WorldWideScience

Sample records for existing air sparging

  1. Existing air sparging model and literature review for the development of an air sparging optimization decision tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The objectives of this Report are two-fold: (1) to provide overviews of the state-of-the-art and state-of-the-practice with respect to air sparging technology, air sparging models and related or augmentation technologies (e.g., soil vapor extraction); and (2) to provide the basis for the development of the conceptual Decision Tool. The Project Team conducted an exhaustive review of available literature. The complete listing of the documents, numbering several hundred and reviewed as a part of this task, is included in Appendix A. Even with the large amount of material written regarding the development and application of air sparging, there still are significant gaps in the technical community`s understanding of the remediation technology. The results of the literature review are provided in Section 2. In Section 3, an overview of seventeen conceptual, theoretical, mathematical and empirical models is presented. Detailed descriptions of each of the models reviewed is provided in Appendix B. Included in Appendix D is a copy of the questionnaire used to compile information about the models. The remaining sections of the document reflect the analysis and synthesis of the information gleaned during the literature and model reviews. The results of these efforts provide the basis for development of the decision tree and conceptual decision tool for determining applicability and optimization of air sparging. The preliminary decision tree and accompanying information provided in Section 6 describe a three-tiered approach for determining air sparging applicability: comparison with established scenarios; calculation of conceptual design parameters; and the conducting of pilot-scale studies to confirm applicability. The final two sections of this document provide listings of the key success factors which will be used for evaluating the utility of the Decision Tool and descriptions of potential applications for Decision Tool use.

  2. [Study on the groundwater petroleum contaminant remediation by air sparging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Wu, Qiang; Zou, Zu-Guang; Chen, Hong; Yang, Xun-Chang; Zhao, Ji-Chu

    2007-04-01

    The groundwater petroleum contaminant remediation effect by air sparging was investigated in an oil field. The results show that the soil geological situation has great influence on the air distribution, and the shape of air distribution is not symmetrical to the air sparging (AS) well as axis. The influence distance in the left of AS well is 6 m, and only 4 m in the right. The petroleum removal rate can reach 70% in the zone with higher air saturation, but only 40% in the zone with lower air saturation, and the average petroleum removal rate reaches 60% in the influence zone for 40 days continuous air sparging. The petroleum components in groundwater were analyzed by GC/MS (gas chromatogram-mass spectrograph) before and after experiments, respectively. The results show that the petroleum removal rate has relationship with the components and their properties. The petroleum components with higher volatility are easily removed by volatilization, but those with lower volatility are difficult to remove, so a tailing effect of lingering residual contaminant exists when the air sparging technology is adopted to treat groundwater contaminated by petroleum products.

  3. Performance of air sparging systems -- A review of case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, D.H.; Brown, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    In situ air sparging is a commonly used remediation technology which volatilizes and enhances aerobic biodegradation of contamination in Groundwater and saturated zone soil. Recently, some questions have been raised regarding the effectiveness of air sparging. To address these questions the results of 21 sparging case studies have been compiled to shed light on how well air sparging achieves permanent reduction in groundwater contaminant concentrations. The case studies included both chlorinated solvents and petroleum hydrocarbon contamination, and covered a wide range of soil conditions and sparge system parameters. In each case study, groundwater concentrations were compared before sparging was initiated, just before sparging was terminated, and in the months following shutdown of the sparging system

  4. Air sparging of organic compounds in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    Soils and aquifers containing organic compounds have been traditionally treated by excavation and disposal of the soil and/or pumping and treating the groundwater. These remedial options are often not practical or cost effective solutions. A more favorable alternative for removal of the adsorbed/dissolved organic compounds would be an in situ technology. Air sparging will remove volatile organic compounds from both the adsorbed and dissolved phases in the saturated zone. This technology effectively creates a crude air stripper below the aquifer where the soil acts as the ''packing''. The air stream that contacts dissolved/adsorbed phase organics in the aquifer induces volatilization. A case history illustrates the effectiveness of air sparging as a remedial technology for addressing organic compounds in soil and groundwater. The site is an operating heavy equipment manufacturing facility in central Florida. The soil and groundwater below a large building at the facility was found to contain primarily diesel type petroleum hydrocarbons during removal of underground storage tanks. The organic compounds identified in the groundwater were Benzene, Xylenes, Ethylbenzene and Toluenes (BTEX), Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) and naphthalenes in concentrations related to diesel fuel

  5. Bioventing and air sparging: a field research study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, B.J.; Armstrong, J.E.; Hardisty, P.E.; Dupont, R.R.

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted at Gulf Canada Resources' Strachan Gas Plant in Alberta, in which bioventing and air sparging were used individually and in combination to remediate a free-phase natural gas condensate plume estimated to cover approximately 65,000 m 2 . The condensate was composed of light hydrocarbons. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and total xylenes (BTEX) made up a large portion of the dissolved plume. The objectives of the bioventing program were to: (1) study the use of biodegradation respiration rates and hydrocarbon vapour concentrations as indicators of soil clean-up progress, (2) study the effectiveness of bioventing during winter operations, (3) assess the degree of soil clean-up achievable through bioventing, and (4) evaluate the economics of bioventing. It was shown that bioventing is an economical in-situ remediation technique, costing about $10/m 3 . Air sparging involves the injection of air below the groundwater table to remove dissolved phased contaminants in-situ. The objectives of the air sparging program were to: (1) determine the zone of influence achievable through air sparging, (2) assess bioventing for treating hydrocarbon vapours introduced into the unsaturated zone during sparging, and (3) evaluate hydrocarbon mass removal effectiveness due to volatilization and biodegradation. It was shown that 90 per cent of the saturated zone hydrocarbon mass was removed during eight months of air sparging. 11 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  6. Conceptual air sparging decision tool in support of the development of an air sparging optimization decision tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The enclosed document describes a conceptual decision tool (hereinafter, Tool) for determining applicability of and for optimizing air sparging systems. The Tool was developed by a multi-disciplinary team of internationally recognized experts in air sparging technology, lead by a group of project and task managers at Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. (Parsons ES). The team included Mr. Douglas Downey and Dr. Robert Hinchee of Parsons ES, Dr. Paul Johnson of Arizona State University, Dr. Richard Johnson of Oregon Graduate Institute, and Mr. Michael Marley of Envirogen, Inc. User Community Panel Review was coordinated by Dr. Robert Siegrist of Colorado School of Mines (also of Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and Dr. Thomas Brouns of Battelle/Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The Tool is intended to provide guidance to field practitioners and environmental managers for evaluating the applicability and optimization of air sparging as remedial action technique.

  7. Helium Tracer Tests for Assessing Air Recovery and Air Distribution During In Situ Air Sparging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Richard

    2001-01-01

    ...) systems for capturing contaminant vapors liberated by in situ air sparging (IAS). The tracer approach is simple to conduct and provides more direct and reliable measures than the soil-gas pressure approach...

  8. Do conventional monitoring practices indicate in situ air sparging performance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.C.

    1995-01-01

    Short-term pilot tests play a key role in the selection and design of in situ air sparging systems. Most pilot tests are less than 24 h in duration and consist of monitoring changes in dissolved oxygen, water levels in wells, soil gas pressures, and soil gas contaminant concentrations while air is injected into the aquifer. These parameters are assumed to be indicators of air sparging feasibility and performance, and are also used in the design of full-scale systems. In this work the authors assess the validity of this critical assumption. Data are presented from a study site where a typical pilot-scale short-term test was conducted, followed by continued operation of a full-scale system for 110 days. Conventional sampling practices were augmented with more discrete and detailed assessment methods. In addition, a tracer gas was used to better understand air distributions, vapor flow paths, and vapor recovery efficiency. The data illustrate that conclusions regarding the performance and applicability of air sparging at the study site vary significantly depending on the monitoring approach used. There was no clear correlation between short-term pilot-test data and extended system performance when using data collected only from conventional groundwater monitoring wells. Attention is focused on petroleum hydrocarbons

  9. Agitation within Mk-42 insert caused by air sparge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    Dissolution of Rocky Flats Pu alloys and Pu metal using a ''nested insert'' configuration (One Well Insert (S-3352) inside the Mk-42 Insert) will require a Nuclear Safety Study, a major assumption of which will be that the annular dissolver is well-mixed. The ''well-mixed'' assumption was theoretically and experimentally supported for alloy dissolution using the Three Well Insert, but the present situation differs significantly. In the former case, the insert was directly exposed to the agitation induced by air sparging; in the case under consideration, the One Well Insert would be shielded by the Mk-42 Insert. In an effort to determine if the ''nested insert'' approach should be pursued, the past studies and technical literature have been surveyed and an attempt made to predict the extent of mixing and bulk circulation for a ''nested insert'' configuration in the presence of air sparging

  10. In situ air sparging for bioremediation of groundwater and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lord, D.; Lei, J.; Chapdelaine, M.C.; Sansregret, J.L.; Cyr, B.

    1995-01-01

    Activities at a former petroleum products depot resulted in the hydrocarbon contamination of soil and groundwater over a 30,000-m 2 area. Site remediation activities consisted of three phases: site-specific characterization and treatability study, pilot-scale testing, and full-scale bioremediation. During Phase 1, a series of site/soil/waste characterizations was undertaken to ascertain the degree of site contamination and to determine soil physical/chemical and microbiological characteristics. Treatability studies were carried out to simulate an air sparging process in laboratory-scale columns. Results indicated 42% mineral oil and grease removal and 94% benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) removal over an 8-week period. The removal rate was higher in the unsaturated zone than in the saturated zone. Phase 2 involved pilot-scale testing over a 550-m 2 area. The radius of influence of the air sparge points was evaluated through measurements of dissolved oxygen concentrations in the groundwater and of groundwater mounding. A full-scale air sparging system (Phase 3) was installed on site and has been operational since early 1994. Physical/chemical and microbiological parameters, and contaminants were analyzed to evaluate the system performance

  11. Effect of increased groundwater viscosity on the remedial performance of surfactant-enhanced air sparging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Kyeong; Kim, Heonki; Kwon, Hobin; Annable, Michael D.

    2018-03-01

    The effect of groundwater viscosity control on the performance of surfactant-enhanced air sparging (SEAS) was investigated using 1- and 2-dimensional (1-D and 2-D) bench-scale physical models. The viscosity of groundwater was controlled by a thickener, sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC), while an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), was used to control the surface tension of groundwater. When resident DI water was displaced with a SCMC solution (500 mg/L), a SDBS solution (200 mg/L), and a solution with both SCMC (500 mg/L) and SDBS (200 mg/L), the air saturation for sand-packed columns achieved by air sparging increased by 9.5%, 128%, and 154%, respectively, (compared to that of the DI water-saturated column). When the resident water contained SCMC, the minimum air pressure necessary for air sparging processes increased, which is considered to be responsible for the increased air saturation. The extent of the sparging influence zone achieved during the air sparging process using the 2-D model was also affected by viscosity control. Larger sparging influence zones (de-saturated zone due to air injection) were observed for the air sparging processes using the 2-D model initially saturated with high-viscosity solutions, than those without a thickener in the aqueous solution. The enhanced air saturations using SCMC for the 1-D air sparging experiment improved the degradative performance of gaseous oxidation agent (ozone) during air sparging, as measured by the disappearance of fluorescence (fluorescein sodium salt). Based on the experimental evidence generated in this study, the addition of a thickener in the aqueous solution prior to air sparging increased the degree of air saturation and the sparging influence zone, and enhanced the remedial potential of SEAS for contaminated aquifers.

  12. Optimization of air-sparged plutonium oxalate/hydroxide precipitators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanderHeyden, W.B.; Yarbro, S.L.; Fife, K.W.

    1997-04-01

    The high cost of waste management and experimental work makes numerical modeling an inexpensive and attractive tool for optimizing and understanding complex chemical processes. Multiphase open-quotes bubbleclose quotes columns are used extensively at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility for a variety of different applications. No moving parts and efficient mixing characteristics allow them to be used in glovebox operations. Initially, a bubble column for oxalate precipitations is being modeled to identify the effect of various design parameters such as, draft tube location, air sparge rate and vessel geometry. Two-dimensional planar and axisymmetric models have been completed and successfully compared to literature data. Also, a preliminary three-dimensional model has been completed. These results are discussed in this report along with future work

  13. Air sparging/high vacuum extraction to remove chlorinated solvents in groundwater and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelan, J.M.; Gilliat, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    An air sparging and high vacuum extraction was installed as an alternative to a containment pump and treat system to reduce the long-term remediation schedule. The site is located at the DOE Mound facility in Miamisburg, Ohio, just south of Dayton. The air sparging system consists of 23 wells interspersed between 17 soil vapor extraction wells. The SVE system has extracted about 1,500 lbs of VOCs in five months. The air sparging system operated for about 6 weeks before shutdown due to suspected biochemical fouling. Technical data are presented on the operating characteristics of the system

  14. Air Sparging Versus Gas Saturated Water Injection for Remediation of Volatile LNAPL in the Borden Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J.; Nelson, L.; Doughty, C.; Thomson, N.; Lambert, J.

    2009-05-01

    In the shallow, rather homogeneous, unconfined Borden sand aquifer, field trials of air sparging (Tomlinson et al., 2003) and pulsed air sparging (Lambert et al., 2009) have been conducted, the latter to remediate a residual gasoline source emplaced below the water table. As well, a supersaturated (with CO2) water injection (SWI) technology, using the inVentures inFusion system, has been trialed in two phases: 1. in the uncontaminated sand aquifer to evaluate the radius of influence, extent of lateral gas movement and gas saturation below the water table, and 2. in a sheet pile cell in the Borden aquifer to evaluate the recovery of volatile hydrocarbon components (pentane and hexane) of an LNAPL emplaced below the water table (Nelson et al., 2008). The SWI injects water supersaturated with CO2. The supersaturated injected water moves laterally away from the sparge point, releasing CO2 over a wider area than does gas sparging from a single well screen. This presentation compares these two techniques in terms of their potential for remediating volatile NAPL components occurring below the water table in a rather homogeneous sand aquifer. Air sparging created a significantly greater air saturation in the vicinity of the sparge well than did the CO2 system (60 percent versus 16 percent) in the uncontaminated Borden aquifer. However, SWI pushed water, still supersaturated with CO2, up to about 2.5 m from the injection well. This would seem to provide a considerable advantage over air sparging from a point, in that gas bubbles are generated at a much larger radius from the point of injection with SWI and so should involve additional gas pathways through a residual NAPL. Overall, air sparging created a greater area of influence, defined by measurable air saturation in the aquifer, but air sparging also injected about 12 times more gas than was injected in the SWI trials. The pulsed air sparging at Borden (Lambert et al.) removed about 20 percent (4.6 kg) of gasoline

  15. Hydrodynamic effects of air sparging on hollow fiber membranes in a bubble column reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lijun; Law, Adrian Wing-Keung; Fane, Anthony G

    2013-07-01

    Air sparging is now a standard approach to reduce concentration polarization and fouling of membrane modules in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). The hydrodynamic shear stresses, bubble-induced turbulence and cross flows scour the membrane surfaces and help reduce the deposit of foulants onto the membrane surface. However, the detailed quantitative knowledge on the effect of air sparging remains lacking in the literature due to the complex hydrodynamics generated by the gas-liquid flows. To date, there is no valid model that describes the relationship between the membrane fouling performance and the flow hydrodynamics. The present study aims to examine the impact of hydrodynamics induced by air sparging on the membrane fouling mitigation in a quantitative manner. A modelled hollow fiber module was placed in a cylindrical bubble column reactor at different axial heights with the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) monitored under constant flux conditions. The configuration of bubble column without the membrane module immersed was identical to that studied by Gan et al. (2011) using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA), to ensure a good quantitative understanding of turbulent flow conditions along the column height. The experimental results showed that the meandering flow regime which exhibits high flow instability at the 0.3 m is more beneficial to fouling alleviation compared with the steady flow circulation regime at the 0.6 m. The filtration tests also confirmed the existence of an optimal superficial air velocity beyond which a further increase is of no significant benefit on the membrane fouling reduction. In addition, the alternate aeration provided by two air stones mounted at the opposite end of the diameter of the bubble column was also studied to investigate the associated flow dynamics and its influence on the membrane filtration performance. It was found that with a proper switching interval and membrane module orientation, the membrane fouling can be effectively

  16. Applying short-duration pulses as a mean to enhance volatile organic compounds removal by air sparging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Neriah, Asaf; Paster, Amir

    2017-10-01

    Application of short-duration pulses of high air pressure, to an air sparging system for groundwater remediation, was tested in a two-dimensional laboratory setup. It was hypothesized that this injection mode, termed boxcar, can enhance the remediation efficiency due to the larger ZOI and enhanced mixing which results from the pressure pulses. To test this hypothesis, flow and transport experiments were performed. Results confirm that cyclically applying short-duration pressure pulses may enhance contaminant cleanup. Comparing the boxcar to conventional continuous air-injection shows up to a three-fold increase in the single well radius of influence, dependent on the intensity of the short-duration pressure-pulses. The cleanup efficiency of Toluene from the water was 95% higher than that achieved under continuous injection with the same average conditions. This improvement was attributed to the larger zone of influence and higher average air permeability achieved in the boxcar mode, relative to continuous sparging. Mixing enhancement resultant from recurring pressure pulses was suggested as one of the mechanisms which enhance the contaminant cleanup. The application of a boxcar mode in an existing, multiwell, air sparging setup can be relatively straightforward: it requires the installation of an on-off valve in each of the injection-wells and a central control system. Then, turning off some of the wells, for a short-duration, result in a stepwise increase in injection pressure in the rest of the wells. It is hoped that this work will stimulate the additional required research and ultimately a field scale application of this new injection mode. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. In situ treatment of arsenic-contaminated groundwater by air sparging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsting, Joseph H; McBean, Edward A

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a major problem in some areas of the world, particularly in West Bengal (India) and Bangladesh where it is caused by reducing conditions in the aquifer. In situ treatment, if it can be proven as operationally feasible, has the potential to capture some advantages over other treatment methods by being fairly simple, not using chemicals, and not necessitating disposal of arsenic-rich wastes. In this study, the potential for in situ treatment by injection of compressed air directly into the aquifer (i.e. air sparging) is assessed. An experimental apparatus was constructed to simulate conditions of arsenic-rich groundwater under anaerobic conditions, and in situ treatment by air sparging was employed. Arsenic (up to 200 μg/L) was removed to a maximum of 79% (at a local point in the apparatus) using a solution with dissolved iron and arsenic only. A static "jar" test revealed arsenic removal by co-precipitation with iron at a molar ratio of approximately 2 (iron/arsenic). This is encouraging since groundwater with relatively high amounts of dissolved iron (as compared to arsenic) therefore has a large theoretical treatment capacity for arsenic. Iron oxidation was significantly retarded at pH values below neutral. In terms of operation, analysis of experimental results shows that periodic air sparging may be feasible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Air sparging as a supporting measure to redevelopment of a LCFC-contaminated industrial site; Air-Sparging als begleitende Sanierungsmassnahme an einem LCKW-kontaminierten Industriestandort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breh, W.; Suttheimer, J. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Angewandte Geologie; Holub, B. [G.U.T Linz (Austria)

    1998-12-31

    On a company ground in Vorchdorf, Austria, from the 23{sup rd} to 26{sup th} of July 1996 an air-sparging experiment has been carried out as a supporting measure to a running redevelopment of an LCKW-contamination case. On this occasion compressed air, from which the oil had been extracted, was blown into the contaminated aquifer through a well with a maximum excess pressure of 0,6 MPa. The blowing-in of compressed air caused a mobilisation of the harmful substances in the ground water and the soil air. As a result circa 2,7 kg LCKW could be removed from the underground through neighbouring ground water and soil air wells. For the observed period of time this meant a tripling of the rate of discharge. On the basis of the obtained data we suggested a routine interval of blowing in compressed air into the well 1516. A blowing-in of compressed air into the highly contaminated wells 1617 and 1625 can not be realised until the construction of upstream situated injection wells, because of the danger of an uncontrollable spread of the harmful substances. (orig.) [Deutsch] Auf einem Firmengelaende in Vorchdorf, Oesterreich, wurde vom 23.07. bis 26.07.1996 ein Air-Sparging-Versuch als unterstuetzende Massnahme zur laufenden hydraulisch-pneumatischen Sanierung eines LCKW-Schadensfalles durchgefuehrt. Hierbei wurde entoelte Druckluft ueber einen Brunnen mit einem maximalen Ueberdruck von 600 mbar in den kontaminierten Aquifer eingeblasen. Die Drucklufteinblasung fuehrte zu einer Mobilisierung von Schadstoffen im Grundwasser und in der Bodenluft, so dass ueber benachbarte Grundwasser- und Bodenluftfoerderbrunnen ca. 2,7 kg LCKW aus dem Untergrund entfernt werden konnten. Fuer den Beobachtungszeitraum bedeutet dies eine Verdreifachung des Schadstoffaustrags. Aufgrund der gewonnenen Daten wird ein routinemaessiger Intervallbetrieb der Drucklufteinblasung in einen der Brunnen vorgeschlagen. Fuer zwei kontaminierte Brunnen ist eine Drucklufteinblasung wegen der Gefahr einer

  19. Cultivation of Chlorella Vulgaris Using Airlift Photobioreactor Sparged with 5%CO 2 -Air as a Biofixing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Khazzal Hummadi AL-Mashhadani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris microalgae using airlift photobioreactor that sparged with 5% CO 2 /air. The experimental data were compared with that obtained from bioreactor aerated with air and unsparged bioreactor. The results showed that the concentration of biomass is 0.36 g l -1 in sparged bioreactor with CO2/air, while, the concentration of biomass reached to 0.069 g l -1 in the unsparged bioreactor. They showed also that aerated ioreactor.with CO2/air gives more biomass production even the bioreactor was aerated with air. This study proved that application of sparging system for ultivation of Chlorella vulgaris microalgae using either CO2/air mixture or air has a significant growth rate, since the bioreactors become more thermodynamically favorable and provide impetus for a higher level of production. biofixing process

  20. The application of in situ air sparging as an innovative soils and ground water remediation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marley, M.C.; Hazebrouck, D.J.; Walsh, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    Vapor extraction (soil venting) has been demonstrated to be a successful and cost-effective remediation technology for removing VOCs from the vadose (unsaturated) zone. However, in many cases, seasonal water table fluctuations, drawdown associated with pump-and-treat remediation techniques, and spills involving dense, non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLS) create contaminated soil below the water table. Vapor extraction alone is not considered to be an optimal remediation technology to address this type of contamination. An innovative approach to saturated zone remediation is the use of sparging (injection) wells to inject a hydrocarbon-free gaseous medium (typically air) into the saturated zone below the areas of contamination. The contaminants dissolved in the ground water and sorbed onto soil particles partition into the advective air phase, effectively simulating an in situ air-stripping system. The stripped contaminants are transported in the gas phase to the vadose zone, within the radius of influence of a vapor extraction and vapor treatment system. In situ air sparging is a complex multifluid phase process, which has been applied successfully in Europe since the mid-1980s. To date, site-specific pilot tests have been used to design air-sparging systems. Research is currently underway to develop better engineering design methodologies for the process. Major design parameters to be considered include contaminant type, gas injection pressures and flow rates, site geology, bubble size, injection interval (areal and vertical) and the equipment specifications. Correct design and operation of this technology has been demonstrated to achieve ground water cleanup of VOC contamination to low part-per-billion levels

  1. A field-scale demonstration of air sparging to remediate tritiated fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.E.; Gillespie, D.R.; Hokett, S.L.; Donithan, J.D.

    1996-09-01

    Two pilot field-scale studies were conducted during the period of May 24 to July 22, 1996, to evaluate the potential of air sparging to remediate tritiated fluids. Previous analytical solutions to the rate of tritium removal were evaluated and compared to the experimental results. The analytical solution of Craig and Gordon that describes isotopic fractionation of an evaporating body of water appears to most accurately describe the process, versus the more limited isotopic exchange equation of Slattery and Ingraham and the mass transfer equation of Wilson and Fordham, which are accurate only at moderate to high humidities and do not describe the tritium enrichment process that would occur at low humidities. The results of the two experiments demonstrated that air sparging of tritium is a viable process in the field. Tritium removal rates of 60 percent were reported during the first experiment and 66 percent for the second experiment. Comparison to previous laboratory work revealed that rates could have been improved by starting with higher concentrations, utilizing smaller bubbles, and longer bubble path lengths. Risks associated with the pilot study were greater the closer one worked to the experiment with a maximum increase in the Lifetime Excess Total Risk per Unit Uptake of 2.4 x 10 -5 . Conduct of this experiment at locations with much higher activities of tritium would significantly increase the associated risk

  2. Air sparging for subsurface remediation: Numerical analysis using T2VOC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCray, J.E.; Falta, R.W. [Clemson Univ. SC (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Air sparging is under active investigation as a promising remediation technology for aquifers contaminated with folatile organic dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). A theoretical study for the removal of DNAPLs from the subsurface using this technology is presented. T2VOC is used to conduct multiphase numerical simulations of DNAPL removal utilizing a model aquifer with a radially-symmetric geometry. Both homogeneous and macroscale heterogeneous systems are considered. These simulations suggest that DNAPLs are efficiently removed in a zone of contaminant cleanup at relatively low gas saturations within the injected air plume. The zone of effective removal may be referred to as the radius of influence (ROI). The sparging-induced pressure increase below the water table, which may be measured in the field, is recommended as the best method for determining the ROI. Multiphase numerical simulations are used to support this recommendation, to relate the injected gas ROI to the zone of NAPL cleanup, and to illustrate the transient and steady-state aquifer behavior.

  3. Enhancement of the microbial community biomass and diversity during air sparging bioremediation of a soil highly contaminated with kerosene and BTEX

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kabelitz, N.; Macháčková, I.; Imfeld, G.; Brennerová, Mária; Pieper, D. H.; Heipieper, H. J.; Junca, H.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 82, - (2009), s. 565-577 ISSN 0175-7598 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : btex * air sparging * bioremediation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.896, year: 2009

  4. Field Application of Modified In Situ Soil Flushing in Combination with Air Sparging at a Military Site Polluted by Diesel and Gasoline in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwan; Lee, Yoonjin; Kim, Jaeyoung; Kim, Choltae

    2014-01-01

    In this study the full-scale operation of soil flushing with air sparging to improve the removal efficiency of petroleum at depths of less than 7 m at a military site in Korea was evaluated. The target area was polluted by multiple gasoline and diesel fuel sources. The soil was composed of heterogeneous layers of granules, sand, silt and clay. The operation factors were systemically assessed using a column test and a pilot study before running the full-scale process at the site. The discharged TPH and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) concentrations in the water were highest at 20 min and at a rate of 350 L/min, which was selected as the volume of air for the full-scale operation in the pilot air sparging test. The surfactant-aid condition was 1.4 times more efficient than the non-surfactant condition in the serial operations of modified soil flushing followed by air sparging. The hydraulic conductivity (3.13 × 10−3 cm/s) increased 4.7 times after the serial operation of both processes relative to the existing condition (6.61 × 10−4 cm/s). The removal efficiencies of TPH were 52.8%, 57.4%, and 61.8% for the soil layers at 6 to 7, 7 to 8 and 8 to 9 m, respectively. Therefore, the TPH removal was improved at depth of less than 7 m by using this modified remediation system. The removal efficiencies for the areas with TPH and BTEX concentrations of more than 500 and 80 mg/kg, were 55.5% and 92.9%, respectively, at a pore volume of 2.9. The total TPH and BTEX mass removed during the full-scale operation was 5109 and 752 kg, respectively. PMID:25166919

  5. Aerosol entrainment from a sparged non-Newtonian slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, Brad G.

    2006-01-01

    Aerosol measurements were conducted above a half-scale air sparged mixing tank filled with simulated waste slurry. Three aerosol size fractions were measured at three sampling heights at three different sparging rates using a filter based ambient air sampling technique. Aerosol concentrations in the head space above the closed tank demonstrated a wide range, varying between 97 ?g m-3 for PM2.5 and 5650 ?g m-3 for TSP. The variation in concentrations was a function of sampling heights, size fraction and sparging rate. Measured aerosol entrainment coefficients showed good agreement with existing entrainment models. The models evaluated generally over predicted the entrainment, but were within a factor of two of the measured entrainment. This indicates that the range of applicability of the models may be extendable to include sparged slurries with Bingham plastic rheological properties

  6. TREATMENT OF CYANIDE SOLUTIONS AND SLURRIES USING AIR-SPARGED HYDROCYCLONE (ASH) TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan D. Miller; Terrence Chatwin; Jan Hupka; Doug Halbe; Tao Jiang; Bartosz Dabrowski; Lukasz Hupka

    2003-03-31

    The two-year Department of Energy (DOE) project ''Treatment of Cyanide Solutions and Slurries Using Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone (ASH) Technology'' (ASH/CN) has been completed. This project was also sponsored by industrial partners, ZPM Inc., Elbow Creek Engineering, Solvay Minerals, EIMCO-Baker Process, Newmont Mining Corporation, Cherokee Chemical Co., Placer Dome Inc., Earthworks Technology, Dawson Laboratories and Kennecott Minerals. Development of a new technology using the air-sparged hydrocyclone (ASH) as a reactor for either cyanide recovery or destruction was the research objective. It was expected that the ASH could potentially replace the conventional stripping tower presently used for HCN stripping and absorption with reduced power costs. The project was carried out in two phases. The first phase included calculation of basic processing parameters for ASH technology, development of the flowsheet, and design/adaptation of the ASH mobile system for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) recovery from cyanide solutions. This was necessary because the ASH was previously used for volatile organics removal from contaminated water. The design and modification of the ASH were performed with the help from ZPM Inc. personnel. Among the modifications, the system was adapted for operation under negative pressure to assure safe operating conditions. The research staff was trained in the safe use of cyanide and in hazardous material regulations. Cyanide chemistry was reviewed resulting in identification of proper chemical dosages for cyanide destruction, after completion of each pilot plant run. The second phase of the research consisted of three field tests that were performed at the Newmont Mining Corporation gold cyanidation plant near Midas, Nevada. The first field test was run between July 26 and August 2, 2002, and the objective was to demonstrate continuous operation of the modified ASH mobile system. ASH units were applied for both stripping and absorption

  7. Structure of two-phase adiabatic flow in air sparging regime in vertical cylindrical channel with water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Solonin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a research of two-phase adiabatic flow in air sparging regime in vertical cylindrical channel filled with water. A purpose of the work is to obtain experimental data for further analysis of a character of the moving phases. Research activities used the optic methods PIV (Particle Image Visualization because of their noninvasiveness to obtain data without disturbing effect on the flow. A laser sheet illuminated the fluorescence particles, which were admixed in water along the channel length. A digital camera recorded their motion for a certain time interval that allowed building the velocity vector fields. As a result, gas phase velocity components typical for a steady area of the channel and their relations for various intensity of volume air rate were obtained. A character of motion both for an air bubble and for its surrounding liquid has been conducted. The most probable direction of phases moving in the channel under sparging regime is obtained by building the statistic scalar fields. The use of image processing enabled an analysis of the initial area of the air inlet into liquid. A characteristic curve of the bubbles offset from the axis for various intensity of volume gas rate and channel diameter is defined. A character of moving phases is obtained by building the statistic scalar fields. The values of vertical components of liquid velocity in the inlet part of channel are calculated. Using the obtained data of the gas phase velocities a true void fraction was calculated. It was compared with the values of void fraction, calculated according to the liquid level change in the channel. Obtained velocities were compared with those of the other researchers, and a small difference in their values was explained by experimental conditions. The article is one of the works to research the two-phase flows with no disturbing effect on them. Obtained data allow us to understand a character of moving the two-phase flows in

  8. Demonstrating practical application of soil and groundwater clean-up and recovery technologies at natural gas processing facilities: Bioventing, air sparging and wetlands remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, B.

    1996-01-01

    This issue of the project newsletter described the nature of bioventing, air sparging and wetland remediation. It reviewed their effectiveness in remediating hydrocarbon contaminated soil above the groundwater surface. Bioventing was described as an effective, low cost treatment in which air is pumped below ground to stimulate indigenous bacteria. The bacteria then use the oxygen to consume the hydrocarbons, converting them to CO 2 and water. Air sparging involves the injection of air below the groundwater surface. As the air rises, hydrocarbons are stripped from the contaminated soil and water. The advantage of air sparging is that it cleans contaminated soil and water from below the groundwater surface. Hydrocarbon contamination of wetlands was described as fairly common. Conventional remediation methods of excavation, trenching, and bellholes to remove contamination often cause extreme harm to the ecosystem. Recent experimental evidence suggests that wetlands may be capable of attenuating contaminated water through natural processes. Four hydrocarbon contaminated wetlands in Alberta are currently under study. Results to date show that peat's high organic content promotes sorption and biodegradation and that some crude oil spills can been resolved by natural processes. It was suggested that assuming peat is present, a good clean-up approach may be to contain the contaminant source, monitor the lateral and vertical extent of contamination, and wait for natural processes to resolve the problem. 3 figs

  9. Increase in volatilization of organic compounds using air sparging through addition in alcohol in a soil-water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Huan-Ping; Hsieh, Lin-Han Chiang; Tran, Hai Nguyen

    2018-02-15

    This study developed a novel method to promote the remediation efficiency of air sparging. According to the enhanced-volatilization theory presented in this study, selected alcohols added to groundwater can highly enhance the volatilization amounts of organic compounds with high Henry's law constants. In this study, the target organic compounds consisted of n-hexane, n-heptane, benzene, toluene, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, and tetrachloroethene. n-pentanol, n-hexanol, and n-heptanol were used to examine the changes in the volatilization amounts of organic compounds in the given period. Two types of soils with high and low organic matter were applied to evaluate the transport of organic compounds in the soil-water system. The volatilization amounts of the organic compounds increased with increasing alcohol concentrations. The volatilization amounts of the test organic compounds exhibited a decreasing order: n-heptanol>n-hexanol>n-pentanol. When 10mg/L n-heptanol was added to the system, the maximum volatilization enhancement rate was 18-fold higher than that in distilled water. Samples of soil with high organic matter might reduce the volatilization amounts by a factor of 5-10. In the present study, the optimal removal efficiency for aromatic compounds was approximately 98%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction for the 105-KW Basin integrated water treatment system filter vessel sparging vent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamberg, L.D.

    1998-02-23

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, for the Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) Filter Vessel Sparging Vent at 105-KW Basin. Additionally, the following description, and references are provided as the notices of startup, pursuant to 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1) and (2) in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. The 105-K West Reactor and its associated spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage basin were constructed in the early 1950s and are located on the Hanford Site in the 100-K Area about 1,400 feet from the Columbia River. The 105-KW Basin contains 964 Metric Tons of SNF stored under water in approximately 3,800 closed canisters. This SNF has been stored for varying periods of time ranging from 8 to 17 years. The 105-KW Basin is constructed of concrete with an epoxy coating and contains approximately 1.3 million gallons of water with an asphaltic membrane beneath the pool. The IWTS, which has been described in the Radioactive Air Emissions NOC for Fuel Removal for 105-KW Basin (DOE/RL-97-28 and page changes per US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office letter 97-EAP-814) will be used to remove radionuclides from the basin water during fuel removal operations. The purpose of the modification described herein is to provide operational flexibility for the IWTS at the 105-KW basin. The proposed modification is scheduled to begin in calendar year 1998.

  11. Remedial Process Optimization and Green In-Situ Ozone Sparging for Treatment of Groundwater Impacted with Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, J.

    2012-12-01

    A former natural gas processing station is impacted with TPH and BTEX in groundwater. Air sparging and soil vapor extraction (AS/AVE) remediation systems had previously been operated at the site. Currently, a groundwater extraction and treatment system is operated to remove the chemicals of concern (COC) and contain the groundwater plume from migrating offsite. A remedial process optimization (RPO) was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of historic and current remedial activities and recommend an approach to optimize the remedial activities. The RPO concluded that both the AS/SVE system and the groundwater extraction system have reached the practical limits of COC mass removal and COC concentration reduction. The RPO recommended an in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) study to evaluate the best ISCO oxidant and approach. An ISCO bench test was conducted to evaluate COC removal efficiency and secondary impacts to recommend an application dosage. Ozone was selected among four oxidants based on implementability, effectiveness, safety, and media impacts. The bench test concluded that ozone demand was 8 to 12 mg ozone/mg TPH and secondary groundwater by-products of ISCO include hexavalent chromium and bromate. The pH also increased moderately during ozone sparging and the TDS increased by approximately 20% after 48 hours of ozone treatment. Prior to the ISCO pilot study, a capture zone analysis (CZA) was conducted to ensure containment of the injected oxidant within the existing groundwater extraction system. The CZA was conducted through a groundwater flow modeling using MODFLOW. The model indicated that 85%, 90%, and 95% of an injected oxidant could be captured when a well pair is injecting and extracting at 2, 5, and 10 gallons per minute, respectively. An ISCO pilot test using ozone was conducted to evaluate operation parameters for ozone delivery. The ozone sparging system consisted of an ozone generator capable of delivering 6 lbs/day ozone through two ozone

  12. A case study on the application of air sparging with vapor extraction at a gasoline spill site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marley, M.C.; Walsh, M.T.; Nangeroni, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in 1985, remedial activities were implemented at a gasoline spill site in Pawtucket, Rhode Island. The engineering company that contracted to perform the remedial activities designed, installed, and operated a free gasoline product recovery system and a groundwater pump and treat system. An air striping tower was utilized to remove volatile organic hydrocarbons (VOCs) dissolved in the groundwater. Gasoline hydrocarbon vapor migration into nearby basements was controlled through the operation of a soil gas venting system (SGVS), also installed in 1985. The groundwater treatment and free product recovery systems were shut off in may 1987; however, the soil venting system remained in operation and additional vacuum wells were installed to remediate gasoline contaminated vadose zone soils and to recover hydrocarbon vapors in the vicinity of the spill location

  13. Extended Aquifer Air Sparging/Soil Vapor Extraction Treatability Study for Site SS59 (WP-21) Dover Air Force Base, Dover, Delaware

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    Site 5559 at Dover Air Force Base, Delaware is under investigation for the remediation of ground water which was contaminated by a system of industrial waste basins operated to the north of this area...

  14. Full-scale testing and early production results from horizontal air sparging and soil vapor extraction wells remediating jet fuel in soil and groundwater at JFK International Airport, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, R.J.; Bianco, P.; Pressly, N.C.

    1996-01-01

    Jet fuel contaminated soil and groundwater contaminated at the International Arrivals Building (IAB) of the JFK International Airport in Jamaica, New York, are being remediated using soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air sparging (AS). The areal extent of the contaminated soil is estimated to be 70 acres and the volume of contaminated groundwater is estimated to be 2.3 million gallons. The remediation uses approximately 13,000 feet of horizontal SVE (HSVE) wells and 7,000 feet of horizontal AS (HAS) wells. The design of the HSVE and HAS wells was based on a pilot study followed by a full-scale test. In addition to the horizontal wells, 28 vertical AS wells and 15 vertical SVE wells are used. Three areas are being remediated, thus, three separate treatment systems have been installed. The SVE and AS wells are operated continuously while groundwater will be intermittently extracted at each HAS well, treated by liquid phase activated carbon and discharged into stormwater collection sewerage. Vapors extracted by the SVE wells are treated by vapor phase activated carbon and discharged into ambient air. The duration of the remediation is anticipated to be between two and three years before soil and groundwater are remediated to New York State cleanup criteria for the site. Based on the monitoring data for the first two months of operation, approximately 14,600 lbs. of vapor phase VOCs have been extracted. Analyses show that the majority of the VOCs are branched alkanes, branched alkenes, cyclohexane and methylated cyclohexanes

  15. The use of sparge curtains for contaminant plume control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnaa, B.; Dablow, J.

    1994-01-01

    Contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons and organic solvents represents a major impact to soil and groundwater. Following recent research and development, several technologies have evolved to treat saturated zone adsorbed- and dissolved-phase contaminants in situ. These technologies include bioremediation and air sparging. Funnel and gate approaches have been developed at the Waterloo Center for Groundwater Research to control contaminant plume migration and treat dissolved-phase contaminants before allowing migration downgradient and off site. The process consists of using low hydraulic conductivity cutoff walls to funnel groundwater flow through gates that contain in situ bioreactors. These systems can maintain hydraulic control and treat dissolved-phase contaminants at the downgradient margins of plumes, while minimizing, or in some cases eliminating, the need for groundwater pumping. Sparge curtains can be applied to treat dissolved-phase contaminants and prevent downgradient, off-site migration of contaminated groundwater

  16. Aerosol entrainment from a sparged non-Newtonian slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Brad G

    2006-08-01

    Previous bench-scale experiments have provided data necessary for the development of empirical models that describe aerosol entrainment from bubble bursting. However, previous work has not been extended to non-Newtonian liquid slurries. Design of a waste treatment plant on the Hanford Site in Washington required an evaluation of the applicability of these models outside of their intended range. For this evaluation, aerosol measurements were conducted above an air-sparged mixing tank filled with simulated waste slurry possessing Bingham plastic rheological properties. Three aerosol-size fractions were measured at three sampling heights and for three different sparging rates. The measured entrainment was compared with entrainment models. One model developed based on bench-scale air-water experiments agreed well with measured entrainment. Another model did not agree well with the measured entrainment. It appeared that the source of discrepancy between measured and modeled entrainment stemmed from application beyond the range of data used to develop the model. A possible separation in entrainment coefficients between air-water and steam-water systems was identified. A third entrainment model was adapted to match experimental conditions and fit a posteri to the experimental data, resulting in a modified version that resulted in estimated entrainment rates similar to the first model.

  17. Liquid entrainment through orifices by sparging gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, J.M.; Malara, M.; Amblard, M.; Seiler, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Corium Coolability by water flood during an MCCI (Molten Corium Concrete Interaction) is still an open problem. Several physical mechanisms have been identified which may reduce significantly and finally stop the ablation of concrete. Among these mechanisms, corium ejection by sparging gas into the overlying water may represent an important contribution. This mechanism was at the origin of a large and coolable debris bed and volcano formation in the MACE M3B test. This mechanism has also been observed in simulant material tests performed at UCSB and at FZK. The objective of the work, which is described in the present paper, is to model this mechanism and to quantify the liquid entrainment rate by sparging gas. (author)

  18. Three-dimensional calculation of pollutant migration via compressible two-phase flow, for analysis of the methods of in situ air sparging and soil vapor extraction; Raeumliche Berechnung des Schadstofftransportes mit einer kompressiblen Zweiphasenstroemung zur Untersuchung der Drucklufteinblasung und Bodenluftabsaugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuepper, S.

    1997-12-01

    In this study an analysis method is presented which allows numerical simulation of in situ air sparging coupled with soil vapor extraction. The improved FE-program takes the following phenomena into account: - Two-phase flow of compressible air and incompressible water - convective-dispersive contamination migration with air and water - transfer of volatile components from liquid phase to gas and water phase - sorption of contaminants onto soil - transfer of contaminants between air and water phase - biological processes. By means of back calculations of the results of laboratory experiments made by Eisele (1989) it was shown that with the developed program GWLCOND some of the necessary parameters for the numerical simulation of remedial systems can be determined. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] In dieser Arbeit wird ein Verfahren vorgestellt, mit dem eine numerische Simulation der Drucklufteinblasung und Bodenluftabsaugung durchgefuehrt werden kann. Das weiterentwickelte FE-Programmsystem beinhaltet folgende Ablaeufe: - Zweiphasenstroemung der kompressiblen Luft- und der inkompressiblen Wasserphase - Konvektiv-dispersiver Schadstofftransport mit der Gas- und der Wasserphase - Uebergang fluessiger Schadstoffe in die Gas- und in die Wasserphase - Sorption der Schadstoffe an der Feststoffphase - Uebergang der Schadstoffe zwischen der Gas- und der Wasserphase - Biologischer Abbau. Anhand der Nachrechnung eines Laborversuches von Eisele (1989) wird gezeigt, wie mit dem entwickelten Transportprogramm GWLCOND ein Teil der fuer die numerische Simulation des Sanierungsverfahrens benoetigten Kennwerte ermittelt werden kann. (orig./SR)

  19. Evaluation of air cleaning technologies existing in the Danish market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2014-01-01

    Five portable air cleaning technologies including one new technology were evaluated to find their effectiveness in removing ultrafine particles. Measurements were carried out both in a duct and in a test room. The results showed that the technologies that use/create ozone to clean air can increase...... the ozone level significantly in the room. Moreover, they can cause generation of ultrafine particles and consequently increase ultrafine particle concentration in the room. The study suggests using a mechanical filter with low pressure drop as a recommended air cleaning technology in order to remove...

  20. Measuring Outdoor Air Intake Rates into Existing Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William; Sullivan, Douglas; Cohen, Sebastian; Han, Hwataik

    2009-04-16

    Practical and accurate technologies are needed for continuously measuring and controlling outdoor air (OA) intake rates in commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. This project evaluated two new measurement approaches. Laboratory experiments determined that OA flow rates were measurable with errors generally less than 10 percent using electronic air velocity probes installed between OA intake louver blades or at the outlet face of louvers. High accuracy was maintained with OA flow rates as low as 15 percent of the maximum for the louvers. Thus, with this measurement approach HVAC systems do not need separate OA intakes for minimum OA supply. System calibration parameters are required for each unique combination of louver type and velocity sensor location but calibrations are not necessary for each system installation. The research also determined that the accuracy of measuring OA flow rates with velocity probes located in the duct downstream of the intake louver was not improved by installing honeycomb airflow straighteners upstream of the probes. Errors varied with type of upstream louver, were as high as 100 percent, and were often greater than 25 percent. In conclusion, use of electronic air velocity probes between the blades of OA intake louvers or at the outlet face of louvers is a highly promising means of accurately measuring rates of OA flow into HVAC systems. The use of electronic velocity probes downstream of airflow straighteners is less promising, at least with the relatively small OA HVAC inlet systems employed in this research.

  1. Supersaturation of dissolved H(2) and CO (2) during fermentative hydrogen production with N(2) sparging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Jeremy T; Bagley, David M

    2006-09-01

    Dissolved H(2) and CO(2) were measured by an improved manual headspace-gas chromatographic method during fermentative H(2) production with N(2) sparging. Sparging increased the yield from 1.3 to 1.8 mol H(2)/mol glucose converted, although H(2) and CO(2) were still supersaturated regardless of sparging. The common assumption that sparging increases the H(2) yield because of lower dissolved H(2) concentrations may be incorrect, because H(2) was not lowered into the range necessary to affect the relevant enzymes. More likely, N(2) sparging decreased the rate of H(2) consumption via lower substrate concentrations.

  2. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Soil Vapor Extraction & Air Sparging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historically, approximately one-quarter of Superfund source control projects have involved soil vapor extraction (SVE) to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) sorbed to soil in the unsaturated (vadose) zone.

  3. Sustainable operation of submerged Anammox membrane bioreactor with recycling biogas sparging for alleviating membrane fouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziyin; Xu, Xindi; Xu, Xiaochen; Yang, FengLin; Zhang, ShuShen

    2015-12-01

    A submerged anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (Anammox) membrane bioreactor with recycling biogas sparging for alleviating membrane fouling has been successfully operated for 100d. Based on the batch tests, a recycling biogas sparging rate at 0.2m(3)h(-1) was fixed as an ultimate value for the sustainable operation. The mixed liquor volatile suspended solid (VSS) of the inoculum for the long operation was around 3000mgL(-1). With recycling biogas sparging rate increasing stepwise from 0 to 0.2m(3)h(-1), the reactor reached an influent total nitrogen (TN) up to 1.7gL(-1), a stable TN removal efficiency of 83% and a maximum specific Anammox activity (SAA) of 0.56kg TNkg(-1) VSSd(-1). With recycling biogas sparging rate at 0.2 m(3) h(-1) (corresponding to an aeration intensity of 118m(3)m(-2)h(-1)), the membrane operation circle could prolong by around 20 times compared to that without gas sparging. Furthermore, mechanism of membrane fouling was proposed. And with recycling biogas sparging, the VSS and EPS content increasing rate in cake layer were far less than the ones without biogas sparging. The TN removal performance and sustainable membrane operation of this system showed the appealing potential of the submerged Anammox MBR with recycling biogas sparging in treating high-strength nitrogen-containing wastewaters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Alternative for Summer Use of Solar Air Heaters in Existing Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio L. González-González

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Among solar thermal technologies for indoor heating, solar air heaters (SAH are appealing for implementation on existing buildings due to their simplicity, fewer risks related to the working fluid, and possible independence from the building structure. However, existing research work mainly focuses on winter use and still fails in providing effective solutions for yearly operation, which would enhance their interest. With the aim of analysing an alternative summer use, this work firstly characterises a double channel-single pass solar air collector through experimentation. From the obtained results, modelling and simulation tasks have been conducted to evaluate the possibilities of using hot air, provided by the SAH, while operating under summer conditions within a closed loop, to feed an air-to-water heat exchanger for domestic hot water (DHW production. The system is studied through simulation under two different configurations for a case study in Valladolid (Spain, during the period from May to September for different airflows in the closed loop. Results show that daily savings can vary from 27% to 85% among the different operating conditions; a configuration where make-up water is fed to the heat exchanger being preferable, with a dedicated water tank for the solar heated water storage of the minimum possible volume. The more favourable results for the harshest months highlight the interest of extending the use of the solar air heaters to the summer period.

  5. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single-Family Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, James [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Withers, Charles [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, Eric [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Moyer, Neil [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This report is a revision of an earlier report titled: Measure Guideline: Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single-Family Homes. Revisions include: Information in the text box on page 1 was revised to reflect the most accurate information regarding classifications as referenced in the 2012 International Residential Code. “Measure Guideline” was dropped from the title of the report. An addition was made to the reference list.

  6. Optimisation and design of nitrogen-sparged fermentative hydrogen production bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, Jeremy T. [CH2M HILL, 255 Consumers Road, Suite 300, Toronto, Ontario, M2J 5B6 (Canada); Bagley, David M. [Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, University of Wyoming, 1000 E. University Avenue, Department 3295, Laramie, Wyoming 82071 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    The optimisation of nitrogen sparging during fermentative hydrogen production was investigated. A N{sub 2} sparging rate of 12 mL/min/L-liquid was observed to maximise the H{sub 2} yield at approximately 2 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose converted, compared to an H{sub 2} yield of approximately 1 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose converted without any sparging. There was no significant increase in H{sub 2} yield at sparging rates of 12-80 mL/min/L-liquid. The optimum sparging rate was lower than N{sub 2} sparging rates examined in the past (>20 mL/min/L-liquid). To facilitate improved scale-up, the overall volumetric mass-transfer coefficients (K{sub L}a) for H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} were measured and the relationship between the dimensionless Sherwood and Froude numbers was determined. The optimal sparging rate occurred at a K{sub L}a value of 5.0 h{sup -1} for H{sub 2}, corresponding to a Sherwood number of 4800. By holding the Sherwood number constant upon scale-up, the full-scale K{sub L}a can be determined and the appropriate sparging rate can be determined from the corresponding Froude number. The benefits of operating at the optimum sparging rate, including minimising product hydrogen gas dilution and energy use, can thus be achieved in larger-scale systems. (author)

  7. Planar air-bearing microgravity simulators: Review of applications, existing solutions and design parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybus, Tomasz; Seweryn, Karol

    2016-03-01

    All devices designed to be used in space must be thoroughly tested in relevant conditions. For several classes of devices the reduced gravity conditions are the key factor. In early stages of development and later due to financial reasons, the tests need to be done on Earth. However, in Earth conditions it is impossible to obtain a different gravity field independent on all linear and rotational spatial coordinates. Therefore, various test-bed systems are used, with their design driven by the device's specific needs. One of such test-beds are planar air-bearing microgravity simulators. In such an approach, the tested objects (e.g., manipulators intended for on-orbit operations or vehicles simulating satellites in a close formation flight) are mounted on planar air-bearings that allow almost frictionless motion on a flat surface, thus simulating microgravity conditions in two dimensions. In this paper we present a comprehensive review of research activities related to planar air-bearing microgravity simulators, demonstrating achievements of the most active research groups and describing newest trends and ideas, such as tests of landing gears for low-g bodies. Major design parameters of air-bearing test-beds are also reviewed and a list of notable existing test-beds is presented.

  8. CO2 Sparging Phase 3 Full Scale Implementation and Monitoring Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    In-situ carbon dioxide (CO2) sparging was designed and implemented to treat a subsurface causticbrine pool (CBP) formed as a result of releases from historical production of industrial chemicals at theLCP Chemicals Site, Brunswick, GA (Site).

  9. Remediation of Chlorinated Solvent Plumes Using In-Situ Air Sparging—A 2-D Laboratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A. Adams

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In-situ air sparging has evolved as an innovative technique for soil and groundwater remediation impacted with volatile organic compounds (VOCs, including chlorinated solvents. These may exist as non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL or dissolved in groundwater. This study assessed: (1 how air injection rate affects the mass removal of dissolved phase contamination, (2 the effect of induced groundwater flow on mass removal and air distribution during air injection, and (3 the effect of initial contaminant concentration on mass removal. Dissolved-phase chlorinated solvents can be effectively removed through the use of air sparging; however, rapid initial rates of contaminant removal are followed by a protracted period of lower removal rates, or a tailing effect. As the air flow rate increases, the rate of contaminant removal also increases, especially during the initial stages of air injection. Increased air injection rates will increase the density of air channel formation, resulting in a larger interfacial mass transfer area through which the dissolved contaminant can partition into the vapor phase. In cases of groundwater flow, increased rates of air injection lessened observed downward contaminant migration effect. The air channel network and increased air saturation reduced relative hydraulic conductivity, resulting in reduced groundwater flow and subsequent downgradient contaminant migration. Finally, when a higher initial TCE concentration was present, a slightly higher mass removal rate was observed due to higher volatilization-induced concentration gradients and subsequent diffusive flux. Once concentrations are reduced, a similar tailing effect occurs.

  10. Uranium (III) precipitation in molten chloride by wet argon sparging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigier, Jean-François, E-mail: jean-francois.vigier@ec.europa.eu [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Laplace, Annabelle [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Renard, Catherine [Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Miguirditchian, Manuel [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Abraham, Francis [Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2016-06-15

    In the context of pyrochemical processes for nuclear fuel treatment, the precipitation of uranium (III) in molten salt LiCl-CaCl{sub 2} (30–70 mol%) at 705 °C is studied. First, this molten chloride is characterized with the determination of the water dissociation constant. With a value of 10{sup −4.0}, the salt has oxoacid properties. Then, the uranium (III) precipitation using wet argon sparging is studied. The salt is prepared using UCl{sub 3} precursor. At the end of the precipitation, the salt is totally free of solubilized uranium. The main part is converted into UO{sub 2} powder but some uranium is lost during the process due to the volatility of uranium chloride. The main impurity of the resulting powder is calcium. The consequences of oxidative and reductive conditions on precipitation are studied. Finally, coprecipitation of uranium (III) and neodymium (III) is studied, showing a higher sensitivity of uranium (III) than neodymium (III) to precipitation. - Highlights: • Precipitation of Uranium (III) is quantitative in molten salt LiCl-CaCl{sub 2} (30–70 mol%). • The salt is oxoacid with a water dissociation constant of 10{sup −4.0} at 705 °C. • Volatility of uranium chloride is strongly reduced in reductive conditions. • Coprecipitation of U(III) and Nd(III) leads to a consecutive precipitation of the two elements.

  11. Treatment of waste salts by oxygen sparging and vacuum distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.J.; Yang, H.C.; Kim, E.H.; Kin, I.T.; Eun, H.C.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. During the electrorefining process of the oxide spent fuel from LWR, amounts of waste salts containing some metal chloride species such as rare earths and actinide chlorides are generated, where the reuse of the waste salts is very important from the standpoint of an economical as well as an environmental aspect. In order to reuse the waste salts, a salt vacuum distillation method can be used. For the best separation by a vacuum distillation, the metal chloride species involved in the waste salts must be converted into their oxide(or oxychloride) forms due to the their low volatility compared to that of LiCl-KCl. In this study, an oxygen sparging process was adopted for the oxidation (or precipitation) of rare earth chlorides. The effects of oxygen flow rate and molten salt temperature on the conversion of rare earth chlorides to the precipitate phase (i.e. oxide or oxychloride) were investigated. In addition, distillation characteristics of LiCl-KCl molten salt with system pressure and temperature were studied. (authors)

  12. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single Family Homes (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, J.; Withers, C.; Martin, E.; Moyer, N.

    2012-10-01

    This document focuses on managing the driving forces which move air and moisture across the building envelope. While other previously published Measure Guidelines focus on elimination of air pathways, the ultimate goal of this Measure Guideline is to manage drivers which cause air flow and water vapor transport across the building envelope (and also within the home), control air infiltration, keep relative humidity (RH) within acceptable limits, avoid combustion safety problems, improve occupant comfort, and reduce house energy use.

  13. Expanding AirSTAR Capability for Flight Research in an Existing Avionics Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughter, Sean A.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) project is an Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) test bed for experimental flight control laws and vehicle dynamics research. During its development, the test bed has gone through a number of system permutations, each meant to add functionality to the concept of operations of the system. This enabled the build-up of not only the system itself, but also the support infrastructure and processes necessary to support flight operations. These permutations were grouped into project phases and the move from Phase-III to Phase-IV was marked by a significant increase in research capability and necessary safety systems due to the integration of an Internal Pilot into the control system chain already established for the External Pilot. The major system changes in Phase-IV operations necessitated a new safety and failsafe system to properly integrate both the Internal and External Pilots and to meet acceptable project safety margins. This work involved retrofitting an existing data system into the evolved concept of operations. Moving from the first Phase-IV aircraft to the dynamically scaled aircraft further involved restructuring the system to better guard against electromagnetic interference (EMI), and the entire avionics wiring harness was redesigned in order to facilitate better maintenance and access to onboard electronics. This retrofit and harness re-design will be explored and how it integrates with the evolved Phase-IV operations.

  14. In situ air stripping using horizontal wells. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    In-situ air stripping employs horizontal wells to inject or sparge air into the ground water and vacuum extract VOC'S from vadose zone soils. The horizontal wells provide better access to the subsurface contamination, and the air sparging eliminates the need for surface ground water treatment systems and treats the subsurface in-situ. A full-scale demonstration was conducted at the Savannah River Plant in an area polluted with trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene. Results are described

  15. Impact of wood burning on outdoor air quality: existing French data and current studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leoz-Garziandia, E.; Mandin, C.; Collet, S.; Besombes, J.L.; Pissot, N.; Allemand, N.; Riberon, J.; Jaffrezo, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    French source apportionment studies of air quality including the wood combustion source become widespread. Quantify a single source contribution to air quality requires to be provided with a specific measurable data to this source. For that reason, numerous studies have focused on the determination, in the atmospheric samples, of the source-specific compounds, usually called molecular tracers. Since 2000, trend works focused on the 'wood combustion' contribution to air quality have been based on the use of some tracers such as levoglucosan and metoxyphenols. Obtained results have been compared to atmospheric particles global characteristics: organic carbon (OC), elementary carbon (EC), PM 10 , PM 2.5 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The results presented in this article show not only the interest but also the limits of such an approach, as well as the need to develop and complete the current studies in order to quantify the different sources contribution to air quality. (author)

  16. Improving the angular resolution of existing air shower arrays by adding a thin layer of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, J.; Mikocki, S.

    1987-01-01

    Calculations show that placing a thin sheet of lead above conventional extensive air shower counters yields an additional signal which is earlier in time. This will improve the array's angular resolution. (orig.)

  17. Indoor air quality in mechanically ventilated residential dwellings/low-rise buildings: A review of existing information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aganovic, Amar; Hamon, Mathieu; Kolarik, Jakub

    Mechanical ventilation has become a mandatory requirement in multiple European standards addressing indoor air quality (IAQ) and ventilation in residential dwellings (single family houses and low-rise apartment buildings). This article presents the state of the art study through a review...... of the existing literature, to establish a link between ventilation rate and key indoor air pollutants. Design characteristics of a mechanical ventilation system such as supply/exhaustairflow, system and design of supply and exhaust outlets were considered. The performance of various ventilation solutionswas......-house ventilation rate was reported below 0.5h-1 or 14 l/s·person in bedrooms, the concentrations of the pollutants elevated above minimum threshold limits (CO2>1350 ppm; TVOC >3000 μg/m3) defined by the standard. Insufficient or non-existent supply of air was related to significantly higher pollutant...

  18. CO2 Sparging Proof of Concept Test Report, Revision 1, LCP Chemicals Site, Brunswick, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    April 2013 report to evaluate the feasibility of CO2 sparging to remediate a sub-surface caustic brine pool (CBP) at the LCP Chemicals Superfund Site, GA. Region ID : 04, DocID: 10940639 , DocDate: 2013-04-01

  19. Effect of gas sparging on flux enhancement and phytochemical properties of clarified pineapple juice by microfiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Laorko, Aporn

    2011-08-01

    Membrane fouling is a major obstacle in the application of microfiltration. Several techniques have been proposed to enhance the permeate flux during microfiltration. Gas sparging is a hydrodynamic method for improving the performance of the membrane process. In this study, a 0.2 μm hollow fiber microfiltration membrane was used to study the effect of cross flow velocity (CFV) and gas injection factor () on the critical and limiting flux during microfiltration of pineapple juice. In addition, the phytochemical properties of clarified juice were investigated. In the absence of gas sparging, the critical and limiting flux increased as the CFV or shear stress number increased. The use of gas sparging led to a remarkable improvement in both the critical and limiting flux but it was more effective at the lower CFV (1.5 m s-1), compared to those at higher CFV (2.0 and 2.5 m s-1). When the gas injection factor was applied at 0.15, 0.25 and 0.35 with a CFV of 1.5 m s -1, the enhancement of 55.6%, 75.5% and 128.2% was achieved for critical flux, while 65.8%, 69.7% and 95.2% was achieved for limiting flux, respectively. The results also indicated that the use of gas sparging was an effective method to reduce reversible fouling and external irreversible fouling rather than internal irreversible fouling. In addition, the CFV and gas sparging did not affect pH, total soluble solids, colour, total phenolic content and the antioxidant property of the clarified juice. The l-ascorbic acid and total vitamin C were significantly decreased when the higher CFV and high gas injection factor were applied. The results also indicated that the use of gas sparging with low CFV was beneficial for flux enhancement while most of the phytochemical properties of the clarified juice was preserved. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of biogas sparging on the performance of bio-hydrogen reactor over a long-term operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nualsri, Chatchawin; Kongjan, Prawit; Imai, Tsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to enhance hydrogen production from sugarcane syrup by biogas sparging. Two-stage continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor were used to produce hydrogen and methane, respectively. Biogas produced from the UASB was used to sparge into the CSTR. Results indicated that sparging with biogas increased the hydrogen production rate (HPR) by 35% (from 17.1 to 23.1 L/L.d) resulted from a reduction in the hydrogen partial pressure. A fluctuation of HPR was observed during a long term monitoring because CO2 in the sparging gas and carbon source in the feedstock were consumed by Enterobacter sp. to produce succinic acid without hydrogen production. Mixed gas released from the CSTR after the sparging can be considered as bio-hythane (H2+CH4). In addition, a continuous sparging biogas into CSTR release a partial pressure in the headspace of the methane reactor. In consequent, the methane production rate is increased. PMID:28207755

  1. Air Quality in Lanzhou, a Major Industrial City in China: Characteristics of Air Pollution and Review of Existing Evidence from Air Pollution and Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqun; Li, Min; Bravo, Mercedes A.; Jin, Lan; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Xu, Yanwen; Guan, Donghong; Wang, Chengyuan; Chen, Mingxia; Wang, Xiao; Tao, Wei; Qiu, Weitao; Zhang, Yawei

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution contributes substantially to global health burdens; however, less is known about pollution patterns in China and whether they differ from those elsewhere. We evaluated temporal and spatial heterogeneity of air pollution in Lanzhou, an urban Chinese city (April 2009–December 2012), and conducted a systematic review of literature on air pollution and health in Lanzhou. Average levels were 141.5, 42.3, and 47.2 µg/m3 for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10), NO2, and SO2, respectively. Findings suggest some seasonality, particularly for SO2, with higher concentrations during colder months relative to warmer months, although a longer time frame of data is needed to evaluate seasonality fully. Correlation coefficients generally declined with distance between monitors, while coefficients of divergence increased with distance. However, these trends were not statistically significant. PM10 levels exceeded Chinese and other health-based standards and guidelines. The review identified 13 studies on outdoor air pollution and health. Although limited, the studies indicate that air pollution is associated with increased risk of health outcomes in Lanzhou. These studies and the high air pollution levels suggest potentially serious health consequences. Findings can provide guidance to future epidemiological studies, monitor placement programs, and air quality policies. PMID:25838615

  2. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE - MANIFOLD DESIGN FOR CONTROLLING ENGINE AIR BALANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary D. Bourn; Ford A. Phillips; Ralph E. Harris

    2005-12-01

    This document provides results and conclusions for Task 15.0--Detailed Analysis of Air Balance & Conceptual Design of Improved Air Manifolds in the ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure'' project. SwRI{reg_sign} is conducting this project for DOE in conjunction with Pipeline Research Council International, Gas Machinery Research Council, El Paso Pipeline, Cooper Compression, and Southern Star, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-02NT41646. The objective of Task 15.0 was to investigate the perceived imbalance in airflow between power cylinders in two-stroke integral compressor engines and develop solutions via manifold redesign. The overall project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity.

  3. Performance Analysis of an Integrated Heat Pump with Air-Conditioning System for the Existing Hospital Building Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yu Chiang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a complete evaluation procedure of energy-saving and efficiency improvement for a large-scale hospital retrofit project has been established and successfully validated in Taiwan. The retrofit scheme, in integrating the alternative hot water system, namely, a water source heat pump (WSHP, with the existing HVAC (Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning system, enables the capability to meet the cooling and hot water demand simultaneously with a larger safety margin as well as saving energy. In addition, it has been found that the integrated system provides a new source for cooling which can be utilized as a system redundancy in avoiding system shutdown. This is very useful when considering in specific areas in the hospital, such as intensive care unit, or operation rooms, where cooling should not be interrupted on any occasion. In this study, it is validated that the coefficient of performance (COP of the newly added WSHP system, under heating and cooling mode, is 3.62 and 2.62, respectively. The recorded annual cost reduction by this integrated system is $102,564, with a payback of 1.2 years. The hospital after retrofit has been operating safer, with more redundancy, and more energy-efficient which warrants tremendous potential for implementation in the industry.

  4. Measure Guideline: Wall Air Sealing and Insulation Methods in Existing Homes; An Overview of Opportunity and Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, S.; Stephenson, R.

    2012-09-01

    This guide provides renovators and retrofit contractors an overview of considerations when including wall air sealing and insulation in an energy retrofit project. It also outlines the potential project risks, various materials for insulating, possible field inspections needed, installation procedures, as well as the benefits and drawbacks. The purpose of this document is to provide the outline of the overview and process of insulating and air sealing walls so that home retrofit professionals can identify approaches to air sealing and insulation measures.

  5. Operation of a soil vapor extraction and air sparging system at a former gasoline service station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromicko, G.J.; Klingensmith, R.C.; Simpson, D.K.

    1995-01-01

    Closure activities for three underground storage tanks (USTs) were conducted at Quaker State Corporation's (QSC) former service station in Conneaut, Pennsylvania as part of a property transfer during July, 1991. The facility, formerly owned by QSC, was operated from construction (early 1960's) through the sale of the property (early 1980's). Subsequent to sale of the facility, the property has been resold and the building reconfigured several times. The facility is located on a comer lot located along state highway Route 322 in the business district of Conneaut Lake as shown in Figure 1. Across the highway to the north, is Conneaut lake. The site is bordered by a residential property to the south and commercial properties on the east and west. A Pennsylvania State Game Commission Game Lands, is located approximately 150 feet southeast of the property Quaker State again became involved with the property in 1991 when the cur-rent owner attempted to sell the property and the lender for the prospective purchaser identified the presence of USTs. Subsequent to the confirmation of the USTS, UST closure activities were initiated. Subsurface investigations were conducted to delineate the extent of potential petroleum impacts and corrective actions were initiated which are on-going today

  6. Periodic feedwater reversal and air sparging as antifouling strategies in reverse electrodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaas, D.A.; Kunteng, D.; Veerman, J.; Saakes, M.; Nijmeijer, K.

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy can be generated using natural streams of seawater and river water in reverse electrodialysis (RED). The potential for electricity production of this technology is huge, but fouling of the membranes and the membrane stack reduces the potential for large scale applications. This

  7. Use of Cometabolic Air Sparging to Remediate Chloroethene-Contaminated Groundwater Aquifers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Magar, Victor

    2001-01-01

    ...) process at the McClellan National Test Site, California. The purpose of the demonstration was to evaluate the effectiveness of and costs associated with CAS for removal of chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) from groundwater...

  8. Cost and Performance Report - Use of Cometabolic Air Sparging to Remediate Chloroethene-Contaminated Groundwater Aquifers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Magar, Victor

    2001-01-01

    ...) process at the McClellan National Test Site, California. The purpose of the demonstration was to evaluate the effectiveness of and costs associated with CAS for removal of chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) from groundwater...

  9. CaBr2 hydrolysis for HBr production using a direct sparging contactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doctor, R.D.; Yang, J.; Panchal, Ch.B.; Lottes, St.A.; Lyczkowski, R.W.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated a novel, continuous hybrid cycle for hydrogen production employing both heat and electricity. Calcium bromide (CaBr 2 ) hydrolysis, which is endothermic, generates hydrogen bromide (HBr), and this is electrolysed to produce hydrogen. CaBr 2 hydrolysis at 1050 K is endothermic with a 181.5 KJ/mol heat of reaction and the free energy change is positive at 99.6 kJ/mol. What makes this hydrolysis reaction attractive is both its rate and the fact that well over half the thermodynamic requirements for water-splitting free energy of ΔG T = 285.8 KJ/mol are supplied at this stage using heat rather than electricity. These experiments provide support for a second order hydrolysis reaction in CaBr 2 forming a complex involving CaBr 2 and CaO and the system appears to be: 3CaBr 2 + H 2 O → (CaBr 2 ) 2 .CaO + 2HBr. This reaction is highly endothermic and the complex also includes some water of hydration. COMSOL TM multi-physics modelling of sparging steam into a calcium bromide melt guided the design of an experiment using a mullite tube (ID 70 mm) capable of holding 0.3-0.5 kg (1.5-2.5 10 -3 kmol) CaBr 2 forming a melt with a maximum 0.08 m depth. Half of the experiments employed packings. Sparging steam at a steam rate of 0.02-0.04 mol/mol of CaBr 2 per minute into this molten bath promptly yielded HBr in a stable operation that converted up to 19 mol% of the calcium bromide. The kinetic constant derived from the experimental data was kinetic constant was 2.17 10 -12 kmol s -1 m -2 MPa -1 for the hydrolysis reaction. (authors)

  10. Thermal environmental case study of an existing underfloor air distribution (UFAD) system in a high-rise building in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya, Y. H.; Poh, K. S.

    2015-09-01

    The performance of an existing underfloor air distribution (UFAD) system in a renowned high-rise office tower in Malaysia was studied to identify the root cause issues behind the poor indoor air quality. Occupants are the best thermal sensor. The building was detected with the sick building syndrome (SBS) that causes runny noses, flu-like symptoms, irritated skin, and etc. Long period of exposure to indoor air pollutants may increase the occupant's health risk. The parameters such as the space temperature, relative humidity, air movement, air change, fresh air flow rate, chilled water supply and return are evaluated at three stories that consist of five open offices. A full traverse study was carried out at one of the fresh air duct. A simplified duct flow measurement method using pitot-tubes was developed. The results showed that the diffusers were not effective in creating the swirl effect to the space. Internal heat gain from human and office electrical equipment were not drawn out effectively. Besides, relative humidity has exceeded the recommended level. These issues were caused by the poor maintenance of the building. The energy efficiency strategy of the UFAD system comes from the higher supply air temperature. It may leads to insufficient cooling load for the latent heat gained under improper system performance. Special care and considerations in design, construction and maintenance are needed to ensure the indoor air quality to be maintained. Several improvements were recommended to tackle the existing indoor air quality issues. Solar system was studied as one of the innovative method for retrofitting.

  11. Consequences of air around an ionization chamber : Are existing solid phantoms suitable for reference dosimetry on an MR-linac?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hackett, S. L.; Van Asselen, B.; Wolthaus, J. W H; Kok, J. G M; Woodings, S. J.; Lagendijk, J. J W; Raaymakers, B. W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A protocol for reference dosimetry for the MR-linac is under development. The 1.5 T magnetic field changes the mean path length of electrons in an air-filled ionization chamber but has little effect on the electron trajectories in a surrounding phantom. It is therefore necessary to correct

  12. Measure Guideline. Wall Air Sealing and Insulation Methods in Existing Homes; An Overview of Opportunity and Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, S. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Stephenson, R. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This guide provides renovators and retrofit contractors an overview of considerations when including wall air sealing and insulation in an energy retrofit project. It also outlines the potential project risks, various materials for insulating, possible field inspections needed, installation procedures, as well as the benefits and drawbacks.

  13. Investigation concerning the existence of quarks near the nuclei of great air showers with the help of a cloud chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiemken, U.

    1974-01-01

    In order to compare the results of McCusker's (1969) experiment, this paper presents an experiment with improved technical details. For this purpose, a large cloud chamber in connection with the Kiel air shower set-up was available. First, the expected quark induced ionisation has been determined by a calibration measurement on minimum ionising muons. These data are in extremely good agreement with values from the literature. Then, measurements in air showers with a mean primary energy of 10 16 eV have been performed during an effective measuring time of 66 days. The mean distance from the nucleus amounts to about 9 m. In contradiction to the quark abundance of McCusker, which predicts six quarks for the Kiel set-up, no track was found with 'quark suspicion'. Some tracks with low droplet densities could be explained already in a preliminary stage of the evaluation by normal cloud chamber effects. (orig.) [de

  14. Life cycle analysis of retrofitting with high energy efficiency air-conditioner and fluorescent lamp in existing buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techato, Kua-anan; Watts, Daniel J.; Chaiprapat, Sumate

    2009-01-01

    Life cycle analysis of mercury in discarded low energy efficiency fluorescent lamps (36 W) and of HCFC in air-conditioners (12,000 Btu) removed from service has been conducted in this study. The objective was to find out the environmental impact (EDIP 1997 category, waste evaluation) of the products that appear in the waste stream as a result of facility upgrades. The scope of the study starts from retrofitting of the lamps and air-conditioners through recycling and disposal. For a 36 W fluorescent lamp, the bulk waste 1.64E-5 kg, hazardous waste 1.11E-4 kg, radioactive waste 1.09E-9 kg, and slag-ash 6.02E-7 kg occurred at the end of life of the retrofitting cycle. For a 12,000 Btu air-conditioner, the bulk waste 0.58 kg, hazardous waste 0.11 kg, radioactive waste 0.0002 kg, and slag-ash 0.01 kg also occurred at the end of life of the retrofitting cycle. These small amounts become important when viewed at the country level. These quantities imply that the policy makers who deal with hazardous waste should be aware of this waste-generating characteristic before issuing any pertinent policy. Consideration of this characteristic and planning for appropriate waste management methods at the beginning stage will reduce any future problem of contamination by the hazardous waste

  15. Life cycle analysis of retrofitting with high energy efficiency air-conditioner and fluorescent lamp in existing buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Techato, Kua-anan [International Postgraduate Programs in Environmental Management (Hazardous Waste Management) and ERI (Energy Research Institute), Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Watts, Daniel J. [Otto H. York Center for Environmental Engineering and Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Chaiprapat, Sumate [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai Campus, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management-Satellite Center at Prince of Songkla University (Thailand)

    2009-01-15

    Life cycle analysis of mercury in discarded low energy efficiency fluorescent lamps (36 W) and of HCFC in air-conditioners (12,000 Btu) removed from service has been conducted in this study. The objective was to find out the environmental impact (EDIP 1997 category, waste evaluation) of the products that appear in the waste stream as a result of facility upgrades. The scope of the study starts from retrofitting of the lamps and air-conditioners through recycling and disposal. For a 36 W fluorescent lamp, the bulk waste 1.64E-5 kg, hazardous waste 1.11E-4 kg, radioactive waste 1.09E-9 kg, and slag-ash 6.02E-7 kg occurred at the end of life of the retrofitting cycle. For a 12,000 Btu air-conditioner, the bulk waste 0.58 kg, hazardous waste 0.11 kg, radioactive waste 0.0002 kg, and slag-ash 0.01 kg also occurred at the end of life of the retrofitting cycle. These small amounts become important when viewed at the country level. These quantities imply that the policy makers who deal with hazardous waste should be aware of this waste-generating characteristic before issuing any pertinent policy. Consideration of this characteristic and planning for appropriate waste management methods at the beginning stage will reduce any future problem of contamination by the hazardous waste. (author)

  16. Ultralow Level Mercury Treatment Using Chemical Reduction and Air Stripping: Scoping Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.B.

    2000-01-01

    Data collected during the first stage of a Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Strategic Research and Development Project confirmed the efficacy of chemical reduction and air stripping/sparging as an ultralow level mercury treatment concept for waters containing Hg(II). The process consists of dosing the water with low levels of stannous chloride to convert the mercury to Hg. This form of mercury can easily be removed from the water by air stripping or sparging. Samples of Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater containing approximately 130 ng/L of total mercury (as Hg(II)) were used for the study. In undosed samples, sparging removed 0 percent of the initial mercury. In the dosed samples, all of the removals were greater than 94 percent, except in one water type at one dose. This sample, which was saturated with dissolved oxygen, showed a 63 percent reduction in mercury following treatment at the lowest dose. Following dosing at minimally effective levels and sparging, treated water contained less than 10 ng/L total mercury. In general, the data indicate that the reduction of mercury is highly favored and that stannous chloride reagent efficiently targets the Hg(II) contaminant in the presence of competing reactions. Based on the results, the authors estimated that the costs of implementing and operating an ultralow level mercury treatment process based on chemical reduction and stripping/sparging are 10 percent to 20 percent of traditional treatment technologies

  17. Storage of compressed air - Optimisation and measurement of an existing project example; Druckluftspeicherung: Optimierung / Ausmessung bestehendes Projektmuster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckmann, P. [Brueckmann Elektronik, Davos Dorf (Switzerland); Cyphelly, I. [Cyphelly and Cie, Les Brenets (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    This short final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with an additional project that augmented an earlier report on a compressed-air energy storage system. First tests are reported on that revealed that the chosen heat exchanger fulfils the thermal expectations with substantial reserves. Certain effects concerning the liquid piston system are described which showed that further development of the test infrastructure were required. This project was launched to further examine these problems. Difficulties with the liquids available which prohibited the intended exact series of measurements are commented on. The authors note that independent investigations by the Austrian company LINDE came to the same conclusions, thus confirming the function of the heat exchanger.

  18. Measurements of the radiolytic oxidation of aqueous CsI using a sparging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashmore, C.B.; Brown, D.; Sims, H.E.; Gwyther, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Radiolytic oxidation is considered to be the main mechanism for the formation of I 2 from aqueous CsI in containment of a water cooled reactor after a LOCA. Despite the amount of study over the last 60 years on the radiation chemistry of iodine there has been no consistent set of experiments spanning a wide enough range of conditions to verify models with confidence. This paper describes results from a set of experiments carried out in order to remedy this deficiency. In this work the rate of evolution of I 2 from sparged irradiated CsI solution labeled with 131 I was measured on-line over a range of conditions. This work involved the measurement of the effects of pH, temperature, O 2 concentration, I - concentration, phosphate concentration, dose-rate and impurities on the rate of evolution of I 2 . The range of conditions was chosen in order to span as closely as possible conditions expected in a LOCA but also to help to elucidate some of the mechanisms especially at high pH. pH was found to be a very important factor influencing iodine volatility, over the temperature range studied the extent of oxidation reduced with temperature but this was compensated for by the decrease in partition coefficient. Oxygen concentration was more important in solutions not containing phosphate. The fractional oxidation was not particularly dependent on iodide concentration but G I2 was very dependent on [I - ]. There was no effect of added impurities, Fe, Mn, Mo or organics although in separate work silver was found to have a very important effect. During attempts to interpret the data it was found that it was necessary to include the iodine atom as a volatile species with a partition coefficient of 1.9 taken from thermodynamic data. The modelling work is described in a separate paper. (author) 15 figs., 1 tab., 19 refs

  19. Analysis of energy efficiency retrofit schemes for heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems in existing office buildings based on the modified bin method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhaoxia; Ding, Yan; Geng, Geng; Zhu, Neng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A modified bin method is adopted to propose and optimize the EER schemes. • A case study is presented to demonstrate the analysis procedures of EER schemes. • Pertinent EER schemes for HVAC systems are proposed for the object building. - Abstract: Poor thermal performance of building envelop and low efficiencies of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems can always be found in the existing office buildings with large energy consumption. This paper adopted a modified bin method to propose and optimize the energy efficiency retrofit (EER) schemes. An existing office building in Tianjin was selected as an example to demonstrate the procedures of formulating the design scheme. Pertinent retrofit schemes for HVAC system were proposed after the retrofit of building envelop. With comprehensive consideration of energy efficiency and economic benefits, the recommended scheme that could improve the overall energy efficiency by 71.20% was determined

  20. A feasibility study on the bioconversion of CO2 and H2 to biomethane by gas sparging through polymeric membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, I; Pérez, C; Alfaro, N; Fdz-Polanco, F

    2015-06-01

    In this study, the potential of a pilot hollow-fiber membrane bioreactor for the conversion of H2 and CO2 to CH4 was evaluated. The system transformed 95% of H2 and CO2 fed at a maximum loading rate of 40.2 [Formula: see text] and produced 0.22m(3) of CH4 per m(3) of H2 fed at thermophilic conditions. H2 mass transfer to the liquid phase was identified as the limiting step for the conversion, and kLa values of 430h(-1) were reached in the bioreactor by sparging gas through the membrane module. A simulation showed that the bioreactor could upgrade biogas at a rate of 25m(3)/mR(3)d, increasing the CH4 concentration from 60 to 95%v. This proof-of-concept study verified that gas sparging through a membrane module can efficiently transfer H2 from gas to liquid phase and that the conversion of H2 and CO2 to biomethane is feasible on a pilot scale at noteworthy load rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Measurements of the radiolytic oxidation of aqueous CsI using a sparging apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashmore, C B; Brown, D; Sims, H E [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom); Gwyther, J R [NE plc Berkeley Technology Centre, Berkeley (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-01

    Radiolytic oxidation is considered to be the main mechanism for the formation of I{sub 2} from aqueous CsI in containment of a water cooled reactor after a LOCA. Despite the amount of study over the last 60 years on the radiation chemistry of iodine there has been no consistent set of experiments spanning a wide enough range of conditions to verify models with confidence. This paper describes results from a set of experiments carried out in order to remedy this deficiency. In this work the rate of evolution of I{sub 2} from sparged irradiated CsI solution labeled with {sup 131}I was measured on-line over a range of conditions. This work involved the measurement of the effects of pH, temperature, O{sub 2} concentration, I{sup -} concentration, phosphate concentration, dose-rate and impurities on the rate of evolution of I{sub 2}. The range of conditions was chosen in order to span as closely as possible conditions expected in a LOCA but also to help to elucidate some of the mechanisms especially at high pH. pH was found to be a very important factor influencing iodine volatility, over the temperature range studied the extent of oxidation reduced with temperature but this was compensated for by the decrease in partition coefficient. Oxygen concentration was more important in solutions not containing phosphate. The fractional oxidation was not particularly dependent on iodide concentration but G{sub I2} was very dependent on [I{sup -}]. There was no effect of added impurities, Fe, Mn, Mo or organics although in separate work silver was found to have a very important effect. During attempts to interpret the data it was found that it was necessary to include the iodine atom as a volatile species with a partition coefficient of 1.9 taken from thermodynamic data. The modelling work is described in a separate paper. (author) 15 figs., 1 tab., 19 refs.

  2. Improved glycerol production from cane molasses by the sulfite process with vacuum or continuous carbon dioxide sparging during fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalle, G.P.; Naik, S.C.; Lashkari, B.Z.

    1985-01-01

    The conventional sulfite process for glycerol production from molasses using Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. Hansen was modified to obtain product concentrations of up to 230 g/l and productivity of 15 g/l.d by fermenting under vacuum (80 mm) or with continuous sparging of CO2 (0.4 vvm). Under these conditions the requirement of sulfite for optimum production of glycerol was reduced by two thirds (20 g/l), the ethanol concentration in the medium was kept below 30 g/l and the competence of yeast cells to ferment was conserved throughout the fermentation period for up to 20 days. In addition to the above, the rate of incorporation of sulfite had a significant effect on glucose fermentation and glycerol yields. There was an optimal relationship between glycerol yields and the molar ratio of sulfite to glucose consumed, which for cane molasses was 0.67. This ratio was characteristic of the medium composition.

  3. In-situ biogas sparging enhances the performance of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) with mesh filter in low-strength wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Hu, Yi; Lu, Yong-Ze; Zeng, Raymond J; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    2016-07-01

    In the recent years, anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology is being considered as a very attractive alternative for wastewater treatment due to the striking advantages such as upgraded effluent quality. However, fouling control is still a problem for the application of AnMBR. This study investigated the performance of an AnMBR using mesh filter as support material to treat low-strength wastewater via in-situ biogas sparging. It was found that mesh AnMBR exhibited high and stable chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies with values of 95 ± 5 % and an average methane yield of 0.24 L CH4/g CODremoved. Variation of transmembrane pressure (TMP) during operation indicated that mesh fouling was mitigated by in-situ biogas sparging and the fouling rate was comparable to that of aerobic membrane bioreactor with mesh filter reported in previous researches. The fouling layer formed on the mesh exhibited non-uniform structure; the porosity became larger from bottom layer to top layer. Biogas sparging could not change the composition but make thinner thickness of cake layer, which might be benefit for reducing membrane fouling rate. It was also found that ultrasonic cleaning of fouled mesh was able to remove most foulants on the surface or pores. This study demonstrated that in-situ biogas sparging enhanced the performance of AnMBRs with mesh filter in low-strength wastewater treatment. Apparently, AnMBRs with mesh filter can be used as a promising and sustainable technology for wastewater treatment.

  4. Modeling of permeate flux and mass transfer resistances in the reclamation of molasses wastewater by a novel gas-sparged nanofiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Tejal Manish; Nath, Kaushik [G H Patel College of Engineering and Technology, Gujarat (India)

    2014-10-15

    A semi-empirical model has been applied to predict the permeate flux and mass transfer resistances during the cross flow nanofiltration of molasses wastewater in flat-sheet module. The model includes laminar flow regime as well as flow in presence of gas sparging at two different gas velocities. Membrane hydraulic resistance (R{sub m}), osmotic pressure resistance (R{sub osm}) and the concentration polarization resistance (R{sub cp}) were considered in series. The concentration polarization resistance was correlated to the operating conditions, namely, the feed concentration, the trans-membrane pressure difference and the cross flow velocity for a selected range of experiments. There was an appreciable reduction of concentration polarization resistance R{sub cp}{sup spar} in presence of gas sparging. Both the concentration polarization resistance R{sub cp}{sup lam} and osmotic pressure resistance R{sub osm} decreased with cross-flow velocity, but increased with feed concentration and the operating pressure. Experimental and theoretical permeate flux values as a function of cross flow velocity for both the cases, in the presence and absence of gas sparging, were also compared.

  5. Modeling of permeate flux and mass transfer resistances in the reclamation of molasses wastewater by a novel gas-sparged nanofiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Tejal Manish; Nath, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    A semi-empirical model has been applied to predict the permeate flux and mass transfer resistances during the cross flow nanofiltration of molasses wastewater in flat-sheet module. The model includes laminar flow regime as well as flow in presence of gas sparging at two different gas velocities. Membrane hydraulic resistance (R m ), osmotic pressure resistance (R osm ) and the concentration polarization resistance (R cp ) were considered in series. The concentration polarization resistance was correlated to the operating conditions, namely, the feed concentration, the trans-membrane pressure difference and the cross flow velocity for a selected range of experiments. There was an appreciable reduction of concentration polarization resistance R cp spar in presence of gas sparging. Both the concentration polarization resistance R cp lam and osmotic pressure resistance R osm decreased with cross-flow velocity, but increased with feed concentration and the operating pressure. Experimental and theoretical permeate flux values as a function of cross flow velocity for both the cases, in the presence and absence of gas sparging, were also compared

  6. Improved glycerol production from cane molasses by the sulfite process with vacuum or continuous carbon dioxide sparging during fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalle, G.P.; Naik, S.C.; Lashkari, B.Z.

    1985-01-01

    The conventional sulfite process for glycerol production from molasses using Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. Hansen was modified to obtain product concentrations of up to 230 g/l and productivity of 15 g/l x d by fermenting under vacuum (80 mm) or with continuous sparging of CO/sub 2/ (0.4 vvm). Under these conditions the requirement of sulfite for optimum production of glycerol was reduced by two thirds (20 g/l), the ethanol concentration in the medium was kept below 30 g/l and the competence of yeast cells to ferment was conserved throughout the fermentation period for up to 20 days. In addition to the above, the rate of incorporation of sulfite had a significant effect on glucose fermentation and glycerol yields. There was an optimal relationship between glycerol yields and the molar ratio of sulfite to glucose consumed, which for cane molasses was 0.67. This ratio was characteristic of the medium composition. 10 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  7. Foaming/antifoaming in WTP Tanks Equipped with Pulse Jet Mixer and Air Spargers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HASSAN, NEGUIB

    2004-01-01

    The River Protection Project-Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) requested Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct small-scale foaming and antifoam testing using actual Hanford waste and simulants subjected to air sparging. The foaminess of Hanford tank waste solutions was previously demonstrated in SRNL during WTP evaporator foaming and ultrafiltration studies and commercial antifoam DOW Q2-3183A was recommended to mitigate the foam in the evaporators. Currently, WTP is planning to use air spargers in the HLW Lag Storage Vessels, HLW Concentrate Receipt Vessel, and the Ultrafiltration Vessels to assist the performance of the Jet Pulse Mixers (JPM). Sparging of air into WTP tanks will induce a foam layer within the process vessels. The air dispersion in the waste slurries and generated foams could present problems during plant operation. Foam in the tanks could also adversely impact hydrogen removal and mitigation. Antifoam (DOW Q2-3183A) will be used to control foaming in Hanford sparged waste processing tanks. These tanks will be mixed by a combination of pulse-jet mixers and air spargers. The percent allowable foaminess or freeboard in WTP tanks are shown in tables

  8. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Scheider, J.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  9. In situ iron activated persulfate oxidative fluid sparging treatment of TCE contamination--a proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chenju; Lee, I-Ling

    2008-09-10

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is considered a reliable technology to treat groundwater contaminated with high concentrations of organic contaminants. An ISCO oxidant, persulfate anion (S(2)O(8)(2-)) can be activated by ferrous ion (Fe(2+)) to generate sulfate radicals (E(o)=2.6 V), which are capable of destroying trichloroethylene (TCE). The property of polarity inhibits S(2)O(8)(2-) or sulfate radical (SO(4)(-)) from effectively oxidizing separate phase TCE, a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL). Thus the oxidation primarily takes place in the aqueous phase where TCE is dissolved. A bench column study was conducted to demonstrate a conceptual remediation method by flushing either S(2)O(8)(2-) or Fe(2+) through a soil column, where the TCE DNAPL was present, and passing the dissolved mixture through either a Fe(2+) or S(2)O(8)(2-) fluid sparging curtain. Also, the effect of a solubility enhancing chemical, hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD), was tested to evaluate its ability to increase the aqueous TCE concentration. Both flushing arrangements may result in similar TCE degradation efficiencies of 35% to 42% estimated by the ratio of TCE degraded/(TCE degraded+TCE remained in effluent) and degradation byproduct chloride generation rates of 4.9 to 7.6 mg Cl(-) per soil column pore volume. The addition of HPCD did greatly increase the aqueous TCE concentration. However, the TCE degradation efficiency decreased because the TCE degradation was a lower percentage of the relatively greater amount of dissolved TCE by HPCD. This conceptual treatment may serve as a reference for potential on-site application.

  10. Impact of wood burning on outdoor air quality: existing French data and current studies; Contribution du chauffage au bois a la qualite de l'air exterieur: donnees existantes et etudes en cours en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leoz-Garziandia, E.; Mandin, C.; Collet, S. [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques, 60 - Verneuil en Halatte (INERIS) (France); Besombes, J.L.; Pissot, N. [Universite de Savoie, Lab. de Chimie Moleculaire et Environnemental (LCME), 73 - Le Bourget du Lac (France); Allemand, N. [Centre Interprofessionnel Technique d' Etudes de la Pollution Atmospherique, CITEPA, 75 - Paris (France); Riberon, J. [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment (CSTB), 75 - Paris (France); Jaffrezo, J.L. [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement (LGGE UMR CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2009-03-15

    French source apportionment studies of air quality including the wood combustion source become widespread. Quantify a single source contribution to air quality requires to be provided with a specific measurable data to this source. For that reason, numerous studies have focused on the determination, in the atmospheric samples, of the source-specific compounds, usually called molecular tracers. Since 2000, trend works focused on the 'wood combustion' contribution to air quality have been based on the use of some tracers such as levoglucosan and metoxyphenols. Obtained results have been compared to atmospheric particles global characteristics: organic carbon (OC), elementary carbon (EC), PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The results presented in this article show not only the interest but also the limits of such an approach, as well as the need to develop and complete the current studies in order to quantify the different sources contribution to air quality. (author)

  11. Determination of osmium concentrations and (187)Os/(188)Os of crude oils and source rocks by coupling high-pressure, high-temperature digestion with sparging OsO(4) into a multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Indra S; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard

    2014-03-18

    The (187)Os/(188)Os ratio that is based on the β(-)-decay of (187)Re to (187)Os (t1/2 = 41.6 billion years) is widely used to investigate petroleum system processes. Despite its broad applicability to studies of hydrocarbon deposits worldwide, a suitable matrix-matched reference material for Os analysis does not exist. In this study, a method that enables Os isotope measurement of crude oil with in-line Os separation and purification from the sample matrix is proposed. The method to analyze Os concentration and (187)Os/(187)Os involves sample digestion under high pressure and high temperature using a high pressure asher (HPA-S, Anton Paar), sparging of volatile osmium tetroxide from the sample solution, and measurements using multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). This methods significantly reduced the total procedural time compared to conventional Carius tube digestion followed by Os separation and purification using solvent extraction, microdistillation and N-TIMS analysis. The method yields Os concentration (28 ± 4 pg g(-1)) and (187)Os/(188)Os (1.62 ± 0.15) of commercially available crude oil reference material NIST 8505 (1 S.D., n = 6). The reference material NIST 8505 is homogeneous with respect to Os concentration at a test portion size of 0.2 g. Therefore, (187)Os/(188)Os composition and Os concentration of NIST 8505 can serve as a matrix-matched reference material for Os analysis. Data quality was assessed by repeated measurements of the USGS shale reference material SCo-1 (sample matrix similar to petroleum source rock) and the widely used Liquid Os Standard solution (LOsSt). The within-laboratory reproducibility of (187)Os/(188)Os for a 5 pg of LOsSt solution, analyzed with this method over a period of 12 months was ∼1.4% (1 S.D., n = 26), respectively.

  12. Metagenomics reveals diversity and abundance of meta-cleavage pathways in microbial communities from soil highly contaminated with jet fuel under air-sparging bioremediation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brennerová, Mária; Josefiová, Jiřina; Brenner, Vladimír; Pieper, D. H.; Junca, H.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 9 (2009), s. 2216-2227 ISSN 1462-2912 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06011; GA MŠk 2B06156 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : DIOXYGENASE GENE DIVERSITY * CATECHOL 2,3-DIOXYGENASE * AROMATIC-COMPOUNDS Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.909, year: 2009

  13. Scenarios for global emissions from air traffic. The development of regional and gridded (5 degrees x 5 degrees) emissions scenarios for aircraft and for surface sources, based on CPB scenarios and existing emission inventories for aircraft and surface sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier JGJ; LAE

    1995-01-01

    An estimate was made of present global emissions from air traffic using statistical information on fuel consumption, aircraft types and applying emission factors for various compounds. To generate scenarios for future emissions from air traffic, assumptions were used regarding the development of the

  14. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  15. Greening Existing Tribal Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidance about improving sustainability in existing tribal casinos and manufactured homes. Many steps can be taken to make existing buildings greener and healthier. They may also reduce utility and medical costs.

  16. Purification and characterization of an H2O-forming NADH oxidase from Clostridium aminovalericum: existence of an oxygen-detoxifying enzyme in an obligate anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Shinji; Ishikura, Jun; Chiba, Daisuke; Nishino, Tomoko; Niimura, Youichi

    2004-04-01

    Clostridium aminovalericum, an obligate anaerobe, is unable to form colonies on PYD agar plates in the presence of 1% O(2). When grown anaerobically in PYD liquid medium, the strain can continue normal growth after the shift from anoxic (sparged with O(2)-free N(2) carrier-gas) to microoxic (sparged with 3% O(2)/97% N(2) mixed carrier-gas) growth conditions in the mid exponential phase (OD(660)=1.0). When the strain grew under 3% O(2)/97% N(2), the medium remains anoxic. Thirty minutes after beginning aeration with 3% O(2), the activity of NADH oxidase in cell-free extracts increased more than five-fold from the level before aeration. We purified NADH oxidase to determine the characteristics of this enzyme in an obligate anaerobe. The purified NADH oxidase dominated the NADH oxidase activity detected in cell-free extracts. The enzyme is a homotetramer composed of a subunit with a molecular mass of 45 kDa. The enzyme shows a spectrum typical of a flavoprotein, and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) was identified as a cofactor. The final product of NADH oxidation was H(2)O, and the estimated K(m) for oxygen was 61.9 microM. These data demonstrate that an O(2)-response enzyme that is capable of detoxifying oxygen to water exists in C. aminovalericum.

  17. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a ventilation and air conditioning system for the ECN3 experimental area and the TCC8 and GHN300 service tunnels and for the dismantling of the existing system

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a ventilation and air conditioning system for the ECN3 experimental area and the TCC8 and GHN300 service tunnels and for the dismantling of the existing system

  18. Growth of the obligate anaerobe Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough under continuous low oxygen concentration sparging: impact of the membrane-bound oxygen reductases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramel, Fanny; Brasseur, Gael; Pieulle, Laetitia; Valette, Odile; Hirschler-Réa, Agnès; Fardeau, Marie Laure; Dolla, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Although obligate anaerobe, the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH) exhibits high aerotolerance that involves several enzymatic systems, including two membrane-bound oxygen reductases, a bd-quinol oxidase and a cc(b/o)o3 cytochrome oxidase. Effect of constant low oxygen concentration on growth and morphology of the wild-type, single (Δbd, Δcox) and double deletion (Δcoxbd) mutant strains of the genes encoding these oxygen reductases was studied. When both wild-type and deletion mutant strains were cultured in lactate/sulfate medium under constant 0.02% O2 sparging, they were able to grow but the final biomasses and the growth yield were lower than that obtained under anaerobic conditions. At the end of the growth, lactate was not completely consumed and when conditions were then switched to anaerobic, growth resumed. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that a large majority of the cells were then able to divide (over 97%) but the time to recover a complete division event was longer for single deletion mutant Δbd than for the three other strains. Determination of the molar growth yields on lactate suggested that a part of the energy gained from lactate oxidation was derived toward cells protection/repairing against oxidative conditions rather than biosynthesis, and that this part was higher in the single deletion mutant Δbd and, to a lesser extent, Δcox strains. Our data show that when DvH encounters oxidative conditions, it is able to stop growing and to rapidly resume growing when conditions are switched to anaerobic, suggesting that it enters active dormancy sate under oxidative conditions. We propose that the pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) plays a central role in this phenomenon by reversibly switching from an oxidative-sensitive fully active state to an oxidative-insensitive inactive state. The oxygen reductases, and especially the bd-quinol oxidase, would have a crucial function by maintaining reducing conditions

  19. Growth of the obligate anaerobe Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough under continuous low oxygen concentration sparging: impact of the membrane-bound oxygen reductases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Ramel

    Full Text Available Although obligate anaerobe, the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH exhibits high aerotolerance that involves several enzymatic systems, including two membrane-bound oxygen reductases, a bd-quinol oxidase and a cc(b/oo3 cytochrome oxidase. Effect of constant low oxygen concentration on growth and morphology of the wild-type, single (Δbd, Δcox and double deletion (Δcoxbd mutant strains of the genes encoding these oxygen reductases was studied. When both wild-type and deletion mutant strains were cultured in lactate/sulfate medium under constant 0.02% O2 sparging, they were able to grow but the final biomasses and the growth yield were lower than that obtained under anaerobic conditions. At the end of the growth, lactate was not completely consumed and when conditions were then switched to anaerobic, growth resumed. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that a large majority of the cells were then able to divide (over 97% but the time to recover a complete division event was longer for single deletion mutant Δbd than for the three other strains. Determination of the molar growth yields on lactate suggested that a part of the energy gained from lactate oxidation was derived toward cells protection/repairing against oxidative conditions rather than biosynthesis, and that this part was higher in the single deletion mutant Δbd and, to a lesser extent, Δcox strains. Our data show that when DvH encounters oxidative conditions, it is able to stop growing and to rapidly resume growing when conditions are switched to anaerobic, suggesting that it enters active dormancy sate under oxidative conditions. We propose that the pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR plays a central role in this phenomenon by reversibly switching from an oxidative-sensitive fully active state to an oxidative-insensitive inactive state. The oxygen reductases, and especially the bd-quinol oxidase, would have a crucial function by maintaining

  20. Air filtration in HVAC systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ginestet, Alain; Tronville, Paolo; Hyttinen, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Air filtration Guidebook will help the designer and user to understand the background and criteria for air filtration, how to select air filters and avoid problems associated with hygienic and other conditions at operation of air filters. The selection of air filters is based on external conditions such as levels of existing pollutants, indoor air quality and energy efficiency requirements.

  1. Response to Question Concerning whether the Requirements for Preconstruction Review of New or Modified Air Pollution Sources Apply to the Relocation of an Existing Asphalt Concrete Plant when such Relocation does not Result in any Increase in Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  2. Why preeclampsia still exists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelbi, Sonia T; Veitia, Reiner A; Vaiman, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a deadly gestational disease affecting up to 10% of women and specific of the human species. Preeclampsia is clearly multifactorial, but the existence of a genetic basis for this disease is now clearly established by the existence of familial cases, epidemiological studies and known predisposing gene polymorphisms. PE is very common despite the fact that Darwinian pressure should have rapidly eliminated or strongly minimized the frequency of predisposing alleles. Consecutive pregnancies with the same partner decrease the risk and severity of PE. Here, we show that, due to this peculiar feature, preeclampsia predisposing-alleles can be differentially maintained according to the familial structure. Thus, we suggest that an optimal frequency of PE-predisposing alleles in human populations can be achieved as a result of a trade-off between benefits of exogamy, importance for maintaining genetic diversity and increase of the fitness owing to a stable paternal investment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Existence of Projective Planes

    OpenAIRE

    Perrott, Xander

    2016-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the history of finite projective planes and their properties before going on to outline the proof that no projective plane of order 10 exists. The report also investigates the search carried out by MacWilliams, Sloane and Thompson in 1970 [12] and confirms their result by providing independent verification that there is no vector of weight 15 in the code generated by the projective plane of order 10.

  4. Does bioethics exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, L

    2009-12-01

    Bioethicists disagree over methods, theories, decision-making guides, case analyses and public policies. Thirty years ago, the thinking of many scholars coalesced around a principlist approach to bioethics. That mid-level mode of moral reasoning is now one of many approaches to moral deliberation. Significant variation in contemporary approaches to the study of ethical issues related to medicine, biotechnology and health care raises the question of whether bioethics exists as widely shared method, theory, normative framework or mode of moral reasoning.

  5. Air pollution and the school air environment

    OpenAIRE

    Fsadni, Peter; Montefort, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about the association of school indoor air quality (SIAQ) with asthma, rhinitis, and rhinoconjunctivitis. Students and school staff deserve the highest standards of school air quality to ensure a safe and productive environment for our children’s education. Existing studies highlight the presence of several air pollutants present within school classrooms that have a direct association with poor health and poor student performance. Very little data exist ab...

  6. O Ponto G Existe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Molina Noccioli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho busca analisar o tratamento linguístico-discursivo das informações acerca de um tópicotemático tradicionalmente visto como tabu, relacionado a questões sexuais, na notícia O ponto G existe?, publicada em 2008, na revista brasileira Superinteressante, destacando-se como o conhecimento em questão é representado socialmente ao se considerar a linha editorial da revista. A notícia caracteriza-se como um campo fértil para a análise das estratégias divulgativas, já que atrai, inclusive pelas escolhas temáticas, a curiosidade dos leitores. Imbuído de um tema excêntrico, o texto consegue angariar um público jovem interessado em discussões polêmicas relacionadas ao seu universo.

  7. Lebesgue Sets Immeasurable Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marginean Petrovai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the notion of measure and integral were released early enough in close connection with practical problems of measuring of geometric figures. Notion of measure was outlined in the early 20th century through H. Lebesgue’s research, founder of the modern theory of measure and integral. It was developed concurrently a technique of integration of functions. Gradually it was formed a specific area todaycalled the measure and integral theory. Essential contributions to building this theory was made by a large number of mathematicians: C. Carathodory, J. Radon, O. Nikodym, S. Bochner, J. Pettis, P. Halmos and many others. In the following we present several abstract sets, classes of sets. There exists the sets which are not Lebesgue measurable and the sets which are Lebesgue measurable but are not Borel measurable. Hence B ⊂ L ⊂ P(X.

  8. EXIST Perspective for SFXTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubertini, Pietro; Sidoli, L.; Sguera, V.; Bazzano, A.

    2009-12-01

    Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXTs) are one of the most interesting (and unexpected) results of the INTEGRAL mission. They are a new class of HMXBs displaying short hard X-ray outbursts (duration less tha a day) characterized by fast flares (few hours timescale) and large dinamic range (10E3-10E4). The physical mechanism driving their peculiar behaviour is still unclear and highly debated: some models involve the structure of the supergiant companion donor wind (likely clumpy, in a spherical or non spherical geometry) and the orbital properties (wide separation with eccentric or circular orbit), while others involve the properties of the neutron star compact object and invoke very low magnetic field values (B 1E14 G, magnetars). The picture is still highly unclear from the observational point of view as well: no cyclotron lines have been detected in the spectra, thus the strength of the neutron star magnetic field is unknown. Orbital periods have been measured in only 4 systems, spanning from 3.3 days to 165 days. Even the duty cycle seems to be quite different from source to source. The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST), with its hard X-ray all-sky survey and large improved limiting sensitivity, will allow us to get a clearer picture of SFXTs. A complete census of their number is essential to enlarge the sample. A long term and continuous as possible X-ray monitoring is crucial to -(1) obtain the duty cycle, -(2 )investigate their unknown orbital properties (separation, orbital period, eccentricity),- (3) to completely cover the whole outburst activity, (4)-to search for cyclotron lines in the high energy spectra. EXIST observations will provide crucial informations to test the different models and shed light on the peculiar behaviour of SFXTs.

  9. Recovery of Extracellular Lipolytic Enzymes from Macrophomina phaseolina by Foam Fractionation with Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Schinke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophomina phaseolina was cultivated in complex and simple media for the production of extracellular lipolytic enzymes. Culture supernatants were batch foam fractionated for the recovery of these enzymes, and column design and operation included the use of P 2 frit (porosity 40 to 100 μm, air as sparging gas at variable flow rates, and Triton X-100 added at the beginning or gradually in aliquots. Samples taken at intervals showed the progress of the kinetic and the efficiency parameters. Best results were obtained with the simple medium supernatant by combining the stepwise addition of small amounts of the surfactant with the variation of the air flow rates along the separation. Inert proteins were foamed out first, and the subsequent foamate was enriched in the enzymes, showing estimated activity recovery (R, enrichment ratio (E, and purification factor (P of 45%, 34.7, and 2.9, respectively. Lipases were present in the enriched foamate.

  10. Measurement of air and VOC vapor fluxes during gas-driven soil remediation: bench-scale experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heonki; Kim, Taeyun; Shin, Seungyeop; Annable, Michael D

    2012-09-04

    In this laboratory study, an experimental method was developed for the quantitative analyses of gas fluxes in soil during advective air flow. One-dimensional column and two- and three-dimensional flow chamber models were used in this study. For the air flux measurement, n-octane vapor was used as a tracer, and it was introduced in the air flow entering the physical models. The tracer (n-octane) in the gas effluent from the models was captured for a finite period of time using a pack of activated carbon, which then was analyzed for the mass of n-octane. The air flux was calculated based on the mass of n-octane captured by the activated carbon and the inflow concentration. The measured air fluxes are in good agreement with the actual values for one- and two-dimensional model experiments. Using both the two- and three-dimensional models, the distribution of the air flux at the soil surface was measured. The distribution of the air flux was found to be affected by the depth of the saturated zone. The flux and flux distribution of a volatile contaminant (perchloroethene) was also measured by using the two-dimensional model. Quantitative information of both air and contaminant flux may be very beneficial for analyzing the performance of gas-driven subsurface remediation processes including soil vapor extraction and air sparging.

  11. Air Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  12. 40 CFR 63.312 - Existing regulations and requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing regulations and requirements. 63.312 Section 63.312 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.312 Existing regulations and requirements. (a) The...

  13. Ontological Proofs of Existence and Non-Existence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 2 (2008), s. 257-262 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100300503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : ontological proofs * existence * non-existence * Gödel * Caramuel Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  14. Existence theory in optimal control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olech, C.

    1976-01-01

    This paper treats the existence problem in two main cases. One case is that of linear systems when existence is based on closedness or compactness of the reachable set and the other, non-linear case refers to a situation where for the existence of optimal solutions closedness of the set of admissible solutions is needed. Some results from convex analysis are included in the paper. (author)

  15. Does evaporation paradox exist in China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. T. Cong

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available One expected consequence of global warming is the increase in evaporation. However, lots of observations show that the rate of evaporation from open pans of water has been steadily decreasing all over the world in the past 50 years. The contrast between expectation and observation is called "evaporation paradox". Based on data from 317 weather stations in China from 1956 to 2005, the trends of pan evaporation and air temperature were obtained and evaporation paradox was analyzed. The conclusions include: (1 From 1956 to 2005, pan evaporation paradox existed in China as a whole while pan evaporation kept decreasing and air temperature became warmer and warmer, but it does not apply to Northeast and Southeast China; (2 From 1956 to 1985, pan evaporation paradox existed narrowly as a whole with unobvious climate warming trend, but it does not apply to Northeast China; (3 From 1986 to 2005, in the past 20 years, pan evaporation paradox did not exist for the whole period while pan evaporation kept increasing, although it existed in South China. Furthermore, the trend of other weather factors including sunshine duration, windspeed, humidity and vapor pressure deficit, and their relations with pan evaporation are discussed. As a result, it can be concluded that pan evaporation decreasing is caused by the decreasing in radiation and wind speed before 1985 and pan evaporation increasing is caused by the decreasing in vapor pressure deficit due to strong warming after 1986. With the Budyko curve, it can be concluded that the actual evaporation decreased in the former 30 years and increased in the latter 20 year for the whole China.

  16. Paradoxical cerebral air embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Negrete, L.; Garcia-Lozano, J.; Sanchez, J. L.; Sala, J.

    2000-01-01

    We present a fatal case of intracranial air embolism produced by the passage of intravenous air to the arteries owing to the existence of a patent foremen ovale associated with pulmonary hypertension, which permitted a right-left shunt (paradoxical embolism). The pathophysiological mechanisms of pneumcephalus and paradoxical embolism are discussed and the pertinent literature is reviewed. (Author) 6 refs

  17. Modular head assembly and method of retrofitting existing nuclear reactor facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malandra, L.J.; Ledue, R.J.; Hankinson, M.F.; Kowalski, E.F.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described of retrofitting existing nuclear reactor facilities so as to form a modular closure head assembly for a nuclear reactor pressure vessel, where the existing nuclear reactor facilities comprise control rod drive mechanism cooling systems which include vertically extending elbow air ducts inter-connecting vertically spaced upper and lower air manifolds. The elbow air ducts extend radially beyond the peripheral envelope of the closure head, comprising the steps of: removing the upper air manifold; removing the vertically extending elbow air ducts; capping the air ports of the lower air manifold which ports were previously fluidically connecting the lower air manifold to the vertically extending elbow air ducts; disposing vertically upwardly extending air exhaust ducts above the lower air manifold in such an manner that the air exhaust ducts are disposed within the peripheral envelope of the closure head; fluidically connecting exhaust fans to the upper regions of the air exhaust ducts; fluidically connecting the lower regions of the air exhaust ducts the lower air manifold; permanently securing lift rods to the closure head at positions disposed radially outwardly of the lower air manifold; attaching a seismic support platform to the lift rods; proving fluidic passage of the vertically extending air exhaust ducts through the seismic support platform; attaching a missile shield plate to the lift rods; and proving fluidic passage of the vertically extending air exhaust ducts through the missile shield plate

  18. Air Conditioner/Dehumidifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    An ordinary air conditioner in a very humid environment must overcool the room air, then reheat it. Mr. Dinh, a former STAC associate, devised a heat pipe based humidifier under a NASA Contract. The system used heat pipes to precool the air; the air conditioner's cooling coil removes heat and humidity, then the heat pipes restore the overcooled air to a comfortable temperature. The heat pipes use no energy, and typical savings are from 15-20%. The Dinh Company also manufactures a "Z" coil, a retrofit cooling coil which may be installed on an existing heater/air conditioner. It will also provide free hot water. The company has also developed a photovoltaic air conditioner and solar powered water pump.

  19. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  20. FY 1977 Annual report on Sunshine Project results. Research and development of solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply (Research and development of solar systems for existing residential buildings); 1977 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kison kojin jutakuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-05-31

    As part of the research and development of the solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply for existing residential buildings, the following efforts are made: (1) system analysis, (2) studies on devices and materials, and (3) installation and operation of the facilities in test buildings, and collection of the data. For the item (1), the sensible heat type heat-accumulating tank is replaced by the latent heat type to reduce heat losses and auxiliary power requirements by improving heat-accumulating tank efficiency and revising the control procedure. For the item (2), the devices installed in the test buildings are tested to improve their performance and reliability, in which, e.g., results of operation, under commercial conditions, of the Rankine cycle refrigerator installed in the test building are taken into consideration. The empirical correlation {eta} 0.66 - 1.7{delta}T/I is obtained for instantaneous heat-collecting efficiency of a vacuum collector, made on a trial basis. Its heat loss is sufficiently small, which is in agreement with the results of the nighttime heat release tests. For the latent heat type heat-accumulating tank, stability of the materials therefor are investigated. For the Rankine cycle refrigerator, development of its parts is continued. For the item (3), the facilities are tested for around 7 months, and problems involved in each device are clarified. (NEDO)

  1. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vičan, Josef; Gocál, Jozef; Odrobiňák, Jaroslav; Koteš, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  2. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vičan Josef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  3. Limitations of existing web services

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Limitations of existing web services. Uploading or downloading large data. Serving too many user from single source. Difficult to provide computer intensive job. Depend on internet and its bandwidth. Security of data in transition. Maintain confidentiality of data ...

  4. Performance of Existing Hydrogen Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Christopher D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-01

    In this presentation, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory presented aggregated analysis results on the performance of existing hydrogen stations, including performance, operation, utilization, maintenance, safety, hydrogen quality, and cost. The U.S. Department of Energy funds technology validation work at NREL through its National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center (NFCTEC).

  5. Human preference for air movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.

    2002-01-01

    Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...... between subjects. Preference for less air movement was linearly correlated with draught discomfort, but the percentage of subjects who felt draught was lower than the percentage who preferred less air movement....

  6. The EXIST Mission Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Gerald J.; Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.

    2008-01-01

    EXIST is a mission designed to find and study black holes (BHs) over a wide range of environments and masses, including: 1) BHs accreting from binary companions or dense molecular clouds throughout our Galaxy and the Local Group, 2) supermassive black holes (SMBHs) lying dormant in galaxies that reveal their existence by disrupting passing stars, and 3) SMBHs that are hidden from our view at lower energies due to obscuration by the gas that they accrete. 4) the birth of stellar mass BHs which is accompanied by long cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) which are seen several times a day and may be associated with the earliest stars to form in the Universe. EXIST will provide an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity and angular resolution as well as greater spectral resolution and bandwidth compared with earlier hard X-ray survey telescopes. With an onboard optical-infra red (IR) telescope, EXIST will measure the spectra and redshifts of GRBs and their utility as cosmological probes of the highest z universe and epoch of reionization. The mission would retain its primary goal of being the Black Hole Finder Probe in the Beyond Einstein Program. However, the new design for EXIST proposed to be studied here represents a significant advance from its previous incarnation as presented to BEPAC. The mission is now less than half the total mass, would be launched on the smallest EELV available (Atlas V-401) for a Medium Class mission, and most importantly includes a two-telescope complement that is ideally suited for the study of both obscured and very distant BHs. EXIST retains its very wide field hard X-ray imaging High Energy Telescope (HET) as the primary instrument, now with improved angular and spectral resolution, and in a more compact payload that allows occasional rapid slews for immediate optical/IR imaging and spectra of GRBs and AGN as well as enhanced hard X-ray spectra and timing with pointed observations. The mission would conduct a 2 year full sky survey in

  7. The Greenhouse Effect Does Exist!

    OpenAIRE

    Ebel, Jochen

    2009-01-01

    In particular, without the greenhouse effect, essential features of the atmospheric temperature profile as a function of height cannot be described, i.e., the existence of the tropopause above which we see an almost isothermal temperature curve, whereas beneath it the temperature curve is nearly adiabatic. The relationship between the greenhouse effect and observed temperature curve is explained and the paper by Gerlich and Tscheuschner [arXiv:0707.1161] critically analyzed. Gerlich and Tsche...

  8. Europe - space for transcultural existence?

    OpenAIRE

    Tamcke, Martin; Janny, de Jong; Klein, Lars; Waal, Margriet

    2013-01-01

    Europe - Space for Transcultural Existence? is the first volume of the new series, Studies in Euroculture, published by Göttingen University Press. The series derives its name from the Erasmus Mundus Master of Excellence Euroculture: Europe in the Wider World, a two year programme offered by a consortium of eight European universities in collaboration with four partner universities outside Europe. This master highlights regional, national and supranational dimensions of the European democrati...

  9. Existence of undiscovered Uranian satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, D.C.

    1986-04-01

    Structure in the Uranian ring system as observed in recent occultations may contain indirect evidence for the existence of undiscovered satellites. Using the Alfven and Arrhenius (1975, 1976) scenario for the formation of planetary systems, the orbital radii of up to nine hypothetical satellites interior to Miranda are computed. These calculations should provide interesting comparisons when the results from the Voyager 2 encounter with Uranus are made public. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  10. UNCITRAL: Changes to existing law

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Joakim

    2008-01-01

    The UNCITRAL Convention on Contracts for the International Carriage of Goods [wholly or partly] by Sea has an ambition of replacing current maritime regimes and expands the application of the Convention to include also multimodal transport. This thesis questions what changes to existing law, in certain areas, the new Convention will bring compared to the current regimes. In the initial part, the thesis provides for a brief background and history of international maritime regulations and focus...

  11. Existence Results for Incompressible Magnetoelasticity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kružík, Martin; Stefanelli, U.; Zeman, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 6 (2015), s. 2615-2623 ISSN 1078-0947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18652S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : magnetoelasticity * magnetostrictive solids * incompressibility * existence of minimizers * quasistatic evolution * energetic solution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.127, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/MTR/kruzik-0443017.pdf

  12. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air ... will perform any procedures that use air-abrasion technology. Ask your dentist if he or she uses ...

  13. Improvement Design of an Existing Atomized Kerosene Stove for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The existing atomized kerosene stove being used in some households in Nigeria does not give room for primary air fuel mixture but secondary one before combustion. This in turn leads to higher specific fuel consumption and ultimately lower thermal efficiency (resulting from low combustion efficiency) of the stove. In order ...

  14. Indoor Air Quality in Chemistry Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Steve M.

    This paper presents air quality and ventilation data from an existing chemical laboratory facility and discusses the work practice changes implemented in response to deficiencies in ventilation. General methods for improving air quality in existing laboratories are presented and investigation techniques for characterizing air quality are…

  15. Quantum logics with existence property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, C.

    1991-01-01

    A quantum logic (σ-orthocomplete orthomodular poset L with a convex, unital, and separating set Δ of states) is said to have the existence property if the expectation functionals on lin(Δ) associated with the bounded observables of L form a vector space. Classical quantum logics as well as the Hilbert space logics of traditional quantum mechanics have this property. The author shows that, if a quantum logic satisfies certain conditions in addition to having property E, then the number of its blocks (maximal classical subsystems) must either be one (classical logics) or uncountable (as in Hilbert space logics)

  16. Does exercise pulmonary hypertension exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Edmund M; Chemla, Denis; Whyte, Kenneth; Kovacs, Gabor; Olschewski, Horst; Herve, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    The exercise definition of pulmonary hypertension using a mean pulmonary artery pressure threshold of greater than 30 mmHg was abandoned following the 4th World Pulmonary Hypertension Symposium in 2008, as this definition was not supported by evidence and healthy individuals frequently exceed this threshold. Meanwhile, the clinical value of exercise pulmonary hemodynamic testing has also been questioned. Recent data support the notion that an abnormal pulmonary hemodynamic response during exercise (or exercise pulmonary hypertension) is associated with symptoms and exercise limitation. Pathophysiologic mechanisms accounting for the development of exercise pulmonary hypertension include increased vascular resistance, excessive elevation in left atrial pressure and/or increased volume of trapped air during exercise, resulting in a steep rise in pulmonary artery pressure relative to cardiac output. Recent evidence suggests that exercise pulmonary hypertension may be defined by a mean pulmonary artery pressure surpassing 30 mmHg together with a simultaneous total pulmonary resistance exceeding 3 WU. Exercise pulmonary hypertension is a clinically relevant entity and an improved definition has been suggested based on new evidence. Exercise pulmonary hemodynamics may help unmask early or latent disease, particularly in populations that are at high risk for the development of pulmonary hypertension.

  17. Sparging - shear sensitivity of animal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van der L.A.

    1998-01-01

    Biopharmaceuticals are increasingly produced by modern biotechnological techniques. The in-vitro culture of animal cells in stirred tanks is one of the feasible systems, especially for proteins that require specific post-tanslational modifications to evoke a desired respons in patients.

  18. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Soysal; Yucel Demiral

    2007-01-01

    The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas...

  19. Applications Using AIRS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, S. E.; Pagano, T. S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Olsen, E. T.; Teixeira, J.; Licata, S. J.; Hall, J. R.; Thompson, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, AIRS data can play a role in applications that fall under many of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. For vector-borne disease, research is underway using AIRS near surface retrievals to assess outbreak risk, mosquito incubation periods and epidemic potential for dengue fever, malaria, and West Nile virus. For drought applications, AIRS temperature and humidity data are being used in the development of new drought indicators and improvement in the understanding of drought development. For volcanic hazards, new algorithms using AIRS data are in development to improve the reporting of sulfur dioxide concentration, the burden and height of volcanic ash and dust, all of which pose a safety threat to aircraft. In addition, anomaly maps of many of AIRS standard products are being produced to help highlight "hot spots" and illustrate trends. To distribute it's applications imagery, AIRS is leveraging existing NASA data frameworks and organizations to facilitate archiving, distribution and participation in the BEDI. This poster will communicate the status of the applications effort for the AIRS Project and provide examples of new maps designed to best communicate the AIRS data.

  20. Air pollution meteorology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvaikar, V V; Daoo, V J [Environmental Assessment Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2002-06-01

    This report is intended as a training cum reference document for scientists posted at the Environmental Laboratories at the Nuclear Power Station Sites and other sites of the Department of Atomic Energy with installations emitting air pollutants, radioactive or otherwise. Since a manual already exists for the computation of doses from radioactive air pollutants, a general approach is take here i.e. air pollutants in general are considered. The first chapter presents a brief introduction to the need and scope of air pollution dispersion modelling. The second chapter is a very important chapter discussing the aspects of meteorology relevant to air pollution and dispersion modelling. This chapter is important because without this information one really does not understand the phenomena affecting dispersion, the scope and applicability of various models or their limitations under various weather and site conditions. The third chapter discusses the air pollution models in detail. These models are applicable to distances of a few tens of kilometres. The fourth chapter discusses the various aspects of meteorological measurements relevant to air pollution. The chapters are followed by two appendices. Apendix A discusses the reliability of air pollution estimates. Apendix B gives some practical examples relevant to general air pollution. It is hoped that the document will prove very useful to the users. (author)

  1. Does cold nuclear fusion exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brudanin, V.B.; Bystritskij, V.M.; Egorov, V.G.; Shamsutdinov, S.G.; Shyshkin, A.L.; Stolupin, V.A.; Yutlandov, I.A.

    1989-01-01

    The results of investigation of cold nuclear fusion on palladium are given both for electrolysis of heavy water D 2 O and mixture D 2 O + H 2 O) (1:1) and for palladium saturation with gaseous deuterium. The possibility of existance of this phenomenon was examined by detection of neutrons and gamma quanta from reactions: d + d → 3 He + n + 3.27 MeV, p + d → 3 He + γ + 5.5 MeV. Besides these reactions were identified by measuring the characteristic X radiation of palladium due to effect of charged products 3 He, p, t. The upper limits of the intensities of hypothetical sources of neutrons and gamma quanta at the 95% confidence level were obtained to be Q n ≤ 2x10 -2 n/sxcm 3 Pd, Q γ ≤ 2x10 -3 γ/sxcm 3 Pd. 2 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  2. Straightening: existence, uniqueness and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destrade, M.; Ogden, R. W.; Sgura, I.; Vergori, L.

    2014-01-01

    One of the least studied universal deformations of incompressible nonlinear elasticity, namely the straightening of a sector of a circular cylinder into a rectangular block, is revisited here and, in particular, issues of existence and stability are addressed. Particular attention is paid to the system of forces required to sustain the large static deformation, including by the application of end couples. The influence of geometric parameters and constitutive models on the appearance of wrinkles on the compressed face of the block is also studied. Different numerical methods for solving the incremental stability problem are compared and it is found that the impedance matrix method, based on the resolution of a matrix Riccati differential equation, is the more precise. PMID:24711723

  3. Why do interstellar grains exist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seab, C.G.; Hollenbach, D.J.; Mckee, C.F.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.

    1986-01-01

    There exists a discrepancy between calculated destruction rates of grains in the interstellar medium and postulated sources of new grains. This problem was examined by modelling the global life cycle of grains in the galaxy. The model includes: grain destruction due to supernovae shock waves; grain injection from cool stars, planetary nebulae, star formation, novae, and supernovae; grain growth by accretion in dark clouds; and a mixing scheme between phases of the interstellar medium. Grain growth in molecular clouds is considered as a mechanism or increasing the formation rate. To decrease the shock destruction rate, several new physical processes, such as partial vaporization effects in grain-grain collisions, breakdown of the small Larmor radius approximation for betatron acceleration, and relaxation of the steady-state shock assumption are included

  4. Design, Construction, and Validation of an Internally Lit Air-Lift Photobioreactor for Growing Algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hincapie, Esteban [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Russ College of Engineering and Technology, Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States); Stuart, Ben J., E-mail: stuart@ohio.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Russ College of Engineering and Technology, Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States)

    2015-01-23

    A novel 28 L photobioreactor for growing algae was developed using fiber optics for internal illumination. The proposed design uses the air-lift principle to enhance the culture circulation and induce light/dark cycles to the microorganisms. Optical fibers were used to distribute photons inside the culture media providing an opportunity to control both light cycle and intensity. The fibers were coupled to an artificial light source; however, the development of this approach aims for the future use of natural light collected through parabolic solar collectors. This idea could also allow the use of opaque materials for photobioreactor construction significantly reducing costs and increasing durability. Internal light levels were determined in dry conditions and were maintained above 80 μmol/(s·m{sup 2}). The hydrodynamic equations of the air-lift phenomena were explored and used to define the geometric characteristics of the unit. The reactor was inoculated with the algae strain Chlorella sp. and sparged with air. The reactor was operated under batch mode and daily monitored for biomass concentration. The specific growth rate constant of the novel device was determined to be 0.011 h{sup −1}. The proposed design can be effectively and economically used in carbon dioxide mitigation technologies and in the production of algal biomass for biofuel and other bioproducts.

  5. Design, Construction, and Validation of an Internally Lit Air-Lift Photobioreactor for Growing Algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hincapie, Esteban; Stuart, Ben J.

    2015-01-01

    A novel 28 L photobioreactor for growing algae was developed using fiber optics for internal illumination. The proposed design uses the air-lift principle to enhance the culture circulation and induce light/dark cycles to the microorganisms. Optical fibers were used to distribute photons inside the culture media providing an opportunity to control both light cycle and intensity. The fibers were coupled to an artificial light source; however, the development of this approach aims for the future use of natural light collected through parabolic solar collectors. This idea could also allow the use of opaque materials for photobioreactor construction significantly reducing costs and increasing durability. Internal light levels were determined in dry conditions and were maintained above 80 μmol/(s·m 2 ). The hydrodynamic equations of the air-lift phenomena were explored and used to define the geometric characteristics of the unit. The reactor was inoculated with the algae strain Chlorella sp. and sparged with air. The reactor was operated under batch mode and daily monitored for biomass concentration. The specific growth rate constant of the novel device was determined to be 0.011 h −1 . The proposed design can be effectively and economically used in carbon dioxide mitigation technologies and in the production of algal biomass for biofuel and other bioproducts.

  6. Existe sujeito em Michel Maffesoli?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Appel da Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio discute a concepção de sujeito na abordagem teórica de Michel Maffesoli. As ideias desse autor estão em voga em alguns meios acadêmicos no Brasil e são difundidas por algumas mídias de grande circulação nacional. Entretanto, ao longo de suas obras, os pressupostos que definem quem é o sujeito maffesoliano se encontram pouco clarificados. Portanto, para alcançar o objetivo a que se propõe, este ensaio desenvolve uma análise da epistemologia e da ontologia maffesoliana com a finalidade de compreender as origens dos pressupostos desse autor, ou seja, as teorias e os autores em que Maffesoli se baseou para desenvolver uma visão de sujeito. Com essa compreensão, pretende-se responder à questão: existe sujeito na abordagem teórica de Maffesoli.

  7. On the existence of tropical anvil clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, J.; Jeevanjee, N.; Langhans, W.; Romps, D.

    2017-12-01

    In the deep tropics, extensive anvil clouds produce a peak in cloud cover below the tropopause. The dominant paradigm for cloud cover attributes this anvil peak to a layer of enhanced mass convergence in the clear-sky upper-troposphere, which is presumed to force frequent detrainment of convective anvils. However, cloud cover also depends on the lifetime of cloudy air after it detrains, which raises the possibility that anvil clouds may be the signature of slow cloud decay rather than enhanced detrainment. Here we measure the cloud decay timescale in cloud-resolving simulations, and find that cloudy updrafts that detrain in the upper troposphere take much longer to dissipate than their shallower counterparts. We show that cloud lifetimes are long in the upper troposphere because the saturation specific humidity becomes orders of magnitude smaller than the typical condensed water loading of cloudy updrafts. This causes evaporative cloud decay to act extremely slowly, thereby prolonging cloud lifetimes in the upper troposphere. As a consequence, extensive anvil clouds still occur in a convecting atmosphere that is forced to have no preferential clear-sky convergence layer. On the other hand, when cloud lifetimes are fixed at a characteristic lower-tropospheric value, extensive anvil clouds do not form. Our results support a revised understanding of tropical anvil clouds, which attributes their existence to the microphysics of slow cloud decay rather than a peak in clear-sky convergence.

  8. Air Layer Drag Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccio, Steven; Elbing, Brian; Winkel, Eric; Dowling, David; Perlin, Marc

    2008-11-01

    A set of experiments have been conducted at the US Navy's Large Cavitation Channel to investigate skin-friction drag reduction with the injection of air into a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer. Testing was performed on a 12.9 m long flat-plate test model with the surface hydraulically smooth and fully rough at downstream-distance-based Reynolds numbers to 220 million and at speeds to 20 m/s. Local skin-friction, near-wall bulk void fraction, and near-wall bubble imaging were monitored along the length of the model. The instrument suite was used to access the requirements necessary to achieve air layer drag reduction (ALDR). Injection of air over a wide range of air fluxes showed that three drag reduction regimes exist when injecting air; (1) bubble drag reduction that has poor downstream persistence, (2) a transitional regime with a steep rise in drag reduction, and (3) ALDR regime where the drag reduction plateaus at 90% ± 10% over the entire model length with large void fractions in the near-wall region. These investigations revealed several requirements for ALDR including; sufficient volumetric air fluxes that increase approximately with the square of the free-stream speed, slightly higher air fluxes are needed when the surface tension is reduced, higher air fluxes are required for rough surfaces, and the formation of ALDR is sensitive to the inlet condition.

  9. Summary of existing uncertainty methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, Horst

    2013-01-01

    A summary of existing and most used uncertainty methods is presented, and the main features are compared. One of these methods is the order statistics method based on Wilks' formula. It is applied in safety research as well as in licensing. This method has been first proposed by GRS for use in deterministic safety analysis, and is now used by many organisations world-wide. Its advantage is that the number of potential uncertain input and output parameters is not limited to a small number. Such a limitation was necessary for the first demonstration of the Code Scaling Applicability Uncertainty Method (CSAU) by the United States Regulatory Commission (USNRC). They did not apply Wilks' formula in their statistical method propagating input uncertainties to obtain the uncertainty of a single output variable, like peak cladding temperature. A Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) was set up in order to limit the number of uncertain input parameters, and consequently, the number of calculations to be performed. Another purpose of such a PIRT process is to identify the most important physical phenomena which a computer code should be suitable to calculate. The validation of the code should be focused on the identified phenomena. Response surfaces are used in some applications replacing the computer code for performing a high number of calculations. The second well known uncertainty method is the Uncertainty Methodology Based on Accuracy Extrapolation (UMAE) and the follow-up method 'Code with the Capability of Internal Assessment of Uncertainty (CIAU)' developed by the University Pisa. Unlike the statistical approaches, the CIAU does compare experimental data with calculation results. It does not consider uncertain input parameters. Therefore, the CIAU is highly dependent on the experimental database. The accuracy gained from the comparison between experimental data and calculated results are extrapolated to obtain the uncertainty of the system code predictions

  10. Modeling and validation of existing VAV system components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassif, N.; Kajl, S.; Sabourin, R. [Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The optimization of supervisory control strategies and local-loop controllers can improve the performance of HVAC (heating, ventilating, air-conditioning) systems. In this study, the component model of the fan, the damper and the cooling coil were developed and validated against monitored data of an existing variable air volume (VAV) system installed at Montreal's Ecole de Technologie Superieure. The measured variables that influence energy use in individual HVAC models included: (1) outdoor and return air temperature and relative humidity, (2) supply air and water temperatures, (3) zone airflow rates, (4) supply duct, outlet fan, mixing plenum static pressures, (5) fan speed, and (6) minimum and principal damper and cooling and heating coil valve positions. The additional variables that were considered, but not measured were: (1) fan and outdoor airflow rate, (2) inlet and outlet cooling coil relative humidity, and (3) liquid flow rate through the heating or cooling coils. The paper demonstrates the challenges of the validation process when monitored data of existing VAV systems are used. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  11. Indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollowell, C.D.

    1981-06-01

    Rising energy prices, among other factors, have generated an incentive to reduce ventilation rates and thereby reduce the cost of heating and cooling buildings. Reduced ventilation in buildings may significantly increase exposure to indoor air pollution and perhaps have adverse effects on occupant health and comfort. Preliminary findings suggest that reduced ventilation may adversely affect indoor air quality unless appropriate control strategies are undertaken. The strategies used to control indoor air pollution depend on the specific pollutant or class of pollutants encountered, and differ somewhat depending on whether the application is to an existing building or a new building under design and construction. Whenever possible, the first course of action is prevention or reduction of pollutant emissions at the source. In most buildings, control measures involve a combination of prevention, removal, and suppression. Common sources of indoor air pollution in buildings, the specific pollutants emitted by each source, the potential health effects, and possible control techniques are discussed

  12. Air Traffic Control Tools Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Noskievič

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly air transport in today’s world wouldn’t be able to exist without any air traffic control service. As the air transport has been coming through major changes and it has been expanding, it is assumed that its volume will be doubled in the next 15 years. Air traffic control uses strictly organised procedures to ensure safe course of air operations. With the skies covered with more airplanes every year, new tools must be introduced to allow the controllers to manage this rising amount of flying aircraft and to keep the air transport safe. This paper provides a comprehensive and organized material, which describes the newest tools and systems used by air traffic control officers. It proposes improvements for further research and development of ATC tools.

  13. 10 CFR 4.127 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Existing facilities. 4.127 Section 4.127 Energy NUCLEAR... 1973, as Amended Discriminatory Practices § 4.127 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient... make each of its existing facilities or every part of an existing facility accessible to and usable by...

  14. Air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    MacKenbach, JP; Henschel, S; Goodman, P; McKee, M

    2013-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  15. Liquid air cycle engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosevear, Jerry

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a definition of Liquid Air Cycle Engines (LACE) and existing relevant technologies. Heat exchanger design and fabrication techniques, the handling of liquid hydrogen to achieve the greatest heat sink capabilities, and air decontamination to prevent heat exchanger fouling are discussed. It was concluded that technology needs to be extended in the areas of design and fabrication of heat exchangers to improve reliability along with weight and volume reductions. Catalysts need to be improved so that conversion can be achieved with lower quantities and lower volumes. Packaging studies need to be investigated both analytically and experimentally. Recycling with slush hydrogen needs further evaluation with experimental testing.

  16. Advances in Understanding Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Diseases: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Joel D.; Spalt, Elizabeth W.; Curl, Cynthia L.; Hajat, Anjum; Jones, Miranda R.; Kim, Sun-Young; Vedal, Sverre; Szpiro, Adam A.; Gassett, Amanda; Sheppard, Lianne; Daviglus, Martha L.; Adar, Sara D.

    2016-01-01

    The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air) leveraged the platform of the MESA cohort into a prospective longitudinal study of relationships between air pollution and cardiovascular health. MESA Air researchers developed fine-scale, state-of-the-art air pollution exposure models for the MESA Air communities, creating individual exposure estimates for each participant. These models combine cohort-specific exposure monitoring, existing monitoring systems, and an extensive database of geographic and meteorological information. Together with extensive phenotyping in MESA—and adding participants and health measurements to the cohort—MESA Air investigated environmental exposures on a wide range of outcomes. Advances by the MESA Air team included not only a new approach to exposure modeling but also biostatistical advances in addressing exposure measurement error and temporal confounding. The MESA Air study advanced our understanding of the impact of air pollutants on cardiovascular disease and provided a research platform for advances in environmental epidemiology. PMID:27741981

  17. Evaluating natural radiation level by existing airborne radioactive data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingkao, Hu; Changqing, Han; Jiangqi, Fang; Zhengxin, Shen

    2002-01-01

    Airborne Survey and Remote Sensing Center of Nuclear Industry, founded in the middle of 1950s, is a unique unit specialized in uranium exploration by airborne radioactive survey in China. Large numbers of airborne data of radioactivity and abundant experience have been accumulated for more than 40 years. All-round detailed investigation of environmental radiation levels in our country will not be completed in the near future. Thus, at present it is considered to evaluate natural radiation levels using the existing radioactive data. This paper introduces the results of analysis and study comparing airborne radioactive data for radiation environmental evaluation obtained from survey area in Gansu, China, in the 2001 with the measurement results by ground gamma ray radiation dose-rate instrument for environment. The air-earth inter-comparison error does not exceed 30% at radiation fields with a definite area, and the air-earth inter-comparison error does not exceed 60% at outcrop of granite. In 6km long profile that has various circumstances, such as desert, Gobi, farmland and residential area, minimum of air absorbed dose rate is 47nGy/h at an altitude of 1 meter above the soil plane, maximum is 68nGy/h. The inter-comparison errors are usually less than 20%, and maximum is 25.38%. This shows that it is feasible to obtain natural radiation levels rapidly if we could use the existing radioactive data adequately and make some correction, such as geology factor

  18. Air lock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palkovich, P.; Gruber, J.; Madlener, W.

    1974-01-01

    The patent refers to an air lock system preferably for nuclear stations for the transport of heavy loads by means of a trolley on rails. For opening and closing of the air lock parts of the rails are removed, e.g. by a second rail system perpendicular to the main rails. (P.K.)

  19. Do Elementary Particles Have an Objective Existence?

    OpenAIRE

    Nissenson, Bilha

    2007-01-01

    The formulation of quantum theory does not comply with the notion of objective existence of elementary particles. Objective existence independent of observation implies the distinguishability of elementary particles. In other words: If elementary particles have an objective existence independent of observations, then they are distinguishable. Or if elementary particles are indistinguishable then matter cannot have existence independent of our observation. This paper presents a simple deductio...

  20. 34 CFR 104.22 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing facilities. 104.22 Section 104.22 Education... Accessibility § 104.22 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate its program or activity.... This paragraph does not require a recipient to make each of its existing facilities or every part of a...

  1. 45 CFR 1170.32 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing facilities. 1170.32 Section 1170.32... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Accessibility § 1170.32 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient... require a recipient to make each of its existing facilities or every part of a facility accessible to and...

  2. 45 CFR 605.22 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing facilities. 605.22 Section 605.22 Public... Accessibility § 605.22 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate each program or... existing facilities or every part of a facility accessible to and usable by qualified handicapped persons...

  3. 14 CFR 1251.301 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Existing facilities. 1251.301 Section 1251... HANDICAP Accessibility § 1251.301 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate each... existing facilities or every part of a facility accessible to and usable by handicapped persons. (b...

  4. 45 CFR 1151.22 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing facilities. 1151.22 Section 1151.22... Prohibited Accessibility § 1151.22 Existing facilities. (a) A recipient shall operate each program or... make each of its existing facilities or every part of a facility accessible to and usable by...

  5. 10 CFR 611.206 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Existing facilities. 611.206 Section 611.206 Energy... PROGRAM Facility/Funding Awards § 611.206 Existing facilities. The Secretary shall, in making awards to those manufacturers that have existing facilities, give priority to those facilities that are oldest or...

  6. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Soysal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 221-226

  7. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Soysal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(3: 221-226

  8. Mitigation of trichloroethylene contaminated air streams through biofiltration: a pilot-scale study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackey, L.W.; Gamble, J.R.; Boles, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    As a result of abundant usage and improper disposal practices, trichloroethylene (TCE) is one of the most prevalent groundwater contaminants. Traditional cleanup methods of aquifers contaminated with TCE include pumping the water to the surface and treating with stripper technology, soil vapor extraction, and air sparging. As a result of each of these mitigation schemes, TCE is transferred from the aqueous to the gas phase. As regulations associated with air emission tighten, development of technologies both technically feasible and cost effective for remediating TCE laden gas streams becomes imperative. This project demonstrated the use of biofiltration technology to mitigate TCE contaminated air streams. A pilot-scale biofilter system was designed, constructed, and subsequently installed at the Anniston Army Depot (ANAD), Anniston, AL. The system was inoculated with a propane-oxidizing microbial consortium that had previously been shown to degrade TCE as well as other short-chained chlorinated aliphatics and a variety of one-and two-ring aromatic compounds. Critical process variables were identified and their effects on system performance analyzed. Results indicated that the process scheme used to introduce propane into the biofiltration system had a significant impact on the observed TCE removal efficiency. The inlet contaminant concentration as well as the loading rate also had an impact on observed TCE degradation rates. Results suggest that biofilter performance and economics are generally improved by manipulating a specific waste stream so as to increase the TCE concentration and decrease the volumetric flow rate of the contaminated air fed to the biofilter. Through manipulation of process variables, including the empty bed contact time, TCE degradation efficiencies greater than 99.9 percent were sustained. No microbial inhibition was observed at inlet TCE concentrations as high as 87 parts per million on a volume basis (ppmv). (author)

  9. Baltimore Air Toxics Study (BATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, D.A. [Sullivan Environmental Consulting, Inc., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Baltimore Air Toxics Study is one of the three urban air toxics initiatives funded by EPA to support the development of the national air toxics strategy. As part of this project, the Air Quality Integrated Management System (AIMS) is under development. AIMS is designed to bring together the key components of urban air quality management into an integrated system, including emissions assessment, air quality modeling, and air quality monitoring. Urban area source emissions are computed for a wide range of pollutants and source categories, and are joined with existing point source emissions data. Measured air quality data are used to evaluate the adequacy of the emissions data and model treatments as a function of season, meteorological parameters, and daytime/nighttime conditions. Based on tested model performance, AIMS provides the potential to improve the ability to predict air quality benefits of alternative control options for criteria and toxic air pollutants. This paper describes the methods used to develop AIMS, and provides examples from its application in the Baltimore metropolitan area. The use of AIMS in the future to enhance environmental management of major industrial facilities also will be addressed in the paper.

  10. Air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, W; Mainwaring, S J

    1984-01-01

    This book deals with the nature of air pollution. The numerous sources of unwanted gases and dust particles in the air are discussed. Details are presented of the effects of pollutants on man, animals, vegetation and on inanimate materials. Methods used to measure, monitor and control air pollution are presented. The authors include information on the socio-economic factors which impinge on pollution control and on the problems the future will bring as methods of generating energy change and industries provide new sources of pollutants.

  11. Substitution of R502 in existing refrigerating, air-conditioning and heat pump systems with refrigerants of low ozone depletion potential in the Federal Republic of Germany; Ersatz von R 502 in bestehenden Kaelte-, Klima- und Waermepumpenanlagen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland durch Kaeltemittel mit geringerem Ozonabbaupotential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The technical basics and the state of engineering for the substitution of R502 in existing refrigeration systems are described and explained. The report contains an overview of the current applications of R502 in the FRG, the presentation and discussion of existing substitutes, the presentation and valuations of research and experiences with the adaptation to alternative refrigerants, the presentation of the required infrastructure and a discussion of the technical feasibility. The conversion of existing systems to refrigerants of lower ozone depletion potential is in conclusion valuated with regard to its technical feasibility, environmental relevance and economic efficiency. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es werden die technischen Grundlagen und der Stand der Technik zum Ersatz von R502 in bestehenden Kaelteanlagen dargestellt und erlaeutert. Der Bericht beinhaltet einen Ueberblick ueber die derzeitige Anwendung von R502 in der BRD, die Vorstellung und Diskussion existierender Ersatzstoffe, die Darstellung und Bewertung der Forschung und Erfahrungen zu Umruestungen auf Ersatzstoffe, die Vorstellung der erforderlichen Infrastruktur und die Diskussion der technischen Durchfuehrbarkeit. Die Umstellung bestehender Anlagen auf Kaeltemittel mit geringerem Ozonabbaupotential wird abschliessend hinsichtlich der technischen Durchfuehrbarkeit, der Umweltrelevanz und der Wirtschaftlichkeit bewertet. (orig.)

  12. Air lasing

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Ya

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the first comprehensive, interdisciplinary review of the rapidly developing field of air lasing. In most applications of lasers, such as cutting and engraving, the laser source is brought to the point of service where the laser beam is needed to perform its function. However, in some important applications such as remote atmospheric sensing, placing the laser at a convenient location is not an option. Current sensing schemes rely on the detection of weak backscattering of ground-based, forward-propagating optical probes, and possess limited sensitivity. The concept of air lasing (or atmospheric lasing) relies on the idea that the constituents of the air itself can be used as an active laser medium, creating a backward-propagating, impulsive, laser-like radiation emanating from a remote location in the atmosphere. This book provides important insights into the current state of development of air lasing and its applications.

  13. Air Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    genus as its predecessor of pre-war days. It would, however, be erroneous to conclude from this that the military value of each new development was...the paucity of communications, its conduct, when acting alone, has of necessity to be somewhat stereotyped in nature, and to con- form to a pre...the air, the attack commander, provided his command be equipped with defensive air power, has a rôle to perform which is simple and stereotyped in

  14. Existence of equilibria in articulated bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscaglia, G.; Ciuperca, I.; Hafidi, I.; Jai, M.

    2007-04-01

    The existence of equilibrium solutions for a lubricated system consisting of an articulated body sliding over a flat plate is considered. Though this configuration is very common (it corresponds to the popular tilting-pad thrust bearings), the existence problem has only been addressed in extremely simplified cases, such as planar sliders of infinite width. Our results show the existence of at least one equilibrium for a quite general class of (nonplanar) slider shapes. We also extend previous results concerning planar sliders.

  15. Air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masaaki

    1993-01-01

    The present invention provides an air conditioner which can prevent an undesirable effects on a human body due to radon daughter nuclides in a closed space. That is, the concentration of the radon daughter nuclides in the air in the closed space is continuously measured. A necessary amount of ventilation air is determined based on the measured concentration to generate control signals. External air is introduced into the closed space by the generated control signals. With such procedures, necessary amount of external air is taken from the atmospheric air which can be regarded to have the radon daughter nuclide concentration substantially at zero, thereby enabling to reduce the concentration of the radon daughter nuclides in the closed space. As a result, undesired effects on the human body due to the radon daughter nuclides staying in the closed space can be prevented. According to simulation, the radon daughter nuclides are rapidly decreased only by ventilation only for three times or so in one hour. Accordingly, ventilation is extremely effective and convenient means as a countermeasure for the radon daughter nuclides. (I.S.)

  16. 47 CFR 17.17 - Existing structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing structures. 17.17 Section 17.17... STRUCTURES Federal Aviation Administration Notification Criteria § 17.17 Existing structures. (a) The requirements found in § 17.23 relating to painting and lighting of antenna structures shall not apply to those...

  17. 10 CFR 1040.72 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Existing facilities. 1040.72 Section 1040.72 Energy... § 1040.72 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate any program or activity to... facilities or every part of a facility accessible to and useable by handicapped persons. (b) Methods. A...

  18. 45 CFR 84.22 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 84.22 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate its program or activity so that when each part is..., welfare, or other social services at alternate accessible sites, alteration of existing facilities and...

  19. Financial gap calculations for existing cogeneration 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hers, S.J.; Wetzels, W.; Seebregts, A.J.; Van der Welle, A.J.

    2008-05-01

    The Dutch SDE (abbreviation for the renewable energy incentive) subsidy scheme promotes the reduction of CO2 emissions which results from the use of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants. This report calculates the profitability of operation of existing CHP plants. This information can be used for decision making on the SDE subsidy for existing CHP plants in 2008 [nl

  20. On the existence of consistent price systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayraktar, Erhan; Pakkanen, Mikko S.; Sayit, Hasanjan

    2014-01-01

    We formulate a sufficient condition for the existence of a consistent price system (CPS), which is weaker than the conditional full support condition (CFS). We use the new condition to show the existence of CPSs for certain processes that fail to have the CFS property. In particular this condition...

  1. Energy saving potential in existing industrial compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vittorini, Diego; Cipollone, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The Compressed Air Sector accounts for a mean 10% worldwide electricity consumption, which ensures about its importance, when energy saving and CO_2 emissions reduction are in question. Since the compressors alone account for 15% overall industry electricity consumption, it appears vital to pay attention to machine performances. The paper presents an overview of present compressor technology and focuses on saving directions for screw and sliding vanes machines, according to data provided by the Compressed Air and Gas Institute and PNEUROP. Data were processed to obtain consistency with fixed reference pressures and organized as a function of main operating parameters. Each sub-term, contributing to the overall efficiency (adiabatic, volumetric, mechanical, electric, organic), was considered separately: the analysis showed that the thermodynamic improvement during compression achievable by splitting the compression in two stages, with a lower compression ratio, opens the way to significantly reduce the energy specific consumption. - Highlights: • Compressors technology overview in industrial compressed air systems. • Market compressors efficiency baseline definition. • Energy breakdown and evaluation of main efficiency terms. • Assessment of air cooling-related energy saving potential. • Energy specific consumption reduction through dual stage compression.

  2. Unintentional formation and emission of the persistent organic pollutants HCB and PCBs in the Nordic countries. Documentation of existing information regarding sources and emissions to air, water and soil, with focus on reporting obligations according to the Stockholm Convention, the UNECE POP protocol, and PRTR registers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    In recent years reporting requirements regarding emissions and releases of unintentionally formed persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been laid on parties to international agreements and members of the EU. Such obligations include those under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, the UNECE POP and PRTR protocols and the EU PRTR regulation. The aim of this project has been to assess, whether existing knowledge and data are adequate for the Nordic countries to be able to estimate the emissions eventually to be reported. The project reveals that there is a substantial lack of knowledge related to potential sources in the Nordic countries. It also suggests that even though many of the main potential sources are the same, the relative importance of them differs between countries. (au)

  3. Overview of ambient air quality monitoring in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Air quality data is currently collected, processed and archived by a number of independent institutes. No collaboration exists between these organisations and there is no provincial or national air quality data information system or archive...

  4. Air surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995)

  5. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  6. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feugier, A.

    1996-01-01

    The air pollution results from the combustion of petroleum products, natural gas, coal, wastes and transports. Some compounds are considered as particularly pollutants: the carbon monoxide, the nitrogen oxides, the tropospheric ozone and the sulfur dioxides. Their environmental and biological effects are described. The present political guide lines concerns the combustion plants, the ozone, the wastes incineration and the vehicles emissions. The aim is at some future date to control the air quality, to reduce the volatile organic compounds emissions and to limit the sulfur rate of some petroleum products. (O.L.)

  7. 77 FR 28519 - Test Procedure Guidance for Room Air Conditioners, Residential Dishwashers, and Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... Guidance for Room Air Conditioners, Residential Dishwashers, and Residential Clothes Washers: Public... procedures for room air conditioners, residential dishwashers, and residential clothes washers. DATES: DOE...'s existing test procedures for residential room air conditioners, residential dishwashers, and...

  8. 75 FR 51569 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental... hazardous air pollutants for existing stationary spark ignition reciprocating internal combustion engines...

  9. The existence of trajectories joining critical points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shuxiang.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, using the notion of an isolating block and the concept of canonical regions, three existence criteria of trajectories connecting a pair of critical points of planar differential equations are given. (author)

  10. Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Affordable Care Act created the new Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan (PCIP) program to make health insurance available to Americans denied coverage by...

  11. Seismic assessment of existing nuclear chemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merriman, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper outlines the generic approach to the seismic assessment of existing structures. It describes the role of the safety case in determining the studies carried out by the functional departments on individual projects. There is an emphasis on the role of existing information and material tests to provide realistic properties for analysis to account for possible degradation effects. Finally, a case study of a concrete containment cell is shown to illustrate the approach. (author)

  12. Solar Panel Installations on Existing Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Tim D. Sass; Pe; Leed

    2013-01-01

    The rising price of fossil fuels, government incentives and growing public aware-ness for the need to implement sustainable energy supplies has resulted in a large in-crease in solar panel installations across the country. For many sites the most eco-nomical solar panel installation uses existing, southerly facing rooftops. Adding solar panels to an existing roof typically means increased loads that must be borne by the building-s structural elements. The structural desig...

  13. The global existence problem in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, L

    2000-01-01

    We survey some known facts and open questions concerning the global properties of 3+1 dimensional space--times containing a compact Cauchy surface. We consider space--times with an $\\ell$--dimensional Lie algebra of space--like Killing fields. For each $\\ell \\leq 3$, we give some basic results and conjectures on global existence and cosmic censorship. For the case of the 3+1 dimensional Einstein equations without symmetries, a new small data global existence result is announced.

  14. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution has accompanied and developed with the industrial age, since its beginnings. This very complete review furnishes the toxicological data available for the principal pollutants and assesses the epidemiologic studies thus far conducted. It also describes European regulations and international commitments for the reduction of emissions. (author)

  15. Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of the 'Assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' describes the air quality and identifies the most important air quality issues. Baseline information about the factors affecting dispersion and the climate of Lebanon presents as well and overall estimation of total emissions in Lebanon. Emissions from vehicles, electricity and power plants generation are described. Industrial emitters of air pollutants are described for each kind of industry i.e.cement plants, Selaata fertilizer factory, sugar-beet factory, refineries and for those derived from the use of leaded fuel . Impact of economic and human activities on air quality in Lebanon (especially in Beirut and Tripoli) are quantified by quantities of CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , total suspended particulates(TSP), deposition and their environmental effects on health. In abscence of emissions monitoring, data available are expressed in terms of fuel use, output and appropriate empirical factors, national output and workfores sizes. Finally key issues and some potential mitigation /management approaches are presented

  16. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst...

  17. Secondary Aluminum Production: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for new and existing sources at secondary aluminum production facilities. Includes rule history, summary, federal register citations and implementation information.

  18. Existence test for asynchronous interval iterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Caprani, O.; Stauning, Ole

    1997-01-01

    In the search for regions that contain fixed points ofa real function of several variables, tests based on interval calculationscan be used to establish existence ornon-existence of fixed points in regions that are examined in the course ofthe search. The search can e.g. be performed...... as a synchronous (sequential) interval iteration:In each iteration step all components of the iterate are calculatedbased on the previous iterate. In this case it is straight forward to base simple interval existence and non-existencetests on the calculations done in each step of the iteration. The search can also...... on thecomponentwise calculations done in the course of the iteration. These componentwisetests are useful for parallel implementation of the search, sincethe tests can then be performed local to each processor and only when a test issuccessful do a processor communicate this result to other processors....

  19. Seismic reevaluation of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennart, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The codes and regulations governing Nuclear Power Plant seismic analysis are continuously becoming more stringent. In addition, design ground accelerations of existing plants must sometimes be increased as a result of discovery of faulting zones or recording of recent earthquakes near the plant location after plant design. These new factors can result in augmented seismic design criteria. Seismic reanalysius of the existing Nuclear Power Plant structures and equipments is necessary to prevent the consequences of newly postulated accidents that could cause undue risk to the health or safety of the public. This paper reviews the developments of seismic analysis as applied to Nuclear Power Plants and the methods used by Westinghouse to requalify existing plants to the most recent safety requirements. (author)

  20. The Existence of Public Protection Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Ilham A. Hamudy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the Public Protection Unit (Satlinmas formerly known as civil defence (Hansip. This article is a summary of the results of the desk study and fieldwork conducted in October-November 2013 in the town of Magelang and Surabaya. This study used descriptive qualitative approach to explore the combined role and existence Satlinmas. The results of the study showed, the existence of the problem Satlinmas still leave many, including, first, the legal basis for the establishment of Satlinmas. Until now, there has been no new regulations governing Satlinmas. Existing regulations are too weak and cannot capture the times. Second, the formulation of concepts and basic tasks and functions Satlinmas overlap with other institutions. Third, Satlinmas image in society tend to fade and abused. Fourth, Satlinmas incorporation into the Municipal Police deemed not appropriate, because different philosophy.

  1. EFFECTS OF OXYGEN AND AIR MIXING ON VOID FRACTIONS IN A LARGE SCALE SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leishear, R; Hector Guerrero, H; Michael Restivo, M

    2008-01-01

    Oxygen and air mixing with spargers was performed in a 30 foot tall by 30 inch diameter column, to investigate mass transfer as air sparged up through the column and removed saturated oxygen from solution. The mixing techniques required to support this research are the focus of this paper. The fluids tested included water, water with an antifoam agent (AFA), and a high, solids content, Bingham plastic, nuclear waste simulant with AFA, referred to as AZ01 simulant, which is non-radioactive. Mixing of fluids in the column was performed using a recirculation system and an air sparger. The re-circulation system consisted of the column, a re-circulating pump, and associated piping. The air sparger was fabricated from a two inch diameter pipe concentrically installed in the column and open near the bottom of the column. The column contents were slowly re-circulated while fluids were mixed with the air sparger. Samples were rheologically tested to ensure effective mixing, as required. Once the fluids were adequately mixed, oxygen was homogeneously added through the re-circulation loop using a sintered metal oxygen sparger followed by a static mixer. Then the air sparger was re-actuated to remove oxygen from solution as air bubbled up through solution. To monitor mixing effectiveness several variables were monitored, which included flow rates, oxygen concentration, differential pressures along the column height, fluid levels, and void fractions, which are defined as the percent of dissolved gas divided by the total volume of gas and liquid. Research showed that mixing was uniform for water and water with AFA, but mixing for the AZ101 fluid was far more complex. Although mixing of AZ101 was uniform throughout most of the column, gas entrapment and settling of solids significantly affected test results. The detailed test results presented here provide some insight into the complexities of mixing and void fractions for different fluids and how the mixing process itself

  2. EFFECTS OF OXYGEN AND AIR MIXING ON VOID FRACTIONS IN A LARGE SCALE SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leishear, R; Hector Guerrero, H; Michael Restivo, M

    2008-09-11

    Oxygen and air mixing with spargers was performed in a 30 foot tall by 30 inch diameter column, to investigate mass transfer as air sparged up through the column and removed saturated oxygen from solution. The mixing techniques required to support this research are the focus of this paper. The fluids tested included water, water with an antifoam agent (AFA), and a high, solids content, Bingham plastic, nuclear waste simulant with AFA, referred to as AZ01 simulant, which is non-radioactive. Mixing of fluids in the column was performed using a recirculation system and an air sparger. The re-circulation system consisted of the column, a re-circulating pump, and associated piping. The air sparger was fabricated from a two inch diameter pipe concentrically installed in the column and open near the bottom of the column. The column contents were slowly re-circulated while fluids were mixed with the air sparger. Samples were rheologically tested to ensure effective mixing, as required. Once the fluids were adequately mixed, oxygen was homogeneously added through the re-circulation loop using a sintered metal oxygen sparger followed by a static mixer. Then the air sparger was re-actuated to remove oxygen from solution as air bubbled up through solution. To monitor mixing effectiveness several variables were monitored, which included flow rates, oxygen concentration, differential pressures along the column height, fluid levels, and void fractions, which are defined as the percent of dissolved gas divided by the total volume of gas and liquid. Research showed that mixing was uniform for water and water with AFA, but mixing for the AZ101 fluid was far more complex. Although mixing of AZ101 was uniform throughout most of the column, gas entrapment and settling of solids significantly affected test results. The detailed test results presented here provide some insight into the complexities of mixing and void fractions for different fluids and how the mixing process itself

  3. Radiation protection programme for existing exposure situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadhani, Hilali Hussein

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to develop the Radiation protection Programme (RPP) to ensure that measures are in place for protection of individuals from the existing source of exposure. The study established a number of protective and remedial actions to be considered by the responsible regulatory Authority, licensee for existing exposure in workplace and dwellings. Tanzania is endowed with a number NORMs processing industries with an experience of uncontrolled exploration and extraction of minerals and the use of unsafe mining methods leading to severe environmental damage and appalling living conditions in the mining communities. Some of NORMs industries have been abandoned due to lack of an effect management infrastructure. The residual radioactive materials have been found to be the most import source of existing exposure resulted from NORMs industries. The Radon gas and its progeny have also been found to be a source of existing exposure from natural source as well as the major source of risk and health effects associated with existing exposure situation. The following measures have been discovered to play a pivotal role in avoiding or reducing the source of exposure to individuals such as restriction of the use of the construction materials, restriction on the consumption of foodstuffs and restriction on the access to the land and buildings, the removal of the magnitude of the source in terms of activity concentration as well as improvement of ventilation in dwellings. Therefore, the regulatory body (Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission) should examine the major areas outlined in the established RRP for existing exposure situation resulted from the NORMs industries and natural sources so as to develop strategies that will ensure the adequate protection of members of the public and the environment as well as guiding operating organizations to develop radiation protection and safety measures for workers. (au)

  4. Health Effects of Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Education Report and Newsletter, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes health hazards associated with air pollution, highlighting the difficulty in establishing acceptable thresholds of exposure. Respiratory disease, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other problems are addressed. Indicates that a wide range of effects from any one chemical exists and that there are differences in sensitivity to…

  5. Control of air toxics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livengood, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    For more than 10 years, Argonne National Laboratory has supported the US DOE's Flue Gas Cleanup Program objective by developing new or improved environmental controls for industries that use fossil fuels. Argonne's pollutant emissions research has ranged from experiments in the basic chemistry of pollution-control systems, through laboratory-scale process development and testing, to pilot-scale field tests of several technologies. The work on air toxics is currently divided into two components: Investigating measures to improve the removal of mercury in existing pollution-control systems applied to coal combustion; and, Developing sensors and control techniques for emissions found in the textile industry

  6. Reduced energy reqirement for air conditioning by using air diffusion with air flow from floor to ceiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, H; Dittes, W; Mangelsdorf, R; Detzer, R; Jungbaeck, E; Fitzner, K; Radtke, W; Soethout, F

    1982-02-01

    The condition of the air in the occupied zone in airconditioned rooms is influenced by the mixing of supply air with room air. When supplying air from the ceiling there is a mixing all over the room, when supplying from the floor or from desks there is a mixing region only in the lower area. Above this their is warm air from which the return air is drawn. For air supply from below the cooling load can be decreased. In combination with the possible enthalpy difference between room air and supply air this decrease of the cooling load influences the necessary air rate. The interdependence of various air conditioning systems and various air temperatures is shown with a computer program. The load factor for various air distribution system at various cooling loads have been measured in a room of (8 x 5)m/sup 2/ x 3m. Experiments in a smaller model room (scale 1:3) showed how the heat was transported from the mixing region to the stratification region. The theoretically gained influence of the supply air jets of the height of the mixing region and on the load rate could be verified by the experiments. For the design of the fresh air rate, experience has been gained by measurements with tracegas (N/sub 2/O) in a third room. In comparing calculations the annual energy consumption has been computed for a building assuming various air conditioning systems and typical operation data. From experience with the existing systems the conclusions have been drawn how air distribution from floor to ceiling can be installed and operated.

  7. Air Pollution Potential from Electroplating Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Philip

    Measurements were made of emission rates from electroplating operations considered to have maximum air pollution potential. Sampling was performed at McClellan and additional data from a previous survey at Hill Air Force Base was used. Values obtained were extremely low. Based on existing Federal standards, no collectors are specifically required…

  8. Indoor Air Quality: A Guide for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    Indoor air quality is a major concern for educators involved in the development of new school facilities, or the remodeling and maintenance of existing ones. This guide addresses the issue of air quality, the health concerns involved, and procedures for minimizing the impact of pollutants in the school environment. It defines common indoor air…

  9. Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The anthropic pollution sources are essentially industrial or bound to transport. A phenomenon of these last twenty years is the decreasing of the industrial pollution and the increasing of pollution coming from automobiles. Emissions of furans and dioxines coming from municipal wastes are measured. A special attention is mentioned for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons coming from incomplete combustions. A last aspect of air pollution is studied with the effect on man, ecosystems and materials, by modeling or direct measurements. (N.C.)

  10. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.

    2000-01-01

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO 2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  11. NOx Controls For Existing Utility Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  12. Maintenance Program for Existing Gas Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  13. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  14. Foucault, Counselling and the Aesthetics of Existence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Michel Foucault was drawn late in life to study the "arts of the self" in Greco-Roman culture as a basis, following Nietzsche, for what he called an "aesthetics of existence." By this, he meant a set of creative and experimental processes and techniques by which an individual turns him- or herself into a work of art. For Nietzsche, it was above…

  15. How to prove the existence of metabolons?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassard, Jean-Étienne André; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2017-01-01

    Sequential enzymes in biosynthetic pathways are organized in metabolons. It is challenging to provide experimental evidence for the existence of metabolons as biosynthetic pathways are composed of highly dynamic protein–protein interactions. Many different methods are being applied, each with str...

  16. Conditions for the Existence of Market Equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, William D. A.

    1997-01-01

    Maintains that most graduate-level economics textbooks rarely mention the need for consumers to be above their minimum wealth position as a condition for market equilibrium. Argues that this omission leaves students with a mistaken sense about the range of circumstances under which market equilibria can exist. (MJP)

  17. 22 CFR 142.16 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 142.16 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate each program or activity to which this part applies so that when each...., telecommunication device for the deaf) redesign of equipment, reassignment of classes or other services to...

  18. Transportation capabilities of the existing cask fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.; Wankerl, M.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a number of scenarios estimating the amount of spent nuclear fuel that could be transported to a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility by various combinations of existing cask fleets. To develop the scenarios, the data provided by the Transportation System Data Base (TSDB) were modified to reflect the additional time for cask turnaround resulting from various startup and transportation issues. With these more realistic speed and cask-handling assumptions, the annual transportation capability of a fleet consisting of all of the existing casks is approximately 46 metric tons of uranium (MTU). The most likely fleet of existing casks that would be made available to the Department of Energy (DOE) consists of two rail, three overweight truck, and six legal weight truck casks. Under the same transportation assumptions, this cask fleet is capable of approximately transporting 270 MTU/year. These ranges of capability is a result of the assumptions pertaining to the number of casks assumed to be available. It should be noted that this assessment assumes additional casks based on existing certifications are not fabricated. 5 refs., 4 tabs

  19. Conservation and Development Options existing on Uluguru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective management of projects on Uluguru Mountains requires that both development and conservation options are weighed and that opportunities and challenges are considered. This study identified various conservation and development options existing on Uluguru Mountains and assessed the perceptions of the local ...

  20. Transportation capabilities of the existing cask fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Wankerl, M.W.; Joy, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a number of scenarios estimating the amount of spent nuclear fuel that could be transported to a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility by various combinations of existing cask fleets. To develop the scenarios, the data provided by the Transportation System Data Base (TSDB) were modified to reflect the additional time for cask turnaround resulting from various startup and transportation issues. With these more realistic speed and cask-handling assumptions, the annual transportation capability of a fleet consisting of all of the existing casks is approximately 465 metric tons of uranium (MTU). The most likely fleet of existing casks that would be made available to the DOE consists of two rail, three overweight truck, and six legal weight truck casks. Under the same transportation assumptions, this cask fleet is capable of approximately transporting 270 MTU/year. These ranges of capability is a result of the assumptions pertaining to the number of casks assumed to be available. It should be noted that this assessment assumes additional casks based on existing certifications are not fabricated

  1. Does the Kuleshov Effect really Exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barratt, Daniel; Cabak Rédei, Anna

    2013-01-01

    with a doll, a dead woman in a coffin, and a bowl of soup; the viewers of the three sequences were reported to have perceived Mozhukin’s face as expressing happiness, sadness, and hunger/thoughtfulness respectively. It is not clear, however, whether or not the socalled “Kuleshov effect” really exists...

  2. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SOME EXISTING KINETIC MODELS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biosorption of three heavy metal ions namely; Zn2+, Cu2+ and Mn2+ using five microorganisms namely; Bacillus circulans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus xylosus, Streptomyces rimosus and Yeast (Saccharomyces sp.) were studied. In this paper, the effectiveness of six existing and two proposed kinetic ...

  3. Do ‘African’ universities exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stig; Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides a background for understanding the book. We outline some of the debates in which the individual chapters are situated and thereby show how the book contributes to and fills gaps in existing research. After providing a short history of African universities, the chapter subseq...

  4. Do Biopositive Effects of Ionizing Radiations Exist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1983-01-01

    The claim that radiations, e.g, in spas, can have biopositive actions on humans is unproven and unplausible. It also conflicts with the contents of the standard handbooks and with national legislation everywhere. Further, stimulation of plants by radiation is badly reproducible. But even if existing it need not be beneficial to the plant itself ("selfpositive"). (author)

  5. Repurposing Existing Material for Performance Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Francis A.; Nelson, Adam

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of performance support systems (PSS), describes their role in promoting productivity in agile organizations, and discusses issues related to developing effective performance support using existing orientation, training, or procedural manuals. Topics include strategic principles of agility, and adding value when incorporating…

  6. Global existence proof for relativistic Boltzmann equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudynski, M.; Ekiel-Jezewska, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    The existence and causality of solutions to the relativistic Boltzmann equation in L 1 and in L loc 1 are proved. The solutions are shown to satisfy physically natural a priori bounds, time-independent in L 1 . The results rely upon new techniques developed for the nonrelativistic Boltzmann equation by DiPerna and Lions

  7. 38 CFR 18.422 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap Accessibility § 18.422 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate each program or activity to which this... visits, delivery of health, or other social services at alternate accessible sites, alteration of...

  8. Developing an Actuarial Track Utilizing Existing Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kathy V.; Sarol, Yalçin

    2014-01-01

    Students earning a degree in mathematics often seek information on how to apply their mathematical knowledge. One option is to follow a curriculum with an actuarial emphasis designed to prepare students as an applied mathematician in the actuarial field. By developing only two new courses and utilizing existing courses for Validation by…

  9. 7 CFR 1718.52 - Existing mortgages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Existing mortgages. 1718.52 Section 1718.52 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN SECURITY DOCUMENTS FOR ELECTRIC BORROWERS Mortgage for Distribution Borrowers § 1718.52...

  10. Transforming existing content into reusable Learning Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorten, Monique; Giesbers, Bas; Janssen, José; Daniels, Jan; Koper, Rob

    2003-01-01

    Please cite as: Doorten, M., Giesbers, B., Janssen, J., Daniëls, J, & Koper, E.J.R., (2004). Transforming existing content into reusable learning objects. In R. McGreal, Online Education using Learning Objects (pp. 116-127). London: RoutledgeFalmer.

  11. Psychology's struggle for existence: Second edition, 1913.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wundt, Wilhelm; Lamiell, James T

    2013-08-01

    Presents an English translation of Wilhelm Wundt's Psychology's struggle for existence: Second edition, 1913, by James T. Lamiell in August, 2012. In his essay, Wundt advised against the impending divorce of psychology from philosophy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Altering existing buildings in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The profiles of both existing housing and existing public and commercial buildings show that many have very poor thermal efficiency. The UK housing stock is replaced at a low rate of about 1% a year, so to cut energy use it is essential to address the challenges of existing buildings. This will involve reducing energy demand through passive measures such as retrofitted insulation, replacement of windows and proper airtightness, while ensuring adequate ventilation. Active measures include upgrading improved boilers and adding locally produced energy from wind, biomass, solar power and other sources. The introduction of Display Energy Certificates will increase energy awareness but there will also need to be a programme of increased demolition for the worst-performing homes. In addition, buildings will need to be adapted to cope with worse weather, higher temperatures and increased flood risk as climate change takes effect. Overheating, rather than excessive cold, is set to become a growing problem for householders and employees in existing UK buildings

  13. Adding Semantic Support to Existing UDDI Infrastructure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luo, Jim; Montrose, Bruce; Kang, Myong

    2005-01-01

    .... The advantage is that it is completely backward compatible. The add-on modules only need to be installed on the clients of users who wish to take advantage of semantic markups. They can be integrated seamlessly into existing systems and operations without any modification of the infrastructure.

  14. Air pollution control. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumbach, G.; Baumann, K.; Droescher, F.; Gross, H.; Steisslinger, B.

    1994-01-01

    Controlling the pollution of the air is an interdisciplinary problem. This introduction reaches from the origin of hazardous substances via their extension and conversion in the atmosphere, their effects of men, animals, plants and goods up to reduction methods for the various sources. Measuring techniques are one of the main points of interest, as it plays a key role in detecting hazardous substances and monitoring reduction measures. A survey of the history shows the historical dimension of the subject. The prescriptions relating to air pollution control give an impression of the present situation of air pollution control. Currently existing problems such as waste gases from motor vehicles, SO 2 transports, ozone in the ambient air, newly detected sorts of damage to the forests, emission reduction in the burning of fossile fuels, polychloried dibenzodioxins and furanes are dealt with. (orig.). 232 figs [de

  15. Air ventilation/controlling facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1997-12-12

    When all electricity supply from the outside of a power plant are lost, a power generator directly connected to an emergency steam turbine which is driven by steams introduced from a nuclear reactor is driven to supply electricity required in the power plant. Cool water prepared by a refrigerator is used as cooling water in an air ventilation/controlling facility of a room equipped with the power generating facility. As the refrigerator, a refrigerator of an existent emergency air cooling water system for an auxiliary air ventilation/controlling equipment is used. This can extend the period of time till the temperature of the room where the power generator is disposed exceeds the temperature range capable of keeping the integrity of the power generator even when all the AC power supply are lost to inactivate the function of the air ventilation/controlling system. (I.S.)

  16. Air congestion delay: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alberto Pamplona

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is a literature review of the air congestion delay and its costs. Air congestion is a worldwide problem. Its existence brings costs for airlines and discomfort for passengers. With the increasing demand for air transport, the study of air congestion has attracted the attention of many researchers around the world. The cause for the delays is erroneously attributed only to the lack of infrastructure investments. The literature review shows that other factors such as population growth, increasing standards of living, lack of operational planning and environmental issues exercise decisive influence. Several studies have been conducted in order to analyze and propose solutions to this problem that affects society as a whole.

  17. Measure Guideline: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This document addresses adding -or improving - mechanical ventilation systems to existing homes. The purpose of ventilation is to remove contaminants from homes, and this report discusses where, when, and how much ventilation is appropriate in a home, including some discussion of relevant codes and standards. Advantages, disadvantages, and approximate costs of various system types are presented along with general guidelines for implementing the systems in homes. CARB intends for this document to be useful to decision makers and contractors implementing ventilation systems in homes. Choosing the "best" system is not always straightforward; selecting a system involves balancing performance, efficiency, cost, required maintenance, and several other factors. It is the intent of this document to assist contractors in making more informed decisions when selecting systems. Ventilation is an integral part of a high-performance home. With more air-sealed envelopes, a mechanical means of removing contaminants is critical for indoor environmental quality and building durability.

  18. Measure Guideline: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report, developed by Building America research team CARB, addresses adding or improving mechanical ventilation systems to existing homes. The goal of this report is to assist decision makers and contractors in making informed decisions when selecting ventilation systems for homes. With more air-sealed envelopes, a mechanical means of removing contaminants is critical for indoor environmental quality and building durability. The purpose of ventilation is to remove contaminants from homes, and this report discusses where, when, and how much ventilation is appropriate in a home, including examination of relevant codes and standards. Choosing the "best" system is not always straightforward; selecting a system involves balancing performance, efficiency, cost, required maintenance, and several other factors.

  19. Air Pollution Forecasts: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lu; Wang, Jianzhou; Lu, Haiyan

    2018-01-01

    Air pollution is defined as a phenomenon harmful to the ecological system and the normal conditions of human existence and development when some substances in the atmosphere exceed a certain concentration. In the face of increasingly serious environmental pollution problems, scholars have conducted a significant quantity of related research, and in those studies, the forecasting of air pollution has been of paramount importance. As a precaution, the air pollution forecast is the basis for taking effective pollution control measures, and accurate forecasting of air pollution has become an important task. Extensive research indicates that the methods of air pollution forecasting can be broadly divided into three classical categories: statistical forecasting methods, artificial intelligence methods, and numerical forecasting methods. More recently, some hybrid models have been proposed, which can improve the forecast accuracy. To provide a clear perspective on air pollution forecasting, this study reviews the theory and application of those forecasting models. In addition, based on a comparison of different forecasting methods, the advantages and disadvantages of some methods of forecasting are also provided. This study aims to provide an overview of air pollution forecasting methods for easy access and reference by researchers, which will be helpful in further studies. PMID:29673227

  20. Air Pollution Forecasts: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lu; Wang, Jianzhou; Ma, Xuejiao; Lu, Haiyan

    2018-04-17

    Air pollution is defined as a phenomenon harmful to the ecological system and the normal conditions of human existence and development when some substances in the atmosphere exceed a certain concentration. In the face of increasingly serious environmental pollution problems, scholars have conducted a significant quantity of related research, and in those studies, the forecasting of air pollution has been of paramount importance. As a precaution, the air pollution forecast is the basis for taking effective pollution control measures, and accurate forecasting of air pollution has become an important task. Extensive research indicates that the methods of air pollution forecasting can be broadly divided into three classical categories: statistical forecasting methods, artificial intelligence methods, and numerical forecasting methods. More recently, some hybrid models have been proposed, which can improve the forecast accuracy. To provide a clear perspective on air pollution forecasting, this study reviews the theory and application of those forecasting models. In addition, based on a comparison of different forecasting methods, the advantages and disadvantages of some methods of forecasting are also provided. This study aims to provide an overview of air pollution forecasting methods for easy access and reference by researchers, which will be helpful in further studies.

  1. Air Pollution Forecasts: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Bai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is defined as a phenomenon harmful to the ecological system and the normal conditions of human existence and development when some substances in the atmosphere exceed a certain concentration. In the face of increasingly serious environmental pollution problems, scholars have conducted a significant quantity of related research, and in those studies, the forecasting of air pollution has been of paramount importance. As a precaution, the air pollution forecast is the basis for taking effective pollution control measures, and accurate forecasting of air pollution has become an important task. Extensive research indicates that the methods of air pollution forecasting can be broadly divided into three classical categories: statistical forecasting methods, artificial intelligence methods, and numerical forecasting methods. More recently, some hybrid models have been proposed, which can improve the forecast accuracy. To provide a clear perspective on air pollution forecasting, this study reviews the theory and application of those forecasting models. In addition, based on a comparison of different forecasting methods, the advantages and disadvantages of some methods of forecasting are also provided. This study aims to provide an overview of air pollution forecasting methods for easy access and reference by researchers, which will be helpful in further studies.

  2. Essence and Existence in Avicenna and Averroes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belo, Catarina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the views on existence of medieval Muslim philosophers Avicenna (d. 1037 and Averroes (d. 1198, whose works followed closely the philosophy of Aristotle. In addition to the Aristotelian influence, which permeated all medieval Islamic philosophy, Avicenna and Averroes were also inspired by Islamic theology, known in Arabic as kalām. The distinction between essence and existence is one of the most central and controversial aspects of Avicenna’s philosophy, together with his claim that existence is an accident. Averroes in turn has a radically different conception of existence, identifying it with existing beings rather than considering it as something in itself. With the Latin translation of Avicenna’s metaphysical works in the 12th century, the Avicennian distinction went on to shape much of the debate on existence in medieval Scholastic philosophy and beyond. This article assesses the meaning of the distinction in Avicenna as well as Averroes’ criticism. In explicating their radically different views on existence, it also touches on later discussions concerning existence, for example the issue whether existence is a predicate, in the Modern Age.

    El presente artículo explora las percepciones sobre la existencia de los filósofos medievales musulmanes Avicena (m. 1037 y Averroes (m. 1198, cuyas obras se encuentran muy próximas a la filosofía de Aristóteles. Además de la influencia aristotélica, que caló en toda la filosofía islámica medieval, Avicena y Averroes estuvieron inspirados por la teología islámica, conocida en árabe como Kalām. La distinción entre esencia y existencia es uno de los más fundamentales y controvertidos aspectos de la filosofía de Avicena junto a su aseveración de que la existencia es un accidente. Averroes, en cambio, concibe de forma radicalmente diferente la existencia, identificándola con los seres existentes más que considerarla como algo en

  3. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Main menu Environmental Topics Air Bed Bugs Chemicals and Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, ... regulate toxic air pollutants, also known as air toxics, from categories of industrial facilities in two phases . About Hazardous Air Pollutants ...

  4. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements include both criteria air pollutants and hazardous air pollutants.

  5. AirData

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  6. Overview of Existing Wind Energy Ordinances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oteri, F.

    2008-12-01

    Due to increased energy demand in the United States, rural communities with limited or no experience with wind energy now have the opportunity to become involved in this industry. Communities with good wind resources may be approached by entities with plans to develop the resource. Although these opportunities can create new revenue in the form of construction jobs and land lease payments, they also create a new responsibility on the part of local governments to ensure that ordinances will be established to aid the development of safe facilities that will be embraced by the community. The purpose of this report is to educate and engage state and local governments, as well as policymakers, about existing large wind energy ordinances. These groups will have a collection of examples to utilize when they attempt to draft a new large wind energy ordinance in a town or county without existing ordinances.

  7. Co-existence in multispecies biofilm communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Henriette Lyng

    of these emergent properties which are relevant to as diverse areas as clinical settings and natural systems. In this thesis, I have attempted to contribute to our knowledge on the multispecies interactions with a special focus on biofilm communities. I was especially interested in how co-existing species affect...... each other and in understanding the key mechanisms and interactions involved. In the introduction of this thesis the most important concepts of multi-species interactions and biofilm development are explained. After this the topic changes to the various ways of examining community interactions...... and production. The analysis was further extended in manuscript 3, in which the effect of social interac-tions on biofilm formation in multispecies co-cultures isolated from a diverse range of environments was examined. The question raised was whether the interspecific interactions of co-existing bacteria...

  8. Partial Cooperative Equilibria: Existence and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Ghintran

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the solution concepts of partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria and partial cooperative Stackelberg equilibria. The partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibrium is axiomatically characterized by using notions of rationality, consistency and converse consistency with regard to reduced games. We also establish sufficient conditions for which partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria and partial cooperative Stackelberg equilibria exist in supermodular games. Finally, we provide an application to strategic network formation where such solution concepts may be useful.

  9. Existence and Comparability of data sources

    OpenAIRE

    KUHNIMHOF, T; ARMOOGUM, J

    2007-01-01

    The deliverable at hand comprises a comprehensive overview over existing data sources which can be used for analysis of long distance travel demand. This encompasses both national and international data sources with a focus on household travel surveys. Three types of relevant surveys were identified: - National travel surveys with focus on daily mobility - Travel survey elements dedicated to long distance mobility - Long distance travel surveys. RAPPORT DE CONTRAT

  10. Transgender Parenting: A Review of Existing Research

    OpenAIRE

    Stotzer, Rebecca L; Herman, Jody L; Hasenbush, Amira

    2014-01-01

    The authors of this report reviewed 51 studies that analyze data about transgender parents. This report reviews the existing research on the prevalence and characteristics of transgender people who are parents, the quality of relationships between transgender parents and their children, outcomes for children with a transgender parent, and the reported needs of transgender parents. Overall, the authors found that substantial numbers of transgender people are parents, though at rates below the ...

  11. Streamlining Research by Using Existing Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Sarah M.; Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Dolor, Rowena J.; Thompson, Ella; Neale, Anne Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the health research enterprise has matured rapidly, and many recognize an urgent need to translate pertinent research results into practice, to help improve the quality, accessibility, and affordability of U.S. health care. Streamlining research operations would speed translation, particularly for multi-site collaborations. However, the culture of research discourages reusing or adapting existing resources or study materials. Too often, researchers start studies and...

  12. Machine & electrical double control air dryer for vehicle air braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Yang, Liu; Wang, Xian Yan; Tan, Xiao Yan; Wang, Wei

    2017-09-01

    As is known to all, a vehicle air brake system, in which usually contains moisture. To solve the problem, it is common to use air dryer to dry compressed air effectively and completely remove the moisture and oil of braking system. However, the existing air dryer is not suitable for all commercial vehicles. According to the operational status of the new energy vehicles in the initial operating period, the structure design principle of the machine & electric control air dryer is expounded from the aspects of the structure and operating principle, research & development process.

  13. Management of industrial sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions in Alberta - description of the existing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, W.S.; Bietz, B.F.

    1999-01-01

    In addition to being key primary air contaminants, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are also major contributors to acidic deposition. The current management system for controlling industrial sources of SO(2) and NO(x) emissions in Alberta was developed in the late 1960s/early 1970s. The focus is on control of point source emissions through the use of appropriate technology. The approach taken for managing SO(2) and NO(x) emissions is similar to the approach taken to other industrial air and wastewater pollutants in Alberta. It is a command and control regulatory system. There are three main industry categories in Alberta which emit SO(2): sour gas processing, oil sand plants and thermal power plants. For NO(x) emissions, the two main categories with emissions: are natural gas production and thermal power plants. The two main goals of the existing industrial air quality management systems are to ensire that: (1) emissions from industrial facilities are minimized through the use of best available demonstrated technology, and (2) ambient levels of air contaminants in the vicinity of industrial facilities do not exceed Alberta guidelines. The four main policies which support these two goals of the existing management system are described. There are a number of key components of the existing management system including: ambient guideline levels, source emission standards, plume dispersion modelling, ambient air and source emission monitoring, environmental reporting, emission inventories, and approvals. 32 refs., 13 figs

  14. Seismic evaluation of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The IAEA nuclear safety standards publications address the site evaluation and the design of new nuclear power plants (NPPs), including seismic hazard assessment and safe seismic design, at the level of the Safety Requirements as well as at the level of dedicated Safety Guides. It rapidly became apparent that the existing nuclear safety standards documents were not adequate for handling specific issues in the seismic evaluation of existing NPPs, and that a dedicated document was necessary. This is the purpose of this Safety Report, which is written in the spirit of the nuclear safety standards and can be regarded as guidance for the interpretation of their intent. Worldwide experience shows that an assessment of the seismic capacity of an existing operating facility can be prompted for the following: (a) Evidence of a greater seismic hazard at the site than expected before, owing to new or additional data and/or to new methods; (b) Regulatory requirements, such as periodic safety reviews, to ensure that the plant has adequate margins for seismic loads; (c) Lack of anti-seismic design or poor anti-seismic design; (d) New technical finding such as vulnerability of some structures (masonry walls) or equipment (relays), other feedback and new experience from real earthquakes. Post-construction evaluation programmes evaluate the current capability of the plant to withstand the seismic concern and identify any necessary upgrades or changes in operating procedures. Seismic qualification is distinguished from seismic evaluation primarily in that seismic qualification is intended to be performed at the design stage of a plant, whereas seismic evaluation is intended to be applied after a plant has been constructed. Although some guidelines do exist for the evaluation of existing NPPs, these are not established at the level of a regulatory guide or its equivalent. Nevertheless, a number of existing NPPs throughout the world have been and are being subjected to review of their

  15. Existing and new techniques in uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowie, S.H.U.; Cameron, J.

    1976-01-01

    The demands on uranium exploration over the next 25 years will be very great indeed and will call for every possible means of improvement in exploration capability. The first essential is to increase geological knowledge of the mode of occurrence of uranium ore deposits. The second is to improve existing exploration techniques and instrumentation while, at the same time, promoting research and development on new methods to discover uranium ore bodies on the earth's surface and at depth. The present symposium is an effort to increase co-operation and the exchange of information in the critical field of uranium exploration techniques and instrumentation. As an introduction to the symposium a brief review is presented, firstly of what can be considered as existing techniques and, secondly, of techniques which have not yet been used on an appreciable scale. Some fourteen techniques used over the last 30 years are identified and their appropriate application, advantages and limitations are briefly summarized and the possibilities of their further development considered. The aim of future research on new techniques, in addition to finding new ways and means of identifying surface deposits, should be mainly directed to devising methods and instrumentation capable of detecting buried ore bodies that do not give a gamma signal at the surface. To achieve this aim, two contributory factors are essential: adequate financial support for research and development and increased specialized training in uranium exploration and instrumentation design. The papers in this symposium describe developments in the existing techniques, proposals for future research and development and case histories of exploration programmes

  16. Does the Kuleshov Effect Really Exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barratt, Daniel; Rédei, Anna Cabak; Innes-Ker, Åse

    2016-01-01

    to replicate Kuleshov’s original experiment using an improved experimental design. In a behavioral and eye tracking study, 36 participants were each presented with 24 film sequences of neutral faces across six emotional conditions. For each film sequence, the participants were asked to evaluate the emotion...... of the target person in terms of valence, arousal, and category. The participants’ eye movements were recorded throughout. The results suggest that some sort of Kuleshov effect does in fact exist. For each emotional condition, the participants tended to choose the appropriate category more frequently than...... between the emotional conditions....

  17. Energy Savings Measure Packages. Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the United States. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home; this typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  18. Analysis of field errors in existing undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kincaid, B.M.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) and other third generation synchrotron light sources have been designed for optimum performance with undulator insertion devices. The performance requirements for these new undulators are explored, with emphasis on the effects of errors on source spectral brightness. Analysis of magnetic field data for several existing hybrid undulators is presented, decomposing errors into systematic and random components. An attempts is made to identify the sources of these errors, and recommendations are made for designing future insertion devices. 12 refs., 16 figs

  19. Can existing South African air quality standards be applied to nanoparticles?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oosthuizen, MA

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available and the environment, especially because of their unique properties. An in vivo study was conducted by the CSIR at the University of Pretoria Biomedical Research Centre at Onderstepoort, using the BALB/c murine model and nanoparticles engineered at the CSIR...

  20. Indoor air humidity, air quality, and health - An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkoff, Peder

    2018-04-01

    There is a long-standing dispute about indoor air humidity and perceived indoor air quality (IAQ) and associated health effects. Complaints about sensory irritation in eyes and upper airways are generally among top-two symptoms together with the perception "dry air" in office environments. This calls for an integrated analysis of indoor air humidity and eye and airway health effects. This overview has reviewed the literature about the effects of extended exposure to low humidity on perceived IAQ, sensory irritation symptoms in eyes and airways, work performance, sleep quality, virus survival, and voice disruption. Elevation of the indoor air humidity may positively impact perceived IAQ, eye symptomatology, and possibly work performance in the office environment; however, mice inhalation studies do not show exacerbation of sensory irritation in the airways by low humidity. Elevated humidified indoor air appears to reduce nasal symptoms in patients suffering from obstructive apnea syndrome, while no clear improvement on voice production has been identified, except for those with vocal fatigue. Both low and high RH, and perhaps even better absolute humidity (water vapor), favors transmission and survival of influenza virus in many studies, but the relationship between temperature, humidity, and the virus and aerosol dynamics is complex, which in the end depends on the individual virus type and its physical/chemical properties. Dry and humid air perception continues to be reported in offices and in residential areas, despite the IAQ parameter "dry air" (or "wet/humid air") is semantically misleading, because a sensory organ for humidity is non-existing in humans. This IAQ parameter appears to reflect different perceptions among other odor, dustiness, and possibly exacerbated by desiccation effect of low air humidity. It is salient to distinguish between indoor air humidity (relative or absolute) near the breathing and ocular zone and phenomena caused by moisture

  1. Existence families, functional calculi and evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    deLaubenfels, Ralph

    1994-01-01

    This book presents an operator-theoretic approach to ill-posed evolution equations. It presents the basic theory, and the more surprising examples, of generalizations of strongly continuous semigroups known as 'existent families' and 'regularized semigroups'. These families of operators may be used either to produce all initial data for which a solution in the original space exists, or to construct a maximal subspace on which the problem is well-posed. Regularized semigroups are also used to construct functional, or operational, calculi for unbounded operators. The book takes an intuitive and constructive approach by emphasizing the interaction between functional calculus constructions and evolution equations. One thinks of a semigroup generated by A as etA and thinks of a regularized semigroup generated by A as etA g(A), producing solutions of the abstract Cauchy problem for initial data in the image of g(A). Material that is scattered throughout numerous papers is brought together and presented in a fresh, ...

  2. LDEF data: Comparisons with existing models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Cassandra R.; Watts, Alan J.; Wagner, John D.; Atkinson, Dale R.

    1993-04-01

    The relationship between the observed cratering impact damage on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) versus the existing models for both the natural environment of micrometeoroids and the man-made debris was investigated. Experimental data was provided by several LDEF Principal Investigators, Meteoroid and Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG) members, and by the Kennedy Space Center Analysis Team (KSC A-Team) members. These data were collected from various aluminum materials around the LDEF satellite. A PC (personal computer) computer program, SPENV, was written which incorporates the existing models of the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. This program calculates the expected number of impacts per unit area as functions of altitude, orbital inclination, time in orbit, and direction of the spacecraft surface relative to the velocity vector, for both micrometeoroids and man-made debris. Since both particle models are couched in terms of impact fluxes versus impactor particle size, and much of the LDEF data is in the form of crater production rates, scaling laws have been used to relate the two. Also many hydrodynamic impact computer simulations were conducted, using CTH, of various impact events, that identified certain modes of response, including simple metallic target cratering, perforations and delamination effects of coatings.

  3. Eternally existing self-reproducing inflationary universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, A.D.

    1986-05-01

    It is shown that the large-scale quantum fluctuations of the scalar field φ generated in the chaotic inflation scenario lead to an infinite process of self-reproduction of inflationary mini-universes. A model of eternally existing chaotic inflationary universe is suggested. It is pointed out that whereas the universe locally is very homogeneous as a result of inflation, which occurs at the classical level, the global structure of the universe is determined by quantum effects and is highly non-trivial. The universe consists of exponentially large number of different mini-universes, inside which all possible (metastable) vacuum states and all possible types of compactification are realized. The picture differs crucially from the standard picture of a one-domain universe in a ''true'' vacuum state. Our results may serve as a justification of the anthropic principle in the inflationary cosmology. These results may have important implications for the elementary particle theory as well. Namely, since all possible types of mini-universes, in which inflation may occur, should exist in our universe, there is no need to insist (as it is usually done) that in realistic theories the vacuum state of our type should be the only possible one or the best one. (author)

  4. The results of air treatment process modeling at the location of the air curtain in the air suppliers and ventilation shafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaev Aleksandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the existing shaft air heater installations (AHI, that heat the air for air suppliers in cold seasons, a heater channel is used. Some parts of the air from the heater go to the channel, other parts are sucked through a pithead by the general shaft pressure drawdown formed by the main ventilation installation (MVI. When this happens, a mix of two air flows leads to a shaft heat regime violation that can break pressurization of intertubular sealers. The problem of energy saving while airing underground mining enterprises is also very important. The proposed solution of both tasks due to the application of an air curtain is described in the article. In cold seasons the air treatment process should be used and it is offered to place an air curtain in the air suppliers shaft above the place of interface of the calorifer channel to a trunk in order to avoid an infiltration (suction of air through the pithead. It’s recommended to use an air curtain in a ventilation shaft because it reduces external air leaks thereby improving energy efficiency of the MVI work. During the mathematical modeling of ventilation and air preparation process (in SolidWorks Flowsimulation software package it was found out that the use of the air curtain in the air supply shaft can increase the efficiency of the AHI, and reduce the electricity consumption for ventilation in the ventilation shaft.

  5. Air Land Sea Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Unidentified Royal Air Force Regiment forward air controllers from the Air Land Integration Cell , Based at Royal Air Force Honington, Suffolk (United...heavy as an actual weapon.4 Ideally, this practice imbued a soldier with more energy and stamina during real combat, given the feel of the genuine but...through tactical forces, to individual training. Unidentified Royal Air Force Regiment forward air controllers from the Air Land Integration Cell , Based

  6. Existing ingestion guidance: Problems and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mooney, Robert R; Ziegler, Gordon L; Peterson, Donald S [Environmental Radiation Section, Division of Radiation Protection, WA (United States)

    1989-09-01

    Washington State has been developing plans and procedures for responding to nuclear accidents since the early 1970s. A key part of this process has been formulating a method for calculating ingestion pathway concentration guides (CGs). Such a method must be both technically sound and easy to use. This process has been slow and frustrating. However, much technical headway has been made in recent years, and hopefully the experience of the State of Washington will provide useful insight to problems with the existing guidance. Several recommendations are offered on ways to deal with these problems. In January 1986, the state held an ingestion pathway exercise which required the determination of allowed concentrations of isotopes for various foods, based upon reactor source term and field data. Objectives of the exercise were not met because of the complexity of the necessary calculations. A major problem was that the allowed concentrations had to be computed for each isotope and each food group, given assumptions on the average diet. To solve problems identified during that exercise, Washington developed, by March 1986, partitioned CGs. These CGs apportioned doses from each food group for an assumed mix of radionuclides expected to result from a reactor accident. This effort was therefore in place just in time for actual use during the Chernobyl fallout episode in May 1986. This technique was refined and described in a later report and presented at the 1987 annual meeting of the Health Physics Society. Realizing the technical weaknesses which still existed and a need to simplify the numbers for decision makers, Washington State has been developing computer methods to quickly calculate, from an accident specific relative mix of isotopes, CGs which allow a single radionuclide concentration for all food groups. This latest approach allows constant CGs for different periods of time following the accident, instead of peak CGs, which are good only for a short time after the

  7. Existing ingestion guidance: Problems and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooney, Robert R.; Ziegler, Gordon L.; Peterson, Donald S.

    1989-01-01

    Washington State has been developing plans and procedures for responding to nuclear accidents since the early 1970s. A key part of this process has been formulating a method for calculating ingestion pathway concentration guides (CGs). Such a method must be both technically sound and easy to use. This process has been slow and frustrating. However, much technical headway has been made in recent years, and hopefully the experience of the State of Washington will provide useful insight to problems with the existing guidance. Several recommendations are offered on ways to deal with these problems. In January 1986, the state held an ingestion pathway exercise which required the determination of allowed concentrations of isotopes for various foods, based upon reactor source term and field data. Objectives of the exercise were not met because of the complexity of the necessary calculations. A major problem was that the allowed concentrations had to be computed for each isotope and each food group, given assumptions on the average diet. To solve problems identified during that exercise, Washington developed, by March 1986, partitioned CGs. These CGs apportioned doses from each food group for an assumed mix of radionuclides expected to result from a reactor accident. This effort was therefore in place just in time for actual use during the Chernobyl fallout episode in May 1986. This technique was refined and described in a later report and presented at the 1987 annual meeting of the Health Physics Society. Realizing the technical weaknesses which still existed and a need to simplify the numbers for decision makers, Washington State has been developing computer methods to quickly calculate, from an accident specific relative mix of isotopes, CGs which allow a single radionuclide concentration for all food groups. This latest approach allows constant CGs for different periods of time following the accident, instead of peak CGs, which are good only for a short time after the

  8. Do Bare Rocks Exist on the Moon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton; Bandfield, Joshua; Greenhagen, Benjamin; Hayne, Paul; Leader, Frank; Paige, David

    2017-01-01

    Astronaut surface observations and close-up images at the Apollo and Chang'e 1 landing sites confirm that at least some lunar rocks have no discernable dust cover. However, ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package) measurements as well as astronaut and LADEE (Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer) orbital observations and laboratory experiments possibly suggest that a fine fraction of dust is levitated and moves across and above the lunar surface. Over millions of years such dust might be expected to coat all exposed rock surfaces. This study uses thermal modeling, combined with Diviner (a Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter experiment) orbital lunar eclipse temperature data, to further document the existence of bare rocks on the lunar surface.

  9. Integrating existing software toolkits into VO system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chenzhou; Zhao, Yong-Heng; Wang, Xiaoqian; Sang, Jian; Luo, Ze

    2004-09-01

    Virtual Observatory (VO) is a collection of interoperating data archives and software tools. Taking advantages of the latest information technologies, it aims to provide a data-intensively online research environment for astronomers all around the world. A large number of high-qualified astronomical software packages and libraries are powerful and easy of use, and have been widely used by astronomers for many years. Integrating those toolkits into the VO system is a necessary and important task for the VO developers. VO architecture greatly depends on Grid and Web services, consequently the general VO integration route is "Java Ready - Grid Ready - VO Ready". In the paper, we discuss the importance of VO integration for existing toolkits and discuss the possible solutions. We introduce two efforts in the field from China-VO project, "gImageMagick" and "Galactic abundance gradients statistical research under grid environment". We also discuss what additional work should be done to convert Grid service to VO service.

  10. Seismic review of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, P.I.; Mayes, R.L.; Jones, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    Because of developments in the fields of earthquake and structural engineering over the last two decades, the codes, standards and design criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and other critical structures have changed substantially. As a result, plants designed only a few years ago do not satisfy the requirements for new plants. Accordingly, the Regulatory Agencies are requiring owners of older Nuclear Power Plants to re-qualify the plants seismically, using codes, standards, analytical techniques and knowledge developed in recent years. Seismic review consists of three major phases: establishing the design and performance criteria, re-qualifying the structures, and re-qualifying the equipment. The authors of the paper have been recently involved in the seismic review of existing nuclear power plants in the United States. This paper is a brief summary of their experiences

  11. Welfare Economics: A Story of Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Iqbal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore that, despite severe challenges, welfare economics still exists. This descriptive study is conducted through some specific time line developments in this field. Economists are divided over the veracity and survival of the welfare economics. Welfare economics emphasizes on the optimum resource and goods allocation with the objective of better living standard, materialistic gains, social welfare and ethical decisions. It origins back to the political economics and utilitarianism. Adam Smith, Irving Fisher and Pareto contributed significantly towards it. During 1930 to 1940, American and British approaches were developed. Many economists tried to explore the relationship between level of income and happiness. Amartya Sen gave the comparative approach and Tinbergen pioneered the theory of equity. Contemporarily the futuristic restoration of welfare economics is on trial and hopes are alive. This study may be useful to understand the transitional and survival process of welfare economics.

  12. Testing Metadata Existence of Web Map Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Růžička

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available For a general user is quite common to use data sources available on WWW. Almost all GIS software allow to use data sources available via Web Map Service (ISO/OGC standard interface. The opportunity to use different sources and combine them brings a lot of problems that were discussed many times on conferences or journal papers. One of the problem is based on non existence of metadata for published sources. The question was: were the discussions effective? The article is partly based on comparison of situation for metadata between years 2007 and 2010. Second part of the article is focused only on 2010 year situation. The paper is created in a context of research of intelligent map systems, that can be used for an automatic or a semi-automatic map creation or a map evaluation.

  13. On the existence of hot positronium reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzarini, E.

    1984-01-01

    The existence of hot Ps reactions is nowadays questioned; the controversy arises from the two models (the Ore gap and the spur theories) advanced in order to explain the mechanism of the positronium formation and of its inhibition in liquids by dissolution of certain compounds. The hypothesis of the hot Ps reactions was initially advanced as an additional statement for explaining the inhibition phenomenon within the framework of the Ore gap theory, but it is not considered necessary for the spur theory. The present paper is chiefly intended as a presentation of this particular aspect of Ps chemistry to hot atom chemists unspecialized in the field. The reader is assumed to be familiar with the basic physics and experimental methods used in positronium chemistry. Contents: positrons and positronium formation; inhibition and enhancement of Ps formation in solutions; positronium reactions in gases. (Auth.)

  14. Sustainability in the existing building stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Hoffmann, Birgitte

    2005-01-01

    , QRWfacilities management’s most important contribution to sustainable development in the built environment. Space management is an essential tool in facilities management – and it could be considered a powerful tool in sustainable development; remembering that the building not being built is perhaps the most......This paper explores the role of Facilities Management in the relation to sustainable development in the existing building stock. Facilities management is a concept still developing as the management of buildings are becoming more and more professional. Many recognize today that facilities...... management is a concept relevant to others than large companies. Managing the flows of energy and other resources is a part of facilities management, and an increased professionalism could lead to the reduction of the use of energy and water and the generation of waste and wastewater. This is, however...

  15. Compilation of Existing Neutron Screen Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chrysanthopoulou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of fast neutron spectra in new reactors is expected to induce a strong impact on the contained materials, including structural materials, nuclear fuels, neutron reflecting materials, and tritium breeding materials. Therefore, introduction of these reactors into operation will require extensive testing of their components, which must be performed under neutronic conditions representative of those expected to prevail inside the reactor cores when in operation. Due to limited availability of fast reactors, testing of future reactor materials will mostly take place in water cooled material test reactors (MTRs by tailoring the neutron spectrum via neutron screens. The latter rely on the utilization of materials capable of absorbing neutrons at specific energy. A large but fragmented experience is available on that topic. In this work a comprehensive compilation of the existing neutron screen technology is attempted, focusing on neutron screens developed in order to locally enhance the fast over thermal neutron flux ratio in a reactor core.

  16. [The depression epidemic does not exist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M

    2009-01-01

    There has been much discussion in the media about the question of the existence of a depression epidemic. This leads on to the questions of whether the social and economic approaches are adequate, and what the alternatives are. The concept of the disease 'depression' can be defined using a medical model, or from a patient's or a societal perspective. From a medical perspective, indeed a depression epidemic has ensued from the increased prosperity and the associated decompression of the mortality rate. Society responded with preventative measures and policies aimed at improving functioning in the workplace. However, patients with a major depressive disorder (MDD) who are eligible for treatment are often not motivated to take it up, or are undertreated. Research is necessary in order to explore what patients think about the identification and treatment of depression. The confusion regarding the concept of depression found in the media, needs to be cleared.

  17. On the existence of Levi Foliations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENATA N. OSTWALD

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Let L be a real 3 dimensional analytic variety. For each regular point p L there exists a unique complex line l p on the space tangent to L at p. When the field of complex line p l p is completely integrable, we say that L is Levi variety. More generally; let L M be a real subvariety in an holomorphic complex variety M. If there exists a real 2 dimensional integrable distribution on L which is invariant by the holomorphic structure J induced by M, we say that L is a Levi variety. We shall prove: Theorem. Let be a Levi foliation and let be the induced holomorphic foliation. Then, admits a Liouvillian first integral. In other words, if is a 3 dimensional analytic foliation such that the induced complex distribution defines an holomorphic foliation ; that is, if is a Levi foliation; then admits a Liouvillian first integral--a function which can be constructed by the composition of rational functions, exponentiation, integration, and algebraic functions (Singer 1992. For example, if f is an holomorphic function and if theta is real a 1-form on ; then the pull-back of theta by f defines a Levi foliation : f*theta = 0 which is tangent to the holomorphic foliation : df = 0. This problem was proposed by D. Cerveau in a meeting (see Fernandez 1997.Seja L Ì uma variedade real de dimensão 3. Para todo ponto regular p Î L existe uma única reta complexa l p no espaço tangente à L em p. Quando o campo de linhas complexas p l p é completamente integrável, dizemos que L é uma variedade de Levi. Mais geralmente, seja L Ì M uma subvariedade real em uma variedade analítica complexa. Se existe uma distribuição real integrável de dimensão 2 em L que é invariante pela estrutura holomorfa J induzida pela variedade complexa M, dizemos que L é uma variedade de Levi. Vamos provar: Teorema. Seja uma folheação de Levi e seja a folheação holomorfa induzida. Então tem integral primeira Liouvilliana. Em outras palavras, se é uma folheação real de

  18. How many N = 4 strings exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketov, S.V.

    1994-09-01

    Possible ways of constructing extended fermionic strings with N=4 world-sheet supersymmetry are reviewed. String theory constraints form, in general, a non-linear quasi(super)conformal algebra, and can have conformal dimensions ≥1. When N=4, the most general N=4 quasi-superconformal algebra to consider for string theory building is D(1, 2; α), whose linearisation is the so-called ''large'' N=4 superconformal algebra. The D(1, 2; α) algebra has su(2)sub(κ + )+su(2)sub(κ - )+u(1) Kac-Moody component, and α=κ - /κ + . We check the Jacobi identities and construct a BRST charge for the D(1, 2; α) algebra. The quantum BRST operator can be made nilpotent only when κ + =κ - =-2. The D(1, 2; 1) algebra is actually isomorphic to the SO(4)-based Bershadsky-Knizhnik non-linear quasi-superconformal algebra. We argue about the existence of a string theory associated with the latter, and propose the (non-covariant) hamiltonian action for this new N=4 string theory. Our results imply the existence of two different N=4 fermionic string theories: the old one based on the ''small'' linear N=4 superconformal algebra and having the total ghost central charge c gh =+12, and the new one with non-linearly realised N=4 supersymmetry, based on the SO(4) quasi-superconformal algebra and having c gh =+6. Both critical string theories have negative ''critical dimensions'' and do not admit unitary matter representations. (orig.)

  19. Energy consumptions in existing buildings; Les consommations d'energie des batiments existants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuss, St. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts et Industries de Strasbourg, 78 - Saint-Remy-Les-Chevreuse (France)]|[Costic, 78 - Sainte Remy les Chevreuses (France)

    2002-05-01

    This document presents a sectoral analysis of the energy consumptions in existing French buildings: 1) - residential sector: social buildings, private dwellings; 2) - tertiary sector: office buildings, hotels, commercial buildings, school buildings, hospitals; 3) - industry; 4) - general status. (J.S.)

  20. Effectiveness of Existing International Nuclear Liability Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Doais, Salwa; Kessel, Daivd

    2015-01-01

    The first convention was the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (the Paris Convention) had been adopted on 29 July 1960 under the auspices of the OECD, and entered into force on 1 April 1968. In 1963,the Brussels Convention - supplementary to the Paris Convention- was adopted in to provide additional funds to compensate damage as a result of a nuclear incident where Paris Convention funds proved to be insufficient. The IAEA's first convention was the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (the Vienna Convention) which adopted on 21 May 1963,and entered into force in 1977. Both the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention laid down very similar nuclear liability rules based on the same general principles. The broad principles in these conventions can be summarized as follows: 1- The no-fault liability principle (strict liability) 2- Liability is channeled exclusively to the operator of the nuclear installation (legal channeling) 3- Only courts of the state in which the nuclear accident occurs would have jurisdiction (exclusive jurisdiction) 4- Limitation of the amount of liability and the time frame for claiming damages (limited liability) 5- The operator is required to have adequate insurance or financial guarantees to the extent of its liability amount (liability must be financially secured). 6- Liability is limited in time. Compensation rights are extinguished after specific time. 7- Non-discrimination of victims on the grounds of nationality, domicile or residence. Nuclear liability conventions objective is to provide adequate compensation payments to victims of a nuclear accident. Procedures for receiving these compensation are controlled by some rules such as exclusive jurisdiction, that rule need a further amendment to ensure the effectiveness of the exiting nuclear liability regime . Membership of the Conventions is a critical issue, because the existence of the conventions without being party to

  1. Existing facilities and past practices: Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huizenga, D.; Tonkay, D.W.; Owens, K.

    2000-01-01

    Article 12 of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (Joint Convention) requires parties to the Joint Convention to review the safety of existing radioactive waste management facilities 'to ensure that, if necessary, all reasonably practicable improvements are made to upgrade the safety of such a facility'. Also required is a review of the results of past practices to determine 'whether any intervention is needed for reasons of radiation protection' and to consider whether the benefits of the intervention or remediation are sufficient, with regard to the costs and the impact on workers, the public and the environment. This paper discusses the experience of the United States Department of Energy in terms of the lessons learned from operating radioactive waste management facilities and from undertaking intervention or remedial action, and from decision making in an international context. Overarching safety principles are discussed, including integrating safety into all work practices and minimizing the generation of waste. Safety review lessons learned with existing facilities are discussed with respect to: applying new requirements to old facilities, taking a life-cycle perspective of waste management, improving high level waste facility management, and blending current and past practices with respect to the process used to arrive at decisions for intervention. Special emphasis is placed on the need to provide for early and substantive input from the involved regulatory agencies, Native American tribes, and those citizens and groups with an interest in the decisions. Examples of intervention decisions are discussed, including examples taken from uranium mill tailings operations, from cleanup of a former uranium processing plant site, from evaluation of pre-1970 buried 'transuranic waste' sites, and from decommissioning or closure of high level waste storage tanks. The paper concludes that on the

  2. Measuring Input Thresholds on an Existing Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Igor; Gutrich, Daniel G.; Berkun, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    A critical PECL (positive emitter-coupled logic) interface to Xilinx interface needed to be changed on an existing flight board. The new Xilinx input interface used a CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) type of input, and the driver could meet its thresholds typically, but not in worst-case, according to the data sheet. The previous interface had been based on comparison with an external reference, but the CMOS input is based on comparison with an internal divider from the power supply. A way to measure what the exact input threshold was for this device for 64 inputs on a flight board was needed. The measurement technique allowed an accurate measurement of the voltage required to switch a Xilinx input from high to low for each of the 64 lines, while only probing two of them. Directly driving an external voltage was considered too risky, and tests done on any other unit could not be used to qualify the flight board. The two lines directly probed gave an absolute voltage threshold calibration, while data collected on the remaining 62 lines without probing gave relative measurements that could be used to identify any outliers. The PECL interface was forced to a long-period square wave by driving a saturated square wave into the ADC (analog to digital converter). The active pull-down circuit was turned off, causing each line to rise rapidly and fall slowly according to the input s weak pull-down circuitry. The fall time shows up as a change in the pulse width of the signal ready by the Xilinx. This change in pulse width is a function of capacitance, pulldown current, and input threshold. Capacitance was known from the different trace lengths, plus a gate input capacitance, which is the same for all inputs. The pull-down current is the same for all inputs including the two that are probed directly. The data was combined, and the Excel solver tool was used to find input thresholds for the 62 lines. This was repeated over different supply voltages and

  3. Effectiveness of Existing International Nuclear Liability Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Doais, Salwa; Kessel, Daivd [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The first convention was the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (the Paris Convention) had been adopted on 29 July 1960 under the auspices of the OECD, and entered into force on 1 April 1968. In 1963,the Brussels Convention - supplementary to the Paris Convention- was adopted in to provide additional funds to compensate damage as a result of a nuclear incident where Paris Convention funds proved to be insufficient. The IAEA's first convention was the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (the Vienna Convention) which adopted on 21 May 1963,and entered into force in 1977. Both the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention laid down very similar nuclear liability rules based on the same general principles. The broad principles in these conventions can be summarized as follows: 1- The no-fault liability principle (strict liability) 2- Liability is channeled exclusively to the operator of the nuclear installation (legal channeling) 3- Only courts of the state in which the nuclear accident occurs would have jurisdiction (exclusive jurisdiction) 4- Limitation of the amount of liability and the time frame for claiming damages (limited liability) 5- The operator is required to have adequate insurance or financial guarantees to the extent of its liability amount (liability must be financially secured). 6- Liability is limited in time. Compensation rights are extinguished after specific time. 7- Non-discrimination of victims on the grounds of nationality, domicile or residence. Nuclear liability conventions objective is to provide adequate compensation payments to victims of a nuclear accident. Procedures for receiving these compensation are controlled by some rules such as exclusive jurisdiction, that rule need a further amendment to ensure the effectiveness of the exiting nuclear liability regime . Membership of the Conventions is a critical issue, because the existence of the conventions without being party to

  4. 12th Air Force > Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Force AOR Travel Info News prevnext Slide show 76,410 pounds of food delivered to Haiti 12th Air Force the French Air Force, Colombian Air Force, Pakistan Air Force, Belgian Air Force, Brazilian Air Force

  5. Existing reflection seismic data re-processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashinaka, Motonori; Sano, Yukiko; Kozawa, Takeshi

    2005-08-01

    This document is to report the results of existing seismic data re-processing around Horonobe town, Hokkaido, Japan, which is a part of the Horonobe Underground Research Project. The main purpose of this re-processing is to recognize the subsurface structure of Omagari Fault and fold system around Omagari Fault. The seismic lines for re-processing are TYHR-A3 line and SHRB-2 line, which JAPEX surveyed in 1975. Applying weathering static correction using refraction analysis and noise suppression procedure, we have much enhanced seismic profile. Following information was obtained from seismic re-processing results. TYHR-A3 line: There are strong reflections, dipping to the west. These reflections are corresponding western limb of anticline to the west side of Omagari Fault. SHRB-2 line: There are strong reflections, dipping to the west, at CDP 60-140, while there are reflections, dipping to the east, to the east side of CDP 140. These reflections correspond to the western limb and the eastern limb of the anticline, which is parallel to Omagari FAULT. This seismic re-processing provides some useful information to know the geological structure around Omagari Fault. (author)

  6. On the Existence of Evolutionary Learning Equilibriums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masudul Alam Choudhury

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The usual kinds of Fixed-Point Theorems formalized on the existence of competitive equilibrium that explain much of economic theory at the core of economics can operate only on bounded and closed sets with convex mappings. But these conditions are hardly true of the real world of economic and financial complexities and perturbations. The category of learning sets explained by continuous fields of interactive, integrative and evolutionary behaviour caused by dynamic preferences at the individual and institutional and social levels cannot maintain the assumption of closed, bounded and convex sets. Thus learning sets and multi-system inter-temporal relations explained by pervasive complementarities and  participation between variables and entities, and evolution by learning, have evolutionary equilibriums. Such a study requires a new methodological approach. This paper formalizes such a methodology for evolutionary equilibriums in learning spaces. It briefly points out the universality of learning equilibriums in all mathematical structures. For a particular case though, the inter-systemic interdependence between sustainable development and ethics and economics in the specific understanding of learning domain is pointed out.

  7. Does the chromatic Mach bands effect exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsofe, Avital; Spitzer, Hedva; Einav, Shmuel

    2009-06-30

    The achromatic Mach bands effect is a well-known visual illusion, discovered over a hundred years ago. This effect has been investigated thoroughly, mainly for its brightness aspect. The existence of Chromatic Mach bands, however, has been disputed. In recent years it has been reported that Chromatic Mach bands are not perceived under controlled iso-luminance conditions. However, here we show that a variety of Chromatic Mach bands, consisting of chromatic and achromatic regions, separated by a saturation ramp, can be clearly perceived under iso-luminance and iso-brightness conditions. In this study, observers' eye movements were recorded under iso-brightness conditions. Several observers were tested for their ability to perceive the Chromatic Mach bands effect and its magnitude, across different cardinal and non-cardinal Chromatic Mach bands stimuli. A computational model of color adaptation, which predicted color induction and color constancy, successfully predicts this variation of Chromatic Mach bands. This has been tested by measuring the distance of the data points from the "achromatic point" and by calculating the shift of the data points from predicted complementary lines. The results suggest that the Chromatic Mach bands effect is a specific chromatic induction effect.

  8. Evaluation and modification of existing CETP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhavisha; Shah, A R

    2013-07-01

    For the development of small and medium scale industries in various Gujarat industrial development corporation (GIDC) areas and in clusters of industrial areas, the common effluent treatment plant (CETP) has always been found advantageous in view of cost of treatment, operation and maintenance and disposal of residues being produced. In small scale industrial units due to market requirement, product changes and quantity enhancement are taking place. Due to such changes, the effluent characteristics are continuously changing which affects performance of CETP. Hence it has been found necessary to study continuously the performance, evaluation and modification in the working of the CETP. This paper contains a case study of one of the existing CETP near Baroda which is facing the problem of disposal of treated effluent in which the important parameters like COD, BOD, Suspended Solid, NH3-N and oil and grease were analyzed. Based on the characterization of wastewater, the various treatability studies were carried out on CETP wastewater. To comply with disposal standard prescribed by Effluent Channel Project Ltd.(ECPL)* and Gujarat Pollution Control Board (GPCB) for discharge of industrial effluent into channel, various treatments in form of ammonia stripping, coagulation and flocculation, biological treatment, filtration and chlorination are suggested.

  9. Bibliography - Existing Guidance for External Hazard Modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    The bibliography of deliverable D21.1 includes existing international and national guidance documents and standards on external hazard assessment together with a selection of recent scientific papers, which are regarded to provide useful information on the state of the art of external event modelling. The literature database is subdivided into International Standards, National Standards, and Science Papers. The deliverable is treated as a 'living document' which is regularly updated as necessary during the lifetime of ASAMPSA-E. The current content of the database is about 140 papers. Most of the articles are available as full-text versions in PDF format. The deliverable is available as an EndNote X4 database and as text files. The database includes the following information: Reference, Key words, Abstract (if available), PDF file of the original paper (if available), Notes (comments by the ASAMPSA-E consortium if available) The database is stored at the ASAMPSA-E FTP server hosted by IRSN. PDF files of original papers are accessible through the EndNote software

  10. The user's influence on air change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvisgaard, B.; Collet, P.F.

    1990-01-01

    Of the various parameters deciding the air change in a building, the influence of wind and the stack effect have in particular been focused on. Concurrently, with the increase in quality of buildings and the tightening of existing buildings, the influence of the climatic parameters is reduced, and other parameters gain a greater influence on the air change. One of the parameters having a great influence on the air change in tight buildings are the users. The air change rate is greatly influenced by the users not only in naturally ventilated buildings, but also in mechanically ventilated buildings. On the basis of continuous measurement of the air change in 28 dwellings, the proportion between the total air change (air change in house with occupants) and the basic air change (air change in a sealed house) is discussed. The air change in each of the dwellings has been measured for a period of about one week during occupancy. The measuring principle applied is the method with constant concentration of tracer gas

  11. Air pollution test methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneyama, E; Sugano, S; Fukui, S

    1974-06-01

    Vanadium exists in heavy oil as a chelate with mesoporphiline methyl ester, and the combustion ash of the oil may contain up to 80 percent of its oxides. Air is sampled in a standard way and to each 50 ml of the sample and blank solutions, add 5 ml of phosphoric acid and 2 ml of 10 percent ammonium sulfamate solution. After 10 min, the solution is titrated with potassium permanganate until it becomes purple. Two ml of hydrochloric acid and 10 ml of N-benzoylphenylhydroxylamine benzene solution are added and shaken for 30 sec. The benzene layer is washed with several portions of 2 ml HCl until no coloration of the HCl solution is visible. The benzene layer is transferred to a colorimetric tube and dried with granular calcium chloride. The absorbance is measured near 530 nm and the concentration is determined from a calibration curve previously prepared.

  12. Wisconsin Air Cargo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Air cargo is a key economic lifeline for the communities that have airports. Manufacturers, businesses, hospitals and : other community cornerstone employers depend on air cargo to successfully operate. While there is no doubt that air : cargo repres...

  13. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  14. Air Sensor Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Sensor Toolbox provides information to citizen scientists, researchers and developers interested in learning more about new lower-cost compact air sensor technologies and tools for measuring air quality.

  15. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devicesThe Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  16. Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protect yourself and your family. Learn more Air Quality at Work Workers should breathe easy while on the job, but worksites with poor air quality put employees at risk. Healthy air is essential ...

  17. Determination of velocity correction factors for real-time air velocity monitoring in underground mines

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Lihong; Yuan, Liming; Thomas, Rick; Iannacchione, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    When there are installations of air velocity sensors in the mining industry for real-time airflow monitoring, a problem exists with how the monitored air velocity at a fixed location corresponds to the average air velocity, which is used to determine the volume flow rate of air in an entry with the cross-sectional area. Correction factors have been practically employed to convert a measured centerline air velocity to the average air velocity. However, studies on the recommended correction fac...

  18. Interim Storage of Plutonium in Existing Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodsmall, T.D.

    1999-01-01

    'In this era of nuclear weapons disarmament and nonproliferation treaties, among many problems being faced by the Department of Energy is the safe disposal of plutonium. There is a large stockpile of plutonium at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Center and it remains politically and environmentally strategic to relocate the inventory closer to a processing facility. Savannah River Site has been chosen as the final storage location, and the Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility (APSF) is currently under construction for this purpose. With the ability of APSF to receive Rocky Flats material an estimated ten years away, DOE has decided to use the existing reactor building in K-Area of SRS as temporary storage to accelerate the removal of plutonium from Rocky Flats. There are enormous cost savings to the government that serve as incentive to start this removal as soon as possible, and the KAMS project is scheduled to receive the first shipment of plutonium in January 2000. The reactor building in K-Area was chosen for its hardened structure and upgraded seismic qualification, both resulting from an effort to restart the reactor in 1991. The KAMS project has faced unique challenges from Authorization Basis and Safety Analysis perspectives. Although modifying a reactor building from a production facility to a storage shelter is not technically difficult, the nature of plutonium has caused design and safety analysis engineers to make certain that the design of systems, structures and components included will protect the public, SRS workers, and the environment. A basic overview of the KAMS project follows. Plutonium will be measured and loaded into DOT Type-B shipping packages at Rocky Flats. The packages are 35-gallon stainless steel drums with multiple internal containment boundaries. DOE transportation vehicles will be used to ship the drums to the KAMS facility at SRS. They will then be unloaded, stacked and stored in specific locations throughout the

  19. Sharing information among existing data sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, W. R., III

    1999-01-01

    The sharing of information between law enforcement agencies is a premise for the success of all jurisdictions. A wealth of information resides in both the databases and infrastructures of local, state, and regional agencies. However, this information is often not available to the law enforcement professionals who require it. When the information is, available, individual investigators must not only know that it exists, but where it resides, and how to retrieve it. In many cases, these types of cross-jurisdictional communications are limited to personal relationships that result from telephone calls, faxes, and in some cases, e-mail. As criminal elements become more sophisticated and distributed, law enforcement agencies must begin to develop infrastructures and common sharing mechanisms that address a constantly evolving criminal threat. Historically, criminals have taken advantage of the lack of communication between law enforcement agencies. Examples of this are evident in the search for stolen property and monetary dealings. Pawned property, cash transactions, and failure to supply child support are three common cross- jurisdictional crimes that could be better enforced by strengthening the lines of communication. Criminal behavior demonstrates that it is easier to profit from their actions by dealing in separate jurisdictions. For example, stolen property is sold outside of the jurisdiction of its origin. In most cases, simply traveling a short distance to the adjoining county or municipality is sufficient to ensure that apprehension of the criminal or seizure of the stolen property is highly unlikely. In addition to the traditional burglar, fugitives often sell or pawn property to finance their continued evasion from the law. Sharing of information in a rapid manner would increase the ability of law enforcement personnel to track and capture fugitives, as well as criminals. In an example to combat this threat, the State of Florida recently acted on the need to

  20. Seismic evaluation of existing nuclear facilities. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    Programmes for re-evaluation and upgrading of safety of existing nuclear facilities are presently under way in a number of countries around the world. An important component of these programmes is the re-evaluation of the seismic safety through definition of new seismic parameters at the site and evaluation of seismic capacity of structures, equipment and distribution systems following updated information and criteria. The Seminar is intended to provide a forum for the exchange of information and discussion of the state-of-the-art on seismic safety of nuclear facilities in operation or under construction. Both analytical and experimental techniques for the evaluation of seismic capacity of structures, equipment and distribution systems are discussed. Full scale and field tests of structures and components using shaking tables, mechanical exciters, explosive and shock tests, and ambient vibrations are included in the seminar programme with emphasis on recent case histories. Presentations at the Seminar also include analytical techniques for the determination of dynamic properties of soil-structure systems from experiments as well as calibration of numerical models. Methods and criteria for seismic margin assessment based on experience data obtained from the behaviour of structures and components in real earthquakes are discussed. Guidelines for defining technical requirements for capacity re-evaluation (i.e. acceptable behaviour limits and design and implementation of structure and components upgrades are also presented and discussed. The following topics were covered during 7 sessions: earthquake experience and seismic re-evaluation; country experience in seismic re-evaluation programme; generic WWER studies; analytical methods for seismic capacity re-evaluation; experimental methods for seismic capacity re-evaluation; case studies.

  1. Does Glocal Political Power Already Exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Ornaghi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Large periods of history are usually characterized by equally important moments of change in scientific knowledge and, in particular, in the understanding of political power. We still need to study in depth whether the former provokes (almost of out necessity the latter, or whether they are “great” because they are favored by the innovation of the paradigms of knowledge. The passage from medieval universalism to the particularism of the modern age represents an extremely interesting analogy when compared to the transformations that are now underway. The example of John of Salisbury’s Policratus, the starting point of this article, is illuminating in our comprehension of the relevance of the interweaving between the persistence of the ancient forms of recognition of power and the search for new forms. The existence of glocal realities is already a fact. Even if it is relatively easy to recognize these realities (a business, a university, a humanitarian association, not a few of the same “parts” which constitute the traditional organization of the State, it is more difficult to define the specific characteristics of the power at their disposal. Moving from the widening gap between “actual” power and “potential” power, the article examines the motives for which the classical definitions of power are always becoming more insufficient in understanding the role now emerging from glocal realities. And, in particular, by looking at how the “command-obedience” relationship is changing also as a consequence of communication networks and information technology, the article analyzes that specific “contamination” within global elements and local elements, which seems to be the main base of glocal political power.

  2. David Barker: the revolution that anticipates existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo Farnetani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available David Barker is the man who “anticipated" the existence of babies by focusing attention on the importance of the fetus and what takes place during intrauterine life. Barker was one of the physicians who in the last decades brought about the greatest changes in medicine, changes so important as to represent a veritable revolution in medical thought. According to Barker's studies, the embryo obviously has a genetic complement coming from the mother and father, but from the very first stages of development it begins to undergo the influence of the outside environment, just as occurs for adults whose biological, psychological and pathological aspects are influenced by the environment to a not well-established percentage between genetic complement and epigenetics. Much of our future lives as adults is decided in our mothers' wombs. If Barker's discovery was revolutionary from the cultural standpoint, it was even more so from the strictly medical one. Barker's research method was rigid from the methodological standpoint, but innovative and speculative in its working hypotheses, with a humanistic slant. Barker's idea has another practical corollary: it is evident that the role of obstetricians, perinatologists and neonatologists is more and more relevant in medicine and future prevention. Unquestionably, besides the enormous merits of his clinical research, among the benefits that Barker has contributed there is that of having helped us to see things from new points of view. Not only is the neonate (and even more so the fetus not an adult of reduced proportions, but perhaps the neonate is the "father" of the adult person.

  3. Virtual existence in contemporary Serbian novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordić-Petković Vladislava S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper sets out to explore the perspectives and strategies of virtual existence in contemporary Serbian novel in order to illustrate radical changes in the concept of reality and writers' concern with the fidelity to experience. A new surge of the so-called digital realism emerges simultaneously with the increase of awareness that the line between our digital selves and our real-world selves has become blurred and difficult to explain, while new technologies are required to go beyond what our human senses can encompass and deliver. The fictional realism of the digital age will also commit itself to young or middle-aged individuals that passionately attempt to define their aims and objectives so that they could fit into a newly constructed and acquired concept of reality. This is the case with the protagonists in the novels by Ivančica Đerić, Tamara Jecić and Aleksandar Ilić, all of them questioning both their offline and online identities. Their everyday life in a postmillennial world includes many intersecting empirical and virtual realities: love, career and sex take place in a dimension which ignores geography and physical distance and ultimately alters the concepts of time and space, as well the concepts of privacy and intimacy. The paper intends to examine the ways new digital technologies contribute to representations of reality in the novels of both accomplished and aspiring authors whose novels deal with ways of life amid social networks. The novels we analyzed show that the distinction between the virtual and the real world narrows, as the narratives range from intimate confession in letters and journals to tweets, notes and statuses, introducing verbal and structural experimental practices which involve shifting points of view.

  4. Thallium exists in opioid poisoned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Amir; Vahdati-Mashhadian, Naser; Oghabian, Zohreh; Moradi, Valiallah; Afshari, Reza; Mehrpour, Omid

    2015-08-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a toxic heavy metal that exists in nature. Tl poisoning (thallotoxicosis) may occur in opioid addicts. This study was designed to evaluate the frequency and level of urinary Tl in opioid abusers. In addition, clinical findings were evaluated. A total of 150 subjects were examined. Cases with a history of at least 3 years of abuse were admitted in the Imam Reza Hospital as the case group; 50 non-opioid abusers from the target population were included as the control group. Twenty-four hour urinary qualitative and quantitative Tl analyses were performed on both groups. Out of the 150 subjects, 128 (85 %) were negative for qualitative urinary Tl, followed by 5 % (trace), 7 % (1+), 2 % (2+), and 1 % (3+). Mean (standard error (SE), Min-Max) quantitative urinary Tl level was 14 μg/L (3.5 μg/L, 0-346 μg/L). Mean urinary Tl level in the case group was 21 μg/L (5 μg/L, 0-346 μg/L) and that in the controls was 1 μg/L (0.14 μg/L, 0-26 μg/L), which were significantly different (P = 0.001). The most frequent clinical findings were ataxia (86 %), sweating (81 %), and constipation (54 %). In all cases (n = 150), the mean (SE) value for cases with positive qualitative urinary Tl was 26.8 μg/L (0.9 μg/L) and that in the negative cases was 2.3 μg/L (0.2 μg/L), which were significantly different (P = 0.002). This study showed that long-term opioid abuse may lead to Tl exposure. In opioid abusers with the clinical manifestation of thallotoxicosis, urinary Tl should be determined.

  5. Seismic evaluation of existing nuclear facilities. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Programmes for re-evaluation and upgrading of safety of existing nuclear facilities are presently under way in a number of countries around the world. An important component of these programmes is the re-evaluation of the seismic safety through definition of new seismic parameters at the site and evaluation of seismic capacity of structures, equipment and distribution systems following updated information and criteria. The Seminar is intended to provide a forum for the exchange of information and discussion of the state-of-the-art on seismic safety of nuclear facilities in operation or under construction. Both analytical and experimental techniques for the evaluation of seismic capacity of structures, equipment and distribution systems are discussed. Full scale and field tests of structures and components using shaking tables, mechanical exciters, explosive and shock tests, and ambient vibrations are included in the seminar programme with emphasis on recent case histories. Presentations at the Seminar also include analytical techniques for the determination of dynamic properties of soil-structure systems from experiments as well as calibration of numerical models. Methods and criteria for seismic margin assessment based on experience data obtained from the behaviour of structures and components in real earthquakes are discussed. Guidelines for defining technical requirements for capacity re-evaluation (i.e. acceptable behaviour limits and design and implementation of structure and components upgrades are also presented and discussed. The following topics were covered during 7 sessions: earthquake experience and seismic re-evaluation; country experience in seismic re-evaluation programme; generic WWER studies; analytical methods for seismic capacity re-evaluation; experimental methods for seismic capacity re-evaluation; case studies

  6. Air Pollution Monitoring | Air Quality Planning & Standards ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    The basic mission of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is to preserve and improve the quality of our nation's air. To accomplish this, OAQPS must be able to evaluate the status of the atmosphere as compared to clean air standards and historical information.

  7. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; Loos S de; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The

  8. Individual dosimetry in planned, existing and accidental exposure situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, M.A.M; El Deen, T.S.; Morsy, T.; Shabon, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    There are three types of radiation exposure which include Planned exposure situations, Existing exposure situations and Emergency exposure situations which are defined as Situations that may occur during the operation of a planned situation, or from a malicious act, or from any other unexpected situation, and require urgent action in order to avoid or reduce undesirable consequences. A given individual may be exposed as a worker, and/or as a member of the public, and/or as a patient. Workers in medical professions involving radiation are occupationally exposed. For individual monitoring of exposed workers, Film badges or thermo luminescence dosimeters are in use. In cases where individual may be suspected to be contaminated internally, contamination monitors are used to monitor the site and whole body counters to monitor individuals. Members of the public are exposure to cosmic rays during air flights. Film badges were used to exposure of workers to NORM during maintenance work in old oil field. TLD is used for exposure workers in nuclear medicine department. Any radiation accident will add knowledge and experience. Accidents from lost, stolen or neglected sources are particularly special because the radiation exposure patterns of the individuals involved and the scenario of the accident are always different

  9. Enershield : energy saving air barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallihan, D. [Enershield Industries Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Enershield Industries is a leader in air barrier technology and provides solution for the Canadian climate. This presentation described the advantages of air barriers and the impact of rising energy costs. An air barrier is used to separate areas of differing environments and makes existing building systems more efficient. This presentation discussed how an air barrier works. It also identified how Enershield Industries calculates energy savings. It described air barrier applications and those who use barrier technology. These include the commercial and industrial sector as well as the personnel and retail sector. Barrier technology can be used for cold storage; vehicle and equipment washes; food processing; and environmental separation. Features and benefits such as the ability to create seal, acoustic insulation, and long term durability were also discussed. Last, the presentation addressed model selection and design criteria issues. Design criteria that were presented included a discussion of acoustic installation, articulating nozzles, scroll cased fans, and structural frame. Other design criteria presented were galvanized frames, telescopic sliders, and off the shelf parts. It was concluded that the ability to reduce energy consumption and enhance employee/client comfort is beneficial to the employer as well as to the employee. figs.

  10. Trading emissions improve air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lents, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    While admitting sharply contrasting views exist, James M. Lents of the South Coast Air Quality Management District in southern California sees emissions trading open-quotes as a lifesaver for our troubled planet.close quotes He explains: open-quotes If political support for the environment is to be maintained, we must seek the most economical and flexible means of pursuing cleanup. At present, market incentives and emissions trading represent our best hope.close quotes Lents is putting his money where his pen is. The air quality management district he heads plans to use market incentives, including emissions trading, to reduce air pollution in the notoriously dirty southern California area. When the system goes into operation in 1994, he estimates it will save southern California businesses more than $400 million a year in compliance costs, while also making major improvements in the region's air quality. If the idea works there, why won't it work elsewhere, even on a global scale, Lents asks? He believes it will. But open-quotes the ultimate success of emissions-trading programs, whether regional, national, or international in scope, lies in the proof that they're actually achieving reductions in harmful emissions,close quotes he emphasizes. open-quotes These reductions must be real and verifiable to satisfy the Clean Air Act and a skeptical public.close quotes

  11. Does GaH5 exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speakman, Lucas D.; Turney, Justin M.; Schaefer, Henry F.

    2005-11-01

    The existence or nonexistence of GaH5 has been widely discussed [N. M. Mitzel, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 42, 3856 (2003)]. Seven possible structures for gallium pentahydride have been systematically investigated using ab initio electronic structure theory. Structures and vibrational frequencies have been determined employing self-consistent field, coupled cluster including all single and double excitations (CCSD), and CCSD with perturbative triples levels of theory, with at least three correlation-consistent polarized-valence-(cc-pVXZ and aug-cc-pVXZ) type basis sets. The X˜A'1 state for GaH5 is predicted to be weakly bound complex 1 between gallane and molecular hydrogen, with Cs symmetry. The dissociation energy corresponding to GaH5→GaH3+H2 is predicted to be De=2.05kcalmol-1. The H-H stretching fundamental is predicted to be v =4060cm-1, compared to the tentatively assigned experimental feature of Wang and Andrews [J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 11371 (2003)] at 4087cm-1. A second Cs structure 2 with nearly equal energy is predicted to be a transition state, corresponding to a 90° rotation of the H2 bond. Thus the rotation of the hydrogen molecule is essentially free. However, hydrogen scrambling through the C2v structure 3 seems unlikely, as the activation barrier for scrambling is at least 30kcalmol-1 higher in energy than that for the dissociation of GaH5 to GaH3 and H2. Two additional structures consisting of GaH3 with a dihydrogen bond perpendicular to gallane (C3v structure 4) and an in-plane dihydrogen bond [Cs(III) structure 5] were also examined. A C3v symmetry second-order saddle point has nearly the same energy as the GaH3+H2 dissociation limit, while the Cs(III) structure 5 is a transition structure to the C3v structure. The C4v structure 6 and the D3h structure 7 are much higher in energy than GaH3+H2 by 88 and 103kcalmol-1, respectively.

  12. PASSCLAIM - Synthesis and review of existing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David P; Affertsholt, Tage; Asp, Nils-Georg; Bruce, Ake; Grossklaus, Rolf; Howlett, John; Pannemans, Daphne; Ross, Richard; Verhagen, Hans; Viechtbauer, Volker

    2003-03-01

    Several approaches to the use of health claims on foods have been made around the world, and the common theme is that any health claim will require scientific validation and substantiation. There is also broad consensus that any regulatory framework should protect the consumer, promote fair trade and encourage innovation in the food industry.This paper is based on a critical evaluation of existing international approaches to the scientific substantiation of health claims, with a view to identifying common new ideas, definitions, best practice and a methodology to underpin current and future developments. There is a clear need to have uniform understanding, terminology and description of types of nutrition and health claims. Two broad categories were defined: Nutrition Claims, i. e. what the product contains, and Health Claims, i. e. relating to health, well-being and/or performance, including well-established nutrient function claims, enhanced function claims and disease risk reduction claims. Such health claims relate to what the food or food components does or do. The categories of health claims are closely and progressively related and are, in practice, part of a continuum. Provision is also made for "generic" or well-established, generally accepted claims and for "innovative" or "product-specific" claims. Special attention was paid to reflect the health-promoting properties of a food or food component in such a way as to facilitate the making of risk reduction claims outside the medical scope of the term prevention. The paper sets out basic principles and guidelines for communication of health claims and principles of nutritional safety. The main body of the work examines the process for the assessment of scientific support for health claims on food and emphasises an evidence-based approach consisting of: Identification of all relevant studies exploring the collection of evidence, data searches, the nature of the scientific evidence, sources of scientific data

  13. Technology Solutions for Existing Homes Case Study: Trade-Friendly Retrofit Insulated Panels for Existing Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    For this project with the U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Home Innovation Research Labs, the retrofit insulated panels relied on an enhanced expanded polystyrene (EPS) for thermal resistance of R-4.5/inch, which is an improvement of 10% over conventional (white-colored) EPS. EPS, measured by its life cycle, is an alternative to commonly used extruded polystyrene and spray polyurethane foam. It is a closed-cell product made up of 90% air, and it requires about 85% fewer petroleum products for processing than other rigid foams.

  14. A precariedade humana e a existência estilizada Human precariousness and stylized existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Paiva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tematiza o desamparo vivenciado pela consciência ante a ausência de bases sólidas para seus anseios de felicidade e para suas representações simbólicas. Com esse propósito, toma como objeto de reflexão um dos ensaios filosóficos de Albert Camus, O mito de Sísifo, equacionando a possibilidade de uma ética que estilize a vida, sem que se minimize a dolorosa precariedade da existência humana. Posteriormente, em diálogo com alguns textos de M. Foucault, a reflexão procura estabelecer os vínculos possíveis entre a ética camusiana e a ética como uma estética da existência, tal como pensada entre os gregos antigos.This article discusses the helplessness experienced by the consciousness vis-à-vis the absence of solid bases for its longings for happiness and for its symbolic representations. For this purpose, the object of reflection of the article is one of Albert Camus' philosophical essays, The Myth of Sisyphus, and we inquire into the possibility of an ethics that stylizes life without minimizing the painful precariousness of human existence. Making reference to certain texts by Foucault, we attempt to establish possible connections between Camus' ethics and an ethics of the aesthetics of existence as found in the thinkers of ancient Greece.

  15. Existence and non-existence of solutions for a singular problem with variable potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Saoudi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to prove some existence and nonexistence theorems for the inhomogeneous singular Dirichlet problem $$ - \\Delta_p u = \\frac{\\lambda k(x}{u^\\delta}\\pm h(x u^q. $$ For proving our results we use the sub and super solution method, and monotonicity arguments.

  16. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ... Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Print this Page Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ...

  17. Tracking Object Existence From an Autonomous Patrol Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Michael; Scharenbroich, Lucas

    2011-01-01

    uncertainty arising from errors in sensors and upstream processes. However, traditional target tracking methods typically assume a stationary detection volume of interest, whereas in this case, one must make adjustments for being able to see only a small portion of the region of interest and understand when an alert situation has occurred. To track object existence inside and outside the vehicle's sensor range, a probability of existence was defined for each hypothesized object, and this value was updated at every time step in a Bayesian manner based on expected characteristics of the sensor and object and whether that object has been detected in the most recent time step. Then, this value feeds into a sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) to determine the status of the object (suspected, confirmed, or deleted). Alerts are sent upon selected status transitions. Additionally, in order to track objects that move in and out of sensor range and update the probability of existence appropriately a variable probability detection has been defined and the hypothesis probability equations have been re-derived to accommodate this change. Unsupervised object tracking is a pervasive issue in automated perception systems. This work could apply to any mobile platform (ground vehicle, sea vessel, air vehicle, or orbiter) that intermittently revisits regions of interest and needs to determine whether anything interesting has changed.

  18. Kajian Analitik Perencanaan Pintu Air Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Air

    OpenAIRE

    Pradoto, Pradoto

    1993-01-01

    Pada pintu air pembangkit listrik tenaga air umumnya dipasang pengauat-penguat (girder). Tujuannya agar pintu air kuat dalam menahan tekanan air. Tekanan air yang diderita oleh pintu air cukup besar karena dipasang pada kedalaman + 50 meter di bawah permukaan air. Permasalahan yang timbul adalah menentukan posisi atau letak girder pada pintu air.

  19. Existence of a sex pheromone in Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduvidae: II. Electrophysiological correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. de Brito Sanchez

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available The stimulus provided by a copulating pair of Triatoma infestans significantly affects the electrical activity of the nervous system of Triatoma infestans. Electrophysiological recordings were perfomed on stationary adult males presented with stimuli of an air current carrying odors from males, females, non-copulating pairs and mating pairs. The electrophysiological response was characterized by the low frequency occurrence of biphasic compound impulses. A significant increase in the frequency of the impulses occurred in stationary males when exposed to air currents of mating pairs, when compared to that evoked by a clean air stream. Analysis of the time course of the assays, showed that the electrophisiological activity during the copula was higher than prior to or after copula. The electrophysiological evidence presented here strongly supports the existence of pheromone(s released by one or both sexes during mating and which is perceived by male chemoreceptors located on the antennae.

  20. [Establishment of Assessment Method for Air Bacteria and Fungi Contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua-ling; Yao, Da-jun; Zhang, Yu; Fang, Zi-liang

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, in order to settle existing problems in the assessment of air bacteria and fungi contamination, the indoor and outdoor air bacteria and fungi filed concentrations by impact method and settlement method in existing documents were collected and analyzed, then the goodness of chi square was used to test whether these concentration data obeyed normal distribution at the significant level of α = 0.05, and combined with the 3σ principle of normal distribution and the current assessment standards, the suggested concentrations ranges of air microbial concentrations were determined. The research results could provide a reference for developing air bacteria and fungi contamination assessment standards in the future.

  1. AirPEx. Air Pollution Exposure Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freijer, J.I.; Bloemen, H.J.Th.; De Loos, S.; Marra, M.; Rombout, P.J.A.; Steentjes, G.M.; Van Veen, M.P.

    1997-12-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The principal grounds for studying the inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollutants are formed by the need for realistic exposure/dose estimates to evaluate the health effects of these pollutants. The AirPEx (Air Pollution Exposure) model, developed to assess the time- and space-dependence of inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollution, has been implemented for use as a Windows 3.1 computer program. The program is suited to estimating various exposure and dose quantities for individuals, as well as for populations and subpopulations. This report describes the fundamentals of the AirPEx model and provides a user manual for the computer program. Several examples included in the report illustrate the possibilities of the AirPEx model in exposure assessment. The model will be used at the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment as a tool in analysing the current exposure of the Dutch population to air pollutants. 57 refs.

  2. Black Hole Caught Zapping Galaxy into Existence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    , construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".

  3. Air pollution monitoring - a methodological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trajkovska Trpevska, Magdalena

    2002-01-01

    Methodology for monitoring the emission of polluters in the air is a complex concept that in general embraces following fazes: sampling, laboratory treatment, and interpretation of results. In Company for technological and laboratory investigation and environmental protection - Mining Institute Skopje, the control of emission of polluters in the air is performing according methodology based in general on the recommendation of standard VDI 2.066 prescribe from Ministry of Ecology in Germany, because adequate legislation in our country does not exist. In this article the basic treatment of methodology for the air polluters emission control is presented. (Original)

  4. Healthy Buildings and Air Distribution in Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    Healthy buildings are to a great extent a question of indoor air quality. The processes involved in air quality can be looked upon as a number of links in a chain. Typical links will be emission from building materials, convection and diffusion in the room, local airflow around a person, personal...... exposure and at last the effect of the air quality on the occupant. The best results will obviously be obtained by using building materials with low emission. However, there will always exist some emission and the ventilation will consequently be an important link....

  5. Biomonitoring of air quality using plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulgrew, A.; Williams, P. [King' s Coll., London (United Kingdom). Monitoring and Assessment Research Centre - WHO Collaborating Centre for Monitoring and Assessment

    2000-02-01

    This report is an update of the MARC Report No. 32 'Biological Monitoring' and a first volume referring to a WHO project on biological monitoring. The monograph reviews comprehensively the existing literature on biological monitoring of air quality with plants. This review includes consideration of all plant species that are currently, or have a potential of, being used as bioindicators of air pollution. This review is intended to serve as a background paper for the derivation of guidelines for the use of biological monitors in air pollution control. (orig.)

  6. Biomonitoring of air quality using plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulgrew, A; Williams, P [King' s Coll., London (United Kingdom). Monitoring and Assessment Research Centre - WHO Collaborating Centre for Monitoring and Assessment

    2000-02-01

    This report is an update of the MARC Report No. 32 'Biological Monitoring' and a first volume referring to a WHO project on biological monitoring. The monograph reviews comprehensively the existing literature on biological monitoring of air quality with plants. This review includes consideration of all plant species that are currently, or have a potential of, being used as bioindicators of air pollution. This review is intended to serve as a background paper for the derivation of guidelines for the use of biological monitors in air pollution control. (orig.)

  7. Existence and non-existence of solutions for a p(x-biharmonic problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem A. Afrouzi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the following problem with Navier boundary conditions $$\\displaylines{ \\Delta (|\\Delta u|^{p(x-2}\\Delta u+|u|^{p(x-2}u =\\lambda |u|^{q(x-2}u +\\mu|u|^{\\gamma(x-2}u\\quad \\text{in } \\Omega,\\cr u=\\Delta u=0 \\quad \\text{on } \\partial\\Omega. }$$ where $\\Omega$ is a bounded domain in $\\mathbb{R}^{N}$ with smooth boundary $\\partial \\Omega$, $N\\geq1$. $p(x,q(x$ and $\\gamma(x$ are continuous functions on $\\overline{\\Omega}$, $\\lambda$ and $\\mu$ are parameters. Using variational methods, we establish some existence and non-existence results of solutions for this problem.

  8. 75 FR 37732 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... hazardous air pollutants for existing stationary compression ignition reciprocating internal combustion... combustion engines. 40 CFR 63.6590 was amended by revising paragraphs (b)(1) and (3). Inadvertently...

  9. 40 CFR 427.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject to...

  10. 40 CFR 427.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject to...

  11. 40 CFR 417.84 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.84 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source...

  12. Ambient air pollution and thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Sarah; Miller, Mark R

    2018-01-03

    Air pollution is a growing public health concern of global significance. Acute and chronic exposure is known to impair cardiovascular function, exacerbate disease and increase cardiovascular mortality. Several plausible biological mechanisms have been proposed for these associations, however, at present, the pathways are incomplete. A seminal review by the American Heart Association (2010) concluded that the thrombotic effects of particulate air pollution likely contributed to their effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. The aim of the current review is to appraise the newly accumulated scientific evidence (2009-2016) on contribution of haemostasis and thrombosis towards cardiovascular disease induced by exposure to both particulate and gaseous pollutants.Seventy four publications were reviewed in-depth. The weight of evidence suggests that acute exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) induces a shift in the haemostatic balance towards a pro-thrombotic/pro-coagulative state. Insufficient data was available to ascertain if a similar relationship exists for gaseous pollutants, and very few studies have addressed long-term exposure to ambient air pollution. Platelet activation, oxidative stress, interplay between interleukin-6 and tissue factor, all appear to be potentially important mechanisms in pollution-mediated thrombosis, together with an emerging role for circulating microvesicles and epigenetic changes.Overall, the recent literature supports, and arguably strengthens, the contention that air pollution contributes to cardiovascular morbidity by promoting haemostasis. The volume and diversity of the evidence highlights the complexity of the pathophysiologic mechanisms by which air pollution promotes thrombosis; multiple pathways are plausible and it is most likely they act in concert. Future research should address the role gaseous pollutants play in the cardiovascular effects of air pollution mixture and direct comparison of potentially

  13. Air quality management planning (AQMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivertsen Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In most urban areas of the world, particulate matter (PM levels pose severe problems, addressed in several policy areas (air quality, climate change, and human health. PM presents multiple challenges due to the multitude of its sources, spanning many sectors of economic activity as well as nature, and due to the complexity of atmospheric processes involved in its transport and secondary formation. For the authorities, the goal is to assure minimal impacts of atmospheric PM levels, in practice represented by compliance with existing regulations and standards. This may be achieved through an air quality management plan (AQMP. In Northern America and in parts of Europe, comprehensive research programs have guided development of AQMP over the last forty years. This cumulated experience can be utilized by others who face the same problems, but have yet to develop their own substantial research base. The main purpose of the AQMP development process is to establish an effective and sound basis for planning and management of air quality in a selected area. This type of planning will ensure that significant sources of impacts are identified and controlled in a most cost-effective manner. The choice of tools, methods and input information is often dictated by their availability, and should be evaluated against current best practices. Important elements of the AQMP are the identification of sources and development of a complete emission inventory, the development and operation of an air quality monitoring programme, and the development and application of atmospheric dispersion models. Major task is to collect the necessary input data. The development of the AQMP will take into account: - Air Quality Management System (AQMS requirements; - Operational and functional structure requirements; - Source identification through emission inventories; - Source reduction alternatives, which may be implemented; - Mechanisms for facilitating interdepartmental

  14. EPA's Response to the February 2014 Release of Radioactive Material from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP): EPA's WIPP Air Sampling Data from April 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    In April 2014, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) environmental monitoring and assessment team members reviewed DOE's air sampling plan, visited DOE's air samplers and placed air samplers onsite near existing DOE samplers to corroborate results.

  15. Performance improvement of air-cooled refrigeration system by using evaporatively cooled air condenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajidavalloo, E.; Eghtedari, H. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Shahid Chamran University, Golestan St., Ahvaz (Iran)

    2010-08-15

    Increasing the coefficient of performance of air conditioner with air-cooled condenser is a challenging problem especially in area with very hot weather conditions. Application of evaporatively cooled air condenser instead of air-cooled condenser is proposed in this paper as an efficient way to solve the problem. An evaporative cooler was built and coupled to the existing air-cooled condenser of a split-air-conditioner in order to measure its effect on the cycle performance under various ambient air temperatures up to 49 C. Experimental results show that application of evaporatively cooled air condenser has significant effect on the performance improvement of the cycle and the rate of improvement is increased as ambient air temperature increases. It is also found that by using evaporatively cooled air condenser in hot weather conditions, the power consumption can be reduced up to 20% and the coefficient of performance can be improved around 50%. More improvements can be expected if a more efficient evaporative cooler is used. (author)

  16. Control in indoor radon decay products by air treatment devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinds, W.C.; Rudnick, S.N.; Maher, E.F.; First, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    An evaluation of the efficacy of household air cleaning devices as a means to control radon decay products in existing buildings is presented. Previous research on air cleaning methods for airborne radon decay products has been directed primarily to the control of radon decay products in mines and has only limited application to control in residences where dust concentration, air change rate, and humidity are lower than in mines. Results show that room size air cleaners can achieve substantial reductions in working levels in residences. Reductions observed at air infiltration rates of 0.52 air changes per hour ranged from 58 to 89%. Although the two air cleaners tested produced the greatest reductions, the low cost, simplicity, and other benefits of air circulating fans, particularly the ceiling fan, appear to make them most suitable for residences

  17. Providing cleaner air to Canadians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-02-01

    This booklet is designed to explain salient aspects of the Ozone Annex, negotiated and signed recently by Canada and the United States, in a joint effort to improve air quality in North America. By significantly reducing the transboundary flows of air pollutants that cause smog, the Ozone Annex will benefit some 16 million people in central and eastern Canada and provide an example for a future round of negotiations to address concerns of the millions of Canadians and Americans who live in the border area between British Columbia and Washington State. The brochure provide summaries of the Canadian and American commitments, focusing on transportation, monitoring and reporting. The Ozone Annex complements other air quality initiatives by the Government of Canada enacted under the Environmental Protection Act, 1999. These measures include regulations to reduce sulphur content to 30 parts per million by Jan 1, 2005; proposing to restrict toxic particulate matter (PM) to less than 10 microns; establishing daily smog forecasts in the Maritimes and committing to a national program built upon existing smog advisories and forecasts in Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia; and investing in more clean air research through the newly created Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences

  18. State of the air in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, S.; Furberg, M.; Rother, P. [British Columbia Lung Association, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2005-08-15

    Scientific evidence is rising regarding the danger of air pollution. Poor air quality can pose a problem in British Columbia, particularly in interior communities when temperature inversions, during certain times of the year, trap pollutants in mountain valleys. This document described where pollutants come from, ambient levels in the atmosphere and how they affect human health. Particular focus was on fine particulate matter, ozone and oxides of nitrogen, as these 3 pollutants have been linked to health impacts. The cost of air pollution through increased health care costs and the economic impact of lost productivity from missed work days was also discussed along with the influence of poor air quality on crop damage and forestry production losses. The document also outlined government and community initiatives to protect public health and listed some measures that individuals can do to keep air clean. Air pollution stems from activities such as land development, burning fossil fuels for energy and transportation, industrial operations, residential wood burning and backyard burning of debris and burning from forestry and agricultural operations. The health impacts range from irritation, to coughing and worsening of existing heart and lung conditions. The document states that despite all measures being taken to reduce emissions and to maintain levels of air pollutants at current low levels, health effects are still observed and still pose a burden to health care cost. Scientific evidence indicates that a further reduction in air pollution will result in health benefits. refs., figs.

  19. State of the air in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, S.; Furberg, M.; Rother, P.

    2005-08-01

    Scientific evidence is rising regarding the danger of air pollution. Poor air quality can pose a problem in British Columbia, particularly in interior communities when temperature inversions, during certain times of the year, trap pollutants in mountain valleys. This document described where pollutants come from, ambient levels in the atmosphere and how they affect human health. Particular focus was on fine particulate matter, ozone and oxides of nitrogen, as these 3 pollutants have been linked to health impacts. The cost of air pollution through increased health care costs and the economic impact of lost productivity from missed work days was also discussed along with the influence of poor air quality on crop damage and forestry production losses. The document also outlined government and community initiatives to protect public health and listed some measures that individuals can do to keep air clean. Air pollution stems from activities such as land development, burning fossil fuels for energy and transportation, industrial operations, residential wood burning and backyard burning of debris and burning from forestry and agricultural operations. The health impacts range from irritation, to coughing and worsening of existing heart and lung conditions. The document states that despite all measures being taken to reduce emissions and to maintain levels of air pollutants at current low levels, health effects are still observed and still pose a burden to health care cost. Scientific evidence indicates that a further reduction in air pollution will result in health benefits. refs., figs

  20. Connectable solar air collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Bosanac, M.

    2002-02-01

    The project has proved that it is possible to manufacture solar air collector panels, which in an easy way can be connected into large collector arrays with integrated ducting without loss of efficiency. The developed connectable solar air collectors are based on the use of matrix absorbers in the form of perforated metal sheets. Three interconnected solar air collectors of the above type - each with an transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} - was tested and compared with parallel tests on two single solar air collectors also with a transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} One of the single solar air collectors has an identical absorber as the connectable solar air collectors while the absorber of the other single solar air collector was a fibre cloth. The efficiency of the three solar air collectors proved to be almost identical in the investigated range of mass flow rates and temperature differences. The solar air collectors further proved to be very efficient - as efficient as the second most efficient solar air collectors tested in the IEA task 19 project Solar Air Systems. Some problems remain although to be solved: the pressure drop across especially the connectable solar air collectors is too high - mainly across the inlets of the solar air collectors. It should, however, be possible to considerably reduce the pressure losses with a more aerodynamic design of the inlet and outlet of the solar air collectors; The connectable solar air collectors are easy connectable but the air tightness of the connections in the present form is not good enough. As leakage leads to lower efficiencies focus should be put on making the connections more air tight without loosing the easiness in connecting the solar air collectors. As a spin off of the project a simple and easy way to determine the efficiency of solar, air collectors for pre-heating of fresh air has been validated. The simple method of determining the efficiency has with success been compared with an advance method

  1. Air conditioning systems to clean radioactive air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganz, G.

    1987-01-01

    The author reports a study by the Institutes fuer Klimatechnik and Umweltschutz Giessen that shows that air conditioning systems not only make the atmosphere more comfortable, they also extract dust particles. This cleaning action is also valid for radioactively contaminated air. (G.T.H./Auth.)

  2. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... and the humidity of the room air. At a low humidity level of 30% an increased velocity could compensate for the decrease in perceived air quality due to an elevated temperature ranging from 20 °C to 26 °C. In a room with 26 °C, increased air movement was also able to compensate for an increase in humidity from 30...... humidity (30, 40 and 70%) and pollution level (low and high). Most of the experiments were performed with and without facially applied airflow at elevated velocity. The importance of the use of recirculated room air and clean, cool and dry outdoor air was studied. The exposures ranged from 60. min to 235...

  3. Simple air collectors for preheating fresh air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.; Wit, de M.H.; Ouden, den C.

    1984-01-01

    In dwellings with mechanical ventilation systems the fresh air can easily be preheated by means of simple solar air systems. These can be an integral part of the building facade or roof and the costs are expected to be low. By means of computer experiments a large number of systems were evaluated.

  4. International symposium on seismic evaluation of existing nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orbovic, N.; Bouchon, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Vendel, J.; Gelain, T. [IRSN/DPEA/SERAC, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2003-10-01

    Below are summarized the works of Mrs N. Orbovic and M. Bouchon; B. Stojadinovic, N. Orbovic, M.Bouchon and J.T. Wiley; M. Bouchon, N. Orbovic and B. Foure; T. Gelain, F. Gensdarmes, R. Sestier-Carlin, J. Vendel and M. Bouchon dealing respectively with: 1) seismic assessment of existing nuclear facility: a case study position of the IRSN 2) static and dynamic evaluation of an existing nuclear facility reinforced concrete frame structure 3) experimental study of cracking of low-rise reinforced concrete shear walls 4) aeraulics study of crack networks on low-rise reinforced concrete walls subject to static cycling loading. The summaries are followed: 1) The Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has the task of evaluating the seismic safety of existing building inventory in French nuclear facilities. Some of the existing structures are reinforced concrete frame buildings with masonry or reinforced concrete in-fill walls built during the 1960's, 70's and 80's following different building codes and seismic input data applicable at the time of construction. The studied building is a laboratory that was built in 1962. The building is composed of three different and independent blocks. The structure is a reinforced concrete frame with masonry in-fills and few stiff concrete elements. Moreover, the building contains an independent massive concrete cell. Structurally, the building has a number of irregularities. From the detailing standpoint, well known deficiencies of low-ductile reinforced concrete structures are evident especially, a lack of transverse reinforcement in the structural joints of the frame. A number of sensitivity studies were conducted using 2D and 3D linear models to evaluate seismic demand. Ambient vibration and regional earthquake records were used to check the soil nature and the existence or not of a possible site effect around the installation as well as to characterize the dynamic behavior of the building. 3D models

  5. International symposium on seismic evaluation of existing nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbovic, N.; Bouchon, M.; Vendel, J.; Gelain, T.

    2003-10-01

    Below are summarized the works of Mrs N. Orbovic and M. Bouchon; B. Stojadinovic, N. Orbovic, M.Bouchon and J.T. Wiley; M. Bouchon, N. Orbovic and B. Foure; T. Gelain, F. Gensdarmes, R. Sestier-Carlin, J. Vendel and M. Bouchon dealing respectively with: 1) seismic assessment of existing nuclear facility: a case study position of the IRSN 2) static and dynamic evaluation of an existing nuclear facility reinforced concrete frame structure 3) experimental study of cracking of low-rise reinforced concrete shear walls 4) aeraulics study of crack networks on low-rise reinforced concrete walls subject to static cycling loading. The summaries are followed: 1) The Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has the task of evaluating the seismic safety of existing building inventory in French nuclear facilities. Some of the existing structures are reinforced concrete frame buildings with masonry or reinforced concrete in-fill walls built during the 1960's, 70's and 80's following different building codes and seismic input data applicable at the time of construction. The studied building is a laboratory that was built in 1962. The building is composed of three different and independent blocks. The structure is a reinforced concrete frame with masonry in-fills and few stiff concrete elements. Moreover, the building contains an independent massive concrete cell. Structurally, the building has a number of irregularities. From the detailing standpoint, well known deficiencies of low-ductile reinforced concrete structures are evident especially, a lack of transverse reinforcement in the structural joints of the frame. A number of sensitivity studies were conducted using 2D and 3D linear models to evaluate seismic demand. Ambient vibration and regional earthquake records were used to check the soil nature and the existence or not of a possible site effect around the installation as well as to characterize the dynamic behavior of the building. 3D models revealed a

  6. The landscape of existing models for high-throughput exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, O.; Fantke, Peter; Huang, L.

    2017-01-01

    and ability to easily handle large datasets. For building materials a series of diffusion-based models have been developed to predict the chemicals emissions from building materials to indoor air, but existing models require complex analytical or numerical solutions, which are not suitable for LCA or HTS...... applications. Thus, existing model solutions needed to be simplified for application in LCA and HTS, and a parsimonious model has been developed by Huang et al. (2017) to address this need. For SVOCs, simplified solutions do exist, assuming constant SVOC concentrations in building materials and steadystate...... for skin permeation and volatilization as competing processes and that requires a limited number of readily available physiochemical properties would be suitable for LCA and HTS purposes. Thus, the multi-pathway exposure model for chemicals in cosmetics developed by Ernstoff et al.constitutes a suitable...

  7. Setting priorities for ambient air quality objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    Alberta has ambient air quality objectives in place for several pollutants, toxic substances and other air quality parameters. A process is in place to determine if additional air quality objectives are required or if existing objectives should be changed. In order to identify the highest priority substances that may require an ambient air quality objective to protect ecosystems and public health, a rigorous, transparent and cost effective priority setting methodology is required. This study reviewed, analyzed and assessed successful priority setting techniques used by other jurisdictions. It proposed an approach for setting ambient air quality objective priorities that integrates the concerns of stakeholders with Alberta Environment requirements. A literature and expert review were used to examine existing priority-setting techniques used by other jurisdictions. An analysis process was developed to identify the strengths and weaknesses of various techniques and their ability to take into account the complete pathway between chemical emissions and damage to human health or the environment. The key strengths and weaknesses of each technique were identified. Based on the analysis, the most promising technique was the tool for the reduction and assessment of chemical and other environmental impacts (TRACI). Several considerations for using TRACI to help set priorities for ambient air quality objectives were also presented. 26 refs, 8 tabs., 4 appendices

  8. EER, COP, and the Second Law Efficiency for Air Conditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Harvey S.; Teeters, William D.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the relationship existing between coefficient of performance (COP) and energy efficiency ratio (EER) in air conditioning units and introduces new efficiency parameters measured relative to the energy extracted from the primary energy source. (SL)

  9. Trace Contaminant Monitor for Air in Spacecraft, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A need exists for analyzers that can measure trace contaminants in air on board spacecraft. Toxic gas buildup can endanger the crew particularly during long...

  10. Air Quality Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other facilities...

  11. Allegheny County Air Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals before...

  12. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements...

  13. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Contact Us Share As a result of EPA's ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Basic Information How does lead get in the ...

  14. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  15. Nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters

  16. AirCompare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — AirCompare contains air quality information that allows a user to compare conditions in different localities over time and compare conditions in the same location at...

  17. European Private Law: Up in the Air?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luzak, J.; Bobek, M.; Prassl, J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper compares the existing rights granted to consumers when they purchase services in the EU, whether in a shop or within a distance selling scheme, with the provisions of Regulation 261/2004. While the works on the new European rules on air passengers’ rights are still ongoing it is important

  18. Assessment methodology for air defence control systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oosthuizen, R

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In Command and Control, humans have to make sense of the situation to support decision making on the required action. Development of an Air Defence Control system through a Systems Engineering process starts with assessment of existing systems...

  19. Measure Guideline. Air Sealing Attics in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otis, Casey [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Maxwell, Sean [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for owners, builders, contractors, homeowners, and other stakeholders in the multifamily building industry, and focuses on challenges found in existing buildings for a variety of housing types. It explains why air sealing is desirable, explores related health and safety issues, and identifies common air leakage points in multifamily building attics. In addition, it also gives an overview of materials and techniques typically used to perform air sealing work.

  20. The Air Force and Diversity: The Awkward Embrace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    diversity across the force. Table. Reasons for leaving the Air Force (2002 data) Reasons for Leaving the Air Force % Critical/Significant Factor % Not a... source in which members pro- vide reasons that women officers leave as well as possible solutions. May–June 2014 Air & Space Power Journal | 122...response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources , gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and

  1. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...... as idenfiying "good practices" to reduce health impact of indoor air exposure and suggest areas for future improvements....

  2. Indoor air: Reference bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.; Staves, D.; McDonald, S.

    1989-07-01

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency initially established the indoor air Reference Bibliography in 1987 as an appendix to the Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan. The document was submitted to Congress as required under Title IV--Radon Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The Reference Bibliography is an extensive bibliography of reference materials on indoor air pollution. The Bibliography contains over 4500 citations and continues to increase as new articles appear

  3. AIR NCO's AND AIRMEN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D.F.C. o Proceeded to Cape Town 9:5:22. Left Cape Town for. African Protectorate 25:2:22. J Left for South West African Protectorate 25:2:22. [ Left for South West African Protectorate. 1:6:22. Colonel: Director of Air Services. Air Directorate. 6th June 1922. SOUTH AFRICAN AIR FORCE. NOMINAL ROLL OF AIR W.O.'s,.

  4. The ultimate air shower observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.W.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of constructing an international air shower observatory in the Himalayas is explored. A site at about 6500 m elevation (450 g/cm 2 ) would provide more definitive measurements of composition and early interaction properties of primaries above 10 16 eV than can be achieved with existing arrays. By supplementing a surface array with a Fly's Eye and muon detectors, information on the highest energy cosmic rays may be gained which is not possible in any other way. Potential sites, technical aspects, and logistical problems are explored

  5. Air Pollution Manual, Part 1--Evaluation. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giever, Paul M., Ed.

    Due to the great increase in technical knowledge and improvement in procedures, this second edition has been prepared to update existing information. Air pollution legislation is reviewed. Sources of air pollution are examined extensively. They are treated in terms of natural sources, man-made sources, metropolitan regional emissions, emission…

  6. INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND INHALATION EXPOSURE - SIMULATION TOOL KIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Microsoft Windows-based indoor air quality (IAQ) simulation software package is presented. Named Simulation Tool Kit for Indoor Air Quality and Inhalation Exposure, or IAQX for short, this package complements and supplements existing IAQ simulation programs and is desi...

  7. Dispersion of radioactive materials in air and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolksdorf, P.; Meurin, G.

    1976-01-01

    A review of current analytical methods for treating the dispersion of radioactive material in air and water is given. It is shown that suitable calculational models, based on experiments, exist for the dispersion in air. By contrast, the analysis of the dispersion of radioactive material in water still depends on the evaluation of experiments with site-specific models. (orig.) [de

  8. Measurement Methods to Determine Air Leakage Between Adjacent Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hult, Erin L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dickerhoff, Darryl J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Phillip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Air leakage between adjacent zones of a building can lead to indoor air quality and energy efficiency concerns, however there is no existing standard for measuring inter-zonal leakage. In this study, synthesized data and field measurements are analyzed in order to explore the uncertainty associated with different methods for collecting and analyzing fan pressurization measurements to calculate interzone leakage.

  9. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  10. Clean Air and Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The air we breathe and the water we drink are both vital components of our health. Nevertheless, bacteria, pollutants, and other contaminates can alter life-giving air and water into health-threatening hazards. Learn about how scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention work to protect the public from air and water-related health risks.

  11. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  12. Modelling Hot Air Balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimicombe, M. W.

    1991-01-01

    A macroscopic way of modeling hot air balloons using a Newtonian approach is presented. Misleading examples using a car tire and the concept of hot air rising are discussed. Pressure gradient changes in the atmosphere are used to explain how hot air balloons work. (KR)

  13. Air quality and disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Climate change is an important determinant of air quality. Climate change is an important determinant of air quality. Poor air quality associated with higher levels of respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Exposure to high levels of ground-level ozone associated with ...

  14. Air Force Leadership Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    served as a deputy maintenance group commander. Following Air War College he will take command of the 8th Maintenance Group, Kunsan Air Base, Korea ...discrimination in terms of 3 race, religion , sex, etc.: the demographics we have all heard about for years. Air Force Policy Directive (AFPD) 36

  15. The Improvement of the Ventilation System in the Existing Terraced Houses in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arab Yasser

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find a sustainable solution in order to reduce the indoor temperature in hot and humid climate such as Malaysia. The focus of this study is to create a new device (Air Tube which is considered to be a remedial device for the indoor spaces, and can be installed for the existed houses. The method of this study is to design the Air Tube device and install is in the rooms of second floor in semi-detached and terrace house in order to reduce the temperature few degrees. The study will depend on taking manual measurements in the site and making simulation using computer software Ecotect on 14th of February (which considered to be the hottest day in the year and trying to find the best solution to reduce the temperature in such hot and humid weather, the case study is a semi-detach house with post-modern architectural style, which is located in Sungai Petani, Kedah, Malaysia. The research finds that AirTubeis a good solution for the existed houses to decrease the temperature and reach the thermal comfortable atmosphere.

  16. Ontario Hydro's integrated air management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalvins, A.K.; Brown, D.; Camacho, F.; Howes, H.; Jantzi, B.; Lin, X.; Lui, P.; Melo, O.T.; Mortimer, W.P.; Reuber, B.

    1992-01-01

    Ontario Hydro is developing an integrated air management plan as a tool for comparing the environmental impacts of fossil-fuel power generation options. The goal is to relate equipment, location, emissions, and impacts and to identify the optimum way to manage the utility's fossil generation system in view of upcoming environmental regulations and public expectations. The eight steps of the plan are briefly described: definition of power generation scenarios (upgrading, conversion to natural gas, non-utility generation, alternative technologies); estimation of emissions for each generation and fuel option studied; identification of impact of air emissions on building materials, agriculture, forests, lakes, and fisheries; modelling of air emissions dispersion; quantification of damage to pollution receptors; quantification of full fuel cycle effects; and comparison of the scenarios. The scenario having the lowest overall environmental impact involved upgrading the existing fossil-fuel system with additional air emissions controls and two integrated gasification combined cycle plants. 9 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Experimental study of air distribution and ventilation effectiveness in a room heated by warm air and/or floor heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Krajčík, Michal

    2010-01-01

    The levels of required ventilation depend on the criteria for indoor air quality in existing standards and guidelines. On top of that, the resulting ventilation in air changes per hour is depending on the ventilation effectiveness. In the standard CR 1752 the recommended values for ventilation ef...

  18. 75 FR 45013 - Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... Department of Homeland Security's U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) Systematic Alien... pre-existing condition based on evidence of the existence or history of certain medical or health...

  19. EXISTENCE OF POSITIVE SOLUTIONS FOR AN ELASTIC CURVED BEAM EQUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Kovacs

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the existence of positive solutions for a sixth-order differential equations. By using the Leggett-Williams fixed point theorem we give some new existence results.

  20. Manual for THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Brandt, Jørgen

    The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS.......The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS....

  1. REVIEW OF CONCENTRATION STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES FOR FUNGI IN INDOOR AIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper reviews and compares existing guidelines for indoor airborne fungi, discusses limitations of existing guidelines, and identifies research needs that should contribute to the development of realistic and useful guidelines for these important air pollutants. (NOTE: Exposu...

  2. Correlation of Air Quality Data to Ultrafine Particles (UFP Concentration and Size Distribution in Ambient Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Hofmann

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study monitored ultrafine particles (UFP concurrent with environmental air quality data, investigating whether already existing instrumentation used by environmental authorities can provide reference values for estimating UFP concentrations. Of particular interest was the relation of UFP to PM10 (particulate matter and nitrogen oxides (NOx, NO2 in ambient air. Existing PM measurement methods alone did not correspond exactly enough with the actual particle number, but we observed a link between NOx and NO2 to UFP concentration. The combined data could act as proxy-indicator for authorities in estimating particle number concentrations, but cannot replace UFP monitoring.

  3. Photochemical air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Te Winkel, B.H.

    1992-01-01

    During periods of severe photochemical air pollution (smog) the industry in the Netherlands is recommended by the Dutch government to strongly reduce the emissions of air pollutants. For the electric power generating companies it is important to investigate the adequacy of this policy. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the contribution of electric power plants to photochemical air pollution and to assess the efficacy of emission reducing measures. A literature survey on the development of photochemical air pollution was carried out and modelled calculations concerning the share of the electric power plants to the photochemical air pollution were executed

  4. Air-water screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopov, O.I.; Kutepov, A.I.

    1980-12-08

    The air-water screen based on inventor's certificate No. 577364 contains horizontal water and air lines with water and air nozzles. The air line is situated inside the water line eccentrically and contracts it in the area of the nozzle, whose orifices are situated along the line of contact, while the orifices of the water nozzle are situated symmetrically relative to the air orifices and are located at an acute angle to them. To raise the protective properties, on the end of the water line is a lateral nozzle water distributor is an additional nozzle, connected to this container.

  5. Compressed air noise reductions from using advanced air gun nozzles in research and development environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieve, Kurt; Rice, Amanda; Raynor, Peter C

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate sound levels produced by compressed air guns in research and development (R&D) environments, replace conventional air gun models with advanced noise-reducing air nozzles, and measure changes in sound levels to assess the effectiveness of the advanced nozzles as engineering controls for noise. Ten different R&D manufacturing areas that used compressed air guns were identified and included in the study. A-weighted sound level and Z-weighted octave band measurements were taken simultaneously using a single instrument. In each area, three sets of measurements, each lasting for 20 sec, were taken 1 m away and perpendicular to the air stream of the conventional air gun while a worker simulated typical air gun work use. Two different advanced noise-reducing air nozzles were then installed. Sound level and octave band data were collected for each of these nozzles using the same methods as for the original air guns. Both of the advanced nozzles provided sound level reductions of about 7 dBA, on average. The highest noise reductions measured were 17.2 dBA for one model and 17.7 dBA for the other. In two areas, the advanced nozzles yielded no sound level reduction, or they produced small increases in sound level. The octave band data showed strong similarities in sound level among all air gun nozzles within the 10-1,000 Hz frequency range. However, the advanced air nozzles generally had lower noise contributions in the 1,000-20,000 Hz range. The observed decreases at these higher frequencies caused the overall sound level reductions that were measured. Installing new advanced noise-reducing air nozzles can provide large sound level reductions in comparison to existing conventional nozzles, which has direct benefit for hearing conservation efforts.

  6. 40 CFR 406.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.34 Section 406.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 406.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject to this subpart that...

  7. 40 CFR 406.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.44 Section 406.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 406.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject to this subpart that...

  8. Existence of pareto equilibria for multiobjective games without compactness

    OpenAIRE

    Shiraishi, Yuya; Kuroiwa, Daishi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the existence of Pareto and weak Pareto equilibria for multiobjective games without compactness. By employing an existence theorem of Pareto equilibria due to Yu and Yuan([10]), several existence theorems of Pareto and weak Pareto equilibria for the multiobjective games are established in a similar way to Flores-B´azan.

  9. Air filtration and air cooling in dairies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubzov, J A

    1986-01-01

    In addition to the maintenance of optimum temperatures and relative humidities, a continuous cleaning of the circulating air by means of suspended matter filters and regular disinfection of the spaces and equipment are required in the maturing and storage room for cheese. This contribution presents solutions to the use of suspended matter filters in air cooling plant for dairies in the U.S.S.R.

  10. Coping with Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pollution > Coping with Indoor Air Pollution Font: Outdoor Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Asthma Triggers For Kids and Teachers Coping with Indoor Air Pollution Indoor air pollution is irritating to everyone: But people who ...

  11. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

  12. Liberalisation of air cargo transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-02

    Over a period of many years, international air cargo demand has continued to increase more rapidly than international air passenger demand. Air cargo arrangements need to be as efficient and expeditious as possible, to meet user requirements for air ...

  13. Released air during vapor and air cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonská, Jana, E-mail: jana.jablonska@vsb.cz; Kozubková, Milada, E-mail: milada.kozubkova@vsb.cz [VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Hydromechanics and Hydraulic Equipment, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic)

    2016-06-30

    Cavitation today is a very important problem that is solved by means of experimental and mathematical methods. The article deals with the generation of cavitation in convergent divergent nozzle of rectangular cross section. Measurement of pressure, flow rate, temperature, amount of dissolved air in the liquid and visualization of cavitation area using high-speed camera was performed for different flow rates. The measurement results were generalized by dimensionless analysis, which allows easy detection of cavitation in the nozzle. For numerical simulation the multiphase mathematical model of cavitation consisting of water and vapor was created. During verification the disagreement with the measurements for higher flow rates was proved, therefore the model was extended to multiphase mathematical model (water, vapor and air), due to release of dissolved air. For the mathematical modeling the multiphase turbulence RNG k-ε model for low Reynolds number flow with vapor and air cavitation was used. Subsequently the sizes of the cavitation area were verified. In article the inlet pressure and loss coefficient depending on the amount of air added to the mathematical model are evaluated. On the basis of the approach it may be create a methodology to estimate the amount of released air added at the inlet to the modeled area.

  14. 77 FR 24793 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of New York; Regional Haze...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ...- air quality environmental impacts of compliance, (3) any existing pollution control technology in use.... Implication of Clean Air Interstate Rule and Cross State Air Pollution Rule II. What is the background for EPA... CAIR rule, on July 6, 2011 EPA finalized the Cross- State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR); a rule intended...

  15. Technology Solutions Case Study: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-01

    In multifamily buildings, particularly in the Northeast, exhaust ventilation strategies are the norm as a means of meeting both local exhaust and whole-unit mechanical ventilation rates. The issue of where the "fresh" air is coming from is gaining significance as air-tightness standards for enclosures become more stringent, and the normal leakage paths through the building envelope disappear. Researchers from the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) found that the majority of high performance, new construction, multifamily housing in the Northeast use one of four general strategies for ventilation: continuous exhaust only with no designated supply or make-up air source, continuous exhaust with ducted make-up air to apartments, continuous exhaust with supply through a make-up air device integral to the unit HVAC, and continuous exhaust with supply through a passive inlet device, such as a trickle vent. Insufficient information is available to designers on how these various systems are best applied. In this project, the CARB team evaluated the four different strategies for providing make-up air to multifamily residential buildings and developed guidelines to help contractors and building owners choose the best ventilation systems.

  16. Local Air Quality Conditions and Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Monitor Location Archived Maps by Region Canada Air Quality Air Quality on Google Earth Links A-Z About AirNow AirNow International Air Quality Action Days / Alerts AirCompare Air Quality Index (AQI) ...

  17. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Oooo of... - Emission Limits for New or Reconstructed and Existing Affected Sources in the Printing, Coating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Reconstructed and Existing Affected Sources in the Printing, Coating and Dyeing of Fabrics and Other Textiles... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Printing, Coating, and Dyeing...—Emission Limits for New or Reconstructed and Existing Affected Sources in the Printing, Coating and Dyeing...

  18. Air quality and future energy system planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral Mourao, Zenaida; Konadu, Dennis; Lupton, Rick

    2016-04-01

    energy system planning. Some example applications of this work are: (1) to discover conflicts and synergies between air quality regulations and future developments in the energy system and land use change; (2) to show the drivers of air quality in a given spatial context; (3) to explore effective ways to visualize impacts of different energy, land use and emissions control policies on air quality. An initial test case for the Bay Area in California will be presented, extending the scope of the existing California ForeseerTM tool to identify impacts of different policies within the water-energy-land nexus on local air quality.

  19. 76 FR 53633 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited (Type Certificate No. A-815 Formerly Held by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited (Type Certificate No. A-815 Formerly Held by Bombardier Inc. and de... superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for all Viking Air Limited (type certificate No. A-815..., contact Viking Air Ltd., 9574 Hampden Road, Sidney, BC Canada V8L 5V5; telephone: (800) 663-8444; Internet...

  20. 77 FR 46911 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Michigan; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ...-air quality environmental impacts of compliance; (3) any existing pollution control technology in use... relying on EPA's Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR) to address these requirements. EPA is also taking...) monitoring network, show that visibility impairment caused by air pollution occurs virtually all the time at...

  1. Indoor air radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cothern, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    This review concerns primarily the health effects that result from indoor air exposure to radon gas and its progeny. Radon enters homes mainly from the soil through cracks in the foundation and other holes to the geologic deposits beneath these structures. Once inside the home the gas decays (half-life 3.8 d) and the ionized atoms adsorb to dust particles and are inhaled. These particles lodge in the lung and can cause lung cancer. The introduction to this review gives some background properties of radon and its progeny that are important to understanding this public health problem as well as a discussion of the units used to describe its concentrations. The data describing the health effects of inhaled radon and its progeny come both from epidemiological and animal studies. The estimates of risk from these two data bases are consistent within a factor of two. The epidemiological studies are primarily for hard rock miners, although some data exist for environmental exposures. The most complete studies are those of the US, Canadian, and Czechoslovakian uranium miners. Although all studies have some deficiencies, those of major importance include uranium miners in Saskatchewan, Canada, Swedish iron miners, and Newfoundland fluorspar miners. These six studies provide varying degrees of detail in the form of dose-response curves. Other epidemiological studies that do not provide quantitative dose-response information, but are useful in describing the health effects, include coal, iron ore and tin miners in the UK, iron ore miners in the Grangesburg and Kiruna, Sweden, metal miners in the US, Navajo uranium miners in the US, Norwegian niobian and magnitite miners, South African gold and uranium miners, French uranium miners, zinc-lead miners in Sweden and a variety of small studies of environmental exposure. An analysis of the epidemiological studies reveals a variety of interpretation problem areas.172 references

  2. Bad traffic, bad air

    OpenAIRE

    Duca, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is one of Malta’s greatest concerns. Transportation is the principal source with over 300,000 vehicles belching out smoke, which damages our environment and health. Emissions from vehicles need to be monitored and controlled, and the information used to improve the current system and ensure an acceptable air quality. By using the pollution data set, Nicolette Formosa (supervised by Dr Kenneth Scerri) mapped the air pollution levels and major sources around Malta. http://www....

  3. Radioactive material air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme

    2002-01-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation

  4. The Air Campaign: Planning for Combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Outcomes of this kind have been common in land war, but so far only a few exam - ples exist of the same thing in air war. TWO EXAMPLES OF AIR DEFENSE...the com- poser decides how best to reach that objective. Should it be a piano concerto, a violin concerto, or a flute con- certo? Only one will get...him to the objective he has chosen; clearly, a piano cannot say what a violin can say, and vice versa. That he has chosen an instrument to be his kev

  5. Air pollution engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduna, Karolina; Tomašić, Vesna

    2017-11-01

    Air pollution is an environmental and a social problem which leads to a multitude of adverse effects on human health and standard of human life, state of the ecosystems and global change of climate. Air pollutants are emitted from natural, but mostly from anthropogenic sources and may be transported over long distances. Some air pollutants are extremely stable in the atmosphere and may accumulate in the environment and in the food chain, affecting human beings, animals and natural biodiversity. Obviously, air pollution is a complex problem that poses multiple challenges in terms of management and abatements of the pollutants emission. Effective approach to the problems of air pollution requires a good understanding of the sources that cause it, knowledge of air quality status and future trends as well as its impact on humans and ecosystems. This chapter deals with the complexities of the air pollution and presents an overview of different technical processes and equipment for air pollution control, as well as basic principles of their work. The problems of air protection as well as protection of other ecosystems can be solved only by the coordinated endeavors of various scientific and engineering disciplines, such as chemistry, physics, biology, medicine, chemical engineering and social sciences. The most important engineering contribution is mostly focused on development, design and operation of equipment for the abatement of harmful emissions into environment.

  6. Air University Press Publications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... Our publications program is designed primarily to help Air Force and other US war fighters, national leaders and policy makers, academicians, military historians, and other analysts understand...

  7. Electric air filtration movie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Jaeger, R.

    1984-01-01

    The use of electrostatics to improve the performance of conventional air filters has gained considerable attention in recent years. This interest is due to the higher efficiency and reduced pressure drop of electrically enhanced filters compared to conventional fibrous filters. This 30-minute movie presents a state of the art review of electric air filters in the United States with major illustrations provided by the research and development program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory sponsored by the Department of Energy. The electric air filters described in this movie are mechanical air filters to which electrical forces have been added

  8. Method and refrigerants for replacing existing refrigerants in centrifugal compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopko, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method for replacing an existing refrigerant in a centrifugal compressor. It comprises selecting a desired impeller Mach number for the centrifugal compressor; selecting a base refrigerant constituent; combining at least one additive refrigerant constituent with the base refrigerant constituent to form a replacement refrigerant having at least one physical or chemical property different from the existing refrigerant and substantially providing the desired impeller Mach number in the centrifugal compressor; and replacing the existing refrigerant with the replacement refrigerant

  9. Magnetic nesting and co-existence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elesin, V.F.; Kapaev, V.V.; Kopaev, Yu.V.

    2004-01-01

    In the case of providing for the magnetic nesting conditions of the electron spin dispersion law the co-existence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity is possible by any high magnetization. The co-existence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity in the layered cuprate compounds of the RuSr 2 GdCu 2 O 8 -type is explained on this basis, wherein due to the nonstrict provision of the magnetic nesting condition there exists the finite but sufficiently high critical magnetization [ru

  10. The global existence problem and cosmic censorship in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncrief, V.; Eardley, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    Two global existence conjectures for the Einstein equations are formulated and their relevance to the cosmic censorship conjecture discussed. It is argued that the reformulation of the cosmic censorship conjecture as a global existence problem renders it more amenable to direct analytical attack. To demonstrate the facility of this approach the cosmological version of the global existence conjecture is proved for the Gowdy spacetimes on T 3 X R. (author)

  11. Healthier Schools: A Review of State Policies for Improving Indoor Air Quality. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Tobie

    Existing indoor air quality (IAQ) policies for schools reflect the variety of institutional, political, social, and economic contexts that exist within individual states. The purpose of this report is to provide a better understanding of the types of policy strategies used by states in addressing general indoor air quality problems. The policies…

  12. 40 CFR 407.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Canned and Preserved Vegetables Subcategory § 407.74 Pretreatment standards for existing sources...

  13. INFORMATION SECURITY RISK ASSESSMENT USING EXISTING LEGAL AND METHODOLOGICAL BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Trubei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a survey of the existing regulatory framework for information security riskmanagement. Practical methods for information security risk and vulnerability assessment are proposed.

  14. Expandable External Payload Carrier for Existing Launch Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Numerous existing launch vehicles have excess performance that is not being optimized. By taking advantage of excess, unused, performance, additional NASA...

  15. Climate Strategy with CO2 Capture from the Air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, D.W. [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, AB (Canada); Ha-Duong, M. [CNRS-CIRED, Campus du Jardin Tropical, 45 bis, av. de la Belle Gabrielle, 94736 Nogent sur Marne CEDEX (France); Stolaroff, J.K. [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2006-01-15

    It is physically possible to capture CO2 directly from the air and immobilize it in geological structures. Air capture differs from conventional mitigation in three key aspects. First, it removes emissions from any part of the economy with equal ease or difficulty, so its cost provides an absolute cap on the cost of mitigation. Second, it permits reduction in concentrations faster than the natural carbon cycle: the effects of irreversibility are thus partly alleviated. Third, because it is weakly coupled to existing energy infrastructure, air capture may offer stronger economies of scale and smaller adjustment costs than the more conventional mitigation technologies. We assess the ultimate physical limits on the amount of energy and land required for air capture and describe two systems that might achieve air capture at prices under 200 and 500 $/tC using current technology. Like geoengineering, air capture limits the cost of a worst-case climate scenario. In an optimal sequential decision framework with uncertainty, existence of air capture decreases the need for near-term precautionary abatement. The long-term effect is the opposite; assuming that marginal costs of mitigation decrease with time while marginal climate change damages increase, then air capture increases long-run abatement. Air capture produces an environmental Kuznets curve, in which concentrations are returned to preindustrial levels.

  16. Air pollution control policy in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutert, G. [Forests and Landscape, Berne (Switzerland). Federal Office of Environment

    1995-12-31

    The legal basis of the Swiss air pollution control policy is set by the Federal Law on the Protection of the Environment, which came into force in 1985. It aims to protect human beings, animals and plants, their biological communities and habitats against harmful effects or nuisances and to maintain the fertility of the soil. The law is source-oriented (by emission standards) as well as effect-oriented (by ambient air quality standards). To link both elements a two-stage approach is applied. In the first stage preventive measures are taken at the emitting sources, irrespective of existing air pollution levels. Emissions have to be limited by early preventive measures as much as technical and operational conditions allow and as far as economically acceptable (prevention principle). By this, air pollution shall be kept as low as possible as a matter of principle, without the environment having to be in danger first. In a second stage the measures are strengthened or backed up by additional measures if ambient air quality standards laid down in the Ordinance on Air Pollution Control are exceeded. At this second stage, protection of man and his environment has priority over economic considerations. (author)

  17. Effects of air pollution on human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimann, H

    1961-01-01

    An appreciable amount of knowledge exists about the effects of community air pollution upon human health. This knowledge comes in part from direct studies of the air pollution health problem and in part from investigations done for other purposes. It is equally apparent that there are many aspects of the subject of the health effects of air pollution on which sound information is lacking. Many years undoubtedly will pass before we have the answers to all the questions involved. Man-made air pollution could be entirely eliminated, but the price that civilization would be required to pay for this would be exorbitant by any standards, whether monetary or otherwise. It is unreasonable to contemplate that we could put a stop to all combustion, the chief source of man-made air pollution. It is logical, however, to consider that the clarification of the air on a qualitatively and quantitatively selective basis is feasible, and in some cases, highly desirable. This can be done, for example, by selectively arresting the contaminants at their source. 404 references.

  18. Air pollution control policy in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutert, G [Forests and Landscape, Berne (Switzerland). Federal Office of Environment

    1996-12-31

    The legal basis of the Swiss air pollution control policy is set by the Federal Law on the Protection of the Environment, which came into force in 1985. It aims to protect human beings, animals and plants, their biological communities and habitats against harmful effects or nuisances and to maintain the fertility of the soil. The law is source-oriented (by emission standards) as well as effect-oriented (by ambient air quality standards). To link both elements a two-stage approach is applied. In the first stage preventive measures are taken at the emitting sources, irrespective of existing air pollution levels. Emissions have to be limited by early preventive measures as much as technical and operational conditions allow and as far as economically acceptable (prevention principle). By this, air pollution shall be kept as low as possible as a matter of principle, without the environment having to be in danger first. In a second stage the measures are strengthened or backed up by additional measures if ambient air quality standards laid down in the Ordinance on Air Pollution Control are exceeded. At this second stage, protection of man and his environment has priority over economic considerations. (author)

  19. Tachyons imply the existence of a privileged frame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoedin, T.; Heylighen, F.

    1985-12-16

    It is shown that the existence of faster-than-light signals (tachyons) would imply the existence (and detectability) of a privileged inertial frame and that one can avoid all problems with reversed-time order only by using absolute synchronization instead of the standard one. The connection between these results and the EPR-paradox is discussed.

  20. Safety assessment of existing highway bridges and viaducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Steenbergen, R.; Abspoel, L.; Kolstein, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of the structural safety of existing br idges and viaducts becomes increasingly important in many countries owing to an increase in traffic loads. Most existing standards, however, are developed for the design of new structures. For this reason, an assessment method for determining

  1. Neural Network for Optimization of Existing Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Printz

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop methods to use Neural Network based Controllers (NNC) as an optimization tool for existing control systems.......The purpose of this paper is to develop methods to use Neural Network based Controllers (NNC) as an optimization tool for existing control systems....

  2. The Relationship among Localization Skill, Existence Constancy and Object Permanence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townes-Rosenwein, Linda

    Two component skills of object permanence were studied: existence constancy -- the infants' ability to expect that an object continues to exist after it is hidden, and localization skill -- infants' ability to search in the correct place for a hidden object. Contradictions within the literature may occur because of task lability caused by failure…

  3. Existence of solutions of nonlinear integrodifferential equations of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results are obtained by using semigroup theory and the Schauder fixed point ... The problem of existence of solutions of evolution equations with nonlocal ... we assume that there exists an operator E on DЕEЖИX given by the formula.

  4. The solution of location problems with certain existing facility structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik; Love, Robert F.

    1983-01-01

    It is known that in the Euclidean distance case, the optimal minisum location of a new facility in relation to four existing facilities is at the intersection of the two lines joining two pairs of the facilities. The authors extend this concept to minisum problems having any even number of existing...... facilities and characterized by generalized distance norms...

  5. Existence of the Stark-Wannier quantum resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacchetti, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.sacchetti@unimore.it [Department of Physics, Computer Sciences and Mathematics, University of Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    In this paper, we prove the existence of the Stark-Wannier quantum resonances for one-dimensional Schrödinger operators with smooth periodic potential and small external homogeneous electric field. Such a result extends the existence result previously obtained in the case of periodic potentials with a finite number of open gaps.

  6. Does Absolute Synonymy exist in Owere-Igbo? | Omego | AFRREV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among Igbo linguistic researchers, determining whether absolute synonymy exists in Owere–Igbo, a dialect of the Igbo language predominantly spoken by the people of Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria, has become a thorny issue. While some linguistic scholars strive to establish that absolute synonymy exists in the lexical ...

  7. Existence and attractors of solutions for nonlinear parabolic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid El Ouardi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove existence and asymptotic behaviour results for weak solutions of a mixed problem (S. We also obtain the existence of the global attractor and the regularity for this attractor in $\\left[H^{2}(\\Omega \\right] ^{2}$ and we derive estimates of its Haussdorf and fractal dimensions.

  8. Remarks on the existence of non equilibrium dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchioro, C.; Pellegrinotti, A.; Pulvirenti, M.

    1981-01-01

    The authors give an existence theorem for the dynamics of an infinite system of anharmonic oscillators. They obtain another proof of the existence of the dynamics in the case of one-dimensional system of infinitely many particles interacting via a bounded potential. The case of very singular potential is also solved. (Auth.)

  9. Global existence of small solutions to semilinear Schroedinger equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chihara, Hiroyuki

    1996-01-01

    We present global existence theorem for semilinear Schrodinger equations. In general, Schrodinger-type equations do not admit the classical energy estimates. To avoid this difficulty, we use S. Doi's method for linear Schrodinger-type equations. Combining his method and L p -L q estimates, we prove the global existence of solutions with small initial data

  10. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built or...

  11. Existing knowledge related to mainstreaming IKS into Educational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at determining existing knowledge related to mainstreaming of IKS into education system. The qualitative research methodology was appropriate for this study to explore and describe the mainstreaming of IKS into the existing education system. The study included 10 school teachers (5male and 5 females) ...

  12. An existence result of energy minimizer maps between Riemannian polyhedra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouziane, T.

    2004-06-01

    In this paper, we prove the existence of energy minimizers in each free homotopy class of maps between polyhedra with target space without focal points. Our proof involves a careful study of some geometric properties of Riemannian polyhedra without focal points. Among other things, we show that on the relevant polyhedra, there exists a convex supporting function. (author)

  13. 30 CFR 784.12 - Operation plan: Existing structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation plan: Existing structures. 784.12... PLAN § 784.12 Operation plan: Existing structures. (a) Each application shall contain a description of... and reclamation operation. The description shall include: (1) Location; (2) Plans of the structure...

  14. 30 CFR 780.12 - Operation plan: Existing structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation plan: Existing structures. 780.12... PLAN § 780.12 Operation plan: Existing structures. (a) Each application shall contain a description of... and reclamation operation. The description shall include— (1) Location; (2) Plans of the structure...

  15. Public Perception of Urban Air Pollution: An Exploratory Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sala, R.; Oltra, C.; Goncalves, L.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of a qualitative study using focus groups aimed at understanding the beliefs and attitudes of the population towards air pollution, its levels, causes, health impacts and possible mitigation and protection actions. The study sample consisted of members of the general population, between 18 and 65 years living in Barcelona. The analysis of the group discussion indicates that there is little awareness among participants about air pollution risks. The causes of air pollution are relatively known but there is little knowledge about pollution levels and types of pollutants. We found a low level of perceived personal risk associated to air pollution that coexists with a general awareness of the health impacts of air pollution, a low level of concern about the problem and a low level of personal involvement in mitigation and self protection measures. Participants reported no use of existing information services about air pollution. (Author)

  16. Maxwell Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    most effective style of leadership. (Courtesy Photo, Air University Press) Air University Press Directory Maxwell Links Welcome Leadership Joint Land Use Study Heritage Pamphlet Maxwell Driving Tour (No releases 'A Discourse on Winning and Losing' "Developing Your Full Range of Leadership" focuses

  17. Energy and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    This is one of a series of handbooks designed to provide nontechnical readers with a general understanding of the interaction between energy development and environmental media and to provide a rudimentary data base from which estimates of potential future impacts can be made. This handbook describes the air quality impacts of energy development and summarizes the major federal legislation which regulates the potential air quality impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which can be used as the basis for measurement, and in some cases, prediction of the potential conflicts between energy development and achieving and maintaining clean air. Energy utilization is the largest emission source of man-made air pollutants. Choices in energy resource development and utilization generate varying emissions or discharges into the atmosphere, the emissions are affected by the assimilative character of the atmosphere, and the resultant air pollutant concentrations have biological and aesthetic effects. This handbook describes the interrelationships of energy-related air emissions under various methods of pollution control, the assimilative character of the air medium, and the effects of air pollution. The media book is divided into three major sections: topics of concern relating to the media and energy development, descriptions of how to use available data to quantify and examine energy/environmental impacts, and the data

  18. Dioxin in Danish air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikelsoe, J.; Andersen, H.V. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2004-09-15

    To gain more knowledge about dioxin levels, sources and emissions in Denmark, the Danish government year 2001 initiated the Danish Dioxin Monitoring Program. The program is a series of investigations, comprising soil, compost, percolate, bio-ash, incineration of municipal and hazardous waste, deposition, air, lake and fjord sediment as well as cows milk and human milk. The present paper describes the preliminary results for the continued investigation of air. Deposition of dioxin over land or sea is of major importance for the human exposure, which takes place mainly from food intake. The dioxin are emitted mainly to the atmosphere, therefore air measurements are well suited for tracking the transport and fate of dioxin from sources to exposure. Whereas measurements from chimneys has been frequently used to estimate the industrial emission from point sources such as incinerators, air measurements also include emission from diffuse sources such as larger urban or industrial regions, residential quarters, and from evaporation. Furthermore, emission measurements must be done on known sources, whereas air measurements include contribution from unknown source. The major drawbacks of air measurements are the long duration required (years), and the results depends on meteorological conditions, such as temperature, rainfall, wind speed and direction. The purpose of the present study has been to measure dioxins in Danish air, emphasizing - background concentrations and annual variation - difference between urban, rural and residential zones - influence from local sources and long range transport - connection between dioxin in air and deposition.

  19. Protective air lock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    A device suitable for preventing escape and subsequent circulation of toxic gases is described. An enclosure is sealed by a surrounding air lock, and an automatic mechanism partially evacuates the enclosure and air lock. The enclosure ventilating mechanism can be disconnected so that a relatively undisturbed atmosphere is created in the enclosure

  20. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  1. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  2. Transportation and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roseland, M.

    1992-01-01

    In the greater Vancouver regional district (GVRD), some 80% of the annual production of 600,000 tonnes of air pollutants come from motor vehicles. Three critical air quality issues in the GVRD are discussed: local air pollution, ozone layer depletion, and greenhouse gas emissions, all of which are fundamentally linked to transportation. Overall air quality in the GVRD has been judged acceptable by current federal standards, but ground-level ozone has exceeded maximum tolerable levels at some locations and concentrations of suspended particulates are above maximum acceptable levels. Serious deterioration in air quality has been predicted unless a concerted effort is made to manage air quality on an airshed-wide basis. The GVRD is developing Canada's first Air Management Plan with the goal of halving atmospheric emissions by 2000. GVRD transportation priorities stress public transit, walking, cycling, car pooling, and reducing of travel demand; however, the viability of such strategies depends on decisions made outside the transportation sector. Restricted authority and jurisdiction also hinder GVRD goals; the regional level of government has no authority over highways or transit and only has authority for pollution control in some parts of the Fraser Valley. Airshed quality management, using the Los Angeles example, is seen as a possible direction for future GVRD policymaking in the transportation sector. A single regional planning agency with responsibility for transportation, land use, and air quality management appears as the best option for an integrated approach to solve multiple problems. 19 refs

  3. Over the air test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    [1] This invention relates to over-the-air testing of a device in an anechoic chamber. In particular, the invention is suitable for simulating both uplink and downlink over-the-air communication with a device under test even when the anechoic chamber has different numbers of uplink and downlink...

  4. Recirculating electric air filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  5. Air Pollution Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  6. Air Force Senior Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Force TV Radio Week in Photos About Us Air Force Senior Leaders SECAF CSAF CMSAF Biographies Adjunct Professors Senior Mentor Biographies Fact Sheets Commander's Call Topics CCT Archive CSAF Reading List 2017 Media Sites Site Registration Contact Us Search AF.mil: Home > About Us > Air Force Senior Leaders

  7. Restoran Buenos Aires = Restaurant Buenos Aires

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Restorani Buenos Aires (Narva mnt. 5, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid: Janno Roos ja Andres Labi (Ruumilabor OÜ). Laudu eraldavad 400 vardasse aetud puukuuli. Sisearhitektidest, nende tähtsamad tööd. I-III korruse plaan, 12 värv. vaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest

  8. Kierkegaard e a existência possível

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto S. Kahlmeyer-Mertens

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A relação entre a existência e a possibilidade, objeto deste artigo, merece especial atenção quando se trata de Kierkegaard. Isso porque, estes dois conceitos ocupam papéis primordiais na filosofia do autor, constituindo, justamente, o ponto a partir do qual o pensador se distancia criticamente da tradição filosófica. Caracterizar sumariamente os conceitos de existência e possibilidade na filosofia de Kierkegaard, bem como ambientar o filósofo em sua época como um pensador da existência, para além do rótulo de “existencialista”, são nossos presentes objetivos.   Palavras-chave: Kierkegaard, filosofia da existência, existência, possibilidade

  9. Maximizing economic and environmental performance of existing coal-fired assets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartley, Pat; Foucher, Jean-Claude; Hestermann, Rolf; Hilton, Bob; Keegan, Bill; Stephen, Don

    2007-07-01

    In recent years, Plant Owners and innovative suppliers such as ALSTOM have come to realize that existing coal-fired assets have in many cases hidden capacity. This largely results from the conservative nature of their original design, but also from the possibility of integrating the latest advances in technology without the need to buy complete power plant components. ALSTOM's Optimized Plant Retrofit (OPR) process is a proven method to identify the full potential of existing equipment, taking a systemic and holistic approach to achieve full optimisation. OPRs are supported by ALSTOM's comprehensive portfolio of available technologies and a proven capability to integrate retrofit opportunities encompassing innovative solutions for a variety of plant components such as coal mills, boiler, air pollution control equipment, turbogenerator, feedheating and condensing plant. By teaming utility representatives with ALSTOM's technical experts we can collectively identify solutions for enhancing both heat rate and net output, to maximise the value of existing assets. This often gives a return on investment significantly better than greenfield construction for supply margin improvement. This paper introduces the OPR concept in detail and presents case studies and insights into future developments, in particular retrofitting existing assets in an emissions constrained environment. (auth)

  10. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-01-01

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 10 through 14 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report first documents tests performed on a KVG103 engine/compressor installed at Duke's Thomaston Compressor Station. This is the first series of tests performed on a four-stroke engine under this program. Additionally, this report presents results, which complete a comparison of performance before and after modification to install High Pressure Fuel Injection and a Turbocharger on a GMW10 at Williams Station 60. Quarterly Reports 7 and 8 already presented detailed data from tests before and after this modification, but the final quantitative comparison required some further analysis, which is presented in Section 5 of this report. The report further presents results of detailed geometrical measurements and flow bench testing performed on the cylinders and manifolds of the Laboratory Cooper GMVH6 engine being employed for two-stroke engine air balance investigations. These measurements are required to enhance the detailed accuracy in modeling the dynamic interaction of air manifold, exhaust manifold, and in-cylinder fuel-air balance.

  11. Monitoring-based HVAC commissioning of an existing office building for energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liping; Greenberg, Steve; Fiegel, John; Rubalcava, Alma; Earni, Shankar; Pang, Xiufeng; Yin, Rongxin; Woodworth, Spencer; Hernandez-Maldonado, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Demonstrated monitoring-based HVAC commissioning using an existing office building. ► Diagnosed various types of faulty operation in the HVAC system by trend data analyses. ► Identified a list of energy saving measures for the HVAC system. ► Quantified energy saving potential for each commissioning measure using calibrated energy simulation model. ► Achieved an actual energy saving of 10% after the implementations of cost-effective measures. -- Abstract: The performance of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems may fail to satisfy design expectations due to improper equipment installation, equipment degradation, sensor failures, or incorrect control sequences. Commissioning identifies and implements cost-effective operational and maintenance measures in buildings to bring them up to the design intent or optimum operation. An existing office building is used as a case study to demonstrate the process of commissioning. Building energy benchmarking tools are applied to evaluate the energy performance for screening opportunities at the whole building level. A large natural gas saving potential was indicated by the building benchmarking results. Faulty operations in the HVAC systems, such as improper operations of air-side economizers, simultaneous heating and cooling, and ineffective optimal start, were identified through trend data analyses and functional testing. The energy saving potential for each commissioning measure is quantified with a calibrated building simulation model. An actual energy saving of 10% was realized after the implementations of cost-effective measures.

  12. 40 CFR 421.105 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the following pretreatment standards for...) Subpart J—Acid Leach Wet Air Pollution Control. PSES Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day... (Commingled With Other Process or Nonprocess Waters). PSES Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1...

  13. 40 CFR 421.305 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and... per million pounds) of titanium produced Chromium (total) 0.474 0.192 Lead 0.359 0.167 Nickel 0.705 0.474 Titanium 0.679 0.295 (h) Chip crushing wet air pollution control. PSES for the Primary and...

  14. Transient Air-Water Flow and Air Demand following an Opening Outlet Gate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, the dam-safety guidelines call for an overhaul of many existing bottom outlets. During the opening of an outlet gate, understanding the transient air-water flow is essential for its safe operation, especially under submerged tailwater conditions. Three-dimensional CFD simulations are undertaken to examine air-water flow behaviors at both free and submerged outflows. The gate, hoisted by wire ropes and powered by AC, opens at a constant speed. A mesh is adapted to follow the gate movement. At the free outflow, the CFD simulations and model tests agree well in terms of outlet discharge capacity. Larger air vents lead to more air supply; the increment becomes, however, limited if the vent area is larger than 10 m2. At the submerged outflow, a hydraulic jump builds up in the conduit when the gate reaches approximately 45% of its full opening. The discharge is affected by the tailwater and slightly by the flow with the hydraulic jump. The flow features strong turbulent mixing of air and water, with build-up and break-up of air pockets and collisions of defragmented water bodies. The air demand rate is several times as much as required by steady-state hydraulic jump with free surface.

  15. Effects of political institutions on air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernauer, Thomas; Koubi, Vally

    2009-01-01

    We empirically test existing theories on the provision of public goods, in particular air quality, using data on sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) concentrations from the Global Environment Monitoring Projects for 107 cities in 42 countries from 1971 to 1996. The results are as follows: First, we provide additional support for the claim that the degree of democracy has an independent positive effect on air quality. Second, we find that among democracies, presidential systems are more conducive to air quality than parliamentary ones. Third, in testing competing claims about the effect of interest groups on public goods provision in democracies we establish that labor union strength contributes to lower environmental quality, whereas the strength of green parties has the opposite effect. (author)

  16. Policy of air protection in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaczun, Z.M.

    1995-01-01

    The changed political situation and recognition of the acute destruction of the natural environment in Poland have caused a series of actions aimed at preventing further deterioration of Polish environment. One of the most important events which took place in the last few years was the enactment by the Polish Parliament in May 1991 of the Act on the National Ecological Policy. The basic assumption of the new environmental policy is a declaration that sustainable development will in future direct economic development in Poland. The aim of the presented paper is to introduce existing policy of air protection and instruments which have been implemented to protect the air. Special attention is paid to legislation instruments, introduction and enforcement of proper economic mechanisms strengthening air protection and foreign policy aiming at increasing foreign assistance for this objective. Pollutants involved include sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide and particulates from industry and coal-fired power plants. 9 refs

  17. Adiabatic Liquid Piston Compressed Air Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tage; Elmegaard, Brian; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    the system. The compression leads to a significant increase in temperature, and the heat generated is dumped into the ambient. This energy loss results in a low efficiency of the system, and when expanding the air, the expansion leads to a temperature drop reducing the mechanical output of the expansion......), but no such units are in operation at present. The CAES system investigated in this project uses a different approach to avoid compression heat loss. The system uses a pre-compressed pressure vessel full of air. A liquid is pumped into the bottom of the vessel when charging and the same liquid is withdrawn through......-CAES system is significantly higher than existing CAES systems due to a low or nearly absent compression heat loss. Furthermore, pumps/turbines, which use a liquid as a medium, are more efficient than air/gas compressors/turbines. In addition, the demand for fuel during expansion does not occur. •The energy...

  18. Air Baltic: Estonian Air on nurka surutud / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Air Balticu asepresidendi Janis Vanagsi hinnangul on Estonian Air aastaid jätnud tähelepanuta oma peamised turismiturud ning on praegu halvas seisus. Air Baltic on endiselt huvitatud Estonian Airi ostust. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  19. Cost-benefit analysis of improved air quality in an office building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djukanovic, R.; Wargocki, Pawel; Fanger, Povl Ole

    2002-01-01

    A cost-benefit analysis of measures to improve air quality in an existing air-conditoned office building (11581 m2, 864 employees) was carried out for hot, temperate and cold climates and for two operating modes: Variable Air Volume (VAV) with economizer; and Constant Air Volume (CAV) with heat...... recovery. The annual energy cost and first cost of the HVAC system were calculat4ed using DOE 2.1E for different levels of air quality (10-50% dissatisfied). This was achieved by changing the outdoor air supply rate and the pollution loads. Previous studies have documented a 1.1% increase in office...

  20. A coupled chemotaxis-fluid model: Global existence

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Lorz, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    We consider a model arising from biology, consisting of chemotaxis equations coupled to viscous incompressible fluid equations through transport and external forcing. Global existence of solutions to the Cauchy problem is investigated under certain conditions. Precisely, for the chemotaxis-Navier- Stokes system in two space dimensions, we obtain global existence for large data. In three space dimensions, we prove global existence of weak solutions for the chemotaxis-Stokes system with nonlinear diffusion for the cell density.© 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. A coupled chemotaxis-fluid model: Global existence

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Jian-Guo

    2011-09-01

    We consider a model arising from biology, consisting of chemotaxis equations coupled to viscous incompressible fluid equations through transport and external forcing. Global existence of solutions to the Cauchy problem is investigated under certain conditions. Precisely, for the chemotaxis-Navier- Stokes system in two space dimensions, we obtain global existence for large data. In three space dimensions, we prove global existence of weak solutions for the chemotaxis-Stokes system with nonlinear diffusion for the cell density.© 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Public Perception of Urban Air Pollution in Four Spanish Cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oltra, C.; Jorcano, A.; Sala, R.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study on public reactions to urban air pollution. An on-line survey was implemented in four Spanish cities. Various psychosocial dimensions were assessed: perception of local air quality; attention, understanding and public awareness of the problem of air pollution; perceived impacts on health and quality of life; beliefs of severity, susceptibility and controllability associated with the risk; emotional responses and related self-protection and involvement behaviors. Results show that residents in the four cities pay little attention to the quality of air in their daily life. They perceive air quality in their city as regular. Nevertheless, significant differences exist among cities that could be explained by air pollution levels. Participants believe that air pollution has significant impacts on their health and quality of life; however the degree of information and knowledge about air quality effects seems to be low. Fatalistic beliefs and low controllability regarding the possibility to protect from air pollution were found. Participants declare performing very few self-protection or involvement behaviors. Differences between cities were also found in this dimension. Those findings could be useful for risk communication programs and public involvement strategies in the field of urban air pollution.

  3. Air travellers' awareness of the preventability of otic barotrauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell-Innes, A; Young, E; Vasiljevic, A; Rashid, M

    2014-06-01

    Otic barotrauma is common among air travellers and can cause severe otalgia, perforation of the tympanic membrane and hearing loss. Many prevention measures exist, with varying evidence to support their use. There are no data to establish if air travellers are aware of them or indeed use them. We aimed to establish air travellers' knowledge of such prevention measures. We surveyed air travellers at two UK airports by means of a questionnaire. Answers to the questionnaire were collected over a two-week period. Overall, 179 air travellers with a mean age of 28 years (range: 15-72 years) completed the questionnaire. There were 66 female and 113 male air travellers. The majority (84 per cent) complained of symptoms while flying and 30 per cent were not aware of any prevention measures. Barotrauma-related symptoms were reported in 25 per cent of air travellers who were unaware of any prevention measures. Nearly all air travellers (86 per cent) indicated that more information regarding prevention measures would be useful. Air travellers are often not aware of prevention measures to avoid otic barotrauma, and the majority suffer as a result. Increasing public awareness of simple prevention measures would have a significant impact on air travellers.

  4. Reevaluation of air surveillance station siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, K.; Jannik, T.

    2016-01-01

    DOE Technical Standard HDBK-1216-2015 (DOE 2015) recommends evaluating air-monitoring station placement using the analytical method developed by Waite. The technique utilizes wind rose and population distribution data in order to determine a weighting factor for each directional sector surrounding a nuclear facility. Based on the available resources (number of stations) and a scaling factor, this weighting factor is used to determine the number of stations recommended to be placed in each sector considered. An assessment utilizing this method was performed in 2003 to evaluate the effectiveness of the existing SRS air-monitoring program. The resulting recommended distribution of air-monitoring stations was then compared to that of the existing site perimeter surveillance program. The assessment demonstrated that the distribution of air-monitoring stations at the time generally agreed with the results obtained using the Waite method; however, at the time new stations were established in Barnwell and in Williston in order to meet requirements of DOE guidance document EH-0173T.

  5. Reevaluation of air surveillance station siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-06

    DOE Technical Standard HDBK-1216-2015 (DOE 2015) recommends evaluating air-monitoring station placement using the analytical method developed by Waite. The technique utilizes wind rose and population distribution data in order to determine a weighting factor for each directional sector surrounding a nuclear facility. Based on the available resources (number of stations) and a scaling factor, this weighting factor is used to determine the number of stations recommended to be placed in each sector considered. An assessment utilizing this method was performed in 2003 to evaluate the effectiveness of the existing SRS air-monitoring program. The resulting recommended distribution of air-monitoring stations was then compared to that of the existing site perimeter surveillance program. The assessment demonstrated that the distribution of air-monitoring stations at the time generally agreed with the results obtained using the Waite method; however, at the time new stations were established in Barnwell and in Williston in order to meet requirements of DOE guidance document EH-0173T.

  6. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air presure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  7. Improvements to Air Force Strategic Basing Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    24th Air Force need to have locations in Silicon 36 Valley or Northern Virginia to draw on the existing cyber industrial bases. Similarly, an issue...cross valuation . Cross valuation results in a simpler model than if GBM were allowed to run until it achieved a perfect fit. In ten-fold cross... valuation , the dataset is randomly split into ten mutually exclusive subsets. The model is fit on nine-tenths of the data, and that model is used to 62

  8. SIMULATION OF AIR-CONDITIONNED OPERATING THEATRES

    OpenAIRE

    El Gharbi , N.; Benzaoui , A ,

    2006-01-01

    International audience; A hospital is a place where we find simultaneously people whose health state is weakened, or vulnerable, and pathogenic microorganisms able to worsen their health. The quality of the air in a hospital must be in conformity with precise criteria in such buildings in everyday usage, and in particular in the areas of the buildings where some risks of specific pollution exist such as in operating rooms. In this paper, we present a modelisation and three dimensional numeric...

  9. Controlled air incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    From 1960 to 1970, incineration was recognized as an economical method of solid waste disposal with many incinerators in operation through the country. During this period a number of legislation acts began to influence the solid waste disposal industry, namely, the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965; Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1968; Resource Recovery Act of 1970; and Clean Air Act of 1970. This period of increased environmental awareness and newly created regulations began the closure of many excess air incineration facilities and encouraged the development of new controlled air, also known as Starved-Air incinerator systems which could meet the more stringent air emission standards without additional emission control equipment. The Starved-Air technology initially received little recognition because it was considered unproven and radically different from the established and accepted I.I.A. standards. However, there have been many improvements and developments in the starved-air incineration systems since the technology was first introduced and marketed, and now these systems are considered the proven technology standard

  10. Air Pollution and Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan Ken; Miller, Mark R; Shah, Anoop S V

    2018-01-01

    The adverse health effects of air pollution have long been recognised; however, there is less awareness that the majority of the morbidity and mortality caused by air pollution is due to its effects on the cardiovascular system. Evidence from epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong association between air pollution and cardiovascular diseases including stroke. Although the relative risk is small at an individual level, the ubiquitous nature of exposure to air pollution means that the absolute risk at a population level is on a par with "traditional" risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Of particular concern are findings that the strength of this association is stronger in low and middle income countries where air pollution is projected to rise as a result of rapid industrialisation. The underlying biological mechanisms through which air pollutants exert their effect on the vasculature are still an area of intense discussion. A greater understanding of the effect size and mechanisms is necessary to develop effective strategies at individual and policy levels to mitigate the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

  11. Air Quality Guide for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    GO! Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Air Quality Guide for Ozone Ground-level ozone is one of our nation’s most common air pollutants. Use the chart below to help reduce ...

  12. Emission Facilities - Air Emission Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Represents the Primary Facility type Air Emission Plant (AEP) point features. Air Emissions Plant is a DEP primary facility type related to the Air Quality Program....

  13. Agriculture: Agriculture and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on air emissions from agricultural practices, types of agricultural burning, air programs that may apply to agriculture, reporting requirements, and links to state and other federal air-quality information.

  14. Lean in Air Permitting Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lean in Air Permitting Guide is designed to help air program managers at public agencies better understand the potential value and results that can be achieved by applying Lean improvement methods to air permitting processes.

  15. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  16. Air Quality Management Process Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air quality management are activities a regulatory authority undertakes to protect human health and the environment from the harmful effects of air pollution. The process of managing air quality can be illustrated as a cycle of inter-related elements.

  17. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    GO! Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Current AQI Forecast AQI Loop More Maps AQI: Good (0 - 50) ... resources for Hawaii residents and visitors more announcements Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke ...

  18. 40 CFR 407.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Canned and Preserved Fruits Subcategory § 407.64 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  19. Branding in children: a barbaric practice still exists in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Pratap Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Branding is an inhuman traditional practice most commonly employed to treat various disorders in neonates and children in certain community in India. Though stringent law exists to prevent such harmful practices, cases of branding is not uncommon in current era.

  20. Non-existence of limit cycles for planar vector fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Gine

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents sufficient conditions for the non-existence of limit cycles for planar vector fields. Classical methods for the nonexistence of limit cycles are connected with the theory developed here.

  1. 31 CFR 370.26 - What limitations exist on liability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TRANSFERS RELATING TO UNITED STATES SECURITIES Debit Entries § 370.26 What limitations exist on liability? If we sustain a loss because a financial institution fails to handle an entry in accordance with this...

  2. Protection of continued economic existence and major changes. 1. paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backherms, J.

    1980-01-01

    On the issue of protecting continued economic existence according to Sect. 18 of the Atomic Energy Law, a difference is made between changes occurring in the environment of the plant, in the existing knowledge in science and technology, and changes occurring in the safety philosophy held by the authorities. In case of conditions being subsequently imposed because of a change in the existing knowledge in science and technology, the liability of the authorities to pay compensation is ruled out according to Sect. 18, para. 2 No. 3 of the Atomic Energy Law. The difference made between a change in the safety philosophy held by the authorities and a change in the existing knowledge in science and technology seems to be obvious. In the first case it is a matter of changing the legal evaluation of unchanged technological findings, in the legal evaluation, however, the licence granted has to have a lasting effect on principle. (HP) [de

  3. Existence results for anisotropic discrete boundary value problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avci Avci

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we prove the existence of nontrivial weak solutions for a class of discrete boundary value problems. The main tools used here are the variational principle and critical point theory.

  4. Possible existence of wormholes in the central regions of halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahaman, Farook, E-mail: rahaman@iucaa.ernet.in [Department of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, West Bengal (India); Salucci, P., E-mail: salucci@sissa.it [SISSA, International School for Advanced Studies, Via Bonomea 265, 34136, Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127, Trieste (Italy); Kuhfittig, P.K.F., E-mail: kuhfitti@msoe.edu [Department of Mathematics, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Milwaukee, WI 53202-3109 (United States); Ray, Saibal, E-mail: saibal@iucaa.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Kolkata 700010, West Bengal (India); Rahaman, Mosiur, E-mail: mosiurju@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Meghnad Saha Institute of Technology, Kolkata 700150 (India)

    2014-11-15

    An earlier study (Rahaman, et al., 2014 and Kuhfittig, 2014) has demonstrated the possible existence of wormholes in the outer regions of the galactic halo, based on the Navarro–Frenk–White (NFW) density profile. This paper uses the Universal Rotation Curve (URC) dark matter model to obtain analogous results for the central parts of the halo. This result is an important compliment to the earlier result, thereby confirming the possible existence of wormholes in most of the spiral galaxies. - Highlights: • Earlier we showed possible existence of wormholes in the outer regions of halo. • We obtain here analogous results for the central parts of the galactic halo. • Our result is an important compliment to the earlier result. • This confirms possible existence of wormholes in most of the spiral galaxies.

  5. DOES ABSOLUTE SYNONYMY EXIST IN OWERE-IGBO?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    The researcher also interviewed native speakers of the dialect. The study ... The word 'synonymy' means sameness of meaning, i.e., a relationship in which more ... whether absolute synonymy exists in Owere–Igbo or not. ..... 'close this book'.

  6. Existence of Solutions of Nonlinear Integrodifferential Equations of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper we prove the existence of mild and strong solutions of a nonlinear integrodifferential equation of Sobolev type with nonlocal condition. The results are obtained by using semigroup theory and the Schauder fixed point theorem.

  7. Problem of mathematical deduction of the existence of black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Shun Chin

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical proof of existence of Black Hole is based on the assumption of mass being independent of speed. Considering the effect of special relativity of the dependence of mass with speed there is no Black hole.

  8. On the existence and dynamics of braneworld black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, Andrew Liam; Randall, Lisa; Wiseman, Toby

    2006-01-01

    Based on holographic arguments Tanaka and Emparan et al have claimed that large localized static black holes do not exist in the one-brane Randall-Sundrum model. If such black holes are time-dependent as they propose, there are potentially significant phenomenological and theoretical consequences. We revisit the issue, arguing that their reasoning does not take into account the strongly coupled nature of the holographic theory. We claim that static black holes with smooth metrics should indeed exist in these theories, and give a simple example. However, although the existence of such solutions is relevant to exact and numerical solution searches, such static solutions might be dynamically unstable, again leading to time dependence with phenomenological consequences. We explore a plausible instability, suggested by Tanaka, analogous to that of Gregory and Laflamme, but argue that there is no reliable reason at this point to assume it must exist

  9. A corrosion monitoring system for existing reinforced concrete structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated a multi-parameter corrosion monitoring system for existing reinforced concrete structures in chloride-laden service environments. The system was fabricated based on a prototype concrete corrosion measurement system that : had bee...

  10. Report on the Pre-existing Condition Insurance Plan Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Before the Affordable Care Act, Americans with pre-existing conditions who did not receive health coverage through their employers had few affordable options to get...

  11. Existence for a class of discrete hyperbolic problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Rodica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the existence and uniqueness of solutions to a class of discrete hyperbolic systems with some nonlinear extreme conditions and initial data, in a real Hilbert space.

  12. Existence of Weak Solutions for a Nonlinear Elliptic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert RobertP

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the existence of weak solutions to the following Dirichlet boundary value problem, which occurs when modeling an injection molding process with a partial slip condition on the boundary. We have in ; in ; , and on .

  13. Existence of Positive Solutions for Nonlinear Eigenvalue Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Fu-Hsiang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a fixed point theorem in a cone to obtain the existence of positive solutions of the differential equation, , , with some suitable boundary conditions, where is a parameter.

  14. comparative performance evaluation of an existing and modified

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    and fan speeds of 2800 rpm as against the existing cylinder and fan speeds of 934 rpm. The performance evaluation for ... KEYWORDS: Acha, fonio, dehuller, performance evaluation, ... centrifugal force as a result of the rotation of the cylinder.

  15. Air quality monitoring in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghauri, B.; Lodhi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Clean air is an important prerequisite for sustainable economic development and is a basic requirement for human health and welfare. The baseline information helps the policy maker in decision making and future planning such as industrial and economic development, establishment and implementation of environmental guidelines etc. Pakistan is a developing country and is confronted with a number of severe environmental problems, such as degradation of natural resources, industrial and vehicle related pollution, degradation of human health etc. SUPARCO has conducted a year long (2003-2004) baseline air quality study in the major urban areas of the country including Karachi, Lahore, Quetta, Rawalpindi, Islamabad and Peshawar in collaboration with ENERCON/ UNDP. The objectives of this study were to establish baseline levels and behavior of ambient airborne pollutants in urban centers with temporal and spatial parameters. Our study reveals that the maximum concentrations of CO were observed at Quetta (38 ppm) while other pollutants like SO/sub 2/, (52.5 ppb), NO/sub x/ (60.75 ppb), and 03 (44.8) were higher at Lahore compared to other urban areas of the country like Karachi, Peshawar etc. Maximum levels of all these pollutants were found in summer months. Comparatively lower concentrations of these pollutants were observed in Islamabad/Rawalpindi including CO (13.6 ppm), NO/sub x/ (41 ppb), SO/sub 2/ (32 ppb) and 03 (24.7 ppb). The maximum Particulate (TSP) and PM 10 levels were observed at Lahore (990,372 micro g/m3), Karachi (410, 306 micro g/m3), and in Quetta (778, 290 micro g/m3) etc. Airborne trace/ toxic metals including Pb, along with noise level were also determined. The existing levels of these pollutants were correlated with meteorological data (temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction) to assess the pollutant dispersion, as well as source apportionment. A data bank of the study will be prepared for air pollution impact studies. (author)

  16. Air/Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  17. Appendicitis with Intraluminal Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Alfredo; Ramirez, Sandra M; Rodriguez, Cesar A; Uriza, Luis F

    2010-01-01

    The presentation of acute appendicitis with intraluminal air is an uncommon presentation. Ultrasound is a widely used and accepted to establish the diagnosis of appendicitis, but its performance is limited in situations where there is interposition of air. Inflamed appendix which presents with distension by gas can be source of error in ultrasound to establish a false negative diagnosis. In this article we present three patients with appendicitis where the interposition of intraluminal air hid their diagnostic by ultrasound. In all three cases the definitive diagnosis was established by computed tomography and surgical confirmation.

  18. Ventilating Air-Conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Khanh

    1994-01-01

    Air-conditioner provides ventilation designed to be used alone or incorporated into cooling or heating system operates efficiently only by recirculating stale air within building. Energy needed to operate overall ventilating cooling or heating system slightly greater than operating nonventilating cooling or heating system. Helps to preserve energy efficiency while satisfying need for increased forced ventilation to prevent accumulation of undesired gases like radon and formaldehyde. Provides fresh treated air to variety of confined spaces: hospital surgeries, laboratories, clean rooms, and printing shops and other places where solvents used. In mobile homes and portable classrooms, eliminates irritant chemicals exuded by carpets, panels, and other materials, ensuring healthy indoor environment for occupants.

  19. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source...... apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2002 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO2 and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above the new EU limit values, which the Member...

  20. Olefin metathesis in air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Piola

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance.