WorldWideScience

Sample records for exhibitionism

  1. A case of familial exhibitionism in Tourette's syndrome successfully treated with haloperidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comings, D E; Comings, B G

    1982-07-01

    The authors describe a 32-year-old man with Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome whose most severe symptom was exhibitionism. Treatment with low doses of haloperidol eliminated all exhibitionistic urges. This patient's oldest son has multiple tics and his nephew has Tourette's syndrome with mild exhibitionism. The major implications of this case are that 1) all patients with compulsive-type exhibitionism should be carefully questioned about symptoms of Tourette's syndrome and, if positive, be given a trial regimen of haloperidol; 2) some patients with compulsive exhibitionism and no symptoms of Tourette's syndrome have a genetic, neurochemical disorder and respond to haloperidol.

  2. The Banality of Exhibitionism and the Building a Culture of Hate in Digital Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos AntonioMadeira De Mattos Martins

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The digital society brought the man full of technology and connectivity functions, creating agility to exchange information. With the ability to share your privacy in the social network, the selfie culture began to be used as a form of trivialization of exhibitionism.Virtual conflicts was created a community of users that discriminate people by color, race, ethnicity, religion and expression of thoughts, crerating a culture of hatred, intolerance. The moral values of the digital society are weakened by sharing habit of language that shows the trend of disregard for the principle of human dignity.

  3. Unusual brain images of a boy with adolescent cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy presenting with exhibitionism: A CARE-compliant case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Feixia; Lin, Zhongdong; Ye, Xiuyun; Shi, Xulai

    2017-12-01

    The respective involvements of both the thalamus and exhibitionism in cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) have not been reported. An 11-year-old boy initially presented with exhibitionism and progressive neurobehavioral symptoms. He subsequently developed transient urinary and fecal incontinence, and an unwillingness to eat or communicate. We conducted contrast-enhanced brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which revealed symmetrical altered signal intensities in bilateral frontal white matter, the basal ganglia, and dorsal thalami, as well as a peripheral rim of contrast enhancement. Diagnosis of adolescent cerebral X-ALD was confirmed on the basis of next generation genetic sequencing analysis. We initiated the patient on hormonal replacement therapy. We observed rapidly progressive neurologic deterioration in this patient, and the boy fell into a vegetative state 10 months after discharge. We recommend that physicians should not disregard X-ALD in patients with isolated psychiatric symptoms, including hypersexual behavior. The combination of detailed clinical evaluation, MRI, and next generation genetic sequencing can expedite the diagnostic process of atypical variant of X-ALD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Weapon in houses in Burgos in the eighteenth century. Between functionality and exhibitionism Armas en las casas burgalesas del siglo XVIII. Entre la funcionalidad y el exhibicionismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José SANZ DE LA HIGUERA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In domestic interiors in Burgos in the eighteenth century, the post-mortem inventories allow a deep analysis of a rather unknown and disturbing aspect of material culture, the ownership and use of weapons among the urban population of the old Regime. Not all socio-professional and socio-economic categories have access in the same way to firearms or «white» weapons and their availability changes throughout the century. Who owned the weapons? What was their weight on the volume of their fortunes? What accounts for their presence at homes? Personal and domestic protection, professional requirements, exhibitionism in the social hierarchy and ostentation, hunting needs? How much permeability and penetration did weapons know throughout the eighteenth century?En los interiores domésticos del Burgos del siglo XVIII, los inventarios post mortem permiten un análisis intenso de un aspecto bastante desconocido e inquietante de la cultura material, la posesión y usufructo de armas entre la población urbana del Antiguo Régimen. No todas las categorías socioprofesionales y socioeconómicas tenían acceso de la misma manera a las armas de fuego o a las armas «blancas» y su disponibilidad cambia a lo largo de la centuria. ¿Quiénes eran propietarios de armas? ¿Cuál era su peso relativo sobre el volumen de sus fortunas? ¿A qué responde su aparición en las viviendas? ¿Protección personal y doméstica, exigencias profesionales, exhibicionismo en la jerarquía social y boato, necesidad cinegética? ¿Qué grado de permeabilidad y penetración conocieron las armas a lo largo del Setecientos?

  5. Digital Exhibitionism The Age of Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Munar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Web 2.0 has expanded the possibilities of digital creative production by individu-als and enabled the digitalisation of private life experiences. This study analyses how social media contributes to the making of personal biographies and discusses the shift towards a culture of digital exposure. This study uses netnography and a constructive approach to examine online communities and social networks. The findings illustrate that these new technological platforms are mediating in the con-struction of late modern biographies, which are expanding the complexity of to-day’s socio-technical systems. The paper discusses the power of these technolo-gies as agents of socio-cultural change and suggests that, besides providing indi-vidual realisation and mediated pleasure, these technologies encourage exhibitio-nistic and voyeuristic behaviour, elude reflexivity, and display authoritative ten-dencies and new possibilities for social control.

  6. 28 CFR 35.104 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... body systems: Neurological, musculoskeletal, special sense organs, respiratory (including speech organs..., speech and hearing impairments, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, cancer...— (i) Transvestism, transsexualism, pedophilia, exhibitionism, voyeurism, gender identity disorders not...

  7. 49 CFR 37.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... systems: neurological, musculoskeletal, special sense organs, respiratory including speech organs... not limited to, such contagious or noncontagious diseases and conditions as orthopedic, visual, speech...) Transvestism, transsexualism, pedophilia, exhibitionism, voyeurism, gender identity disorders not resulting...

  8. Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…

  9. 29 CFR 34.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Citizenship: See Discrimination on the ground of citizenship. Department means the U.S. Department of Labor... meanings. Discrimination on the ground of citizenship means a denial of participation in programs or..., exhibitionism, voyeurism, gender identity disorders not resulting from physical impairments, or other sexual...

  10. Artifice & Superfice: an Analysis of Self-Media

    OpenAIRE

    Kalhor, Marguerite Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    This document investigates the formal and technical qualities in selfie-taking and their relationship to artworks co-existing in the deluge of social media information. Contemporary western cultural critiques on the selfie or self-media platforms such as Facebook, Instagram and Twitter are tinged with puritanical rhetoric that reduces web expression into behavioral do’s and don’ts, shaking fingers at exhibitionism, and lauding formulaic instances of sincerity. This particular pollution of mai...

  11. The impact of narcissistic dimensions on feelings of envy

    OpenAIRE

    Hellen, K.; Saaksjarvi, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Research on the effects of envy in marketing situations suggests that envious consumer reactions can come in a positive form, benign envy, and a negative form, malicious envy. In this research it is shown that narcissistic personality dimensions differently impact benign and malicious envy. More specifically, results indicate that authority and exploitativeness reduces benign envy while exhibitionism reduces malicious envy. Entitlement increases both benign and malicious envy. This means that...

  12. Defense Industrial Personnel Security Clearance Review Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-02

    or personality disorder (e.g., transsexualism , transvestism, exhibitionism, incest, child molestation, voyeurism, bestiality, or sodomy). 2. The...a serious mental aberration, lack of remorse, or insufficient probability of rehabilitative success, (e.g., spouse or child abuse). 8. Disposition: a...intoxication. 2. Alcohol-related incidents such as traffic violations, fighting, child or spouse abuse, non-traffic violation or other criminal

  13. Narcissism and consumer behaviour: a review and preliminary findings

    OpenAIRE

    Cisek, Sylwia Z.; Constantine eSedikides; Hart, Claire M.; Godwin, Hayward J.; Valerie eBenson; Liversedge, Simon P.

    2014-01-01

    We review the literature on the relation between narcissism and consumer behaviour. Consumer behaviour is sometimes guided by self-related motives (e.g., self-enhancement) rather than by rational economic considerations. Narcissism is a case in point. This personality trait reflects a self-centred, self-aggrandizing, dominant, and manipulative orientation. Narcissists are characterised by exhibitionism and vanity, and they see themselves as superior and entitled. To validate their grand...

  14. Child sexual abuse: clinical and psychological perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Etty Indriati, Etty Indriati

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the clinical and psychological effects of children who suffer sexual abuse. Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a forced sexual behavior toward a child, either from the opposite or same sex. The types of child sexual abuse include exhibitionism, vouyerism, kissing, fondling, fellatio and cunnilingus, sexual intercourse, and pornography. The psychological effects of child sexual abuse often last a long time, in the form of anger, anxiety, nightmares, insecure, confused, scared, sa...

  15. Behind closed doors: an exploration of kinky sexual behaviors in urban lesbian and bisexual women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassilli, Julia C; Golub, Sarit A; Bimbi, David S; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2009-01-01

    This study of 347 urban, self-identified lesbian (n = 289) and bisexual (n = 58) women examined women's engaging in 4 kinky sexual behaviors: bondage/domination, sadomasochism, photo/video exhibitionism, and asphyxiation/breath play. A cross-sectional, brief-intercept survey was administered at 2 New York City gay, lesbian, and bisexual community events. Over 40% reported engaging in at least 1 of these behaviors, and 25% reported engaging in multiple behaviors. Bisexual women were more likely to have engaged in any kinky sexual behavior and photo/video exhibitionism. White women were more likely than women of color to have engaged in bondage/domination. Compared to older women, younger women were more likely to have engaged in photo/video exhibitionism and asphyxiation/breath play. Participants who were younger when they came out to others, and younger at their same-sex sexual debut, were more likely to have engaged in any and each of the behaviors compared to women who were older at those developmental events.

  16. COMPORTAMENTO DO CONSUMIDOR: MOTIVAÇÃO DO CONSUMIDOR E PERCEPÇÃO DE CONSUMO, EM PARTICULAR NO MERCADO DE LUXO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio S. M. Pita Gimeno

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Demographic studies, localization, social and economic surveys, beyond cultural characteristics, may partially explain the options of consumers. Thus, this work aims to realize a theoretical discussion about the buying behavior and the process involved to the luxury goods. Historically, the rare things property didn´t mind to the basic needs, but did an exhibitionism and ostentation which intended to give to the owner a differential. Nowadays, the habit changes due to the economic forces, has generated new consumption patterns and knowing the meaning behind this consumption may provide a critical competitive advantage to the enterprises.

  17. The treatment of adolescent sexual disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D

    1973-01-01

    With all types of behavior, including sexual behavior, normality is defined by what is socially acceptable in each community and each age. For example, the present generation of parents has automatically accepted infantile sexuality with less anxiety than previous generations of parents. This article discusses various aspects of adolescent sexuality in regard to today's more open and tolerant attitudes toward sex. Areas discussed are: fertility, impotency, orgasmic failure, contraception, homosexuality, promiscuity, illegitimate pregnancy, abortion, pornography, early instances of seduction of both boys and girls, sexual and religious conflicts, drugs and sex, exhibitionism, transvestism, transsexuality, and the complications caused by increased sexual freedom.

  18. Paraphilic Sexual Interests and Sexually Coercive Behavior: A Population-Based Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Elena; Forsman, Mats; Santtila, Pekka; Johansson, Ada; Sandnabba, Kenneth; Långström, Niklas

    2016-07-01

    Prior research with selected clinical and forensic samples suggests associations between paraphilic sexual interests (e.g., exhibitionism and sexual sadism) and sexually coercive behavior. However, no study to date used a large, representative and genetically informative population sample to address the potential causal nature of this association. We used self-report data on paraphilic and sexually coercive behavior from 5990 18- to 32-year-old male and female twins from a contemporary Finnish population cohort. Logistic regression and co-twin control models were employed to examine if paraphilic behaviors were causally related to coercive behavior or if suggested links were confounded by familial (genetic or common family environment) risk factors. Results indicated that associations between four out of five tested paraphilic behaviors (exhibitionism, masochism, sadism, and voyeurism, respectively) and sexually coercive behavior were moderate to strong. Transvestic fetishism was not independently associated with sexual coercion. Comparisons of twins reporting paraphilic behavior with their paraphilic behavior-discordant twin further suggested that associations were largely independent of shared genetic and environmental confounds, consistent with a causal association. In conclusion, similar to previously reported predictive effects of paraphilias on sexual crime recidivism, paraphilic behavior among young adults in the general population increases sexual offending risk. Further, early identification of paraphilic interest and preventive interventions with at-risk individuals might also reduce perpetration of first-time sexual violence.

  19. Danza ed erotismo. Di chi? Per chi?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Sasportes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Through the centuries, theatrical dance has been labeled an erotic art, the adjective erotic being applied in a negative sense. The present article tries a synthetic view on how the successive choreographic practices have dealt with the erotisation of dance, and on the public perception of such practices. To the ballerina had long been assigned the role of seducer, but in the XX century a homosexual approach to dance gave the male dancer the possibility of taking over her place. In the meantime, many choreographers went on considering the stage as the right place for the explicit expression of sexual behaviors, developing some kind of exhibitionism, with a violent exploitation of dancers’ bodies. Nonetheless, dance never stopped showing dramatizations of heterosexual attractions and conflicts, such as in the works of Pina Bausch.

  20. L'Aquila: the old and the new a year after the earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Ghisetti Giavarina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It's a year after the earthquake and the reconstruction of the old city has not yet begun. There isn't at the moment a plan of intervention, while a preliminary discussion of the plan has been approved. If for the city itself there has to be an urban re-structuring for the old city within the walls, on the other hand there should be established a plan of urban restoration, keeping above all the road grid, and those buildings which have been selected to be saved and restored should be reconstructed even with modern forms and technology. A serious effort should be made in the search for a correct meeing of the old and the new avoiding the exhibitionism of star architects and the unlikely reconstructions “as it was where it was.”

  1. The Role of Sexual Images in Online and Offline Sexual Behaviour With Minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quayle, Ethel; Newman, Emily

    2015-06-01

    Sexual images have long been associated with sexual interest and behaviour with minors. The Internet has impacted access to existing content and the ability to create content which can be uploaded and distributed. These images can be used forensically to determine the legality of the behaviour, but importantly for psychiatry, they offer insight into motivation, sexual interest and deviance, the relationship between image content and offline sexual behaviour, and how they might be used in online solicitation and grooming with children and adolescents. Practitioners will need to consider the function that these images may serve, the motivation for their use and the challenges of assessment. This article provides an overview of the literature on the use of illegal images and the parallels with existing paraphilias, such as exhibitionism and voyeurism. The focus is on recent research on the Internet and sexual images of children, including the role that self-taken images by youth may play in the offending process.

  2. Talking back in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict: Rational dialogue or emotional shouting match?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie Friedman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has facilitated a broad global conversation among citizens, enabling cross-cultural dialogue on a range of issues, in particular through Web 2.0 tools. This study analyzes the nature of the talkback discourse on news web sites within the framework of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. The study's findings demonstrated that several talkback writers engage in rational-critical discussion of issues essential to the conflict, although they often use rational arguments to de-legitimize conflicting opinions. Talkback dialogue is characterized by engaged discussion, though the majority of respondents engage in dialogue with the article, rather than with other talkback writers. The findings showed that talkback discourse enables a lively, eclectic, and inclusive version of a public sphere, which facilitates the exchange of heterogeneous opinions, though favoring exhibitionism over engagement.

  3. Motives for maintaining personal journal blogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbaugh, Erin E

    2011-01-01

    Although much has been learned about political and news blogs, there has been a lack of research on personal journal blogs. They deserve further research attention because of the implications blogs have in many bloggers' immediate social networks, as well as the opportunities for scientific inquiry in a rich and evolving communication environment. This study explored bloggers' motives for maintaining personal journal blogs, or blogs that resemble diaries about one's personal life. Stemming from the uses and gratifications perspective, antecedents (age, sex, loneliness, disclosiveness) and blogging motives composed a model for predicting the amount of blog use. Seven motives emerged from online survey data: helping/informing, social connection, pass time, exhibitionism, archiving/organizing, professionalism, and get feedback. Age, sex, loneliness, and disclosiveness predicted different motives, and the total model (age, sex, loneliness, disclosiveness, and motives) was useful for explaining 13% of the variance in the amount of blog use.

  4. A test of two brief measures of grandiose narcissism: the narcissistic personality inventory-13 and the narcissistic personality inventory-16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Brittany; Miller, Joshua D; Hoffman, Brian J; Reidy, Dennis E; Zeichner, Amos; Campbell, W Keith

    2013-12-01

    The most widely used measure of trait narcissism is the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), which can provide both total and subscale scores. However, with a length of 40 items, this measure may not be ideal in settings in which time or participant attention may limit the types of measures that can be administered. In response, Ames, Rose, and Anderson (2006) created the NPI-16, which provides a shorter, unidimensional measure of the construct. In the present research, we examine the reliability and validity of the NPI-16 in conjunction with a new short measure of narcissism, the NPI-13, which provides both a total score and 3 subscale scores (Leadership/Authority; Grandiose Exhibitionism; Entitlement/Exploitativeness). Across 2 studies, we demonstrate that both short measures manifest good convergent and discriminant validity and adequate overall reliability. The NPI-13 may be favored over the NPI-16 because it allows for the extraction of 3 subscales, consistent with the use of its parent measure. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Narcissism and consumer behaviour: a review and preliminary findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisek, Sylwia Z.; Sedikides, Constantine; Hart, Claire M.; Godwin, Hayward J.; Benson, Valerie; Liversedge, Simon P.

    2014-01-01

    We review the literature on the relation between narcissism and consumer behavior. Consumer behavior is sometimes guided by self-related motives (e.g., self-enhancement) rather than by rational economic considerations. Narcissism is a case in point. This personality trait reflects a self-centered, self-aggrandizing, dominant, and manipulative orientation. Narcissists are characterized by exhibitionism and vanity, and they see themselves as superior and entitled. To validate their grandiose self-image, narcissists purchase high-prestige products (i.e., luxurious, exclusive, flashy), show greater interest in the symbolic than utilitarian value of products, and distinguish themselves positively from others via their materialistic possessions. Our review lays the foundation for a novel methodological approach in which we explore how narcissism influences eye movement behavior during consumer decision-making. We conclude with a description of our experimental paradigm and report preliminary results. Our findings will provide insight into the mechanisms underlying narcissists’ conspicuous purchases. They will also likely have implications for theories of personality, consumer behavior, marketing, advertising, and visual cognition. PMID:24711797

  6. Current concepts in the pharmacotherapy of paraphilias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Frederico D; Thibaut, Florence

    2011-04-16

    Concerns about paraphilia and its treatment have grown in the past few years. Although the aetiology of paraphilia disorder is still not completely understood, pharmacological treatments have been proposed for this disorder. Paraphilias are a major burden for patients and society; nevertheless, only a few individuals with paraphilias voluntarily seek treatment. Antidepressants have been used in the treatment of certain types of mild (e.g. exhibitionism) and juvenile paraphilias. Antilibidinal hormonal treatments, such as steroidal antiandrogens and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues, have also been studied and they seem to be effective in paraphilic disorders, although caution should be taken in the prescription of these treatments in order to avoid or minimize adverse effects and the risk of victimization. The combination of psychotherapy and pharmacological therapy is associated with better efficacy compared with either treatment as monotherapy. Paraphilia is a chronic disorder and a minimal duration of treatment of 3-5 years is highly recommended for severe paraphilia with a high risk of sexual violence. In conclusion, this review of the literature provides suggestive evidence that paraphilias are well characterized disorders marked by pathological dimensions. Although further research is necessary to confirm treatment efficacy and to improve our knowledge of long-term tolerance, available data on the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, steroidal antiandrogens and GnRH analogues strongly suggest the efficacy of these treatments for paraphilic disorders.

  7. Non-Homicidal and Homicidal Sexual Offenders: Prevalence of Maladaptive Personality Traits and Paraphilic Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Beauregard, Eric

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to examine the psychopathological profile of non-homicidal sexual offenders (NHSOs) and homicidal sexual offenders (HSOs). Using an incarcerated sample of 96 NHSOs and 74 HSOs in a federal penitentiary in Canada, these offenders are compared in terms of their offending process, maladaptive personality traits, and paraphilic behaviors. A number of cross-tabular and sequential logistic regression analyses are performed. Relative to their counterpart, findings indicate that a higher percentage of HSOs select a victim of choice, report deviant sexual fantasies, mutilate their victim, and admit to their offense upon apprehension, whereas a higher percentage of NHSOs select victims with distinctive characteristics. In addition, a higher percentage of HSOs manifest paranoid, schizotypal, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive, and impulsive personality traits, and overall odd and eccentric personality traits compared with NHSOs. Similarly, a higher percentage of HSOs engage in exhibitionism, fetishism, frotteurism, homosexual pedophilia, sexual masochism, and partialism compared with NHSO. These findings are discussed with their implications for offender profiling. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Paraphilias in adult psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Patrick J; Odlaug, Brian L; Thomarios, Nick; Davis, Andrew A; Buchanan, Stephanie N; Meyer, Craig S; Grant, Jon E

    2010-05-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the prevalence of paraphilias in an adult inpatient psychiatric population. One hundred twelve consecutive, voluntarily admitted, adult male psychiatric inpatients were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Sexual Disorders Module, Male Version, to assess the rates of DSM-IV paraphilias. Fifteen patients (13.4%) reported symptoms consistent with at least one lifetime DSM-IV paraphilia. The most common paraphilias were voyeurism (n = 9 [8.0%]), exhibitionism (n = 6 [5.4%]), and sexual masochism (n = 3 [2.7%]). Patients who screened positive for a paraphilia had significantly more psychiatric hospitalizations (P = .006) and, on a trend level, were more likely to have attempted suicide. In addition, patients with paraphilias were significantly more likely to report having been sexually abused than patients without a paraphilia (P = paraphilia. Paraphilias appear to be more common in adult male psychiatric inpatients than previously estimated. The study also demonstrated that these disorders were not screened for by the treating physician and thus may go untreated. Further, larger-scale studies are necessary in order to further examine the rates of these disorders in the general population.

  9. Narcissism at the crossroads: phenotypic description of pathological narcissism across clinical theory, social/personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Nicole M; Pincus, Aaron L; Ansell, Emily B

    2008-04-01

    This review documents two themes of emphasis found in phenotypic descriptions of pathological narcissism across clinical theory, social/personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Clinical theories of narcissism spanning 35 years consistently describe variations in the expression of pathological narcissism that emphasize either grandiosity or vulnerable affects and self-states. Recent research in social/personality psychology examining the structure of narcissistic personality traits consistently finds two broad factors representing Grandiosity-Exhibitionism and Vulnerability-Sensitivity-Depletion respectively. However, the majority of psychiatric criteria for narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) emphasize expressions of grandiosity. By placing most of the diagnostic emphasis on overt grandiosity, DSM NPD has been limited by poor discriminant validity, modest levels of temporal stability, and the lowest prevalence rate on Axis II. Despite converging support for two phenotypic themes associated with pathological narcissism, psychiatric diagnosis and social/personality psychology research often focus only on grandiosity in the assessment of narcissism. In contrast, clinical theory struggles with a proliferation of labels describing these broad phenotypic variations. We conclude that the construct of pathological narcissism is at a crossroads and provide recommendations for diagnostic assessment, clinical conceptualization, and future research that could lead to a more integrated understanding of narcissistic personality and narcissistic personality pathology.

  10. [The case of temporal lobes dysfunction in atypical psychiatric episodes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabison-Hermann, D; Pelletier, A; Taleb, M; Bouleau, J-H

    2009-10-01

    A thirty-seven-year-old man, with temporal epilepsy, had transient, atypical psychiatric states with periods of time without any symptom. These episodes included hypersexuality with qualitative changes of sex drive, obscene behavior, exhibitionism, masturbation and modified sexual orientation. Blunted affect, inability to recognize significant persons (visual agnosia) were also detected. Magnetic resonance imaging was normal and interictal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) showed decreased cerebral perfusion in both temporal lobes. The principal hypothesis is a Klüver-Bucy syndrome (KBS). In animals and human beings, this syndrome can be produced by bilateral temporal lobectomy. It is characterised by hypersexuality, visual agnosia, strong oral tendency, dietary changes, hypermetamorphosis and blunted affect. A minimum of three KBS elements suggests bilateral temporal dysfunction and supports the diagnosis. The syndrome may occur in herpes encephalitis, head trauma, Pick disease and temporal epilepsy. A single case of a patient, without any evidence for structural lesion in temporal lobes, is presented with many KBS symptoms, behavioral changes being due to complex partial seizure. Bitemporal dysfunction for this patient was confirmed by SPECT scan. On the other hand, the detected behavioral changes cannot be explained by temporal epilepsy alone. Postictal hypersexuality in temporal epilepsy consists in sexual arousal but not sexual aberrations as found in KBS. KBS following complex partial status epilepticus is a rare phenomenum. The case described here shows how atypical psychiatric episodes can cover complex neurologic disorders.

  11. Prevalence, clinical features, and correlates of inappropriate sexual behavior after traumatic brain injury: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Grahame K; Sabaz, Mark; Daher, Maysaa

    2013-01-01

    Investigate the prevalence and clinical features of inappropriate sexual behavior (ISB) among a community-based cohort of clients of the New South Wales Brain Injury Rehabilitation program. All 11 community-based rehabilitation services of the statewide network. Five hundred seven clients with severe traumatic brain injury. Cross-sectional multicentre study. Overt Behavior Scale, Disability Rating Scale, Sydney Psychosocial Reintegration Scale-2, Health of the Nation Outcome Scale-Acquired Brain Injury, Care and Needs Scale. The point prevalence rate of ISBs was 8.9% (45/507) over the previous 3 months. Inappropriate sexual talk comprised 57.9% of all ISBs, followed by genital and nongenital touching behaviors (29.8%) and exhibitionism/public masturbation (10.5%). In 43 of 45 cases, ISBs were accompanied by other challenging behaviors, most often inappropriate social behavior, and/or aggression. Individuals who sustained more severe injuries and who were younger were significantly more likely to display ISBs. People displaying ISBs were more likely to display higher levels of challenging behaviors overall, lower levels of social participation, and more neuropsychiatric sequelae than 2 other groups: people displaying no challenging behaviors and people displaying challenging behaviors but no ISBs respectively. ISBs pose a complex clinical challenge among a minority of individuals with severe TBI.

  12. LINCHAMENTO: O CRESCIMENTO DA (INJUSTIÇA COLETIVA DIANTE DA OMISSÃO DO ESTADO / LYNCHING: GROWTH OF PUBLIC (INJUSTICE FRONT THE FAILURE OF THE STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Ludmilla do Nascimento Félix

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the relationship between the increase in the number of lynching in Brazil and the omission of state to comply with its duty to punish and reintegrate of offenders into community. It is explained the origins and causes of the phenomenon and its use as a form of exhibitionism punishment. Additionally, it is showed how the state inaction in combating crime allows the occurrence of private punishment and encourages its practice. It is exposed the relationship between this lethargy and the growth in crime rates which creates a cycle of violence. It is used literature review as a research methodology and it is analyzed fundamental rights and constitutional guarantees and the intolerable disrespect in relation to the case of lynched people. It is indicated that these offenses are the main reason to start an effective combat against the practice of lynching. It is justified why government needs to work together with civil society in pursuing an effective security policies and investments to combat factors that cause violence in Brazil and the mechanisms to avoid these criminal offenses.

  13. Narcissism and Consumer Behaviour: A Review and Preliminary Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Z Cisek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We review the literature on the relation between narcissism and consumer behaviour. Consumer behaviour is sometimes guided by self-related motives (e.g., self-enhancement rather than by rational economic considerations. Narcissism is a case in point. This personality trait reflects a self-centred, self-aggrandizing, dominant, and manipulative orientation. Narcissists are characterised by exhibitionism and vanity, and they see themselves as superior and entitled. To validate their grandiose self-image, narcissists purchase high-prestige products (i.e., luxurious, exclusive, flashy, show greater interest in the symbolic than utilitarian value of products, and distinguish themselves positively from others via their materialistic possessions. Our review lays the foundation for a novel methodological approach in which we explore how narcissism influences eye movement behaviour during consumer decision-making. We conclude with a description of our experimental paradigm and report preliminary results. Our findings will provide insight into the mechanisms underlying narcissists’ conspicuous purchases. They will also likely have implications for theories of personality, consumer behaviour, marketing, advertising, and visual cognition.

  14. Narcissism and consumer behaviour: a review and preliminary findings.

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    Cisek, Sylwia Z; Sedikides, Constantine; Hart, Claire M; Godwin, Hayward J; Benson, Valerie; Liversedge, Simon P

    2014-01-01

    We review the literature on the relation between narcissism and consumer behavior. Consumer behavior is sometimes guided by self-related motives (e.g., self-enhancement) rather than by rational economic considerations. Narcissism is a case in point. This personality trait reflects a self-centered, self-aggrandizing, dominant, and manipulative orientation. Narcissists are characterized by exhibitionism and vanity, and they see themselves as superior and entitled. To validate their grandiose self-image, narcissists purchase high-prestige products (i.e., luxurious, exclusive, flashy), show greater interest in the symbolic than utilitarian value of products, and distinguish themselves positively from others via their materialistic possessions. Our review lays the foundation for a novel methodological approach in which we explore how narcissism influences eye movement behavior during consumer decision-making. We conclude with a description of our experimental paradigm and report preliminary results. Our findings will provide insight into the mechanisms underlying narcissists' conspicuous purchases. They will also likely have implications for theories of personality, consumer behavior, marketing, advertising, and visual cognition.

  15. The sex industry in fiction: Rolo Diez’ Poussière du désert and women’s exploitation in Mexico

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    Cécile Brochard

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The frontier between Mexico and the United States is known for some of the most violent crimes in contemporary Mexican society, and these include women’s exploitation. Argentine writer Rolo Diez chooses to set his crime novels in this context of violence and criminality: La vida que me doy (2000 and Matamujeres (2001 explore the exploitation of women through brutality, prostitution, disappearances and murders. Certainly willing to depict the brutality of this lawless chaos, crime novels often comply with sensationalist codes such as eroticization of female bodies and complaisance in representing the extreme violence of cartels and prostitution. Thus, they cannot avoid the ethical questioning they are willing to submit contemporary Mexican society to. This essay explores to what extent literature is able to examine brutal exploitation without being endangered by exhibitionism. After examining the possibility for literature to represent obscenity without perverting both the author and the reader, this article will analyse Rolo Diez’ representation of sexual business and violence towards women in Mexico, and question whether or not his crime novels avoid the risk of voyeurism.

  16. Prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among Malaysian paramedical students.

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    Singh, H S; Yiing, W W; Nurani, H N

    1996-06-01

    There has been increasing awareness that sexual abuse of children is a problem in Malaysia. Existing data is based on notification of cases. Population based studies are required to plan services for sexually abused children. This study utilized trainee paramedical staff as a community population to determine the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was given to student nurses and trainee medical assistants at the Ipoh School of Nursing and Hospital Bahagia Medical Assistant Training School. Questionnaires were distributed directly to all students in a classroom setting and retrieved after a 30-minute interval. Information collected included questions on personal experiences of sexual abuse. Sexual abuse was defined as rape, sodomy, molestation, or exhibitionism occurring to a child less than 18 years of age. Six hundred and sixteen students participated in the study; 6.8% of the students admitted to having been sexually abused in their childhood, 2.1% of males and 8.3% of females. Of those abused, 69% reported sexual abuse involving physical contact, 9.5% of whom experienced sexual intercourse. The age at first abuse was sexually abused as a child. While this population may not be entirely reflective of the community, this study does provide an indication of the prevalence of sexual abuse in Malaysian children. The prevalence figures in this study are lower than those reported in industrialized countries and this may reflect local sociocultural limitations in reporting abuse.

  17. Axis I psychiatric disorders, paraphilic sexual offending and implications for pharmacological treatment.

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    Kafka, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Axis I non-sexual psychopathology, especially if associated with other manifestations of impulsivity, could be important to consider during the assessment and pharmacological treatment of paraphilic sexual offenders. The author performed a Medline literature search using combinations of the following terms "sexual offender," "paraphilia," "Axis I," and "comorbid." In addition, individual paraphilic disorders including "exhibitionism," "voyeurism," "frotteurism," "sexual sadism" and "pedophilia" were searched with the terms "Axis I" and "comorbid." From the literature retrieved, 18 relevant specific articles and additional references were reviewed that utilized either a comprehensive prospective methodology to ascertain Axis I psychopathology or a specific diagnosis not typically included in structured diagnostic instruments was ascertained with validated rating instruments. Unipolar and bipolar mood disorders, social anxiety disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and other neurodevelopmental conditions (mental retardation, fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, Asperger's disorder) are Axis I psychopathologies reported as co-associated with paraphilic sexual offending. The aforementioned Axis I psychiatric disorders typically manifest during childhood or adolescence, the same age of onset as paraphilic disorders. Alcohol abuse is prevalent among paraphilic offenders as well and its presence serves as an additional disinhibitor. Research supporting the concurrent pharmacological treatment of Axis I comorbidities is modest but offers support that such treatment could mitigate paraphilic behavior. This review was organized to emphasize positive findings. Studies reviewed varied in both sample types and settings as well as ascertainment and diagnostic methodologies. The literature reviewed is modest in size and additionally limited by small samples. A subset of males with Axis I diagnoses of mood disorders, social anxiety disorder, substance use disorders, and

  18. Single-victim and serial sexual homicide offenders: differences in crime, paraphilias and personality traits.

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    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Beauregard, Eric; Myers, Wade C

    2015-02-01

    Information on psychopathological characteristics of sexual homicide offenders is scarce. To investigate criminal, paraphilic and personality trait differences between serial and single-victim sexual homicide offenders. All 73 single-victim and 13 serial sexual homicide offenders presenting within a cohort of 671 men sentenced for sexual crimes between 1994 and 2005 and serving their sentence in one high-security Canadian prison and who consented to interview were assessed and compared on their offending patterns, personality pathology and paraphilic behaviours. Serial sexual homicide offenders were more likely than the single offenders to report deviant sexual fantasies, having selected victims with distinctive characteristics, to have targeted strangers, structured premeditation and/or verbal humiliation of their victims during the offences. Personality pathology, defined by at least two Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV criteria for personality disorder, was common in both groups, but the serial offenders were more likely to have narcissistic, schizoid and/or obsessive-compulsive traits; they were also more likely to engage in sexual masochism, partialism, homosexual paedophilia, exhibitionism and/or voyeurism. Samples of serial sexual homicide offenders will, fortunately, always be small, and it may be that more could be learned to assist in preventing such crimes if data from several studies or centres were pooled. Our findings suggest that an investigation of sexual homicide offenders should include strategies for evaluating premeditation as well as personality and paraphilic characteristics. Crime scene features that should alert investigators should include similar characteristics between victims and particular aspects of body exposure or organisation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Development of a Short Form of the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory: the FFNI-SF.

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    Sherman, Emily D; Miller, Joshua D; Few, Lauren R; Campbell, W Keith; Widiger, Thomas A; Crego, Cristina; Lynam, Donald R

    2015-09-01

    The Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI; Glover, Miller, Lynam, Crego, & Widiger, 2012) is a 148-item self-report inventory of 15 traits designed to assess the basic elements of narcissism from the perspective of a 5-factor model. The FFNI assesses both vulnerable (i.e., cynicism/distrust, need for admiration, reactive anger, and shame) and grandiose (i.e., acclaim seeking, arrogance, authoritativeness, entitlement, exhibitionism, exploitativeness, grandiose fantasies, indifference, lack of empathy, manipulativeness, and thrill seeking) variants of narcissism. The present study reports the development of a short-form version of the FFNI in 4 diverse samples (i.e., 2 undergraduate samples, a sample recruited from MTurk, and a clinical community sample) using item response theory. The validity of the resultant 60-item short form was compared against the validity of the full scale in the 4 samples at both the subscale level and the level of the grandiose and vulnerable composites. Results indicated that the 15 subscales remain relatively reliable, possess a factor structure identical to the structure of the long-form scales, and manifest correlational profiles highly similar to those of the long-form scales in relation to a variety of criterion measures, including basic personality dimensions, other measures of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, and indicators of externalizing and internalizing psychopathology. Grandiose and vulnerable composites also behave almost identically across the short- and long-form versions. It is concluded that the FFNI-Short Form (FFNI-SF) offers a well-articulated assessment of the basic traits comprising grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, particularly when assessment time is limited. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Adolescent sexual offenders: a self-psychological perspective.

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    Chorn, R; Parekh, A

    1997-01-01

    Following a request for assistance in formulating a treatment philosophy for adolescent sexual offenders, a qualitative study of seven adolescent offenders was designed with a view to elaborating pre-offense, and post-offense dynamics. The point of departure was the hypothesis that sexual offending had relation to object relations. It was further hypothesized that offenders' object relations and self-development had been disfigured in childhood and adolescent development. The developmental theories of Mahler, Stern, Winnicott, and Kohut were reviewed in order to shed light on the connection between disfigured self-development and sexual offending. Mahler's work suggested that anomalies during the separation-individuation process were heavily implicated. Winnicott's thinking on transitional functioning in potential space and his employment of the concepts of the true self and false self were especially useful. These bodies of work were assimilated to Kohut's theory of self development in which three nuclear sectors of the self, namely, the grandiose-exhibitionistic sector, the idealizing-voyeuristic sector, and the twinship-alterego sector, gradually coalesce and cohere through the moderating influence of parental empathy with the child's developmental tasks. Where such empathy is unforthcoming, or when the normal parental functions are obliterated by traumatic experiences of abuse, unmoderated needs for exhibitionism and voyeurism continue through childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Victims of sexual offending were hypothesized to perform functions of restoration and preservation of a chronically weak and threatened self. The sample's interview transcripts were qualitatively analyzed and aggregated. Analysis suggested that, indeed, offenses appeared to have been motivated to preserve a weakened sense of self and that the thoughts and perceptions surrounding the offenses resonated with expressions of problematic separation from parental objects. In addition, it

  1. Gender differences in narcissism: a meta-analytic review.

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    Grijalva, Emily; Newman, Daniel A; Tay, Louis; Donnellan, M Brent; Harms, P D; Robins, Richard W; Yan, Taiyi

    2015-03-01

    Despite the widely held belief that men are more narcissistic than women, there has been no systematic review to establish the magnitude, variability across measures and settings, and stability over time of this gender difference. Drawing on the biosocial approach to social role theory, a meta-analysis performed for Study 1 found that men tended to be more narcissistic than women (d = .26; k = 355 studies; N = 470,846). This gender difference remained stable in U.S. college student cohorts over time (from 1990 to 2013) and across different age groups. Study 1 also investigated gender differences in three facets of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) to reveal that the narcissism gender difference is driven by the Exploitative/Entitlement facet (d = .29; k = 44 studies; N = 44,108) and Leadership/Authority facet (d = .20; k = 40 studies; N = 44,739); whereas the gender difference in Grandiose/Exhibitionism (d = .04; k = 39 studies; N = 42,460) was much smaller. We further investigated a less-studied form of narcissism called vulnerable narcissism-which is marked by low self-esteem, neuroticism, and introversion-to find that (in contrast to the more commonly studied form of narcissism found in the DSM and the NPI) men and women did not differ on vulnerable narcissism (d = -.04; k = 42 studies; N = 46,735). Study 2 used item response theory to rule out the possibility that measurement bias accounts for observed gender differences in the three facets of the NPI (N = 19,001). Results revealed that observed gender differences were not explained by measurement bias and thus can be interpreted as true sex differences. Discussion focuses on the implications for the biosocial construction model of gender differences, for the etiology of narcissism, for clinical applications, and for the role of narcissism in helping to explain gender differences in leadership and aggressive behavior. Readers are warned against overapplying small effect sizes to perpetuate gender

  2. Transtornos parafílicos em pacientes com transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo: série de casos Paraphilic disorders among patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: case series

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    Manuela C. Borges

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o intuito de elucidar a relação entre transtornos do controle de impulsos (TCI e transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo (TOC, faz-se mister estudar subgrupos mais clinicamente homogêneos de transtornos impulsivos. Por meio do relato de quatro casos de pacientes com TOC e diferentes tipos de transtornos parafílicos (fetichismo transvético, sadismo, ginandromorfofilia e exibicionismo, são discutidos os conceitos de compulsividade, impulsividade e a relação temporal entre ambos. O estudo dos casos aqui descritos mostra que (1 pacientes com TOC e transtornos parafílicos tendem a desenvolver o TOC primeiro, (2 diante de desejos, fantasias ou atos sexuais parafílicos, pacientes com TOC podem lançar mão de comportamentos tipicamente compulsivos, (3 pacientes com TOC e obsessões sexuais egodistônicas podem desenvolver desejos, fantasias ou atos sexuais parafílicos de conteúdo semelhante ao das obsessões, (4 em um mesmo paciente, TOC e parafilias podem apresentar cursos independentes, e (5 pacientes com TOC e parafilias podem não apresentar obsessões sexuais. O sofrimento de pacientes com TOC e parafilias justifica a investigação continuada de tais condições no intuito de elucidar os mecanismos que subjazem esta associação e de criar estratégias que aumentem a adesão ao tratamento.In order to elucidate the relationship between impulse control disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, it is essential to study more clinically homogenous subgroups of patients with impulsive disorders. Using four cases of patients with OCD and comorbid paraphilias (transvestic fetishism, sadism, gynandromorphophilia, and exhibitionism as reference-points, we discuss the concepts of compulsivity, impulsivity, and the temporal relationship between them. The case studies here described suggest that (1 patients with OCD and comorbid paraphilias tend to develop OCD first, (2 once developing paraphilic fantasies, desires, or behaviors, patients with

  3. Prevalence of non-contact and contact childhood sexual abuse: An Internet-based sample of men who have sex with men in China.

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    Wenjian Xu

    Full Text Available The prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA is high among Western men who have sex with men (MSM, and CSA is associated with certain socio-demographic variables and with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV status. Little is known about CSA among Chinese MSM; therefore, we explored the prevalence and frequency of non-contact (e.g., sexual invitations, exhibitionism and contact (e.g., intercourse, genital contact forms of CSA in an Internet-based sample of MSM in China. We also examined the associations between the participants' socio-demographic characteristics and HIV status, and their histories of CSA.We surveyed MSM from 30 Chinese provinces in 2014-2015; 1,030 (mean age = 25.15 years, SD = 6.32 and 1,020 (mean age = 25.05 years, SD = 5.95 respondents were eligible for inclusion in the non-contact and contact CSA groups, respectively.Prevalence of non-contact and contact CSA was 36.2% and 29.8%, respectively; 20.4% and 15.0% had experienced non-contact and contact CSA ≥ 3 times, respectively. Most respondents were young adults, well educated, single, had never "come out," and self-identified as gay or bisexual men. Univariate analyses showed that respondents who had experienced contact CSA were more likely to be HIV-positive than those who had never experienced contact CSA. Multivariate analyses showed that non-contact CSA was associated with less education, being in a relationship with a woman or a man, and having "come out." Contact CSA was associated with less education, higher income, and being in a relationship with a man. Respondents who had experienced non-contact CSA ≥ 3 times were more likely to be less educated, "out," and to be in a relationship with a woman or a man. Respondents who had experienced contact CSA ≥ 3 times were more likely to be less educated and to be in a relationship with a man.It is necessary to pay closer attention to CSA among MSM and other sexual minorities in China.

  4. [Assessment of a new law for sex offenders implemented in France in 1998].

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    Tesson, J; Cordier, B; Thibaut, F

    2012-04-01

    Most people recognize that incarceration alone will not solve sexual violence. Treating the offenders is critical in an approach to preventing sexual violence and reducing victimization. The Law of June 17, 1998, on the prevention and repression of sexual offences, as well as the protection of minors, makes a provision for the possibility of medical and psychological monitoring adapted to these particular individuals. Sex offenders may well be constrained, after their incarceration, to social and judicial follow-up, which may include coerced treatment in order to reduce the risk of recidivism. In order to control this follow-up, the legislature has created the position of medical coordinator, who acts as an interface between justice and care in conjunction with the treating physician. This study is the first attempt to evaluate the activity of physician coordinators conducted in France since the implementation in 2004 of the 1998 law on monitoring sex offenders. An interview of all the physician coordinators in Upper Normandy was conducted. The files of all sex offenders subjected to coerced treatment were studied. In our sample of 100 sex offenders who were subjected to coerced treatment (any kind of treatment) (99% men, 60% of sexual assaults on minors, 14% of cases of indecent exposure), minor victims of sexual assault were: 78% females; in 90% of cases the victim was aged under 14 years (under 10 in 52% of cases), 60% of cases were intrafamilial incest; the victim was an unknown aggressor in only one case out of 60. The constraint follow-up contributed to reducing the risk of recidivism (three cases of recidivism in 100 individuals over an average duration of follow-up of five years), although it remains difficult to assess the recidivism over a duration of time as short as five years. A diagnosis of paraphilia was only applied in 19% of cases (in 10 cases pedophilia, exhibitionism in nine cases). Only six subjects were receiving antiandrogen treatment. A

  5. Die Anfänge des Sufismus The beginnings of the Sufism

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    Hüseyin DEMİR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of asceticism, which has evolved over time, rests onthe idea of taking a clear stand for a specific lifestyle that favorsabstinence and restraint. What was first practiced by ProphetMuhammad who lived a humble lifestyle devoid any exhibitionism waslater widely spread among his companions. As such, this kind oflifestyle conformed to the Quranic concepts of purification and piety(taqwa. Building on the belief that worldly life is only temporary,asceticism calls for resisting and not giving in to worldly pleasures andtemptations. Against the background of a number of hardships andmoral deviations encountered by Muslim societies, it was to bringforward the movement of Sufism towards the end of the second Hijricentury. Sufism started to obtain the characteristics of a massmovement from the twelfth century onwards and organized itself intariqas simultaneously starting to provide guidance to society inreligious and social terms. These tariqas whose evolution and activitiescan be traced back in time were to split into various subgroups over thecenturies, each of them following the same goal of getting closer toAllah. This piece of writing explores the causes that gave birth to thetariqas, depicts their evolution and main objectives, and examines theirdifferent manifestations. Twelve different tariqas are analyzedcomparatively against a set of criteria including, for example, the roleand form of dhikr (remembrance of Allah. Zamanla gelişen ve hayata karşı bir tavır alma olan zühd anlayışı, Peygamber Efendimiz’in döneminde sade ve gösterişten uzak yaşantısıyla başlayıp daha sonra sahabe-i kiram genelinde gözlemlenir. Kuran-ı Kerim’de tezkiye ve takva kelimeleri ile ifade edilen bu hal, dünyanın geçiciliğine inanarak nefsin hoşuna giden şeyleri gönülden atma ve onlara değer vermeme anlamına gelen zühd olgusu, zamanla müslümanlar arasında başgösteren sapmalar, yeni şartlar, ekonomik, ideolojik, sosyal ve