CFR 670.34 - Entry and exit ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Import Into and Export From the United States § 670.34 Entry and exit ports. (a) Any native mammal, native bird, or native plants taken within Antarctica that are imported into or... Orleans, Louisiana. (7) New York, New York. (8) Seattle, Washington. (9) Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas. (10...

  6. Forthcoming EU Rules on Exit Taxes for Companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Streek, J.

    2015-01-01

    Rules on exit taxation for the EU as a whole are under construction at European Council level. Formally, the work on this piece of EU tax legislation is part of the controversial Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base (CCCTB). But it is also thinkable that even without a CCCTB being established in

  7. Embracing the Exit: Assessment, Trust, and the Teaching of Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Historically, the Composition Program at Eastern Washington University (EWU), a comprehensive university in Cheney, WA, required a single essay sample from each composition student as the final exit exam; in practice, a student passed or failed the course based on an in-class argumentative essay, written in three consecutive class periods. Such a…

  8. Congenital Cervical Teratoma: Anaesthetic Management (The EXIT Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferruh Bilgin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT is a procedure performed during caesarean section with preservation of fetal-placental circulation, which allows the safe handling of fetal airways with risk of airways obstruction. This report aimed at describing a case of anaesthesia for EXIT in a fetus with cervical teratoma. A 30-year-old woman, 70 kg, 160 cm, gravida 2, para 1, was followed because of polyhydramniosis diagnosed at 24 weeks′ gestation. During a routine ultrasonographic examination at 35 weeks′ gestation, it was noticed that the fetus had a tumoral mass on the anterior neck, the mass had cystic and calcified components and with a size of was 10 x 6 x5 cm. The patient with physical status ASA I, was submitted to caesarean section under general anaesthesia with mechanically controlled ventilation for exutero intrapartum treatment (EXIT. Anaesthesia was induced in rapid sequence with fentanyl, propofol and rocuronium and was maintained with isoflurane in 2.5 at 3 % in O 2 and N 2 O (50%. After hysterotomy, fetus was partially released assuring uterus-placental circulation, followed by fetal laryngoscopy and tracheal intuba-tion. The infant was intubated with an uncuffed, size 2.5 endotracheal tube. Excision of the mass was performed under general anaesthesia. After surgical intervention, on the fourth postoperative day, the infant was extubated and the newborn was discharged to the pediatric neonatal unit and on the seventh day postoperatively to home without complications. Major recommendations for EXIT are maternal-fetal safety, uterine relaxation to maintain uterine volume and uterus-placental circulation, and fetal immobility to help airway handling. We report one case of cervical teratoma managed successfully with EXIT procedure.

  9. S-phase Synchronization Facilitates the Early Progression of Induced-Cardiomyocyte Reprogramming through Enhanced Cell-Cycle Exit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektik, Emre; Dennis, Adrienne; Pawlowski, Gary; Zhou, Chen; Maleski, Danielle; Takahashi, Satoru; Laurita, Kenneth R; Deschênes, Isabelle; Fu, Ji-Dong

    2018-05-04

    Direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into induced cardiomyocytes (iCMs) holds a great promise for regenerative medicine and has been studied in several major directions. However, cell-cycle regulation, a fundamental biological process, has not been investigated during iCM-reprogramming. Here, our time-lapse imaging on iCMs, reprogrammed by Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5 (GMT) monocistronic retroviruses, revealed that iCM-reprogramming was majorly initiated at late-G1- or S-phase and nearly half of GMT-reprogrammed iCMs divided soon after reprogramming. iCMs exited cell cycle along the process of reprogramming with decreased percentage of 5-ethynyl-20-deoxyuridine (EdU)⁺/α-myosin heavy chain (αMHC)-GFP⁺ cells. S-phase synchronization post-GMT-infection could enhance cell-cycle exit of reprogrammed iCMs and yield more GFP high iCMs, which achieved an advanced reprogramming with more expression of cardiac genes than GFP low cells. However, S-phase synchronization did not enhance the reprogramming with a polycistronic-viral vector, in which cell-cycle exit had been accelerated. In conclusion, post-infection synchronization of S-phase facilitated the early progression of GMT-reprogramming through a mechanism of enhanced cell-cycle exit.

  10. Assessment of exit block following pulmonary vein isolation: far-field capture masquerading as entrance without exit block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraman, Pugazhendhi; Dandamudi, Gopi; Naperkowski, Angela; Oren, Jess; Storm, Randle; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A

    2012-10-01

    Complete electrical isolation of pulmonary veins (PVs) remains the cornerstone of ablation therapy for atrial fibrillation. Entrance block without exit block has been reported to occur in 40% of the patients. Far-field capture (FFC) can occur during pacing from the superior PVs to assess exit block, and this may appear as persistent conduction from PV to left atrium (LA). To facilitate accurate assessment of exit block. Twenty consecutive patients with symptomatic atrial fibrillation referred for ablation were included in the study. Once PV isolation (entrance block) was confirmed, pacing from all the bipoles on the Lasso catheter was used to assess exit block by using a pacing stimulus of 10 mA at 2 ms. Evidence for PV capture without conduction to LA was necessary to prove exit block. If conduction to LA was noticed, pacing output was decreased until there was PV capture without conduction to LA or no PV capture was noted to assess for far-field capture in both the upper PVs. All 20 patients underwent successful isolation (entrance block) of all 76 (4 left common PV) veins: mean age 58 ± 9 years; paroxysmal atrial fibrillation 40%; hypertension 70%, diabetes mellitus 30%, coronary artery disease 15%; left ventricular ejection fraction 55% ± 10%; LA size 42 ± 11 mm. Despite entrance block, exit block was absent in only 16% of the PVs, suggesting persistent PV to LA conduction. FFC of LA appendage was noted in 38% of the left superior PVs. FFC of the superior vena cava was noted in 30% of the right superior PVs. The mean pacing threshold for FFC was 7 ± 4 mA. Decreasing pacing output until only PV capture (loss of FFC) is noted was essential to confirm true exit block. FFC of LA appendage or superior vena cava can masquerade as persistent PV to LA conduction. A careful assessment for PV capture at decreasing pacing output is essential to exclude FFC. Copyright © 2012 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dataset from the global phosphoproteomic mapping of early mitotic exit in human cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Rogers

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence or absence of a phosphorylation on a substrate at any particular point in time is a functional readout of the balance in activity between the regulatory kinase and the counteracting phosphatase. Understanding how stable or short-lived a phosphorylation site is required for fully appreciating the biological consequences of the phosphorylation. Our current understanding of kinases and their substrates is well established; however, the role phosphatases play is less understood. Therefore, we utilized a phosphatase dependent model of mitotic exit to identify potential substrates that are preferentially dephosphorylated. Using this method, we identified >16,000 phosphosites on >3300 unique proteins, and quantified the temporal phosphorylation changes that occur during early mitotic exit (McCloy et al., 2015 [1]. Furthermore, we annotated the majority of these phosphorylation sites with a high confidence upstream kinase using published, motif and prediction based methods. The results from this study have been deposited into the ProteomeXchange repository with identifier PXD001559. Here we provide additional analysis of this dataset; for each of the major mitotic kinases we identified motifs that correlated strongly with phosphorylation status. These motifs could be used to predict the stability of phosphorylated residues in proteins of interest, and help infer potential functional roles for uncharacterized phosphorylations. In addition, we provide validation at the single cell level that serine residues phosphorylated by Cdk are stable during phosphatase dependent mitotic exit. In summary, this unique dataset contains information on the temporal mitotic stability of thousands of phosphorylation sites regulated by dozens of kinases, and information on the potential preference that phosphatases have at both the protein and individual phosphosite level. The compellation of this data provides an invaluable resource for the wider research

  12. Customer Protest: Exit, Voice or Negative Word of Mouth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solvang, B. K.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the three forms of protest the propensity of word of mouth (WOM seems to be the most common, and the most exclusive form of protest seems to be exit. The propensity for voice lies in between. The costs linked to voice influence the propensity for WOM. The customers seem to do an evaluation between the three forms of protest, yet the rational picture of the customers should be moderated.Leaders should improve their treatment of the customers making complaints. The more they can treat customer complaints in an orderly and nice way the less informal negative word of mouth activity they will experience and they will reduce the exit propensity and lead the customers to the complain organisation. They should also ensure that their customers feel they get equal treatment by the staff.

  13. Nuclear energy - no thanks. The long way to the exit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternstein, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The anti-nuclear movement is one of the most successful social movements of the recent history of Germany and firmly anchored in huge parts of the population. After a struggle lasting more than forty years it has nearly reached its aims: The exit from nuclear energy and a rethinking in direction of alternative energy concepts. Decisive for the nuclear exit of the Federal government were thereby less the nuclear accidents of Harrisburg (1979), Chernobyl (1986), and Fukushima (2011) but rather the decades-long, stubborn commitment of numerous citizens as well as of citizen's initiatives. ''Nuclear energy - no thanks.'' is the analysis of the citizen's movement from Wyhl until Gorleben. The nonviolent activist and peace researcher Sternstein was there from the beginning and reports about anger and indignation that has been condensed to the social movement with political objectives. Extremely helpful are thereby the methods and strategies of nonviolent actions described by him.

  14. The exit-time problem for a Markov jump process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, N.; D'Elia, M.; Lehoucq, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to consider the exit-time problem for a finite-range Markov jump process, i.e, the distance the particle can jump is bounded independent of its location. Such jump diffusions are expedient models for anomalous transport exhibiting super-diffusion or nonstandard normal diffusion. We refer to the associated deterministic equation as a volume-constrained nonlocal diffusion equation. The volume constraint is the nonlocal analogue of a boundary condition necessary to demonstrate that the nonlocal diffusion equation is well-posed and is consistent with the jump process. A critical aspect of the analysis is a variational formulation and a recently developed nonlocal vector calculus. This calculus allows us to pose nonlocal backward and forward Kolmogorov equations, the former equation granting the various moments of the exit-time distribution.

  15. Explicit solutions for exit-only radioactive decay chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Ding; Kernan, Warnick

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we extended Bateman's [Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 15, 423 (1910)] original work for solving radioactive decay chains and explicitly derived analytic solutions for generic exit-only radioactive decay problems under given initial conditions. Instead of using the conventional Laplace transform for solving Bateman's equations, we used a much simpler algebraic approach. Finally, we discuss methods of breaking down certain classes of large decay chains into collections of simpler chains for easy handling

  16. Exit Options in Corporate Finance: Liquidity versus Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Aghion, Philippe; Bolton, P.; Tirole, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a first study of the optimal design of active monitors' exit options in a problem involving a demand for liquidity and costly monitoring of the issuer. Optimal incentives to monitor the issuer may involve restricting the monitor's right to sell her claims on the firm's cash-flow early. But the monitor will then require a liquidity premium for holding such an illiquid claim. In general, therefore, there will be a trade off between incentives and liquidity. The paper highlig...

  17. First exit times of harmonically trapped particles: a didactic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebenkov, Denis S

    2015-01-01

    We revise the classical problem of characterizing first exit times of a harmonically trapped particle whose motion is described by a one- or multidimensional Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process. We start by recalling the main derivation steps of a propagator using Langevin and Fokker–Planck equations. The mean exit time, the moment-generating function and the survival probability are then expressed through confluent hypergeometric functions and thoroughly analyzed. We also present a rapidly converging series representation of confluent hypergeometric functions that is particularly well suited for numerical computation of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the governing Fokker–Planck operator. We discuss several applications of first exit times, such as the detection of time intervals during which motor proteins exert a constant force onto a tracer in optical tweezers single-particle tracking experiments; adhesion bond dissociation under mechanical stress; characterization of active periods of trend-following and mean-reverting strategies in algorithmic trading on stock markets; relation to the distribution of first crossing times of a moving boundary by Brownian motion. Some extensions are described, including diffusion under quadratic double-well potential and anomalous diffusion. (topical review)

  18. Lingering illness or sudden death? Pre-exit employment developments in German establishments

    OpenAIRE

    Fackler, Daniel; Schnabel, Claus; Wagner, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Using a large administrative dataset for Germany, this paper compares employment developments in exiting and surviving establishments. For both West and East Germany we find a clear 'shadow of death' effect reflecting lingering illness: establishments shrink dramatically already several years before closure, employment growth rates differ strongly between exiting and surviving establishments, and this difference becomes stronger as exit approaches. We further show that prior to exit the workf...

  19. 24 CFR 3280.106 - Exit facilities; egress windows and devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exit facilities; egress windows and... § 3280.106 Exit facilities; egress windows and devices. (a) Every room designed expressly for sleeping purposes, unless it has an exit door (see § 3280.105), shall have at least one outside window or approved...

  20. Formal procedures of the exit from a community for a university social media agency

    OpenAIRE

    Peleschyshyn, Andriy; Peleschyshyn, Oksana; Korzh, Roman

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to consider the process of exiting of a university from an online community. The importance of performing the task of exiting in a proper way is proved. Preconditions and risks of the process are investigated. All the stages of the suggested algorithm for exiting from online community are scrutinized.

  1. Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1999-01-01

    The different regulations relative to nuclear energy since the first of January 1999 are given here. Two points deserve to be noticed: the decree of the third august 1999 authorizing the national Agency for the radioactive waste management to install and exploit on the commune of Bures (Meuse) an underground laboratory destined to study the deep geological formations where could be stored the radioactive waste. The second point is about the uranium residues and the waste notion. The judgment of the administrative tribunal of Limoges ( 9. july 1998) forbidding the exploitation of a storage installation of depleted uranium considered as final waste and qualifying it as an industrial waste storage facility has been annulled bu the Court of Appeal. It stipulated that, according to the law number 75663 of the 15. july 1965, no criteria below can be applied to depleted uranium: production residue (possibility of an ulterior enrichment), abandonment of a personal property or simple intention to do it ( future use aimed in the authorization request made in the Prefecture). This judgment has devoted the primacy of the waste notion on this one of final waste. (N.C.)

  2. Accuracy synthesis of T-shaped exit fixed mechanism in a double-crystal monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fengqin; Cao Chongzhen; Wang Jidai; Li Yushan; Gao Xueguan

    2007-01-01

    It is a key performance requirement for a double-crystal monochromator that the exit is fixed, and in order to improve the height accuracy of the exit in T-shaped exit fixed mechanism, the expression between the height of the exit and various original errors was put forward using geometrical analysis method. According to the independent action principle of original errors, accuracy synthesis of T-shaped exit fixed mechanism was studied by using the equal accuracy method, and the tolerance ranges of original errors were obtained. How to calculate the tolerance ranges of original errors was explained by giving an example. (authors)

  3. Measurements of temperature profiles at the exit of small rockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, M; Harshbarger, F C

    1966-02-01

    The sodium line reversal technique was used to determine the reversal temperature profile across the exit of small rockets. Measurements were made on one 73-kg thrust rocket, and two 23-kg thrust rockets with different injectors. The large rocket showed little variation of reversal temperature across the plume. However, the 23-kg rockets both showed a large decrease of reversal temperature from the axis to the edge of the plume. In addition, the sodium line reversal technique of temperature measurement was compared with an infrared technique developed in these laboratories.

  4. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING MONETARY AND FISCAL EXIT STRATEGIES FROM THE CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA VASILESCU

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial crisis and all unusual monetary and fiscal policy reactions have stressed the importance to be given to understand macroeconomic consequences of policy interventions and their interactions. This profound crisis has led to both nonstandard policy actions of various authorities around the globe, but it has also revealed limitations of traditional modeling tools to guide policymakers’ actions until nowadays. The delicate state of governments’ accounts in many countries is a consequence of the strong fiscal policy reactions, giving rise to risks of a potential fiscal crisis. Issues regarding monetary and fiscal policy decisions interactions are, therefore, the key element for successful exit strategies from the crisis.

  5. Do specialists exit the firm outsourcing its R&D?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wenjing

    Do specialists exit the firm increasingly outsourcing its research and development (R&D) work? Although this question is critical in understanding how R&D outsourcing links to innovation performance, the answer is not yet clear. This paper proposes that the optimal level of firm's internal...... employment of R&D specialists decreases with the deepening of R&D outsourcing but increases with the broadening of R&D outsourcing. These relations can be inferred from previous empirical studies as well as our theoretical analysis, and are supported by the empirical evidence from estimations of correlated...

  6. Improved social force model based on exit selection for microscopic pedestrian simulation in subway station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑勋; 李海鹰; 孟令云; 许心越; 陈旭

    2015-01-01

    An improved social force model based on exit selection is proposed to simulate pedestrians’ microscopic behaviors in subway station. The modification lies in considering three factors of spatial distance, occupant density and exit width. In addition, the problem of pedestrians selecting exit frequently is solved as follows: not changing to other exits in the affected area of one exit, using the probability of remaining preceding exit and invoking function of exit selection after several simulation steps. Pedestrians in subway station have some special characteristics, such as explicit destinations, different familiarities with subway station. Finally, Beijing Zoo Subway Station is taken as an example and the feasibility of the model results is verified through the comparison of the actual data and simulation data. The simulation results show that the improved model can depict the microscopic behaviors of pedestrians in subway station.

  7. Analysis and modeling of electronic portal imaging exit dose measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistorius, S.; Yeboah, C.

    1995-01-01

    In spite of the technical advances in treatment planning and delivery in recent years, it is still unclear whether the recommended accuracy in dose delivery is being achieved. Electronic portal imaging devices, now in routine use in many centres, have the potential for quantitative dosimetry. As part of a project which aims to develop an expert-system based On-line Dosimetric Verification (ODV) system we have investigated and modelled the dose deposited in the detector of a video based portal imaging system. Monte Carlo techniques were used to simulate gamma and x-ray beams in homogeneous slab phantom geometries. Exit doses and energy spectra were scored as a function of (i) slab thickness, (ii) field size and (iii) the air gap between the exit surface and the detector. The results confirm that in order to accurately calculate the dose in the high atomic number Gd 2 O 2 S detector for a range of air gaps, field sizes and slab thicknesses both the magnitude of the primary and scattered components and their effective energy need to be considered. An analytic, convolution based model which attempts to do this is proposed. The results of the simulation and the ability of the model to represent these data will be presented and discussed. This model is used to show that, after training, a back-propagation feed-forward cascade correlation neural network has the ability to identify and recognise the cause of, significant dosimetric errors

  8. Diving, Jumping and Drinking: instabilities during water entry and exit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunghwan

    2017-11-01

    All organisms interact with fluids in one way or another, and some have presumably adapted their behaviors or features in response to fluid-mechanical forces. Particularly, fluid forces are of great importance when organisms or their body parts move in and out of water. In this talk, I will discuss three problems in which fluid mechanics principles affect form and function of animals. The first problem is how several seabirds (e.g. Gannets and Boobies) dive into water at up to 24 m/s without any injuries. This study examines the effects of their beak shape and dense feathers during water entry to reduce or spread the impact force on the body. The second problem is how animals jump out of water, from plankton to whales. Some aquatic animals generate enough force to exit the water surface as an effective method of capturing prey or escaping from predators. Finally, I will discuss about lapping animals (e.g. dog and cat) as a combined water entry and exit. During the tongue-lapping, associated fluid forces and pinch-off instability will be discussed.

  9. The Right of Exit in the Context of Multiculturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria D'Ávila Lopes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2177-7055.2015v36n71p155 The terrorist attack on the Twin Towers in the United States provoked heated discussions about the need to limit and control the performance of some cultural minorities, as well as to create mechanisms to protect members of these minorities against the decisions taken by the group. In this context, this paper aims to analyze the possibilities and limits of the right of exit in the context of Multiculturalism. To this end, a literature research was performed in national and foreign doctrine. After analyzing the data, it was found that the right to exit is a valuable mechanism for protecting members of cultural minorities, however, there are situations, especially in cases where the values of the group are internalized by the members, in which this right is insufficient and should be supplemented by other human rights.

  10. Steam exit flow design for aft cavities of an airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, James Michael; Tesh, Stephen William

    2002-01-01

    Turbine stator vane segments have inner and outer walls with vanes extending therebetween. The inner and outer walls have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. A skirt or flange structure is provided for shielding the steam cooling impingement holes adjacent the inner wall aerofoil fillet region of the nozzle from the steam flow exiting the aft nozzle cavities. Moreover, the gap between the flash rib boss and the cavity insert is controlled to minimize the flow of post impingement cooling media therebetween. This substantially confines outflow to that exiting via the return channels, thus furthermore minimizing flow in the vicinity of the aerofoil fillet region that may adversely affect impingement cooling thereof.

  11. TomoTherapy MLC verification using exit detector data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Quan; Westerly, David; Fang Zhenyu; Sheng, Ke; Chen Yu [TomoTherapy Inc., 1240 Deming Way, Madison, Wisconsin 53717 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Xinghua Cancer Hospital, Xinghua, Jiangsu 225700 (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); TomoTherapy Inc., 1240 Deming Way, Madison, Wisconsin 53717 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: Treatment delivery verification (DV) is important in the field of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). While IMRT and image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), allow us to create more conformal plans and enables the use of tighter margins, an erroneously executed plan can have detrimental effects on the treatment outcome. The purpose of this study is to develop a DV technique to verify TomoTherapy's multileaf collimator (MLC) using the onboard mega-voltage CT detectors. Methods: The proposed DV method uses temporal changes in the MVCT detector signal to predict actual leaf open times delivered on the treatment machine. Penumbra and scattered radiation effects may produce confounding results when determining leaf open times from the raw detector data. To reduce the impact of the effects, an iterative, Richardson-Lucy (R-L) deconvolution algorithm is applied. Optical sensors installed on each MLC leaf are used to verify the accuracy of the DV technique. The robustness of the DV technique is examined by introducing different attenuation materials in the beam. Additionally, the DV technique has been used to investigate several clinical plans which failed to pass delivery quality assurance (DQA) and was successful in identifying MLC timing discrepancies as the root cause. Results: The leaf open time extracted from the exit detector showed good agreement with the optical sensors under a variety of conditions. Detector-measured leaf open times agreed with optical sensor data to within 0.2 ms, and 99% of the results agreed within 8.5 ms. These results changed little when attenuation was added in the beam. For the clinical plans failing DQA, the dose calculated from reconstructed leaf open times played an instrumental role in discovering the root-cause of the problem. Throughout the retrospective study, it is found that the reconstructed dose always agrees with measured doses to within 1%. Conclusions: The exit detectors in the TomoTherapy treatment

  12. TomoTherapy MLC verification using exit detector data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Quan; Westerly, David; Fang Zhenyu; Sheng, Ke; Chen Yu

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Treatment delivery verification (DV) is important in the field of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). While IMRT and image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), allow us to create more conformal plans and enables the use of tighter margins, an erroneously executed plan can have detrimental effects on the treatment outcome. The purpose of this study is to develop a DV technique to verify TomoTherapy's multileaf collimator (MLC) using the onboard mega-voltage CT detectors. Methods: The proposed DV method uses temporal changes in the MVCT detector signal to predict actual leaf open times delivered on the treatment machine. Penumbra and scattered radiation effects may produce confounding results when determining leaf open times from the raw detector data. To reduce the impact of the effects, an iterative, Richardson-Lucy (R-L) deconvolution algorithm is applied. Optical sensors installed on each MLC leaf are used to verify the accuracy of the DV technique. The robustness of the DV technique is examined by introducing different attenuation materials in the beam. Additionally, the DV technique has been used to investigate several clinical plans which failed to pass delivery quality assurance (DQA) and was successful in identifying MLC timing discrepancies as the root cause. Results: The leaf open time extracted from the exit detector showed good agreement with the optical sensors under a variety of conditions. Detector-measured leaf open times agreed with optical sensor data to within 0.2 ms, and 99% of the results agreed within 8.5 ms. These results changed little when attenuation was added in the beam. For the clinical plans failing DQA, the dose calculated from reconstructed leaf open times played an instrumental role in discovering the root-cause of the problem. Throughout the retrospective study, it is found that the reconstructed dose always agrees with measured doses to within 1%. Conclusions: The exit detectors in the TomoTherapy treatment systems

  13. Inflation with a graceful exit in a random landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedro, F.G.; Westphal, A.

    2016-11-01

    We develop a stochastic description of small-field inflationary histories with a graceful exit in a random potential whose Hessian is a Gaussian random matrix as a model of the unstructured part of the string landscape. The dynamical evolution in such a random potential from a small-field inflation region towards a viable late-time de Sitter (dS) minimum maps to the dynamics of Dyson Brownian motion describing the relaxation of non-equilibrium eigenvalue spectra in random matrix theory. We analytically compute the relaxation probability in a saddle point approximation of the partition function of the eigenvalue distribution of the Wigner ensemble describing the mass matrices of the critical points. When applied to small-field inflation in the landscape, this leads to an exponentially strong bias against small-field ranges and an upper bound N<<10 on the number of light fields N participating during inflation from the non-observation of negative spatial curvature.

  14. Inflation with a graceful exit in a random landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedro, F.G. [Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica y Inst. de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC; Westphal, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2016-11-15

    We develop a stochastic description of small-field inflationary histories with a graceful exit in a random potential whose Hessian is a Gaussian random matrix as a model of the unstructured part of the string landscape. The dynamical evolution in such a random potential from a small-field inflation region towards a viable late-time de Sitter (dS) minimum maps to the dynamics of Dyson Brownian motion describing the relaxation of non-equilibrium eigenvalue spectra in random matrix theory. We analytically compute the relaxation probability in a saddle point approximation of the partition function of the eigenvalue distribution of the Wigner ensemble describing the mass matrices of the critical points. When applied to small-field inflation in the landscape, this leads to an exponentially strong bias against small-field ranges and an upper bound N<<10 on the number of light fields N participating during inflation from the non-observation of negative spatial curvature.

  15. Real-time multi-function entry / exit management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiyama, Kazuhisa; Kurosawa, Akihiko; Asano, Norikazu; Onoue, Ryuji; Eguchi, Shohei; Hanawa, Nobuhiro; Hori, Naohiko; Ueda, Hisao; Kanda, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    In order to prevent radiation accident and its expansion, more integrated management system is required to safety management for radiation workers in the nuclear facilities. Therefore, JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) and HAM (Hitachi Aloka Medical, Ltd) have developed innovative real-time multi-function entry/exit management system which managed worker's exposed dose and position under the joint developed patent. This system is sharing worker's data among workers and server manager who is inside of or outside of building, such as worker's positing, health condition and exposed dose. It consists of mobile equipments, receivers, LAN, and servers system. This report summarizes the system to be installed in the JMTR. (author)

  16. Spanish exit polls. Sampling error or nonresponse bias?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavía, Jose M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Countless examples of misleading forecasts on behalf of both pre-election and exit polls can be found all over the world. Non-representative samples due to differential nonresponse have been claimed as being the main reason for inaccurate exit-poll projections. In real inference problems, it is seldom possible to compare estimates and true values. Electoral forecasts are an exception. Comparisons between estimates and final outcomes can be carried out once votes have been tallied. In this paper, we examine the raw data collected in seven exit polls conducted in Spain and test the likelihood that the data collected in each sampled voting location can be considered as a random sample of actual results. Knowing the answer to this is relevant for both electoral analysts and forecasters as, if the hypothesis is rejected, the shortcomings of the collected data would need amending. Analysts could improve the quality of their computations by implementing local correction strategies. We find strong evidence of nonsampling error in Spanish exit polls and evidence that the political context matters. Nonresponse bias is larger in polarized elections and in a climate of fearExiste un gran número de ejemplos de predicciones inexactas obtenidas a partir tanto de encuestas pre-electorales como de encuestas a pie de urna a lo largo del mundo. La presencia de tasas de no-respuesta diferencial entre distintos tipos de electores ha sido la principal razón esgrimida para justificar las proyecciones erróneas en las encuestas a pie de urna. En problemas de inferencia rara vez es posible comparar estimaciones y valores reales. Las predicciones electorales son una excepción. La comparación entre estimaciones y resultados finales puede realizarse una vez los votos han sido contabilizados. En este trabajo, examinamos los datos brutos recogidos en siete encuestas a pie de urna realizadas en España y testamos la hipótesis de que los datos recolectados en cada punto

  17. Atypical Exit Wound in High-Voltage Electrocution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parakkattil, Jamshid; Kandasamy, Shanmugam; Das, Siddhartha; Devnath, Gerard Pradeep; Chaudhari, Vinod Ashok; Shaha, Kusa Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Electrocution fatality cases are difficult to investigate. High-voltage electrocution burns resemble burns caused by other sources, especially if the person survives for few days. In that case, circumstantial evidence if correlated with the autopsy findings helps in determining the cause and manner of death. In addition, the crime scene findings also help to explain the pattern of injuries observed at autopsy. A farmer came in contact with a high-voltage transmission wire and sustained superficial to deep burns over his body. A charred and deeply scorched area was seen over the face, which was suggestive of the electric entry wound. The exit wound was present over both feet and lower leg and was atypical in the form of a burnt area of peeled blistered skin, charring, and deep scorching. The injuries were correlated with crime scene findings, and the circumstances that lead to his electrocution are discussed here.

  18. Being Indigenous in the Bureaucracy: Narratives of Work and Exit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Lahn

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Australia’s civil service has had some success in attracting substantial numbers of Indigenous employees. But significant numbers also regularly exit the bureaucracy. Retaining Indigenous employees is recognised as an ongoing difficulty for government. This research with former and current Indigenous civil servants outlines factors they identify as contributing to decisions to leave the bureaucracy. A key finding involves their general sense of being underutilised and undervalued— that forms of experience and understanding as Indigenous people go largely unrecognised within government, which in turn constrains their potential to meaningfully contribute to improving government relations with Indigenous Australians or to enhancing the effectiveness of the bureaucracy more broadly. Work as an Indigenous civil servant emerges as a space of contestation with the possibilities and limits of statecraft.

  19. Destruction and Reallocation of Skills Following Large Company Exit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob Rubæk; Østergaard, Christian Richter; Olesen, Thomas Roslyng

    , skill destruction. This study is based on the closure of four shipyards in Denmark from 1987-2000. The analysis is based on detailed longitudinal micro data from a matched employer-employee dataset that allow us to follow the mobility of the laid-off employees in great detail. The analysis shows......What happens to redundant skills and workers when a large company closes down in a region? The knowledge embodied in firms is lost when firms exit. However, the skills, competences and knowledge embodied in the displaced employees are suddenly released and can become channels of knowledge transfer...... for other firms that hire them. This process can be very disruptive. For instance, when a large, old and well-renowned company closes down displacing thousands of workers over a short period of time, then it may be a shock to the regional economy and lead to unemployment and skill destruction. The question...

  20. Thermal IR exitance model of a plant canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, D. S.; Smith, J. A.; Link, L. E.

    1981-01-01

    A thermal IR exitance model of a plant canopy based on a mathematical abstraction of three horizontal layers of vegetation was developed. Canopy geometry within each layer is quantitatively described by the foliage and branch orientation distributions and number density. Given this geometric information for each layer and the driving meteorological variables, a system of energy budget equations was determined and solved for average layer temperatures. These estimated layer temperatures, together with the angular distributions of radiating elements, were used to calculate the emitted thermal IR radiation as a function of view angle above the canopy. The model was applied to a lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) canopy over a diurnal cycle. Simulated vs measured radiometric average temperatures of the midcanopy layer corresponded with 2 C. Simulation results suggested that canopy geometry can significantly influence the effective radiant temperature recorded at varying sensor view angles.

  1. Using an electronic portal imaging device for exit dose measurements in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganowicz, M.; Wozniak, B.; Bekman, A.; Maniakowski, Z.

    2003-01-01

    To present a method of determining the exit dose with the use of an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). The device used was the Portal Vision LC250 (Varian). The EPID signals on the central beam axis have been related to the exit dose. The exit dose measurements were performed with the ionisation chamber in the slab phantom at the distance of dose maximum from the exit surface of the phantom. EPID reading was investigated as a function of field size, phantom thickness and source-detector distance. The relation between dose rate and the EPID reading is described with empirical functions applicable to the obtained data. The exit dose is calculated from the EPID reading as a product of the calibration factor and appropriate correction factors. The determination of the exit dose rate from the EPID signal requires the knowledge of many parameters and earlier determination of essential characteristics. (author)

  2. Modelling guidelines for core exit temperature simulations with system codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freixa, J., E-mail: jordi.freixa-terradas@upc.edu [Department of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) (Spain); Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Martínez-Quiroga, V., E-mail: victor.martinez@nortuen.com [Department of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) (Spain); Zerkak, O., E-mail: omar.zerkak@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Reventós, F., E-mail: francesc.reventos@upc.edu [Department of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) (Spain)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Core exit temperature is used in PWRs as an indication of core heat up. • Modelling guidelines of CET response with system codes. • Modelling of heat transfer processes in the core and UP regions. - Abstract: Core exit temperature (CET) measurements play an important role in the sequence of actions under accidental conditions in pressurized water reactors (PWR). Given the difficulties in placing measurements in the core region, CET readings are used as criterion for the initiation of accident management (AM) procedures because they can indicate a core heat up scenario. However, the CET responses have some limitation in detecting inadequate core cooling and core uncovery simply because the measurement is not placed inside the core. Therefore, it is of main importance in the field of nuclear safety for PWR power plants to assess the capabilities of system codes for simulating the relation between the CET and the peak cladding temperature (PCT). The work presented in this paper intends to address this open question by making use of experimental work at integral test facilities (ITF) where experiments related to the evolution of the CET and the PCT during transient conditions have been carried out. In particular, simulations of two experiments performed at the ROSA/LSTF and PKL facilities are presented. The two experiments are part of a counterpart exercise between the OECD/NEA ROSA-2 and OECD/NEA PKL-2 projects. The simulations are used to derive guidelines in how to correctly reproduce the CET response during a core heat up scenario. Three aspects have been identified to be of main importance: (1) the need for a 3-dimensional representation of the core and Upper Plenum (UP) regions in order to model the heterogeneity of the power zones and axial areas, (2) the detailed representation of the active and passive heat structures, and (3) the use of simulated thermocouples instead of steam temperatures to represent the CET readings.

  3. “Understanding exit from the founder’s business in family firms”

    OpenAIRE

    C. Salvato; F. Chirico; P. Sharma

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we investigate the role of family-specific factors in facilitating or constraining business exit in family firms. Family business literature seems to have an implicit bias towards continuity and persistence in the founder’s business. This is explained by heavy emotional involvement and development of path-dependent core competences over generations. However, several long-lived family firms were able to successfully exit the founder’s business. Exit allowed them to free signifi...

  4. Influence of drill helical direction on exit damage development in drilling carbon fiber reinforced plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Y.; Jia, Z. Y.; Wang, F. J.; Fu, R.; Guo, H. B.; Cheng, D.; Zhang, B. Y.

    2017-06-01

    Drilling is inevitable for CFRP components’ assembling process in the aviation industry. The exit damage frequently occurs and affects the load carrying capacity of components. Consequently, it is of great urgency to enhance drilling exit quality on CFRP components. The article aims to guide the reasonable choice of drill helical direction and effectively reduce exit damage. Exit observation experiments are carried out with left-hand helical, right-hand helical and straight one-shot drill drilling T800S CFRP laminates separately. The development rules of exit damage and delamination factor curves are obtained. Combined with loading conditions and fracture modes of push-out burrs, and thrust force curves, the influence of drill helical direction on exit damage development is derived. It is found that the main fracture modes for left-hand helical, right-hand helical, and straight one-shot drill are mode I, extrusive fracture, mode III respectively. Among them, mode III has the least effect on exit damage development. Meanwhile, the changing rate of thrust force is relative slow for right-hand helical and straight one-shot drill in the thrust force increasing phase of stage II, which is disadvantaged for exit damage development. Therefore, straight one-shot drill’s exit quality is the best.

  5. Adolescents Exiting Homelessness over Two Years: The Risk Amplification and Abatement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, Norweeta G.; Rice, Eric; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Mallett, Shelley; Rosenthal, Doreen; Batterham, Phillip; May, Susanne J.; Witkin, Andrea; Duan, Naihua

    2009-01-01

    The Risk Amplification and Abatement Model (RAAM) demonstrates that negative contact with socializing agents amplify risk, while positive contact abates risk for homeless adolescents. To test this model, the likelihood of exiting homelessness and returning to familial housing at 2 years and stably exiting over time are examined with longitudinal…

  6. Wives' Relative Wages, Husbands' Paid Work Hours, and Wives' Labor-Force Exit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons

    2011-01-01

    Economic theories predict that women are more likely to exit the labor force if their partners' earnings are higher and if their own wage rate is lower. In this article, I use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 2,254) and discrete-time event-history analysis to show that wives' relative wages are more predictive of their exit than are…

  7. Toward 3D structural information from quantitative electron exit wave analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisenko, Konstantin B; Moldovan, Grigore; Kirkland, Angus I; Wang, Amy; Van Dyck, Dirk; Chen, Fu-Rong

    2012-01-01

    Simulations show that using a new direct imaging detector and accurate exit wave restoration algorithms allows nearly quantitative restoration of electron exit wave phase, which can be regarded as only qualitative for conventional indirect imaging cameras. This opens up a possibility of extracting accurate information on 3D atomic structure of the sample even from a single projection.

  8. 30 CFR 57.4530 - Exits for surface buildings and structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exits for surface buildings and structures. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4530 Exits for surface buildings and structures. Surface buildings or structures in which persons work shall have a sufficient number...

  9. Application of an entry-exit tariff model to the gas transport system in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Alejandro; Serrano, Miguel; Olmos, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Under an entry-exit gas tariff system, reservation of capacity is split into entry capacity, to transport gas from the injection points to a virtual balancing point, and exit capacity, to transport gas from the balancing point to the exit points in the system. Entry-exit tariff for gas transport systems have been recommended by the 3rd EU Energy Package, since they are cost reflective, facilitate gas trade and can provide signals for the location of gas injections or off-takes. The advisability of applying an entry-exit tariff system is discussed in this paper. Apart from this, authors propose an entry-exit tariff model and apply it to compute charges for the Spanish gas transport system in 2009. Results produced by the model are presented as coefficients which should multiply the current postal transport tariff. The paper concludes that entry-exit tariffs would be useful location signals which would result in a better use of the gas transport system in Spain. In those cases where demand exceeds available capacity, as it occurs at the congested connection with France, entry-exit tariffs could be supplemented by capacity charges at entry points resulting from auctions. (author)

  10. Ecologies of ideologies : Explaining party entry and exit in European parliaments, 1945-2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wardt, Marc; Berkhout, Joost; Vermeulen, Floris

    This study introduces a population-ecological approach to the entry and exit of political parties. A primary proposition of population ecology is that organizational entry and exit depends on the number of organizations already present: that is, density. We propose that political parties mainly

  11. Ecologies of Ideologies : Explaining Party Entry and Exit in West-European Parliaments, 1945-2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wardt, M.; Berkhout, J.; Vermeulen, F.

    2017-01-01

    This study introduces a population-ecological approach to the entry and exit of political parties. A primary proposition of population ecology is that organizational entry and exit depends on the number of organizations already present: that is, density. We propose that political parties mainly

  12. Door locking and exit security measures on acute psychiatric admission wards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, H.L.I.; Bowers, L.; Haglund, K.; Muir-Cochrane, E.; Simpson, A.; Merwe, M. van der

    2011-01-01

    Locking the exit doors of psychiatric wards is believed to reduce the risk of patients absconding. The aims of the study were to investigate both the prevalence of door locking and other exit security measures on UK admission wards, as well as whether door locking appears to be effective in keeping

  13. Do spouses coordinate their work exits? A combined survey and register analysis from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syse, Astri; Solem, Per Erik; Ugreninov, Elisabeth; Mykletun, Reidar; Furunes, Trude

    2014-09-01

    Research on spouses' joint work exits is scarce, although household factors such as spouses' work status, marital quality, and caregiving burdens are likely to affect seniors' work engagement. We therefore examine whether the work exit probability of one spouse affects that of the other. Discrete-time hazard regression analyses of survey data linked to later registry information including all gainfully employed married respondents aged 50-74 with a working spouse (N = 1,764) were used to assess subsequent work exits. A spouse's work exit is a strong predictor of a respondent's work exit (hazard ratio 3.1, 95% confidence interval [2.5, 4.0]). Educational attainment, poor marital quality, and spouses' health and care needs do not predict work exits. Surprisingly, no gender differences are observed. Research on larger survey samples to distinguish different work exit routes and reasons for spouses' joint work exits appears warranted. To account for cultural and welfare state characteristics, cross-national studies ought to be undertaken. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Exit interviews administered to patients participating in the COSTOP placebo controlled randomised trial in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Nunn

    2016-08-01

    Discussion: The exit interview demonstrated that there was some evidence of open label drug being taken by the participants. However, the results from the interview do not suggest that the trial results would have been seriously compromised. We would recommend the exit interview as a valuable way of assessing adherence to trial procedures.

  15. Drink Specials and the Intoxication Levels of Patrons Exiting College Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombs, Dennis L.; Dodd, Virginia; Porkorny, Steven B.; Omli, Morrow R.; O'Mara, Ryan; Webb, Monica C.; Lacaci, Diana M.; Werch, Chad

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether drink specials independently increase patrons' risk of achieving a high level of intoxication upon exiting drinking establishments. Methods: In a campus community, data were collected from exiting patrons (N=291) via sidewalk interviews and breath tests on 6 nights of 2 consecutive semesters. Results: A…

  16. Efficiency, Leverage and Exit: The Role of Information Asymmetry in Concentrated Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siyahhan, Baran

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a real options model of imperfect competition with asymmetric information that analyzes firms’ exit decisions. Optimal exit decision is linked to firm characteristics such as financial leverage and efficiency. The model shows that informational asymmetries can lead more...

  17. Efficiency, Leverage and Exit: The Role of Information Asymmetry in Concentrated Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siyahhan, Baran

    This paper develops a real options model of imperfect competition with asymmetric information that analyzes firms’ exit decisions. Optimal exit decision is linked to firm characteristics such as financial leverage and efficiency. The model shows that informational asymmetries can lead more...

  18. Visual Barriers to Prevent Ambulatory ALzheimer's Patients from Exiting through an Emergency Door.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, Kevan H.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Conducted study on Alzheimer's unit to test seven different visual barrier conditions for reducing patient exits. Findings indicated that exiting was eliminated under two conditions. Results suggest visual agnosia, the inability to interpret what the eye sees, may be used as tool in managing wandering behavior of Alzheimer's patients. (Author/NB)

  19. Critical heat flux and exit film flow rate in a flow boiling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Tatsuhiro; Isayama, Yasushi

    1981-01-01

    The critical heat flux in a flowing boiling system is an important problem in the evaporating tubes with high thermal load such as nuclear reactors and boilers, and gives the practical design limit. When the heat flux in uniformly heated evaporating tubes is gradually raised, the tube exit quality increases, and soon, the critical heat flux condition arises, and the wall temperature near tube exit rises rapidly. In the region of low exit quality, the critical heat flux condition is caused by the transition from nucleating boiling, and in the region of high exit quality, it is caused by dry-out. But the demarcation of both regions is not clear. In this study, for the purpose of obtaining the knowledge concerning the critical heat flux condition in a flowing boiling system, the relation between the critical heat flux and exit liquid film flow rate was examined. For the experiment, a uniformly heated vertical tube supplying R 113 liquid was used, and the measurement in the range of higher heating flux and mass velocity than the experiment by Ueda and Kin was carried out. The experimental setup and experimental method, the critical heat flux and exit quality, the liquid film flow rate at heating zone exit, and the relation between the critical heat flux and the liquid film flow rate at exit are described. (Kako, I.)

  20. Entrance and Exit CSR Impedance for Non-Ultrarelativistic Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Rui; Tsai, Cheng Ying [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    For a high-brightness electron beam being transported through beamlines involving bending systems, the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) and longitudinal space charge (LSC) interaction could often cause microbunching instability. The semi-analytical Vlasov solver for microbunching gain* depends on the impedances for the relevant collective effects. The existing results for CSR impedances are usually obtained for the ultrarelativistic limit. To extend the microbunching analysis to cases of low energies, such as the case of an ERL merger, or to density modulations at extremely small wavelength, it is necessary to extend the impedance analysis to the non-ultrarelativistic regime. In this study, we present the impedance analysis for the transient CSR interaction in the non-ultrarelativistic regime, for transients including both entrance to and exit from a magnetic dipole. These impedance results will be compared to their ultra-relativistic counterparts**, and the corresponding wakefield obtained from the impedance for low-energy beams will be compared with the existing results of transient CSR wakefield for general beam energies***.

  1. Exit Noise Summer Fest: Explaining the audience in ethnographic discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić-Krstanović Miroslava M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In Ethnology, studying festivals is a relevant activity since it could enlighten a number of complex cultural and social processes. The festivals represent public events, public ceremonies, cluster of rituals and produce many symbols, and as such, they are in fact a creative reflection of a society. In this paper, we analyze the Exit Noise Summer Fest, the biggest music festival in SE Europe. The aim of the analysis is to gain understanding of the cultural event of this kind and its protagonists, namely, the audience. Shedding a light to a music spectacle, from a standpoint of social and symbolic communication, directs to a different perspective in reading of rituals, communities zones, and semantic constructions of noise and body in the center of ritual behaviors. The research shows that the music experience and atmosphere of the celebration, though having somewhat unclear ritual borderline and zone, are compatible with the daily culture and social processes, in which the event is created and further reflects itself through various mediums.

  2. Hearing loss and disability exit: Measurement issues and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Vibeke Tornhøj; Datta Gupta, Nabanita

    2017-02-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most common conditions related to aging, and previous descriptive evidence links it to early exit from the labor market. These studies are usually based on self-reported hearing difficulties, which are potentially endogenous to labor supply. We use unique representative data collected in the spring of 2005 through in-home interviews. The data contains self-reported functional and clinically-measured hearing ability for a representative sample of the Danish population aged 50-64. We estimate the causal effect of hearing loss on early retirement via disability benefits, taking into account the endogeneity of functional hearing. Our identification strategy involves the simultaneous estimation of labor supply, functional hearing, and coping strategies (i.e. accessing assistive devices at work or informing one's employer about the problem). We use hearing aids as an instrument for functional hearing. Our main empirical findings are that endogeneity bias is more severe for men than women and that functional hearing problems significantly increase the likelihood of receiving disability benefits for both men and women. However, relative to the baseline the effect is larger for men (47% vs. 20%, respectively). Availability of assistive devices in the workplace decreases the likelihood of receiving disability benefits, whereas informing an employer about hearing problems increases this likelihood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Monitoring of Persons at the Exit from Bohunice NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaizer, J.; Svitek, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: IAEA defines the principal requirement 'defence in depth' as a multilayer system in its authorised document - International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionising Radiation, Safety Series No. 115. The principle of the multilayer system is: a failure at one zone is compensated or corrected at subsequent zones. The main argument why Bohunice NPP modernised its monitoring system at the exit from NPP was the implementation of the principle 'defence in depth'. Several instruments PM7 (Eberline) equipped with the plastic scintillation detectors had been bought because of the modernisation. The instruments had to be integrated into overall security system NPP without any restriction to the number of passing people. The supplier had to modify the basic instrument operation. NPP required a 'dynamic' monitoring version, this means the operation without stopping of a person within the instrument. After the modification the value of the RDA (Reliable Detectable Activity) of the instruments PM7 was within the interval 9.25-10.4 kBq for 137 Cs (dotted source in the middle of the instrument). RDA for the mix of activation products was 2-3 times lower. In conclusion of our paper the results of the monitoring are presented within tree years as well as a discussion about these results. Maximum values of contaminations measured were very low (several kBq) that represented very low risk from potential exposure. (author)

  4. POD- Mapping and analysis of hydroturbine exit flow dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, Morten; Finstad, Pal Henrik

    2012-11-01

    Pairwise radial dynamic measurements of the swirling draft tube flow have been made at the 25 MW Svorka power plant in Surnadal operating at 48% load at 6 radial and 7 angular positions. The data is analyzed with traditional methods as well as with POD. The measurements were made in the turbine draft tube/exit flow in an axial measurement plane about 1200mm downstream the turbine runner. The draft tube diameter in the measurement plane is about 1300mm. The flow rate during measurements was close to 5.8m3/s. Two probes were used; both of length Le=700 mm and made of stainless steel with an outer diameter of Do=20 mm and inner diameter Di=4mm. At the end of each probe a full bridge cylindrical KULITE xcl152, 0-3.5, was mounted. 90 seconds samples at 10 kS/s were taken. The POD analysis largely follows that of Tutkun et al. (see e.g. AIAA J., 45,5,2008). The analysis shows that 26% of the pressure pulsation energy can be addressed to azimuthal mode 1. The work has been supported by Energy Norway.

  5. Core compressor exit stage study. 1: Aerodynamic and mechanical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdsall, E. A.; Canal, E., Jr.; Lyons, K. A.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of aspect ratio on the performance of core compressor exit stages was demonstrated using two three stage, highly loaded, core compressors. Aspect ratio was identified as having a strong influence on compressors endwall loss. Both compressors simulated the last three stages of an advanced eight stage core compressor and were designed with the same 0.915 hub/tip ratio, 4.30 kg/sec (9.47 1bm/sec) inlet corrected flow, and 167 m/sec (547 ft/sec) corrected mean wheel speed. The first compressor had an aspect ratio of 0.81 and an overall pressure ratio of 1.357 at a design adiabatic efficiency of 88.3% with an average diffusion factor or 0.529. The aspect ratio of the second compressor was 1.22 with an overall pressure ratio of 1.324 at a design adiabatic efficiency of 88.7% with an average diffusion factor of 0.491.

  6. Studi Kasus Yayasan X: Analisa Hasil Exit Questionnaire Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadetta Junita Santosa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This case study on the X Foundation aims to provide an overview and analysis of questionnaire results of exit interviews of employees who came out in 2009 and 2010. This case study was conducted on the basis of the importance of seeing the dimensions or factors that exist, particularly with regard to the factors of satisfaction or dissatisfaction in the employee working within the Organization. The study was conducted using quantitative methods with retrieval of primary data on the X Foundation, the descriptive method. Subjects were 63 employees who came out in 2009 and 125 employees that came out in 2010 at differing position, level and status. The results generally showed that there are two factors that should motivate employees to be the opposite that is causing dissatisfaction in the employee, and there are two factors also confirm the reasons why an employee becomes dissatisfied and decided to leave the organization. The suggestions put forward to conduct further research to further deepen the analysis of descriptive statistics, so the depiction becomes more profound; and can provide accurate advice to the organization. 

  7. Inflation with a graceful exit in a random landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedro, F.G. [Departamento de Física Teórica and Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC,Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Westphal, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Theory Group,D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-03-30

    We develop a stochastic description of small-field inflationary histories with a graceful exit in a random potential whose Hessian is a Gaussian random matrix as a model of the unstructured part of the string landscape. The dynamical evolution in such a random potential from a small-field inflation region towards a viable late-time de Sitter (dS) minimum maps to the dynamics of Dyson Brownian motion describing the relaxation of non-equilibrium eigenvalue spectra in random matrix theory. We analytically compute the relaxation probability in a saddle point approximation of the partition function of the eigenvalue distribution of the Wigner ensemble describing the mass matrices of the critical points. When applied to small-field inflation in the landscape, this leads to an exponentially strong bias against small-field ranges and an upper bound N≪10 on the number of light fields N participating during inflation from the non-observation of negative spatial curvature.

  8. Nicotinamide impairs entry into and exit from meiosis I in mouse oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riepsamen, Angelique; Wu, Lindsay; Lau, Laurin; Listijono, Dave; Ledger, William; Sinclair, David; Homer, Hayden

    2015-01-01

    Following exit from meiosis I, mammalian oocytes immediately enter meiosis II without an intervening interphase, accompanied by rapid reassembly of a bipolar spindle that maintains condensed chromosomes in a metaphase configuration (metaphase II arrest). Here we study the effect of nicotinamide (NAM), a non-competitive pan-sirtuin inhibitor, during meiotic maturation in mouse oocytes. Sirtuins are a family of seven NAD+-dependent deacetylases (Sirt1-7), which are involved in multiple cellular processes and are emerging as important regulators in oocytes and embryos. We found that NAM significantly delayed entry into meiosis I associated with delayed accumulation of the Cdk1 co-activator, cyclin B1. GVBD was also inhibited by the Sirt2-specific inhibitor, AGK2, and in a very similar pattern to NAM, supporting the notion that as in somatic cells, NAM inhibits sirtuins in oocytes. NAM did not affect subsequent spindle assembly, chromosome alignment or the timing of first polar body extrusion (PBE). Unexpectedly, however, in the majority of oocytes with a polar body, chromatin was decondensed and a nuclear structure was present. An identical phenotype was observed when flavopiridol was used to induce Cdk1 inactivation during late meiosis I prior to PBE, but not if Cdk1 was inactivated after PBE when metaphase II arrest was already established, altogether indicating that NAM impaired establishment rather than maintenance of metaphase II arrest. During meiosis I exit in NAM-treated medium, we found that cyclin B1 levels were lower and inhibitory Cdk1 phosphorylation was increased compared with controls. Although activation of the anaphase-promoting complex-Cdc20 (APC-Cdc20) occurred on-time in NAM-treated oocytes, Cdc20 levels were higher in very late meiosis I, pointing to exaggerated APC-Cdc20-mediated proteolysis as a reason for lower cyclin B1 levels. Collectively, therefore, our data indicate that by disrupting Cdk1 regulation, NAM impairs entry into meiosis I and

  9. Aggregating job exit statuses of a plurality of compute nodes executing a parallel application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Michael E.; Attinella, John E.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Mundy, Michael B.

    2015-07-21

    Aggregating job exit statuses of a plurality of compute nodes executing a parallel application, including: identifying a subset of compute nodes in the parallel computer to execute the parallel application; selecting one compute node in the subset of compute nodes in the parallel computer as a job leader compute node; initiating execution of the parallel application on the subset of compute nodes; receiving an exit status from each compute node in the subset of compute nodes, where the exit status for each compute node includes information describing execution of some portion of the parallel application by the compute node; aggregating each exit status from each compute node in the subset of compute nodes; and sending an aggregated exit status for the subset of compute nodes in the parallel computer.

  10. Mean exit time and survival probability within the CTRW formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, M.; Masoliver, J.

    2007-05-01

    An intense research on financial market microstructure is presently in progress. Continuous time random walks (CTRWs) are general models capable to capture the small-scale properties that high frequency data series show. The use of CTRW models in the analysis of financial problems is quite recent and their potentials have not been fully developed. Here we present two (closely related) applications of great interest in risk control. In the first place, we will review the problem of modelling the behaviour of the mean exit time (MET) of a process out of a given region of fixed size. The surveyed stochastic processes are the cumulative returns of asset prices. The link between the value of the MET and the timescale of the market fluctuations of a certain degree is crystal clear. In this sense, MET value may help, for instance, in deciding the optimal time horizon for the investment. The MET is, however, one among the statistics of a distribution of bigger interest: the survival probability (SP), the likelihood that after some lapse of time a process remains inside the given region without having crossed its boundaries. The final part of the manuscript is devoted to the study of this quantity. Note that the use of SPs may outperform the standard “Value at Risk" (VaR) method for two reasons: we can consider other market dynamics than the limited Wiener process and, even in this case, a risk level derived from the SP will ensure (within the desired quintile) that the quoted value of the portfolio will not leave the safety zone. We present some preliminary theoretical and applied results concerning this topic.

  11. Water-Exit Process Modeling and Added-Mass Calculation of the Submarine-Launched Missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the process that the submarine-launched missile exits the water, there is the complex fluid solid coupling phenomenon. Therefore, it is difficult to establish the accurate water-exit dynamic model. In the paper, according to the characteristics of the water-exit motion, based on the traditional method of added mass, considering the added mass changing rate, the water-exit dynamic model is established. And with help of the CFX fluid simulation software, a new calculation method of the added mass that is suit for submarine-launched missile is proposed, which can effectively solve the problem of fluid solid coupling in modeling process. Then by the new calculation method, the change law of the added mass in water-exit process of the missile is obtained. In simulated analysis, for the water-exit process of the missile, by comparing the results of the numerical simulation and the calculation of theoretical model, the effectiveness of the new added mass calculation method and the accuracy of the water-exit dynamic model that considers the added mass changing rate are verified.

  12. The use of the exit interview to reduce turnover amongst healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Anndrea; Webster, Joan

    2011-01-19

    Exit interviews are widely used in healthcare organisations to identify reasons for staff attrition, yet their usefulness in limiting turnover is unclear. To determine the effectiveness of various exit interview strategies in decreasing turnover rates amongst healthcare professionals. We used a comprehensive search strategy including an electronic search of the following databases: DARE, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC (search date: 7 September 2010) and EPOC Specialised Register (search date: 30 September 2009). We also screened the reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews. Randomised controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before and after studies and interrupted time series studies comparing turnover rates between healthcare professionals who had undergone one form of exit interview with another form of exit interview or with no interview. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. The search identified 1560 citations of which we considered 19 potentially relevant. The two authors independently reviewed the abstracts of these studies and retrieved the full texts of eight studies. We excluded all eight following independent assessment. They were either interviews, commentaries on how to do an exit interview or descriptive studies about reasons for leaving. We found no trials that matched our inclusion criteria. Evidence about the effectiveness of exit interviews to reduce turnover is currently not available. However, exit interviews may provide useful information about the work environment which, in turn, may be useful in the development of interventions to reduce turnover.

  13. Plk1 phosphorylation of IRS2 prevents premature mitotic exit via AKT inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Li, Zhiguo; Ahmad, Nihal; Liu, Xiaoqi

    2016-01-01

    Insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins play important roles by acting as a platform in transducing signals from transmembrane receptors upon growth factor stimulation. Although tyrosine phosphorylation on IRS proteins plays critical roles in signal transduction, phosphorylation of IRS proteins on serine/threonine residues are believed to play various regulatory roles on IRS protein function. However, studies on serine/threonine phosphorylation of IRS proteins are very limited, especially for insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2), one member of the IRS protein family. In this study, we identify Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) as the responsible kinase for phosphorylation of IRS2 on two serine residues, Ser 556 and Ser 1098. Phosphorylation of IRS2 on these two serine residues by Plk1 prevents the activation of the PI3K pathway upon growth factor stimulation by inhibiting the binding between IRS2 and the PI3K pathway components and increasing IRS2 protein degradation. Of significance, we show that IRS2 phosphorylation is cell cycle regulated and that Plk1 phosphorylation of IRS2 prevents premature mitotic exit via AKT inactivation. PMID:25830382

  14. Casein Kinase 1 Coordinates Cohesin Cleavage, Gametogenesis, and Exit from M Phase in Meiosis II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüello-Miranda, Orlando; Zagoriy, Ievgeniia; Mengoli, Valentina; Rojas, Julie; Jonak, Katarzyna; Oz, Tugce; Graf, Peter; Zachariae, Wolfgang

    2017-01-09

    Meiosis consists of DNA replication followed by two consecutive nuclear divisions and gametogenesis or spore formation. While meiosis I has been studied extensively, less is known about the regulation of meiosis II. Here we show that Hrr25, the conserved casein kinase 1δ of budding yeast, links three mutually independent key processes of meiosis II. First, Hrr25 induces nuclear division by priming centromeric cohesin for cleavage by separase. Hrr25 simultaneously phosphorylates Rec8, the cleavable subunit of cohesin, and removes from centromeres the cohesin protector composed of shugoshin and the phosphatase PP2A. Second, Hrr25 initiates the sporulation program by inducing the synthesis of membranes that engulf the emerging nuclei at anaphase II. Third, Hrr25 mediates exit from meiosis II by activating pathways that trigger the destruction of M-phase-promoting kinases. Thus, Hrr25 synchronizes formation of the single-copy genome with gamete differentiation and termination of meiosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Market entry and exit by biotech and device companies funded by venture capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Lawton R; Housman, Michael G; Robinson, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    Start-up companies in the biotechnology and medical device sectors are important sources of health care innovation. This paper describes the role of venture capital in supporting these companies and charts the growth in venture capital financial support. The paper then uses longitudinal data to describe market entry and exit by these companies. Similar factors are associated with entry and exit in the two sectors. Entries and exits in one sector also appear to influence entry in the other. These findings have important implications for developing innovative technologies and ensuring competitive markets in the life sciences.

  16. NITRILASE1 regulates the exit from proliferation, genome stability and plant development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doskočilová, Anna; Kohoutová, Lucie; Volc, Jindřich; Kourová, Hana; Benada, Oldřich; Chumová, Jana; Plíhal, Ondřej; Petrovská, Beáta; Halada, Petr; Bögre, L.; Binarová, Pavla

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 198, č. 3 (2013), s. 685-698 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/12/2333 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:61389030 Keywords : Arabidopsis * cell cycle * cytokinesis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 6.545, year: 2013

  17. Association Between Health Plan Exit From Medicaid Managed Care and Quality of Care, 2006-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndumele, Chima D; Schpero, William L; Schlesinger, Mark J; Trivedi, Amal N

    2017-06-27

    State Medicaid programs have increasingly contracted with insurers to provide medical care services for enrollees (Medicaid managed care plans). Insurers that provide these plans can exit Medicaid programs each year, with unclear effects on quality of care and health care experiences. To determine the frequency and interstate variation of health plan exit from Medicaid managed care and evaluate the relationship between health plan exit and market-level quality. Retrospective cohort of all comprehensive Medicaid managed care plans (N = 390) during the interval 2006-2014. Plan exit, defined as the withdrawal of a managed care plan from a state's Medicaid program. Eight measures from the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set were used to construct 3 composite indicators of quality (preventive care, chronic disease care management, and maternity care). Four measures from the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems were combined into a composite indicator of patient experience, reflecting the proportion of beneficiaries rating experiences as 8 or above on a 0-to-10-point scale. Outcome data were available for 248 plans (68% of plans operating prior to 2014, representing 78% of beneficiaries). Of the 366 comprehensive Medicaid managed care plans operating prior to 2014, 106 exited Medicaid. These exiting plans enrolled 4 848 310 Medicaid beneficiaries, with a mean of 606 039 beneficiaries affected by plan exits annually. Six states had a mean of greater than 10% of Medicaid managed care recipients enrolled in plans that exited, whereas 10 states experienced no plan exits. Plans that exited from a state's Medicaid market performed significantly worse prior to exiting than those that remained in terms of preventive care (57.5% vs 60.4%; difference, 2.9% [95% CI, 0.3% to 5.5%]), maternity care (69.7% vs 73.6%; difference, 3.8% [95% CI, 1.7% to 6.0%]), and patient experience (73.5% vs 74.8%; difference, 1.3% [95% CI, 0.6% to 1

  18. Rp58 and p27kip1 coordinate cell cycle exit and neuronal migration within the embryonic mouse cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Olivier; Hemming, Isabel Anne; Gladwyn-Ng, Ivan Enghian; Qu, Zhengdong; Li, Shan Shan; Piper, Michael; Heng, Julian Ik-Tsen

    2017-05-15

    During the development of the mammalian cerebral cortex, newborn postmitotic projection neurons are born from local neural stem cells and must undergo radial migration so as to position themselves appropriately to form functional neural circuits. The zinc finger transcriptional repressor Rp58 (also known as Znf238 or Zbtb18) is critical for coordinating corticogenesis, but its underlying molecular mechanism remains to be better characterised. Here, we demonstrate that the co-expression of Rp58 and the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) p27 kip1 is important for E14.5-born cortical neurons to coordinate cell cycle exit and initiate their radial migration. Notably, we find that the impaired radial positioning of Rp58-deficient cortical neurons within the embryonic (E17.5) mouse cortex, as well as their multipolar to bipolar transition from the intermediate zone to the cortical plate can be restored by forced expression of p27 kip1 in concert with suppression of Rnd2, a downstream target gene of Rp58. Furthermore, the restorative effects of p27 kip1 and Rnd2 abrogation are reminiscent of suppressing RhoA signalling in Rp58-deficient cells. Our findings demonstrate functional interplay between a transcriptional regulator and a CDKI to mediate neuroprogenitor cell cycle exit, as well as to promote radial migration through a molecular mechanism consistent with suppression of RhoA signalling.

  19. Volume regulation in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    to amphibian skin and mammalian cortical collecting tubule of low and intermediate osmotic permeability. Crosstalk between entrance and exit mechanisms interferes with volume regulation both at aniso-osmotic and iso-osmotic volume perturbations. It has been proposed that cell volume regulation is an intrinsic...... regulation are cloned. The volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) exhibiting specific electrophysiological characteristics seems exclusive to serve cell volume regulation. This is contrary to K+ channels as well as cotransporters and exchange mechanisms that may serve both transepithelial transport and cell...... volume regulation. In the same cell, these functions may be maintained by different ion pathways that are separately regulated. RVD is often preceded by increase in cytosolic free Ca2+, probably via influx through TRP channels, but Ca2+ release from intracellular stores has also been observed. Cell...

  20. NAD+ Is a Food Component That Promotes Exit from Dauer Diapause in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Mylenko

    Full Text Available The free-living soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans adapts its development to the availability of food. When food is scarce and population density is high, worms enter a developmentally arrested non-feeding diapause stage specialized for long-term survival called the dauer larva. When food becomes available, they exit from the dauer stage, resume growth and reproduction. It has been postulated that compound(s present in food, referred to as the "food signal", promote exit from the dauer stage. In this study, we have identified NAD+ as a component of bacterial extract that promotes dauer exit. NAD+, when dissolved in alkaline medium, causes opening of the mouth and ingestion of food. We also show that to initiate exit from the dauer stage in response to NAD+ worms require production of serotonin. Thus, C. elegans can use redox cofactors produced by dietary organisms to sense food.

  1. Exit, voice, and loyalty in the Italian public health service: macroeconomic and corporate implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Adelaide; Impagliazzo, Cira; Zoccoli, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyses how customers of public health organizations can express their dissatisfaction for the services offered to them. The main aim is to evaluate the effects that possible dissatisfaction of Italian public health service customers can have on public health organizations. We adopted the methodological scheme developed by Hirschman with exit, voice, and loyalty, considering the macroeconomic and corporate implications that it causes for Italian public health organizations. The study investigated the effects developed by exit of the patients on the system of financing of local health authorities considering both the corporate level of analysis and the macroeconomic level. As a result, local health authority management is encouraged to pay greater attention to the exit phenomena through the adoption of tools that promote loyalty, such as the promotion of voice, even if exit is not promoting, at a macroeconomic level, considerable attention to this phenomenon.

  2. Monitoring of activity of the persons and vehicles at the exit from the NPP Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobis, L.; Kaizer, J.; Svitek, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the technical description of the monitoring of activity of the persons and vehicles at the exit from the NPP Bohunice as well as the results of monitoring during last six months are described

  3. All rights reserved and www.bioline.org.br/ja Estimation of exit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    and www.bioline.org.br/ja. Estimation of exit temperatures in the isentropic compression of real gases. 1 ..... other thermodynamic properties can be calculated within the framework of ... of negative compressibility) has no physical significance.

  4. Exit, Voice, and Loyalty in the Italian Public Health Service: Macroeconomic and Corporate Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impagliazzo, Cira; Zoccoli, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyses how customers of public health organizations can express their dissatisfaction for the services offered to them. The main aim is to evaluate the effects that possible dissatisfaction of Italian public health service customers can have on public health organizations. We adopted the methodological scheme developed by Hirschman with exit, voice, and loyalty, considering the macroeconomic and corporate implications that it causes for Italian public health organizations. The study investigated the effects developed by exit of the patients on the system of financing of local health authorities considering both the corporate level of analysis and the macroeconomic level. As a result, local health authority management is encouraged to pay greater attention to the exit phenomena through the adoption of tools that promote loyalty, such as the promotion of voice, even if exit is not promoting, at a macroeconomic level, considerable attention to this phenomenon. PMID:24348148

  5. High resolution electron exit wave reconstruction from a diffraction pattern using Gaussian basis decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisenko, Konstantin B; Kirkland, Angus I

    2014-01-01

    We describe an algorithm to reconstruct the electron exit wave of a weak-phase object from single diffraction pattern. The algorithm uses analytic formulations describing the diffraction intensities through a representation of the object exit wave in a Gaussian basis. The reconstruction is achieved by solving an overdetermined system of non-linear equations using an easily parallelisable global multi-start search with Levenberg-Marquard optimisation and analytic derivatives

  6. Ecologies of Ideologies: Explaining Party Entry and Exit in West-European Parliaments, 1945-2013

    OpenAIRE

    van de Wardt, M.; Berkhout, J.; Vermeulen, F.

    2017-01-01

    This study introduces a population-ecological approach to the entry and exit of political parties. A primary proposition of population ecology is that organizational entry and exit depends on the number of organizations already present: that is, density. We propose that political parties mainly experience competition from parties in the same ideological niche (left, centre, right). Pooled time-series analyses of 410 parties, 263 elections and 18 West-European countries largely support our exp...

  7. 8 CFR 215.9 - Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 215.9 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROLS OF... participating in the program and must present designated biographic and/or biometric information upon departure... participating in the program, which biographical and/or biometric information would be required, and the format...

  8. The Effect of Exit Strategy on Optimal Portfolio Selection with Birandom Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper are to use a birandom variable to denote the stock return selected by some recurring technical patterns and to study the effect of exit strategy on optimal portfolio selection with birandom returns. Firstly, we propose a new method to estimate the stock return and use birandom distribution to denote the final stock return which can reflect the features of technical patterns and investors' heterogeneity simultaneously; secondly, we build a birandom safety-first model and design a hybrid intelligent algorithm to help investors make decisions; finally, we innovatively study the effect of exit strategy on the given birandom safety-first model. The results indicate that (1 the exit strategy affects the proportion of portfolio, (2 the performance of taking the exit strategy is better than when the exit strategy is not taken, if the stop-loss point and the stop-profit point are appropriately set, and (3 the investor using the exit strategy become conservative.

  9. Revisit the faster-is-slower effect for an exit at a corner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun Min; Lin, Peng; Wu, Fan Yu; Li Gao, Dong; Wang, Guo Yuan

    2018-02-01

    The faster-is-slower effect (FIS), which means that crowd at a high enough velocity could significantly increase the evacuation time to escape through an exit, is an interesting phenomenon in pedestrian dynamics. Such phenomenon had been studied widely and has been experimentally verified in different systems of discrete particles flowing through a centre exit. To experimentally validate this phenomenon by using people under high pressure is difficult due to ethical issues. A mouse, similar to a human, is a kind of self-driven and soft body creature with competitive behaviour under stressed conditions. Therefore, mice are used to escape through an exit at a corner. A number of repeated tests are conducted and the average escape time per mouse at different levels of stimulus are analysed. The escape times do not increase obviously with the level of stimulus for the corner exit, which is contrary to the experiment with the center exit. The experimental results show that the FIS effect is not necessary a universal law for any discrete system. The observation could help the design of buildings by relocating their exits to the corner in rooms to avoid the formation of FIS effect.

  10. Experiment of cavitation erosion at the exit of a long orifice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, Yoshinori; Murase, Michio [Inst. of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    We performed experiments to clarify mechanism of cavitation erosion and to predict cavitation erosion rate at the exit of a long orifice equipped at the chemical and volume control system in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). In order to find this mechanism, we used a high speed video camera. As the result, we observed bubble collapses near the exit of the orifice when flow condition was oscillating. So the bubble collapses due to the oscillation might cause the first stage erosion at the exit of the orifice. Using the orifice which had the cone-shaped exit, we observed that bubbles collapsed near the exit and then they collapsed at the upstream like a chain reaction. So this bubble collapse mechanism could be explained as follows: shock wave was generated by the bubble collapse near the exit, then it propagated upwards, consequently it caused the bubble collapse at the upstream. And we predicted erosion rate by evaluating the effect of the velocity and comparing the erosion resistance between the test speciment (aluminum) and the plant material (stainless steel) by means of vibratory tests. We compared the predicted erosion rate with that of the average value estimated from plant investigation, then we examined the applicability of these method to the plant evaluations. (author)

  11. Evaluation of six TPS algorithms in computing entrance and exit doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwaly, Mohamed; Glegg, Martin; Baggarley, Shaun P.; Elliott, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Entrance and exit doses are commonly measured in in vivo dosimetry for comparison with expected values, usually generated by the treatment planning system (TPS), to verify accuracy of treatment delivery. This report aims to evaluate the accuracy of six TPS algorithms in computing entrance and exit doses for a 6 MV beam. The algorithms tested were: pencil beam convolution (Eclipse PBC), analytical anisotropic algorithm (Eclipse AAA), AcurosXB (Eclipse AXB), FFT convolution (XiO Convolution), multigrid superposition (XiO Superposition), and Monte Carlo photon (Monaco MC). Measurements with ionization chamber (IC) and diode detector in water phantoms were used as a reference. Comparisons were done in terms of central axis point dose, 1D relative profiles, and 2D absolute gamma analysis. Entrance doses computed by all TPS algorithms agreed to within 2% of the measured values. Exit doses computed by XiO Convolution, XiO Superposition, Eclipse AXB, and Monaco MC agreed with the IC measured doses to within 2%‐3%. Meanwhile, Eclipse PBC and Eclipse AAA computed exit doses were higher than the IC measured doses by up to 5.3% and 4.8%, respectively. Both algorithms assume that full backscatter exists even at the exit level, leading to an overestimation of exit doses. Despite good agreements at the central axis for Eclipse AXB and Monaco MC, 1D relative comparisons showed profiles mismatched at depths beyond 11.5 cm. Overall, the 2D absolute gamma (3%/3 mm) pass rates were better for Monaco MC, while Eclipse AXB failed mostly at the outer 20% of the field area. The findings of this study serve as a useful baseline for the implementation of entrance and exit in vivo dosimetry in clinical departments utilizing any of these six common TPS algorithms for reference comparison. PACS numbers: 87.55.‐x, 87.55.D‐, 87.55.N‐, 87.53.Bn PMID:24892349

  12. The impact of ill health on exit from paid employment in Europe among older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Tilja; Schuring, Merel; Avendano, Mauricio; Mackenbach, Johan; Burdorf, Alex

    2010-12-01

    To determine the impact of ill health on exit from paid employment in Europe among older workers. Participants of the Survey on Health and Ageing in Europe (SHARE) in 11 European countries in 2004 and 2006 were selected when 50-63 years old and in paid employment at baseline (n=4611). Data were collected on self-rated health, chronic diseases, mobility limitations, obesity, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity and work characteristics. Participants were classified into employed, retired, unemployed and disabled at the end of the 2-year follow-up. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of different measures of ill health on exit from paid employment. During the 2-year follow-up, 17% of employed workers left paid employment, mainly because of early retirement. Controlling for individual and work related characteristics, poor self-perceived health was strongly associated with exit from paid employment due to retirement, unemployment or disability (ORs from 1.32 to 4.24). Adjustment for working conditions and lifestyle reduced the significant associations between ill health and exit from paid employment by 0-18.7%. Low education, obesity, low job control and effort-reward imbalance were associated with measures of ill health, but also risk factors for exit from paid employment after adjustment for ill health. Poor self-perceived health was strongly associated with exit from paid employment among European workers aged 50-63 years. This study suggests that the influence of ill health on exit from paid employment could be lessened by measures targeting obesity, problematic alcohol use, job control and effort-reward balance.

  13. A simplified approach for exit dose in vivo measurements in radiotherapy and its clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banjade, D.P.; Shukri, A.; Tajuddin, A.A.; Shrestha, S.L.; Bhat, M.

    2002-01-01

    This is a study using LiF:Mg;Ti thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) rods in phantoms to investigate the effect of lack of backscatter on exit dose. Comparing the measured dose with anticipated dose calculated using tissue maximum ratio (TMR) or percentage depth dose (PDD) gives rise to a correction factor. This correction factor may be applied to in-vivo dosimetry results to derive true dose to a point within the patient. Measurements in a specially designed humanoid breast phantom as well as patients undergoing radiotherapy treatment were also been done. TLDs with reproducibility of within ±3% (1 SD) are irradiated in a series of measurements for 6 and 10 MV photon beams from a medical linear accelerator. The measured exit doses for the different phantom thickness for 6 MV beams are found to be lowered by 10.9 to 14.0% compared to the dose derived from theoretical estimation (normalized dose at d max ). The same measurements for 10 MV beams are lowered by 9.0 to 13.5%. The variations of measured exit dose for different field sizes are found to be within 2.5%. The exit doses with added backscatter material from 2 mm up to 15 cm, shows gradual increase and the saturated values agreed within 1.5% with the expected results for both beams. The measured exit doses in humanoid breast phantom as well as in the clinical trial on patients undergoing radiotherapy also agreed with the predicted results based on phantom measurements. The authors' viewpoint is that this technique provides sufficient information to design exit surface bolus to restore build down effect in cases where part of the exit surface is being considered as a target volume. It indicates that the technique could be translated for in vivo dose measurements, which may be a conspicuous step of quality assurance in clinical practice. Copyright (2002) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  14. Predicting The Exit Time Of Employees In An Organization Using Statistical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al Kuwaiti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Employees are considered as an asset to any organization and each organization provide a better and flexible working environment to retain its best and resourceful workforce. As such continuous efforts are being taken to avoid or extend the exitwithdrawal of employees from the organization. Human resource managers are facing a challenge to predict the exit time of employees and there is no precise model existing at present in the literature. This study has been conducted to predict the probability of exit of an employee in an organization using appropriate statistical model. Accordingly authors designed a model using Additive Weibull distribution to predict the expected exit time of employee in an organization. In addition a Shock model approach is also executed to check how well the Additive Weibull distribution suits in an organization. The analytical results showed that when the inter-arrival time increases the expected time for the employees to exit also increases. This study concluded that Additive Weibull distribution can be considered as an alternative in the place of Shock model approach to predict the exit time of employee in an organization.

  15. Symmetry associated with symmetry break: Revisiting ants and humans escaping from multiple-exit rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Q.; Xin, C.; Tang, S. X.; Huang, J. P.

    2018-02-01

    Crowd panic has incurred massive injuries or deaths throughout the world, and thus understanding it is particularly important. It is now a common knowledge that crowd panic induces "symmetry break" in which some exits are jammed while others are underutilized. Amazingly, here we show, by experiment, simulation and theory, that a class of symmetry patterns come to appear for ants and humans escaping from multiple-exit rooms while the symmetry break exists. Our symmetry pattern is described by the fact that the ratio between the ensemble-averaging numbers of ants or humans escaping from different exits is equal to the ratio between the widths of the exits. The mechanism lies in the effect of heterogeneous preferences of agents with limited information for achieving the Nash equilibrium. This work offers new insights into how to improve public safety because large public areas are always equipped with multiple exits, and it also brings an ensemble-averaging method for seeking symmetry associated with symmetry breaking.

  16. Histopathological detection of entry and exit holes in human skin wounds caused by firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Marcus Vinícius; d'Ávila, Solange C G P; d'Ávila, Antônio Miguel M P

    2014-07-01

    The judiciary needs forensic medicine to determine the difference between an entry hole and an exit hole in human skin caused by firearms for civilian use. This important information would be most useful if a practical and accurate method could be done with low-cost and minimal technological resources. Both macroscopic and microscopic analyses were performed on skin lesions caused by firearm projectiles, to establish histological features of 14 entry holes and 14 exit holes. Microscopically, in the abrasion area macroscopically observed, there were signs of burns (sub-epidermal cracks and keratinocyte necrosis) in the entrance holes in all cases. These signs were not found in three exit holes which showed an abrasion collar, nor in other exit holes. Some other microscopic features not found in every case were limited either to entry holes, such as cotton fibres, grease deposits, or tattooing in the dermis, or to exit holes, such as adipose tissue, bone or muscle tissue in the dermis. Coagulative necrosis of keratinocytes and sub-epidermal cracks are characteristic of entry holes. Despite the small sample size, it can be safely inferred that this is an important microscopic finding, among others less consistently found, to define an entry hole in questionable cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  17. Sampling for Patient Exit Interviews: Assessment of Methods Using Mathematical Derivation and Computer Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldsetzer, Pascal; Fink, Günther; Vaikath, Maria; Bärnighausen, Till

    2018-02-01

    (1) To evaluate the operational efficiency of various sampling methods for patient exit interviews; (2) to discuss under what circumstances each method yields an unbiased sample; and (3) to propose a new, operationally efficient, and unbiased sampling method. Literature review, mathematical derivation, and Monte Carlo simulations. Our simulations show that in patient exit interviews it is most operationally efficient if the interviewer, after completing an interview, selects the next patient exiting the clinical consultation. We demonstrate mathematically that this method yields a biased sample: patients who spend a longer time with the clinician are overrepresented. This bias can be removed by selecting the next patient who enters, rather than exits, the consultation room. We show that this sampling method is operationally more efficient than alternative methods (systematic and simple random sampling) in most primary health care settings. Under the assumption that the order in which patients enter the consultation room is unrelated to the length of time spent with the clinician and the interviewer, selecting the next patient entering the consultation room tends to be the operationally most efficient unbiased sampling method for patient exit interviews. © 2016 The Authors. Health Services Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Health Research and Educational Trust.

  18. Ecologies of ideologies: Explaining party entry and exit in West-European parliaments, 1945–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhout, Joost; Vermeulen, Floris

    2016-01-01

    This study introduces a population-ecological approach to the entry and exit of political parties. A primary proposition of population ecology is that organizational entry and exit depends on the number of organizations already present: that is, density. We propose that political parties mainly experience competition from parties in the same ideological niche (left, centre, right). Pooled time-series analyses of 410 parties, 263 elections and 18 West-European countries largely support our expectations. We find that political parties are more likely to exit when density within their niche increases. Also there is competition between adjacent ideological niches, i.e. between centrist and right-wing niches. In contrast to our expectations, neither density nor institutional rules impact party entry. This raises important questions about the rationale of prospective entrants. PMID:29046613

  19. A Study on the Design of PM Exited Transverse Flux Linear Motor for Ropeless Elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Do Hyun; Bang, Deok Je; Kim, Jong Moo; Jeong, Yeon Ho [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea); Kim, Moon Hwan [Silla University (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    The topological investigations regarding magnetic circuit geometry and winding form of the transverse flux machine have brought up a variety of constructable arrangements with different features for several types of application[1, 2]. Here with, a novel PM-exited linear motor with inner mover, based on the transverse flux configuration leads to a considerable increase in power density for moving part. In this study we designed PM-exited transverse flux linear motor for ropeless elevator, whose output power density is higher and weight is lighter than conventional linear synchronous motors, When the designed motor in this study is applied to ropeless elevator, it is possible to increase power density more than 400% comparing with PM exited linear synchronous motor. The result of this study can be utilized for ropeless elevator or gearless direct linear moving system with high output[3]. (author). 8 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Organized medicine and Scandinavian professional unionism: hospital policies and exit options in Denmark and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenheimer, A J; Johansen, L N

    1985-01-01

    Strikes by junior hospital doctors over the issue of on-call remuneration in Denmark and Sweden in 1981 are analyzed to clarify the impact of public-sector cost-control policies on intra- and interprofessional solidarity within the Scandinavian professional peak associations. The junior doctors' grievances could find expression either through increased "voice" within the medical negotiating machinery, or by pursuing the exit option in having the medical associations quit the peak associations. The article explains why the "exit" option was selected in Denmark, while in Sweden the granting of additional voice helped persuade the medical association to withdraw its exit threat and to remain within the peak association. The two cases are interpreted as presaging a divergence in the paths being taken by the various Scandinavian welfare states.

  1. Central Banks Exit Strategies in Theory and Practice. The Case of the Polish National Bank's Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szelągowska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes an attempt in discussing the pros and cons of central banks exiting from unconventional monetary policy strategies. Having in mind the latest international economic research concerning the optimal entrance and exit strategies of the zero interest rate policy, it is worth discussing the results of the contemporary central banks in preserving the financial system and supporting the real economy. The main aim of this paper is the assessment of the Polish central bank's low rate interest rates policy effectiveness and to find out its influence on the economy. The following research problem is discussed: should central banks use the exit strategy from zero interest rates and if yes, why and when. This task requires to put forward the following research hypothesis: too late implementation of the cycle of low interest rates by the National Bank of Poland does not help improvement of the Polish economy situation.

  2. Ecologies of ideologies: Explaining party entry and exit in West-European parliaments, 1945-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wardt, Marc; Berkhout, Joost; Vermeulen, Floris

    2017-06-01

    This study introduces a population-ecological approach to the entry and exit of political parties. A primary proposition of population ecology is that organizational entry and exit depends on the number of organizations already present: that is, density. We propose that political parties mainly experience competition from parties in the same ideological niche (left, centre, right). Pooled time-series analyses of 410 parties, 263 elections and 18 West-European countries largely support our expectations. We find that political parties are more likely to exit when density within their niche increases. Also there is competition between adjacent ideological niches, i.e. between centrist and right-wing niches. In contrast to our expectations, neither density nor institutional rules impact party entry. This raises important questions about the rationale of prospective entrants.

  3. Mean-Variance portfolio optimization when each asset has individual uncertain exit-time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Keykhaei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The standard Markowitz Mean-Variance optimization model is a single-period portfolio selection approach where the exit-time (or the time-horizon is deterministic. ‎In this paper we study the Mean-Variance portfolio selection problem ‎with ‎uncertain ‎exit-time ‎when ‎each ‎has ‎individual uncertain ‎xit-time‎, ‎which generalizes the Markowitz's model‎. ‎‎‎‎‎‎We provide some conditions under which the optimal portfolio of the generalized problem is independent of the exit-times distributions. Also, ‎‎it is shown that under some general circumstances, the sets of optimal portfolios‎ ‎in the generalized model and the standard model are the same‎.

  4. Exit Polling in an Emergent Democracy: The Complex Case of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Nikolaevna Kharchenko

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This report considers the methodological specifics of conducting exit polls to verify election returns, mainly using an example of election campaigns in Ukraine from 2002-2007. The deepest public resonance was aroused by exit polls conducted after the second round of Ukrainian presidential elections in 2004. These polls were one of the factors, which led to massive demonstrations (the so-called "Orange Revolution" and the revocation of election results. The authors show that in the environment of administrative pressure on voters, governmental control of mass media, and severe political struggle, inaccuracy increases. Thus, to acquire reliable and valid information, the polling methods used must be modified. The recommendations given for the methodology of conducting exit polls may be useful for emergent democratic countries.

  5. The molecular chaperone Hsp90 is required for cell cycle exit in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Bandura

    Full Text Available The coordination of cell proliferation and differentiation is crucial for proper development. In particular, robust mechanisms exist to ensure that cells permanently exit the cell cycle upon terminal differentiation, and these include restraining the activities of both the E2F/DP transcription factor and Cyclin/Cdk kinases. However, the full complement of mechanisms necessary to restrain E2F/DP and Cyclin/Cdk activities in differentiating cells are not known. Here, we have performed a genetic screen in Drosophila melanogaster, designed to identify genes required for cell cycle exit. This screen utilized a PCNA-miniwhite(+ reporter that is highly E2F-responsive and results in a darker red eye color when crossed into genetic backgrounds that delay cell cycle exit. Mutation of Hsp83, the Drosophila homolog of mammalian Hsp90, results in increased E2F-dependent transcription and ectopic cell proliferation in pupal tissues at a time when neighboring wild-type cells are postmitotic. Further, these Hsp83 mutant cells have increased Cyclin/Cdk activity and accumulate proteins normally targeted for proteolysis by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C, suggesting that APC/C function is inhibited. Indeed, reducing the gene dosage of an inhibitor of Cdh1/Fzr, an activating subunit of the APC/C that is required for timely cell cycle exit, can genetically suppress the Hsp83 cell cycle exit phenotype. Based on these data, we propose that Cdh1/Fzr is a client protein of Hsp83. Our results reveal that Hsp83 plays a heretofore unappreciated role in promoting APC/C function during cell cycle exit and suggest a mechanism by which Hsp90 inhibition could promote genomic instability and carcinogenesis.

  6. The molecular chaperone Hsp90 is required for cell cycle exit in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Jennifer L; Jiang, Huaqi; Nickerson, Derek W; Edgar, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    The coordination of cell proliferation and differentiation is crucial for proper development. In particular, robust mechanisms exist to ensure that cells permanently exit the cell cycle upon terminal differentiation, and these include restraining the activities of both the E2F/DP transcription factor and Cyclin/Cdk kinases. However, the full complement of mechanisms necessary to restrain E2F/DP and Cyclin/Cdk activities in differentiating cells are not known. Here, we have performed a genetic screen in Drosophila melanogaster, designed to identify genes required for cell cycle exit. This screen utilized a PCNA-miniwhite(+) reporter that is highly E2F-responsive and results in a darker red eye color when crossed into genetic backgrounds that delay cell cycle exit. Mutation of Hsp83, the Drosophila homolog of mammalian Hsp90, results in increased E2F-dependent transcription and ectopic cell proliferation in pupal tissues at a time when neighboring wild-type cells are postmitotic. Further, these Hsp83 mutant cells have increased Cyclin/Cdk activity and accumulate proteins normally targeted for proteolysis by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), suggesting that APC/C function is inhibited. Indeed, reducing the gene dosage of an inhibitor of Cdh1/Fzr, an activating subunit of the APC/C that is required for timely cell cycle exit, can genetically suppress the Hsp83 cell cycle exit phenotype. Based on these data, we propose that Cdh1/Fzr is a client protein of Hsp83. Our results reveal that Hsp83 plays a heretofore unappreciated role in promoting APC/C function during cell cycle exit and suggest a mechanism by which Hsp90 inhibition could promote genomic instability and carcinogenesis.

  7. Prediction of midline dose from entrance ad exit dose using OSLD measurements for total irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Heon; Park, Jong Min; Park, So Yeon; Chun, Min Soo; Han, Ji Hye; Cho, Jin Dong; Kim, Jung In [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    This study aims to predict the midline dose based on the entrance and exit doses from optically stimulated luminescence detector (OSLD) measurements for total body irradiation (TBI). For TBI treatment, beam data sets were measured for 6 MV and 15 MV beams. To evaluate the tissue lateral effect of various thicknesses, the midline dose and peak dose were measured using a solid water phantom (SWP) and ion chamber. The entrance and exit doses were measured using OSLDs. OSLDs were attached onto the central beam axis at the entrance and exit surfaces of the phantom. The predicted midline dose was evaluated as the sum of the entrance and exit doses by OSLD measurement. The ratio of the entrance dose to the exit dose was evaluated at various thicknesses. The ratio of the peak dose to the midline dose was 1.12 for a 30 cm thick SWP at both energies. When the patient thickness is greater than 30 cm, the 15 MV should be used to ensure dose homogeneity. The ratio of the entrance dose to the exit dose was less than 1.0 for thicknesses of less than 30 cm and 40 cm at 6 MV and 15 MV, respectively. Therefore, the predicted midline dose can be underestimated for thinner body. At 15 MV, the ratios were approximately 1.06 for a thickness of 50 cm. In cases where adult patients are treated with the 15 MV photon beam, it is possible for the predicted midline dose to be overestimated for parts of the body with a thickness of 50 cm or greater. The predicted midline dose and OSLD-measured midline dose depend on the phantom thickness. For in-vivo dosimetry of TBI, the measurement dose should be corrected in order to accurately predict the midline dose.

  8. The use of an electronic portal imaging device for exit dosimetry and quality control measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Michael C.; Williams, Peter C.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To determine ways in which electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) could be used to (a) measure exit doses for external beam radiotherapy and (b) perform quality control checks on linear accelerators. Methods and Materials: When imaging, our fluoroscopic EPID adjusts the gain, offset, and frame acquisition time of the charge coupled device (CCD) camera automatically, to allow for the range of photon transmissions through the patient, and to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio. However, our EPID can be programmed to act as an integrating dosemeter. EPID dosemeter measurements were made for 20 MV photons, for different field sizes and thicknesses of unit density phantom material placed at varying exit surface to detector distances. These were compared with simultaneous Silicon diode exit dose measurements. Our exit dosimetry technique was verified using an anthropomorphic type phantom, and some initial measurements have been made for patients treated with irregularly shaped 20 MV x-ray fields. In this dosimetry mode, our EPID was also used to measure certain quality control parameters, x-ray field flatness, and the verification of segmented intensity modulated field prescriptions. Results: Configured for dosimetry, our EPID exhibited a highly linear response, capable of resolving individual monitor units. Exit doses could be measured to within about 3% of that measured using Silicon diodes. Field flatness was determined to within 1.5% of Farmer dosemeter measurements. Segmented intensity modulated fields can be easily verified. Conclusions: Our EPID has the versatility to assess a range of parameters pertinent to the delivery of high quality, high precision radiotherapy. When configured appropriately, it can measure exit doses in vivo, with reasonable accuracy, perform certain quick quality control checks, and analyze segmented intensity modulated treatment fields

  9. Exit Strategies: S1P Signaling and T Cell Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeyens, Audrey; Fang, Victoria; Chen, Cynthia; Schwab, Susan R

    2015-12-01

    Whereas the role of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) in T cell egress and the regulation of S1P gradients between lymphoid organs and circulatory fluids in homeostasis are increasingly well understood, much remains to be learned about S1P signaling and distribution during an immune response. Recent data suggest that the role of S1PR1 in directing cells from tissues into circulatory fluids is reprised again and again, particularly in guiding activated T cells from non-lymphoid tissues into lymphatics. Conversely, S1P receptor 2 (S1PR2), which antagonizes migration towards chemokines, confines cells within tissues. Here we review the current understanding of the roles of S1P signaling in activated T cell migration. In this context, we outline open questions, particularly regarding the shape of S1P gradients in different tissues in homeostasis and inflammation, and discuss recent strategies to measure S1P. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. EFFECT OF REVENUE INSURANCE ON ENTRY AND EXIT DECISIONS IN TABLE GRAPE PRODUCTION: A REAL OPTION APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Sangtaek; Salin, Victoria; Mitchell, Paul D.; Leatham, David J.

    2004-01-01

    This study determines the entry and exit thresholds of table grape farming with irreversible investment under uncertainty. Real option approach is adopted to consider the investment and management flexibility. Also revenue insurance is introduced to consider the effect of the risk management programs on the entry and exit thresholds. Results show that revenue insurance increases the entry and exit thresholds by 1% and 4%, respectively, thus discouraging new investment and current farming, as ...

  11. The Ribosomal Protein uL22 Modulates the Shape of the Protein Exit Tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wekselman, Itai; Zimmerman, Ella; Davidovich, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Erythromycin is a clinically useful antibiotic that binds to an rRNA pocket in the ribosomal exit tunnel. Commonly, resistance to erythromycin is acquired by alterations of rRNA nucleotides that interact with the drug. Mutations in the β hairpin of ribosomal protein uL22, which is rather distal...... of the β hairpin of the mutated uL22 toward the interior of the exit tunnel, triggering a cascade of structural alterations of rRNA nucleotides that propagate to the erythromycin binding pocket. Our findings support recent studies showing that the interactions between uL22 and specific sequences within...

  12. Fast Water Transport in CNTs: length dependence and entrane/exit effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Jens Honore; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    Superfast water transport in carbon nanotube (CNT) membranes has been reported in experimental studies. We use Molecular Dynamics simulations to elucidate the mechanisms of water entry, exit and transport in 2nm-diameter hydrophobic CNTs embedded in a hydrophilic membrane matrix. We demonstrate......, for the first time, that under imposed pressures of the order of 1 bar, water entry into the CNT cavity and exit from the CNT end, can occur only on pre-wetted membranes. We conduct large scale simulations for up to 500nm long CNTs and observe a previously unseen dependence of the flow enhancement rates...

  13. Determination of the availability of core exit thermocouples during severe accident situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edson, J.L.

    1985-04-01

    This report presents the findings and recommendations of the Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation Evaluation (NPPIE) program concerning signal validation methods to determine the on-line availability of core exit thermocouples during accident situations. Methods of selecting appropriate signal validation techniques are discussed and sources of error identified. This report shows that through the use of these techniques the existence of high-temperature-caused errors may be detected as they occur. Specific recommendations for application of selected signal validation techniques to core exit thermocouples and other measurement systems are made. 23 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Monetary Policy of the Federal Reserve System from the Perspective of Exit Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Nocoń

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Central banks, after the experience of the global financial crisis, are now starting the implementation of the exit strategies, which are the process of normalization of monetary policy. The pace of monetary policy normalization process depends on the market reaction to central bank's decisions and macroeconomic conditions, in which they will be implemented. The main aim of the study is to present the principles of the exit strategy of the Federal Reserve System (Fed, on the background of the changes that have occurred in the United States within the monetary policy during the global financial crisis.

  15. Exit points, on plasma, of lost fast ions during NBI in TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.

    1995-09-01

    The distribution of the exit points, on plasma border, for the lost fast ions during tangential balanced NBI in TJ-II helical axis Stellarator is theoretically analysed, as well for direct as for delayed losses. The link between the position of those exit points and the corresponding at birth, orbits and drifts is analysed also, it is shown that such relation is rather independent of beam energy and plasma density and is mainly related to the magnetic configuration characteristics. This study is a needed intermediate step to the analysis of impacts of those ions on the vacuum vessel of TJ-II

  16. Exit points, on plasma, of lost fast ions during NBI in TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of the exit points, on plasma border, for the lost fast ions during tangential balanced NBI in TJ-II helical axis Stellarator is theoretically analysed, as well for direct as for delayed losses. The link between, the position of those exit points and the corresponding at birth, orbits and drifts is analysed also. It is shown that such relation is rather independent of beam energy and plasma density and is mainly related to the magnetic configuration characteristics. This study is a needed intermediate step to the analysis of impacts of those ions on the vacuum vessel of TJ-II. (Author) 2 refs

  17. Effect of ITE and nozzle exit cone erosion on specific impulse of solid rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Kent, Randall; Ridder, Jeffrey P.; Loh, Hai-Tien; Abel, Ralph

    1993-06-01

    Specific impulse loss due to the use of a slowly eroding integral throat entrance, or a throat insert, with a faster eroding nozzle exit cone is studied. It is suggested that an oblique shock wave produced by step-off erosion results in loss of specific impulse. This is studied by use of a shock capturing CFD method. The shock loss predictions for first-stage Peacekeeper and Castor 25 motors are found to match the trends of the test data. This work suggests that a loss mechanism, previously unaccounted, should be considered in the specific impulse prediction procedure for nozzles with step-off exit cone erosion.

  18. Ethnic variations in immigrant poverty exit and female employment: the missing link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaida, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    Despite widespread interest in poverty among recent immigrants and female immigrant employment, research on the link between the two is limited. This study evaluates the effect of recently arrived immigrant women's employment on the exit from family poverty and considers the implications for ethnic differences in poverty exit. It uses the bivariate probit model and the Fairlie decomposition technique to analyze data from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC), a nationally representative survey of immigrants arriving in Canada, 2000-2001. Results show that the employment of recently arrived immigrant women makes a notable contribution to lifting families out of poverty. Moreover, the wide ethnic variations in the probability of exit from poverty between European and non-European groups are partially explained by the lower employment rates among non-European women. The results suggest that the equal earner/female breadwinner model applies to low-income recent immigrant families in general, but the male breadwinner model explains the low probability of poverty exit among select non-European groups whose female employment rates are notably low.

  19. Voice, exit and efficacy : Dealing with perceived neighbourhood decline without moving out

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Land, M.; Doff, W.

    2010-01-01

    Residents of deprived urban neighbourhoods with a changing population often experience an increase in insecurity. If they judge the change as decline, they are likely to become less satisfied with their residential situation and exhibit coping tactics. This paper combines Hirschman’s Exit, Voice and

  20. Factors Inhibiting ESL Learners from Passing California High School Exit Examination: A Narrative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Belinda

    2017-01-01

    The problem was that Hispanic English Second Language (ESL) students enrolled in the ESL program had consistently failed the California High School Exit Examination (CASHEE) in greater numbers than their cohorts. The purpose of this qualitative narrative inquiry was to explore the life stories of Hispanic ESL students in identifying the factors…

  1. New approach of a traditional analysis for predicting near-exit jet liquid instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Guillermo; Collicott, Steven

    2015-11-01

    Traditional linear instability theory for round liquid jets requires an exit-plane velocity profile be assumed so as to derive the characteristic growth rates and wavelengths of instabilities. This requires solving an eigenvalue problem for the Rayleigh Equation. In this new approach, a hyperbolic tangent velocity profile is assumed at the exit-plane of a round jet and a comparison is made with a hyperbolic secant profile. Temporal and Spatial Stability Analysis (TSA and SSA respectively) are the employed analytical tools to compare results of predicted most-unstable wavelengths from the given analytical velocity profiles and from previous experimental work. The local relevance of the velocity profile in the near-exit region of a liquid jet and the validity of an inviscid formulation through the Rayleigh equation are discussed as well. A comparison of numerical accuracy is made between two different mathematical approaches for the hyperbolic tangent profile with and without the Ricatti transformation. Reynolds number based on the momentum thickness of the boundary layer at the exit plane non-dimensionalizes the problem and, the Re range, based on measurements by Portillo in 2011, is 185 to 600. Wavelength measurements are taken from Portillo's experiment. School of Mechanical Engineering at Universidad del Valle, supported by a grant from Fulbright and Colciencias. Ph.D. student at the School of Aeronautics and Astronautics Purdue University.

  2. "Now My Old Self Is Thin": Stigma Exits after Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberg, Ellen M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I employ a structural symbolic interaction framework to examine the processes by which persons can exit a stigmatized identity. Using the empirical example of weight loss, I analyze how individuals evolve from an identity as "fat" and stigmatized to one that is "normal" with respect to weight and free from identification with…

  3. Factors influencing the stay-exit intention of small livestock farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter-Leal, Luis M.; Oude-Lansink, Alfons; Saatkamp, Helmut

    2018-01-01

    This study analyses the factors driving the stay-exit intention of small livestock farmers located in southern Chile. Technical, economic, and social characteristics from 212 farmers were included in this study. Through an empirical probit model we identified the variables that should be considered

  4. The Effects of the Specialization of Private Equity Firms on their Exit Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigamonti, Damiana; Cefis, Elena; Meoli, Michele

    2016-01-01

    We investigate how industry and stage specialization of Private Equity (PE) firms affect the likelihood to exit investments by means of trade sales, Initial Public Offerings (IPOs), or Secondary Buyouts (SBOs). Our empirical analysis relies on competing risks models. Using a sample of 818 Leverag...

  5. Estimates of the first Dirichlet eigenvalue from exit time moment spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurtado, Ana; Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    We compute the first Dirichlet eigenvalue of a geodesic ball in a rotationally symmetric model space in terms of the moment spectrum for the Brownian motion exit times from the ball. This expression implies an estimate as exact as you want for the first Dirichlet eigenvalue of a geodesic ball...

  6. Quantifying groundwater dependency of riparian surface hydrologic features using the exit gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examines groundwater exit gradients as a way to quantify groundwater interactions with surface water. We calibrated high resolution groundwater models for the basin fill sediments in the lower Calapooia watershed, Oregon, using data collected between 1928--2000. The e...

  7. Work Ability Index as Tool to Identify Workers at Risk of Premature Work Exit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van Rhenen, Willem

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the Work Ability Index (WAI) as tool for identifying workers at risk of premature work exit in terms of disability pension, unemployment, or early retirement. Methods Prospective cohort study of 11,537 male construction workers (mean age 45.5 years), who completed the WAI at

  8. Firm Size and Short-Term Dynamics in Aggregate Entry and Exit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manjon, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Much of the research on industry dynamics focuses on the interdependence between the sectorial rates of entry and exit.This paper argues that the size of firms and the reaction-adjustment period are important conditions missed in this literature.I illustrate the effects of this omission using data

  9. The relationship between substance use and exit security on psychiatric wards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simpson, A.; Bowers, L.; Allan, T.; Haglund, K.; Muir-Cochrane, E.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Merwe, M. van der

    2011-01-01

    Aim.  In this paper we report on the rates of drug/alcohol use on acute psychiatric wards in relation to levels and intensity of exit security measures. Background.  Many inpatient wards have become permanently locked, with staff concerned about the risk of patients leaving the ward and harming

  10. The Impact of High School Exit Exams on Graduation Rates and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caves, Katherine; Balestra, Simone

    2018-01-01

    The authors examined the short- and long-term effects of high school exit exams (HSEEs) on graduation rates and achievement using an interrupted time series approach. There is a positive overall effect of HSEE introduction for graduation rate trends, which is heterogeneous over time. HSEEs have a negative impact on graduation rates in the year of…

  11. Work ability index as tool to identify workers at risk of premature work exit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Heymans, M.W.; Twisk, J.W.R.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; Groothoff, J.W.; van Rhenen, W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the Work Ability Index (WAI) as tool for identifying workers at risk of premature work exit in terms of disability pension, unemployment, or early retirement. Methods Prospective cohort study of 11,537 male construction workers (mean age 45.5 years), who completed the WAI at

  12. High School Exit Exams and Dropout in an Era of Increased Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemelt, Steven W.; Marcotte, Dave E.

    2013-01-01

    A key form of student-level accountability is the requirement for students to pass high school exit exams (HSEEs) in order to receive a diploma. In this paper, we examine the impact of HSEEs on dropout during a period when these exams became more common and rigorous. Further, we study whether offering alternate pathways to graduation for students…

  13. On a mean field game optimal control approach modeling fast exit scenarios in human crowds

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin; Di Francesco, Marco; Markowich, Peter A.; Wolfram, Marie Therese

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of fast exit and evacuation situations in crowd motion research has received a lot of scientific interest in the last decades. Security issues in larger facilities, like shopping malls, sports centers, or festivals necessitate a better understanding of the major driving forces in crowd dynamics. In this paper we present an optimal control approach modeling fast exit scenarios in pedestrian crowds. The model is formulated in the framework of mean field games and based on a parabolic optimal control problem. We consider the case of a large human crowd trying to exit a room as fast as possible. The motion of every pedestrian is determined by minimizing a cost functional, which depends on his/her position and velocity, the overall density of people, and the time to exit. This microscopic setup leads in a mean-field formulation to a nonlinear macroscopic optimal control problem, which raises challenging questions for the analysis and numerical simulations.We discuss different aspects of the mathematical modeling and illustrate them with various computational results. ©2013 IEEE.

  14. Calculation of midplane dose for total body irradiation from entrance and exit dose MOSFET measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satory, P R

    2012-03-01

    This work is the development of a MOSFET based surface in vivo dosimetry system for total body irradiation patients treated with bilateral extended SSD beams using PMMA missing tissue compensators adjacent to the patient. An empirical formula to calculate midplane dose from MOSFET measured entrance and exit doses has been derived. The dependency of surface dose on the air-gap between the spoiler and the surface was investigated by suspending a spoiler above a water phantom, and taking percentage depth dose measurements (PDD). Exit and entrances doses were measured with MOSFETs in conjunction with midplane doses measured with an ion chamber. The entrance and exit doses were combined using an exponential attenuation formula to give an estimate of midplane dose and were compared to the midplane ion chamber measurement for a range of phantom thicknesses. Having a maximum PDD at the surface simplifies the prediction of midplane dose, which is achieved by ensuring that the air gap between the compensator and the surface is less than 10 cm. The comparison of estimated midplane dose and measured midplane dose showed no dependence on phantom thickness and an average correction factor of 0.88 was found. If the missing tissue compensators are kept within 10 cm of the patient then MOSFET measurements of entrance and exit dose can predict the midplane dose for the patient.

  15. On a mean field game optimal control approach modeling fast exit scenarios in human crowds

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin

    2013-12-01

    The understanding of fast exit and evacuation situations in crowd motion research has received a lot of scientific interest in the last decades. Security issues in larger facilities, like shopping malls, sports centers, or festivals necessitate a better understanding of the major driving forces in crowd dynamics. In this paper we present an optimal control approach modeling fast exit scenarios in pedestrian crowds. The model is formulated in the framework of mean field games and based on a parabolic optimal control problem. We consider the case of a large human crowd trying to exit a room as fast as possible. The motion of every pedestrian is determined by minimizing a cost functional, which depends on his/her position and velocity, the overall density of people, and the time to exit. This microscopic setup leads in a mean-field formulation to a nonlinear macroscopic optimal control problem, which raises challenging questions for the analysis and numerical simulations.We discuss different aspects of the mathematical modeling and illustrate them with various computational results. ©2013 IEEE.

  16. Exit and Failure of Credit Unions in Brazil: A Risk Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Leonel de Carvalho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the factors that affect the market exit of Brazilian singular credit unions from 1995 to 2009; it also identifies and lists the determinants of various types of market exits and analyzes whether profitability is a significant factor for credit union survival. This study was conducted with accounting data provided by the Central Bank of Brazil, which derives only from individual cooperatives, i.e. singular credit unions. Quarterly financial statements from these credit unions that were active from 1995 to the second quarter of 2009 were employed, totaling 71,325 observations for 1,929 credit unions. Based on survival and the model of competing risks (such as the Cox, Exponential, Weibull, Gompertz, and Competing Risk models, the results show that there is no statistical evidence to ensure a correlation between profitability and credit union survival. The results also suggest that the size of credit unions plays a key role in their survival and longevity and that their funding and investment management are related to their survival and risk of market exit. In conclusion, the results confirm the initial idea that the duality inherent to credit unions - cooperative principles versus economic efficiency - might influence the stability, survival, and longevity of these institutions. Such results may also imply that a credit union embracing the rationale of a private bank will become more estranged from its members, something which will hinder its future operations and increase the likelihood of its exit from the market.

  17. Association of rheumatic diseases with early exit from paid employment in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laires, Pedro A; Gouveia, Miguel

    2014-04-01

    To examine the association between rheumatic diseases (RD) and other chronic morbidity with early exit from paid employment in the Portuguese population. The study population consisted of all people between 50 and 64 years of age (3,762 men and 4,241 women) who participated in the Portuguese National Health Survey, conducted in 2005/2006. Data were collected on demographics, ill-health, lifestyle, and socioeconomic factors. Logistic regression was used to estimate the isolated effect of rheumatic diseases and other chronic diseases on the likelihood of exit from paid employment. At the time of the survey, 45.1 % of the Portuguese population with ages between 50 and 64 years old were not employed. In the nonemployed population, 31.6 % self-reported "poor" to "very poor" health, whereas 16.4 % did so in the employed population. A larger average number of major chronic diseases per capita were also found in those not employed (1.9 vs. 1.4, p paid employment. In particular, rheumatic diseases were more prevalent (43.4 vs. 32.1 %) and associated with early exit from work (OR 1.31; CI 1.12-1.52, p = 0.001). This study suggests an association between RD and other major chronic diseases with early exit from paid employment in Portugal. Thus, health and social protection policies should target these chronic disorders in order to better address sustainability issues and social protection effectiveness.

  18. Explaining discrepancies in reproductive health indicators from population-based surveys and exit surveys: a case from Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekers, D; Ogada, E A

    2001-06-01

    Reproductive health programmes often need exit surveys and population-based surveys for monitoring and evaluation. This study investigates why such studies produce discrepant estimates of condom use, sexual behaviour and condom brand knowledge, and discusses the implications for future use of exit surveys for programme monitoring. Logistic regression is used to explain differences between a household survey of 1295 persons and an exit survey among a random sample of 2550 consumers at retail outlets in RWANDA: Discrepancies in ever use of condoms and risky sexual behaviours are due to differences in socioeconomic status of the two samples. After controls, exit surveys at most outlet types have the same results as the household survey. Only exit surveys at bars, nightclubs and hotels yield significantly different estimates. However, the above-average knowledge of Prudence Plus condoms in the exit interviews is not attributable to socioeconomic or demographic variables, most likely because respondents have seen the product at the outlets. Information about condom use and sexual behaviour obtained from exit surveys appears as accurate as that obtained through household surveys. Nevertheless, exit surveys must be used cautiously. Because exit surveys may include wealthier and better-educated respondents, they are not representative of the general population. The composition of exit survey samples should be validated through existing household surveys. Comparisons across survey types are generally unadvisable, unless they control for sample differences. When generalizing to the population at large is not needed (e.g. for studies aimed at identifying the characteristics and behaviour of users of particular products or services), exit surveys can provide an appropriate alternative to household surveys.

  19. Numerical identification of blade exit angle effect on the performance for a multistage centrifugal pump impeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babayigit Osman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, single and multistage centrifugal pumps are widely used in industrial and mining enterprises. One of the most important components of a centrifugal pump is the impeller. The performance characteristics are related to the pump comprising the head and the overall efficiency rely a great deal on the impeller geometry. In this work, effects of blade exit angle change on hydraulic efficiency of a multi stage pump impeller are investigated via Ansys-Fluent computational fluid dynamics software for constant width impeller entrance and exit gates, blade numbers and blade thickness. Firstly, the flow volume of a centrifugal pump impeller is generated and then mesh structure is formed for the full impeller flow volume. Secondly, rotational periodic flow model are adopted in order to examine the effect of periodic flow assumption on the performance predictions. Corresponding to the available experimental data, inlet mass flow rate, outlet static pressure and rotation of impeller are taken as 0.02m3s-1, 450 kPa and 2950 rpm, respectively for the water fluid. No slip boundary condition is exposed to all solid of surface in the flow volume. The continuity and Navier-Stokes equations with the k-ε turbulence model and the standard wall functions are used. During the study, numerical analyses are conducted for the blade exit angle values of 18°, 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°. In consequence of the performed analyses, it is determined that hydraulic efficiency of the pump impeller value is changed between 81.0-84.6%. The most convenient blade exit angle that yields 84.6% hydraulic efficiency at is 18°. The obtained results show that the blade exit angle range has an impact on the centrifugal pump performance describing the pump head and the hydraulic efficiency.

  20. Hydroelastic slamming of flexible wedges: Modeling and experiments from water entry to exit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Adel; Zhao, Sam; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2017-03-01

    Fluid-structure interactions during hull slamming are of great interest for the design of aircraft and marine vessels. The main objective of this paper is to establish a semi-analytical model to investigate the entire hydroelastic slamming of a wedge, from the entry to the exit phase. The structural dynamics is described through Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and the hydrodynamic loading is estimated using potential flow theory. A Galerkin method is used to obtain a reduced order modal model in closed-form, and a Newmark-type integration scheme is utilized to find an approximate solution. To benchmark the proposed semi-analytical solution, we experimentally investigate fluid-structure interactions through particle image velocimetry (PIV). PIV is used to estimate the velocity field, and the pressure is reconstructed by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations from PIV data. Experimental results confirm that the flow physics and free-surface elevation during water exit are different from water entry. While water entry is characterized by positive values of the pressure field, with respect to the atmospheric pressure, the pressure field during water exit may be less than atmospheric. Experimental observations indicate that the location where the maximum pressure in the fluid is attained moves from the pile-up region to the keel, as the wedge reverses its motion from the entry to the exit stage. Comparing experimental results with semi-analytical findings, we observe that the model is successful in predicting the free-surface elevation and the overall distribution of the hydrodynamic loading on the wedge. These integrated experimental and theoretical analyses of water exit problems are expected to aid in the design of lightweight structures, which experience repeated slamming events during their operation.

  1. An optimization method for the distance between exits of buildings considering uncertainties based on arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Qimiao; Wang, Jinhui; Lu, Shouxiang; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    The distance between exits is an important design parameter in fire safety design of buildings. In order to find the optimal distance between exits under uncertainties with a low computational cost, the surrogate model (i.e. approximation model) of evacuation time is constructed by the arbitrary

  2. 10 CFR 431.204 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit signs. 431.204 Section 431.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION... Procedures § 431.204 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit signs...

  3. An Eclectic Approach to Loyalty-Promoting Instruments in Corporate Law: Revisiting Hirschman's Model of Exit, Voice, and Loyalty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Bootsma (Bart)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This essay analyses the shareholder role in corporate governance in terms of Albert Hirschman's Exit, Voice, and Loyalty. The term 'exit' is embedded in a law & economics framework, while 'voice' relates to a corporate constitutional framework. The essay takes an

  4. Formation Mechanisms for Entry and Exit Defects in Bobbin Friction Stir Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Tamadon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bobbin friction stir welding (BFSW is an innovative variant for the solid state welding process whereby a rotating symmetrical tool causes a fully penetrated bond. Despite the process development, there are still unknown variables in the characterization of the process parameters which can cause uncontrolled weld defects. The entry zone and the exit zone consist of two discontinuity-defects and removing them is one of the current challenges for improving the weld quality. In the present research, the characteristic features of the entry and exit defects in the weld structure and formation mechanism of them during the BFSW processing was investigated. Using stacked layers of multi-colour plasticine the material flow, analogous to metal flow, can be visualised. By using different colours as the path markers of the analogue model, the streamline flow can be easily delineated in the discontinuity defects compared with the metal welds. AA6082-T6 aluminium plates and multi-layered plasticine slabs were employed to replicate the entry-exit defects in the metal weld and analogue samples. The fixed-bobbin tool utilized for this research was optimized by adding a thread feature and tri-flat geometry to the pin and closed-end spiral scrolls on both shoulder surfaces. Samples were processed at different rotating and longitudinal speeds to show the degree of dependency on the welding parameters for the defects. The analogue models showed that the entry zone and the exit zone of the BFSW are affected by the inhomogeneity of the material flow regime which causes the ejection or disruption of the plastic flow in the gap between the bobbin shoulders. The trial aluminium welds showed that the elimination of entry-exit defects in the weld body is not completely possible but the size of the defects can be minimized by modification of the welding parameters. For the entry zone, the flow pattern evolution suggested formation mechanisms for a sprayed tail, island zone

  5. The Exit Gradient As a Measure of Groundwater Dependency of Watershed Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, B. R.; Canfield, T. J.; Justin, G. F.

    2014-12-01

    Flux of groundwater to surface water is often of great interest for the determination of the groundwater dependency of ecosystem services, such as maintenance of wetlands and of baseflow as a contributor to stream channel storage. It is difficult to measure. Most methods are based on coarse mass balance estimates or seepage meters. One drawback of these methods is they are not entirely spatially explicit. The exit gradient is commonly used in engineering studies of hydraulic structures affected by groundwater flow. It can be simply defined in the groundwater modeling context as the ratio of the difference between the computed head and the land surface elevation, for each computational cell, to the thickness of the cell, as it varies in space. When combined with calibrated groundwater flow models, it also has the potential to be useful in watershed scale evaluations of groundwater dependency in a spatially explicit way. We have taken advantage of calibrated models for the Calapooia watershed, Oregon, to map exit gradients for the watershed. Streams in the Calapooia are hydraulically well connected with groundwater. Not surprisingly, we found large variations in exit gradients between wet and dry season model runs, supporting the notion of stream expansion, as observed in the field, which may have a substantial influence on water quality. We have mapped the exit gradients in the wet and dry seasons, and compared them to regions which have been mapped in wetland surveys. Those classified as Palustrine types fell largest in the area of contribution from groundwater. In many cases, substantially high exit gradients, even on average, did not correspond to mapped wetland areas, yet nutrient retention ecosystem services may still be playing a role in these areas. The results also reinforce the notion of the importance of baseflow to maintenance of stream flow, even in the dry summer season in this Temperate/Mediterranean climate. Exit gradient mapping is a simple, yet

  6. Rhineland exit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, A.L.; Teulings, C.

    2009-01-01

    We argue in favor of the shareholder model of the firm because assigning the full surplus of the firm to shareholders provides the best possible social insurance by diversifying firm-specific risks on capital markets. Coordination in wage bargaining and collective norms on what is proper

  7. Exit Prostitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Theresa Dyrvig; Mehlsen, Line; Kjær, Agnete Aslaug

    Fra 2012 til 2016 har man i Aalborg, Aarhus, København og Odense afprøvet metoden Critical Time Intervention (CTI) inden for prostitutionsområdet. Denne rapport evaluerer resultaterne. CTI har tidligere vist positive resultater i socialt arbejde med udsatte grupper, som fx hjemløse. På baggrund a...

  8. Two-dimensional exit dosimetry using a liquid-filled electronic portal imaging device and a convolution model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boellaard, Ronald; Herk, Marcel van; Uiterwaal, Hans; Mijnheer, Ben

    1997-01-01

    Background and purpose: To determine the accuracy of two-dimensional exit dose measurements with an electronic portal imaging device, EPID, using a convolution model for a variety of clinically relevant situations. Materials and methods: Exit doses were derived from portal dose images, obtained with a liquid-filled EPID at distances of 50 cm or more behind the patient, by using a convolution model. The resulting on- and off-axis exit dose values were first compared with ionization chamber exit dose measurements for homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantoms in open and wedged 4,8 and 18 MV photon beams. The accuracy of the EPID exit dose measurements was then determined for a number of anthropomorphic phantoms (lung and larynx) irradiated under clinical conditions and for a few patients treated in an 8 MV beam. The latter results were compared with in vivo exit dose measurements using diodes. Results: The exit dose can be determined from portal images with an accuracy of 1.2% (1 SD) compared with ionization chamber measurements for open beams and homogeneous phantoms at all tested beam qualities. In the presence of wedges and for inhomogeneous phantoms the average relative accuracy slightly deteriorated to 1.7% (1 SD). For lung phantoms in a 4 MV beam a similar accuracy was obtained after refinement of our convolution model, which requires knowledge of the patient contour. Differences between diode and EPID exit dose measurements for an anthropomorphic lung phantom in an 8 MV beam were 2.5% at most, with an average agreement within 1% (1 SD). For larynx phantoms in a 4 MV beam exit doses obtained with an ionization chamber and EPID agreed within 1.5% (1 SD). Finally, exit doses in a few patients irradiated in an 8 MV beam could be determined with the EPID with an accuracy of 1.1% (1 SD) relative to exit dose measurements using diodes. Conclusions: Portal images, obtained with our EPID and analyzed with our convolution model, can be used to determine the exit dose

  9. Observation of strong reflection of electron waves exiting a ballistic channel at low energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaz, Canute I.; Campbell, Jason P.; Ryan, Jason T.; Gundlach, David; Cheung, Kin. P., E-mail: Kin.Cheung@NIST.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8120 (United States); Liu, Changze [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8120 (United States); Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Southwick, Richard G. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8120 (United States); IBM Research, Albany, NY 12205 (United States); Oates, Anthony S. [Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Corporation, Hsinchu 30844, Taiwan (China); Huang, Ru [Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-06-15

    Wave scattering by a potential step is a ubiquitous concept. Thus, it is surprising that theoretical treatments of ballistic transport in nanoscale devices, from quantum point contacts to ballistic transistors, assume no reflection even when the potential step is encountered upon exiting the device. Experiments so far seem to support this even if it is not clear why. Here we report clear evidence of coherent reflection when electron wave exits the channel of a nanoscale transistor and when the electron energy is low. The observed behavior is well described by a simple rectangular potential barrier model which the Schrodinger’s equation can be solved exactly. We can explain why reflection is not observed in most situations but cannot be ignored in some important situations. Our experiment also represents a direct measurement of electron injection velocity - a critical quantity in nanoscale transistors that is widely considered not measurable.

  10. Radiation degradation of aromatic pollutants exit in wastewater and ph dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Takriti, S

    2002-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation on the degradation of phenol (hydroxybenzene), resorcinol (1,3 dihydroxybenzen) and hydroquinone (1,4 dihydroxybenzen) exit in waste water was investigated. The concentrations of these pollutants as well as the irradiated solution ph were studied. The results showed that the phenol is very resistance against the radiation doses comparing the other phenol compounds. Phenol was also a product of radiolysis of resorcinol and hydroquinone. On the other hand, the acid phase of the irradiation sample increased the degradation rate of pollutants. Spectrophotometer (UV-VIS) and chromatography (HPLC) were used to monitor the analysis of the radiation product solution. The results illustrated the existing of many substances such as organic alcohol, aldehyde, ketone and acidic functional groups as a final radiation products. The degradation of benzene, monochlorobenzene (CB) and 1,2 dichlorobenzene (1,2 DCB) exit in waste water by gamma irradiation was investigated. The effect of the irradi...

  11. Water Entry and Exit of Horizontal Cylinder in Free Surface Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafsia, Zouhaier; Maalel, Khlifa; Mnasri, Chokri; Mohamed, Omri

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes two-dimensional numerical simulations of the water entry and exit of horizontal circular cylinder at constant velocity. The deformation of free surface is described by Navier-Stokes (N S) equations of incompressible and viscous fluid with additional transport equation of the volume-of-fluid (VOF). The motion of the cylinder is modeled by the associated momentum source term implemented in the Phoenicis (Parabolic Hyperbolic Or Elliptic Numerical Integration Code Series) code. The domain is discretized by a fixed Cartesian grid using a finite volume method and the cylinder is represented and cut cell method. The simulated results are compared with the numerical results of Lin (2007). This comparison shows good agreement in terms of free surface evolution for water exit and sinking. However, for water entry, the jet flow simulated by Lin is not reproduced. The free surface deformation around the cylinder in downward direction is accurately predicted

  12. Relationship of core exit-temperature noise to thermal-hydraulic conditions in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, F.J.; Upadhyaya, B.R.

    1983-01-01

    Core exit thermocouple temperature noise and neutron detector noise measurements were performed at the Loss of Fluid Test Facility (LOFT) reactor and a Westinghouse, 1148 MW(e) PWR to relate temperature noise to core thermal-hydraulic conditions. The noise analysis results show that the RMS of the temperature noise increases linearly with increasing core δT at LOFT and the commercial PWR. Out-of-core test loop temperature noise has shown similar behavior. The phase angle between core exit temperature noise and in-core or ex-core neutron noise is directly related to the core coolant flow velocity. However, if the thermocouple response time is slow, compared to the coolant transit time between the sensors, velocities inferred from the phase angle are lower than measured coolant flow velocities

  13. Condensate subcooling near tube exit during horizontal in-tube condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, K.; Abe, N.; Ozeki, T.

    1992-01-01

    In-tube condensation is encountered in various applications for heat exchangers, such as domestic air-conditioning equipment, industrial air-cooled condensers, and moisture separator reheaters (MSRs) for nuclear power pants. Numerous research work has been conducted to predict the condensation heat transfer coefficient, and we have now enough information for thermal design of heat exchangers with horizontal in-tube condensation. Most of the research is analytical and/or experimental work in the annular or stratified flow regime, or experimental work on bulk condensation, i.e., from saturated vapor to complete condensation. On the other hand, there exist few data about the heat transfer phenomena in the very lower-quality region near the tube exit. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the condensation heat transfer phenomena near the tube exit experimentally and analytically, and to predict the degree of condensate subcooling

  14. Assessment of the exit defects in carbon fibre-reinforced plastic plates caused by drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Houjiang; Zhang Liangchi [Sydney Univ. (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering; Chen Wuyi; Chen Dingchang [Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, BJ (China). Dept. of Manufacturing Engineering

    2001-07-01

    This paper investigates the formation of the exit defects in carbon fibre-reinforced plates and characterizes their features in terms of drilling conditions. It was found that spalling and fuzzing are the major mechanisms of exit defects. The spalling, consisting of a main region and a secondary region, is caused by chisel and cutting edge actions, in which the former plays a key role. The fuzzing, however, exists in the cutting region where the included angle between the fibre direction of the surface layer and that of the cutting speed is acute. A severer spalling damage corresponds to a high spindle speed, a large feed rate and a great thrust force. Some empirical relationships, including a dimensionless formula, were developed for assessing the characteristic dimension of the spalling damage based on the known drilling conditions. (orig.)

  15. The Effect of Exit Strategy on Optimal Portfolio Selection with Birandom Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Guohua; Shan, Dan

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this paper are to use a birandom variable to denote the stock return selected by some recurring technical patterns and to study the effect of exit strategy on optimal portfolio selection with birandom returns. Firstly, we propose a new method to estimate the stock return and use birandom distribution to denote the final stock return which can reflect the features of technical patterns and investors' heterogeneity simultaneously; secondly, we build a birandom safety-first model and...

  16. A short note on the mean exit time of the Brownian motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadeddu, Lucio; Farina, Maria Antonietta

    We investigate the functional Ω↦ℰ(Ω) where Ω runs through the set of compact domains of fixed volume v in any Riemannian manifold (M,g) and where ℰ(Ω) is the mean exit time from Ω of the Brownian motion. We give an alternative analytical proof of a well-known fact on its critical points proved by McDonald: the critical points of ℰ(Ω) are harmonic domains.

  17. GLOBAL REFUGEE CRISIS: A STUDY OF MOHSIN HAMID'S NOVEL EXIT WEST

    OpenAIRE

    Manzoor Ahmad Mir

    2018-01-01

    Refugee crisis in the last few years of the present century has assumed such vast proportions which find parallels only during the World War II. The world is witnessing millions of people undertaking arduous journeys to escape their war torn countries of origin. Economic instability and deadly conflicts are forcing innumerable people to leave their homes in search of better lives. Mohsin Hamid’s novel Exit West (2017) is a modern take on the inevitable migration of people across countries, ev...

  18. Short Term Prediction of Freeway Exiting Volume Based on SVM and KNN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Wang

    2015-09-01

    The model results indicate that the proposed algorithm is feasible and accurate. The Mean Absolute Percentage Error is under 10%. When comparing with the results of single KNN or SVM method, the results show that the combination of KNN and SVM can improve the reliability of the prediction significantly. The proposed method can be implemented in the on-line application of exiting volume prediction, which is able to consider different vehicle types.

  19. A conserved chloramphenicol binding site at the entrance to the ribosomal peptide exit tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Katherine S; Porse, Bo T

    2003-01-01

    , of E.coli 23S rRNA and G2084 (2058 in E.coli numbering) in domain V of H.halobium 23S rRNA. The modification sites overlap with a portion of the macrolide binding site and cluster at the entrance to the peptide exit tunnel. The data correlate with the recently reported chloramphenicol binding site...... on an archaeal ribosome and suggest that a similar binding site is present on the E.coli ribosome....

  20. Toward electron exit wave tomography of amorphous materials at atomic resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisenko, Konstantin B., E-mail: konstantin.borisenko@materials.ox.ac.uk [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Moldovan, Grigore [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Kirkland, Angus I., E-mail: angus.kirkland@materials.ox.ac.uk [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Van Dyck, Dirk [Department of Physics, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Tang, Hsin-Yu; Chen, Fu-Rong [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Kuang-Fu Road, 300 Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We suggest a novel electron exit wave tomography approach to obtain three dimensional atomic structures of amorphous materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Theoretical tests using a model of amorphous Si doped with Au show that it is feasible to reconstruct both Si and Au atoms positions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reconstructions of the strongly scattering Au atoms positions appear to be insensitive to typical experimental errors. - Abstract: We suggest to use electron exit wave phase for tomographic reconstruction of structure of Au-doped amorphous Si with atomic resolution. In the present theoretical investigation into the approach it is found that the number of projections and the accuracy of defocus in the focal series restoration are the main factors that contribute to the final resolution. Although resolution is ultimately limited by these factors, phase shifts in the exit wave are sufficient to identify the position of Au atoms in an amorphous Si needle model, even when only 19 projections with defocus error of 4 nm are used. Electron beam damage will probably further limit the resolution of such tomographic reconstructions, however beam damage can be mitigated using lower accelerating voltages.

  1. Airport exit and entry screening for Ebola--August-November 10, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Clive M; Aranas, Aaron E; Benenson, Gabrielle A; Brunette, Gary; Cetron, Marty; Chen, Tai-Ho; Cohen, Nicole J; Diaz, Pam; Haber, Yonat; Hale, Christa R; Holton, Kelly; Kohl, Katrin; Le, Amanda W; Palumbo, Gabriel J; Pearson, Kate; Phares, Christina R; Alvarado-Ramy, Francisco; Roohi, Shah; Rotz, Lisa D; Tappero, Jordan; Washburn, Faith M; Watkins, James; Pesik, Nicki

    2014-12-12

    In response to the largest recognized Ebola virus disease epidemic now occurring in West Africa, the governments of affected countries, CDC, the World Health Organization (WHO), and other international organizations have collaborated to implement strategies to control spread of the virus. One strategy recommended by WHO calls for countries with Ebola transmission to screen all persons exiting the country for "unexplained febrile illness consistent with potential Ebola infection." Exit screening at points of departure is intended to reduce the likelihood of international spread of the virus. To initiate this strategy, CDC, WHO, and other global partners were invited by the ministries of health of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone to assist them in developing and implementing exit screening procedures. Since the program began in August 2014, an estimated 80,000 travelers, of whom approximately 12,000 were en route to the United States, have departed by air from the three countries with Ebola transmission. Procedures were implemented to deny boarding to ill travelers and persons who reported a high risk for exposure to Ebola; no international air traveler from these countries has been reported as symptomatic with Ebola during travel since these procedures were implemented.

  2. Results of the radiological survey at Exit 4, Interstate 90, Albany, New York (AL212)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marley, J.L.; Carrier, R.F.

    1988-02-01

    A number of properties in the Albany/Colonie area have been identified as being potentially contaminated with uranium originating from the former National Lead Company's uranium forming plant in Colonie, New York. The property at Exit 4 between Yardboro Avenue and Interstate 90 in Albany, New York was the subject of a radiological investigation initiated April 27, 1987. The area of survey of the property of the State of New York was the north side of the right-of-way of Interstate 90 (I-90) at Exit 4 (the Slingerlands exit) from the fence along the south side of Yardboro Avenue to the berm of the west-bound lanes of I-90. The survey, starting at the I-90 bridge over Central Avenue continued west for approximately 570 m. The width of the area ranged from /approximately/10 m to 195 m. To perform the survey, a network of sectors forming a grid was established, beginning with a series of basing points measured at /approximately/23-m intervals at the fence along Yardboro Avenue. Sectors were set by projection of lines from the basing points, perpendicular to the fence, to the berm of I-90. Then parallel lines at 23-m intervals were set. 12 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Effects of inlet distortion on gas turbine combustion chamber exit temperature profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqsood, Omar Shahzada

    Damage to a nozzle guide vane or blade, caused by non-uniform temperature distributions at the combustion chamber exit, is deleterious to turbine performance and can lead to expensive and time consuming overhaul and repair. A test rig was designed and constructed for the Allison 250-C20B combustion chamber to investigate the effects of inlet air distortion on the combustion chamber's exit temperature fields. The rig made use of the engine's diffuser tubes, combustion case, combustion liner, and first stage nozzle guide vane shield. Rig operating conditions simulated engine cruise conditions, matching the quasi-non-dimensional Mach number, equivalence ratio and Sauter mean diameter. The combustion chamber was tested with an even distribution of inlet air and a 4% difference in airflow at either side. An even distribution of inlet air to the combustion chamber did not create a uniform temperature profile and varying the inlet distribution of air exacerbated the profile's non-uniformity. The design of the combustion liner promoted the formation of an oval-shaped toroidal vortex inside the chamber, creating localized hot and cool sections separated by 90° that appeared in the exhaust. Uneven inlet air distributions skewed the oval vortex, increasing the temperature of the hot section nearest the side with the most mass flow rate and decreasing the temperature of the hot section on the opposite side. Keywords: Allison 250, Combustion, Dual-Entry, Exit Temperature Profile, Gas Turbine, Pattern Factor, Reverse Flow.

  4. In vivo dosimetry with thermoluminescent dosimeters in radiotherapy: entrance and exit doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, C.; Lopes, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    In vivo dosimetry, by entrance and exit dose measurements, is a vital part of a radiotherapy quality assurance program. The uncertainty associated with dose delivery is internationally accepted to be within 5% or inferior depending on the tumor pathology. Thermoluminescent dosimetry is one of the dosimetric techniques used to verify the agreement between delivered and prescribed doses. Nevertheless, it requires a very accurate calibration methodology. We have used LiF chips (4.5 mm diameter and 0.8 mm thick) calibrated towards a PTW ionization chamber of 0.3 cc, in three photon energies: Co-60, 4 and 6 MeV. The TLD reader used was a Rialto 688 from NE Technology and the annealing oven the Eurotherm type 815. The calibration methodology relies on the experimental determination of individual correction factors and on a correction factor derived from a control group of dosimeters. The exit and entrance dose measurements are performed in quite different situations. To be able to achieve those two quantities with TLD, these should be independently calibrated according to the measurement conditions. Alternatively, we can use a single calibration, in entrance dose, and convert the result to the exit dose value by introducing some correction factors. These corrections are related to the different measurement depths and to the different backscattering contributions. We have proved that within an acceptable error we can perform a single calibration and adopt the correction factors which are energy and field size dependent. (author)

  5. Helping Survivors of Human Trafficking: A Systematic Review of Exit and Postexit Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Nathaniel A; Maynard, Brandy R; Born, Kara R; Wagner, Elizabeth; Atkins, Bonnie; House, Whitney

    2017-01-01

    Human trafficking is a global problem and results in deleterious psychological, social, and physical effects on the lives of those who are trafficked; however, it is not clear how to best intervene with survivors. The purpose of this review was to synthesize the evidence of exit and postexit intervention programs for survivors of human trafficking to inform practice and research. Systematic review methods were used to search, select, and extract data from published and unpublished experimental, quasi-experimental, and preexperimental studies that assessed the effects of any exit or postexit interventions for victims of human trafficking. The authors searched eight databases, reviewed bibliographies, and conducted forward citation searches from relevant reports and prior reviews to find studies authored between 2005 and 2015. The search yielded six eligible studies that included 155 female and 6 male survivors from four countries. Interventions were diverse, with three using a trauma-informed approach. Authors measured a myriad of outcomes, including mental health, social network, community reintegration, and employment; however, the quality of most studies was poor. Evidence of effects of exit and postexit interventions is sparse, and much of the research is poorly designed and executed; however, the needs of trafficking survivors are complex and effective interventions are desperately needed. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  6. An entry and exit model on the energy-saving investment strategy with real options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Tyrone T.; Huang, S.-L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an improved decision model based on the real options approach presented by for the firms that have not yet established energy-saving equipment under the entry and exit strategies. Furthermore, the proposed model takes account of the inevitable equipment renewal and the occurrence of unexpected events under the Poisson jump process. The timing for terminating an investment when continuous operations of that business are unprofitable is also explored to realize the optimal timing of implementing the energy-saving strategy. The future discounted benefit B follows the geometric Brownian motion with the Poisson jump process and the replacement of investment equipment. A numerical analysis is followed by a sensitivity study of various parameters to better realize their impacts on the entry and exit thresholds. The results show that for the jump case, the higher probability of occurrence of unfavorable events will result in a higher entry threshold and lower exit threshold. Investors are forced to request higher benefit thresholds to cover the higher probability of losses brought by unfavorable events.

  7. Labour market entries and exits of women from different origin countries in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoudja, Yassine; Platt, Lucinda

    2018-01-01

    Labour force participation rates of women differ strongly by ethnic origin. Even though existing research using cross-sectional studies has demonstrated that part of these differences can be attributed to compositional differences in human capital, household conditions and gender attitudes, residual 'ethnic effects' typically remain. To further our understanding of women's labour market behaviour across ethnic groups, we use a large-scale longitudinal study and apply a dynamic perspective to examine how far relevant life-course events in addition to individual characteristics, gender attitudes and religiosity contribute to the explanation of ethnic differences in women's labour force entries and exits in the UK. Our findings show that, adjusting for all these factors, Indian and Caribbean women do not differ from White majority women in their labour force entry and exit probabilities but that Pakistani and Bangladeshi women are less likely to enter and more likely to exit the labour market, whereas Black African women have higher entry rates. We also find that relations between life-course events and labour market transitions differ by ethnic group. Most notably, Pakistani and Bangladeshi women's labour market transitions are less sensitive to child-bearing and Caribbean women's transitions less sensitive to partnership changes than other women's. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ramp Metering Influence on Freeway Operational Safety near On-ramp Exits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Liu, PhD, PE, PTOE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ramp metering has been widely installed in urban areas where congestion on a freeway or an expressway may occur recurrently during weekday peak periods to enhance mainline throughput and reduce system-wide delay. These operational benefits may also help reduce vehicular emissions and improve air quality in urban areas. However, the impact on traffic safety due to ramp metering hasn't been explored in details before. Supported by physical understanding and arguments, we characterize the ramp metering influence on freeway safety by examining vehicular collisions near on-ramp exits within the ramp meter operating hours before and after the activation of the ramp metering. Collisions for a sample of 19 operating ramp meters along several freeways in northern California were collected and organized to show that ramp metering can help reduce freeway collisions at the vicinity of on-ramp exits. It was found that the average reductions on freeway collisions in the vicinity of an on-ramp exit are around 36%. Although most of the reduced collisions belong to the property damage only category, a 36% reduction shows the significant safety benefit of ramp metering. The traffic congestion induced by each collision, especially during peak hours when ramp metering is in operation, could last for an hour or two. Consequently, ramp metering must be contributing to the reduction of non-recurrent congestion in addition to mitigating recurrent congestion, which is better documented. This study strongly supports the implementation of ramp metering in California.

  9. Formation of vortex pairs with hinged rigid flaps at the nozzle exit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Prashant; Govardhan, Raghuraman; Arakeri, Jaywant

    2013-11-01

    Biological flows related to aquatic propulsion using pulsed jets, or flow through the valves in a human heart, have received considerable attention in the last two decades. Both these flows are associated with starting jets that occur through biological tissue/membranes that are flexible. Motivated by these flows, we explore in the present work, the effect of passive flexibility of the nozzle exit on vortex generation from a starting jet. The starting jet is generated using a two-dimensional piston cylinder mechanism, the cross-section of the cylinder being rectangular with large aspect ratio. The fluid is pushed out of this cylinder or channel using a computer controlled piston. We introduce flexibility at the channel exit by hinging rigid flaps, which are initially parallel to the channel. The hinge used is such that it provides negligible stiffness or damping, thus allowing for the maximum opening of the flaps due to fluid forces. Using this system, we study both the flap kinematics and the vorticity dynamics downstream of the channel exit. Visualizations show large flap motions as the piston starts and this dramatically changes the vorticity distribution downstream of the flaps, with the formation of up to three different kinds of vortex pairs. This idealized configuration opens new opportunities to look at the effect of flexibility in such biological flows.

  10. Drivers' Visual Characteristics when Merging onto or Exiting an Urban Expressway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Cheng

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine drivers' visual and driving behavior while merging onto or exiting an urban expressway with low and high traffic densities. The analysis was conducted according to three periods (approaching, merging or exiting, and accelerating or decelerating. A total of 10 subjects (8 males and 2 females with ages ranging from 25 to 52 years old (M = 30.0 years old participated in the study. The research was conducted in a natural driving situation, and the drivers' eye movements were monitored and recorded using an eye tracking system. The results show that the influence of traffic density on the glance duration and scan duration is more significant when merging than when exiting. The results also demonstrate that the number of glances and the mean glance duration are mainly related to the driving task (e.g., the merging period. Therefore, drivers' visual search strategies mainly depend on the current driving task. With regard to driving behavior, the variation tendencies of the duration and the velocity of each period are similar. These results support building an automated driving assistant system that can automatically identify gaps and accelerate or decelerate the car accordingly or provide suggestions to the driver to do so.

  11. Exit competencies in pathology and laboratory medicine for graduating medical students: the Canadian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jason; Pambrun, Chantale

    2015-05-01

    Physicians in every medical and surgical field must be able to use pathology concepts and skills in their practice: for example, they must order and interpret the correct laboratory tests, they must use their understanding of pathogenesis to diagnose and treat, and they must work with the laboratory to care for their patients. These important concepts and skills may be ignored by medical schools and even national/international organizations setting graduation expectations for medical students. There is an evolving international consensus about the importance of exit competencies for medical school graduates, which define the measurable or observable behaviors each graduate must be able to demonstrate. The Canadian Association of Pathologists (CAP) Education Group set out to establish the basic competencies in pathology and laboratory medicine which should be expected of every medical graduate: not competencies for pathologists, but for medical graduates who intend to enter any residency program. We defined 4 targets for pathology and laboratory medicine exit competencies: that they represent only measurable behaviors, that they be clinically focused, that they be generalizable to every medical graduate, and that the final competency document be user-friendly. A set of competencies was developed iteratively and underwent final revision at the 2012 CAP annual meeting. These competencies were subsequently endorsed by the CAP executive and the Canadian Leadership Council on Laboratory Medicine. This clinically focused consensus document provides the first comprehensive list of exit competencies in pathology and laboratory medicine for undergraduate medical education. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. KLF4 Nuclear Export Requires ERK Activation and Initiates Exit from Naive Pluripotency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Navroop K; Miri, Kamelia; Davidson, Scott; Tamim El Jarkass, Hala; Mitchell, Jennifer A

    2018-04-10

    Cooperative action of a transcription factor complex containing OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, and KLF4 maintains the naive pluripotent state; however, less is known about the mechanisms that disrupt this complex, initiating exit from pluripotency. We show that, as embryonic stem cells (ESCs) exit pluripotency, KLF4 protein is exported from the nucleus causing rapid decline in Nanog and Klf4 transcription; as a result, KLF4 is the first pluripotency transcription factor removed from transcription-associated complexes during differentiation. KLF4 nuclear export requires ERK activation, and phosphorylation of KLF4 by ERK initiates interaction of KLF4 with nuclear export factor XPO1, leading to KLF4 export. Mutation of the ERK phosphorylation site in KLF4 (S132) blocks KLF4 nuclear export, the decline in Nanog, Klf4, and Sox2 mRNA, and differentiation. These findings demonstrate that relocalization of KLF4 to the cytoplasm is a critical first step in exit from the naive pluripotent state and initiation of ESC differentiation. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. R2 & NE: NAVTEQ 2011 Q3 Exit Points for the United States, including Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands in SDC Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EXITS layer contains point representations of the locations of exits, typically on controlled access roads such as motorways and freeways. Controlled access...

  14. Retrospectively assessed physical work environment during working life and risk of sickness absence and labour market exit among older workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prospective association between retrospectively assessed physical work environment during working life and prospectively assessed sickness absence and labour market exit among older workers. METHODS: Using Cox regression analyses we estimated the 4-year to 6-year...... and exposure to several factors in the physical work environment, especially heavy lifting, were important for labour market exit and sickness absence. This study underscores the importance of reducing physical work exposures throughout the working life course for preventing sickness absence and premature exit...... from the labour market....

  15. An interplay between extracellular signalling and the dynamics of the exit from pluripotency drives cell fate decisions in mouse ES cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Turner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic Stem cells derived from the epiblast tissue of the mammalian blastocyst retain the capability to differentiate into any adult cell type and are able to self-renew indefinitely under appropriate culture conditions. Despite the large amount of knowledge that we have accumulated to date about the regulation and control of self-renewal, efficient directed differentiation into specific tissues remains elusive. In this work, we have analysed in a systematic manner the interaction between the dynamics of loss of pluripotency and Activin/Nodal, BMP4 and Wnt signalling in fate assignment during the early stages of differentiation of mouse ES cells in culture. During the initial period of differentiation, cells exit from pluripotency and enter an Epi-like state. Following this transient stage, and under the influence of Activin/Nodal and BMP signalling, cells face a fate choice between differentiating into neuroectoderm and contributing to Primitive Streak fates. We find that Wnt signalling does not suppress neural development as previously thought and that it aids both fates in a context dependent manner. Our results suggest that as cells exit pluripotency they are endowed with a primary neuroectodermal fate and that the potency to become endomesodermal rises with time. We suggest that this situation translates into a “race for fates” in which the neuroectodermal fate has an advantage.

  16. Pak3 promotes cell cycle exit and differentiation of β-cells in the embryonic pancreas and is necessary to maintain glucose homeostasis in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccand, Julie; Meunier, Aline; Merle, Carole; Jia, Zhengping; Barnier, Jean-Vianney; Gradwohl, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor neurogenin3 (Ngn3) triggers islet cell differentiation in the developing pancreas. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms coupling cell cycle exit and differentiation in Ngn3(+) islet progenitors. We identified a novel effector of Ngn3 endocrinogenic function, the p21 protein-activated kinase Pak3, known to control neuronal differentiation and implicated in X-linked intellectual disability in humans. We show that Pak3 expression is initiated in Ngn3(+) endocrine progenitor cells and next maintained in maturing hormone-expressing cells during pancreas development as well as in adult islet cells. In Pak3-deficient embryos, the proliferation of Ngn3(+) progenitors and β-cells is transiently increased concomitantly with an upregulation of Ccnd1. β-Cell differentiation is impaired at E15.5 but resumes at later stages. Pak3-deficient mice do not develop overt diabetes but are glucose intolerant under high-fat diet (HFD). In the intestine, Pak3 is expressed in enteroendocrine cells but is not necessary for their differentiation. Our results indicate that Pak3 is a novel regulator of β-cell differentiation and function. Pak3 acts downstream of Ngn3 to promote cell cycle exit and differentiation in the embryo by a mechanism that might involve repression of Ccnd1. In the adult, Pak3 is required for the proper control of glucose homeostasis under challenging HFD.

  17. Which consequences for the USA of its exit from the Paris agreement? An economic, commercial and geopolitical view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hache, Emmanuel; Bourcet, Clemence; Palle, Angelique

    2017-06-01

    The authors discuss economic impacts which its exit from the Paris agreement may have on the US at the medium and long terms, and also the possible geopolitical reconfigurations which may result from this exit at the international level. Possible economic impacts are discussed in terms of loss of competitiveness, of image and of leadership in the international innovation dynamics. The authors also notice and comment that this exit process has already started in January 2017 with the exit form the Transpacific Partnership Treaty. They question the possible emergence of new leaders for international climatic issues, and discuss the consequences of this loss of political and moral influence of the US, and of China be this leader. The authors comment the domestic situation for the US in terms of political debate between Democrats and Republicans, but also by considering the fact that the environment policy is a power issue between local and federal authorities in the US

  18. Film techniques in radiotherapy for treatment verification, determination of patient exit dose, and detection of localization error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haus, A.G.; Marks, J.E.

    1974-01-01

    In patient radiation therapy, it is important to know that the diseased area is included in the treatment field and that normal anatomy is properly shielded or excluded. Since 1969, a film technique developed for imaging of the complete patient radiation exposure has been applied for treatment verification and for the detection and evaluation of localization errors that may occur during treatment. The technique basically consists of placing a film under the patient during the entire radiation exposure. This film should have proper sensitivity and contrast in the exit dose exposure range encountered in radiotherapy. In this communication, we describe how various exit doses fit the characteristic curve of the film; examples of films exposed to various exit doses; the technique for using the film to determine the spatial distribution of the absorbed exit dose; and types of errors commonly detected. Results are presented illustrating that, as the frequency of use of this film technique is increased, localization error is reduced significantly

  19. The Influence of Psychographic Variables on the Theory of Exit, Voice, and Loyalty of Customer Complaints Behaviour in Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Preko Alexander; Agbanu Kwami Samuel

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses Customer Complaints Behaviour (CCB) using psychographic factors and the Theory of Exit, Voice and Loyalty. Prior studies on the continent of Africa have explored customer dissatisfaction, service failure, complaints handling and complaint attitudes, but not in association with psychographic factors. This research gap is addressed with a new conceptual understanding that integrates psychographic variables and the Theory of Exit, Voice and Loyalty in a single ...

  20. UC3M Emergencies : health center search, first aid, defibrillators, emergency exits, last warnings and torch (iOS platform)

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Civiac, María

    2013-01-01

    This document contains Maria Martin’s bachelor thesis. The issues that this project wants to solve are emergencies-related: health centersand emergency exits location,emergency call, first aid instructions and information and latest emergency alerts at Carlos III University. It has been detected that members of Carlos III University currently have difficulties to find health centers, emergency exits and first aid information. Furthermore, the University itself did not have any mechanism to pu...

  1. Plume-exit modeling to determine cloud condensation nuclei activity of aerosols from residential biofuel combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Francisco; Bond, Tami C.; Riemer, Nicole

    2017-08-01

    Residential biofuel combustion is an important source of aerosols and gases in the atmosphere. The change in cloud characteristics due to biofuel burning aerosols is uncertain, in part, due to the uncertainty in the added number of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) from biofuel burning. We provide estimates of the CCN activity of biofuel burning aerosols by explicitly modeling plume dynamics (coagulation, condensation, chemical reactions, and dilution) in a young biofuel burning plume from emission until plume exit, defined here as the condition when the plume reaches ambient temperature and specific humidity through entrainment. We found that aerosol-scale dynamics affect CCN activity only during the first few seconds of evolution, after which the CCN efficiency reaches a constant value. Homogenizing factors in a plume are co-emission of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) or emission at small particle sizes; SVOC co-emission can be the main factor determining plume-exit CCN for hydrophobic or small particles. Coagulation limits emission of CCN to about 1016 per kilogram of fuel. Depending on emission factor, particle size, and composition, some of these particles may not activate at low supersaturation (ssat). Hygroscopic Aitken-mode particles can contribute to CCN through self-coagulation but have a small effect on the CCN activity of accumulation-mode particles, regardless of composition differences. Simple models (monodisperse coagulation and average hygroscopicity) can be used to estimate plume-exit CCN within about 20 % if particles are unimodal and have homogeneous composition, or when particles are emitted in the Aitken mode even if they are not homogeneous. On the other hand, if externally mixed particles are emitted in the accumulation mode without SVOCs, an average hygroscopicity overestimates emitted CCN by up to a factor of 2. This work has identified conditions under which particle populations become more homogeneous during plume processes. This

  2. Left ventricular outflow tract arrhythmias with divergent QRS morphology: mapping of different exits and ablation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reithmann, Christopher; Fiek, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) from the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) can have multiple exits exhibiting divergent ECG features. In a series of 131 patients with VAs with LVOT origin, 10 patients presented with divergent QRS morphologies. Multisite endo- and epicardial mapping of different exit sites was performed. The earliest ventricular activity of 23 LVOT VAs in 10 patients was detected in the endocardium of the LV in 7 patients, the aortic sinuses of Valsalva (SoV) in 3 patients, the distal coronary sinus in 6 patients, the anterior interventricular vein in 3 patients, and the posterior right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) in 4 patients. Simultaneous elimination of two divergent QRS morphologies of LVOT VAs by ablation from a single site was achieved in 5 patients (aorto-mitral continuity in 3 patients, SoV and RVOT in each 1 patient) using a mean maximum ablation energy of 46 ± 5 W. Sequential ablation from two or three different sites, including trans-pericardial and distal coronary sinus ablation in each 2 patients, led to elimination of the divergent VA QRS morphologies in the other 5 patients. During the follow-up of 28 ± 29 months, 4 of the 10 patients had recurrence of at least one LVOT VA. A 43-year-old patient with muscular dystrophy Curschmann-Steinert had recurrence of sustained LVOT VTs and died of sudden cardiac death. Multisite mapping of different exit sites of LVOT VAs can guide ablation of intramural foci but the recurrence rate after initially successful ablation was high.

  3. The ribosomal protein uL22 modulates the shape of the nascent protein exit tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wekselman, I.; Zimmerman, E.; Davidovich, C.

    2017-01-01

    in the entrance of theribosomal exit tunnel and interferes with the progression of nas-cent chains. Commonly, resistance to erythromycin is acquiredby alterations of rRNA nucleotides that interact with the drug.Mutations in theb-hairpin of ribosomal protein uL22, which israther distal to the erythromycin binding...... to erythromycin binding pocket and increases its flexi-bility. Based on our results, we suggest a feasble mechanism thatexplains how nanscent proteins can be translated when ery-thromycin is bound to the ribosome. Furthermore, our findingssupport recent studies showing that the interactions betweenuL22...

  4. Calculation of the exit probability of a particle from a cylinder of matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertaud, A.; Mercier, C.

    1949-02-01

    In the elementary calculation of the ε coefficient and of the slowing down length inside a nuclear pile made of a network of cylindrical rods, it is necessary to know the exit probability of a neutron initially located inside a cylinder filled up with a given substance. This probability is the ratio between the number of output neutrons and the number of neutrons produced inside the surface of the cylinder. This report makes the resolution of this probabilistic equation (integral calculation) both for the cylindrical case and for the spherical case. (J.S.)

  5. An Exit for the Human Product: A Comparative Study of Extreme Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Ying Qin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines from a comparative perspective six novels telling stories of extreme life experiences set in both Western and oriental cultures. The paper argues that in these extreme cases, the characters, subjected to absolute power domination, lose their individual identities and are transformed into “human products.” Their struggles for power will always remain futile unless they find a way to reverse the power relationships they are trapped in. Such a reversal allows the hope of an exit for the “human products” to escape the hopeless situation of perpetuated social, sexual, and mental enslavement.

  6. Inflation in string theory: A graceful exit to the real world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicoli, Michele; Mazumdar, Anupam

    2011-01-01

    The most important criteria for a successful inflation are: explaining the observed temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation, and exiting inflation in a vacuum where it can excite the standard model quarks and leptons required for the success of big bang nucleosynthesis. In this paper, we provide the first ever closed-string model of inflation where the inflaton couplings to hidden sector, moduli sector, and visible sector fields can be computed, showing that inflation can lead to reheating the standard model degrees of freedom before the electro-weak scale.

  7. Reduction of background noise induced by wind tunnel jet exit vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. M.; Brooks, T. F.; Hoad, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA-Langley 4 x 7 m wind tunnel develops low frequency flow pulsations at certain velocity ranges during open throat mode operation, affecting the aerodynamics of the flow and degrading the resulting model test data. Triangular vanes attached to the trailing edge of flat steel rails, mounted 10 cm from the inside of the jet exit walls, have been used to reduce this effect; attention is presently given to methods used to reduce the inherent noise generation of the vanes while retaining their pulsation reduction features.

  8. Probability of growth of small damage sites on the exit surface of fused silica optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negres, Raluca A; Abdulla, Ghaleb M; Cross, David A; Liao, Zhi M; Carr, Christopher W

    2012-06-04

    Growth of laser damage on fused silica optical components depends on several key parameters including laser fluence, wavelength, pulse duration, and site size. Here we investigate the growth behavior of small damage sites on the exit surface of SiO₂ optics under exposure to tightly controlled laser pulses. Results demonstrate that the onset of damage growth is not governed by a threshold, but is probabilistic in nature and depends both on the current size of a damage site and the laser fluence to which it is exposed. We also develop models for use in growth prediction. In addition, we show that laser exposure history also influences the behavior of individual sites.

  9. Long noncoding RNA PANDA and scaffold-attachment-factor SAFA control senescence entry and exit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvvula, Pavan Kumar; Desetty, Rohini Devi; Pineau, Pascal; Marchio, Agnés; Moon, Anne; Dejean, Anne; Bischof, Oliver

    2014-11-19

    Cellular senescence is a stable cell cycle arrest that limits the proliferation of pre-cancerous cells. Here we demonstrate that scaffold-attachment-factor A (SAFA) and the long noncoding RNA PANDA differentially interact with polycomb repressive complexes (PRC1 and PRC2) and the transcription factor NF-YA to either promote or suppress senescence. In proliferating cells, SAFA and PANDA recruit PRC complexes to repress the transcription of senescence-promoting genes. Conversely, the loss of SAFA-PANDA-PRC interactions allows expression of the senescence programme. Accordingly, we find that depleting either SAFA or PANDA in proliferating cells induces senescence. However, in senescent cells where PANDA sequesters transcription factor NF-YA and limits the expression of NF-YA-E2F-coregulated proliferation-promoting genes, PANDA depletion leads to an exit from senescence. Together, our results demonstrate that PANDA confines cells to their existing proliferative state and that modulating its level of expression can cause entry or exit from senescence.

  10. An exit cavity was crucial to the polymerase activity of the early ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, George E; Tran, Quyen; Yonath, Ada

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of an RNA entity capable of synthesizing peptides was a key prebiotic development. It is hypothesized that a precursor of the modern ribosomal exit tunnel was associated with this RNA entity (e.g., "protoribosome" or "bonding entity") from the earliest time and played an essential role. Various compounds that can bind and activate amino acids, including extremely short RNA chains carrying amino acids, and possibly di- or tripeptides, would have associated with the internal cavity of the protoribosome. This cavity hosts the site for peptide bond formation and adjacent to it a relatively elongated feature that could have evolved to the modern ribosomal exit tunnel, as it is wide enough to allow passage of an oligopeptide. When two of the compounds carrying amino acids or di- or tripeptides (to which we refer, for simplicity, as small aminoacylated RNAs) were in proximity within the heart of the protoribosome, a peptide bond could form spontaneously. The growing peptide would enter the nearby cavity and would not disrupt the attachment of the substrates to the protoribosome or interfere with the subsequent attachment of additional small aminoacylated RNAs. Additionally, the presence of the peptide in the cavity would increase the lifetime of the oligopeptide in the protoribosome. Thus, subsequent addition of another amino acid would be more likely than detachment from the protoribosome, and synthesis could continue. The early ability to synthesize peptides may have resulted in an abbreviated RNA World.

  11. Numerical simulation of water exit of an initially fully submerged buoyant spheroid in an axisymmetric flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, B Y; Wu, G X, E-mail: g.wu@ucl.ac.uk [College of Shipbuilding Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2017-08-15

    The free water exit of an initially fully submerged buoyant spheroid in an axisymmetric flow, which is driven by the difference between the vertical fluid force and gravity, is investigated. The fluid is assumed to be incompressible and inviscid, and the flow to be irrotational. The velocity potential theory is adopted together with fully nonlinear boundary conditions on the free surface. The surface tension is neglected and the pressure is taken as constant on the free surface. The acceleration of the body at each time step is obtained as part of the solution. Its nonlinear mutual dependence on the fluid force is decoupled through the auxiliary function method. The free-surface breakup by body penetration and water detachment from the body are treated through numerical conditions. The slender body theory based on the zero potential assumption on the undisturbed flat free surface is adopted, through which a condition for full water exit of a spheroid is obtained. Comparison is made between the results from the slender body theory and from the fully nonlinear theory through the boundary-element method, and good agreement is found when the spheroid is slender. Extensive case studies are undertaken to investigate the effects of body density, dimensions and the initial submergence. (paper)

  12. Eternal extended inflation and graceful exit from old inflation without Jordan-Brans-Dicke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Andrei

    1990-10-01

    Recently a possible solution to the graceful exit problem of the old inflation was proposed in the context of the Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory (extended inflation). In this paper we will argue that inflation in this theory occurs in a most natural way if it starts near the Planck density, as in the standard version of chaotic inflation. With most natural initial conditions, the inflationary universe in the JBD theory enters the stage of permanent reproduction of new inflationary domains (eternal extended inflation). In order to realize the extended inflation scenario at least two classical scalar fields driving inflation are necessary, as distinct from the simplest versions of new and chaotic inflation. It is shown that in the theory of two scalar fields one can solve the graceful exit problem even without modifying the Einstein gravity theory, due to the possibility that the decay rate of the false rate vacuum in old inflation depends on the value of the second scalar field and hence on time. Address after 1 September 1990: Physics Department, Stanford University, Varian Building, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

  13. Optimization of exit-plane waves restored from HRTEM through-focal series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erni, Rolf; Rossell, Marta D.; Nakashima, Philip N.H.

    2010-01-01

    Atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy has largely benefited from the implementation of aberration correctors in the imaging part of the microscope. Though the dominant geometrical axial aberrations can in principle be corrected or suitably adjusted, the impact of higher-order aberrations, which are mainly due to the implementation of non-round electron optical elements, on the imaging process remains unclear. Based on a semi-empirical criterion, we analyze the impact of residual aperture aberrations on the quality of exit-plane waves that are retrieved from through-focal series recorded using an aberration-corrected and monochromated instrument which was operated at 300 kV and enabled for an information transfer of ∼0.05 nm. We show that the impact of some of the higher-order aberrations in retrieved exit-plane waves can be balanced by a suitable adjustment of symmetry equivalent lower-order aberrations. We find that proper compensation and correction of 1st and 2nd order aberrations is critical, and that the required accuracy is difficult to achieve. This results in an apparent insensitivity towards residual higher-order aberrations. We also investigate the influence of the detector characteristics on the image contrast. We find that correction for the modulation transfer function results in a contrast gain of up to 40%.

  14. Dietary flavonoid fisetin induces a forced exit from mitosis by targeting the mitotic spindle checkpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela, Anna-Leena; Pouwels, Jeroen; Varis, Asta; Kukkonen, Anu M.; Toivonen, Pauliina; Halonen, Pasi K.; Perälä, Merja; Kallioniemi, Olli; Gorbsky, Gary J.; Kallio, Marko J.

    2009-01-01

    Fisetin is a natural flavonol present in edible vegetables, fruits and wine at 2–160 μg/g concentrations and an ingredient in nutritional supplements with much higher concentrations. The compound has been reported to exert anticarcinogenic effects as well as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity via its ability to act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation and free radical scavenger, respectively. Our cell-based high-throughput screen for small molecules that override chemically induced mitotic arrest identified fisetin as an antimitotic compound. Fisetin rapidly compromised microtubule drug-induced mitotic block in a proteasome-dependent manner in several human cell lines. Moreover, in unperturbed human cancer cells fisetin caused premature initiation of chromosome segregation and exit from mitosis without normal cytokinesis. To understand the molecular mechanism behind these mitotic errors, we analyzed the consequences of fisetin treatment on the localization and phoshorylation of several mitotic proteins. Aurora B, Bub1, BubR1 and Cenp-F rapidly lost their kinetochore/centromere localization and others became dephosphorylated upon addition of fisetin to the culture medium. Finally, we identified Aurora B kinase as a novel direct target of fisetin. The activity of Aurora B was significantly reduced by fisetin in vitro and in cells, an effect that can explain the observed forced mitotic exit, failure of cytokinesis and decreased cell viability. In conclusion, our data propose that fisetin perturbs spindle checkpoint signaling, which may contribute to the antiproliferative effects of the compound. PMID:19395653

  15. Parasites may exit immunocompromised northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina) infected with SIVmac239.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tian-Zhang; Zhang, Ming-Xu; Xia, Yu-Jie; Xiao, Yu; Pang, Wei; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2018-01-18

    Parasites can increase infection rates and pathogenicity in immunocompromised human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. However, in vitro studies and epidemiological investigations also suggest that parasites might escape immunocompromised hosts during HIV infection. Due to the lack of direct evidence from animal experiments, the effects of parasitic infections on immunocompromised hosts remain unclear. Here, we detected 14 different parasites in six northern pig-tailed macaques (NPMs) before or at the 50th week of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection by ELISA. The NPMs all carried parasites before viral injection. At the 50th week after viral injection, the individuals with negative results in parasitic detection (i.e., 08247 and 08287) were characterized as the Parasites Exit (PE) group, with the other individuals (i.e., 09203, 09211, 10205, and 10225) characterized as the Parasites Remain (PR) group. Compared with the PR group, the NPMs in the PE group showed higher viral loads, lower CD4 + T cells counts, and lower CD4/CD8 rates. Additionally, the PE group had higher immune activation and immune exhaustion of both CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. Pathological observation showed greater injury to the liver, cecum, colon, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes in the PE group. This study showed more seriously compromised immunity in the PE group, strongly indicating that parasites might exit an immunocompromised host.

  16. The transport phase of pyrolytic oil exiting a fast fluidized bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugaard, Daren Einar

    An unresolved and debated aspect in the fast pyrolysis of biomass is whether the bio-oil exits as a vapor or as an aerosol from the pyrolytic reactor. The determination of the bio-oil transport phase will have direct and significant impact on the design of fast pyrolysis systems. Optimization of both the removal of particulate matter and collection of bio-oil will require this information. In addition, the success of catalytic reforming of bio-oil to high-value chemicals will depend upon this transport phase. A variety of experimental techniques were used to identify the transport phase. Some tests were as simple as examining the catch of an inline filter while others attempted to deduce whether vapor or aerosol predominated by examining the pressure drop across a flow restriction. In supplementary testing, the effect of char on aerosol formation and the potential impact of cracking during direct contact filtering are evaluated. The study indicates that for pyrolysis of red oak approximately 90 wt-% of the collected bio-oil existed as a liquid aerosol. Conversely, the pyrolysis of corn starch produced bio-oil predominately in the vapor phase at the exit of the reactor. Furthermore, it was determined that the addition of char promotes the production of aerosols during pyrolysis of corn starch. Direct contact filtering of the product stream did not collect any liquids and the bio-oil yield was not significantly reduced indicating measurable cracking or coking did not occur.

  17. Parasites may exit immunocompromised northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina infected with SIVmac239

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Zhang Song

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasites can increase infection rates andpathogenicity in immunocompromised humanimmunodeficiency virus (HIV patients. However, invitro studies and epidemiological investigationsalso suggest that parasites might escapeimmunocompromised hosts during HIV infection.Due to the lack of direct evidence from animalexperiments, the effects of parasitic infections onimmunocompromised hosts remain unclear. Here,we detected 14 different parasites in six northernpig-tailed macaques (NPMs before or during the50th week of post-simian immunodeficiency virus(SIV infection by ELISA. The NPMs all carriedparasites before viral injection. At the 50th week afterviral injection, the individuals with negative resultsin parasitic detection (i.e., 08247 and 08287 werecharacterized as the Parasites Exit (PE group, withthe other individuals (i.e., 09203, 09211, 10205, and10225 characterized as the Parasites Remain (PRgroup. Compared with the PR group, the NPMs in thePE group showed higher viral loads, lower CD4+ Tcells counts, and lower CD4/CD8 rates. Additionally,the PE group had higher immune activation andimmune exhaustion of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.Pathological observation showed greater injury tothe liver, cecum, colon, spleen, and mesentericlymph nodes in the PE group. This study showedmore seriously compromised immunity in the PEgroup, strongly indicating that parasites might exit animmunocompromised host.

  18. Men Who Stop Caring: The Exit of Men from Caring Occupations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenn Warming

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, initiatives have been taken to attract more men into caring occupations. However, there has been much less focus on retaining these new male workers. This article builds on qualitative interviews with 11 Danish men who after working in the caring sector decided to leave for other occupations. A factor often presented as influential for the men’s exit concerns the social working environment. In the interviews, the men discuss the pressure to assimilate to the existing and established female-dominated culture. They feel excluded and socially isolated. Several of them have been directly criticized or disqualified as not being “real” men by their female colleagues. As a result of a growing bureaucratic demand for control and registration of work procedures, several men feel that they do not have adequate resources and time to provide the level of care that is needed. They become disillusioned and frustrated and choose to seek employment elsewhere. Some men cannot come to terms with close physical contact and “smells,” for example, changing diapers on infants or bathing old people. They cannot handle the thought of having their intentions misinterpreted, for example, when playing and being physical with children, and being potentially seen as sexually abhorrent. Finally, some men never intended to remain permanently in caring occupations. Their exit is driven by an ambition to pursue a career in another field or at what they view as a more challenging career level.

  19. Visualization of the contact line during the water exit of flat plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassin, A.; Breton, T.; Forest, B.; Ohana, J.; Chalony, S.; Le Roux, D.; Tancray, A.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate experimentally the time evolution of the wetted surface during the lifting of a body initially floating at the water surface. This phenomenon is referred to as the water exit problem. The water exit experiments were conducted with transparent (PMMA) mock-ups of two different shapes: a circular disc and a square flat plate. Two different lighting systems were used to diffuse light in the mock-up material: a central high-power LED light normal to the surface and an edge-lighting system featuring an array of LED lights. These setups make it possible to illuminate the contact line, which delimits the surface of contact between the mock-up and the water. The characteristic size of the mock-ups is about 20 cm and the acceleration of the mock-up oscillates between 0 and 25 m/s^2. We show that the central light setup gives satisfactory results for the circular disc and that the edge lighting technique makes it possible to follow a contact line with a time-evolving complex shape (strong changes of convexity) up to 1000 fps. The observations presented in the paper support the possibility of extending this promising technique to more general three-dimensional bodies with arbitrary motion (e.g., including pitch motion).

  20. Structure of the Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase TrzD Reveals Product Exit Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Asim K; Aukema, Kelly G; Elias, Mikael; Wackett, Lawrence P

    2017-03-27

    Cyanuric acid hydrolases are of industrial importance because of their use in aquatic recreational facilities to remove cyanuric acid, a stabilizer for the chlorine. Degradation of excess cyanuric acid is necessary to maintain chlorine disinfection in the waters. Cyanuric acid hydrolase opens the cyanuric acid ring hydrolytically and subsequent decarboxylation produces carbon dioxide and biuret. In the present study, we report the X-ray structure of TrzD, a cyanuric acid hydrolase from Acidovorax citrulli. The crystal structure at 2.19 Å resolution shows a large displacement of the catalytic lysine (Lys163) in domain 2 away from the active site core, whereas the two other active site lysines from the two other domains are not able to move. The lysine displacement is proposed here to open up a channel for product release. Consistent with that, the structure also showed two molecules of the co-product, carbon dioxide, one in the active site and another trapped in the proposed exit channel. Previous data indicated that the domain 2 lysine residue plays a role in activating an adjacent serine residue carrying out nucleophilic attack, opening the cyanuric acid ring, and the mobile lysine guides products through the exit channel.

  1. Eternal extended inflation and graceful exit from old inflation without Jordan-Brans-Dicke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, A.

    1990-01-01

    Recently a possible solution to the graceful exit problem of the old inflation was proposed in the context of the Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory (extended inflation). In this paper we will argue that inflation in this theory occurs in a most natural way if it starts near the Planck density, as in the standard version of chaotic inflation. With most natural initial conditions, the inflationary universe in the JBD theory enters the stage of permanent reproduction of new inflationary domains (eternal extended inflation). In order to realize the extended inflation scenario at least two classical scalar fields driving inflation are necessary, as distinct from the simplest versions of new and chaotic inflation. It is shown that in the theory of two scalar fields one can solve the graceful exit problem even without modifying the Einstein gravity theory, due to the possibility that the decay rate of the false vacuum in old inflation depends on the value of the second scalar field and hence on time. (orig.)

  2. An item response theory analysis of the Executive Interview and development of the EXIT8: A Project FRONTIER Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Danielle R; Dressel, Jeffrey A; Gavett, Brandon E; O'Bryant, Sid E

    2015-01-01

    The Executive Interview (EXIT25) is an effective measure of executive dysfunction, but may be inefficient due to the time it takes to complete 25 interview-based items. The current study aimed to examine psychometric properties of the EXIT25, with a specific focus on determining whether a briefer version of the measure could comprehensively assess executive dysfunction. The current study applied a graded response model (a type of item response theory model for polytomous categorical data) to identify items that were most closely related to the underlying construct of executive functioning and best discriminated between varying levels of executive functioning. Participants were 660 adults ages 40 to 96 years living in West Texas, who were recruited through an ongoing epidemiological study of rural health and aging, called Project FRONTIER. The EXIT25 was the primary measure examined. Participants also completed the Trail Making Test and Controlled Oral Word Association Test, among other measures, to examine the convergent validity of a brief form of the EXIT25. Eight items were identified that provided the majority of the information about the underlying construct of executive functioning; total scores on these items were associated with total scores on other measures of executive functioning and were able to differentiate between cognitively healthy, mildly cognitively impaired, and demented participants. In addition, cutoff scores were recommended based on sensitivity and specificity of scores. A brief, eight-item version of the EXIT25 may be an effective and efficient screening for executive dysfunction among older adults.

  3. MO-E-BRB-04: Real-Time Exit-Fluence Delivery Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebers, J. [University of Virginia Health System (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Recent high profile reports of technical failures and human errors causing severe radiation- induced injuries and deaths come in support of the sustained efforts to ensure patient safety in the delivery of radiation treatments. In addition, highly conformal radiation therapies and escalated fraction doses mandate increased and sustained accuracy of the entire radiotherapy process. Consequently, and as a Result of AAPM and ASTRO led efforts patient specific quality assurance for specialized radiation treatments such as IMRT, SRS/SBRT and Arc Therapy had become a three-tier process: Pre-treatment, during treatment, and post treatment patient specific QA. Traditional patient QA consists of pre-treatment data transfer integrity dosimetric verifications and during-treatment geometric verifications. However, as treatment adaptation becomes closer to deployment in the clinics, during treatment validation via exit detectors had become a realistic QA option, permitting plan assessment in near real time. Post-treatment, machine logs allow comparisons of a range of mechanical parameters. A combination of these techniques could be used in evaluating inter-fraction, and intra-fraction delivery over a long time period such as an year, to evaluate the significant errors per site, per treatment technique. This type of data mining over longer periods of time provides the potential to recognize suboptimal radiation treatments, while allowing to identify systematic, possibly significant errors. This would allow creation of a data base of realized errors, small and large in dosimetry that could be for process or equipment improvement. This educational symposium will describe and review patient QA techniques, results, and strategies for patient specific quality assurance. Learning Objectives: review the goals of pre-treatment QA for various specialized procedures review methods and means for pre-treatment QA, limitations and tolerances review the scenarios where Varian/Tomo Log files

  4. MO-E-BRB-04: Real-Time Exit-Fluence Delivery Validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebers, J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent high profile reports of technical failures and human errors causing severe radiation- induced injuries and deaths come in support of the sustained efforts to ensure patient safety in the delivery of radiation treatments. In addition, highly conformal radiation therapies and escalated fraction doses mandate increased and sustained accuracy of the entire radiotherapy process. Consequently, and as a Result of AAPM and ASTRO led efforts patient specific quality assurance for specialized radiation treatments such as IMRT, SRS/SBRT and Arc Therapy had become a three-tier process: Pre-treatment, during treatment, and post treatment patient specific QA. Traditional patient QA consists of pre-treatment data transfer integrity dosimetric verifications and during-treatment geometric verifications. However, as treatment adaptation becomes closer to deployment in the clinics, during treatment validation via exit detectors had become a realistic QA option, permitting plan assessment in near real time. Post-treatment, machine logs allow comparisons of a range of mechanical parameters. A combination of these techniques could be used in evaluating inter-fraction, and intra-fraction delivery over a long time period such as an year, to evaluate the significant errors per site, per treatment technique. This type of data mining over longer periods of time provides the potential to recognize suboptimal radiation treatments, while allowing to identify systematic, possibly significant errors. This would allow creation of a data base of realized errors, small and large in dosimetry that could be for process or equipment improvement. This educational symposium will describe and review patient QA techniques, results, and strategies for patient specific quality assurance. Learning Objectives: review the goals of pre-treatment QA for various specialized procedures review methods and means for pre-treatment QA, limitations and tolerances review the scenarios where Varian/Tomo Log files

  5. The comparison of exit-site care with normal saline and povidone-iodine in preventing exit-site infection and peritonitis in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onder Yavascan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Peritonitis and catheter exit- site infections (ESI are important causes of hospitalization and catheter loss in patients undergoing chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD. The frequency of infection can be reduced by scrupulous exit- site care with or without topical antiseptics. There are no studies showing any benefit in the use of povidone-iodine or normal saline for care of exit- sites in long- term CPD patients. In this study, we aimed to determine the potential effectiveness of the application of povidone-iodine or normal saline at the catheter exit- site in preventing ESI and peritonitis in children on CPD. A total of 98 patients treated with either povidone-iodine or normal saline were included in this study. Group I (34 patients used povidone-iodine and group II (64 patients simply cleansed the exit- site with normal saline (0.9% NaCl. Dressings were changed 2 to 3 times in a week. The total cumulative follow- up time was 3233 patient- months. ESIs occurred in 10 (29.4% of 34 patients using povidone-iodine and in 10 (15.6% of 64 patients using normal saline. The frequency of ESI was significantly high in group I (povidone-iodine patients. The mean rate of ESI was 1 episode/60.8 patient- months for group I versus 1 episode/144 patient- months for group II (P 0.05. In conclusion, exit- site care with normal saline is an effective strategy in reducing the incidence of ESI in children on CPD. It can thus significantly reduce morbidity, catheter loss, and the need to transfer patients on peritoneal dialysis to hemodialysis.

  6. Embedded system design to control the entry and exit of vehicles online, at the main access of ESPOCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier J. Gavilanes

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research a embedded real-time system was developed by using Raspberry Pi3 (a reduced board computer, which is an equipment with a camera placed in strategic points of the mechanic arms at the main entrance and exit of Escuela Superior Politécnica de Chimborazo, this equipment captures images of vehicles that enter and exit the campus and the information is extracted through the implementation of a segmentation algorithm written in Python programming language and the collaboration of artificial vision bookstores offered by OpenCV, processing techniques were applied to extract the vehicle plate from the location scenery. Then, an Optical Character Recognition (OCR algorithm also known as K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN was applied, which after a training phase is able to identify letters and numbers on the automobile plates, the information is stored in the entrance database and it is deleted when the automobile exits the campus.

  7. A time-compressed simulated geomagnetic storm influences the nest-exiting flight angles of the stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, D. M. S.; Corrêa, A. A. C.; Vaillant, O. S.; de Melo, V. Bandeira; Gouvêa, G. S.; Ferreira, C. G.; Ferreira, T. A.; Wajnberg, E.

    2014-03-01

    Insects have been used as models for understanding animal orientation. It is well accepted that social insects such as honeybees and ants use different natural cues in their orientation mechanism. A magnetic sensitivity was suggested for the stingless bee Schwarziana quadripunctata, based on the observation of a surprising effect of a geomagnetic storm on the nest-exiting flight angles. Stimulated by this result, in this paper, the effects of a time-compressed simulated geomagnetic storm (TC-SGS) on the nest-exiting flight angles of another stingless bee, Tetragonisca angustula, are presented. Under an applied SGS, either on the horizontal or vertical component of the geomagnetic field, both nest-exiting flight angles, dip and azimuth, are statistically different from those under geomagnetic conditions. The angular dependence of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra of whole stingless bees shows the presence of organized magnetic nanoparticles in their bodies, which indicates this material as a possible magnetic detector.

  8. A general exit strategy of monoheme cytochromes c and c2 in electron transfer complexes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De March, Matteo; Brancatelli, Giovanna; Demitri, Nicola; De Zorzi, Rita; Hickey, Neal; Geremia, Silvano

    2015-09-01

    Using our previously reported maps of the electrostatic surface of horse heart ferri- and ferro-cyt c, comparisons were made between the complementary electrostatic surfaces of three cyt c peroxidase-cyt c complexes and the photosynthetic reaction center-cyt c complex, considering both iron oxidation states. The results obtained were consistent with a sliding mechanism for the electron shuttle on the surface of the protein complexes, promoted by the change in iron oxidation state. This mechanism was found to be in agreement with theoretical and NMR studies reported in the literature. Importantly, the analysis also provided a rationale for recognition of nonproductive associations. As we have previously reported the same conclusion on examination of redox partners of cyt c in the mitochondrial respiratory pathway, our hypothesis is that the proposed mechanism could represent a general exit strategy of monoheme cyts c and c2 in electron transfer complexes. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  9. Motivating signage prompts safety belt use among drivers exiting senior communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, B S; Cox, A B; Cox, D J

    2000-01-01

    Senior drivers are vulnerable to automobile crashes and subsequent injury and death. Safety belts reduce health risks associated with auto crashes. Therefore, it is important to encourage senior drivers to wear safety belts while driving. Using an AB design, replicated five times, we evaluated the short- and long-term effects of a sign with the message "BUCKLE UP, STAY SAFE" attached to a stop sign at the exits of five different senior communities. Safety belt use was stable during two pretreatment assessments averaged across the five sites and 250 drivers (72% and 68% usage), but significantly increased following installation of these signs (94% usage). Six months after installation of the signs, the effect persisted (88% usage). Use of such signs may be a cost-effective way of promoting safety belt use.

  10. Value contributions of the venture capitalist in Mexico: building an exit for the investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Wiencke

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Venture capitalists provide money and non-monetary contributions to high-growth ventures to help them become great companies. Although it is known that these contributions have an impact on the growth of the firm, little is known in Mexico of their nature, how they get into the venture, and how they contribute to the development of the company. The present article reports a proposed substantive theory that explains how the venture capitalist work hand in hand with the entrepreneur to grow the company. This substantive theory emerged from data collected through interviews to nine venture capitalists and nine entrepreneurs, and analyzed as proposed by the grounded theory methodology. The resulting substantive theory acknowledges that contributions of venture capitalists, often called value-added, are relative to building an exit for the investment.

  11. Dealing with low pH: entry and exit of alphaviruses and flaviviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-San Martín, Claudia; Liu, Catherine Y; Kielian, Margaret

    2009-11-01

    The alphaviruses and flaviviruses include many important human pathogens, such as the dengue, West Nile, and Chikungunya viruses. These enveloped viruses infect cells by a membrane fusion reaction triggered by the low pH in endosomes. Fusion is mediated by viral membrane proteins through their acid-dependent conversion from a dimer on the virus surface to a homotrimer inserted into the host cell membrane. Here we review recent studies on the regulatory mechanisms that silence these fusion proteins during virus exit and that sense low pH and mediate protein refolding during virus entry. We discuss results using truncated proteins to dissect the fusion reaction, and future research directions including the development of antiviral therapies against these medically important viruses.

  12. Reliability test: X-ray ring exit chambers crotch radiation absorbers. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, D.R.; Morgan, J.

    1999-01-01

    This report details the efforts by engineers at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to evaluate the reliability of water-cooled radiation absorbers used in the NSLS X-ray ring. These absorbers are part of the 16 dipole vacuum chambers which comprise the arc sections of the ring. They are located at the intersections (crotch) of the beamline exit ports with the electron beam chamber, and are commonly referred to as crotches. The purpose of these efforts was to demonstrate the reliability of the crotches under operating conditions that the crotches will be subjected to over the entire expected life of the ring. The efforts described include engineering calculations, finite element analysis, conceptual design for a reliability test, test implementation and descriptions, results and conclusions related to these analyses and tests

  13. A new bed-exiting alarm system for welfare facility residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hidekuni; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Maki, Hiromichi; Caldwell, W

    2009-01-01

    A newly developed alarm system detects welfare facility residents leaving their beds, and does not respond to the care staff, who wear shoes or slippers. It employs a stainless steel tape electrode, several linear integrated circuits and a low-power 8-bit single chip microcomputer. The electrode, which is used as a bed-exiting detection sensor, is attached to the floor mat to record changes in the always-present AC (alternating current) voltage induced on the patient's body by electrostatic coupling from the standard 100 volt, 60 Hz AC utility power wiring in the room walls and ceiling. The resident's body movements, before trying to get out of bed and after leaving the bed, are detected by the microcomputer from changes in the induced AC voltage. The microcomputer alerts the care staff station, via a power line communication system or PHS (personal handy phone System).

  14. Active Boundary Layer Control on a Highly Loaded Turbine Exit Case Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kurz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A highly loaded turbine exit guide vane with active boundary layer control was investigated experimentally in the High Speed Cascade Wind Tunnel at the University of the German Federal Armed Forces, Munich. The experiments include profile Mach number distributions, wake traverse measurements as well as boundary layer investigations with a flattened Pitot probe. Active boundary layer control by fluidic oscillators was applied to achieve improved performance in the low Reynolds number regime. Low solidity, which can be applied to reduce the number of blades, increases the risk of flow separation resulting in increased total pressure losses. Active boundary layer control is supposed to overcome these negative effects. The experiments show that active boundary layer control by fluidic oscillators is an appropriate way to suppress massive open separation bubbles in the low Reynolds number regime.

  15. The Effect of Sanctions and Active Labour Market Programmes on the Exit Rate From Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Svarer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    ). Hence, modeling only one of them as treatment might over or underestimate the true effect. Therefore, by using a multivariate mixed proportional hazard model (MMPH), we model the hazard rate out of unemployment along with the sanction rate and hazard rate into active labour market programmes. We......This paper simultaneously investigates the effectiveness of benefit sanctions and active labour market programmes on the exit rate from unemployment using Danish data. In the data about one third of the individuals who are sanctioned also participate in some active labour market programmes (ALMPs...... optimally select the number of supports point for the distribution of unobserved heterogeneity. Results show that pre-specifying two support points underestimates the effect of sanctions and active labour market programmes. Failing to control for selectivity for sanctions not only underestimates...

  16. The Effect of Sanctions and Active Labour Market Programmes on the Exit Rate From Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Svarer, Michael

    ). Hence, modeling only one of them as treatment might over or underestimate the true effect. Therefore, by using a multivariate mixed proportional hazard model (MMPH), we model the hazard rate out of unemployment along with the sanction rate and hazard rate into active labour market programmes. We......This paper simultaneously investigates the effectiveness of benefit sanctions and active labour market programmes on the exit rate from unemployment using Danish data. In the data about one third of the individuals who are sanctioned also participate in some active labour market programmes (ALMPs...... optimally select the number of supports point for the distribution of unobserved heterogeneity. Results show that pre-specifying two support points underestimates the effect of sanctions and active labour market programmes. Failing to control for selectivity for sanctions not only underestimates...

  17. Horizontal career changes as an alternative to premature exit from work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrowicz, Paula; Zieschang, Hanna; Bräunig, Dietmar; Jahn, Frauke

    2014-01-01

    Certain workplaces are called jobs with limited tenure. Due to physical or psychosocial risk factors, often coupled with qualification mismatches, workers cannot grow old in them. That may lead to premature exit into retirement, to a period of drawing a work incapacity pension or to a long spell of unemployment. A horizontal career change, which enables the worker to move on to a less burdening workplace while preserving social status, is a possible solution. The objective of the "Horizontal career change-a new job opportunity for older employees" project is to develop a model of career changes for workers employed in jobs with limited tenure and to implement it in the form of an information- and communication technology-based tool. Possible applications range from individual career planning, through institutionalized vocational reintegration, to personnel development in small and medium-sized enterprises.

  18. INVESTIGATION OF VISITOR MOTIVATION OF THE EXIT MUSIC FESTIVAL (THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana BLEŠIĆ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The decision to visit a festival or an event is a directed activity initiated by a wish to fulfil certain cultural need. Although motives only represent one of the variables describing visitor behaviour (besides learning, cultural conditioning and social influences, they form a crucial point that initiates decision making. The purpose of this study was to develop a measurement instrument that can be used to measure the most significant festival motivators for visitors’ travels to music festivals. The paper delivers the results of a questionnaire research conducted during the 11th EXIT festival (Petrovaradin Fortress, Novi Sad, The Republic of Serbia in July 2011. The results were based on 566 questionnaires. The factor analysis generated three items: socialization; exploration of the festival programme and atmosphere; and perception of the festival and learning.

  19. Build to order and entry/exit strategies under exchange rate uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chin-Tsai

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Under uncertainty of exchange rate, we extend the build to order production model of Lin et al. (2002 by considering the export-oriented manufacturer to make decisions to switch production location freely between domestic and foreign ones. The export-oriented manufacturer is risk neutral and has rational expectations. When we transfer the production location from domestic (foreign to foreign (domestic, and the production location transferring cost and the drift of real exchange rate are both equal to zero, then the optimal entry and exit threshold value of Cobb-Douglas production function are equal, no matter whether we use real options or net present value method. Thus export-oriented manufacturer can make decisions at the optimal transfer threshold value for transferable locations wherever the production locations are. It provides the export-oriented manufacturer with another way of thinking.

  20. CFD Analysis of Nozzle Exit Position Effect in Ejector Gas Removal System in Geothermal Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyo Nugroho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The single stage ejector is used to extract the Non CondensableGas (NCG in the condenser using the working principle of the Venturi tube. Three dimensional computational simulation of the ejector according to the operating conditions was conducted to determine the flow in the ejector. Motive steam entering through the convergent – divergent nozzle with increasing flow velocity so that the low pressure exist around the nozzle. Comparison is done also in a two dimensional simulation to know the differences occurring phenomena and flow inside ejector. Different simulation results obtained between two dimensional and three dimensional simulation. Reverse flow which occurs in the mixing chamber made the static pressure in the area has increased dramatically. Then the variation performed on Exit Nozzle Position (NXP to determine the changes of the flow of the NCG and the vacuum level of the ejector. Keywords: Ejector, NCG, CFD, Compressible flow.

  1. Brane dynamics in the Randall-Sundrum model, inflation and graceful exit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Somdatta; Choudhury, Debajyoti; Jatkar, Dileep P; Sen, Anjan Ananda

    2002-01-01

    We study the averaged action of the Randall-Sundrum model with a time-dependent metric ansatz. It can be reformulated in terms of a Brans-Dicke action with time-dependent Newton's constant. We show that the physics of the early universe, particularly inflation, is governed by the Brans-Dicke theory. The Brans-Dicke scalar, however, quickly settles to its equilibrium value and decouples from the post-inflationary cosmology. The deceleration parameter is negative to start with but changes sign before the Brans-Dicke scalar settles to its equilibrium value. Consequently, the brane metric smoothly exits inflation. We have also studied the slow-roll inflation in our model and investigated the spectra of the density perturbation generated by the radion field and find them consistent with the current observations

  2. Exit, Voice or Loyalty. Citizens’ Orientations and Participation Mechanisms in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Del Tronco

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In Latin America, citizen's discontent with representative institutions has been shown by many scholars during last two decades. Latin American citizens express a general sentiment of disengagement and distrust from politics and politicians. This fact has re-launched the debate on the convenience of social participation in the policy-making process, beyond and complementing the electoral mechanism. Though, there is a lack of evidence to establish under what conditions Latin American citizens decide (or not to participate in public affairs to contribute to solve those problems. Theoretically based on the seminal work of Albert Hirschman (1977, the current study uses public opinion data from Latinbarometer (2008 to find the factors that increase (voice and decrease (exit the probability of citizens to participate in collective actions.

  3. Was R (Miller v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union correctly decided?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob M. Nolan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Jacob M. Nolan gives a timely examination of the case of R (on the application of Miller and Dos Santos v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union – arguably amongst the most important cases on constitutional law decided by the UK Supreme Court. In this landmark case the Supreme Court was required to rule on whether the UK Government (the executive could trigger Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union without the authorisation of an Act of Parliament, through the use of the Crown’s prerogative. On an 8 – 3 majority, with Lords Reed, Carnwath, and Hughes dissenting, the Supreme Court upheld the previous High Court ruling that an Act of Parliament was first required.

  4. Radiation degradation of aromatic pollutants exit in wastewater and ph dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takriti, S.

    2002-12-01

    The effect of gamma radiation on the degradation of phenol (hydroxybenzene), resorcinol (1,3 dihydroxybenzen) and hydroquinone (1,4 dihydroxybenzen) exit in waste water was investigated. The concentrations of these pollutants as well as the irradiated solution ph were studied. The results showed that the phenol is very resistance against the radiation doses comparing the other phenol compounds. Phenol was also a product of radiolysis of resorcinol and hydroquinone. On the other hand, the acid phase of the irradiation sample increased the degradation rate of pollutants. Spectrophotometer (UV-VIS) and chromatography (HPLC) were used to monitor the analysis of the radiation product solution. The results illustrated the existing of many substances such as organic alcohol, aldehyde, ketone and acidic functional groups as a final radiation products. The degradation of benzene, monochlorobenzene (CB) and 1,2 dichlorobenzene (1,2 DCB) exit in waste water by gamma irradiation was investigated. The effect of the irradiated solution composition was studied. The results showed that the benzene is very resistance against the radiation doses comparing to other chlorobenzene. However, the existence of oxidizing substances in the irradiation phase leads to increase the degradation rate of pollutants. The dechlorination of CB and 1,2 DCB that is a result of the hydrated electron reaction with studied compounds was observed. Chromatography (HPLC) and spectrophotometer (UV-VIS) were used to monitor the analysis of the radiation product solution. The results illustrated the existing of many species as a final radiation product. On the other, the irradiation phase containing scavengers such as methanol and ethanol requires large doses to decompose the pollutants, while the oxidizing phase accelerates the degradation. (author)

  5. Local area unemployment, individual health and workforce exit: ONS Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Emily T; Head, Jenny; Shelton, Nicola; Hagger-Johnson, Gareth; Stansfeld, Stephen; Zaninotto, Paola; Stafford, Mai

    2016-06-01

    In many developed countries, associations have been documented between higher levels of area unemployment and workforce exit, mainly for disability pension receipt. Health of individuals is assumed to be the primary driver of this relationship, but no study has examined whether health explains or modifies this relationship. We used data from 98 756 Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study members who were aged 40-69 and working in 2001, to assess whether their odds of identifying as sick/disabled or retired in 2011 differed by local authority area unemployment in 2001, change in local area unemployment from 2001 to 2011 and individual reported health in 2001 (self-rated and limiting long-term illness). Higher local area unemployment and worse self-rated health measures in 2001 were independently related to likelihood of identifying as sick-disabled or retired, compared to being in work, 10 years later, after adjusting for socio-demographic covariates. Associations for local area unemployment were stronger for likelihood of identification as sick/disabled compared to retired in 2011. Associations for changes in local area unemployment from 2001 to 2011 were only apparent for likelihood of identifying as retired. For respondents that identified as sick/disabled in 2011, effects of local area unemployment in 2001 were stronger for respondents who had better self-rated health in 2001. Strategies to retain older workers may be most effective if targeted toward areas of high unemployment. For persons in ill health, local area unemployment interventions alone will not be as efficient in reducing their exit from the workforce. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  6. Work Ability Index as tool to identify workers at risk of premature work exit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, Corné A M; Heymans, Martijn W; Twisk, Jos W R; van der Klink, Jac J L; Groothoff, Johan W; van Rhenen, Willem

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the Work Ability Index (WAI) as tool for identifying workers at risk of premature work exit in terms of disability pension, unemployment, or early retirement. Prospective cohort study of 11,537 male construction workers (mean age 45.5 years), who completed the WAI at baseline and reported their work status (employed, unemployed, disability pension, or retired) after mean 2.3 years of follow-up. Associations between WAI scores and work status were investigated by multinomial logistic regression analysis. The ability of the WAI to discriminate between workers at high and low risk of premature work exit was analyzed by the area (AUC) under the receiver operating characteristic curve. 9,530 (83 %) construction workers had complete data for analysis. At follow-up, 336 (4 %) workers reported disability pension, 125 (1 %) unemployment, and 255 (3 %) retirement. WAI scores were prospectively associated with the risk of disability pension at follow-up, but not with the risk of unemployment and early retirement. The WAI showed fair discrimination to identify workers at risk of disability pension [AUC = 0.74; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.70-0.77]. The discriminative ability decreased with age from AUC = 0.78 in workers aged 30-39 years to AUC = 0.69 in workers ≥50 years of age. Discrimination failed for unemployment (AUC = 0.51; 95 % CI 0.47-0.55) and early retirement (AUC = 0.58; 95 % CI 0.53-0.61). The WAI can be used to identify construction workers <50 years of age at increased risk of disability pension and invite them for preventive interventions.

  7. The ribosome structure controls and directs mRNA entry, translocation and exit dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurkcuoglu, Ozge; Doruker, Pemra; Jernigan, Robert L; Sen, Taner Z; Kloczkowski, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    The protein-synthesizing ribosome undergoes large motions to effect the translocation of tRNAs and mRNA; here, the domain motions of this system are explored with a coarse-grained elastic network model using normal mode analysis. Crystal structures are used to construct various model systems of the 70S complex with/without tRNA, elongation factor Tu and the ribosomal proteins. Computed motions reveal the well-known ratchet-like rotational motion of the large subunits, as well as the head rotation of the small subunit and the high flexibility of the L1 and L7/L12 stalks, even in the absence of ribosomal proteins. This result indicates that these experimentally observed motions during translocation are inherently controlled by the ribosomal shape and only partially dependent upon GTP hydrolysis. Normal mode analysis further reveals the mobility of A- and P-tRNAs to increase in the absence of the E-tRNA. In addition, the dynamics of the E-tRNA is affected by the absence of the ribosomal protein L1. The mRNA in the entrance tunnel interacts directly with helicase proteins S3 and S4, which constrain the mRNA in a clamp-like fashion, as well as with protein S5, which likely orients the mRNA to ensure correct translation. The ribosomal proteins S7, S11 and S18 may also be involved in assuring translation fidelity by constraining the mRNA at the exit site of the channel. The mRNA also interacts with the 16S 3' end forming the Shine–Dalgarno complex at the initiation step; the 3' end may act as a 'hook' to reel in the mRNA to facilitate its exit

  8. Educational Inequalities in Exit from Paid Employment among Dutch Workers: The Influence of Health, Lifestyle and Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robroek, Suzan J W; Rongen, Anne; Arts, Coos H; Otten, Ferdy W H; Burdorf, Alex; Schuring, Merel

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with lower socioeconomic status are at increased risk of involuntary exit from paid employment. To give sound advice for primary prevention in the workforce, insight is needed into the role of mediating factors between socioeconomic status and labour force participation. Therefore, it is aimed to investigate the influence of health status, lifestyle-related factors and work characteristics on educational differences in exit from paid employment. 14,708 Dutch employees participated in a ten-year follow-up study during 1999-2008. At baseline, education, self-perceived health, lifestyle (smoking, alcohol, sports, BMI) and psychosocial (demands, control, rewards) and physical work characteristics were measured by questionnaire. Employment status was ascertained monthly based on tax records. The relation between education, health, lifestyle, work-characteristics and exit from paid employment through disability benefits, unemployment, early retirement and economic inactivity was investigated by competing risks regression analyses. The mediating effects of these factors on educational differences in exit from paid employment were tested using a stepwise approach. Lower educated workers were more likely to exit paid employment through disability benefits (SHR:1.84), unemployment (SHR:1.74), and economic inactivity (SHR:1.53) but not due to early retirement (SHR:0.92). Poor or moderate health, an unhealthy lifestyle, and unfavourable work characteristics were associated with disability benefits and unemployment, and an unhealthy lifestyle with economic inactivity. Educational differences in disability benefits were explained for 40% by health, 31% by lifestyle, and 12% by work characteristics. For economic inactivity and unemployment, up to 14% and 21% of the educational differences could be explained, particularly by lifestyle-related factors. There are educational differences in exit from paid employment, which are partly mediated by health, lifestyle and work

  9. Construction of an easy-to-use CRISPR-Cas9 system by patching a newly designed EXIT circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qiang; Lou, Chunbo; Liu, Shuang-Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Plasmid-borne genetic editing tools, including the widely used CRISPR-Cas9 system, have greatly facilitated bacterial programming to obtain novel functionalities. However, the lack of effective post-editing plasmid elimination methods impedes follow-up genetic manipulation or application. Conventional strategies including exposure to physical and chemical treatments, or exploiting temperature-sensitive replication origins have several drawbacks (e.g., they are limited for efficiency and are time-consuming). Therefore, the demand is apparent for easy and rapid elimination of the tool plasmids from their bacterial hosts after genetic manipulation. To bridge this gap, we designed a novel EXIT circuit with the homing endonuclease, which can be exploited for rapid and efficient elimination of various plasmids with diverse replication origins. As a proof of concept, we validated the EXIT circuit in Escherichia coli by harnessing homing endonuclease I- Sce I and its cleavage site. When integrated into multiple plasmids with different origins, the EXIT circuit allowed them to be eliminated from the host cells, simultaneously. By combining the widely used plasmid-borne CRISPR-Cas9 system and the EXIT circuit, we constructed an easy-to-use CRISPR-Cas9 system that eliminated the Cas9- and the single-guide RNA (sgRNA)-encoding plasmids in one-step. Within 3 days, we successfully constructed an atrazine-degrading E. coli strain, thus further demonstrating the advantage of this new CRISPR-Cas9 system for bacterial genome editing. Our novel EXIT circuit, which exploits the homing endonuclease I- Sce I, enables plasmid(s) with different replication origins to be eliminated from their host cells rapidly and efficiently. We also developed an easy-to-use CRISPR-Cas9 system with the EXIT circuit, and this new system can be widely applied to bacterial genome editing.

  10. From Passive to Proactive: Understanding and Improving the Borrower Experience with Online Student Loan Exit Counseling. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Legally mandated student loan exit counseling attempts to prepare borrowers of federal student loans for the repayment process; yet, researchers hypothesized that the online modules most borrowers use for this purpose have significant shortcomings. This report (the second in a series of five from TG Research) describes a study in which researchers…

  11. Longitudinal associations of experiences of adversity and socioeconomic disadvantage during childhood with labour force participation and exit in later adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahy, A. E.; Stansfeld, S. A.; Smuk, M.; Lain, D.; van der Horst, M.; Vickerstaff, S.; Clark, C.

    2017-01-01

    The Extending Working Lives (EWL) agenda seeks to sustain employment up to and beyond traditional retirement ages. This study examined the potential role of childhood factors in shaping labour force participation and exit among older adults, with a view to informing proactive interventions early in

  12. Mathematics Objectives and Measurement Specifications 1986-1990. Exit Level. Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Educational Assessment.

    This document lists the objectives for the Texas educational assessment program in mathematics. Eighteen objectives for exit level mathematics are listed, by category: number concepts (4); computation (3); applied computation (5); statistical concepts (3); geometric concepts (2); and algebraic concepts (1). Then general specifications are listed…

  13. Identification of the timing-of-events model with multiple competing exit risks from single-spell data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drepper, Bettina; Effraimidis, G.

    2016-01-01

    The identification result of the timing-of-events model (Abbring and Van den Berg, 2003b) is extended to a model with several competing exit risk equations. This extension allows e.g. to simultaneously identify the different effects a benefit sanction has on the rate of finding work and leaving t...

  14. Development of Curriculum Content for a Unique Career Ladder Multi-Entry/Multi-Exit Nursing Program. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosbach, Ellen M.

    A project was undertaken to develop the curriculum content for a unique career ladder multi-entry/multi-exit nursing program that would provide training for nurse aides, practical nurses, and registered nurses. The major objectives of the project were to conduct a review of the literature on curriculum materials presently in use, to develop 11…

  15. A study on the impulse wave discharged from the exit of a right-angle pipe bend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. H.; Hur, S. C.; Kweon, Y. H.; Kim, H. D.

    2001-01-01

    The current study addresses experimental and computational work of impulse wave discharged from the exit of two kinds of right-angle pipe bends, which are attached to the open end of a simple shock tube. The weak normal shock wave with its magnitude of Mach number from 1.02 to 1.20 is employed to obtain the impulse wave propagating outside the exit of the pipe bends. A Schlieren optical system visualizes the impulse wave discharged from the exit of the pipe bends at an instant. The experimental data of the magnitude of the impulse wave and its propagating directivity are analyzed to characterize the impulse waves discharged from the exit of the pipe bends and compared with those discharged from a straight pipe. Computational results well predict the experimented dynamic behaviors of the impulse wave. The results obtained show that a right-angle miter bend considerably reduces the magnitude of the impulse wave and its directivity toward to the pipe axis, compared with the straight pipe and right-angle smooth bend. It is believed that the right-angle miter bend pipe can play a role of a passive control against the impulse wave

  16. Explaining the catch efficiency of different cod pots using underwater video to observe cod entry and exit behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedgärde, Maria; Berg, Casper Willestofte; Kindt-Larsen, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    Cod pots are considered seal-safe fishing gear and are proposed as a solution to mitigate the ongoing seal-fisheries conflict in the Baltic Sea. This study examined various factors which could affect the entry and exit behaviour of cod in relation to cod pots. Statistical modelling was used...

  17. Educational inequalities in exit from paid employment among Dutch workers: The influence of health, lifestyle and work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); A. Rongen (Anne); C.H. Arts (Coos); Otten, F.W.H. (Ferdy W.H.); A. Burdorf (Alex); M. Schuring (Merel)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground Individuals with lower socioeconomic status are at increased risk of involuntary exit from paid employment. To give sound advice for primary prevention in the workforce, insight is needed into the role of mediating factors between socioeconomic status and labour force

  18. Association between keeping home records of catheter exit-site and incidence of peritoneal dialysis-related infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Hidekazu; Kurita, Noriaki; Fujimoto, Shino; Kamijo, Yuka; Ishibashi, Yoshitaka; Fukuma, Shingo; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2018-04-01

    To prevent peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related infection, components of self-catheter care have been emphasized. However, studies on the effectiveness of home recording for the prevention of PD-related infections are limited. This study aimed to examine the association between keeping home records of catheter exit site and incidence of PD-related infections. Home record books were submitted by patients undergoing PD. The proportion of days on which exit-site home recording was carried out for 120 days (0-100%) was obtained. The patients were divided into the frequent home recording group (≥ 40.5%; median value) and the infrequent home recording group (home recording groups for PD-related infection were 1.58 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72-3.46) in the univariate analysis and 1.49 (95% CI, 0.65-3.42) in the multivariate analysis. The IRRs of the frequent versus infrequent home recording groups for composite of surgery to create a new exit site and removal of PD catheter were 0.55 (95% CI, 0.78-3.88) and 0.35 (95% CI, 0.06-1.99), respectively. This study could not prove that keeping home records of patients' catheter exit site is associated with a lower incidence of PD-related infections.

  19. Development of a portable system of grazing exit X-Ray fluorescence applied to environmental and biological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Ramon S.; Oliveira, Davi F.; Anjos, Marcelino J. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Assis, Joaquim T., E-mail: ramonziosp@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: davi.oliveira@uerj.br, E-mail: marcelin@uerj.br, E-mail: joaquim.iprj@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politécnico

    2017-07-01

    In this study was developed a portable system of grazing exit X-ray fluorescence (geometric 90° - 0°) that will be applied in environmental studies (aerosol samples) and biological studies. GE-XRF portable system is formed by a mini X-ray tube of low power (anode of Au, maximum voltage and current of 50 kV and 200 μA, respectively) and a SiPIN detector (model XR-100CR of the Amptek). The reflectors used as sample support (sampler carrier) were quartz discs with 25.4 mm diameter and 3.0 mm thickness. The grazing exit angle was experimentally determined by measuring a cooper solution (10 μg.g{sup -1}). The system of GE-XRF proved to be quite stable and reproducible. It was calculated the sensibility curve of the system using multielement solutions. The accuracy of the system was checked using multielement reference solution as standard reference material. The relative errors between measured and certified values are in the range of 4 to 19%. The first results showed a background was drastically reduced at grazing exit angles, enabling trace elemental analysis. This paper shows that it is possible to produce a portable system of grazing exit X-ray fluorescence compact, efficient, low-cost and easy-to-handle instrumentation using a low-power X-ray tube and a SiPIN compact detector. (author)

  20. An Examination of the Job Training and Job Experiences of High School Students as They Exit School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Wilbur Drew

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was (a) to determine the level of satisfaction that exiting high school students felt regarding the job preparation and training they received in high school, (b) gather data on work experiences during high school, (c) gather data on job training experiences during high school, and (d) gather data on students…

  1. Comparison of experimental hut entrance and exit behavior between Anopheles darlingi from the Cayo District, Belize, and Zungarococha, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Paige; Diaz Rodriguez, Gloria Alicia; Briceno, Ireneo; King, Russell; Achee, Nicole L; Grieco, John P

    2013-12-01

    Anopheles darlingi is a major vector for malaria in Central and South America. Behavioral, ecological, genetic, and morphologic variability has been observed across its wide distribution. Recent studies have documented that 2 distinct genotypes exist for An. darlingi: a northern lineage (Belize, Guatemala, Colombia, Venezuela, and Panama) and a southern lineage (Amazonia and southern Brazil). In order to determine if these genotypes exhibited different behavioral traits, entrance and exit movement patterns between 2 field populations of An. darlingi that represented each genotype were evaluated using experimental huts. The Belize population exhibited bimodal entrance, with peak entry occurring between 7:00-8:00 p.m. and 5:00-6:00 a.m. and peak exiting occurring between 7:00-8:00 p.m. The Peru population exhibited unimodal entrance, with peak entry occurring between 10:00-11:00 p.m. and peak exiting occurring between 11:00-12:00 a.m. with a secondary smaller peak at 2:30 a.m. Entrance and exit behavioral patterns were significantly different between the Belize and Peru populations of An. darlingi (log-rank [Mantel-Cox] P < 0.001). Information from the present study will be used in the future to determine if there is a correlation between genotype and host-seeking behavior and can be used in the present for regional vector risk assessment.

  2. Agrilus auroguttatus exit hole distributions on Quercus agrifolia boles and a sampling method to estimate their density on individual trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel J. Haavik; Tom W. Coleman; Mary Louise Flint; Robert C. Venette; Steven J. Seybold

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, invasive phloem and wood borers have become important pests in North America. To aid tree sampling and survey efforts for the newly introduced goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), we examined spatial patterns of exit holes on the boles (trunks) of 58 coast live oak, Quercus...

  3. Applied electro-optics educational and training program with multiple entrance and exit pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Patricia; Zhou, Feng; Zilic, Dorothy

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents an innovative hands-on training program designed to create a pipeline of highly-skilled technical workers for today's workforce economy. The 2+2+2 Pennsylvania Integrated Workforce Leadership Program in Electro-Optics prepares students for a career in this new high-tech field. With seamless transition from high school into college, the program offers the versatility of multiple entrance and exit pathways. After completion of each educational level, students can exit the program with various skill levels, including certificates, an associate's degree, or a bachelor's degree. Launched by Indiana University of Pennsylvania (IUP) in partnership with Lenape Vocational School (Lenape), the 2+2+2 educational pathway program was implemented to promote early training of high-school students. During the first level, students in their junior and/or senior year enroll in four Electro-Optics courses at Lenape. Upon completion of these courses and an Advanced Placement Equivalency course with an appropriate exam score, students can earn a certificate from Lenape for the 15+ credits, which also can be articulated into IUP's associate degree program in Electro-Optics. During the second level, students can earn an associate's degree in Electro-Optics, offered only at the IUP Northpointe Campus. After completion of the Associate in Applied Science (A.A.S.), students are prepared to enter the workforce as senior technicians. During the third level, students who have completed the Associate of Science (A.S.) in Electro-Optics have the opportunity to matriculate at IUP's Indiana Campus to earn a Bachelor of Science (B.S.) degree in Applied Physics with a track in Electro-Optics. Hence, the name 2+2+2 refers to getting started in high school, continuing the educational experience with an associate's degree program, and optionally moving on to a bachelor's degree. Consequently, students move from one educational level to the next with advanced credits toward the next

  4. Entry Regulations, Product Differentiation and Determinants of Market Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Maican, Florin; Orth, ´Matilda

    2013-01-01

    We use a dynamic oligopoly model of entry and exit to evaluate how entry regulations affect profitability and market structure in retail. The model incorporates demand and store-level heterogeneity. Based on unique data for all retail food stores in Sweden, we find that the average entry costs for small and large stores are 10 and 18 percent lower, respectively, in markets with liberal compared with restrictive regulations. Counterfactual simulations show that lower entry costs in restrictive...

  5. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and early exit from paid employment in Europe; the impact of work-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouwenhoven-Pasmooij, T A; Burdorf, A; Roos-Hesselink, J W; Hunink, M G M; Robroek, S J W

    2016-07-15

    The aims of the study were to examine (i) the association between cardiovascular disease (CVD) or diabetes and exit from paid employment via disability benefits, unemployment, early retirement or other exit routes; and (ii) the impact of work-related factors on exit from paid employment among individuals with CVD or diabetes. Respondents of the longitudinal Survey of Health and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) were included if they were aged >50years, had paid employment at baseline, and a known employment status after 2 or 6years (n=5182). A baseline-interview provided information on the presence of diagnosed CVD and diabetes, and physical and psychosocial work-related factors. During follow-up interviews information on work status was collected. Multinomial regression analyses were used to investigate the association between CVD, diabetes and exit from paid employment, and the impact of work-related factors. Workers with CVD or diabetes had significantly increased probabilities of disability benefits (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.69-3.70) and early retirement (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.05-1.74), but a comparable probability of unemployment (OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.71-1.71). Regarding disability benefits, individuals who had a stroke had the highest probability (OR 3.48, 95% CI 1.31-9.23). Perceived high job demands with low rewards or with low control at work further increased the probability of early exit among individuals with CVD or diabetes. Our study shows a prominent role of CVD and diabetes in premature losses to the workforce, and it shows that optimizing psychosocial work-related factors could be beneficial in people with CVD or diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Information and Exit: Do Accountability Ratings Help Families Choose Schools? Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series. PEPG 09-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Does public information about school quality lead parents to sort their children out of schools with relatively poor performance? Use of this exit option in response to information about school quality has the potential to indirectly foster school responsiveness to quality concerns. To determine whether this information affects student exit, I…

  7. Phosphatase PP2A and microtubule-mediated pulling forces disassemble centrosomes during mitotic exit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Enos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Centrosomes are microtubule-nucleating organelles that facilitate chromosome segregation and cell division in metazoans. Centrosomes comprise centrioles that organize a micron-scale mass of protein called pericentriolar material (PCM from which microtubules nucleate. During each cell cycle, PCM accumulates around centrioles through phosphorylation-mediated assembly of PCM scaffold proteins. During mitotic exit, PCM swiftly disassembles by an unknown mechanism. Here, we used Caenorhabditis elegans embryos to determine the mechanism and importance of PCM disassembly in dividing cells. We found that the phosphatase PP2A and its regulatory subunit SUR-6 (PP2ASUR-6, together with cortically directed microtubule pulling forces, actively disassemble PCM. In embryos depleted of these activities, ∼25% of PCM persisted from one cell cycle into the next. Purified PP2ASUR-6 could dephosphorylate the major PCM scaffold protein SPD-5 in vitro. Our data suggest that PCM disassembly occurs through a combination of dephosphorylation of PCM components and force-driven fragmentation of the PCM scaffold.

  8. Driver performance and attention allocation in use of logo signs on freeway exit ramps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahabi, Maryam; Machado, Patricia; Lau, Mei Ying; Deng, Yulin; Pankok, Carl; Hummer, Joseph; Rasdorf, William; Kaber, David B

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this research was to quantify the effects of driver age, ramp signage configuration, including number of panels, logo format and sign familiarity, on driver performance and attention allocation when exiting freeways. Sixty drivers participated in a simulator study and analysis of variance models were used to assess response effects of the controlled manipulations. Results revealed elderly drivers to demonstrate worse performance and conservative control strategies as compared to middle-aged and young drivers. Elderly drivers also exhibited lower off-road fixation frequency and shorter off-road glance durations compared to middle-aged and young drivers. In general, drivers adopted a more conservative strategy when exposed to nine-panel signs as compared to six-panel signs and were more accurate in target detection when searching six-panels vs. nine and with familiar vs. unfamiliar logos. These findings provide an applicable guide for agency design of freeway ramp signage accounting for driver demographics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of Upstream and Downstream Compressor Stators on Rotor Exit Flow Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L. Key

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements acquired at the rotor exit plane illuminate the interaction of the rotor with the upstream vane row and the downstream vane row. The relative phase of the upstream and downstream vane rows is adjusted using vane clocking so that the effect of the upstream propagating potential field from the downstream stator can be distinguished from the effects associated with the wakes shed from the upstream stator. Unsteady absolute flow angle information shows that the downstream potential field causes the absolute flow angle to increase in the vicinity of the downstream stator leading edge. The presence of Stator 1 wake is also detected at this measurement plane using unsteady total pressure data. The rotor wakes are measured at different circumferential locations across the vane passage, and the influence of Stator 1 wake on the suction side of the rotor wake is evident. Also, the influence of the downstream stator is detected on the pressure side of the rotor wake for a particular clocking configuration. Understanding the role of the surrounding vane rows on rotor wake development will lead to improved comparison between experimental data and results from computational models.

  10. The Relation of Visual Signs In The Narrative Structure of MTV Exit Human Trafficking Campaign Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winny Gunarti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking is a violation of the human rights. One of the campaign to fight against this crime takes the form of a digital campaign that aired on television and internet.   This study discusses the narrative structure of human trafficking campaign video from non-profit organization MTV Exit in 2012. This video campaign combines art collage and graphic art in its narrative structure. Nonverbal visual elements displayed in the form of a digital photo collage with animated illustrations setting. We consider this video campaign quite interesting as it is visually inform the public about the importance of safe migration through the visual signs in the narrative structure. This study analyzes qualitatively the relation of nonverbal visual signs in the narrative collage and illustration. Denotative and connotative analysis with structural semiotics approach is needed to understand the meaning of visual signs in the context of humans as cultural beings in their communities. This study is expected to be a model example of visual communication campaigns that can foster public awareness of the issue of human trafficking, especially for young women and children as young generation.

  11. Pressure suppression pool hydrodynamic studies for horizontal vent exit of Indian PHWR containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, N.; Bajaj, S.S.; Saha, P.

    1994-01-01

    The standard Indian PHWR incorporates a pressure suppression type of containment system with a suppression pool.The design of KAPS (Kakrapar Atomic Power Station) suppression pool system adopts a modified system of downcomers having horizontal vents as compared to vertical vents of NAPS (Narora Atomic Power Station). Hydrodynamic studies for vertical vents have been reported earlier. This paper presents hydrodynamic studies for horizontal type vent system during LOCA. These studies include the phenomenon of vent clearing (where the water slug standing in downcomer initially is injected to wetwell due to rapid pressurization of drywell) followed by pool swell (elevation of pool water due to formation of bubbles due to air mass entering pool at the exit of horizontal vents from drywell). The analysis performed for vent clearing and pool swell is based on rigorous thermal hydraulic calculation consisting of conservation of air-steam mixture mass, momentum and thermal energy and mass of air. Horizontal vent of downcomer is modelled in such a way that during steam-air flow, variation of flow area due to oscillating water surface in downcomer could be considered. Calculation predicts that the vent gets cleared in about 1.0 second and the corresponding downward slug velocity in the downcomer is 4.61 m/sec. The maximum pool swell for a conservative lateral expansion is calculated to be 0.56 m. (author). 3 refs., 12 figs

  12. Klebsazolicin inhibits 70S ribosome by obstructing the peptide exit tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metelev, Mikhail; Osterman, Ilya A.; Ghilarov, Dmitry; Khabibullina, Nelli F.; Yakimov, Alexander; Shabalin, Konstantin; Utkina, Irina; Travin, Dmitry Y.; Komarova, Ekaterina S.; Serebryakova, Marina; Artamonova, Tatyana; Khodorkovskii, Mikhail; Konevega, Andrey L.; Sergiev, Petr V.; Severinov, Konstantin; Polikanov, Yury S.

    2017-08-28

    Whereas screening of the small-molecule metabolites produced by most cultivatable microorganisms often results in the rediscovery of known compounds, genome-mining programs allow researchers to harness much greater chemical diversity, and result in the discovery of new molecular scaffolds. Here we report the genome-guided identification of a new antibiotic, klebsazolicin (KLB), from Klebsiella pneumoniae that inhibits the growth of sensitive cells by targeting ribosomes. A ribosomally synthesized post-translationally modified peptide (RiPP), KLB is characterized by the presence of a unique N-terminal amidine ring that is essential for its activity. Biochemical in vitro studies indicate that KLB inhibits ribosomes by interfering with translation elongation. Structural analysis of the ribosome–KLB complex showed that the compound binds in the peptide exit tunnel overlapping with the binding sites of macrolides or streptogramin-B. KLB adopts a compact conformation and largely obstructs the tunnel. Engineered KLB fragments were observed to retain in vitro activity, and thus have the potential to serve as a starting point for the development of new bioactive compounds.

  13. Model Predictive Control of the Exit Part Temperature for an Austenitization Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari S. Ganesh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Quench hardening is the process of strengthening and hardening ferrous metals and alloys by heating the material to a specific temperature to form austenite (austenitization, followed by rapid cooling (quenching in water, brine or oil to introduce a hardened phase called martensite. The material is then often tempered to increase toughness, as it may decrease from the quench hardening process. The austenitization process is highly energy-intensive and many of the industrial austenitization furnaces were built and equipped prior to the advent of advanced control strategies and thus use large, sub-optimal amounts of energy. The model computes the energy usage of the furnace and the part temperature profile as a function of time and position within the furnace under temperature feedback control. In this paper, the aforementioned model is used to simulate the furnace for a batch of forty parts under heuristic temperature set points suggested by the operators of the plant. A model predictive control (MPC system is then developed and deployed to control the the part temperature at the furnace exit thereby preventing the parts from overheating. An energy efficiency gain of 5.3 % was obtained under model predictive control compared to operation under heuristic temperature set points tracked by a regulatory control layer.

  14. Some Aspects of Exit of Ukraine’s Economy from the Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulyeyev Ivan P.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of trends both in the global and Ukraine’s economy demonstrates a cyclic, non-linear character of these processes under conditions of absence of a unifying national idea in Ukraine, ignoring institutional features. Ukraine chose a catch-up model of development having not formed corresponding institutions, its own scientific and methodological base, the public-minded elite. The aim of the work is theoretical substantiation of institutional environment contributing to the exit of the economy, industry and business entities from the systemic social and economic crisis. It is necessary: to formulate the goal of the society, its main classes, its elite for a medium term; reconsider the fundamental values of the society; determine the main directions in the development of the economy, industry, social sphere; move from the catch-up strategy to the point advanced one; ensure reduction of the gap in income of extreme decile groups of the population; support fundamental science, education, health care; provide a total increase of the responsibility of managers at all levels on the basis of contracts, programs, roadmaps, monitoring their performance

  15. Exit Site Infection due to Mycobacterium chelonae in an Elderly Patient on Peritoneal Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arata Hibi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM are rarely isolated from peritoneal dialysis (PD-associated catheter infections. However, NTM infection is usually difficult to treat and leads to catheter loss. Prompt diagnosis is essential for appropriate treatment. A 70-year-old Japanese man who had been on PD for 2 years and with a medical history of 2 episodes of exit site infections (ESIs due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was admitted to the hospital due to suspected ESI recurrence. However, Gram staining of the pus revealed no gram-positive cocci. Instead, weakly stained gram-positive rods were observed after 7 days of incubation, which were also positive for acid-fast staining. Rapidly growing NTM Mycobacterium chelonae was isolated on day 14. Despite administering a combination antibiotic therapy, ESI could not be controlled, and catheter removal surgery was performed on day 21. Although PD was discontinued temporarily, the patient did not require hemodialysis, without any uremic symptoms. The catheter was reinserted on day 48, and PD was reinitiated on day 61. The patient was discharged on day 65. Antibiotic therapy was continued for 3 months after discharge, with no indications of recurrent infections observed. It is important to consider the risk of NTM infections in patients on PD. Acid-fast staining could be a key test for prompt diagnosis and provision of an appropriate treatment.

  16. Inhibition of Cell Division and DNA Replication Impair Mouse-Naïve Pluripotency Exit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisman, Ariel; Vazquez Echegaray, Camila; Solari, Claudia; Cosentino, María Soledad; Martyn, Iain; Deglincerti, Alessia; Ozair, Mohammad Zeeshan; Ruzo, Albert; Barañao, Lino; Miriuka, Santiago; Brivanlou, Ali; Guberman, Alejandra

    2017-09-01

    The cell cycle has gained attention as a key determinant for cell fate decisions, but the contribution of DNA replication and mitosis in stem cell differentiation has not been extensively studied. To understand if these processes act as "windows of opportunity" for changes in cell identity, we established synchronized cultures of mouse embryonic stem cells as they exit the ground state of pluripotency. We show that initial transcriptional changes in this transition do not require passage through mitosis and that conversion to primed pluripotency is linked to lineage priming in the G1 phase. Importantly, we demonstrate that impairment of DNA replication severely blocks transcriptional switch to primed pluripotency, even in the absence of p53 activity induced by the DNA damage response. Our data suggest an important role for DNA replication during mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation, which could shed light on why pluripotent cells are only receptive to differentiation signals during G1, that is, before the S phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cumulative Incidence Function in Studies on the Duration of the Unemployment Exit Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bieszk-Stolorz Beata

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available When we analyse the employment seeking process, an event that ends the observation of a given individual is their employment. The remaining observations are considered to be censored: the observations concluded before the end of the study or the cases of deregistering for other causes (e.g. old-age pension, taking up residence in a foreign country, starting further education. The act of taking up income-generating work can take various forms: taking up a job, setting up a business or taking advantage of subsidised job programmes. Jobseekers are often deregistered from poviat labour offices because they refuse to take up an offered job or fail to report to the office in due time. All the above events are forms of competing risk. The purpose of this paper is to use the cumulative incidence function to assess the probability of the unemployment exit with regard to different types of the competing risk. When competing-risk events occur, a solution sometimes is used where the remaining endpoint events are considered censored observations. Such a solution leads to an overestimation of probability. The results implicate that the beneficiaries’ will to find employment was not a principal reason for a registering decision. The study is based on the individual data of jobseekers registered in the Poviat Labour Office in Szczecin.

  18. Analytic representation of the backscatter correction factor at the exit of high energy photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappas, K.; Rosenwald, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    In high-energy X-ray beams, the dose calculated near the exit surface under electronic equilibrium conditions is generally over-estimated since it is derived from measurements performed in water with large thickness of backscattering material. The resulting error depends on a number of parameters such as beam energy, field dimension, thickness of overlying and underlying material. The authors have systematically measured for 4 different energies and for different para- meters and for different combinations of the above parameters, the reduction of dose due to backscatter. This correction is expressed as a multiplicative factor, called 'Backscatter Correction Factor' (BCF). This BCF is larger for lower energies, larger field sizes and larger depths. The BCF has been represented by an analytical expression which involves an exponential function of the backscattering thickness and linear relationships with depth field size and beam quality index. Using this expression, the BCF can be calculated within 0.5% for any conditions in the energy range investigated. (author). 14 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  19. Regional Innovation System Strengthening Program (SIDa as an Exit Strategy National Community Development Program (PNPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Narutomo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the PNPM program and follow the program with SIDA Strengthening Program. The research method used is a qualitative method approach of this research through the evaluation research design that builds on the CIPP evaluation model (Context-Input-Process-Product. Since the failure of theories and models of development are too glorifies growth, makes many people turn to focus on people development, which includes requiring optimization of local resources, participation, and empowerment. Since then, "empowerment" which was introduced in Indonesia has been anesthetized and made many hopes among many parties. In 2007 started the National Program for Community Empowerment (PNPM which continue Kecamatan Development Program (KDP. PNPM 2014 which is part of the United Indonesia Cabinet Volume 2 is going to end. For that we need to look for an exit strategy program that can maintain sustainability of PNPM. Regional Innovation Systems Strengthening Program (SIDA is a program of the whole process in one system to foster innovation made between government institutions, local governments, research institutions, educational institutions, innovation support institutions, businesses, and communities in areas that have been implemented since the 2012 SIDA program is an empowerment program as well, both to the public and even empowering to all elements such as academia, private industry, government and society.

  20. Assessing the quality of reproductive health services in Egypt via exit interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaky, Hassan H M; Khattab, Hind A S; Galal, Dina

    2007-05-01

    This study assesses the quality of reproductive health services using client satisfaction exit interviews among three groups of primary health care units run by the Ministry of Health and Population of Egypt. Each group applied a different model of intervention. The Ministry will use the results in assessing its reproductive health component in the health sector reform program, and benefits from the strengths of other models of intervention. The sample was selected in two stages. First, a stratified random sampling procedure was used to select the health units. Then the sample of female clients in each health unit was selected using the systematic random approach, whereby one in every two women visiting the unit was approached. All women in the sample coming for reproductive health services were included in the analysis. The results showed that reproductive health beneficiaries at the units implementing the new health sector reform program were more satisfied with the quality of services. Still there were various areas where clients showed significant dissatisfaction, such as waiting time, interior furnishings, cleanliness of the units and consultation time. The study showed that the staff of these units did not provide a conductive social environment as other interventions did. A significant proportion of women expressed their intention to go to private physicians owing to their flexible working hours and variety specializations. Beneficiaries were generally more satisfied with the quality of health services after attending the reformed units than the other types of units, but the generalization did not fully apply. Areas of weakness are identified.

  1. Blocking variant surface glycoprotein synthesis alters endoplasmic reticulum exit sites/Golgi homeostasis in Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Cher-Pheng; Smith, Terry K; Gluenz, Eva; Wand, Nadina Vasileva; Vaughan, Sue; Rudenko, Gloria

    2018-06-01

    The predominant secretory cargo of bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei is variant surface glycoprotein (VSG), comprising ~10% total protein and forming a dense protective layer. Blocking VSG translation using Morpholino oligonucleotides triggered a precise pre-cytokinesis arrest. We investigated the effect of blocking VSG synthesis on the secretory pathway. The number of Golgi decreased, particularly in post-mitotic cells, from 3.5 ± 0.6 to 2.0 ± 0.04 per cell. Similarly, the number of endoplasmic reticulum exit sites (ERES) in post-mitotic cells dropped from 3.9 ± 0.6 to 2.7 ± 0.1 eight hours after blocking VSG synthesis. The secretory pathway was still functional in these stalled cells, as monitored using Cathepsin L. Rates of phospholipid and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor biosynthesis remained relatively unaffected, except for the level of sphingomyelin which increased. However, both endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi morphology became distorted, with the Golgi cisternae becoming significantly dilated, particularly at the trans-face. Membrane accumulation in these structures is possibly caused by reduced budding of nascent vesicles due to the drastic reduction in the total amount of secretory cargo, that is, VSG. These data argue that the total flux of secretory cargo impacts upon the biogenesis and maintenance of secretory structures and organelles in T. brucei, including the ERES and Golgi. © 2018 The Authors. Traffic published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. DNA exit ramps are revealed in the binding landscapes obtained from simulations in helical coordinates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacia Echeverria

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available DNA molecules are highly charged semi-flexible polymers that are involved in a wide variety of dynamical processes such as transcription and replication. Characterizing the binding landscapes around DNA molecules is essential to understanding the energetics and kinetics of various biological processes. We present a curvilinear coordinate system that fully takes into account the helical symmetry of a DNA segment. The latter naturally allows to characterize the spatial organization and motions of ligands tracking the minor or major grooves, in a motion reminiscent of sliding. Using this approach, we performed umbrella sampling (US molecular dynamics (MD simulations to calculate the three-dimensional potentials of mean force (3D-PMFs for a Na+ cation and for methyl guanidinium, an arginine analog. The computed PMFs show that, even for small ligands, the free energy landscapes are complex. In general, energy barriers of up to ~5 kcal/mol were measured for removing the ligands from the minor groove, and of ~1.5 kcal/mol for sliding along the minor groove. We shed light on the way the minor groove geometry, defined mainly by the DNA sequence, shapes the binding landscape around DNA, providing heterogeneous environments for recognition by various ligands. For example, we identified the presence of dissociation points or "exit ramps" that naturally would terminate sliding. We discuss how our findings have important implications for understanding how proteins and ligands associate and slide along DNA.

  3. Local heat transfer performance and exit flow characteristics of a miniature axial fan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stafford, Jason; Walsh, Ed; Egan, Vanessa

    2010-01-01

    Dimensional restrictions in electronic equipment have resulted in miniaturization of many existing cooling technologies. In addition to this, cooling solutions are required to dissipate increased thermal loads to maintain component reliability. Axial fans are widely used in electronics cooling to meet such thermal demands. However, if the extent of non-uniform heat transfer rates, produced by highly three-dimensional air patterns is unknown in the design stages, premature component failure may result. The current study highlights these non-uniformities in heat transfer coefficient, using infrared thermography of a miniature axial fan impinging air on a flat plate. Fan rotational speed and distance from the flat plate are varied to encompass heat transfer phenomena resultant from complex exit air flow distribution. Local peaks in heat transfer coefficient have been shown to be directly related to the air flow and fan motor support interaction. Optimum locations for discrete heat source positioning have been identified which are a function of fan to plate spacing and independent of fan rotational speed when the Reynolds number effect is not apparent.

  4. Impacts of a jet's exit flow pattern on mixing and combustion performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathan, G.J.; Mi, J.; Newbold, G.J.R.; Nobes, D.S. [Turbulence, Energy and Combustion Group, School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Alwahabi, Z.T. [Turbulence, Energy and Combustion Group, Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia)

    2006-09-15

    The influence of modifying a jet's exit flow pattern on both the near and far-field turbulent mixing processes and on the resulting combustion performance, is explored. This reveals that, in contradiction to some common assumptions, increasing the coherence of large-scale motions can decrease molecular mixing rates, and yet can still be beneficial in some applications. Even relatively minor changes to the exit flow pattern of a non-reacting round jet, through changes to the nozzle profile are found to propagate downstream into the far field, apparently through the underlying turbulent structure. Importantly, while a jet from a smoothly contracting nozzle is found to have higher rates of entrainment, mean spread and mean decay of the scalar field than does a long pipe jet, it has a lower rate of molecular mixing. That is, increased large-scale mixing does not necessarily result in increased fine-scale mixing. A range of devices are reviewed which enhance, or stimulate the large-scale, coherent motions in an emerging jet using acoustic, mechanical or fluidic methods. The available evidence suggests that those methods which induce instantaneously asymmetric flow structure are more effective at increasing the near-field spreading than are those which induce instantaneously axisymmetric flow structure. Only limited data are available of the effects of such near-field changes on the far-field properties. Nevertheless, the available data reveal a clear trend that this near-field flow undergoes a transition to a far-field state whose spread and decay is comparable with that of a steady jet, albeit being indelibly altered by the near-field excitation. It also suggests that 'self-exciting' devices (i.e. that are not externally forced), cause a net reduction in the total entrainment relative to the unexcited jet, due to the losses induced by the device itself. Nevertheless, the changes which they can impart to the flow, such as redistributing the turbulent

  5. Impacts of a jet's exit flow pattern on mixing and combustion performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathan, G J; Mi, J; Newbold, G J.R.; Nobes, D S [Turbulence, Energy and Combustion Group, School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Alwahabi, Z T [Turbulence, Energy and Combustion Group, Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia)

    2006-09-15

    The influence of modifying a jet's exit flow pattern on both the near and far-field turbulent mixing processes and on the resulting combustion performance, is explored. This reveals that, in contradiction to some common assumptions, increasing the coherence of large-scale motions can decrease molecular mixing rates, and yet can still be beneficial in some applications. Even relatively minor changes to the exit flow pattern of a non-reacting round jet, through changes to the nozzle profile are found to propagate downstream into the far field, apparently through the underlying turbulent structure. Importantly, while a jet from a smoothly contracting nozzle is found to have higher rates of entrainment, mean spread and mean decay of the scalar field than does a long pipe jet, it has a lower rate of molecular mixing. That is, increased large-scale mixing does not necessarily result in increased fine-scale mixing. A range of devices are reviewed which enhance, or stimulate the large-scale, coherent motions in an emerging jet using acoustic, mechanical or fluidic methods. The available evidence suggests that those methods which induce instantaneously asymmetric flow structure are more effective at increasing the near-field spreading than are those which induce instantaneously axisymmetric flow structure. Only limited data are available of the effects of such near-field changes on the far-field properties. Nevertheless, the available data reveal a clear trend that this near-field flow undergoes a transition to a far-field state whose spread and decay is comparable with that of a steady jet, albeit being indelibly altered by the near-field excitation. It also suggests that 'self-exciting' devices (i.e. that are not externally forced), cause a net reduction in the total entrainment relative to the unexcited jet, due to the losses induced by the device itself. Nevertheless, the changes which they can impart to the flow, such as redistributing the turbulent energy from the

  6. Factors influencing the stay-exit intention of small livestock farmers: empirical evidence from southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Carter-Leal

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the factors driving the stay-exit intention of small livestock farmers located in southern Chile. Technical, economic, and social characteristics from 212 farmers were included in this study. Through an empirical probit model we identified the variables that should be considered when developing rural policies aimed at increasing the likelihood to stay in farming. The results showed that 12 out of the 30 parameters were significant (p<0.10, with an extremely good fit of the model (McFadden pseudo-R2 = 0.25, Count R2 = 75.9%. Particularly, ‘female farmer’, ‘positive expectation about future farming life’, ‘capacity of farm income to cover the expenses of the whole family’, ‘mixed production’, ‘participation in an association’, and ‘distance to the nearest city’ were positively associated with the stay intention. Moreover, our study also indicates that ‘existence of a defined retirement age’, ‘existence of a defined sale price for the farm’, ‘a mixed farm focused on livestock production’, ‘the possibility to make own decisions’, ‘age squared’, and the ‘number of people living at the farm’ were negatively associated with the stay intention. Our empirical findings suggest that farmer characteristics (gender, family size, the farming system (multi-activity production, efficiency, and social aspects of the rural society (associations, protection of agricultural products are also important aspects that should be considered by rural development policies aimed at improving the likelihood of staying, in addition to the technical characteristics of the farming which have been traditionally addressed in developing countries.

  7. Solution structure of human intestinal fatty acid binding protein: Implications for ligand entry and exit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fengli; Luecke, Christian; Baier, Leslie J.; Sacchettini, James C.; Hamilton, James A.

    1997-01-01

    The human intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) is a small (131 amino acids) protein which binds dietary long-chain fatty acids in the cytosol of enterocytes. Recently, an alanine to threonine substitution at position 54 in I-FABP has been identified which affects fatty acid binding and transport, and is associated with the development of insulin resistance in several populations including Mexican-Americans and Pima Indians. To investigate the molecular basis of the binding properties of I-FABP, the 3D solution structure of the more common form of human I-FABP (Ala54) was studied by multidimensional NMR spectroscopy.Recombinant I-FABP was expressed from E. coli in the presence and absence of 15N-enriched media. The sequential assignments for non-delipidated I-FABP were completed by using 2D homonuclear spectra (COSY, TOCSY and NOESY) and 3D heteronuclear spectra(NOESY-HMQC and TOCSY-HMQC). The tertiary structure of human I-FABP was calculated by using the distance geometry program DIANA based on 2519 distance constraints obtained from the NMR data. Subsequent energy minimization was carried out by using the program SYBYL in the presence of distance constraints. The conformation of human I-FABP consists of 10 antiparallel β-strands which form two nearly orthogonal β-sheets of five strands each, and two short α-helices that connect the β-strands A and B. The interior of the protein consists of a water-filled cavity between the two β-sheets. The NMR solution structure of human I-FABP is similar to the crystal structure of rat I-FABP.The NMR results show significant conformational variability of certain backbone segments around the postulated portal region for the entry and exit of fatty acid ligand

  8. Computerized analysis of the 12-lead electrocardiogram to identify epicardial ventricular tachycardia exit sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokokawa, Miki; Jung, Dae Yon; Joseph, Kim K; Hero, Alfred O; Morady, Fred; Bogun, Frank

    2014-11-01

    Twelve-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) criteria for epicardial ventricular tachycardia (VT) origins have been described. In patients with structural heart disease, the ability to predict an epicardial origin based on QRS morphology is limited and has been investigated only for limited regions in the heart. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a computerized algorithm is able to accurately differentiate epicardial vs endocardial origins of ventricular arrhythmias. Endocardial and epicardial pace-mapping were performed in 43 patients at 3277 sites. The 12-lead ECGs were digitized and analyzed using a mixture of gaussian model (MoG) to assess whether the algorithm was able to identify an epicardial vs endocardial origin of the paced rhythm. The MoG computerized algorithm was compared to algorithms published in prior reports. The computerized algorithm correctly differentiated epicardial vs endocardial pacing sites for 80% of the sites compared to an accuracy of 42% to 66% of other described criteria. The accuracy was higher in patients without structural heart disease than in those with structural heart disease (94% vs 80%, P = .0004) and for right bundle branch block (82%) compared to left bundle branch block morphologies (79%, P = .001). Validation studies showed the accuracy for VT exit sites to be 84%. A computerized algorithm was able to accurately differentiate the majority of epicardial vs endocardial pace-mapping sites. The algorithm is not region specific and performed best in patients without structural heart disease and with VTs having a right bundle branch block morphology. Copyright © 2014 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. SU-E-T-139: Automated Daily EPID Exit Dose Analysis Uncovers Treatment Variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olch, A [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate a fully automated EPID exit dose system for its ability to detect daily treatment deviations including patient setup, delivery, and anatomy changes. Methods: PerFRACTION (Sun Nuclear Corporation) software is a system that uses integrated EPID images taken during patient treatment and automatically pulled from the Aria database and analyzed based on user-defined comparisons. This was used to monitor 20 plans consisting of a total of 859 fields for 18 patients, for a total of 251 fractions. Nine VMAT, 5 IMRT, and 6 3D plans were monitored. The Gamma analysis was performed for each field within a plan, comparing the first fraction against each of the other fractions in each treatment course. A 2% dose difference, 1 mm distance-to-agreement, and 10% dose threshold was used. These tight tolerances were chosen to achieve a high sensitivity to treatment variations. The field passed if 93% of the pixels had a Gamma of 1 or less. Results: Twenty-nine percent of the fields failed. The average plan passing rate was 92.5%.The average 3D plan passing rate was less than for VMAT or IMRT, 84%, vs. an average of 96.2%. When fields failed, an investigation revealed changes in patient anatomy or setup variations, often also leading to variations of transmission through immobilization devices. Conclusion: PerFRACTION is a fully automated system for determining daily changes in dose transmission through the patient that requires no effort other than for the imager panel to be deployed during treatment. A surprising number of fields failed the analysis and can be attributed to important treatment variations that would otherwise not be appreciated. Further study of inter-fraction treatment variations is possible and warranted. Sun Nuclear Corporation provided a license to the software described.

  10. Solution structure of human intestinal fatty acid binding protein: Implications for ligand entry and exit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Fengli [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Biophysics (United States); Luecke, Christian [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet (Germany); Baier, Leslie J. [NIDDK, NIH, Phoenix Epidemiology and Clinical Research Branch (United States); Sacchettini, James C. [Texas A and M University, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics (United States); Hamilton, James A. [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Biophysics (United States)

    1997-04-15

    The human intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) is a small (131 amino acids) protein which binds dietary long-chain fatty acids in the cytosol of enterocytes. Recently, an alanine to threonine substitution at position 54 in I-FABP has been identified which affects fatty acid binding and transport, and is associated with the development of insulin resistance in several populations including Mexican-Americans and Pima Indians. To investigate the molecular basis of the binding properties of I-FABP, the 3D solution structure of the more common form of human I-FABP (Ala54) was studied by multidimensional NMR spectroscopy.Recombinant I-FABP was expressed from E. coli in the presence and absence of 15N-enriched media. The sequential assignments for non-delipidated I-FABP were completed by using 2D homonuclear spectra (COSY, TOCSY and NOESY) and 3D heteronuclear spectra(NOESY-HMQC and TOCSY-HMQC). The tertiary structure of human I-FABP was calculated by using the distance geometry program DIANA based on 2519 distance constraints obtained from the NMR data. Subsequent energy minimization was carried out by using the program SYBYL in the presence of distance constraints. The conformation of human I-FABP consists of 10 antiparallel {beta}-strands which form two nearly orthogonal {beta}-sheets of five strands each, and two short {alpha}-helices that connect the {beta}-strands A and B. The interior of the protein consists of a water-filled cavity between the two {beta}-sheets. The NMR solution structure of human I-FABP is similar to the crystal structure of rat I-FABP.The NMR results show significant conformational variability of certain backbone segments around the postulated portal region for the entry and exit of fatty acid ligand.

  11. Nucleolar exit of RNF8 and BRCA1 in response to DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra-Rebollo, Marta; Mateo, Francesca; Franke, Kristin [Department of Cell Biology, Molecular Biology Institute of Barcelona (IBMB), CSIC, Barcelona Science Park, Helix Building, Baldiri Reixac 15-21, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Huen, Michael S.Y. [Department of Anatomy, Centre for Cancer Research, The University of Hong Kong, L1, Laboratory Block, 21 Sassoon Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Lopitz-Otsoa, Fernando; Rodriguez, Manuel S. [Proteomics Unit, CIC bioGUNE CIBERehd, ProteoRed, Technology Park of Bizkaia, Building 801A, 48160 Derio (Spain); Plans, Vanessa [Department of Cell Biology, Molecular Biology Institute of Barcelona (IBMB), CSIC, Barcelona Science Park, Helix Building, Baldiri Reixac 15-21, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Thomson, Timothy M., E-mail: titbmc@ibmb.csic.es [Department of Cell Biology, Molecular Biology Institute of Barcelona (IBMB), CSIC, Barcelona Science Park, Helix Building, Baldiri Reixac 15-21, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-11-01

    The induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) elicits a plethora of responses that redirect many cellular functions to the vital task of repairing the injury, collectively known as the DNA damage response (DDR). We have found that, in the absence of DNA damage, the DSB repair factors RNF8 and BRCA1 are associated with the nucleolus. Shortly after exposure of cells to {gamma}-radiation, RNF8 and BRCA1 translocated from the nucleolus to damage foci, a traffic that was reverted several hours after the damage. RNF8 interacted through its FHA domain with the ribosomal protein RPSA, and knockdown of RPSA caused a depletion of nucleolar RNF8 and BRCA1, suggesting that the interaction of RNF8 with RPSA is critical for the nucleolar localization of these DDR factors. Knockdown of RPSA or RNF8 impaired bulk protein translation, as did {gamma}-irradiation, the latter being partially countered by overexpression of exogenous RNF8. Our results suggest that RNF8 and BRCA1 are anchored to the nucleolus through reversible interactions with RPSA and that, in addition to its known functions in DDR, RNF8 may play a role in protein synthesis, possibly linking the nucleolar exit of this factor to the attenuation of protein synthesis in response to DNA damage. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RNF8 and BRCA1 are associated with the nucleolus of undamaged cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upon {gamma}-radiation, RNF8 and BRCA1 are translocated from the nucleolus to damage foci. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ribosomal protein RPSA anchors RNF8 to the nucleolus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RNF8 may play previously unsuspected roles in protein synthesis.

  12. Nucleolar exit of RNF8 and BRCA1 in response to DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra-Rebollo, Marta; Mateo, Francesca; Franke, Kristin; Huen, Michael S.Y.; Lopitz-Otsoa, Fernando; Rodríguez, Manuel S.; Plans, Vanessa; Thomson, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    The induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) elicits a plethora of responses that redirect many cellular functions to the vital task of repairing the injury, collectively known as the DNA damage response (DDR). We have found that, in the absence of DNA damage, the DSB repair factors RNF8 and BRCA1 are associated with the nucleolus. Shortly after exposure of cells to γ-radiation, RNF8 and BRCA1 translocated from the nucleolus to damage foci, a traffic that was reverted several hours after the damage. RNF8 interacted through its FHA domain with the ribosomal protein RPSA, and knockdown of RPSA caused a depletion of nucleolar RNF8 and BRCA1, suggesting that the interaction of RNF8 with RPSA is critical for the nucleolar localization of these DDR factors. Knockdown of RPSA or RNF8 impaired bulk protein translation, as did γ-irradiation, the latter being partially countered by overexpression of exogenous RNF8. Our results suggest that RNF8 and BRCA1 are anchored to the nucleolus through reversible interactions with RPSA and that, in addition to its known functions in DDR, RNF8 may play a role in protein synthesis, possibly linking the nucleolar exit of this factor to the attenuation of protein synthesis in response to DNA damage. -- Highlights: ► RNF8 and BRCA1 are associated with the nucleolus of undamaged cells. ► Upon γ-radiation, RNF8 and BRCA1 are translocated from the nucleolus to damage foci. ► The ribosomal protein RPSA anchors RNF8 to the nucleolus. ► RNF8 may play previously unsuspected roles in protein synthesis.

  13. Opioid exit plan: A pharmacist's role in managing acute postoperative pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genord, Cheryl; Frost, Timothy; Eid, Deeb

    The benefits of a pharmacist's involvement in medication reconciliation and discharge counseling are well documented in the literature as improving patient outcomes. In contrast, no studies have focused on the initiation of a pharmacist-led opioid exit plan (OEP) for acute postoperative pain management. This paper summarizes a pharmacist-led OEP practice model and the potential role that pharmacists and student pharmacists can have at the point of admission, during postoperative recovery, and on discharge in acute pain management patients. The pain management team at St. Joseph Mercy Hospital in Ann Arbor, MI, has developed and implemented a pharmacist-led OEP to better manage acute postoperative pain in neurosurgery and orthopedic and colorectal surgery in an effort to ensure appropriate patient and provider education and understanding of pain management. OEP is a tool with the potential to expand the role of pharmacists in managing acute pain in postoperative patients at the point of admission, during the postoperative inpatient stay, and on discharge. Its benefits include medication reconciliation review and prescription drug-monitoring program search before admission, interdisciplinary rounds with the medical team to provide optimal inpatient postoperative pain management, clinical assessment of outpatient prescriptions with opioid discharge counseling, and medication evaluation of prescribed pain regimen and opioid discontinuation status at the post-discharge follow-up appointment. A hospital pain management team operating a pharmacist-led OEP can be key to guiding the appropriate prescribing practice of opioids and assisting with transitions of care on discharge. Further outcomes-based evaluations of the practice model are planned and encouraged to validate and improve the pharmacist-led OEP practice. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Three Dimensional Flow Field at the Exit of an Axial-Flow Turbine Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayana, B.; Ristic, D.; Chu, S.

    1998-01-01

    A systematic and comprehensive investigation was performed to provide detailed data on the three dimensional viscous flow phenomena downstream of a modem turbine rotor and to understand the flow physics such as origin, nature, development of wakes, secondary flow, and leakage flow. The experiment was carried out in the Axial Flow Turbine Research Facility (AFTRF) at Penn State, with velocity measurements taken with a 3-D LDV System. Two radial traverses at 1% and 10% of chord downstream of the rotor have been performed to identify the three-dimensional flow features at the exit of the rotor blade row. Sufficient spatial resolution was maintained to resolve blade wake, secondary flow, and tip leakage flow. The wake deficit is found to be substantial, especially at 1% of chord downstream of the rotor. At this location, negative axial velocity occurs near the tip, suggesting flow separation in the tip clearance region. Turbulence intensities peak in the wake region, and cross- correlations are mainly associated with the velocity gradient of the wake deficit. The radial velocities, both in the wake and in the endwall region, are found to be substantial. Two counter-rotating secondary flows are identified in the blade passage, with one occupying the half span close to the casino and the other occupying the half span close to the hub. The tip leakage flow is well restricted to 10% immersion from the blade tip. There are strong vorticity distributions associated with these secondary flows and tip leakage flow. The passage averaged data are in good agreement with design values.

  15. Anomalous scattering, transport, and spatial distribution of X-ray fluorescence at the exit of polycapillary structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazuritskiy, M. I., E-mail: mazurmik@gmail.com; Lerer, A. M.; Makhno, P. V. [Southern Federal University (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The angular distribution of the X-ray intensity at the exit of microchannel plates at grazing incidence of monochromatic radiation on the walls of microcapillaries has been investigated. The angles and energies of the primary radiation quanta at which the synchrotron beam excites X-ray fluorescence propagating inside polycapillary structures have been determined. The angular dependences of the intensity distribution of X-rays transmitted through the microcapillaries have been studied theoretically and experimentally for energies corresponding to the region of anomalous dispersion near the L{sub 2,3} absorption edges of silicon. The propagation of waves in hollow polycapillary waveguides, the excitation of X-ray fluorescence, and the X-ray diffraction at the exit of microchannel plates have been modeled mathematically. The mathematical model takes into account the presence of a transition layer on the microchannel surface.

  16. The labor of a lifetime?: health and occupation type as predictors of workforce exit among older Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhedran, Samara

    2012-03-01

    The structural aging of the population and withdrawal of older people from the labor force have become common themes within Western social policy discourse and have particular relevance to policy development around health and aging. The current study examines whether particular occupation types are associated with both poor health and an increased likelihood of labor force exit. Longitudinal data are used to examine workforce participation among older Australians (aged between 55 and 64, in 2002). Older workers in trades, labor, and production occupations, the majority of whom are men, have poorer general health than their counterparts in other occupations and are also the most likely to exit the workforce. These findings suggest that a number of older men in Australia (and, indeed, elsewhere) may face both poor health and limited employment opportunities in areas that match their abilities and experience. These individuals may experience a number of years out of the labor force, highlighting a role for targeted policies and programs.

  17. Perturbation of the energy loss spectra for an accelerated electron beam due to the photo injector exit

    CERN Document Server

    Salah, W

    2003-01-01

    The influence of the photo-injector exit hall on the energy loss for an accelerated electron beam is investigated, by calculating the total energy transferred from the electrons to the wakefields, which are driven by the beam. The obtained energy loss is compared to those previously obtained for a 'pill-box' cavity. This comparison shows that the influence of this hall, in terms of energy loss, varies over the beam length. It is strongest in the middle of the beam and decreases towards both ends. In consequence of this perturbation, the center of the beam is displaced from its initial position during the first phase (t < 200 ps) where the exit aperture has no effect to a new equilibrium position which takes place at 200 < t < 250 ps. (author)

  18. Focal ablation for atrial tachycardia from the double-exit of the Marshall bundle inducing atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Yeon Chin, MD

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF from the ligament/vein of Marshall (LOM/VOM has previously been described. We report the case of a 23-year-old woman with an antiarrhythmic drug-resistant AF induced by two distinct atrial tachycardias (ATs. Focal ablation of these ATs from the double-exit of the Marshall bundle using a three-dimensional map eliminated AF triggering, even though pulmonary vein electrical isolation is the cornerstone for paroxysmal AF. Such mechanisms are important as triggering factors to plan ablation for paroxysmal AF. Focal ablation for triggering and inducing AF, originating from the double-exit of the Marshall bundle may be effective in eliminating AF in young patients.

  19. Projected potential profiles across interfaces obtained by reconstructing the exit face wave function from through focal series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Somnath; Koch, Christoph T.; Ruehle, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    An iterative method for reconstructing the exit face wave function from a through focal series of transmission electron microscopy image line profiles across an interface is presented. Apart from high-resolution images recorded with small changes in defocus, this method works also well for a large defocus range as used for Fresnel imaging. Using the phase-object approximation the projected electrostatic as well as the absorptive potential profiles across an interface are determined from this exit face wave function. A new experimental image alignment procedure was developed in order to align images with large relative defocus shift. The performance of this procedure is shown to be superior to other image alignment procedures existing in the literature. The reconstruction method is applied to both simulated and experimental images

  20. Electrochemistry suggests proton access from the exit site to the binuclear center in Paracoccus denitrificans cytochrome c oxidase pathway variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Thomas; Melin, Frédéric; Richter, Oliver-M H; Ludwig, Bernd; Kannt, Aimo; Müller, Hanne; Michel, Hartmut; Hellwig, Petra

    2015-02-27

    Two different pathways through which protons access cytochrome c oxidase operate during oxygen reduction from the mitochondrial matrix, or the bacterial cytoplasm. Here, we use electrocatalytic current measurements to follow oxygen reduction coupled to proton uptake in cytochrome c oxidase isolated from Paracoccus denitrificans. Wild type enzyme and site-specific variants with defects in both proton uptake pathways (K354M, D124N and K354M/D124N) were immobilized on gold nanoparticles, and oxygen reduction was probed electrochemically in the presence of varying concentrations of Zn(2+) ions, which are known to inhibit both the entry and the exit proton pathways in the enzyme. Our data suggest that under these conditions substrate protons gain access to the oxygen reduction site via the exit pathway. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Leaving the labour market: the impact of exit routes from employment to retirement on health and wellbeing in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halleröd, Björn; Örestig, Johan; Stattin, Mikael

    2013-03-01

    The study analyses whether and to what degree specific routes into retirement affect older people, i.e. the relationship between heterogeneous exit patterns and post-retirement health and wellbeing. We used longitudinal data from two points in time; data related to t 0 were collected in 1993, 1994, 1995 and 1996 and data related to t 1 were collected in 2002 and 2003 ( N  = 589). We focused on older people (55+ at t 1 ) who were employed at t 0 and retired at t 1 . We used confirmative factor analysis to identify identical measures of health and wellbeing at both t 0 and t 1 . Hence, we were able to control for pre-retirement health and wellbeing when evaluating the effects of different exit routes. These routes were defined as dependence on incomes from sickness benefit, disability pension, part-time pension, unemployment insurance and active labour market programmes. Our initial structural equation model showed a clear relation between exit routes and post-retirement wellbeing. People who prior to retirement were pushed into social benefit programmes related to health and unemployment were significantly worse off as retirees, especially those with health-related benefits. However, these relationships disappeared once pre-retirement wellbeing was added to the model. Our main conclusion is that post-retirement wellbeing first and foremost is a consequence of accumulation of advantages and disadvantages during the life course. Both labour market exit routes and post-retirement wellbeing can be seen as outcomes of this process. There are no independent effects of the retirement process. Judging from our findings, there is no reason to believe that involvement in social security programmes allowing early retirement on health grounds has any additional negative consequences for health and wellbeing.

  2. Longtintudinal asscociations of experience of adversity and socioeconomic disadvantage during childhood with labour force participation and exit in later adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Fahy, A.E; Stansfield, S.A; Smuk, M.; Lain, D.; Van der Horst, Mariska; Vickerstaff, Sarah; Clark, C.

    2017-01-01

    The Extending Working Lives (EWL) agenda seeks to sustain employment up to and beyond traditional retirement ages. This study examined the potential role of childhood factors in shaping labour force participation and exit among older adults, with a view to informing proactive interventions early in the life-course to enhance individuals’ future capacity for extending their working lives. Childhood adversity and socioeconomic disadvantage have previously been linked to ill-health across the li...

  3. Longitudinal associations of experiences of adversity and socioeconomic disadvantage during childhood with labour force participation and exit in later adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Fahy, A. E.; Stansfeld, S. A.; Smuk, M.; Lain, D.; van der Horst, M.; Vickerstaff, S.; Clark, C.

    2017-01-01

    The Extending Working Lives (EWL) agenda seeks to sustain employment up to and beyond traditional retirement ages. This study examined the potential role of childhood factors in shaping labour force participation and exit among older adults, with a view to informing proactive interventions early in the life-course to enhance individuals’ future capacity for extending their working lives. Childhood adversity and socioeconomic disadvantage have previously been linked to ill-health across the li...

  4. Exit probability of the one-dimensional q-voter model: Analytical results and simulations for large networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpanaro, André M.; Prado, Carmen P. C.

    2014-05-01

    We discuss the exit probability of the one-dimensional q-voter model and present tools to obtain estimates about this probability, both through simulations in large networks (around 107 sites) and analytically in the limit where the network is infinitely large. We argue that the result E(ρ )=ρq/ρq+(1-ρ)q, that was found in three previous works [F. Slanina, K. Sznajd-Weron, and P. Przybyła, Europhys. Lett. 82, 18006 (2008), 10.1209/0295-5075/82/18006; R. Lambiotte and S. Redner, Europhys. Lett. 82, 18007 (2008), 10.1209/0295-5075/82/18007, for the case q =2; and P. Przybyła, K. Sznajd-Weron, and M. Tabiszewski, Phys. Rev. E 84, 031117 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevE.84.031117, for q >2] using small networks (around 103 sites), is a good approximation, but there are noticeable deviations that appear even for small systems and that do not disappear when the system size is increased (with the notable exception of the case q =2). We also show that, under some simple and intuitive hypotheses, the exit probability must obey the inequality ρq/ρq+(1-ρ)≤E(ρ)≤ρ/ρ +(1-ρ)q in the infinite size limit. We believe this settles in the negative the suggestion made [S. Galam and A. C. R. Martins, Europhys. Lett. 95, 48005 (2001), 10.1209/0295-5075/95/48005] that this result would be a finite size effect, with the exit probability actually being a step function. We also show how the result that the exit probability cannot be a step function can be reconciled with the Galam unified frame, which was also a source of controversy.

  5. Canadian medical tourism companies that have exited the marketplace: Content analysis of websites used to market transnational medical travel

    OpenAIRE

    Turner Leigh

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Medical tourism companies play an important role in promoting transnational medical travel for elective, out-of-pocket medical procedures. Though researchers are paying increasing attention to the global phenomenon of medical tourism, to date websites of medical tourism companies have received limited scrutiny. This article analyzes websites of Canadian medical tourism companies that advertised international healthcare but ultimately exited the marketplace. Using content a...

  6. Markov chains with exponentially small transition probabilities: First exit problem from a general domain. II. The general case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivieri, E.; Scoppola, E.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we consider aperiodic ergodic Markov chains with transition probabilities exponentially small in a large parameter β. We extend to the general, not necessarily reversible case the analysis, started in part I of this work, of the first exit problem from a general domain Q containing many stable equilibria (attracting equilibrium points for the β = ∞ dynamics). In particular we describe the tube of typical trajectories during the first excursion outside Q

  7. A variable radius mirror for imaging the exit slit of an SGM undulator beamline at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick, T.; Howells, M.

    1994-01-01

    Bendable metal mirrors have been implemented in two SGM undulator beamlines at the ALS. A piezo-electric actuator is employed to deform the mirror to image the SGM exit slit which moves longitudinally in the beamline as the grating rotates. The design and performance of these mirrors is discussed. Computed deformations and slope errors are compared to those found during optical metrology. The soft x-ray spot size produced at the experiment is shown

  8. A variable radius mirror for imaging the exit slit of an SGM undulator beamline at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick, T.; Howells, M.

    1994-07-01

    Bendable metal mirrors have been implemented in two SGM undulator beamlines at the ALS. A piezo-electric actuator is employed to deform the mirror to image the SGM exit slit which moves longitudinally in the beamline as the grating rotates. The design and performance of these mirrors is discussed. Computed deformations and slope errors are compared to those found during optical metrology. The soft x-ray spot size produced at the experiment is shown

  9. A two-stage compound parabolic concentrator system with a large entrance over the exit aperture ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelescu, Tatiana; Radu, A. A.

    2000-01-01

    Certain optical designs in the field of high energy gamma ray astronomy components of the Cherenkov light, collected by the mirror of telescope, be concentrated on the photo-cathodes of the photomultiplier tubes, with the help of the light collectors having large entrance and small exit apertures. Mathematical restrictions imposed by the design of the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) implied that for a given cut-off angle and an entrance aperture, the exit aperture of the CPC should not exceed a limit value. If this value is larger than the active diameter of the photocathode, an additional concentrator must be added to the system in order to transfer the light collected, from the exit aperture of the compound parabolic concentrator to the photocathode of the photomultiplier tube. Different designs of a two-stage system composed by a a hollow compound parabolic concentrator and a solid, dielectric filled concentrator are evaluated in this paper, from the point of view of optical efficiency and manufacturability. (authors)

  10. The Influence of Psychographic Variables on the Theory of Exit, Voice, and Loyalty of Customer Complaints Behaviour in Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preko Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses Customer Complaints Behaviour (CCB using psychographic factors and the Theory of Exit, Voice and Loyalty. Prior studies on the continent of Africa have explored customer dissatisfaction, service failure, complaints handling and complaint attitudes, but not in association with psychographic factors. This research gap is addressed with a new conceptual understanding that integrates psychographic variables and the Theory of Exit, Voice and Loyalty in a single study. In total, 171 valid questionnaires were gathered from customers of two public banks in Accra chosen randomly, and a convenience sampling method was used for the respondents. This study has revealed that assertiveness, conservatism, attitude towards complaints, sense of justice, service attribute significantly influence the theory of Exit, Voice and Loyalty of CCB. What is more, the findings have also shown that there is a statistical difference between complainers and non-complainers. Complainers are more likely to stay loyal, and are less likely to voice out or leave their bankers. We suggest that banks should not only center CCB strategies towards complainers, but should also take into account non-complainers as they are equally important to businesses.

  11. Background noise measurements from jet exit vanes designed to reduced flow pulsations in an open-jet wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoad, D. R.; Martin, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    Many open jet wind tunnels experience pulsations of the flow which are typically characterized by periodic low frequency velocity and pressure variations. One method of reducing these fluctuations is to install vanes around the perimeter of the jet exit to protrude into the flow. Although these vanes were shown to be effective in reducing the fluctuation content, they can also increase the test section background noise level. The results of an experimental acoustic program in the Langley 4- by 7-Meter Tunnel is presented which evaluates the effect on tunnel background noise of such modifications to the jet exit nozzle. Noise levels for the baseline tunnel configuration are compared with those for three jet exit nozzle modifications, including an enhanced noise reduction configuration that minimizes the effect of the vanes on the background noise. Although the noise levels for this modified vane configuration were comparable to baseline tunnel background noise levels in this facility, installation of these modified vanes in an acoustic tunnel may be of concern because the noise levels for the vanes could be well above background noise levels in a quiet facility.

  12. Retrospectively assessed physical work environment during working life and risk of sickness absence and labour market exit among older workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Poulsen, Otto Melchior; Clausen, Thomas; Rugulies, Reiner; Møller, Anne; Andersen, Lars L

    2018-01-01

    Objective To determine the prospective association between retrospectively assessed physical work environment during working life and prospectively assessed sickness absence and labour market exit among older workers. Methods Using Cox regression analyses we estimated the 4-year to 6-year prospective risk of register-based long-term sickness absence (LTSA), disability pension, early retirement and unemployment from exposure to different physical work environmental factors during working life among 5076 older workers (age 49–63 at baseline) from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank cohort. Results Very hard physical work throughout working life was a risk factor for LTSA (HR 1.66,95% CI 1.32 to 2.07), disability pension (HR 2.21,95% CI 1.04 to 4.72) and early retirement (HR 1.57,95% CI 1.13 to 2.17). Both short-term (work during working life and exposure to several factors in the physical work environment, especially heavy lifting, were important for labour market exit and sickness absence. This study underscores the importance of reducing physical work exposures throughout the working life course for preventing sickness absence and premature exit from the labour market. PMID:28819019

  13. Retrospectively assessed physical work environment during working life and risk of sickness absence and labour market exit among older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Poulsen, Otto Melchior; Clausen, Thomas; Rugulies, Reiner; Møller, Anne; Andersen, Lars L

    2018-02-01

    To determine the prospective association between retrospectively assessed physical work environment during working life and prospectively assessed sickness absence and labour market exit among older workers. Using Cox regression analyses we estimated the 4-year to 6-year prospective risk of register-based long-term sickness absence (LTSA), disability pension, early retirement and unemployment from exposure to different physical work environmental factors during working life among 5076 older workers (age 49-63 at baseline) from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank cohort. Very hard physical work throughout working life was a risk factor for LTSA (HR 1.66,95% CI 1.32 to 2.07), disability pension (HR 2.21,95% CI 1.04 to 4.72) and early retirement (HR 1.57,95% CI 1.13 to 2.17). Both short-term (factors in the physical work environment, especially heavy lifting, were important for labour market exit and sickness absence. This study underscores the importance of reducing physical work exposures throughout the working life course for preventing sickness absence and premature exit from the labour market. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. The Effect of Exit-Site Antibacterial Honey Versus Nasal Mupirocin Prophylaxis on the Microbiology and Outcomes of Peritoneal Dialysis-Associated Peritonitis and Exit-Site Infections: A Sub-Study of the Honeypot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Badve, Sunil V; Pascoe, Elaine M; Beller, Elaine; Cass, Alan; Clark, Carolyn; de Zoysa, Janak; Isbel, Nicole M; McTaggart, Steven; Morrish, Alicia T; Playford, E Geoffrey; Scaria, Anish; Snelling, Paul; Vergara, Liza A; Hawley, Carmel M; Johnson, David W

    2015-12-01

    ♦ The HONEYPOT study recently reported that daily exit-site application of antibacterial honey was not superior to nasal mupirocin prophylaxis for preventing overall peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related infection. This paper reports a secondary outcome analysis of the HONEYPOT study with respect to exit-site infection (ESI) and peritonitis microbiology, infectious hospitalization and technique failure. ♦ A total of 371 PD patients were randomized to daily exit-site application of antibacterial honey plus usual exit-site care (N = 186) or intranasal mupirocin prophylaxis (in nasal Staphylococcus aureus carriers only) plus usual exit-site care (control, N = 185). Groups were compared on rates of organism-specific ESI and peritonitis, peritonitis- and infection-associated hospitalization, and technique failure (PD withdrawal). ♦ The mean peritonitis rates in the honey and control groups were 0.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.32 - 0.50) and 0.41 (95% CI 0.33 - 0.49) episodes per patient-year, respectively (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.01, 95% CI 0.75 - 1.35). When specific causative organisms were examined, no differences were observed between the groups for gram-positive (IRR 0.99, 95% CI 0.66 - 1.49), gram-negative (IRR 0.71, 95% CI 0.39 - 1.29), culture-negative (IRR 2.01, 95% CI 0.91 - 4.42), or polymicrobial peritonitis (IRR 1.08, 95% CI 0.36 - 3.20). Exit-site infection rates were 0.37 (95% CI 0.28 - 0.45) and 0.33 (95% CI 0.26 - 0.40) episodes per patient-year for the honey and control groups, respectively (IRR 1.12, 95% CI 0.81 - 1.53). No significant differences were observed between the groups for gram-positive (IRR 1.10, 95% CI 0.70 - 1.72), gram-negative (IRR: 0.85, 95% CI 0.46 - 1.58), culture-negative (IRR 1.88, 95% CI 0.67 - 5.29), or polymicrobial ESI (IRR 1.00, 95% CI 0.40 - 2.54). Times to first peritonitis-associated and first infection-associated hospitalization were similar in the honey and control groups. The rates of technique failure (PD

  15. Exiting the Emergency Medical Services Profession and Characteristics Associated with Intent to Return to Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Rebecca E; Crowe, Remle P; Agarwal, Riddhima; Rodriguez, Severo A; Panchal, Ashish R

    2018-01-01

    Inadequate staffing of agencies, increasing attrition rates, and frequent turnover of personnel make employee retention an ongoing concern for Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Faced with increasing demand for EMS, understanding the causes underlying turnover is critical. The objectives of this study were to describe the proportion of individuals that left EMS, likelihood of returning to the profession, and key factors contributing to the decision to leave EMS. This was a cross-sectional study of nationally-certified EMS professionals who left EMS. Respondents to a census survey who reported not practicing EMS were directed to a subsection of items regarding their choice to leave EMS. Demographic and employment characteristics, likelihood of returning to EMS, and factors influencing the decision to leave EMS were assessed. Descriptive and comparative statistics (Chi-square and nonparametric test of trend [p-trend]) and univariable odds ratios were calculated. The overall response rate for the full survey was 10% (n = 32,114). A total of 1247 (4%) respondents reported leaving the profession and completed the exit survey. The majority (72%) reported that they will likely return to EMS. A stepwise decrease in the reported likelihood of returning was seen with increasing years of EMS experience (e.g., 2 or less years of experience: 83%; 16 or more years: 52%; p-trend benefits (65%), decision to pursue further education (60%), dissatisfaction with organization's management (54.7%), and desire for career change (54.1%). This cross-sectional study found an attrition rate of approximately 4% among nationally certified EMS professionals; however, the majority reported that they intended to return to the EMS profession. Intention to return to EMS decreased as years of experience and months away from the profession increased. Important factors in the decision to leave EMS included a desire for better pay and benefits and the decision to pursue further education. Targeting the

  16. Regulating the Regulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-26

    The article reports on a challenge to the UK electricity regulator to defend his record by the Coalition for Fair Electricity Regulation (COFFER). The challenge centres on whether the obligation for the regional electric companies (REC) to purchase power from the cheapest source is being enforced. This is related to the wider issue of whether the REC's support of combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) is economic. COFFER considers that uneconomic gas-fired power plants are being allowed to displace economic coal-fired stations. Aspects discussed include the background to the dispute and the costs of CCGT and coal fired power generation. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. Market, Regulation, Market, Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Galland, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    barriers to trade in Europe, realized the free movement of products by organizing progressively several orders of markets and regulation. Based on historical and institutional documents, on technical publications, and on interviews, this article relates how the European Commission and the Member States had......This paper focuses on the European Regulatory system which was settled both for opening the Single Market for products and ensuring the consumers' safety. It claims that the New Approach and Standardization, and the Global Approach to conformity assessment, which suppressed the last technical...... alternatively recourse to markets and to regulations, at the three main levels of the New Approach Directives implementation. The article focuses also more specifically on the Medical Devices sector, not only because this New Approach sector has long been controversial in Europe, and has recently been concerned...

  18. Summer mistral at the exit of the Rhône valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobinski, P.; Bastin, S.; Guenard, V.; Caccia, J. L.; Dabas, A. M.; Delville, P.; Protat, A.; Reitebuch, O.; Werner, C.

    2005-01-01

    The paper examines the three-dimensional structure and dynamics of the mistral at the Rhône valley exit on 28 June 2001. The mistral refers to a severe wind that develops along the Rhône valley in southern France. This summer mistral event was documented in the framework of the ESCOMPTE field experiment. The dynamical processes driving the circulation of the mistral in the Rhône valley and particularly wake formation and planetary boundary layer (PBL) inhomogeneity at the scale of Rhône valley delta are investigated. Several important data sources are used (airborne Doppler lidar, radiosondes and surface stations) as well as non-hydrostatic mesoscale simulations. This paper analyses experimentally, numerically and theoretically the mechanism of wake formation. It shows that the flow impinging on the Alpine range and the Massif Central becomes supercritical all along the ridge line, including the Rhône valley and continues to accelerate in the lee regions until a hydraulic jump occurs. It leads to the formation of wakes behind and close to the mountain peaks. Compared to the Massif Central wake, the origin of the western Alps wake is rather complicated. In this study, the observations and simulations suggest a combined wall separation/gravity wave breaking mechanism to explain the western Alps wake. Indeed, it is shown that in addition to the flow descending the western Alps slopes and experiencing a strong hydraulic jump, the point where the mistral flow separates from the eastern flank of the Rhône valley located at about 44°N is associated with a 'flank-shock' which is an oblique hydraulic jump (i.e.the downstream Froude number is supercritical). Wake formation in the lee of the Alps and the Massif Central causes large inhomogeneity of the PBL with differences between land and sea. In the Massif Central and western Alps wakes, the continental PBL is deeper (1.8 km) than in the mistral flow (1 km), which is consistent with a subcritical regime associated

  19. Do personality traits assessed on medical school admission predict exit performance? A UK-wide longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, R K; Dowell, J; Ayansina, D; Cleland, J A

    2017-05-01

    Traditional methods of assessing personality traits in medical school selection have been heavily criticised. To address this at the point of selection, "non-cognitive" tests were included in the UK Clinical Aptitude Test, the most widely-used aptitude test in UK medical education (UKCAT: http://www.ukcat.ac.uk/ ). We examined the predictive validity of these non-cognitive traits with performance during and on exit from medical school. We sampled all students graduating in 2013 from the 30 UKCAT consortium medical schools. Analysis included: candidate demographics, UKCAT non-cognitive scores, medical school performance data-the Educational Performance Measure (EPM) and national exit situational judgement test (SJT) outcomes. We examined the relationships between these variables and SJT and EPM scores. Multilevel modelling was used to assess the relationships adjusting for confounders. The 3343 students who had taken the UKCAT non-cognitive tests and had both EPM and SJT data were entered into the analysis. There were four types of non-cognitive test: (1) libertariancommunitarian, (2) NACE-narcissism, aloofness, confidence and empathy, (3) MEARS-self-esteem, optimism, control, self-discipline, emotional-nondefensiveness (END) and faking, (4) an abridged version of 1 and 2 combined. Multilevel regression showed that, after correcting for demographic factors, END predicted SJT and EPM decile. Aloofness and empathy in NACE were predictive of SJT score. This is the first large-scale study examining the relationship between performance on non-cognitive selection tests and medical school exit assessments. The predictive validity of these tests was limited, and the relationships revealed do not fit neatly with theoretical expectations. This study does not support their use in selection.

  20. Analysis of the flow in the exit of propfans; Analyse der raeumlichen Stroemung im Austritt eines Propfans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maass, M [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Antriebstechnik

    1997-12-31

    In this work the first rotor of a counterrotating shrouded propfan has been investigated to enable an overview of the complex rotor exit flow, basing on unsteady measurements. For this purpose the accuracy of the high speed probe technique has been improved. In combination with the 3D-Laser-2-Fokus system measurements were carried out in order to show the turbulent behaviour of the rotor exit flow. Though the turbulence models are presently not sufficiently developed, comparisons with results of numerical flow simulations support to interpret some wake details. A further focal point of this work is to determine the local losses for quantifying the isentropic efficiency and the pressure loss distribution. These investigations on the compressor`s exit flow can be used as a base for code validation and as design data for the next stage. (orig.). 95 figs., 2 tabs., 60 refs. [Deutsch] In dieser Arbeit wurde der erste Rotor eines gegenlaeufigen ummantelten Propfans experimentell untersucht. Damit soll ein Einblick in die komplexe Verdichtungsaustrittsstroemung ermoeglicht werden, basierend auf instationaeren Messungen im Nachlaufbereich. Hierzu wurde die Messgenauigkeit der instationaeren Totaldruckmesstechnik verbessert und zusammen mit dem 3D-Laser-2-Fokus-System im Verdichteraustritt angewendet. Mit diesen Messungen wird das turbulente Verhalten der Nachlaufstroemung aufgezeigt. Vergleiche mit Ergebnissen aus Rechnungen helfen trotz der derzeit noch nicht weit genug entwickelten Turbulenzmodelle, Stroemungsphaenomene im Nachlauf zu erklaeren. Ein weiterer Schwerpunkt der Arbeit liegt in der Bestimmung der lokalen Verlustleistung, um den lokalen Wirkungsgrad und damit die lokalen Verluste im Verdichteraustritt quantifizieren zu koennen. Diese Untersuchungen im Verdichteraustritt koennen als Datenbasis fuer Codevalidierung dienen und fuer die Auslegung als Eintrittsgroessen eines nachgeschalteten zweiten Rotors verwendet werden. (orig.)

  1. Entry regulations, welfare and determinants of market structure

    OpenAIRE

    Maican, Florin; Orth, Matilda

    2015-01-01

    We use a dynamic oligopoly model of entry and exit with store-type differentiation to evaluate how entry regulations affect profitability, market structure and welfare. Based on unique data for all retail food stores in Sweden, we estimate demand, recover variable profits, and estimate entry costs and fixed costs by store type. Counterfactual policy experiments show that welfare increases when competition is enhanced by lower entry costs. Protecting small stores by imposing licensing fees on ...

  2. Effects of Generational Competition and Substitution on Late Labour Participation and Labour Market Exit from a Multilevel Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Engelhardt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the effects of demographic, economic and labour market structures on labour market participation and on the transition to inactivity (exit for older males in eleven European countries. Theoretically, our analysis is guided by considerations of intragenerational competition and intergenerational substitution. Following Easterlin’s hypothesis that intragenerational competition rises with cohort size, we assume a negative effect of cohort size on labour market participation and a positive effect on early exit from the labour market. Taking into account that different cohorts are substitutes at least to a certain extent, we assume that the probability of an early exit will be reduced by a high intergenerational exchange ratio in favour of older workers. Thus, labour market participation is influenced by the populations’ age structure both when entering the labour force and during the career. Moreover, low shares of graduates in older cohorts are expected to reduce older workers’ chances of labour market participation. In addition to demographic structures, general economic conditions, such as per capita GDP and its development over time, act both to further and to hamper the employment of older workers. Additionally, labour market structures, such as unemployment rates, the extent of part-time work or the amount of service jobs influence individual participation and the transition to inactivity. To test these hypotheses, we use merged data from the first two waves of SHARE and macro-level indicators from Eurostat. We estimate a two-level random-intercept logit model which allows us to determine the share of variance in international late careers that can be attributed to country-specific factors and can quantify the relative impact of specific socio-demographic and socio-economic backgrounds. Our results imply that cross-national variance in labour market participation is mainly driven by the instance of long

  3. The countdown for the negotiations on the exit of Great Britain from the EU and Euratom has begun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    On 29 March 2017 the official letter from the United Kingdom to the President of the EU Council was presented to inform the European Council of its intention to withdraw from the European Union (EU). The period of 2 years in Article 50 of the EU Treaty provided for the exit negotiations has thus begun to run. In the letter to the President of the Council, the UK Government expressly declares its intention to withdraw from the EU and from the Euratom Treaty (EAV). Thus the controversy about the conjunction of the withdrawal from the EU and Euratom has become obsolete.

  4. Exit angle, energy loss and internuclear distance distributions of H2+ ions dissociated when traversing different materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Abril, Isabel; Denton, Cristian D.; Arista, Nestor R.

    2000-01-01

    We have performed computer simulations of the trajectory followed by each proton resulting from the dissociation of H 2 + molecules when traversing a thin solid target. We use the dielectric formalism to describe the forces due to electronic excitations in the medium, and we also consider the Coulomb repulsion between the pair of protons. Nuclear collisions with target nuclei are incorporated through a Monte Carlo code and the effect of the coherent scattering is taken into account by means of an effective force model. The distributions of exit angle, energy loss and internuclear separations of the protons fragments are discussed for the case of amorphous carbon and aluminum targets

  5. Assisting victims of human trafficking: strategies to facilitate identification, exit from trafficking, and the restoration of wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R

    2014-04-01

    Human trafficking is a pressing social justice concern. Social work is uniquely situated to address this problem. However, despite the profession's commitment to social justice, the scholarship to equip social workers to address this issue has been largely absent from professional discourse. To address this gap, this article helps social work practitioners to assist victims of human trafficking. After orienting readers to the scope and process of human trafficking, the topics of victim identification, exit from trafficking, and the restoration of psychological wellness are discussed. By equipping themselves in these three areas, practitioners can advance social justice on behalf of some of the most exploited people in the world.

  6. Two-boundary first exit time of Gauss-Markov processes for stochastic modeling of acto-myosin dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Giuseppe; Pirozzi, Enrica

    2017-05-01

    We consider a stochastic differential equation in a strip, with coefficients suitably chosen to describe the acto-myosin interaction subject to time-varying forces. By simulating trajectories of the stochastic dynamics via an Euler discretization-based algorithm, we fit experimental data and determine the values of involved parameters. The steps of the myosin are represented by the exit events from the strip. Motivated by these results, we propose a specific stochastic model based on the corresponding time-inhomogeneous Gauss-Markov and diffusion process evolving between two absorbing boundaries. We specify the mean and covariance functions of the stochastic modeling process taking into account time-dependent forces including the effect of an external load. We accurately determine the probability density function (pdf) of the first exit time (FET) from the strip by solving a system of two non singular second-type Volterra integral equations via a numerical quadrature. We provide numerical estimations of the mean of FET as approximations of the dwell-time of the proteins dynamics. The percentage of backward steps is given in agreement to experimental data. Numerical and simulation results are compared and discussed.

  7. Grazing exit versus grazing incidence geometry for x-ray absorption near edge structure analysis of arsenic traces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meirer, F.; Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.; Zoeger, N.; Pepponi, G.

    2009-01-01

    In the presented study the grazing exit x-ray fluorescence was tested for its applicability to x-ray absorption near edge structure analysis of arsenic in droplet samples. The experimental results have been compared to the findings of former analyses of the same samples using a grazing incidence (GI) setup to compare the performance of both geometries. Furthermore, the investigations were accomplished to gain a better understanding of the so called self-absorption effect, which was observed and investigated in previous studies using a GI geometry. It was suggested that a normal incidence-grazing-exit geometry would not suffer from self-absorption effects in x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis due to the minimized path length of the incident beam through the sample. The results proved this assumption and in turn confirmed the occurrence of the self-absorption effect for GI geometry. Due to its lower sensitivity it is difficult to apply the GE geometry to XAFS analysis of trace amounts (few nanograms) of samples but the technique is well suited for the analysis of small amounts of concentrated samples

  8. Erosion of the Silicone Peritoneal Dialysis Catheter with the Use of Gentamicin Cream at the Exit Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardezi, Ali I; Schlageter, Karen W; Foster, Dawn M; Astor, Brad C; Chan, Micah R; Waheed, Sana

    Infection remains the leading complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Topical mupirocin and gentamicin are frequently used to prevent infections. Mupirocin ointment has been reported to cause damage to both polyurethane and silicone PD catheters. Gentamicin cream has not been associated with physical damage to catheters.A 64-year-old woman on PD developed relapsing peritonitis with Staphylococcus epidermidis. Because of a drainage problem and white discoloration at the exit site, which is known as " frosting," she underwent catheter exchange. The catheter was found to be fractured within the area of frosting. Four more patients with frosting of the catheter were identified. On further questioning, it was recognized that they were applying excessive amounts of gentamicin cream directly on the catheter surface rather than at the exit site. All patients in the program were educated about the correct method of topical antibiotic application. After the change in practice, no further cases of catheter frosting were identified.Polyurethane catheters can undergo oxidation, mineralization, and environmental stress cracking, leading to physical damage such frosting, ballooning, and fracture. Polyethylene glycol, a component of the mupirocin ointment base, is thought to cause plasticization of polyurethane, reducing its tensile strength. Similar damage has been observed in silicone catheters. Previous reports have not found gentamicin cream to cause that type of damage. We observed that excessive amounts of cream applied directly to the catheter surface can damage it. Damage did not recur once patients had been educated about the proper method of application.

  9. Numerical study on the electron—wall interaction in a Hall thruster with segmented electrodes placed at the channel exit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qing Shao-Wei; E Peng; Xu Dian-Guo; Duan Ping

    2013-01-01

    Electron—wall interaction is always recognized as an important physical problem because of its remarkable influences on thruster discharge and performance. Based on existing theories, an electrode is predicted to weaken electron—wall interaction due to its low secondary electron emission characteristic. In this paper, the electron—wall interaction in an Aton-type Hall thruster with low-emissive electrodes placed near the exit of discharge channel is studied by a fully kinetic particle-in-cell method. The results show that the electron—wall interaction in the region of segmented electrode is indeed weakened, but it is significantly enhanced in the remaining region of discharge channel. It is mainly caused by electrode conductive property which makes equipotential lines convex toward channel exit and even parallel to wall surface in near-wall region; this convex equipotential configuration results in significant physical effects such as repelling electrons, which causes the electrons to move toward the channel center, and the electrons emitted from electrodes to be remarkably accelerated, thereby increasing electron temperature in the discharge channel, etc. Furthermore, the results also indicate that the discharge current in the segmented electrode case is larger than in the non-segmented electrode case, which is qualitatively in accordance with previous experimental results. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  10. Relationship between Amount of Exited Blood During Wet-cupping with Patient’s Individual Conditions and the Time of Doing it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazanfari M

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims Wet-cupping as a therapeutic method has been recommended to be done on certain days based on authentic sources of traditional medicine in Iran. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between amount of exited blood during wet-cupping with patient’s individual conditions and the time it was performed. Instruments & Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 391 men who were referred to a cupping center in Saveh city in the spring of 2016, were selected by simple sampling and wet-cupping in the position between the two scapula was performed. The research instrument was a questionnaire including demographic characteristics, date of reference (day, month and year, age, height, weight and amount of exited blood during the wet-cupping in gram. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software and using chi-square test, paired t test and one-way analysis of variance. Findings The means of age, weight and body mass index were significantly related to the mean of amount of exited blood during wet-cupping (p0.05, but the amount of exited blood was higher in people with previous history of wet-cupping than those without previous history (p<0.001. Also, in people with hypertension, the amount of exited blood was higher than other treatment groups (p<0.05. Conclusion Individual characteristics such as age, weight, body mass index, cause of referral and previous history of wet-cupping affect the amount of exited blood during wet-cupping, but the time of wet-cupping (day and month does not affect the amount of exited blood.

  11. A survey of factors influencing career preference in new-entrant and exiting medical students from four UK medical schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Workforce planning is a central issue for service provision and has consequences for medical education. Much work has been examined the career intentions, career preferences and career destinations of UK medical graduates but there is little published about medical students career intentions. How soon do medical students formulate careers intentions? How much do these intentions and preferences change during medical school? If they do change, what are the determining factors? Our aim was to compare medical students’ career preferences upon entry into and exit from undergraduate medical degree programmes. Methods This was a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Two cohorts [2009–10, 2010–11] of first and final year medical students at the four Scottish graduating medical schools took part in career preference questionnaire surveys. Questions were asked about demographic factors, career preferences and influencing factors. Results The response rate was 80.9% [2682/3285]. Significant differences were found across the four schools, most obviously in terms of student origin [Scotland, rest of UK or overseas], age group, and specialty preferences in Year 1 and Year 5. Year 1 and Year 5 students’ specialty preferences also differed within each school and, while there were some common patterns, each medical school had a different profile of students’ career preferences on exit. When the analysis was adjusted for demographic and job-related preferences, specialty preferences differed by gender, and wish for work-life balance and intellectual satisfaction. Conclusions This is the first multi-centre study exploring students’ career preferences and preference influences upon entry into and exit from undergraduate medical degree programmes. We found various factors influenced career preference, confirming prior findings. What this study adds is that, while acknowledging student intake differs by medical school, medical school itself seems to influence

  12. A survey of factors influencing career preference in new-entrant and exiting medical students from four UK medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Jennifer A; Johnston, Peter W; Anthony, Micheal; Khan, Nadir; Scott, Neil W

    2014-07-23

    Workforce planning is a central issue for service provision and has consequences for medical education. Much work has been examined the career intentions, career preferences and career destinations of UK medical graduates but there is little published about medical students career intentions. How soon do medical students formulate careers intentions? How much do these intentions and preferences change during medical school? If they do change, what are the determining factors? Our aim was to compare medical students' career preferences upon entry into and exit from undergraduate medical degree programmes. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Two cohorts [2009-10, 2010-11] of first and final year medical students at the four Scottish graduating medical schools took part in career preference questionnaire surveys. Questions were asked about demographic factors, career preferences and influencing factors. The response rate was 80.9% [2682/3285]. Significant differences were found across the four schools, most obviously in terms of student origin [Scotland, rest of UK or overseas], age group, and specialty preferences in Year 1 and Year 5. Year 1 and Year 5 students' specialty preferences also differed within each school and, while there were some common patterns, each medical school had a different profile of students' career preferences on exit. When the analysis was adjusted for demographic and job-related preferences, specialty preferences differed by gender, and wish for work-life balance and intellectual satisfaction. This is the first multi-centre study exploring students' career preferences and preference influences upon entry into and exit from undergraduate medical degree programmes. We found various factors influenced career preference, confirming prior findings. What this study adds is that, while acknowledging student intake differs by medical school, medical school itself seems to influence career preference. Comparisons across medical school

  13. The use of virtual reality and physical tools in the development and validation of ease of entry and exit in passenger vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Glyn; Herriotts, Paul; Malcolm, Louise; Gabrecht, Katharina; Hermawati, Setia

    2015-05-01

    Ease of entry and exit is important for creating a positive first impression of a car and increasing customer satisfaction. Several methods are used within vehicle development to optimise ease of entry and exit, including CAD reviews, benchmarking and buck trials. However, there is an industry trend towards digital methods to reduce the costs and time associated with developing physical prototypes. This paper reports on a study of entry strategy in three properties (buck, car, CAVE) in which inconsistencies were demonstrated by people entering a vehicle representation in the CAVE. In a second study industry practitioners rated the CAVE as worse than physical methods for identifying entry and exit issues, and having lower perceived validity and reliability. However, the resource issues associated with building bucks were recognised. Recommendations are made for developing the CAVE and for combinations of methods for use at different stages of a vehicle's development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  14. A firm-level dataset for analyzing entry, exit, employment and R&D expenditures in the UK: 1997-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugur, Mehmet; Trushin, Eshref; Solomon, Edna

    2016-09-01

    This data article is related to the research article entitled "Inverted-U relationship between R&D intensity and survival: Evidence on scale and complementarity effects in UK data" (Ugur et al., In press) [1]. It describes the trends in R&D expenditures, employment of R&D personnel and firm entry and exit rates in the UK from 1998 to 2012. We also provide statistics on net employment creation and net R&D investments due to firm entry and exits. In addition, we compute the correlation coefficients between entry and exit rates at the two digit industry level so as to examine whether the correlations are contemporaneous or inter-temporal. Finally, we provide information about the underlying dataset to which secure access is available through UK Data Service Archive 7716 at http://dx.doi.org/10.5255/UKDA-SN-7716-1.

  15. The effects of different expansions of the exit distribution on the extrapolation length for linearly anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulut, S.; Guelecyuez, M.C.; Kaskas, A.; Tezcan, C.

    2007-01-01

    H N and singular eigenfunction methods are used to determine the neutron distribution everywhere in a source-free half space with zero incident flux for a linearly anisotropic scattering kernel. The singular eigenfunction expansion of the method of elementary solutions is used. The orthogonality relations of the discrete and continuous eigenfunctions for linearly anisotropic scattering provides the determination of the expansion coefficients. Different expansions of the exit distribution are used: the expansion in powers of μ, the expansion in terms of Legendre polynomials and the expansion in powers of 1/(1+μ). The results are compared to each other. In the second part of our work, the transport equation and the infinite medium Green function are used. The numerical results of the extrapolation length obtained for the different expansions is discussed. (orig.)

  16. Development and applications of grazing exit micro X-ray fluorescence instrument using a polycapillary X-ray lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emoto, T.; Sato, Y.; Konishi, Y.; Ding, X.; Tsuji, K.

    2004-01-01

    A polycapillary X-ray lens is an effective optics to obtain a μm-size X-ray beam for micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μ-XRF). We developed a μ-XRF instrument using a polycapillary X-ray lens, which also enabled us to perform Grazing Exit μ-XRF (GE-μ-XRF). The evaluated diameter of the primary X-ray beam was 48 μm at the focal distance of the X-ray lens. Use of this instrument enabled two-dimensional mapping of the elemental distributions during growth of the plant 'Quinoa'. The results of the mapping revealed elemental transition during growth. In addition, a small region of thin film was analyzed by GE-μ-XRF. We expect that GE-μ-XRF will become an effective method of estimating the film thickness of a small region

  17. Development and applications of grazing exit micro X-ray fluorescence instrument using a polycapillary X-ray lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emoto, T.; Sato, Y.; Konishi, Y.; Ding, X.; Tsuji, K. E-mail: tsuji@a-chem.eng.osaka-cu.ac.jp

    2004-08-31

    A polycapillary X-ray lens is an effective optics to obtain a {mu}m-size X-ray beam for micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry ({mu}-XRF). We developed a {mu}-XRF instrument using a polycapillary X-ray lens, which also enabled us to perform Grazing Exit {mu}-XRF (GE-{mu}-XRF). The evaluated diameter of the primary X-ray beam was 48 {mu}m at the focal distance of the X-ray lens. Use of this instrument enabled two-dimensional mapping of the elemental distributions during growth of the plant 'Quinoa'. The results of the mapping revealed elemental transition during growth. In addition, a small region of thin film was analyzed by GE-{mu}-XRF. We expect that GE-{mu}-XRF will become an effective method of estimating the film thickness of a small region.

  18. Longitudinal associations of experiences of adversity and socioeconomic disadvantage during childhood with labour force participation and exit in later adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, A E; Stansfeld, S A; Smuk, M; Lain, D; van der Horst, M; Vickerstaff, S; Clark, C

    2017-06-01

    The Extending Working Lives (EWL) agenda seeks to sustain employment up to and beyond traditional retirement ages. This study examined the potential role of childhood factors in shaping labour force participation and exit among older adults, with a view to informing proactive interventions early in the life-course to enhance individuals' future capacity for extending their working lives. Childhood adversity and socioeconomic disadvantage have previously been linked to ill-health across the life-span and sickness benefit in early adulthood. This study builds upon previous research by examining associations between childhood adversity and self-reported labour force participation among older adults (aged 55). Data was from the National Child Development Study - a prospective cohort of all English, Scottish, & Welsh births in one week in 1958. There was evidence for associations between childhood adversity and increased risk of permanent sickness at 55 years - which were largely sustained after adjustment for educational disengagement and adulthood factors (mental/physical health, qualifications, socioeconomic disadvantage). Specifically, children who were abused or neglected were more likely to be permanently sick at 55 years. In addition, among males, those in care, those experiencing illness in the home, and those experiencing two or more childhood adversities were more likely to be permanently sick at 55 years. Childhood factors were also associated with part-time employment and retirement at 55 years. Severe childhood adversities may represent important distal predictors of labour force exit at 55 years, particularly via permanent sickness. Notably, some adversities show associations among males only, which may inform interventions designed to extend working lives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 3% Amuchina is as effective as the 50% concentration in the prevention of exit-site infection in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosman, Mònica D; Mosquera, Vanesa M; Hernandez, Maria G; Agostini, Silvana; Adragna, Marta; Sojo, Ernesto T

    2005-01-01

    In a previous communication, we demonstrated that, in the prevention of exit-site infection (ESI) in children, the cleansing agent 50% Amuchina (electrolytic chloroxidizer. Amuchina SpA, Genoa, Italy) is more effective than 10% povidone iodine and as effective as 4% chlorhexidine, but with fewer adverse secondary effects. In the present study, we assessed, in an Argentine pediatric population, whether Amuchina 3% is as effective as Amuchina 50% in preventing ESI in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis. In an open-label, single-center prospective study, 27 children (mean age: 7.2 years; range: 1.7-17 years) used 3% Amuchina as a cleansing agent for the daily care of a healthy exit site. Of the 27 children, 14 were switched from 50% Amuchina to 3% Amuchina, and 13 were using the 3% Amuchina for the first time. The control group consisted of 18 patients who had previously used 50% Amuchina as a cleansing agent. We followed the recommendations of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis with regard to exit-site care, which include keeping the cleansing agent out of the sinus and rinsing the exit site with sterile water. Amuchina was used from the first post-implantation care of the exit site. No adverse secondary effects were seen with the use of Amuchina at either concentration. Patients using 3% Amuchina presented an ESI rate similar to that of patients using Amuchina 50%. The cost of 3% Amuchina was significantly lower than that of the 50% concentration, and it was even lower than the cost for 10% povidone iodine or 4% chlorhexidine. Although more research trials are needed to assess the efficacy of 3% Amuchina, we conclude that 3% Amuchina is the best and most cost-effective cleansing agent for the daily care of a healthy exit site in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis.

  20. ''Brexit means Brexit''. Also a British withdrawal of the EURATOM treaty?; ''Brexit means Brexit''. Exit auch fuer den EURATOM-Vertrag?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2016-08-15

    In a referendum on 23 June 2016, 51.9 % of the British voters decided to leave the EU. The question did not include explicitly the exit from the EURATOM Treaty (EAV). Since the 2009 Lisbon Treaty the Euratom Community is a supranational organisation of the new EU. This raises the question whether the exit of Britain from the EU also means an exit from the Euratom treaty.

  1. Stabilization of the solution of a two-dimensional system of Navier-Stokes equations in an unbounded domain with several exits to infinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khisamutdinova, N A

    2003-01-01

    The behaviour as t→∞ of the solution of the mixed problem for the system of Navier-Stokes equations with a Dirichlet condition at the boundary is studied in an unbounded two-dimensional domain with several exits to infinity. A class of domains is distinguished in which an estimate characterizing the decay of solutions in terms of the geometry of the domain is proved for exponentially decreasing initial velocities. A similar estimate of the solution of the first mixed problem for the heat equation is sharp in a broad class of domains with several exits to infinity

  2. Single cell lineage analysis of mouse embryonic stem cells at the exit from pluripotency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Trott

    2013-08-01

    Understanding how interactions between extracellular signalling pathways and transcription factor networks influence cellular decision making will be crucial for understanding mammalian embryogenesis and for generating specialised cell types in vitro. To this end, pluripotent mouse Embryonic Stem (mES cells have proven to be a useful model system. However, understanding how transcription factors and signalling pathways affect decisions made by individual cells is confounded by the fact that measurements are generally made on groups of cells, whilst individual mES cells differentiate at different rates and towards different lineages, even in conditions that favour a particular lineage. Here we have used single-cell measurements of transcription factor expression and Wnt/β-catenin signalling activity to investigate their effects on lineage commitment decisions made by individual cells. We find that pluripotent mES cells exhibit differing degrees of heterogeneity in their expression of important regulators from pluripotency, depending on the signalling environment to which they are exposed. As mES cells differentiate, downregulation of Nanog and Oct4 primes cells for neural commitment, whilst loss of Sox2 expression primes cells for primitive streak commitment. Furthermore, we find that Wnt signalling acts through Nanog to direct cells towards a primitive streak fate, but that transcriptionally active β-catenin is associated with both neural and primitive streak commitment. These observations confirm and extend previous suggestions that pluripotency genes influence lineage commitment and demonstrate how their dynamic expression affects the direction of lineage commitment, whilst illustrating two ways in which the Wnt signalling pathway acts on this network during cell fate assignment.

  3. Radiation regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braithwaite, J.; Grabosky, P.

    1985-01-01

    The five main areas of radiation regulation considered are radiation exposure in the mining of uranium and other minerals, exposure in the use of uranium in nuclear reactors, risks in the transport of radioactive materials and hazards associated with the disposal of used materials. In Australia these problems are regulated by mines departments, the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and radiation control branches in state health departments. Each of these instutional areas of regulation is examined

  4. Data Analysis and Data-Driven Decision-Making Strategies Implemented by Elementary Teachers in Selected Exited Program Improvement Safe Harbor Schools in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senger, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were to investigate and describe how elementary teachers in exited Program Improvement-Safe Harbor schools acquire student achievement data through assessments, the strategies and reflections utilized to make sense of the data to improve student achievement, ensure curriculum and instructional goals are aligned,…

  5. "I Wish to Be Self-Reliant": Aspiration for Self-Reliance, Need and Life Satisfaction, and Exit Dilemma of Welfare Recipients in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chack-Kie; Lou, Vivian Wei-Qun

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the welfare recipients' experiences of and attitudes toward the welfare benefit system in Hong Kong. A sample of 19 welfare recipients from six main recipient groups was interviewed, some twice. This study finds that the recipients have strong aspirations to exit the welfare benefit system. The welfare application…

  6. Variation of the cold intermediate water in the Black Sea exit of the Strait of Istanbul (Bosphorus and its transfer through the strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Yuce

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The cold intermediate water (CIW, T < 8°C entering the Strait of Istanbul and its variation along the strait have been studied by using monthly conductivity-temperature-depth (CTDdata sets collected during the period from 1996 to 2000. In the northern exit of the strait, CIW is located between the seasonal thermocline and Mediterranean water originating from the lowerlayer of the Sea of Marmara. The thickness of CIW decreases fromApril to October. In the Strait of Istanbul, CIW is observedas a layer of temperature < 14$^{circ}$C. The thickness of thismodified cold intermediate water flowing southwards with the upper layer decreases, while its temperature increases along thestrait due to mixing with adjacent water. In the southern exit of the strait, the modified cold intermediate water is observed during the period from May to October. If CIW exists in the Black Sea exit region of the strait, modified cold water is found inthe Marmara exit region during the same period. The distribution of CIW in the Strait of Istanbul contributes to our understanding of the dynamics of the strait, especially in the summer months.

  7. Entering and exiting behaviour of the phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia longiflocosa (Diptera: Psychodidae in rural houses of the sub-Andean region of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Hernando Pardo

    Full Text Available The present study identified the entering and exiting sites for Lutzomyia longiflocosa in rural houses of the sub-Andean region in Colombia. Entering sites were identified with sticky traps set up outside the bedrooms, around the eave openings, and with cage traps enclosing the slits in the doors and windows inside the bedrooms. Exiting sites were identified by releasing groups of females indoors. These females were blood fed and marked with fluorescent powders. Females were recaptured with the trap placement described above but set up on the opposite sides of the openings. In the entering experiment, a significantly higher number of females were captured in the sticky traps at the zone nearest the eave openings (n = 142 than those captured in the other zones of the trap (n = 52; similarly, a higher number of females were captured on the front side of the house (n = 105 than at the rear side (n = 37. Only two females were collected in the cage trap. In the exiting experiment, at the ceiling, the highest percentage (86.2% of females was recaptured with sticky traps nearest the eave openings and on the front side of the house (70.0%. Seven females were collected in the cage trap. Lu. longiflocosa entered and exited houses primarily through the eave openings in a non-random pattern in relation to the sides of the house.

  8. The effect of ill health and socioeconomic status on labor force exit and re-employment: A prospective study with ten years follow-up in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Schuring (Merel); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); F.W.J. Otten (Ferdy); C.H. Arts (Coos); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ill health and socioeconomic status on labor force exit due to unemployment, early retirement, disability pension, or becoming economically inactive. A secondary objective was to investigate the effect of ill health and

  9. Zelfstandig ondernemerschap in Nederland: determinanten van de instroom en de uitstroom [Self-employment in the Netherlands: determinants of entry and exit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blumberg, B.F.; Graaf, P.M. de

    2004-01-01

    In this article we investigate (a) recent developments in Dutch self-employment rates and (b) individual determinants of entry into self-employment and exit from self-employment. Labor market surveys show that in the Netherlands the proportion of self-employed men and women has increased strongly

  10. "You Can't Hustle All Your Life": An Exploratory Investigation of the Exit Process among Street-Level Prostituted Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla, Rochelle L.

    2006-01-01

    Between 1998 and 1999, 43 street-level prostituted women were interviewed regarding their developmental experiences, including prostitution entry, maintenance, and exit attempts. Three years later, 18 of the original 43 participants were located and interviewed. This exploratory follow-up investigation focused on the women's life experiences…

  11. Entering and exiting behaviour of the phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia longiflocosa (Diptera: Psychodidae) in rural houses of the sub-Andean region of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Raúl Hernando; Santamaría, Erika; Cabrera, Olga Lucia

    2017-01-01

    The present study identified the entering and exiting sites for Lutzomyia longiflocosa in rural houses of the sub-Andean region in Colombia. Entering sites were identified with sticky traps set up outside the bedrooms, around the eave openings, and with cage traps enclosing the slits in the doors and windows inside the bedrooms. Exiting sites were identified by releasing groups of females indoors. These females were blood fed and marked with fluorescent powders. Females were recaptured with the trap placement described above but set up on the opposite sides of the openings. In the entering experiment, a significantly higher number of females were captured in the sticky traps at the zone nearest the eave openings (n = 142) than those captured in the other zones of the trap (n = 52); similarly, a higher number of females were captured on the front side of the house (n = 105) than at the rear side (n = 37). Only two females were collected in the cage trap. In the exiting experiment, at the ceiling, the highest percentage (86.2%) of females was recaptured with sticky traps nearest the eave openings and on the front side of the house (70.0%). Seven females were collected in the cage trap. Lu. longiflocosa entered and exited houses primarily through the eave openings in a non-random pattern in relation to the sides of the house.

  12. Canadian medical tourism companies that have exited the marketplace: Content analysis of websites used to market transnational medical travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Medical tourism companies play an important role in promoting transnational medical travel for elective, out-of-pocket medical procedures. Though researchers are paying increasing attention to the global phenomenon of medical tourism, to date websites of medical tourism companies have received limited scrutiny. This article analyzes websites of Canadian medical tourism companies that advertised international healthcare but ultimately exited the marketplace. Using content analysis of company websites as an investigative tool, the article provides a detailed account of medical tourism companies that were based in Canada but no longer send clients to international health care facilities. Methods Internet searches, Google Alerts, searches on Google News Canada and ProQuest Newsstand, and searches of an Industry Canada database were used to locate medical tourism companies located in Canada. Once medical tourism companies were identified, the social science research method of content analysis was used to extract relevant information from company websites. Company websites were analyzed to determine: 1) where these businesses were based; 2) the destination countries and medical facilities that they promoted; 3) the health services they advertised; 4) core marketing messages; and 5) whether businesses marketed air travel, hotel accommodations, and holiday excursions in addition to medical procedures. Results In total, 25 medical tourism companies that were based in Canada are now defunct. Given that an estimated 18 medical tourism companies and 7 regional, cross-border medical travel facilitators now operate in Canada, it appears that approximately half of all identifiable medical tourism companies in Canada are no longer in business. 13 of the previously operational companies were based in Ontario, 7 were located in British Columbia, 4 were situated in Quebec, and 1 was based in Alberta. 14 companies marketed medical procedures within a single country, 9

  13. Canadian medical tourism companies that have exited the marketplace: Content analysis of websites used to market transnational medical travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Leigh

    2011-10-14

    Medical tourism companies play an important role in promoting transnational medical travel for elective, out-of-pocket medical procedures. Though researchers are paying increasing attention to the global phenomenon of medical tourism, to date websites of medical tourism companies have received limited scrutiny. This article analyzes websites of Canadian medical tourism companies that advertised international healthcare but ultimately exited the marketplace. Using content analysis of company websites as an investigative tool, the article provides a detailed account of medical tourism companies that were based in Canada but no longer send clients to international health care facilities. Internet searches, Google Alerts, searches on Google News Canada and ProQuest Newsstand, and searches of an Industry Canada database were used to locate medical tourism companies located in Canada. Once medical tourism companies were identified, the social science research method of content analysis was used to extract relevant information from company websites. Company websites were analyzed to determine: 1) where these businesses were based; 2) the destination countries and medical facilities that they promoted; 3) the health services they advertised; 4) core marketing messages; and 5) whether businesses marketed air travel, hotel accommodations, and holiday excursions in addition to medical procedures. In total, 25 medical tourism companies that were based in Canada are now defunct. Given that an estimated 18 medical tourism companies and 7 regional, cross-border medical travel facilitators now operate in Canada, it appears that approximately half of all identifiable medical tourism companies in Canada are no longer in business. 13 of the previously operational companies were based in Ontario, 7 were located in British Columbia, 4 were situated in Quebec, and 1 was based in Alberta. 14 companies marketed medical procedures within a single country, 9 businesses marketed health care

  14. Canadian medical tourism companies that have exited the marketplace: Content analysis of websites used to market transnational medical travel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Leigh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical tourism companies play an important role in promoting transnational medical travel for elective, out-of-pocket medical procedures. Though researchers are paying increasing attention to the global phenomenon of medical tourism, to date websites of medical tourism companies have received limited scrutiny. This article analyzes websites of Canadian medical tourism companies that advertised international healthcare but ultimately exited the marketplace. Using content analysis of company websites as an investigative tool, the article provides a detailed account of medical tourism companies that were based in Canada but no longer send clients to international health care facilities. Methods Internet searches, Google Alerts, searches on Google News Canada and ProQuest Newsstand, and searches of an Industry Canada database were used to locate medical tourism companies located in Canada. Once medical tourism companies were identified, the social science research method of content analysis was used to extract relevant information from company websites. Company websites were analyzed to determine: 1 where these businesses were based; 2 the destination countries and medical facilities that they promoted; 3 the health services they advertised; 4 core marketing messages; and 5 whether businesses marketed air travel, hotel accommodations, and holiday excursions in addition to medical procedures. Results In total, 25 medical tourism companies that were based in Canada are now defunct. Given that an estimated 18 medical tourism companies and 7 regional, cross-border medical travel facilitators now operate in Canada, it appears that approximately half of all identifiable medical tourism companies in Canada are no longer in business. 13 of the previously operational companies were based in Ontario, 7 were located in British Columbia, 4 were situated in Quebec, and 1 was based in Alberta. 14 companies marketed medical procedures within a

  15. The relationship of lateral anatomic structures to exiting guide pins during femoral tunnel preparation utilizing an accessory medial portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, Lutul D; Parker, Richard D

    2010-06-01

    Anatomic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament through an accessory medial portal has become increasingly popular. The purpose of this study is to describe the relationship of guide pin exit points to the lateral anatomic structures when preparing the anterior cruciate ligament femoral tunnel through an accessory medial portal. We utilized seven fresh frozen cadaveric knees. Utilizing an anteromedial approach, a guide wire was placed into the center of each bundle's footprint. Each guide wire was advanced through the lateral femoral cortex. The guide pins were passed at 90, 110, and 130 degrees of knee flexion. The distances from each guide pin to the closest relevant structures on the lateral side of the knee were measured. At 90 degrees the posterolateral bundle guide pin was closest to the lateral condyle articular cartilage (mean 5.4 +/- 2.2 mm) and gastrocnemius tendon (mean 5.7 +/- 2.1 mm). At 110 degrees the posterolateral bundle pin was closest to the gastrocnemius tendon (mean 4.5 +/- 3.4 mm). At 130 degrees the posterolateral bundle pin was closest to the gastrocnemius tendon (mean 7.2 +/- 5.5 mm) and lateral collateral ligament (mean 6.8 +/- 2.1 mm). At 90 degrees the anteromedial bundle guide pin was closest to the articular cartilage (mean 2.0 +/- 2.0 mm). At 110 degrees the anteromedial bundle pin was closest to the articular cartilage (mean 7.4 +/- 3.5 mm) and gastrocnemius tendon (mean 12.3 +/- 3.1 mm). At 130 degrees the AM bundle pin was closest to the gastrocnemius tendon (mean 8.2 +/- 3.2 mm) and LCL (mean 15.1 +/- 2.9 mm). Neither guide pin (anteromedial or posterolateral bundle) put the peroneal nerve at risk at any knee flexion angle. At low knee flexion angles the anteromedial and posterolateral bundle guide pins closely approximated multiple lateral structures when using an accessory medial arthroscopic portal. Utilizing higher flexion angles increases the margin of error when preparing both femoral tunnels. During preparation of

  16. Qualification of a full plant nodalization for the prediction of the core exit temperature through a scaling methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freixa, J., E-mail: jordi.freixa-terradas@upc.edu; Martínez-Quiroga, V., E-mail: victor.martinez.quiroga@upc.edu; Reventós, F., E-mail: francesc.reventos@upc.edu

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Core exit temperature is used in PWRs as an indication of core heat up. • Qualification of full scale nuclear reactors by means of a scaling methodology. • Scaling of RELAP5 calculations to full scale power plants. - Abstract: System codes and their necessary power plant nodalizations are an essential step in thermal hydraulic safety analysis. In order to assess the safety of a particular power plant, in addition to the validation and verification of the code, the nodalization of the system needs to be qualified. Since most existing experimental data come from scaled-down facilities, any qualification process must therefore address scale considerations. The Group of Thermal Hydraulic Studies at Technical University of Catalonia has developed a scaling-up methodology (SCUP) for the qualification of full-scale nodalizations through a systematic procedure based on the extrapolation of post-test simulations of Integral Test Facility experiments. In the present work, the SCUP methodology will be employed to qualify the nodalization of the AscóNPP, a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), for the reproduction of an important safety phenomenon which is the effectiveness of the Core Exit Temperature (CET) as an Accident Management (AM) indicator. Given the difficulties in placing measurements in the core region, CET measurements are used as a criterion for the initiation of safety operational procedures during accidental conditions in PWR. However, the CET response has some limitation in detecting inadequate core cooling simply because the measurement is not taken in the position where the cladding exposure occurs. In order to apply the SCUP methodology, the OECD/NEA ROSA-2 Test 3, an SBLOCA in the hot leg, has been selected as a starting point. This experiment was conducted at the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF), a facility operated by the Japanese Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and was focused on the assessment of the effectiveness of AM actions triggered by

  17. "Do I stay or do I go?"--job change and labor market exit intentions of employees providing informal care to older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ulrike; Trukeschitz, Birgit; Mühlmann, Richard; Ponocny, Ivo

    2013-10-01

    This article examines whether providing informal eldercare to an older dependent person predicts employees' intentions to change jobs or exit the labor market and, if so, which particular aspects of both caregiving (e.g. time demands, physical/cognitive care burden) and their current work environment shape these intentions. We used data from a sample of 471 caring and 431 noncaring employees in Austria and split the analyses by gender. We found different aspects of informal caregiving to be associated with the intention to change jobs and with the anticipated labor market withdrawal of male and female workers. A time-based conflict between informal eldercare and paid work was significantly and positively related to the intended job change of female workers but not of their male counterparts. Flexible work arrangements were found to facilitate the attachment of female workers to their jobs and the labor market. Intentions to exit the labor market of male workers appeared to be triggered by a physical care burden rather than time demands. We studied the effects of providing informal eldercare on the turnover intention of men and women in a group of workers who were also the main carers providing support to a dependent older person with substantial care needs. The intention of male and female workers to change jobs and exit the labor market is shaped by the different characteristics of informal caregiving. Time-based conflicts between informal care and paid work are associated with a higher relative risk of anticipating job changes for female workers. Flextime facilitates the job and labor market attachment of female workers with eldercare responsibilities. The intensity of personal care provided to an older relative is significantly positively related to male workers' relative risk of anticipated labor market exit. Care to an older person in need of supervision makes the labor market exit of female workers less likely, lending thus support to the idea of the respite

  18. Reactive Oxygen Species Are Required for Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Initiate Proliferation after the Quiescence Exit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Lyublinskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the process of mesenchymal stem cells “waking up” and entering the cell cycle after the quiescence. Using human endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (eMSCs, we showed that intracellular basal ROS level is positively correlated with the proliferative status of the cell cultures. Our experiments with the eMSCs synchronized in the G0 phase of the cell cycle revealed a transient increase in the ROS level upon the quiescence exit after stimulation of the cell proliferation. This increase was registered before the eMSC entry to the S-phase of the cell cycle, and elimination of this increase by antioxidants (N-acetyl-L-cysteine, Tempol, and Resveratrol blocked G1–S-phase transition. Similarly, a cell cycle arrest which resulted from the antioxidant treatment was observed in the experiments with synchronized human mesenchymal stem cells derived from the adipose tissue. Thus, we showed that physiologically relevant level of ROS is required for the initiation of human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and that low levels of ROS due to the antioxidant treatment can block the stem cell self-renewal.

  19. Analytical solution for the problem of maximum exit velocity under Coulomb friction in gravity flow discharge chutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinic, Slavisa [University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Kraljevo (RS)

    2010-10-15

    In this paper, an analytical solution for the problem of finding profiles of gravity flow discharge chutes required to achieve maximum exit velocity under Coulomb friction is obtained by application of variational calculus. The model of a particle which moves down a rough curve in a uniform gravitational field is used to obtain a solution of the problem for various boundary conditions. The projection sign of the normal reaction force of the rough curve onto the normal to the curve and the restriction requiring that the tangential acceleration be non-negative are introduced as the additional constraints in the form of inequalities. These inequalities are transformed into equalities by introducing new state variables. Although this is fundamentally a constrained variational problem, by further introducing a new functional with an expanded set of unknown functions, it is transformed into an unconstrained problem where broken extremals appear. The obtained equations of the chute profiles contain a certain number of unknown constants which are determined from a corresponding system of nonlinear algebraic equations. The obtained results are compared with the known results from the literature. (orig.)

  20. Direct binding of retromer to human papillomavirus type 16 minor capsid protein L2 mediates endosome exit during viral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Popa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Trafficking of human papillomaviruses to the Golgi apparatus during virus entry requires retromer, an endosomal coat protein complex that mediates the vesicular transport of cellular transmembrane proteins from the endosome to the Golgi apparatus or the plasma membrane. Here we show that the HPV16 L2 minor capsid protein is a retromer cargo, even though L2 is not a transmembrane protein. We show that direct binding of retromer to a conserved sequence in the carboxy-terminus of L2 is required for exit of L2 from the early endosome and delivery to the trans-Golgi network during virus entry. This binding site is different from known retromer binding motifs and can be replaced by a sorting signal from a cellular retromer cargo. Thus, HPV16 is an unconventional particulate retromer cargo, and retromer binding initiates retrograde transport of viral components from the endosome to the trans-Golgi network during virus entry. We propose that the carboxy-terminal segment of L2 protein protrudes through the endosomal membrane and is accessed by retromer in the cytoplasm.

  1. A central to peripheral progression of cell cycle exit and hair cell differentiation in the developing mouse cristae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowik, Amber D; Bermingham-McDonogh, Olivia

    2016-03-01

    The inner ear contains six distinct sensory organs that each maintains some ability to regenerate hair cells into adulthood. In the postnatal cochlea, there appears to be a relationship between the developmental maturity of a region and its ability to regenerate as postnatal regeneration largely occurs in the apical turn, which is the last region to differentiate and mature during development. In the mature cristae there are also regional differences in regenerative ability, which led us to hypothesize that there may be a general relationship between the relative maturity of a region and the regenerative competence of that region in all of the inner ear sensory organs. By analyzing adult mouse cristae labeled embryonically with BrdU, we found that hair cell birth starts in the central region and progresses to the periphery with age. Since the peripheral region of the adult cristae also maintains active Notch signaling and some regenerative competence, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that the last regions to develop retain some of their regenerative ability into adulthood. Further, by analyzing embryonic day 14.5 inner ears we provide evidence for a wave of hair cell birth along the longitudinal axis of the cristae from the central regions to the outer edges. Together with the data from the adult inner ears labeled with BrdU as embryos, these results suggest that hair cell differentiation closely follows cell cycle exit in the cristae, unlike in the cochlea where they are uncoupled. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. On the analytical solution of the SN equation in a rectangle assuming an exponential exiting angular flux boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalez, Tifani T.; Segatto, Cynthia F.; Vilhena, Marco Tullio

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we report an analytical solution for the set of S N equations for the angular flux, in a rectangle, using the double Laplace transform technique. Its main idea comprehends the steps: application of the Laplace transform in one space variable, solution of the resulting equation by the LTS N method and reconstruction of the double Laplace transformed angular flux using the inversion theorem of the Laplace transform. We must emphasize that we perform the Laplace inversion by the LTS N method in the x direction, meanwhile we evaluate the inversion in the y direction performing the calculation of the corresponding line integral solution by the Stefest method. We have also to figure out that the application of Laplace transform to this type of boundary value problem introduces additional unknown functions associated to the partial derivatives of the angular flux at boundary. Based on the good results attained by the nodal LTS N method, we assume that the angular flux at boundary is also approximated by an exponential function. By analytical we mean that no approximation is done along the solution derivation except for the exponential hypothesis for the exiting angular flux at boundary. For sake of completeness, we report numerical comparisons of the obtained results against the ones of the literature. (author)

  3. High-order harmonics measured by the photon statistics of the infrared driving-field exiting the atomic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatrafyllis, N; Kominis, I K; Gonoskov, I A; Tzallas, P

    2017-04-27

    High-order harmonics in the extreme-ultraviolet spectral range, resulting from the strong-field laser-atom interaction, have been used in a broad range of fascinating applications in all states of matter. In the majority of these studies the harmonic generation process is described using semi-classical theories which treat the electromagnetic field of the driving laser pulse classically without taking into account its quantum nature. In addition, for the measurement of the generated harmonics, all the experiments require diagnostics in the extreme-ultraviolet spectral region. Here by treating the driving laser field quantum mechanically we reveal the quantum-optical nature of the high-order harmonic generation process by measuring the photon number distribution of the infrared light exiting the harmonic generation medium. It is found that the high-order harmonics are imprinted in the photon number distribution of the infrared light and can be recorded without the need of a spectrometer in the extreme-ultraviolet.

  4. Regulative environmental policy. Regulative Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerlitz, A; Voigt, R [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Neubiberg (Germany, F.R.). Fakultaet fuer Sozialwissenschaften; eds.

    1991-01-01

    Regulative policy means those governmental attempts to steer the course of things which can fall back on a certain repertoire of instruments for actions in order to warrant the causal and temporal connection between the making available and the employment of means. The fact that environmental protection needs regulative policy is substantiated by the thesis that the market has failed; consequently only government can manage the public goods 'environment' in a suitable way, and it is a matter of fact that environmental protection at present is operated preferably via regulative policy. The problems of regulative enviromental policy are manifold. Its implementation often miscarries because of limited administrative resources on the one hand - making sufficient control impossible for instance -, and because of poor quality regulative instruments on the other hand. One way out would be to increase the efficiency of regulative policy by sophisticating judicial techniques. Other ways out point to the executing level and aim at improving implementation strategies or are concerned with post-regulative law. The latter refers to a new legal quality which demonstrates itself already in corporatistical crisis regulation or in induction programs such as pollution limits. A final way out favours deregulation strategies which includes the introduction of environmental levies or the allocation of environmental licences. An interdisciplinary discourse is to find out what would happen if these ways were taken. Pointers to solutions from varying scientific disciplines resulting from this discourse are to be found in this volume. (orig./HSCH).

  5. Magnetic Exitations in Praseodymium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden; Rainford, B. D.; Jensen, J.

    1979-01-01

    The magnetic excitations in a single crystal of dhcp Pr have been studied by inelastic neutron scattering. The excitations on the hexagonal sites, and their dependence on magnetic fields up to 43 kOe applied in the basal plane, have been analyzed in terms of a Hamiltonian in which exchange, crystal......-field, and magnetoelastic interactions are included. The exchange is found to be strongly anisotropic, and this anisotropy is manifested directly in a splitting of most branches of the dispersion relations. By considering a variety of magnetic properties, we have been able to determine the crystal-field level scheme...

  6. PCR, exit stage left ...

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Prevessin Control Room during LEP's start up in 1989. The Prévessin Control Room (PCR) was recently engulfed in a wave of nostalgia. The PCR, scene of some of the greatest moments in CERN's history, is being dismantled to prepare for a complete overhaul. In February 2006, a new combined control centre for all the accelerators will open its doors on the same site, together with a new building currently under construction (see Bulletin issue 27/2004 of 28 June 2004). This marks the end of an important chapter in CERN's history. The Prévessin Control Room saw its first momentous event 28 years ago when the 400 GeV beam for the SPS was commissioned in the presence of Project Leader John Adams. It was also here that the first proton-antiproton collisions were observed, in 1981. Eight years later, in 1989, operators and directors alike jumped for joy at the announcement of the first electron-positron collisions at the start up of LEP, the biggest accelerator in the world. Today the 80 terminals and PCs have b...

  7. The exited hexagon reloaded

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, Joachim [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kotanski, Jan; Schomerus, Volker; Sprenger, Martin [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    This work revisits the computation of six-gluon scattering amplitudes in the high energy limit of strongly coupled N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. It is based on previous studies in which we showed that the amplitude simplifies in the Regge regime and outlined an efficient computational scheme. By exploiting a symmetry of the underlying equations we are now able to argue that a term we had seen in preliminary numerical studies must vanish identically. The derived formula for the Regge limit of the 6-gluon scattering amplitude at strong coupling differs from the one we had conjectured previously.

  8. High Speed Exit Taxiways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    the runway with 1800 ft. radius and no specified runout distance, was developed circa 1958 and standardized in the 19609. A considerable nur, ber of...cornerinl) . Even wi th eaync);e wheel steering, the small fraction of total weight on thle nose whoel prevents tricycle airplaines from being very...would provide more runout but would require greater clearance travel distances at both Fnds. Z2 The results of reference (a) indicated that

  9. Exit Presentation Fall 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi Rong

    2014-01-01

    Our current International Space Station Probabilistic Risk Assessment (ISS PRA) model assumes all collisions between a visiting vehicle (VV) and the ISS result in worst case loss of the ISS crew and the vehicle (LOCV). Drawing results from the Mir-Progress collision, we know this assumption is inaccurate because that collision did not lead to LOCV. Therefore the PRA team is conducting a study to determine the likelihood of LOCV when a collision occurs between a VV and the ISS. Kinetic energy is calculated and converted to pounds of TNT for the moving VVs when they collide with the ISS. Different scenarios are evaluated to obtain collision related data such as translational kinetic energy and rotational kinetic energy. These calculated data are integrated into the results from the expert elicitation performed on the Mir- Progress collision. As a result of this study, the PRA model will now calculate the probability of a VV collision with ISS, the probability that collision will result in Loss of Soyuz Crew (LOC) or Loss of ISS Crew and Vehicle (LOCV).

  10. Exit this way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to inform the public on the nuclear power phaseout necessity. The fist part presents the hazards bound the nuclear activities, from the uranium mines to the radioactive wastes disposal and the reasons of a necessary phaseout. The second part recalls the historical aspects of the nuclear power implementation in the french energy policy and the today government attitude to value its choice. The last part presents the advantages of other energies sources and scenario of nuclear power phaseout. (A.L.B.)

  11. Between exit and voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meret, Susi; Della Corte, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    European politics currently serves to reinforce the ‘Fortress’, leaving refugees vulnerable and futureless, battling a system which is waging war against them. But 'Lampedusa in Hamburg' demonstrates that civil society can work effectively with migrants for their rights to a safe existence....

  12. The exited hexagon reloaded

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, Joachim

    2013-11-01

    This work revisits the computation of six-gluon scattering amplitudes in the high energy limit of strongly coupled N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. It is based on previous studies in which we showed that the amplitude simplifies in the Regge regime and outlined an efficient computational scheme. By exploiting a symmetry of the underlying equations we are now able to argue that a term we had seen in preliminary numerical studies must vanish identically. The derived formula for the Regge limit of the 6-gluon scattering amplitude at strong coupling differs from the one we had conjectured previously.

  13. The Effect of Bypass Nozzle Exit Area on Fan Aerodynamic Performance and Noise in a Model Turbofan Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; Podboy, Gary, G.; Woodward, Richard P.; Jeracki, Robert, J.

    2013-01-01

    The design of effective new technologies to reduce aircraft propulsion noise is dependent on identifying and understanding the noise sources and noise generation mechanisms in the modern turbofan engine, as well as determining their contribution to the overall aircraft noise signature. Therefore, a comprehensive aeroacoustic wind tunnel test program was conducted called the Fan Broadband Source Diagnostic Test as part of the NASA Quiet Aircraft Technology program. The test was performed in the anechoic NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel using a 1/5 scale model turbofan simulator which represented a current generation, medium pressure ratio, high bypass turbofan aircraft engine. The investigation focused on simulating in model scale only the bypass section of the turbofan engine. The test objectives were to: identify the noise sources within the model and determine their noise level; investigate several component design technologies by determining their impact on the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of the fan stage; and conduct detailed flow diagnostics within the fan flow field to characterize the physics of the noise generation mechanisms in a turbofan model. This report discusses results obtained for one aspect of the Source Diagnostic Test that investigated the effect of the bypass or fan nozzle exit area on the bypass stage aerodynamic performance, specifically the fan and outlet guide vanes or stators, as well as the farfield acoustic noise level. The aerodynamic performance, farfield acoustics, and Laser Doppler Velocimeter flow diagnostic results are presented for the fan and four different fixed-area bypass nozzle configurations. The nozzles simulated fixed engine operating lines and encompassed the fan stage operating envelope from near stall to cruise. One nozzle was selected as a baseline reference, representing the nozzle area which would achieve the design point operating conditions and fan stage performance. The total area change from

  14. Migration ecology and stopover population size of Red Knots Calidris canutus rufa at Mingan Archipelago after exiting the breeding grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, James E.; Baker, Allan J.; González, Patricia M.; Aubry, Yves; Buidin, Christophe; Rochepault, Yann

    2018-01-01

    Populations of migratory birds present unique conservation challenges given the often vast distances separating critical resources throughout the annual cycle. Migration areas close to the breeding grounds represent a link between two key stages of the annual cycle, and understanding migration ecology as birds exit the breeding grounds may be particularly informative for successful conservation. We studied migration phenology and stopover ecology of an endangered subspecies of the Red Knot Calidris canutus rufa at a migration area relatively close to its breeding range. Using mark-recapture/resight data and a Jolly-Seber model for open populations, we described the arrival and departure schedules, stopover duration, and passage population size at the Mingan Archipelago, Quebec, Canada. Red Knots arrived at the study area in two distinct waves of birds separated by approximately 22 days. Nearly 30% of the passage population arrived in the first wave of arrivals during 15–18 July, and approximately 22% arrived in a second wave during 8–11 August. The sex-ratio in the stopover population at the time of the first wave was slightly skewed toward females, whereas the second wave was heavily skewed toward males. Because males remain on the breeding grounds to care for young, this may reflect successfulbreeding in the year of our study. The estimated stopover duration (population mean) was 11 days (95% credible interval: 10.3–11.7 days), but stopover persistence was variable throughout the season. We estimated a passage population size of 9,450 birds (8,355–10,710), a minimum estimate for reasons related to the duration of our sampling. Mingan Archipelago is thus an important migration area for this endangered subspecies and could be a priority in conservation planning. Our results also emphasize the advantages of mark-recapture/resight approaches for estimating migration phenology and stopover persistence.

  15. Entry and exit screening of airline travellers during the A(H1N1) 2009 pandemic: a retrospective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kamran; Eckhardt, Rose; Brownstein, John S; Naqvi, Raza; Hu, Wei; Kossowsky, David; Scales, David; Arino, Julien; MacDonald, Michael; Wang, Jun; Sears, Jennifer; Cetron, Martin S

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the screening measures that would have been required to assess all travellers at risk of transporting A(H1N1)pdm09 out of Mexico by air at the start of the 2009 pandemic. Data from flight itineraries for travellers who flew from Mexico were used to estimate the number of international airports where health screening measures would have been needed, and the number of travellers who would have had to be screened, to assess all air travellers who could have transported the H1N1 influenza virus out of Mexico during the initial stages of the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic. Exit screening at 36 airports in Mexico, or entry screening of travellers arriving on direct flights from Mexico at 82 airports in 26 other countries, would have resulted in the assessment of all air travellers at risk of transporting A(H1N1)pdm09 out of Mexico at the start of the pandemic. Entry screening of 116 travellers arriving from Mexico by direct or connecting flights would have been necessary for every one traveller at risk of transporting A(H1N1)pdm09. Screening at just eight airports would have resulted in the assessment of 90% of all air travellers at risk of transporting A(H1N1)pdm09 out of Mexico in the early stages of the pandemic. During the earliest stages of the A(H1N1) pandemic, most public health benefits potentially attainable through the screening of air travellers could have been achieved by screening travellers at only eight airports.

  16. Use of Veterans Health Administration Mental Health and Substance Use Disorder Treatment After Exiting Prison: The Health Care for Reentry Veterans Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, Andrea K; Stimmel, Matthew; Blue-Howells, Jessica; Rosenthal, Joel; McGuire, Jim; Binswanger, Ingrid; Smelson, David; Harris, Alex H S; Frayne, Susan M; Bowe, Tom; Timko, Christine

    2017-03-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VA) Health Care for Reentry Veterans (HCRV) program links veterans exiting prison with treatment. Among veterans served by HCRV, national VA clinical data were used to describe contact with VA health care, and mental health and substance use disorder diagnoses and treatment use. Of veterans seen for an HCRV outreach visit, 56 % had contact with VA health care. Prevalence of mental health disorders was 57 %; of whom 77 % entered mental health treatment within a month of diagnosis. Prevalence of substance use disorders was 49 %; of whom 37 % entered substance use disorder treatment within a month of diagnosis. For veterans exiting prison, increasing access to VA health care, especially for rural veterans, and for substance use disorder treatment, are important quality improvement targets.

  17. Anestesia para el tratamiento intraparto extraútero (EXIT) en fetos con diagnóstico prenatal de malformaciones cervical y oral: relato de casos

    OpenAIRE

    Helfer, Daniel Corrêa [UNIFESP; Clivatti, Jefferson [UNIFESP; Yamashita, Américo Massafuni [UNIFESP; Moron, Antonio Fernandes [UNIFESP

    2012-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O feto com diagnóstico pré-natal de massa cervical, ou qualquer outra doença que obstrua as vias aéreas, não deve ser abordado de forma convencional por apresentar dois desafios ao médico assistente logo após o parto: o tempo limitado para se estabelecer o acesso a vias aéreas potencialmente difíceis e a ausência de anestesia do neonato caso seja necessária instrumentação das vias aéreas. O procedimento EXIT (ex utero intrapartum treatment - EXIT procedure) consiste...

  18. The influence of the stagnation zone on the fluid dynamics at the nozzle exit of a confined and submerged impinging jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Nicholas; Stafford, Jason; Conway, Ciaran; Punch, Jeff; Walsh, Edmond

    2016-02-01

    Low profile impinging jets provide a means to achieve high heat transfer coefficients while occupying a small quantity of space. Consequently, they are found in many engineering applications such as electronics cooling, annealing of metals, food processing, and others. This paper investigates the influence of the stagnation zone fluid dynamics on the nozzle exit flow condition of a low profile, submerged, and confined impinging water jet. The jet was geometrically constrained to a round, 16-mm diameter, square-edged nozzle at a jet exit to target surface spacing ( H/ D) that varied between 0.25 choice of inlet boundary conditions in numerical models, and it was found that it is necessary to model a jet tube length {{ L}{/}{ D}} > 0.5—where D is the inner diameter of the jet—in order to minimise modelling uncertainty.

  19. Reduction of exit-site infections of tunnelled intravascular catheters among neutropenic patients by sustained-release chlorhexidine dressings: results from a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, S T; Sanders, J; Patton, W N; Ganly, P; Birch, M; Crump, J A; Spearing, R L

    2005-09-01

    Exit-site and tunnel infections of tunnelled central intravascular catheters are a frequent source of morbidity among neutropenic patients and may necessitate catheter removal. They require antimicrobial therapy that increases healthcare costs and is associated with adverse drug reactions. A prospective randomized clinical trial was conducted among adult patients undergoing chemotherapy in a haematology unit. Tunnelled intravascular catheters were randomized to receive the control of a standard dressing regimen as recommended by the British Committee for Standards in Haematology, or to receive the intervention of a sustained-release chlorhexidine dressing. Follow-up data were available in 112 of 114 tunnelled intravascular catheters which were randomized. Exit-site or combined exit-site/tunnel infections occurred in 23 (43%) of 54 catheters in the control group, and five (9%) of 58 catheters in the intervention group [odds ratio (OR) for intervention group compared with control group =0.13, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.04-0.37, P<0.001]. More tunnelled intravascular catheters were prematurely removed from the control group than the intervention group for documented infections [20/54 (37%) vs 6/58 (10%), OR=0.20, 95%CI 0.53-0.07]. However, there was no difference in the numbers of tunnelled intravascular catheters removed for all proven and suspected intravascular catheter-related infections [21/54 (39%) vs 19/58 (33%)], or in the time to removal of catheters for any reason other than death or end of treatment for underlying disease. Thus chlorhexidine dressings reduced the incidence of exit-site/tunnel infections of indwelling tunnelled intravascular catheters without prolonging catheter survival in neutropenic patients, and could be considered as part of the routine management of indwelling tunnelled intravascular catheters among neutropenic patients.

  20. A novel method for patient exit and entrance dose prediction based on water equivalent path length measured with an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavuma, Awusi; Glegg, Martin; Metwaly, Mohamed; Currie, Garry; Elliott, Alex

    2010-01-01

    In vivo dosimetry is one of the quality assurance tools used in radiotherapy to monitor the dose delivered to the patient. Electronic portal imaging device (EPID) images for a set of solid water phantoms of varying thicknesses were acquired and the data fitted onto a quadratic equation, which relates the reduction in photon beam intensity to the attenuation coefficient and material thickness at a reference condition. The quadratic model is used to convert the measured grey scale value into water equivalent path length (EPL) at each pixel for any material imaged by the detector. For any other non-reference conditions, scatter, field size and MU variation effects on the image were corrected by relative measurements using an ionization chamber and an EPID. The 2D EPL is linked to the percentage exit dose table, for different thicknesses and field sizes, thereby converting the plane pixel values at each point into a 2D dose map. The off-axis ratio is corrected using envelope and boundary profiles generated from the treatment planning system (TPS). The method requires field size, monitor unit and source-to-surface distance (SSD) as clinical input parameters to predict the exit dose, which is then used to determine the entrance dose. The measured pixel dose maps were compared with calculated doses from TPS for both entrance and exit depth of phantom. The gamma index at 3% dose difference (DD) and 3 mm distance to agreement (DTA) resulted in an average of 97% passing for the square fields of 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm. The exit dose EPID dose distributions predicted by the algorithm were in better agreement with TPS-calculated doses than phantom entrance dose distributions.

  1. Exit site and tunnel infections in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis: findings from the Standardizing Care to Improve Outcomes in Pediatric End Stage Renal Disease (SCOPE) Collaborative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Sarah J; Neu, Alicia; Skversky Mason, Amy; Richardson, Troy; Rodean, Jonathan; Lawlor, John; Warady, Bradley; Somers, Michael J G

    2018-06-01

    The Standardizing Care to Improve Outcomes in Pediatric End Stage Renal Disease (SCOPE) Collaborative is a quality improvement initiative to reduce dialysis-associated infections. The frequency of peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter exit site infection (ESI) and variables influencing its development and end result are unclear. We sought to determine ESI rates, to elucidate the epidemiology, risk factors, and outcomes for ESI, and to assess for association between provider compliance with care bundles and ESI risk. We reviewed demographic, dialysis and ESI data, and care bundle adherence and outcomes for SCOPE enrollees from October 2011 to September 2014. ESI involved only the exit site, only the subcutaneous catheter tunnel, or both. A total of 857 catheter insertions occurred in 734 children over 10,110 cumulative months of PD provided to these children. During this period 207 ESIs arose in 124 children or 0.25 ESIs per dialysis year. Median time to ESI was 392 days, with 69% of ESIs involving exit site only, 23% involving the tunnel only, and 8% involving both sites. Peritonitis developed in 6%. ESI incidence was associated with age (p = 0.003), being the lowest in children aged  0 at prior month's visit (p treatment, 24% required hospitalization, and 9% required catheter removal, generally secondary to tunnel infection. Exit site infections occur at an annualized rate of 0.25, typically well into the dialysis course. Younger patient age and documented review of site care are associated with lower ESI rates. Although most ESIs resolve, hospitalization is frequent, and tunnel involvement/catheter loss complicate outcomes.

  2. Working conditions as predictors of retirement intentions and exit from paid employment: a 10-year follow-up of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Ewan; Hagger-Johnson, Gareth; Head, Jenny; Shelton, Nicola; Stafford, Mai; Stansfeld, Stephen; Zaninotto, Paola

    Population ageing in Western countries has made delayed retirement and extended working life a policy priority in recent years. Retirement timing has been linked to individual factors such as health and wealth, but less is known about the role of the psychosocial work environment. This paper drew upon longitudinal data on 3462 workers aged 50-69 from five waves of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Regression models were used to assess the association of working conditions with preferred timing of retirement and actual work exit. Adjusting for a range of covariates, job demands (aspects of the job requiring sustained physical or psychological effort) were associated with preferences for earlier retirement (by 0.18 years; 95 % C.I. 0.06, 0.31). Decision authority was associated with preferences for later retirement (by 0.38 years; 95 % C.I. 0.23, 0.53) and reduced odds of work exit (OR = 0.93; 95 % C.I. 0.88, 0.97). Low recognition at work was associated with increased odds of work exit (OR = 1.23; 95 % C.I. 1.10, 1.43). There was little evidence of any interactive relationship between demands and resources. Efforts to extend working life should address issues relating to the immediate psychosocial work environment. Providing older workers with increased sense of control, and ensuring contributions are adequately recognised, may delay retirement intentions and the timing of labour market exit.

  3. Research on the evacuation readiness of bus crews and passengers. Effect of an easy-to-understand emergency exit display; Bus no jikoji no join jokyaku no dasshutsu yoisei ni kansuru kenkyu. Hijoguchi hyoji kaizen koka no chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiosaka, Y. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Answers collected from interviews show that very few of the bus passengers know how to open emergency exits and that such exits are floored too high, and dangerous, for aged people and children. In this paper, the emergency exit display is picturized in conformity with the ISO6309-provided evacuation signs, and the Chinese characters on the sign are replaced by `hiragana` characters for the youngest of the elementary school children, unable to Chinese characters, to read with ease. The cover is removed from the lever for opening the emergency exit so that the lever may be seen from the outside. Under the system now in use, the passenger reading the how-to-open explanation cannot see the lever, and therefore it takes some time to know how to open. Exit-indicating arrows are provided on the aisle. Now, almost all the subject passengers can evacuate themselves, including senior citizens and schoolchildren. Using this emergency exit indication method generally judged to be easy to use, the time length has been shortened from the beginning of evacuation to the arrival at the emergency exit. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Theoretical approach of the photoinjector exit aperture influence on the wake field driven by an electron beam accelerated in an RF gun of free-electron laser 'ELSA'

    CERN Document Server

    Salah, W

    2000-01-01

    The wake field generated in the cylindrical cavity of an RF photoinjector, by a strongly accelerated electron beam, has been analytically calculated (Salah, Dolique, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 437 (1999) 27) under the assumption that the perturbation of the field map by the exit hole is negligible as long as the ratio: exit hole radius/cavity radius is lower than approximately 1/3. Shown experimentally in the different context of a long accelerating structure formed by a sequence of bored pill-box cavity (Figuera et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 60 (1988) 2144; Kim et al., J. Appl. Phys. 68 (1990) 4942), this often-quoted result must be checked for the wake field map excited in a photo injector cavity. Further, in the latter case, the empirical rule in question can be broken more easily because, due to causality, the cavity radius to be considered is not the physical radius but that of the part of the anode wall around the exit hole reached by the beam electromagnetic influence. We present an analytical treatment of th...

  5. Effect of second to first normal stress difference ratio at the die exit on neck-in phenomenon in polymeric flat film production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barborik, Tomas; Zatloukal, Martin

    2017-05-01

    In this study, viscoelastic modeling of the extrusion film casting process, based on the lD membrane model and modified Leonov constitutive equation, was conducted and the effect of the viscoelastic stress state at the die exit (captured here via second to first normal stress difference ratio) on the unwanted neck-in phenomenon has been analyzed for wide range of Deborah numbers and materials having different level of uniaxial and planar extensional strain hardening. Relevant experimental data for LDPE and theoretical predictions based on multimode eXtended Pom-Pom model acquired from the open literature were used for the validation purposes. It was found that firstly, the predicting capabilities of both constitutive equations for given material and processing conditions are comparable even if the single mode modified Leonov model was used and secondly, the agreement between theoretical and experimental data on neck-in is fairly good. Results of the theoretical study revealed that the viscoelastic stress state at the die exit (i.e. -N2/N1 ratio) increases the level of neck-in if uniaxial extensional strain hardening, planar to uniaxial extensional viscosity ratio and Deborah number increases. It has also been revealed that there exists threshold value for Deborah number and extensional strain hardening below which the neck-in becomes independent on the die exit stress state.

  6. Viral uncoating is directional: exit of the genomic RNA in a common cold virus starts with the poly-(A tail at the 3'-end.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shushan Harutyunyan

    Full Text Available Upon infection, many RNA viruses reorganize their capsid for release of the genome into the host cell cytosol for replication. Often, this process is triggered by receptor binding and/or by the acidic environment in endosomes. In the genus Enterovirus, which includes more than 150 human rhinovirus (HRV serotypes causing the common cold, there is persuasive evidence that the viral RNA exits single-stranded through channels formed in the protein shell. We have determined the time-dependent emergence of the RNA ends from HRV2 on incubation of virions at 56°C using hybridization with specific oligonucleotides and detection by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. We report that psoralen UV crosslinking prevents complete RNA release, allowing for identification of the sequences remaining inside the capsid. We also present the structure of uncoating intermediates in which parts of the RNA are condensed and take the form of a rod that is directed roughly towards a two-fold icosahedral axis, the presumed RNA exit point. Taken together, in contrast to schemes frequently depicted in textbooks and reviews, our findings demonstrate that exit of the RNA starts from the 3'-end. This suggests that packaging also occurs in an ordered manner resulting in the 3'-poly-(A tail becoming located close to a position of pore formation during conversion of the virion into a subviral particle. This directional genome release may be common to many icosahedral non-enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses.

  7. Mitosis in neurons: Roughex and APC/C maintain cell cycle exit to prevent cytokinetic and axonal defects in Drosophila photoreceptor neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Ruggiero

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of cell cycle exit by neurons remain poorly understood. Through genetic and developmental analysis of Drosophila eye development, we found that the cyclin-dependent kinase-inhibitor Roughex maintains G1 cell cycle exit during differentiation of the R8 class of photoreceptor neurons. The roughex mutant neurons re-enter the mitotic cell cycle and progress without executing cytokinesis, unlike non-neuronal cells in the roughex mutant that perform complete cell divisions. After mitosis, the binucleated R8 neurons usually transport one daughter nucleus away from the cell body into the developing axon towards the brain in a kinesin-dependent manner resembling anterograde axonal trafficking. Similar cell cycle and photoreceptor neuron defects occurred in mutants for components of the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome. These findings indicate a neuron-specific defect in cytokinesis and demonstrate a critical role for mitotic cyclin downregulation both to maintain cell cycle exit during neuronal differentiation and to prevent axonal defects following failed cytokinesis.

  8. Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak at Percutaneous Exit of Ventricular Catheter as a Crucial Risk Factor for External Ventricular Drainage-Related Infection in Adult Neurosurgical Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaechan; Choi, Yeon-Ju; Ohk, Boram; Chang, Hyun-Ha

    2018-01-01

    The placement of a ventricular catheter for temporary cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion is associated with a considerable risk of CSF infection. The authors investigated the effect of a CSF leak on CSF-related infection and the predisposing factors for a CSF leak. Fifty-two patients who underwent external ventricular drainage (EVD) for acute hydrocephalus associated with a subarachnoid hemorrhage or intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) were enrolled in this prospective study. A CSF leak-detection paper (small sterilized filter paper) was applied at the percutaneous catheter exit site to check for any bloody CSF leak. In addition, radiologic and clinical data were collected. Four of the 52 patients (7.7%) developed an EVD-related CSF infection from organisms including Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 3) and Staphylococcus hominis (n = 1). A prolonged CSF leak >1 day was detected in 9 patients (17.3%) and revealed as a significant risk factor for CSF infection with a 44.4% positive predictive value. Moreover, an IVH >10 mL was found in 11 patients (21.2%) and revealed as a significant predisposing factor for a CSF leak at the percutaneous catheter exit. A prolonged CSF leak for >1 day at the percutaneous catheter exit site is a crucial risk factor for EVD-related CSF infection and an IVH >10 mL is a predisposing factor for a CSF leak. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. NORM regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    The author reviews the question of regulation for naturally occuring radioactive material (NORM), and the factors that have made this a more prominent concern today. Past practices have been very relaxed, and have often involved very poor records, the involvment of contractors, and the disposition of contaminated equipment back into commercial service. The rationale behind the establishment of regulations is to provide worker protection, to exempt low risk materials, to aid in scrap recycling, to provide direction for remediation and to examine disposal options. The author reviews existing regulations at federal and state levels, impending legislation, and touches on the issue of site remediation and potential liabilities affecting the release of sites contaminated by NORM.

  10. 75 FR 30914 - Proposed Information Collection (Six-Month Post-Exit Focus Interview of Former VHA Employees...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... data collected will be used to develop talent management strategies to enhance workforce recruitment... Federal Docket Management System (FDMS) at http://www.Regulations.gov ; or to Mary Stout, Veterans Health...

  11. Fisheries regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Frost, Hans Staby; Abildtrup, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Economists normally claim that a stock externality arises within fisheries because each individual fisherman does not take the effect on stock size into account when making harvest decisions. Due to the stock externality, it is commonly argued that fisheries regulation is necessary, but regulatory...... decisions are complicated by a tremendous amount of uncertainty and asymmetric information. This paper provides an overview of selected parts of the literature on the regulation of fisheries under uncertainty and asymmetric information, and possible areas for future research are identified. Specifically...

  12. Dual impact of organisational change on subsequent exit from work unit and sickness absence: a longitudinal study among public healthcare employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Johan Høy; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Skakon, Janne; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2018-05-14

    We investigated work-unit exit, total and long-term sickness absence following organisational change among public healthcare employees. The study population comprised employees from the Capital Region of Denmark (n=14 388). Data on reorganisation at the work-unit level (merger, demerger, relocation, change of management, employee layoff or budget cut) between July and December 2013 were obtained via surveys distributed to the managers of each work unit. Individual-level data on work-unit exit, total and long-term sickness absence (≥29 days) in 2014 were obtained from company registries. For exposure to any, each type or number of reorganisations (1, 2 or ≥3), the HRs and 95% CIs for subsequent work-unit exit were estimated by Cox regression, and the risk for total and long-term sickness absence were estimated by zero-inflated Poisson regression. Reorganisation was associated with subsequent work-unit exit (HR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.19) in the year after reorganisation. This association was specifically important for exposure to ≥3 types of changes (HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.30 to 1.79), merger (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.49), demerger (HR 1.41, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.71) or change of management (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.38). Among the employees remaining in the work unit, reorganisation was also associated with more events of long-term sickness absence (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.33), which was particularly important for merger (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.72) and employee layoff (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.59). Specific types of reorganisation seem to have a dual impact on subsequent work-unit exit and sickness absence in the year after change. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. French regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1998-01-01

    In this issue are given the new French regulations relative to radiation protection of temporary personnel, the licensing to release gaseous and liquid wastes and the licensing granted to thirty two laboratories using beta and gamma decay radioisotopes. (N.C.)

  14. The Prenylated Rab GTPase Receptor PRA1.F4 Contributes to Protein Exit from the Golgi Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoung Hui; Yoo, Yun-Joo; Kim, Dae Heon; Hanh, Nguyen Hong; Kwon, Yun; Hwang, Inhwan

    2017-07-01

    Prenylated Rab acceptor1 (PRA1) functions in the recruitment of prenylated Rab proteins to their cognate organelles. Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) contains a large number of proteins belonging to the AtPRA1 family. However, their physiological roles remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the physiological role of AtPRA1.F4, a member of the AtPRA1 family. A T-DNA insertion knockdown mutant of AtPRA1.F4 , atpra1.f4 , was smaller in stature than parent plants and possessed shorter roots, whereas transgenic plants overexpressing HA:AtPRA1.F4 showed enhanced development of secondary roots and root hairs. However, both overexpression and knockdown plants exhibited increased sensitivity to high-salt stress, lower vacuolar Na + /K + -ATPase and plasma membrane ATPase activities, lower and higher pH in the vacuole and apoplast, respectively, and highly vesiculated Golgi apparatus. HA:AtPRA1.F4 localized to the Golgi apparatus and assembled into high-molecular-weight complexes. atpra1.f4 plants displayed a defect in vacuolar trafficking, which was complemented by low but not high levels of HA : AtPRA1.F4 Overexpression of HA:AtPRA1.F4 also inhibited protein trafficking at the Golgi apparatus, albeit differentially depending on the final destination or type of protein: trafficking of vacuolar proteins, plasma membrane proteins, and trans-Golgi network (TGN)-localized SYP61 was strongly inhibited; trafficking of TGN-localized SYP51 was slightly inhibited; and trafficking of secretory proteins and TGN-localized SYP41 was negligibly or not significantly inhibited. Based on these results, we propose that Golgi-localized AtPRA1.F4 is involved in the exit of many but not all types of post-Golgi proteins from the Golgi apparatus. Additionally, an appropriate level of AtPRA1.F4 is crucial for its function at the Golgi apparatus. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. SU-C-BRD-06: Sensitivity Study of An Automated System to Acquire and Analyze EPID Exit Dose Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olch, A; Zhuang, A [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The dosimetric consequences of errors in patient setup or beam delivery and anatomical changes are not readily known. A new product, PerFRACTION (Sun Nuclear Corporation), is designed to detect these errors by comparing the EPID exit dose image from each field of each fraction to those from baseline fraction images. This work investigates the sensitivity of PerFRACTION to detect the deviation of induced errors in a variety of realistic scenarios. Methods: Eight plans were created mimicking potential delivery or setup errors. The plans consisted of a nominal field and the field with an induced error. These were used to irradiate the EPID simulating multiple fractions with and without the error. Integrated EPID images were acquired in clinical mode and saved in ARIA. PerFRACTION automatically pulls the images into its database and performs the user defined comparison. In some cases, images were manually pushed to PerFRACTION. We varied the distance-to-agreement or dose tolerance until PerFRACTION showed failing pixels in the affected region and recorded the values. We induced errors of 1mm and greater in jaw, MLC, and couch position, 2 degree collimation rotation (patient yaw), and 0.5% to 1.5% in machine output. Both static and arc fields with the rails in or out were also acquired and compared. Results: PerFRACTION detected position errors of the jaws, MLC, and couch with an accuracy of better than 0.5 mm, and 0.2 degrees for collimator and gantry error. PerFRACTION detected a machine output error within 0.2% and detected the change in rail position. Conclusion: A new automated system for monitoring daily treatments for machine or patient variations from the first fraction using integrated EPID images was found to be sensitive enough to detect small positional, angular, and dosimetric errors within 0.5mm, 0.2 degrees, and 0.2%, respectively. Sun Nuclear Corporation has provided a software license for the product described.

  16. Regulating Internalities

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass Robert; Allcott, Hunt

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a framework for regulating internalities. Using a simple economic model, we provide four principles for designing and evaluating behaviorally-motivated policy. We then outline rules for determining which contexts reliably reflect true preferences and discuss empirical strategies for measuring internalities. As a case study, we focus on energy efficiency policy, including Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards and appliance and lighting energy efficiency standards.

  17. Progranulin regulates neurogenesis in the developing vertebrate retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Caroline E; Hitchcock, Peter F

    2017-09-01

    We evaluated the expression and function of the microglia-specific growth factor, Progranulin-a (Pgrn-a) during developmental neurogenesis in the embryonic retina of zebrafish. At 24 hpf pgrn-a is expressed throughout the forebrain, but by 48 hpf pgrn-a is exclusively expressed by microglia and/or microglial precursors within the brain and retina. Knockdown of Pgrn-a does not alter the onset of neurogenic programs or increase cell death, however, in its absence, neurogenesis is significantly delayed-retinal progenitors fail to exit the cell cycle at the appropriate developmental time and postmitotic cells do not acquire markers of terminal differentiation, and microglial precursors do not colonize the retina. Given the link between Progranulin and cell cycle regulation in peripheral tissues and transformed cells, we analyzed cell cycle kinetics among retinal progenitors following Pgrn-a knockdown. Depleting Pgrn-a results in a significant lengthening of the cell cycle. These data suggest that Pgrn-a plays a dual role during nervous system development by governing the rate at which progenitors progress through the cell cycle and attracting microglial progenitors into the embryonic brain and retina. Collectively, these data show that Pgrn-a governs neurogenesis by regulating cell cycle kinetics and the transition from proliferation to cell cycle exit and differentiation. © 2017 The Authors. Developmental Neurobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 1114-1129, 2017. © 2017 The Authors. Developmental Neurobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Safety Precautions and Operating Procedures in an (A)BSL-4 Laboratory: 1. Biosafety Level 4 Suit Laboratory Suite Entry and Exit Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janosko, Krisztina; Holbrook, Michael R; Adams, Ricky; Barr, Jason; Bollinger, Laura; Newton, Je T'aime; Ntiforo, Corrie; Coe, Linda; Wada, Jiro; Pusl, Daniela; Jahrling, Peter B; Kuhn, Jens H; Lackemeyer, Matthew G

    2016-10-03

    Biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) suit laboratories are specifically designed to study high-consequence pathogens for which neither infection prophylaxes nor treatment options exist. The hallmarks of these laboratories are: custom-designed airtight doors, dedicated supply and exhaust airflow systems, a negative-pressure environment, and mandatory use of positive-pressure ("space") suits. The risk for laboratory specialists working with highly pathogenic agents is minimized through rigorous training and adherence to stringent safety protocols and standard operating procedures. Researchers perform the majority of their work in BSL-2 laboratories and switch to BSL-4 suit laboratories when work with a high-consequence pathogen is required. Collaborators and scientists considering BSL-4 projects should be aware of the challenges associated with BSL-4 research both in terms of experimental technical limitations in BSL-4 laboratory space and the increased duration of such experiments. Tasks such as entering and exiting the BSL-4 suit laboratories are considerably more complex and time-consuming compared to BSL-2 and BSL-3 laboratories. The focus of this particular article is to address basic biosafety concerns and describe the entrance and exit procedures for the BSL-4 laboratory at the NIH/NIAID Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick. Such procedures include checking external systems that support the BSL-4 laboratory, and inspecting and donning positive-pressure suits, entering the laboratory, moving through air pressure-resistant doors, and connecting to air-supply hoses. We will also discuss moving within and exiting the BSL-4 suit laboratories, including using the chemical shower and removing and storing positive-pressure suits.

  19. The effect of ill health and socioeconomic status on labor force exit and re-employment: a prospective study with ten years follow-up in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuring, Merel; Robroek, Suzan J W; Otten, Ferdy W J; Arts, Coos H; Burdorf, Alex

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ill health and socioeconomic status on labor force exit due to unemployment, early retirement, disability pension, or becoming economically inactive. A secondary objective was to investigate the effect of ill health and socioeconomic status on return to work. A representative sample of the Dutch working population (N=15 152) was selected for a prospective study with ten years follow-up (93 917 person-years). Perceived health and individual and household characteristics were measured at baseline with the Permanent Quality of Life Survey (POLS) during 1999-2002. Statistics Netherlands ascertained employment status monthly from January 1999 to December 2008. Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to determine the factors that predicted labor force exit and return to work. Ill health increased the likelihood of labor force exit into unemployment [hazard ratio (HR) 1.89], disability pension (HR 6.39), and early retirement (HR 1.20), but was not a determinant of becoming economically inactive (HR 1.07). Workers with low socioeconomic status were, even after adjusting for ill health, more likely to leave the labor force due to unemployment, disability pension, and economic inactivity. Workers with ill health at baseline were less likely to return to work after unemployment (HR 0.75) or disability pension (HR 0.62). Socioeconomic status did not influence re-employment. Ill health is an important determinant for entering and maintaining paid employment. Workers with lower education were at increased risk for health-based selection out of paid employment. Policies to improve labor force participation, especially among low socioeconomic level workers, should protect workers with health problems against exclusion from the labor force.

  20. A high-energy double-crystal fixed exit monochromator for the X17 superconducting wiggler beam line at the NSLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, R.F.; Dilmanian, F.A.; Oversluizen, T.; Lenhard, A.; Berman, L.E.; Chapman, L.D.; Stoeber, W.

    1992-01-01

    A high-energy double-crystal x-ray monochromator has been constructed for use on the X-17 beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). Its design is based on the ''boomerang'' right angle linkage, and features a fixed exit beam, a cooled first crystal, and an energy range of 8--92 keV. The entire mechanism is UHV compatible. The design is described and performance details, obtained in testing at the X17 beam line, are presented

  1. Results of Differential Treatment of Tenckhoff Catheter Exit Site/Tunnel Infection during Peritoneal Dialysis in Patients with End-Stage Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    V.H. Mishalov; Ye.S. Zavodovskyi; S.M. Hoida; L.Yu. Markulan; I.L. Kuchma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Tenckhoff catheter exit site infection (ESI) occurs in 0.05–1.05 cases per patient per year and is a risk factor of termination of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Objective of the work. To evaluate the efficacy of differentiated treatment for ESI in the three-year prospective comparative study. Materials and me-thods. We have examined and treated 141 patients receiving renal replacement therapy by PD. In comparison group (group C) (73 patients) treatment and prevention of ESI was carr...

  2. Has the exit from nuclear energy failed? Why nuclear power should not be surrendered; Energiewende gescheitert? Warum auf Kernkraft nicht verzichtet werden sollte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, Hans

    2017-07-01

    The author describes and discusses the issues incidents and accidents and nuclear power plants, electric power supply, the actual status of nuclear power in Germany, alternative energy sources, the anthropogenic greenhouse effect, the controversial discussion of the greenhouse effect, solar energy, wind energy, the German exit from nuclear energy, the nuclear accidents in three Miles Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima, the final disposal of radioactive wastes - dismantling - interim-storage - site selection, waste processing using fast breeder reactors and transmutation, status of radioactive waste disposal in Germany.

  3. A Prospective Study of the Impact of Current Poverty, History of Poverty, and Exiting Poverty on Accumulation of Disease Damage in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelin, Edward; Trupin, Laura; Yazdany, Jinoos

    2017-08-01

    To estimate the effect of current poverty, number of years in poverty, and exiting poverty on disease damage accumulation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). For this study, 783 patients with SLE were followed up from 2003 to 2015 through annual structured interviews. Respondents were categorized in each year by whether they had a household income of ≤125% of the US federal poverty level. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to assess the impact of poverty in 2009, number of years in poverty between 2003 and 2009, and permanent exits from poverty as of 2009 on the extent of disease damage (according to the Brief Index of Lupus Damage [BILD] score) or accumulation of a clinically meaningful increase in disease damage (defined as a minimum 2-point increase in the BILD damage score) by 2015. After adjustment for sociodemographic features, health care characteristics, and health behaviors, poverty in 2009 was associated with an increased level of accumulated disease damage in 2015 (mean difference in BILD damage score between poor and non-poor 0.62 points, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.25-0.98) and increased odds of a clinically important increase in damage (odds ratio [OR] 1.67, 95% CI 0.98-2.85). Being poor in every year between 2003 and 2009 was associated with greater damage (mean change in BILD score 2.45, 95% CI 1.88-3.01) than being poor for one-half or more of those years (mean change in BILD score 1.45, 95% CI 0.97-1.93), for fewer than one-half of those years (mean change in BILD score 1.49, 95% CI 1.10-1.88), or for none of those years (mean change in BILD score 1.34, 95% CI 1.20-1.49). Those exiting poverty permanently had similar increases in disease damage (mean change in BILD score 1.30, 95% CI 0.90-1.69) as those who were never in poverty (mean change in BILD score 1.36, 95% CI 1.23-1.50) but much less damage than those who remained in poverty (mean change in BILD score 1.98, 95% CI 1.59-2.38). The effects of current poverty

  4. Long-term effects of psychosocial work stress in midlife on health functioning after labor market exit--results from the GAZEL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Sembajwe, Grace; Zins, Marie; Berkman, Lisa; Goldberg, Marcel; Siegrist, Johannes

    2012-07-01

    To study long-term effects of psychosocial work stress in mid-life on health functioning after labor market exit using two established work stress models. In the frame of the prospective French Gazel cohort study, data on psychosocial work stress were assessed using the full questionnaires measuring the demand-control-support model (in 1997 and 1999) and the effort-reward imbalance model (in 1998). In 2007, health functioning was assessed, using the Short Form 36 mental and physical component scores. Multivariate regressions were calculated to predict health functioning in 2007, controlling for age, gender, social position, and baseline self-perceived health. Consistent effects of both work stress models and their single components on mental and physical health functioning during retirement were observed. Effects remained significant after adjustment including baseline self-perceived health. Whereas the predictive power of both work stress models was similar in the case of the physical composite score, in the case of the mental health score, values of model fit were slightly higher for the effort-reward imbalance model (R(2): 0.13) compared with the demand-control model (R²: 0.11). Findings underline the importance of working conditions in midlife not only for health in midlife but also for health functioning after labor market exit.

  5. Use of coal and coal exit in Germany from the perspective of the population; Kohlenutzung und Kohleausstieg in Deutschland aus Sicht der Bevoelkerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, Diana; Fischer, Wolfgang; Hake, Juergen-Friedrich [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung, Systemforschung und Technologische Entwicklung (IEK-STE)

    2016-06-15

    The objective of the energy policy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 up to 80 to 95% compared to 1990, can be achieved only by a substantial decarbonisation of the energy production. For this purpose, in addition to the assessment of the technical and economic effects, information is necessary which views the population has use to coal and coal exit in Germany. Based on the results of a representative panel survey is first identified what citizens know about the use of coal, which attitudes they have and how they value the need for coal power plants. Then the awareness of the topic of coal exit in Germany, the understanding of the respondents, and the attitudes of the population to it will be illustrated. [German] Die Zielsetzung der Energiewende, die Treibhausgasemissionen bis zum Jahr 2050 um 80 bis 95 % gegenueber 1990 zu reduzieren, laesst sich nur durch eine weitgehende Dekarbonisierung der Energieerzeugung erreichen. Hierfuer sind neben der Abschaetzung der technischen und oekonomischen Auswirkungen auch Informationen darueber notwendig, welche Auffassungen die Bevoelkerung zur Kohlenutzung und zum Kohleausstieg in Deutschland hat. Anhand der Ergebnisse einer repraesentativen Panelbefragung wird zunaechst aufgezeigt, was Buergerinnen und Buerger ueber die Kohlenutzung wissen, welche Einstellungen sie dazu haben und wie sie die Notwendigkeit von Kohlekraftwerken bewerten. Anschliessend werden die Bekanntheit des Themas Kohleausstieg in Deutschland, das Verstaendnis der Befragten und die Einstellungen der Bevoelkerung zu diesem beleuchtet.

  6. Static thrust-vectoring performance of nonaxisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzles with post-exit yaw vanes. M.S. Thesis - George Washington Univ., Aug. 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Robert J.; Pendergraft, Odis C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A static (wind-off) test was conducted in the Static Test Facility of the 16-ft transonic tunnel to determine the performance and turning effectiveness of post-exit yaw vanes installed on two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles. One nozzle design that was previously tested was used as a baseline, simulating dry power and afterburning power nozzles at both 0 and 20 degree pitch vectoring conditions. Vanes were installed on these four nozzle configurations to study the effects of vane deflection angle, longitudinal and lateral location, size, and camber. All vanes were hinged at the nozzle sidewall exit, and in addition, some were also hinged at the vane quarter chord (double-hinged). The vane concepts tested generally produced yaw thrust vectoring angles much less than the geometric vane angles, for (up to 8 percent) resultant thrust losses. When the nozzles were pitch vectored, yawing effectiveness decreased as the vanes were moved downstream. Thrust penalties and yawing effectiveness both decreased rapidly as the vanes were moved outboard (laterally). Vane length and height changes increased yawing effectiveness and thrust ratio losses, while using vane camber, and double-hinged vanes increased resultant yaw angles by 50 to 100 percent.

  7. Performance of core exit thermocouple for PWR accident management action in vessel top break LOCA simulation experiment at OECD/NEA ROSA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Mitsuhiro; Takeda, Takeshi; Nakamura, Hideo

    2009-01-01

    Presented are experiment results of the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) conducted at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) with a focus on core exit thermocouple (CET) performance to detect core overheat during a vessel top break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) simulation experiment. The CET temperatures are used to start accident management (AM) action to quickly depressurize steam generator (SG) secondary side in case of core temperature excursion. Test 6-1 is first test of the OECD/NEA ROSA Project started in 2005, simulating withdraw of a control rod drive mechanism penetration nozzle at the vessel top head. The break size is equivalent to 1.9% cold leg break. The AM action was initiated when CET temperature rose up to 623K. There was no reflux water fallback onto the CETs during the core heat-up period. The core overheat, however, was detected with a time delay of about 230s. In addition, a large temperature discrepancy was observed between the CETs and the hottest core region. This paper clarifies the reason of time delay and temperature discrepancy between the CETs and heated core during boil-off including three-dimensional steam flows in the core and core exit. The paper discusses applicability of the LSTF CET performance to pressurized water reactor (PWR) conditions and a possibility of alternative indicators for earlier AM action than in Test 6-1 is studied by using symptom-based plant parameters such as a reactor vessel water level detection. (author)

  8. Particle-in-cell simulation for the effect of segmented electrodes near the exit of an aton-type Hall thruster on ion focusing acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, D.R.; Qing, S.W.; Liu, H.; Li, H. [Lab. of Plasma Propulsion, Harbin Institute of Technology (China)

    2011-12-15

    The effect of floating conductive electrodes near the channel exit of an Aton-type Hall thruster on ion focusing acceleration is studied by simulating the two-dimensional plasma flow with a fully kinetic Particle-in-Cell method for the gas flow rate j{sub a} ranged in 1{proportional_to}3 mg/s. Numerical results show that low-emissive electrodes can reduce plume divergence if the electrode length is less than 2 mm due to the low secondary electron emissive characteristic, but widen plume in all the gas flow rate range if the electrode length is greater than 2mm since the conductive property of segmented electrodes trends to make equipotential lines convex toward channel exit and is even parallel to the wall surface in the near-wall region. Further investigation predicts that the combination of high emissive dielectric wall and segmented low-emissive dielectric wall is a promising way to reduce plume divergence (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Higher effort-reward imbalance and lower job control predict exit from the labour market at the age of 61 years or younger: evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintsa, T; Kouvonen, A; McCann, M; Jokela, M; Elovainio, M; Demakakos, P

    2015-06-01

    We examined whether higher effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and lower job control are associated with exit from the labour market. There were 1263 participants aged 50-74 years from the English Longitudinal Study on Ageing with data on working status and work-related psychosocial factors at baseline (wave 2; 2004-2005), and working status at follow-up (wave 5; 2010-2011). Psychosocial factors at work were assessed using a short validated version of ERI and job control. An allostatic load index was formed using 13 biological parameters. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Exit from the labour market was defined as not working in the labour market when 61 years old or younger in 2010-2011. Higher ERI OR=1.62 (95% CI 1.01 to 2.61, p=0.048) predicted exit from the labour market independent of age, sex, education, occupational class, allostatic load and depression. Job control OR=0.60 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.85, p=0.004) was associated with exit from the labour market independent of age, sex, education, occupation and depression. The association of higher effort OR=1.32 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.73, p=0.045) with exit from the labour market was independent of age, sex and depression but attenuated to non-significance when additionally controlling for socioeconomic measures. Reward was not related to exit from the labour market. Stressful work conditions can be a risk for exiting the labour market before the age of 61 years. Neither socioeconomic position nor allostatic load and depressive symptoms seem to explain this association. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Higher effort–reward imbalance and lower job control predict exit from the labour market at the age of 61 years or younger: evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintsa, T; Kouvonen, A; McCann, M; Jokela, M; Elovainio, M; Demakakos, P

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined whether higher effort–reward imbalance (ERI) and lower job control are associated with exit from the labour market. Methods There were 1263 participants aged 50–74 years from the English Longitudinal Study on Ageing with data on working status and work-related psychosocial factors at baseline (wave 2; 2004–2005), and working status at follow-up (wave 5; 2010–2011). Psychosocial factors at work were assessed using a short validated version of ERI and job control. An allostatic load index was formed using 13 biological parameters. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Exit from the labour market was defined as not working in the labour market when 61 years old or younger in 2010–2011. Results Higher ERI OR=1.62 (95% CI 1.01 to 2.61, p=0.048) predicted exit from the labour market independent of age, sex, education, occupational class, allostatic load and depression. Job control OR=0.60 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.85, p=0.004) was associated with exit from the labour market independent of age, sex, education, occupation and depression. The association of higher effort OR=1.32 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.73, p=0.045) with exit from the labour market was independent of age, sex and depression but attenuated to non-significance when additionally controlling for socioeconomic measures. Reward was not related to exit from the labour market. Conclusions Stressful work conditions can be a risk for exiting the labour market before the age of 61 years. Neither socioeconomic position nor allostatic load and depressive symptoms seem to explain this association. PMID:25631860

  11. Molecular control of brain size: Regulators of neural stem cell life, death and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Bertrand; Hermanson, Ola

    2010-01-01

    The proper development of the brain and other organs depends on multiple parameters, including strictly controlled expansion of specific progenitor pools. The regulation of such expansion events includes enzymatic activities that govern the correct number of specific cells to be generated via an orchestrated control of cell proliferation, cell cycle exit, differentiation, cell death etc. Certain proteins in turn exert direct control of these enzymatic activities and thus progenitor pool expansion and organ size. The members of the Cip/Kip family (p21Cip1/p27Kip1/p57Kip2) are well-known regulators of cell cycle exit that interact with and inhibit the activity of cyclin-CDK complexes, whereas members of the p53/p63/p73 family are traditionally associated with regulation of cell death. It has however become clear that the roles for these proteins are not as clear-cut as initially thought. In this review, we discuss the roles for proteins of the Cip/Kip and p53/p63/p73 families in the regulation of cell cycle control, differentiation, and death of neural stem cells. We suggest that these proteins act as molecular interfaces, or 'pilots', to assure the correct assembly of protein complexes with enzymatic activities at the right place at the right time, thereby regulating essential decisions in multiple cellular events.

  12. Molecular control of brain size: Regulators of neural stem cell life, death and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Bertrand [Department of Oncology-Pathology, Cancer Centrum Karolinska (CCK), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Hermanson, Ola, E-mail: ola.hermanson@ki.se [Linnaeus Center in Developmental Biology for Regenerative Medicine (DBRM), Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-05-01

    The proper development of the brain and other organs depends on multiple parameters, including strictly controlled expansion of specific progenitor pools. The regulation of such expansion events includes enzymatic activities that govern the correct number of specific cells to be generated via an orchestrated control of cell proliferation, cell cycle exit, differentiation, cell death etc. Certain proteins in turn exert direct control of these enzymatic activities and thus progenitor pool expansion and organ size. The members of the Cip/Kip family (p21Cip1/p27Kip1/p57Kip2) are well-known regulators of cell cycle exit that interact with and inhibit the activity of cyclin-CDK complexes, whereas members of the p53/p63/p73 family are traditionally associated with regulation of cell death. It has however become clear that the roles for these proteins are not as clear-cut as initially thought. In this review, we discuss the roles for proteins of the Cip/Kip and p53/p63/p73 families in the regulation of cell cycle control, differentiation, and death of neural stem cells. We suggest that these proteins act as molecular interfaces, or 'pilots', to assure the correct assembly of protein complexes with enzymatic activities at the right place at the right time, thereby regulating essential decisions in multiple cellular events.

  13. Perturbation-expression analysis identifies RUNX1 as a regulator of human mammary stem cell differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan S Sokol

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The search for genes that regulate stem cell self-renewal and differentiation has been hindered by a paucity of markers that uniquely label stem cells and early progenitors. To circumvent this difficulty we have developed a method that identifies cell-state regulators without requiring any markers of differentiation, termed Perturbation-Expression Analysis of Cell States (PEACS. We have applied this marker-free approach to screen for transcription factors that regulate mammary stem cell differentiation in a 3D model of tissue morphogenesis and identified RUNX1 as a stem cell regulator. Inhibition of RUNX1 expanded bipotent stem cells and blocked their differentiation into ductal and lobular tissue rudiments. Reactivation of RUNX1 allowed exit from the bipotent state and subsequent differentiation and mammary morphogenesis. Collectively, our findings show that RUNX1 is required for mammary stem cells to exit a bipotent state, and provide a new method for discovering cell-state regulators when markers are not available.

  14. Platelet Proteome and Tumor Dormancy: Can Platelets Content Serve as Predictive Biomarkers for Exit of Tumors from Dormancy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almog, Nava, E-mail: nava.almog@tufts.edu; Klement, Giannoula Lakka, E-mail: nava.almog@tufts.edu [Center of Cancer Systems Biology, Caritas St. Elizabeth' s Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-05-11

    Although tumor dormancy is highly prevalent, the underling mechanisms are still mostly unknown. It is unclear which lesions will progress and become a disseminated cancer, and which will remain dormant and asymptomatic. Yet, an improved ability to predict progression would open the possibility of timely treatment and improvement in outcomes. We have recently described the ability of platelets to selectively uptake angiogenesis regulators very early in tumor growth, and proposed their use as an early marker of malignancy. In this review we will summarize current knowledge about these processes and will discuss the possibility of using platelet content to predict presence of occult tumors.

  15. Young women selling sex online – narratives on regulating feelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonsson LS

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Linda S Jonsson,1 Carl Göran Svedin,1 Margareta Hydén2 1Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 2Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Norrköping, Sweden Abstract: The current study concerns young women’s life stories of their experiences selling sex online before the age of 18. The aim was to gain an understanding of young women’s perceptions of the reasons they started, continued, and stopped selling sex. The study included interviews with 15 young women between the ages of 15 and 25 (M=18.9. Thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences in the narratives. Three themes and eight sub-themes were identified in relation to different stages in their lives in the sex trade. The themes were organized into three parts, each with its own storyline: “Entering – adverse life experiences”; traumatic events: feeling different and being excluded. “Immersion – using the body as a tool for regulating feelings”; being seen: being touched: being in control: affect regulation and self-harming. “Exiting – change or die”; living close to death: the process of quitting. The informants all had stable social lives in the sense that they had roofs over their heads, food to eat, and no substance-abuse issues. None had a third party who arranged the sexual contacts and none were currently trafficked. They described how their experiences of traumatic events and of feeling different and excluded had led them into the sex trade. Selling sex functioned as a way to be seen, to handle traumatic events, and to regulate feelings. Professionals working with young people who sell sex online need to understand the complex web of mixed feelings and emotional needs that can play a role in selling sex. Young people selling sex might need guidance in relationship building as well as help

  16. Calculation of exit dose for conformal and dynamically‐wedged fields, based on water‐equivalent path length measured with an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glegg, Martin; Metwaly, Mohamed; Currie, Garry; Elliott, Alex

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we use the quadratic calibration method (QCM), in which an EPID image is converted into a matrix of equivalent path lengths (EPLs) and, therefore, exit doses, so as to model doses in conformal and enhanced dynamic wedge (EDW) fields. The QCM involves acquiring series of EPID images at a reference field size for different thicknesses of homogeneous solid water blocks. From these, a set of coefficients is established that is used to compute the EPL of any other irradiated material. To determine the EPL, the irradiated area must be known in order to establish the appropriate scatter correction. A method was devised for the automatic calculation of areas from the EPID image that facilitated the calculation of EPL for any field and exit dose. For EDW fields, the fitting coefficients were modified by utilizing the linac manufacturer's golden segmented treatment tables (GSTT) methodology and MU fraction model. The nonlinear response of the EPL with lower monitor units (MUs) was investigated and slight modification of the algorithm performed to account for this. The method permits 2D dose distributions at the exit of phantom or patient to be generated by relating the EPL with an appropriate depth dose table. The results indicate that the inclusion of MU correction improved the EPL determination. The irradiated field areas can be accurately determined from EPID images to within ± 1% uncertainty. Cross‐plane profiles and 2D dose distributions of EPID predicted doses were compared with those calculated with the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) and those measured directly with MapCHECK 2 device. Comparison of the 2D EPID dose maps to those from TPS and MapCHECK shows that more than 90% of all points passed the gamma index acceptance criteria of 3% dose difference and 3 mm distance to agreement (DTA), for both conformal and EDW study cases. We conclude that the EPID QCM is an accurate and convenient method for in vivo dosimetry and may, therefore

  17. “Getting out of downtown”: a longitudinal study of how street-entrenched youth attempt to exit an inner city drug scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Knight

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban drug “scenes” have been identified as important risk environments that shape the health of street-entrenched youth. New knowledge is needed to inform policy and programing interventions to help reduce youths’ drug scene involvement and related health risks. The aim of this study was to identify how young people envisioned exiting a local, inner-city drug scene in Vancouver, Canada, as well as the individual, social and structural factors that shaped their experiences. Methods Between 2008 and 2016, we draw on 150 semi-structured interviews with 75 street-entrenched youth. We also draw on data generated through ethnographic fieldwork conducted with a subgroup of 25 of these youth between. Results Youth described that, in order to successfully exit Vancouver’s inner city drug scene, they would need to: (a secure legitimate employment and/or obtain education or occupational training; (b distance themselves – both physically and socially – from the urban drug scene; and (c reduce their drug consumption. As youth attempted to leave the scene, most experienced substantial social and structural barriers (e.g., cycling in and out of jail, the need to access services that are centralized within a place that they are trying to avoid, in addition to managing complex individual health issues (e.g., substance dependence. Factors that increased youth’s capacity to successfully exit the drug scene included access to various forms of social and cultural capital operating outside of the scene, including supportive networks of friends and/or family, as well as engagement with addiction treatment services (e.g., low-threshold access to methadone to support cessation or reduction of harmful forms of drug consumption. Conclusions Policies and programming interventions that can facilitate young people’s efforts to reduce engagement with Vancouver’s inner-city drug scene are critically needed, including meaningful

  18. Comparison of the target-thickness dependence of the convoy electron yield and the Rydberg electron yield measured in coincidence with exit charge states in fast ion-solid collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaither, C.C. III; Breinig, M.; Freyou, J.; Underwood, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    We have simultaneously measured the yield of convoy electrons and the yield of electrons in high Rydberg states of the projectile (n /approx gt/ 70), produced by 2MeV/u C projectiles passing through C foils, whose thicknesses range from 4--10 ug/cm 2 , for incident charge states q/sub i/ = 4--6 and exit charge states q/sub e/ = 4--6. We have found that these yields exhibit similar trends as a function of foil thickness, but that, nevertheless, the ratio of the number of convoy electrons detected in coincidence with ions of exit charge state q/sub e/ to the number of electrons detected in high Rydberg states of ions with the same exit charge state is a function of foil thickness. This may be due to a broadening of the convoy electron energy spectrum with increasing foil thickness. 6 refs., 3 figs

  19. Observations of primary and secondary emissions in a B747 exhaust plume in the upper troposphere and inferred engine exit plane OH concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlager, H; Schulte, P; Tremmel, H G; Ziereis, H [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Arnold, F; Droste-Franke, B; Klemm, M; Schneider, J [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The speciation of NO{sub y} exhaust emissions in the near-field plume of a B747 cruising at 9.2 km was measured in situ using the DLR Falcon research aircraft instrumented with a chemical ionisation mass spectrometer of MPI-K and a chemiluminescence NO detector of DLR. In addition, CO{sub 2} was measured providing a dilution factor for the exhaust species. Observed maximum peak concentrations above background in the plume 60 s after emission were 25.4 ppmv (CO{sub 2}), 184 ppbv (NO), 2.6 ppbv (HNO{sub 2}), and 1.3 ppbv (HNO{sub 3}). The observations were used to infer the initial OH concentration (15.4 ppmv) and NO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} ratio (0.08) at the engine exit by back calculations using a chemistry box model. (author) 20 refs.

  20. Massive facial teratoma managed with the ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT procedure and use of a 3-dimensional printed model for planning of staged debulking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie M. Hodges

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Teratomas are the most frequent solid tumor found in neonates. However, only 1.5% of neonatal teratomas originate from facial structures. Neonatal facial teratomas are associated with polyhydramnios, preterm birth, pulmonary hypoplasia, cleft palate, cleft lip, and life-threatening airway compromise. The overall survival reported with these lesions has been between 17 and 87.5%; however survival in the setting of antenatally diagnosed facial teratomas has only been described anecdotally. We present a case of an antenatally diagnosed massive facial teratoma originating from the pterygomaxillary fossa, which was associated with polyhydramnios and pre-term birth. We managed this complex tumor with an ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT procedure, multidisciplinary medical and surgical team, and staged excision and reconstruction aided by use of a 3-dimensional printed model. Here we review the surgical management of this rare and complex tumor.