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Sample records for exhibiting behavioral abnormalities

  1. GPR40/FFAR1 deficient mice increase noradrenaline levels in the brain and exhibit abnormal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuka Aizawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The free fatty acid receptor 1 (GPR40/FFAR1 is a G protein-coupled receptor, which is activated by long chain fatty acids. We have previously demonstrated that activation of brain GPR40/FFAR1 exerts an antinociceptive effect that is mediated by the modulation of the descending pain control system. However, it is unclear whether brain GPR40/FFAR1 contributes to emotional function. In this study, we investigated the involvement of GPR40/FFAR1 in emotional behavior using GPR40/FFAR1 deficient (knockout, KO mice. The emotional behavior in wild and KO male mice was evaluated at 9–10 weeks of age by the elevated plus-maze test, open field test, social interaction test, and sucrose preference test. Brain monoamines levels were measured using LC–MS/MS. The elevated plus-maze test and open field tests revealed that the KO mice reduced anxiety-like behavior. There were no differences in locomotor activity or social behavior between the wild and KO mice. In the sucrose preference test, the KO mice showed reduction in sucrose preference and intake. The level of noradrenaline was higher in the hippocampus, medulla oblongata, hypothalamus and midbrain of KO mice. Therefore, these results suggest that brain GPR40/FFAR1 is associated with anxiety- and depression-related behavior regulated by the increment of noradrenaline in the brain.

  2. GPR40/FFAR1 deficient mice increase noradrenaline levels in the brain and exhibit abnormal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Fuka; Nishinaka, Takashi; Yamashita, Takuya; Nakamoto, Kazuo; Kurihara, Takashi; Hirasawa, Akira; Kasuya, Fumiyo; Miyata, Atsuro; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2016-12-01

    The free fatty acid receptor 1 (GPR40/FFAR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor, which is activated by long chain fatty acids. We have previously demonstrated that activation of brain GPR40/FFAR1 exerts an antinociceptive effect that is mediated by the modulation of the descending pain control system. However, it is unclear whether brain GPR40/FFAR1 contributes to emotional function. In this study, we investigated the involvement of GPR40/FFAR1 in emotional behavior using GPR40/FFAR1 deficient (knockout, KO) mice. The emotional behavior in wild and KO male mice was evaluated at 9-10 weeks of age by the elevated plus-maze test, open field test, social interaction test, and sucrose preference test. Brain monoamines levels were measured using LC-MS/MS. The elevated plus-maze test and open field tests revealed that the KO mice reduced anxiety-like behavior. There were no differences in locomotor activity or social behavior between the wild and KO mice. In the sucrose preference test, the KO mice showed reduction in sucrose preference and intake. The level of noradrenaline was higher in the hippocampus, medulla oblongata, hypothalamus and midbrain of KO mice. Therefore, these results suggest that brain GPR40/FFAR1 is associated with anxiety- and depression-related behavior regulated by the increment of noradrenaline in the brain. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. ENU-mutagenesis mice with a non-synonymous mutation in Grin1 exhibit abnormal anxiety-like behaviors, impaired fear memory, and decreased acoustic startle response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Grin1 (glutamate receptor, ionotropic, NMDA1) gene expresses a subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors that is considered to play an important role in excitatory neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity, and brain development. Grin1 is a candidate susceptibility gene for neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In our previous study, we examined an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-generated mutant mouse strain (Grin1Rgsc174/Grin1+) that has a non-synonymous mutation in Grin1. These mutant mice showed hyperactivity, increased novelty-seeking to objects, and abnormal social interactions. Therefore, Grin1Rgsc174/Grin1+ mice may serve as a potential animal model of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, other behavioral characteristics related to these disorders, such as working memory function and sensorimotor gating, have not been fully explored in these mutant mice. In this study, to further investigate the behavioral phenotypes of Grin1Rgsc174/Grin1+ mice, we subjected them to a comprehensive battery of behavioral tests. Results There was no significant difference in nociception between Grin1Rgsc174/Grin1+ and wild-type mice. The mutants did not display any abnormalities in the Porsolt forced swim and tail suspension tests. We confirmed the previous observations that the locomotor activity of these mutant mice increased in the open field and home cage activity tests. They displayed abnormal anxiety-like behaviors in the light/dark transition and the elevated plus maze tests. Both contextual and cued fear memory were severely deficient in the fear conditioning test. The mutant mice exhibited slightly impaired working memory in the eight-arm radial maze test. The startle amplitude was markedly decreased in Grin1Rgsc174/Grin1+ mice, whereas no significant differences between genotypes were detected in the prepulse inhibition (PPI) test. The mutant mice showed no obvious

  4. Diacylglycerol kinase β knockout mice exhibit attention-deficit behavior and an abnormal response on methylphenidate-induced hyperactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsue Ishisaka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK is an enzyme that phosphorylates diacylglycerol to produce phosphatidic acid. DGKβ is one of the subtypes of the DGK family and regulates many intracellular signaling pathways in the central nervous system. Previously, we demonstrated that DGKβ knockout (KO mice showed various dysfunctions of higher brain function, such as cognitive impairment (with lower spine density, hyperactivity, reduced anxiety, and careless behavior. In the present study, we conducted further tests on DGKβ KO mice in order to investigate the function of DGKβ in the central nervous system, especially in the pathophysiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DGKβ KO mice showed attention-deficit behavior in the object-based attention test and it was ameliorated by methylphenidate (MPH, 30 mg/kg, i.p.. In the open field test, DGKβ KO mice displayed a decreased response to the locomotor stimulating effects of MPH (30 mg/kg, i.p., but showed a similar response to an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p., when compared to WT mice. Examination of the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, which is involved in regulation of locomotor activity, indicated that ERK1/2 activation induced by MPH treatment was defective in the striatum of DGKβ KO mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that DGKβ KO mice showed attention-deficit and hyperactive phenotype, similar to ADHD. Furthermore, the hyporesponsiveness of DGKβ KO mice to MPH was due to dysregulation of ERK phosphorylation, and that DGKβ has a pivotal involvement in ERK regulation in the striatum.

  5. Memetics clarification of abnormal behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Biological medicine is hard to fully and scientifically explain the etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors; while, researches on philosophy and psychology (including memetics) are beneficial to better understand and explain etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors. At present, the theory of philosophy and psychology is to investigate the entity of abnormal behavior based on the views of memetics.METHODS: Abnormal behavior was researched in this study based on three aspects, including instinctive behavior disorder, poorly social-adapted behavior disorder and mental or body disease associated behavior disorder. Most main viewpoints of memetics were derived from "The Meme Machine", which was written by Susan Blackmore. When questions about abnormal behaviors induced by mental and psychological diseases and conduct disorder of teenagers were discussed, some researching achievements which were summarized by authors previously were added in this study, such as aggressive behaviors, pathologically aggressive behaviors, etc.RESULTS: The abnormal behaviors mainly referred to a part of people's substandard behaviors which were not according with the realistic social environment, culture background and the pathologic behaviors resulted from people's various psychological diseases. According to the theory of "meme", it demonstrated that the relevant behavioral obstacles of various psychological diseases, for example, the unusual behavior of schizophrenia, were caused, because the old meme was destroyed thoroughly but the new meme was unable to establish; psychoneurosis and personality disorder were resulted in hard establishment of meme; the behavioral obstacles which were ill-adapted to society, for example, various additional and homosexual behaviors, were because of the selfish replications and imitations of "additional meme" and "homosexual meme"; various instinct behavioral and congenital intelligent obstacles were not significance

  6. Omega-3 fatty acid deficient male rats exhibit abnormal behavioral activation in the forced swim test following chronic fluoxetine treatment: association with altered 5-HT1A and alpha2A adrenergic receptor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Able, Jessica A; Liu, Yanhong; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; McNamara, Robert K

    2014-03-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency during development leads to enduing alterations in central monoamine neurotransmission in rat brain. Here we investigated the effects of omega-3 fatty acid deficiency on behavioral and neurochemical responses to chronic fluoxetine (FLX) treatment. Male rats were fed diets with (CON, n = 34) or without (DEF, n = 30) the omega-3 fatty acid precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) during peri-adolescent development (P21-P90). A subset of CON (n = 14) and DEF (n = 12) rats were administered FLX (10 mg/kg/d) through their drinking water for 30 d beginning on P60. The forced swimming test (FST) was initiated on P90, and regional brain mRNA markers of serotonin and noradrenaline neurotransmission were determined. Dietary ALA depletion led to significant reductions in frontal cortex docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) composition in DEF (-26%, p = 0.0001) and DEF + FLX (-32%, p = 0.0001) rats. Plasma FLX and norfluoxetine concentrations did not different between FLX-treated DEF and CON rats. During the 15-min FST pretest, DEF + FLX rats exhibited significantly greater climbing behavior compared with CON + FLX rats. During the 5-min test trial, FLX treatment reduced immobility and increased swimming in CON and DEF rats, and only DEF + FLX rats exhibited significant elevations in climbing behavior. DEF + FLX rats exhibited greater midbrain, and lower frontal cortex, 5-HT1A mRNA expression compared with all groups including CON + FLX rats. DEF + FLX rats also exhibited greater midbrain alpha2A adrenergic receptor mRNA expression which was positively correlated with climbing behavior in the FST. These preclinical data demonstrate that low omega-3 fatty acid status leads to abnormal behavioral and neurochemical responses to chronic FLX treatment in male rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Normal and Abnormal Behavior in Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Spinner, Miriam R.

    1981-01-01

    Evaluation of normal and abnormal behavior in the period to three years of age involves many variables. Parental attitudes, determined by many factors such as previous childrearing experience, the bonding process, parental psychological status and parental temperament, often influence the labeling of behavior as normal or abnormal. This article describes the forms of crying, sleep and wakefulness, and affective responses from infancy to three years of age.

  8. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficient Male Rats Exhibit Abnormal Behavioral Activation in the Forced Swim Test Following Chronic Fluoxetine Treatment: Association with Altered 5-HT1A and Alpha2A Adrenergic Receptor Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Able, Jessica A.; Liu, Yanhong; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; McNamara, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency during development leads to enduing alterations in central monoamine neurotransmission in rat brain. Here we investigated the effects of omega-3 fatty acid deficiency on behavioral and neurochemical responses to chronic fluoxetine (FLX) treatment. Male rats were fed diets with (CON, n=34) or without (DEF, n=30) the omega-3 fatty acid precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) during peri-adolescent development (P21-P90). A subset of CON (n=14) and DEF (n=12) rats were ...

  9. Dopamine D3 receptor knockout mice exhibit abnormal nociception in a sex-different manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Xing, Bo; Chu, Zheng; Liu, Fei; Lei, Gang; Zhu, Li; Gao, Ya; Chen, Teng; Dang, Yong-Hui

    2017-07-01

    Pain is a complex and subjective experience. Previous studies have shown that mice lacking the dopamine D3 receptor (D3RKO) exhibit hypoalgesia, indicating a role of the D3 receptor in modulation of nociception. Given that there are sex differences in pain perception, there may be differences in responses to nociceptive stimuli between male and female D3RKO mice. In the current study, we examined the role of the D3 receptor in modulating nociception in male and female D3RKO mice. Acute thermal pain was modeled by hot-plate test. This test was performed at different temperatures including 52°C, 55°C, and 58°C. The von Frey hair test was applied to evaluate mechanical pain. And persistent pain produced by peripheral tissue injury and inflammation was modeled by formalin test. In the hot-plate test, compared with wild-type (WT) mice, D3RKO mice generally exhibited longer latencies at each of the three temperatures. Specially, male D3RKO mice showed hypoalgesia compared with male WT mice when the temperature was 55°C, while for the female mice, there was a statistical difference between genotypes when the test condition was 52°C. In the von Frey hair test, both male and female D3RKO mice exhibited hypoalgesia. In the formalin test, the male D3RKO mice displayed a similar nociceptive behavior as their sex-matched WT littermates, whereas significantly depressed late-phase formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors were observed in the female mutants. These findings indicated that the D3 receptor affects nociceptive behaviors in a sex-specific manner and that its absence induces more analgesic behavior in the female knockout mice. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Freud Was Right. . . about the Origins of Abnormal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Freud's psychodynamic theory is predominantly based on case histories of patients who displayed abnormal behavior. From a scientific point of view, Freud's analyses of these cases are unacceptable because the key concepts of his theory cannot be tested empirically. However, in one respect, Freud was totally right: most forms of abnormal behavior…

  11. Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    A Look of Hope Islam Mahmoud Sweity From 19 to 30 June 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Islam Mahmoud Sweity Islam Mahmoud Sweity was born in 1997 at Beit Awwa, Palestine. She is currently following a course to get an Art diploma of Painting at the college of Fine Arts at An-Najah National University under the supervision of Esmat Al As'aad. Her portraits, landscapes and still life paintings are full of life and shining colours. Charged of emotional empathy they catch the attention of the viewer and are reminding us that life is beautiful and worth living in spite of all difficulties we have to go through. She participated in many exhibitions and has exposed her drawings in 2015 at CERN and in France in the framework of the exhibition "The Origin“, and in 2017 in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Palestina and Jordan. In this exhibition the oil paintings made in the past year will be presented. For more information : staff.association@cern.ch | T&eacu...

  12. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Encounters Hanne Blitz From February 1st to 12th 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building What is our reaction to a first encounter with a tourist attraction? Contemporary Dutch painter Hanne Blitz captures visitors' responses to art and architecture, sweeping vistas and symbolic memorials. Encounters, a series of oil paintings curated specially for this CERN exhibition, depicts tourists visiting cultural highlights around the world. A thought-provoking journey not to be missed, and a tip of the hat to CERN's large Hadron Collider.

  13. Detection and impact on cancer causation of persons exhibiting abnormal susceptibility to carcinogenic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentner, N.E.; Morrison, D.P.

    1988-01-01

    The so-called 'late biological effects', like cancer and genetic consequences and cytotoxic effects (cell killing, at higher doses), were once thought to be an inevitable consequence of a given level of exposure, whether to background radiation, to chemicals in our biosphere, or form spontaneous damage, the 'wear and tear' of living. The measurement of exposure, which results in living organisms in the formation of a related amount of DNA damage, became a surrogate for the end-effects that constitute risk. This may not be entirely appropriate. The concept of 'equal exposure -- equal risk' assumes a homogeneous response of individuals. However, there are subgroups within the human population of persons whose cultured cells exhibit abnormal sensitivity to specific carcinogenic agents and who may be at increased risk of cancer induced by these of similar agents. Modern molecular biology has shown that the majority of the damage in DNA is repaired by enzymatic DNA repair processes that restitute or ameliorate the lesions and restore normal DNA structure and function. In this view, it is not the initial damage that is of consequence but rather the residual damage left after the repair processes have acted. Since the vast majority of the initial DNA damage undergoes repair normally, variation in the efficiency of these processes in different persons may affect the actual risk of exposure. The human side of the cancer causation formula, that is, considerable importance. To understand how human DNA repair processes function, our laboratories at Chalk River have studied 'mutant' human cell strains in tissue culture. Generally, these DNA repair-defective cell strains are derived from individual donors with heritable disorders that are associated with carcinogen-hypersensitivity and cancer-proneness. Such studies, together with related epidemiological research, have highlighted the importance of this new 'human' factor in carcinogenesis

  14. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Sintropie Flavio Pellegrini From 13 to 24 March 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Energia imprigionata - Flavio Pellegrini. The exhibition is composed by eleven wood artworks with the expression of movement as theme. The artworks are the result of harmonics math applied to sculpture. The powerful black colour is dominated by the light source, generating reflexes and modulations. The result is a continuous variation of perspective visions. The works generate, at a first approach, an emotion of mystery and incomprehension, only a deeper contemplation lets one discover entangling and mutative details, evidencing the elegance of the lines and letting the meaning emerge. For more information : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  15. Mice deficient of glutamatergic signaling from intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells exhibit abnormal circadian photoentrainment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Purrier

    Full Text Available Several aspects of behavior and physiology, such as sleep and wakefulness, blood pressure, body temperature, and hormone secretion exhibit daily oscillations known as circadian rhythms. These circadian rhythms are orchestrated by an intrinsic biological clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN of the hypothalamus which is adjusted to the daily environmental cycles of day and night by the process of photoentrainment. In mammals, the neuronal signal for photoentrainment arises from a small subset of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs that send a direct projection to the SCN. ipRGCs also mediate other non-image-forming (NIF visual responses such as negative masking of locomotor activity by light, and the pupillary light reflex (PLR via co-release of neurotransmitters glutamate and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP from their synaptic terminals. The relative contribution of each neurotransmitter system for the circadian photoentrainment and other NIF visual responses is still unresolved. We investigated the role of glutamatergic neurotransmission for circadian photoentrainment and NIF behaviors by selective ablation of ipRGC glutamatergic synaptic transmission in mice. Mutant mice displayed delayed re-entrainment to a 6 h phase shift (advance or delay in the light cycle and incomplete photoentrainment in a symmetrical skeleton photoperiod regimen (1 h light pulses between 11 h dark periods. Circadian rhythmicity in constant darkness also was reduced in some mutant mice. Other NIF responses such as the PLR and negative masking responses to light were also partially attenuated. Overall, these results suggest that glutamate from ipRGCs drives circadian photoentrainment and negative masking responses to light.

  16. Abnormal nociception and opiate sensitivity of STOP null mice exhibiting elevated levels of the endogenous alkaloid morphine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aunis Dominique

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background- Mice deficient for the stable tubule only peptide (STOP display altered dopaminergic neurotransmission associated with severe behavioural defects including disorganized locomotor activity. Endogenous morphine, which is present in nervous tissues and synthesized from dopamine, may contribute to these behavioral alterations since it is thought to play a role in normal and pathological neurotransmission. Results- In this study, we showed that STOP null brain structures, including cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum and spinal cord, contain high endogenous morphine amounts. The presence of elevated levels of morphine was associated with the presence of a higher density of mu opioid receptor with a higher affinity for morphine in STOP null brains. Interestingly, STOP null mice exhibited significantly lower nociceptive thresholds to thermal and mechanical stimulations. They also had abnormal behavioural responses to the administration of exogenous morphine and naloxone. Low dose of morphine (1 mg/kg, i.p. produced a significant mechanical antinociception in STOP null mice whereas it has no effect on wild-type mice. High concentration of naloxone (1 mg/kg was pronociceptive for both mice strain, a lower concentration (0.1 mg/kg was found to increase the mean mechanical nociceptive threshold only in the case of STOP null mice. Conclusions- Together, our data show that STOP null mice displayed elevated levels of endogenous morphine, as well as an increase of morphine receptor affinity and density in brain. This was correlated with hypernociception and impaired pharmacological sensitivity to mu opioid receptor ligands.

  17. Blending Effective Behavior Management and Literacy Strategies for Preschoolers Exhibiting Negative Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Sometimes students will exhibit various aggressive behaviors in the preschool classroom. Early childhood educators need to have behavior management strategies to manage the students' negative behaviors within the classroom setting. This article will provide a rationale for embedding literacy instruction within behavior management strategies to…

  18. Three patients with Schaaf-Yang syndrome exhibiting arthrogryposis and endocrinological abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enya, Takuji; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Iba, Yoshinori; Miyazawa, Tomoki; Okada, Mitsuru; Ida, Shinobu; Naruto, Takuya; Imoto, Issei; Fujita, Atsushi; Miyake, Noriko; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Sugimoto, Keisuke; Takemura, Tsukasa

    2018-03-01

    MAGEL2 is the paternally expressed gene within Prader-Willi syndrome critical region at 15q11.2. We encountered three individuals in whom truncating mutations of MAGEL2 were identified. Patients 1 and 2, siblings born to healthy, non-consanguineous Japanese parents, showed generalized hypotonia, lethargy, severe respiratory difficulty, poor feeding, and multiple anomalies including arthrogryposis soon after birth. We carried out whole-exome sequencing, which detected a MAGEL2 mutation (c.1912C>T, p.Gln638*, heterozygous). The patients' father was heterozygous for the mutation. Patient 3 was a female infant, showed respiratory difficulty reflecting pulmonary hypoplasia, generalized hypotonia, feeding difficulty and multiple anomalies soon after birth. Targeted next-generation sequencing detected a novel heterozygous mutation in MAGEL2 (c.3131C>A, p.Ser1044*). This mutation was not found in the parents. MAGEL2 mutations, first reported to be the cause of the Prader-Willi like syndrome with autism by Schaaf et al. (2013) Nature Genetics, 45: 1405-1408 show the wide range of phenotypic spectrum from lethal arthrogryposis multiplex congenital to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and mild intellectual disability (ID). Our results indicate that MAGEL2 mutations cause multiple congenital anomalies and intellectual disability accompanied by arthrogryposis multiplex congenita and various endocrinologic abnormalities, supporting that the view that clinical phenotypes of MAGEL2 mutations are variable. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Abnormal metabolic network activity in REM sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtbernd, Florian; Gagnon, Jean-François; Postuma, Ron B; Ma, Yilong; Tang, Chris C; Feigin, Andrew; Dhawan, Vijay; Vendette, Mélanie; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Eidelberg, David; Montplaisir, Jacques

    2014-02-18

    To determine whether the Parkinson disease-related covariance pattern (PDRP) expression is abnormally increased in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and whether increased baseline activity is associated with greater individual risk of subsequent phenoconversion. For this cohort study, we recruited 2 groups of RBD and control subjects. Cohort 1 comprised 10 subjects with RBD (63.5 ± 9.4 years old) and 10 healthy volunteers (62.7 ± 8.6 years old) who underwent resting-state metabolic brain imaging with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET. Cohort 2 comprised 17 subjects with RBD (68.9 ± 4.8 years old) and 17 healthy volunteers (66.6 ± 6.0 years old) who underwent resting brain perfusion imaging with ethylcysteinate dimer SPECT. The latter group was followed clinically for 4.6 ± 2.5 years by investigators blinded to the imaging results. PDRP expression was measured in both RBD groups and compared with corresponding control values. PDRP expression was elevated in both groups of subjects with RBD (cohort 1: p abnormalities in subjects with idiopathic RBD are associated with a greater likelihood of subsequent phenoconversion to a progressive neurodegenerative syndrome.

  20. Streptozotocin induced oxidative stress, innate immune system responses and behavioral abnormalities in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Shayan; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Momeny, Majid; Amini-Khoei, Hossein; Rahimi-Balaei, Maryam; Poursaman, Simin; Rastegar, Mojgan; Nikoui, Vahid; Mokhtari, Tahmineh; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal

    2017-01-06

    Recent evidence indicates the involvement of inflammatory factors and mitochondrial dysfunction in the etiology of psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. To investigate the possible role of mitochondrial-induced sterile inflammation in the co-occurrence of anxiety and depression, in this study, we treated adult male mice with the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of a single low dose of streptozotocin (STZ, 0.2mg/mouse). Using valid and qualified behavioral tests for the assessment of depressive and anxiety-like behaviors, we showed that STZ-treated mice exhibited behaviors relevant to anxiety and depression 24h following STZ treatment. We observed that the co-occurrence of anxiety and depressive-like behaviors in animals were associated with abnormal mitochondrial function, nitric oxide overproduction and, the increased activity of cytosolic phospholipase A 2 (cPLA 2 ) in the hippocampus. Further, STZ-treated mice had a significant upregulation of genes associated with the innate immune system such as toll-like receptors 2 and 4. Pathological evaluations showed no sign of neurodegeneration in the hippocampus of STZ-treated mice. Results of this study revealed that behavioral abnormalities provoked by STZ, as a cytotoxic agent that targets mitochondria and energy metabolism, are associated with abnormal mitochondrial activity and, consequently the initiation of innate-inflammatory responses in the hippocampus. Our findings highlight the role of mitochondria and innate immunity in the formation of sterile inflammation and behaviors relevant to anxiety and depression. Also, we have shown that STZ injection (i.c.v.) might be an animal model for depression and anxiety disorders based on sterile inflammation. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Abnormal magnetization behaviors in Sm–Ni–Fe–Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.Y.; Zhang, Y.F.; Zhao, H.; Chen, G.F.; Zhang, Y.; Du, H.L.; Liu, S.Q.; Wang, C.S.; Han, J.Z.; Yang, Y.C.; Yang, J.B.

    2016-01-01

    The magnetization behaviors in Sm–Ni–Fe–Cu alloys at low temperatures have been investigated. It was found that the hysteresis loops show wasp-waisted character at low temperatures, which has been proved to be related to the existence of multi-phases, the Fe/Ni soft magnetic phases and the CaCu 5 -type hard magnetic phase. A smooth-jump behavior of the magnetization is observed at T>5 K, whereas a step-like magnetization process appears at T<5 K. The CaCu 5 -type phase is responsible for such abnormal magnetization behavior. The magnetic moment reversal model with thermal activation is used to explain the relation of the critical magnetic field (H cm ) to the temperature (T>5 K). The reversal of the moment direction has to cross over an energy barrier of about 6.6×10 −15 erg. The step-like jumps of the magnetization below 5 K is proposed to be resulted from a sharp increase of the sample temperature under the heat released by the irreversible domain wall motion. - Highlights: • Two different magnetization mechanisms, controlled by temperature, have been found in the Sm–Ni–Fe–Cu alloys. The smooth-jump behavior of the magnetization is observed at T>5 K and the step-like magnetization process appears at T<5 K. • The magnetic moment reversal model with thermal activation has been successfully used to explain the relation of the critical magnetic field (H cm ) to the temperature (T>5 K). The energy barrier for the reversal of the moment direction has been found to be about 6.6×10 −15 erg. • The transition field for the step-like jumps is very strict, independent from the magnetic sweep rate. This is remarkably different from the similar step-like jump behavior in reference [20]. • According to the SEM images and EDX analysis, two kinds of regions are found in the alloys. The Fe–Ni–Cu regions are surrounded by the 1:5 Sm–Ni–Fe–Cu regions and shows fish-bone like structure. An interesting thing is that the Fe–Ni–Cu regions are

  2. Nonparametric Change Point Diagnosis Method of Concrete Dam Crack Behavior Abnormality

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhanchao; Gu, Chongshi; Wu, Zhongru

    2013-01-01

    The study on diagnosis method of concrete crack behavior abnormality has always been a hot spot and difficulty in the safety monitoring field of hydraulic structure. Based on the performance of concrete dam crack behavior abnormality in parametric statistical model and nonparametric statistical model, the internal relation between concrete dam crack behavior abnormality and statistical change point theory is deeply analyzed from the model structure instability of parametric statistical model ...

  3. Identifying specific prefrontal neurons that contribute to autism-associated abnormalities in physiology and social behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brumback, A C; Ellwood, I T; Kjaerby, C

    2017-01-01

    Functional imaging and gene expression studies both implicate the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), particularly deep-layer projection neurons, as a potential locus for autism pathology. Here, we explored how specific deep-layer prefrontal neurons contribute to abnormal physiology and behavior...... in mouse models of autism. First, we find that across three etiologically distinct models-in utero valproic acid (VPA) exposure, CNTNAP2 knockout and FMR1 knockout-layer 5 subcortically projecting (SC) neurons consistently exhibit reduced input resistance and action potential firing. To explore how altered...... SC neuron physiology might impact behavior, we took advantage of the fact that in deep layers of the mPFC, dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) are mainly expressed by SC neurons, and used D2-Cre mice to label D2R+ neurons for calcium imaging or optogenetics. We found that social exploration preferentially...

  4. Ape Behavior in Two Alternating Environments: Comparing Exhibit and Short-Term Holding Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Stephen R.; Wagner, Katherine E.; Schapiro, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    be balanced with the desire to maintain enriching and naturalistic exhibit enclosures that benefit ape residents and attract the visiting public. In these settings, examinations of ape behavior and welfare typically focus exclusively on activity in the primary exhibit area. However, physical, social...... and sensory experiences unique to each area may shape different patterns of behavior. In the current study, zoo-living chimpanzees and gorillas were moved each day from exhibit areas to off-exhibit holding areas for a short duration as a part of regular management procedures. Behavioral data indicated species......-specific reactions to the holding area, including increased aggression and self-directed behavior by chimpanzees and increased activity and prosocial behavior among gorilla subjects. Both species showed more feeding-foraging behavior while in the exhibit enclosure. Results suggest that holding areas may not meet all...

  5. Slitrk1-deficient mice display elevated anxiety-like behavior and noradrenergic abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, K; Yamada, K; Ornthanalai, V G; Inoue, T; Ota, M; Murphy, N P; Aruga, J

    2010-02-01

    Mutations in SLITRK1 are found in patients with Tourette's syndrome and trichotillomania. SLITRK1 encodes a transmembrane protein containing leucine-rich repeats that is produced predominantly in the nervous system. However, the role of this protein is largely unknown, except that it can modulate neurite outgrowth in vitro. To clarify the role of Slitrk1 in vivo, we developed Slitrk1-knockout mice and analyzed their behavioral and neurochemical phenotypes. Slitrk1-deficient mice exhibited elevated anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze test as well as increased immobility time in forced swimming and tail suspension tests. Neurochemical analysis revealed that Slitrk1-knockout mice had increased levels of norepinephrine and its metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol. Administration of clonidine, an alpha2-adrenergic agonist that is frequently used to treat patients with Tourette's syndrome, attenuated the anxiety-like behavior of Slitrk1-deficient mice in the elevated plus-maze test. These results lead us to conclude that noradrenergic mechanisms are involved in the behavioral abnormalities of Slitrk1-deficient mice. Elevated anxiety due to Slitrk1 dysfunction may contribute to the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases such as Tourette's syndrome and trichotillomania.

  6. Nonparametric Change Point Diagnosis Method of Concrete Dam Crack Behavior Abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanchao Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study on diagnosis method of concrete crack behavior abnormality has always been a hot spot and difficulty in the safety monitoring field of hydraulic structure. Based on the performance of concrete dam crack behavior abnormality in parametric statistical model and nonparametric statistical model, the internal relation between concrete dam crack behavior abnormality and statistical change point theory is deeply analyzed from the model structure instability of parametric statistical model and change of sequence distribution law of nonparametric statistical model. On this basis, through the reduction of change point problem, the establishment of basic nonparametric change point model, and asymptotic analysis on test method of basic change point problem, the nonparametric change point diagnosis method of concrete dam crack behavior abnormality is created in consideration of the situation that in practice concrete dam crack behavior may have more abnormality points. And the nonparametric change point diagnosis method of concrete dam crack behavior abnormality is used in the actual project, demonstrating the effectiveness and scientific reasonableness of the method established. Meanwhile, the nonparametric change point diagnosis method of concrete dam crack behavior abnormality has a complete theoretical basis and strong practicality with a broad application prospect in actual project.

  7. Abnormal Sexual Behavior in an Adult Male with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Raguraman, Janakiraman; Priyadharshini, Kothai R.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Vijaysagar, John

    2004-01-01

    A male patient with homosexual obsession in obsessive compulsive disorder shows a better outcome following a combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. This case report emphasizes the importance of combination therapy in obsessive compulsive disorder with abnormal sexual impulses and behavior.

  8. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Human-Directed Undesirable Behavior Exhibited by a Captive Chimpanzee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Allison L.; Bloomsmith, Mollie A.; Kelley, Michael E.; Marr, M. Jackson; Maple, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    A functional analysis identified the reinforcer maintaining feces throwing and spitting exhibited by a captive adult chimpanzee ("Pan troglodytes"). The implementation of a function-based treatment combining extinction with differential reinforcement of an alternate behavior decreased levels of inappropriate behavior. These findings further…

  9. Allergies: The Key to Many Childhood Behavior Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vass, Molly; Rasmussen, Betty

    1984-01-01

    Describes the role of allergies in childhood behavior problems and discusses the role of school counselors in identifying allergic responses. Includes a list of references and resources on allergies, nutrition, support groups, and environmental care units. (JAC)

  10. Autism-related behavioral abnormalities in synapsin knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Barbara; Managò, Francesca; Tucci, Valter; Kao, Hung-Teh; Valtorta, Flavia; Benfenati, Fabio

    2013-08-15

    Several synaptic genes predisposing to autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) have been identified. Nonsense and missense mutations in the SYN1 gene encoding for Synapsin I have been identified in families segregating for idiopathic epilepsy and ASD and genetic mapping analyses have identified variations in the SYN2 gene as significantly contributing to epilepsy predisposition. Synapsins (Syn I/II/III) are a multigene family of synaptic vesicle-associated phosphoproteins playing multiple roles in synaptic development, transmission and plasticity. Lack of SynI and/or SynII triggers a strong epileptic phenotype in mice associated with mild cognitive impairments that are also present in the non-epileptic SynIII(-/-) mice. SynII(-/-) and SynIII(-/-) mice also display schizophrenia-like traits, suggesting that Syns could be involved in the regulation of social behavior. Here, we studied social interaction and novelty, social recognition and social dominance, social transmission of food preference and social memory in groups of male SynI(-/-), SynII(-/-) and SynIII(-/-) mice before and after the appearance of the epileptic phenotype and compared their performances with control mice. We found that deletion of Syn isoforms widely impairs social behaviors and repetitive behaviors, resulting in ASD-related phenotypes. SynI or SynIII deletion altered social behavior, whereas SynII deletion extensively impaired various aspects of social behavior and memory, altered exploration of a novel environment and increased self-grooming. Social impairments of SynI(-/-) and SynII(-/-) mice were evident also before the onset of seizures. The results demonstrate an involvement of Syns in generation of the behavioral traits of ASD and identify Syn knockout mice as a useful experimental model of ASD and epilepsy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Anatomic defects and behavioral abnormalities in rats irradiated in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimler, B.F.; Norton, S.

    1987-01-01

    Pregnant rats were irradiated with 1.0 Gy whole-body doses of Cs-137 γ-rays on gestational days 11, 13, 15 and 17. Postnatal growth and preweaning behavior of the offspring were monitored prior to sacrifice or post-partuition day 28. Brain (sensory motor cortex) and pituitary tissues were processed for histological evaluation and morphometric analysis. The gestational days on which irradiation produced significant (rho<0.05) changes relative to controls are enclosed in parentheses, with the day(s) on which irradiation produced the maximum effect being underlined for the various parameters: body weight on post-partuition day 7, pituitary nuclear area, percent acidophils, and percent vacuolization, thickness of cortical layer I, II, III, IV, V, VI, and total cortical thickness; negative geotaxis, reflex suspension, continuous corridor activity, and gait. These data indicate that the critical period of development for radiation-induced alterations in post-natal growth, development, and behavior changes from the pituitary at gestational day 11 to the brain (primitive cortex) at days 13 to 17 with a peak of sensitivity at day 15

  12. Characterizing abnormal behavior in a large population of zoo-housed chimpanzees: prevalence and potential influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Jacobson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal behaviors in captive animals are generally defined as behaviors that are atypical for the species and are often considered to be indicators of poor welfare. Although some abnormal behaviors have been empirically linked to conditions related to elevated stress and compromised welfare in primates, others have little or no evidence on which to base such a relationship. The objective of this study was to investigate a recent claim that abnormal behavior is endemic in the captive population by surveying a broad sample of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, while also considering factors associated with the origins of these behaviors. We surveyed animal care staff from 26 accredited zoos to assess the prevalence of abnormal behavior in a large sample of chimpanzees in the United States for which we had information on origin and rearing history. Our results demonstrated that 64% of this sample was reported to engage in some form of abnormal behavior in the past two years and 48% of chimpanzees engaged in abnormal behavior other than coprophagy. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the historical variables that best predicted the occurrence of all abnormal behavior, any abnormal behavior that was not coprophagy, and coprophagy. Rearing had opposing effects on the occurrence of coprophagy and the other abnormal behaviors such that mother-reared individuals were more likely to perform coprophagy, whereas non-mother-reared individuals were more likely to perform other abnormal behaviors. These results support the assertion that coprophagy may be classified separately when assessing abnormal behavior and the welfare of captive chimpanzees. This robust evaluation of the prevalence of abnormal behavior in our sample from the U.S. zoo population also demonstrates the importance of considering the contribution of historical variables to present behavior, in order to better understand the causes of these behaviors and any potential relationship to

  13. Legal Guidance on When Schools Can Remove Students for Exhibiting Dangerous Behaviors through Injunctive Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, Jennifer; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Beard, Jenna

    2018-01-01

    Violence in schools remains a complex and challenging issue. In this article, we examine schools' responsibilities in placement and the provision of services for students who have chronically exhibited dangerous behaviors. Multiple court cases have provided schools guidance in evaluating when student removal through injunctive relief for dangerous…

  14. Individuals with Smith-Magenis syndrome display profound neurodevelopmental behavioral deficiencies and exhibit food-related behaviors equivalent to Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaimo, Joseph T; Barton, Laura V; Mullegama, Sureni V; Wills, Rachel D; Foster, Rebecca H; Elsea, Sarah H

    2015-12-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with intellectual disability, sleep disturbances, early onset obesity and vast behavioral deficits. We used the Behavior Problems Inventory-01 to categorize the frequency and severity of behavioral abnormalities in a SMS cohort relative to individuals with intellectual disability of heterogeneous etiology. Self-injurious, stereotyped, and aggressive/destructive behavioral scores indicated that both frequency and severity were significantly higher among individuals with SMS relative to those with intellectual disability. Next, we categorized food behaviors in our SMS cohort across age using the Food Related Problems Questionnaire (FRPQ) and found that problems began to occur in SMS children as early as 5-11 years old, but children 12-18 years old and adults manifested the most severe problems. Furthermore, we evaluated the similarities of SMS adult food-related behaviors to those with intellectual disability and found that SMS adults had more severe behavioral problems. Many neurodevelopmental disorders exhibit syndromic obesity including SMS. Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is the most frequent neurodevelopmental disorder with syndromic obesity and has a well-established management and treatment plan. Using the FRPQ we found that SMS adults had similar scores relative to PWS adults. Both syndromes manifest weight gain early in development, and the FRPQ scores highlight specific areas in which behavioral similarities exist, including preoccupation with food, impaired satiety, and negative behavioral responses. SMS food-related behavior treatment paradigms are not as refined as PWS, suggesting that current PWS treatments for prevention of obesity may be beneficial for individuals with SMS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nervous system disruption and concomitant behavioral abnormality in early hatched pufferfish larvae exposed to heavy oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Masahumi; Sugahara, Yuki; Watanabe, Tomoe; Irie, Kouta; Ishida, Minoru; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Takata, Hiromi; Handoh, Itsuki C; Nakayama, Kei; Murakami, Yasunori

    2011-08-01

    Spills of heavy oil (HO) over the oceans have been proven to have an adverse effect on marine life. It has been hypothesized that exposure of early larvae of sinking eggs to HO leads largely to normal morphology, whereas abnormal organization of the developing neural scaffold is likely to be found. HO-induced disruption of the nervous system, which controls animal behavior, may in turn cause abnormalities in the swimming behavior of hatched larvae. To clarify the toxicological effects of HO, we performed exposure experiments and morphological and behavioral analyses in pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes) larvae. Fertilized eggs of pufferfish were exposed to 50 mg/L of HO for 8 days and transferred to fresh seawater before hatching. The hatched larvae were observed for their swimming behavior, morphological appearance, and construction of muscles and nervous system. In HO-exposed larvae, we did not detect any anomaly of body morphology. However, they showed an abnormal swimming pattern and disorganized midbrain, a higher center controlling movement. Our results suggest that HO-exposed fishes suffer developmental disorder of the brain that triggers an abnormal swimming behavior and that HO may be selectively toxic to the brain and cause physical disability throughout the life span of these fishes.

  16. Acute administration of fluoxetine normalizes rapid eye movement sleep abnormality, but not depressive behaviors in olfactory bulbectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Qun; Tu, Zhi-Cai; Xu, Xing-Yuan; Li, Rui; Qu, Wei-Min; Urade, Yoshihiro; Huang, Zhi-Li

    2012-01-01

    In humans, depression is associated with altered rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. However, the exact nature of the relationship between depressive behaviors and sleep abnormalities is debated. In this study, bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) was carried out to create a model of depression in rats. The sleep-wake profiles were assayed using a cutting-edge sleep bioassay system, and depressive behaviors were evaluated by open field and forced swimming tests. The monoamine content and monoamine metabolite levels in the brain were determined by a HPLC-electrochemical detection system. OBX rats exhibited a significant increase in REM sleep, especially between 15:00 and 18:00 hours during the light period. Acute treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) immediately abolished the OBX-induced increase in REM sleep, but hyperactivity in the open field test and the time spent immobile in the forced swimming test remained unchanged. Neurochemistry studies revealed that acute administration of fluoxetine increased serotonin (5-HT) levels in the hippocampus, thalamus, and midbrain and decreased levels of the 5-HT metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The ratio of 5-HIAA to 5-HT decreased in almost all regions of the brain. These results indicate that acute administration of fluoxetine can reduce the increase in REM sleep but does not change the depressive behaviors in OBX rats, suggesting that there was no causality between REM sleep abnormalities and depressive behaviors in OBX rats. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  17. The I2020T Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 transgenic mouse exhibits impaired locomotive ability accompanied by dopaminergic neuron abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maekawa Tatsunori

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 is the gene responsible for autosomal-dominant Parkinson’s disease (PD, PARK8, but the mechanism by which LRRK2 mutations cause neuronal dysfunction remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated for the first time a transgenic (TG mouse strain expressing human LRRK2 with an I2020T mutation in the kinase domain, which had been detected in the patients of the original PARK8 family. Results The TG mouse expressed I2020T LRRK2 in dopaminergic (DA neurons of the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, and olfactory bulb. In both the beam test and rotarod test, the TG mice exhibited impaired locomotive ability in comparison with their non-transgenic (NTG littermates. Although there was no obvious loss of DA neurons in either the substantia nigra or striatum, the TG brain showed several neurological abnormalities such as a reduced striatal dopamine content, fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus in DA neurons, and an increased degree of microtubule polymerization. Furthermore, the tyrosine hydroxylase-positive primary neurons derived from the TG mouse showed an increased frequency of apoptosis and had neurites with fewer branches and decreased outgrowth in comparison with those derived from the NTG controls. Conclusions The I2020T LRRK2 TG mouse exhibited impaired locomotive ability accompanied by several dopaminergic neuron abnormalities. The TG mouse should provide valuable clues to the etiology of PD caused by the LRRK2 mutation.

  18. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed A; Fagundo, Ana B; Arcelus, Jon; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Real, José M; Tinahones, Francisco J; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frühbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F; Menchón, José M; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior.

  19. Teaching a Course in Abnormal Psychology and Behavior Intervention Skills for Nursing Home Aides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenwick, David S.; Slutzsky, Mitchel R.; Garfinkel, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Describes an 11-week course given at a nursing home to nursing home aides that focused on abnormal psychology and behavior intervention skills. Discusses the course goals, class composition, and course description. Addresses the problems and issues encountered with teaching this course to a nontraditional population in an unconventional setting.…

  20. Resveratrol Ameliorates the Depressive-Like Behaviors and Metabolic Abnormalities Induced by Chronic Corticosterone Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Cheng Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic glucocorticoid exposure is known to cause depression and metabolic disorders. It is critical to improve abnormal metabolic status as well as depressive-like behaviors in patients with long-term glucocorticoid therapy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on the depressive-like behaviors and metabolic abnormalities induced by chronic corticosterone injection. Male ICR mice were administrated corticosterone (40 mg/kg by subcutaneous injection for three weeks. Resveratrol (50 and 100 mg/kg, fluoxetine (20 mg/kg and pioglitazone (10 mg/kg were given by oral gavage 30 min prior to corticosterone administration. The behavioral tests showed that resveratrol significantly reversed the depressive-like behaviors induced by corticosterone, including the reduced sucrose preference and increased immobility time in the forced swimming test. Moreover, resveratrol also increased the secretion of insulin, reduced serum level of glucose and improved blood lipid profiles in corticosterone-treated mice without affecting normal mice. However, fluoxetine only reverse depressive-like behaviors, and pioglitazone only prevent the dyslipidemia induced by corticosterone. Furthermore, resveratrol and pioglitazone decreased serum level of glucagon and corticosterone. The present results indicated that resveratrol can ameliorate depressive-like behaviors and metabolic abnormalities induced by corticosterone, which suggested that the multiple effects of resveratrol could be beneficial for patients with depression and/or metabolic syndrome associated with long-term glucocorticoid therapy.

  1. Abnormal eating behavior in video-recorded meals in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianini, Loren; Liu, Ying; Wang, Yuanjia; Attia, Evelyn; Walsh, B Timothy; Steinglass, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Eating behavior during meals in anorexia nervosa (AN) has long been noted to be abnormal, but little research has been done carefully characterizing these behaviors. These eating behaviors have been considered pathological, but are not well understood. The current study sought to quantify ingestive and non-ingestive behaviors during a laboratory lunch meal, compare them to the behaviors of healthy controls (HC), and examine their relationships with caloric intake and anxiety during the meal. A standardized lunch meal was video-recorded for 26 individuals with AN and 10 HC. Duration, frequency, and latency of 16 mealtime behaviors were coded using computer software. Caloric intake, dietary energy density (DEDS), and anxiety were also measured. Nine mealtime behaviors were identified that distinguished AN from HC: staring at food, tearing food, nibbling/picking, dissecting food, napkin use, inappropriate utensil use, hand fidgeting, eating latency, and nibbling/picking latency. Among AN, a subset of these behaviors was related to caloric intake and anxiety. These data demonstrate that the mealtime behaviors of patients with AN and HC differ significantly, and some of these behaviors may be associated with food intake and anxiety. These mealtime behaviors may be important treatment targets to improve eating behavior in individuals with AN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorder: Correlation between aberrant behaviors, EEG abnormalities and seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Elena Hartley-McAndrew

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between epilepsy, epileptiform discharges, cognitive, language and behavioral symptoms is not clearly understood. Since difficulties with socialization and maladaptive behaviors are found in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, we inquired whether epileptiform activity and seizures are associated with adverse behavioral manifestations in this population. We reviewed our EEG database between 1999-2006, and identified 123 children with ASD. EEG abnormalities were found in 39 children (31%. A control group of age and gender matched ASD children with normal EEG’s was obtained. Packets of questionnaires including the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale II (VABS, Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS were sent by mail. Out of 21 packets received, 11 had normal and 10 had abnormal EEG’s. There were no statistically significant differences in behavior between the two groups. Statistical analysis of discharge location and frequency did not reveal a significant trend. However, children with ASD and seizures had statistically significant lower scores in VABS daily living (P=0.009 and socialization (P=0.007 as compared to those without seizures. ASD children with seizures had higher ABC levels of hyperactivity and irritability. Differences in irritability scores nearly reached statistical significance (P=0.058. There was no significant difference in the degree of CARS autism rating between the groups. Our study did not reveal statistically significant differences in behaviors between ASD children with and without EEG abnormalities. However, ASD children with seizures revealed significantly worse behaviors as compared to counterparts without seizures.

  3. [DAILY AND ABNORMAL EATING BEHAVIORS IN A COMMUNITY SAMPLE OF CHILEAN ADULTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda-Montecinos, Camila; Saldaña, Carmina; Andrés Valle, Ana

    2015-08-01

    this research aimed to characterize the daily eating behavior in a sample of Chilean adults according to their Body Mass Index (BMI) and gender and to analyze the possible links between these variables and abnormal eating behaviors. 657 participants (437 women and 220 men, age range 18-64 years) were evaluated with a battery of self-administered questionnaires. Mean BMI was 25.50 kg/m2 (women 24.96 kg/m2, men 26.58 kg/m2), being significantly higher the mean of BMI in the men group, being the BMI mean of the total sample and that of the male group in the overweight range. participants with overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), in contrast with normal-weight group, tended to do more frequently the following behaviors: skip meals, follow a diet, eat less homemade food, eat faster and in greater quantities, in addition to do a greater number of abnormal eating behaviors of various kinds and to rate significantly higher in clinical scales that evaluated eating restraint and overeating. Men showed significantly more eating behaviors linked with overeating, and women performed more behaviors related with eating restraint and emotional eating. the results suggest that, besides "what" people eat, "how" people eat, in terms of specific behaviors, may contribute to the rapid increase of overweight in Chilean population. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Changes in food intake and abnormal behavior using a puzzle feeder in newly acquired sub-adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): a short term study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Il; Lee, Chi-Woo; Kwon, Hyouk-Sang; Kim, Young-Tae; Park, Chung-Gyu; Kim, Sang-Joon; Kang, Byeong-Cheol

    2008-10-01

    The majority of newly acquired nonhuman primates encounter serious problems adapting themselves to new environments or facilities. In particular, loss of appetite and abnormal behavior can occur in response to environmental stresses. These adaptation abnormalities can ultimately have an affect on the animal's growth and well-being. In this study, we evaluated the affects of a puzzle feeder on the food intake and abnormal behavior of newly acquired rhesus monkeys for a short period. The puzzle feeder was applied to 47- to 58-month-old animals that had never previously encountered one. We found that there was no difference in the change of food intake between the bucket condition and the puzzle feeder condition. In contrast, the time spent for consumption of food was three times longer in the puzzle feeder condition than in the bucket condition. Two monkeys initially exhibited stereotypic behavior. One showed a decreasing, and the other an increasing pattern of abnormal behavior after introduction of the puzzle feeder. In conclusion, this result suggests that over a short period, the puzzle feeder can only affect the time for food consumption since it failed to affect the food intake and did not consistently influence stereotypic behaviors in newly acquired rhesus monkeys.

  5. Abnormal occipital event-related potentials in Parkinson's disease with concomitant REM sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreault, Pierre-Olivier; Gagnon, Jean-François; Montplaisir, Jacques; Vendette, Mélanie; Postuma, Ronald B; Gagnon, Katia; Gosselin, Nadia

    2013-02-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is found in 33-46% of patients with Parkinson's disease and was shown to be associated with cognitive deficits. Our goal was to improve our understanding of the role of this sleep disorder in cerebral dysfunction occurring in Parkinson's disease using a visual cognitive task and event-related potentials. Sixteen patients with Parkinson's disease and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, 15 patients with Parkinson's disease without rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and 16 healthy control subjects were included. The amplitude and latency of event-related potentials were compared between groups. No group differences were found for reaction times or accuracy. A Group effect was found for P2 wave amplitude; patients with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder had increased P2 in comparison with the control group (p disorder were associated with abnormal visual P2 component of event-related potentials. Although patients with Parkinson's disease alone were not significantly different from patients with combined Parkinson's disease and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, their P2 amplitudes were not sufficiently abnormal to differ from that of control subjects. This study confirms that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder accentuates cerebral dysfunctions in Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Omnivores Going Astray: A Review and New Synthesis of Abnormal Behavior in Pigs and Laying Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunberg, Emma I.; Rodenburg, T. Bas; Rydhmer, Lotta; Kjaer, Joergen B.; Jensen, Per; Keeling, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    Pigs and poultry are by far the most omnivorous of the domesticated farm animals and it is in their nature to be highly explorative. In the barren production environments, this motivation to explore can be expressed as abnormal oral manipulation directed toward pen mates. Tail biting (TB) in pigs and feather pecking (FP) in laying hens are examples of unwanted behaviors that are detrimental to the welfare of the animals. The aim of this review is to draw these two seemingly similar abnormalities together in a common framework, in order to seek underlying mechanisms and principles. Both TB and FP are affected by the physical and social environment, but not all individuals in a group express these behaviors and individual genetic and neurobiological characteristics play an important role. By synthesizing what is known about environmental and individual influences, we suggest a novel possible mechanism, common for pigs and poultry, involving the brain–gut–microbiota axis. PMID:27500137

  7. REM sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson disease: association with abnormal ocular motor findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Eun; Yang, Hui June; Yun, Ji Young; Kim, Han-Joon; Lee, Jee-Young; Jeon, Beom S

    2014-04-01

    The anatomical substrates associated with generalized muscle atonia during REM sleep are located on the pontine tegmentum and medial medulla oblongata. We examined whether patients with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) have abnormal ocular movements suggesting brainstem or cerebellar dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD). Cross-sectional survey for the existence of RBD and abnormal ocular movements. Ocular movements were examined by video-oculography (VOG). A total of 202 patients were included in this study. One hundred and sixteen (57.4%) of the 202 patients have clinically probable RBD, and 28 (24.1%) of the 116 with clinically probable RBD patients had abnormal VOG findings suggesting brainstem or cerebellar dysfunction; whereas 86 of the 202 patients did not have clinically probable RBD, and only 7 (8.1%) of the 86 patients had abnormal VOG findings suggesting brainstem or cerebellar dysfunction (P=0.001). This study suggests that the presence of RBD is associated with more severe or extensive brainstem pathology or different distribution of pathology in PD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dancing attraction: followers of honey bee tremble and waggle dances exhibit similar behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin Lam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The function of the honey bee tremble dance and how it attracts signal receivers is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that tremble followers and waggle followers exhibit the same dance-following behavior. If correct, this could unify our understanding of dance following, provide insight into dance information transfer, and offer a way to identify the signal receivers of tremble dance information. Followers showed similar initial attraction to and tracking of dancers. However, waggle dancers were faster than tremble dancers, and follower-forward, -sideways, and -angular velocities were generally similar to the velocities of their respective dancers. Waggle dancers attracted followers from 1.3-fold greater distances away than tremble dancers. Both follower types were attracted to the lateral sides of dancers, but tremble followers were more attracted to the dancer's head, and waggle followers were more attracted to the dancer's abdomen. Tremble dancers engaged in 4-fold more brief food exchanges with their followers than waggle dancers. The behaviors of both follower types are therefore relatively conserved. Researchers can now take the next steps, observing tremble followers to determine their subsequent behaviors and testing the broader question of whether follower attraction and tracking is conserved in a wide range of social insects.

  9. Brain structural abnormalities in behavior therapy-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder revealed by voxel-based morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashimoto N

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nobuhiko Hashimoto,1 Shutaro Nakaaki,2 Akiko Kawaguchi,1 Junko Sato,1 Harumasa Kasai,3 Takashi Nakamae,4 Jin Narumoto,4 Jun Miyata,5 Toshi A Furukawa,6,7 Masaru Mimura2 1Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Central Radiology, Nagoya City University Hospital, Nagoya, Japan; 4Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 5Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; 6Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior, 7Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, Japan Background: Although several functional imaging studies have demonstrated that behavior therapy (BT modifies the neural circuits involved in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, the structural abnormalities underlying BT-resistant OCD remain unknown. Methods: In this study, we examined the existence of regional structural abnormalities in both the gray matter and the white matter of patients with OCD at baseline using voxel-based morphometry in responders (n=24 and nonresponders (n=15 to subsequent BT. Three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed before the completion of 12 weeks of BT. Results: Relative to the responders, the nonresponders exhibited significantly smaller gray matter volumes in the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the right orbitofrontal cortex, the right precentral gyrus, and the left anterior cingulate cortex. In addition, relative to the responders, the nonresponders exhibited significantly smaller white matter volumes in the left cingulate bundle and the left superior frontal white matter. Conclusion: These results suggest that the brain

  10. Studies of planning behavior of aircraft pilots in normal, abnormal, and emergency situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, G.; Rouse, W. B.; Hillmann, K.

    1981-01-01

    A methodology for the study of human planning behavior in complex dynamic systems is presented and applied to the study of aircraft pilot behavior in normal, abnormal and emergency situations. The method measures the depth of planning, that is the level of detail employed with respect to a specific task, according to responses to a verbal questionnaire, and compares planning depth with variables relating to time, task criticality and the probability of increased task difficulty. In two series of experiments, depth of planning was measured on a five- or ten-point scale during various phases of flight in a HFB-320 simulator under normal flight conditions, abnormal scenarios involving temporary runway closure due to snow removal or temporary CAT-III conditions due to a dense fog, and emergency scenarios involving engine shut-down or hydraulic pressure loss. Results reveal a dichotomy between event-driven and time-driven planning, different effects of automation in abnormal and emergency scenarios and a low correlation between depth of planning and workload or flight performance.

  11. Effects of alcohol intoxication on parenting behavior in interactions with child confederates exhibiting normal or deviant behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, A R; Pelham, W E; Atkeson, B M; Murphy, D A

    1999-06-01

    Experimental analogue methods were used to study how acute alcohol intoxication in parents influences their perceptions of and reactions to child behaviors, as well as their strategies for management of those behaviors. All participating parents had a grade school-aged son, but in half the cases this target child had a diagnosed externalizing disorder, whereas for the remaining half neither the target son nor any other offspring of the parents evidenced any psychopathology. Equal numbers of married fathers, married mothers, and single mothers from each of these groups received either alcoholic or nonalcoholic beverages prior to videotaped interactions with male child confederates who, depending on condition, enacted behaviors characteristic of either normal boys or boys with attention deficit hyperactivity/conduct/oppositional defiant disorders (ADHD/CD/ODD). Results indicated that intoxicated parents rated their ADHD/CD/ODD child partners as less deviant than did sober parents. Alcohol intoxication caused all participant groups to exhibit less attention and productive work and more commands, indulgences, and off-task talk in the interactions. Implications for better understanding of the role of psychosocial factors in the correlation between adult drinking problems and childhood behavior disorders are discussed.

  12. Amelioration of behavioral abnormalities in BH(4-deficient mice by dietary supplementation of tyrosine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Su Kwak

    Full Text Available This study reports an amelioration of abnormal motor behaviors in tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4-deficient Spr (-/- mice by the dietary supplementation of tyrosine. Since BH4 is an essential cofactor for the conversion of phenylalanine into tyrosine as well as the synthesis of dopamine neurotransmitter within the central nervous system, the levels of tyrosine and dopamine were severely reduced in brains of BH4-deficient Spr (-/- mice. We found that Spr (-/- mice display variable 'open-field' behaviors, impaired motor functions on the 'rotating rod', and dystonic 'hind-limb clasping'. In this study, we report that these aberrant motor deficits displayed by Spr (-/- mice were ameliorated by the therapeutic tyrosine diet for 10 days. This study also suggests that dopamine deficiency in brains of Spr (-/- mice may not be the biological feature of aberrant motor behaviors associated with BH4 deficiency. Brain levels of dopamine (DA and its metabolites in Spr (-/- mice were not substantially increased by the dietary tyrosine therapy. However, we found that mTORC1 activity severely suppressed in brains of Spr (-/- mice fed a normal diet was restored 10 days after feeding the mice the tyrosine diet. The present study proposes that brain mTORC1 signaling pathway is one of the potential targets in understanding abnormal motor behaviors associated with BH4-deficiency.

  13. Abnormal animal behavior prior to the Vrancea (Romania) major subcrustal earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Angela; Pantea, Aurelian

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this paper is to present some observations about abnormal animal behavior prior and during of some Romanian subcrustal earthquakes. The major Vrancea earthquakes of 4 March 1977 (Mw = 7.4, Imax = IX-X MSK), 30 August 1986 (Mw = 7.1, Io = VIII-IX MSK) and 30 May 1990 (Mw = 6.9, Io = VIII MSK), were preceded by extensive occurrences of anomalous animal behavior. These data were collected immediately after the earthquakes from the areas affected by these. Some species of animals became excited, nervous and panicked before and during the earthquakes, such as: dogs (barking and running in panic), cats, snakes, mice and rats (came into the houses and have lost their fear), birds (hens, geese, parrots), horses, fishes etc. These strange manifestations of the animals were observed on the entire territory of country, especially in the extra-Carpathian area. This unusual behavior was noticed within a few hours to days before the seismic events, but for the most of cases the time of occurrence was within two hours of the quakes. We can hope that maybe one day the abnormal animal behavior will be used as a reliable seismic precursor for the intermediate depth earthquakes.

  14. Early life seizures in female rats lead to anxiety-related behavior and abnormal social behavior characterized by reduced motivation to novelty and deficit in social discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelhano, Adelisandra Silva Santos; Ramos, Fabiane Ochai; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; Cysneiros, Roberta Monterazzo

    2015-03-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that male Wistar rats submitted to neonatal status epilepticus showed abnormal social behavior characterized by deficit in social discrimination and enhanced emotionality. Taking into account that early insult can produce different biological manifestations in a gender-dependent manner, we aimed to investigate the social behavior and anxiety-like behavior in female Wistar rats following early life seizures. Neonate female Wistar rats at 9 days postnatal were subject to pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and the control received saline. Behavioral tests started from 60 days postnatal and were carried out only during the diestrus phase of the reproductive cycle. In sociability test experimental animals exhibited reduced motivation for social encounter and deficit in social discrimination. In open field and the elevated plus maze, experimental animals showed enhanced emotionality with no changes in basal locomotor activity. The results showed that female rats submitted to neonatal status epipepticus showed impaired social behavior, characterized by reduced motivation to novelty and deficit in social discrimination in addition to enhanced emotionality.

  15. Long-Term Evaluation of Abnormal Behavior in Adult Ex-laboratory Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes Following Re-socialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Crailsheim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse rearing conditions are considered a major factor in the development of abnormal behavior. We investigated the overall levels, the prevalence and the diversity of abnormal behavior of 18 adult former laboratory chimpanzees, who spent about 20 years single caged, over a two-year period following re-socialization. According to the onset of deprivation, the individuals were classified as early deprived (EDs, mean: 1.2 years or late deprived (LDs, mean: 3.6 years. The results are based on 187.5 hours of scan sampling distributed over three sample periods: subsequent to re-socialization and during the first and second year of group-living. While the overall levels and the diversity of abnormal behavior remained stable over time in this study population, the amplifying effects of age at onset of deprivation became apparent as the overall levels of abnormal behavior of EDs were far above those of LDs in the first and second year of group-living, but not immediately after re-socialization. The most prevalent abnormal behaviors, including eating disorders and self-directed behaviors, however, varied in their occurrence within subjects across the periods. Most important, the significance of social companionship became obvious as the most severe forms of abnormal behavior, such as dissociative and self-injurious behaviors declined.

  16. Do Patients With Parkinson’s Disease Exhibit Reduced Cheating Behavior? A Neuropsychological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhito Abe

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of dopamine neurons. Since a seminal report was published in the early twentieth century, a growing body of literature has suggested that patients with PD display characteristic personality traits, such as cautiousness and inflexibility. Notably, PD patients have also been described as “honest,” indicating that they have a remarkable tendency to avoid behaving dishonestly. In this study, we predicted that PD patients show reduced cheating behavior in opportunities for dishonest gain due to dysfunction of the dopaminergic reward system. Thirty-two PD patients without dementia and 20 healthy controls (HC completed an incentivized prediction task where participants were rewarded based on their self-reported accuracy, affording them the opportunity to behave dishonestly. Compared with HC, PD patients showed significantly lower accuracy in the prediction task. Furthermore, the mean accuracy of PD patients was virtually equivalent to the chance level. These results indicate that PD patients exhibit reduced cheating behavior when confronted with opportunities for dishonest gain.

  17. Mice lacking the kf-1 gene exhibit increased anxiety- but not despair-like behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Tsujimura

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available KF-1 was originally identified as a protein encoded by human gene with increased expression in the cerebral cortex of a patient with Alzheimer’s disease. In mouse brain, kf-1 mRNA is detected predominantly in the hippocampus and cerebellum, and kf-1 gene expression is elevated also in the frontal cortex of rats after chronic antidepressant treatments. KF-1 mediates E2-dependent ubiquitination and may modulate cellular protein levels as an E3 ubiquitin ligase, though its target proteins are not yet identified. To elucidate the role of kf-1 in the central nervous system, we generated kf-1 knockout mice by gene targeting, using Cre-lox recombination. The resulting kf-1−/− mice were normal and healthy in appearance. Behavioral analyses revealed that kf-1−/− mice showed significantly increased anxiety-like behavior compared with kf-1+/+ littermates in the light/dark transition and elevated plus maze tests; however, no significant differences were observed in exploratory locomotion using the open field test or in behavioral despair using the forced swim and tail suspension tests. These observations suggest that KF-1 suppresses selectively anxiety under physiological conditions probably through modulating protein levels of its unknown target(s. Interestingly, kf-1−/− mice exhibited significantly increased prepulse inhibition, which is usually reduced in human schizophrenic patients. Thus, the kf-1−/− mice provide a novel animal model for elucidating molecular mechanisms of psychiatric diseases such as anxiety/depression, and may be useful for screening novel anxiolytic/antidepressant compounds.

  18. Environmental enrichment attenuates behavioral abnormalities in valproic acid-exposed autism model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Hara, Yuta; Ago, Yukio; Takano, Erika; Hasebe, Shigeru; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Matsuda, Toshio; Takuma, Kazuhiro

    2017-08-30

    We recently demonstrated that prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) at embryonic day 12.5 causes autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-like phenotypes such as hypolocomotion, anxiety-like behavior, social deficits and cognitive impairment in mice and that it decreases dendritic spine density in the hippocampal CA1 region. Previous studies show that some abnormal behaviors are improved by environmental enrichment in ASD rodent models, but it is not known whether environmental enrichment improves cognitive impairment. In the present study, we examined the effects of early environmental enrichment on behavioral abnormalities and neuromorphological changes in prenatal VPA-treated mice. We also examined the role of dendritic spine formation and synaptic protein expression in the hippocampus. Mice were housed for 4 weeks from 4 weeks of age under either a standard or enriched environment. Enriched housing was found to increase hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA levels in both control and VPA-exposed mice. Furthermore, in VPA-treated mice, the environmental enrichment improved anxiety-like behavior, social deficits and cognitive impairment, but not hypolocomotion. Prenatal VPA treatment caused loss of dendritic spines in the hippocampal CA1 region and decreases in mRNA levels of postsynaptic density protein-95 and SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 2 in the hippocampus. These hippocampal changes were improved by the enriched housing. These findings suggest that the environmental enrichment improved most ASD-like behaviors including cognitive impairment in the VPA-treated mice by enhancing dendritic spine function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Trpc2-deficient lactating mice exhibit altered brain and behavioral responses to bedding stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasen, Nina S; Gammie, Stephen C

    2011-03-01

    The trpc2 gene encodes an ion channel involved in pheromonal detection and is found in the vomeronasal organ. In tprc2(-/-) knockout (KO) mice, maternal aggression (offspring protection) is impaired and brain Fos expression in females in response to a male are reduced. Here we examine in lactating wild-type (WT) and KO mice behavioral and brain responses to different olfactory/pheromonal cues. Consistent with previous studies, KO dams exhibited decreased maternal aggression and nest building, but we also identified deficits in nighttime nursing and increases in pup weight. When exposed to the bedding tests, WT dams typically ignored clean bedding, but buried male-soiled bedding from unfamiliar males. In contrast, KO dams buried both clean and soiled bedding. Differences in brain Fos expression were found between WT and KO mice in response to either no bedding, clean bedding, or soiled bedding. In the accessory olfactory bulb, a site of pheromonal signal processing, KO mice showed suppressed Fos activation in the anterior mitral layer relative to WT mice in response to clean and soiled bedding. However, in the medial and basolateral amygdala, KO mice showed a robust Fos response to bedding, suggesting that regions of the amygdala canonically associated with pheromonal sensing can be active in the brains of KO mice, despite compromised signaling from the vomeronasal organ. Together, these results provide further insights into the complex ways by which pheromonal signaling regulates the brain and behavior of the maternal female. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Trichloroethylene exposure aggravates behavioral abnormalities in mice that are deficient in superoxide dismutase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Noriyuki; Homma, Takujiro; Fujiwara, Hiroki; Kaneko, Kenya; Hozumi, Yasukazu; Shichiri, Mototada; Takashima, Mizuki; Ito, Junitsu; Konno, Tasuku; Kurahashi, Toshihiro; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Goto, Kaoru; Fujii, Satoshi; Fujii, Junichi

    2016-08-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) has been implicated as a causative agent for Parkinson's disease (PD). The administration of TCE to rodents induces neurotoxicity associated with dopaminergic neuron death, and evidence suggests that oxidative stress as a major player in the progression of PD. Here we report on TCE-induced behavioral abnormality in mice that are deficient in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). Wild-type (WT) and SOD1-deficient (Sod1(-/-)) mice were intraperitoneally administered TCE (500 mg/kg) over a period of 4 weeks. Although the TCE-administrated Sod1(-/-) mice showed marked abnormal motor behavior, no significant differences were observed among the experimental groups by biochemical and histopathological analyses. However, treating mouse neuroblastoma-derived NB2a cells with TCE resulted in the down regulation of the SOD1 protein and elevated oxidative stress under conditions where SOD1 production was suppressed. Taken together, these data indicate that SOD1 plays a pivotal role in protecting motor neuron function against TCE toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Responses to Students Exhibiting Challenging Behavior: A Social-Cognitive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral and academic interventions for individuals with developmental disabilities have been based primarily on behavior theory and principles of applied behavior analysis, with a recent emphasis on positive behavioral supports and the use of nonaversive interventions. Despite the wide acceptance of applied behavior analysis technology within…

  2. Behavioral, Pharmacological, and Immunological Abnormalities after Streptococcal Exposure: A Novel Rat Model of Sydenham Chorea and Related Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimberg, Lior; Benhar, Itai; Mascaro-Blanco, Adita; Alvarez, Kathy; Lotan, Dafna; Winter, Christine; Klein, Julia; Moses, Allon E; Somnier, Finn E; Leckman, James F; Swedo, Susan E; Cunningham, Madeleine W; Joel, Daphna

    2012-01-01

    Group A streptococcal (GAS) infections and autoimmunity are associated with the onset of a spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders in children, with the prototypical disorder being Sydenham chorea (SC). Our aim was to develop an animal model that resembled the behavioral, pharmacological, and immunological abnormalities of SC and other streptococcal-related neuropsychiatric disorders. Male Lewis rats exposed to GAS antigen exhibited motor symptoms (impaired food manipulation and beam walking) and compulsive behavior (increased induced-grooming). These symptoms were alleviated by the D2 blocker haloperidol and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine, respectively, drugs that are used to treat motor symptoms and compulsions in streptococcal-related neuropsychiatric disorders. Streptococcal exposure resulted in antibody deposition in the striatum, thalamus, and frontal cortex, and concomitant alterations in dopamine and glutamate levels in cortex and basal ganglia, consistent with the known pathophysiology of SC and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Autoantibodies (IgG) of GAS rats reacted with tubulin and caused elevated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II signaling in SK-N-SH neuronal cells, as previously found with sera from SC and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Our new animal model translates directly to human disease and led us to discover autoantibodies targeted against dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the rat model as well as in SC and other streptococcal-related neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:22534626

  3. SmartFABER: Recognizing fine-grained abnormal behaviors for early detection of mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboni, Daniele; Bettini, Claudio; Civitarese, Gabriele; Janjua, Zaffar Haider; Helaoui, Rim

    2016-02-01

    In an ageing world population more citizens are at risk of cognitive impairment, with negative consequences on their ability of independent living, quality of life and sustainability of healthcare systems. Cognitive neuroscience researchers have identified behavioral anomalies that are significant indicators of cognitive decline. A general goal is the design of innovative methods and tools for continuously monitoring the functional abilities of the seniors at risk and reporting the behavioral anomalies to the clinicians. SmartFABER is a pervasive system targeting this objective. A non-intrusive sensor network continuously acquires data about the interaction of the senior with the home environment during daily activities. A novel hybrid statistical and knowledge-based technique is used to analyses this data and detect the behavioral anomalies, whose history is presented through a dashboard to the clinicians. Differently from related works, SmartFABER can detect abnormal behaviors at a fine-grained level. We have fully implemented the system and evaluated it using real datasets, partly generated by performing activities in a smart home laboratory, and partly acquired during several months of monitoring of the instrumented home of a senior diagnosed with MCI. Experimental results, including comparisons with other activity recognition techniques, show the effectiveness of SmartFABER in terms of recognition rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Rat hippocampal alterations could underlie behavioral abnormalities induced by exposure to moderate noise levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uran, S L; Aon-Bertolino, M L; Caceres, L G; Capani, F; Guelman, L R

    2012-08-30

    Noise exposure is known to affect auditory structures in living organisms. However, it should not be ignored that many of the effects of noise are extra-auditory. Previous findings of our laboratory demonstrated that noise was able to induce behavioral alterations that are mainly related to the cerebellum (CE) and the hippocampus (HC). Therefore, the aim of this work was to reveal new data about the vulnerability of developing rat HC to moderate noise levels through the assessment of potential histological changes and hippocampal-related behavioral alterations. Male Wistar rats were exposed to noise (95-97 dB SPL, 2h daily) either for 1 day (acute noise exposure, ANE) or between postnatal days 15 and 30 (sub-acute noise exposure, SANE). Hippocampal histological evaluation as well as short (ST) and long term (LT) habituation and recognition memory assessments were performed. Results showed a mild disruption in the different hippocampal regions after ANE and SANE schemes, along with significant behavioral abnormalities. These data suggest that exposure of developing rats to noise levels of moderate intensity is able to trigger changes in the HC, an extra-auditory structure of the Central Nervous System (CNS), that could underlie the observed behavioral effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Microbiota Modulate Anxiety-Like Behavior and Endocrine Abnormalities in Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Huo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal microbes are an important system in the human body, with significant effects on behavior. An increasing body of research indicates that intestinal microbes affect brain function and neurogenesis, including sensitivity to stress. To investigate the effects of microbial colonization on behavior, we examined behavioral changes associated with hormones and hormone receptors in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis under stress. We tested germ-free (GF mice and specific pathogen-free (SPF mice, divided into four groups. A chronic restraint stress (CRS protocol was utilized to induce external pressure in two stress groups by restraining mice in a conical centrifuge tube for 4 h per day for 21 days. After CRS, Initially, GF restraint-stressed mice explored more time than SPF restraint-stressed mice in the center and total distance of the OFT. Moreover, the CRH, ACTH, CORT, and ALD levels in HPA axis of GF restraint-stressed mice exhibited a significantly greater increase than those of SPF restraint-stressed mice. Finally, the Crhr1 mRNA levels of GF CRS mice were increased compared with SPF CRS mice. However, the Nr3c2 mRNA levels of GF CRS mice were decreased compared with SPF CRS mice. All results revealed that SPF mice exhibited more anxiety-like behavior than GF mice under the same external stress. Moreover, we also found that GF mice exhibited significant differences in, hormones, and hormone receptors compared with SPF mice. In conclusion, Imbalances of the HPA axis caused by intestinal microbes could affect the neuroendocrine system in the brain, resulting in an anxiety-like behavioral phenotype. This study suggested that intervention into intestinal microflora may provide a new approach for treating stress-related diseases.

  6. Cucurbitacin IIb exhibits anti-inflammatory activity through modulating multiple cellular behaviors of mouse lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wang

    Full Text Available Cucurbitacin IIb (CuIIb is one of the major active compounds in Hemsleyadine tablets which have been used for clinical treatment of bacillary dysentery, enteritis and acute tonsilitis. However, its action mechanism has not been completely understood. This study aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory activity of CuIIb and its underlying mechanism in mitogen-activated lymphocytes isolated from mouse mesenteric lymph nodes. The results showed that CuIIb inhibited the proliferation of concanavalin A (Con A-activated lymphocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. CuIIb treatment arrested their cell cycle in S and G2/M phases probably due to the disruption of the actin cytoskeleton and the modulation of p27(Kip1 and cyclin levels. Moreover, the surface expression of activation markers CD69 and CD25 on Con A-activated CD3(+ T lymphocytes was suppressed by CuIIb treatment. Both Con A- and phorbol ester plus ionomycin-induced expression of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-6 proteins was attenuated upon exposure to CuIIb. Mechanistically, CuIIb treatment suppressed the phosphorylation of JNK and Erk1/2 but not p38 in Con A-activated lymphocytes. Although CuIIb unexpectedly enhanced the phosphorylation of IκB and NF-κB (p65, it blocked the nuclear translocation of NF-κB (p65. In support of this, CuIIb significantly decreased the mRNA levels of IκBα and TNF-α, two target genes of NF-κB, in Con A-activated lymphocytes. In addition, CuIIb downregulated Con A-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and increased cell apoptosis. Collectively, these results suggest that CuIIb exhibits its anti-inflammatory activity through modulating multiple cellular behaviors and signaling pathways, leading to the suppression of the adaptive immune response.

  7. Abnormal flow behavior and necklace microstructure of powder metallurgy superalloys with previous particle boundaries (PPBs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ning, Yongquan, E-mail: luckyning@nwpu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Zhou, Cong; Liang, Houquan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Fu, M.W., E-mail: mmmwfu@polyu.edu.hk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2016-01-15

    Powder metallurgy (P/M) has been introduced as an innovative process to manufacture high performance components with fine, homogenous and segregation-free microstructure. Unfortunately, previous particle boundary (PPB) precipitated during the powder metallurgy process. Since undesirable PPB is detrimental to mechanical properties, hot extrusion or/and isothermal forging are needed. In present research, isothermal compression tests were conducted on P/M FGH4096 superalloys with typical PPBs. Abnormal flow behavior during high-speed deformation has been quantitatively investigated. Caused by the competition mechanism between work-hardening and dynamic-softening, abnormal flow behaves typical four stages (viz., work-hardening, stable, softening and steady). Microstructure observation for hardening or/and softening mechanism has been investigated. Meanwhile, necklace microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscope, and the grain fraction analysis was performed by using electron backscatter diffraction. Transmission electron microscopy was used for characterizing the boundary structure. Necklace microstructural mechanism for processing P/M superalloys has been developed, and the dynamic recrystallization model has also been conducted. Bulge–corrugation model is the primary nucleation mechanism for P/M superalloys with PPBs. When PPB is entirely covered with new grains, necklace microstructure has formed. Bulge–corrugation mechanism can repeatedly take place in the following necklace DRX.

  8. Abnormal illness behavior and Internet addiction severity: The role of disease conviction, irritability, and alexithymia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimeca, Giuseppe; Bruno, Antonio; Crucitti, Manuela; Conti, Claudio; Quattrone, Diego; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco Antonio; Muscatello, Maria Rosaria Anna

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims While the association between health anxiety and maladaptive Internet use is a well-established finding, no studies have been performed to examine the possible effect of abnormal illness behavior (AIB). AIB is a maladaptive manner of experiencing, evaluating, or acting in response to health and illness that is disproportionate to evident pathology. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between AIB and Internet addiction (IA) severity in a sample of Italian University students. The possible effect of alexithymia, anxiety, and depression was also taken into account. Methods Participants were 115 men and 163 women (mean age = 23.62 ± 4.38 years); AIB was measured via the Illness Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ), and IA severity by the Internet Addiction Test (IAT). Results The most powerful IBQ factor predicting IA severity scores was disease conviction. Irritability was the only emotional IBQ factor associated with IA severity. Nevertheless, disease conviction and alexithymia remained the only significant predictors of IAT scores when hierarchical regression analysis was executed. Discussion and conclusions Our results support previous findings showing that those characterized by health anxiety are more prone to an excessive and maladaptive use of Internet. Moreover, this study showed that irritability was the only emotional aspect of AIB predicting IA severity. This finding is consistent with the cognitive model of hypochondria, which states that cognitive factors (dysfunctional beliefs and assumptions) play a major role in the explanation of this psychopathological condition. PMID:28245678

  9. Abnormal illness behavior and Internet addiction severity: The role of disease conviction, irritability, and alexithymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimeca, Giuseppe; Bruno, Antonio; Crucitti, Manuela; Conti, Claudio; Quattrone, Diego; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco Antonio; Muscatello, Maria Rosaria Anna

    2017-03-01

    Background and aims While the association between health anxiety and maladaptive Internet use is a well-established finding, no studies have been performed to examine the possible effect of abnormal illness behavior (AIB). AIB is a maladaptive manner of experiencing, evaluating, or acting in response to health and illness that is disproportionate to evident pathology. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between AIB and Internet addiction (IA) severity in a sample of Italian University students. The possible effect of alexithymia, anxiety, and depression was also taken into account. Methods Participants were 115 men and 163 women (mean age = 23.62 ± 4.38 years); AIB was measured via the Illness Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ), and IA severity by the Internet Addiction Test (IAT). Results The most powerful IBQ factor predicting IA severity scores was disease conviction. Irritability was the only emotional IBQ factor associated with IA severity. Nevertheless, disease conviction and alexithymia remained the only significant predictors of IAT scores when hierarchical regression analysis was executed. Discussion and conclusions Our results support previous findings showing that those characterized by health anxiety are more prone to an excessive and maladaptive use of Internet. Moreover, this study showed that irritability was the only emotional aspect of AIB predicting IA severity. This finding is consistent with the cognitive model of hypochondria, which states that cognitive factors (dysfunctional beliefs and assumptions) play a major role in the explanation of this psychopathological condition.

  10. Extracting foreground ensemble features to detect abnormal crowd behavior in intelligent video-surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yi-Tung; Wang, Shuenn-Jyi; Tsai, Chung-Hsien

    2017-09-01

    Public safety is a matter of national security and people's livelihoods. In recent years, intelligent video-surveillance systems have become important active-protection systems. A surveillance system that provides early detection and threat assessment could protect people from crowd-related disasters and ensure public safety. Image processing is commonly used to extract features, e.g., people, from a surveillance video. However, little research has been conducted on the relationship between foreground detection and feature extraction. Most current video-surveillance research has been developed for restricted environments, in which the extracted features are limited by having information from a single foreground; they do not effectively represent the diversity of crowd behavior. This paper presents a general framework based on extracting ensemble features from the foreground of a surveillance video to analyze a crowd. The proposed method can flexibly integrate different foreground-detection technologies to adapt to various monitored environments. Furthermore, the extractable representative features depend on the heterogeneous foreground data. Finally, a classification algorithm is applied to these features to automatically model crowd behavior and distinguish an abnormal event from normal patterns. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method's performance is both comparable to that of state-of-the-art methods and satisfies the requirements of real-time applications.

  11. Does energy consumption by the US electric power sector exhibit long memory behavior?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil-Alana, Luis A.; Loomis, David; Payne, James E.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes energy consumption by the US electric power by various energy sources through fractional integration. In doing so, we are able to determine the level of persistence of the shocks affecting each energy source. The results indicate long memory behavior as each energy source is highly persistent, displaying long memory along with autoregressive behavior and strong seasonal patterns.

  12. Fetal alcohol exposure leads to abnormal olfactory bulb development and impaired odor discrimination in adult mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.G. Akers (Katherine); S.A. Kushner (Steven); A.T. Leslie (Ana); L. Clarke (Laura); D. van der Kooy (Derek); J.P. Lerch (Jason); P.W. Frankland (Paul)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Children whose mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy exhibit widespread brain abnormalities and a complex array of behavioral disturbances. Here, we used a mouse model of fetal alcohol exposure to investigate relationships between brain abnormalities and specific

  13. Drosophila mutants of the autism candidate gene neurobeachin (rugose) exhibit neuro-developmental disorders, aberrant synaptic properties, altered locomotion, and impaired adult social behavior and activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Alexandria; Tenezaca, Luis; Fernandez, Robert W; Schatoff, Emma; Flores, Julian; Ueda, Atsushi; Zhong, Xiaotian; Wu, Chun-Fang; Simon, Anne F; Venkatesh, Tadmiri

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder in humans characterized by complex behavioral deficits, including intellectual disability, impaired social interactions, and hyperactivity. ASD exhibits a strong genetic component with underlying multigene interactions. Candidate gene studies have shown that the neurobeachin (NBEA) gene is disrupted in human patients with idiopathic autism ( Castermans et al., 2003 ). The NBEA gene spans the common fragile site FRA 13A and encodes a signal scaffold protein ( Savelyeva et al., 2006 ). In mice, NBEA has been shown to be involved in the trafficking and function of a specific subset of synaptic vesicles. ( Medrihan et al., 2009 ; Savelyeva et al., 2006 ). Rugose (rg) is the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian and human NBEA. Our previous genetic and molecular analyses have shown that rg encodes an A kinase anchor protein (DAKAP 550), which interacts with components of the epidermal growth factor receptor or EGFR and Notch-mediated signaling pathways, facilitating cross talk between these and other pathways ( Shamloula et al., 2002 ). We now present functional data from studies on the larval neuromuscular junction that reveal abnormal synaptic architecture and physiology. In addition, adult rg loss-of-function mutants exhibit defective social interactions, impaired habituation, aberrant locomotion, and hyperactivity. These results demonstrate that Drosophila NBEA (rg) mutants exhibit phenotypic characteristics reminiscent of human ASD and thus could serve as a genetic model for studying ASDs.

  14. “HOW DO YOU FEEL?”: EMOTIONS EXHIBITED WHILE PLAYING COMPUTER GAMES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO GAMING BEHAVIORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex P. Bringula

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive study utilized a validated questionnaire to determine the emotions exhibited by computer gamers in cyber cafés. We determined that gamers exhibited both positive and negative emotions while playing games. We observed that gamers were inclined to be more anxious about being defeated in a game as gaming became frequent and length of years spent playing games increased. They also had the tendency to become more stressed when length of years spent playing games increased. On the other hand, other gaming behaviors were not significantly related to other emotions. We concluded that not all emotions exhibited by gamers while playing computer games could be attributed to their gaming behaviors. We recommend that other emotions such as anger, frustration, boredom, amusement, etc. be included in future research.

  15. Abnormal social behavior, hyperactivity, impaired remote spatial memory, and increased D1-mediated dopaminergic signaling in neuronal nitric oxide synthase knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanda Koichi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS is involved in the regulation of a diverse population of intracellular messenger systems in the brain. In humans, abnormal NOS/nitric oxide metabolism is suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of some neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Mice with targeted disruption of the nNOS gene exhibit abnormal behaviors. Here, we subjected nNOS knockout (KO mice to a battery of behavioral tests to further investigate the role of nNOS in neuropsychiatric functions. We also examined the role of nNOS in dopamine/DARPP-32 signaling in striatal slices from nNOS KO mice and the effects of the administration of a dopamine D1 receptor agonist on behavior in nNOS KO mice. Results nNOS KO mice showed hyperlocomotor activity in a novel environment, increased social interaction in their home cage, decreased depression-related behavior, and impaired spatial memory retention. In striatal slices from nNOS KO mice, the effects of a dopamine D1 receptor agonist, SKF81297, on the phosphorylation of DARPP-32 and AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 at protein kinase A sites were enhanced. Consistent with the biochemical results, intraperitoneal injection of a low dose of SKF81297 significantly decreased prepulse inhibition in nNOS KO mice, but not in wild-type mice. Conclusion These findings indicate that nNOS KO upregulates dopamine D1 receptor signaling, and induces abnormal social behavior, hyperactivity and impaired remote spatial memory. nNOS KO mice may serve as a unique animal model of psychiatric disorders.

  16. Abnormal Gait Behavior Detection for Elderly Based on Enhanced Wigner-Ville Analysis and Cloud Incremental SVM Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A cloud based health care system is proposed in this paper for the elderly by providing abnormal gait behavior detection, classification, online diagnosis, and remote aid service. Intelligent mobile terminals with triaxial acceleration sensor embedded are used to capture the movement and ambulation information of elderly. The collected signals are first enhanced by a Kalman filter. And the magnitude of signal vector features is then extracted and decomposed into a linear combination of enhanced Gabor atoms. The Wigner-Ville analysis method is introduced and the problem is studied by joint time-frequency analysis. In order to solve the large-scale abnormal behavior data lacking problem in training process, a cloud based incremental SVM (CI-SVM learning method is proposed. The original abnormal behavior data are first used to get the initial SVM classifier. And the larger abnormal behavior data of elderly collected by mobile devices are then gathered in cloud platform to conduct incremental training and get the new SVM classifier. By the CI-SVM learning method, the knowledge of SVM classifier could be accumulated due to the dynamic incremental learning. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is feasible and can be applied to aged care, emergency aid, and related fields.

  17. GABAergic influences on ORX receptor-dependent abnormal motor behaviors and neurodegenerative events in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facciolo, Rosa Maria; Crudo, Michele; Giusi, Giuseppina; Canonaco, Marcello

    2010-01-01

    At date the major neuroreceptors i.e. γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABA A R) and orexin (ORXR) systems are beginning to be linked to homeostasis, neuroendocrine and emotional states. In this study, intraperitoneal treatment of the marine teleost Thalassoma pavo with the highly selective GABA A R agonist (muscimol, MUS; 0,1 μg/g body weight) and/or its antagonist bicuculline (BIC; 1 μg/g body weight) have corroborated a GABA A ergic role on motor behaviors. In particular, MUS induced moderate (p A R was very likely responsible for very strong and strong ORXR mRNA reductions in cerebellum valvula and torus longitudinalis, respectively. Moreover these effects were linked to evident ultra-structural changes such as shrunken cell membranes and loss of cytoplasmic architecture. In contrast, MUS supplied a very low, if any, argyrophilic reaction in hypothalamic and mesencephalic regions plus a scarce level of ultra-structural damages. Interestingly, combined administrations of MUS + BIC were not related to consistent damages, aside mild neuronal alterations in motor-related areas such as optic tectum. Overall it is tempting to suggest, for the first time, a neuroprotective role of GABA A R inhibitory actions against the overexcitatory ORXR-dependent neurodegeneration and consequently abnormal swimming events in fish.

  18. Periventricular white matter abnormalities and restricted repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Blackmon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malformations of cortical development are found at higher rates in autism spectrum disorder (ASD than in healthy controls on postmortem neuropathological evaluation but are more variably observed on visual review of in-vivo MRI brain scans. This may be due to the visually elusive nature of many malformations on MRI. Here, we utilize a quantitative approach to determine whether a volumetric measure of heterotopic gray matter in the white matter is elevated in people with ASD, relative to typically developing controls (TDC. Data from a primary sample of 48 children/young adults with ASD and 48 age-, and gender-matched TDCs, selected from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE open-access database, were analyzed to compare groups on (1 blinded review of high-resolution T1-weighted research sequences; and (2 quantitative measurement of white matter hypointensity (WMH volume calculated from the same T1-weighted scans. Groupwise WMH volume comparisons were repeated in an independent, multi-site sample (80 ASD/80 TDC, also selected from ABIDE. Visual review resulted in equivalent proportions of imaging abnormalities in the ASD and TDC group. However, quantitative analysis revealed elevated periventricular and deep subcortical WMH volumes in ASD. This finding was replicated in the independent, multi-site sample. Periventricular WMH volume was not associated with age but was associated with greater restricted repetitive behaviors on both parent-reported and clinician-rated assessment inventories. Thus, findings demonstrate that periventricular WMH volume is elevated in ASD and associated with a higher degree of repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Although the etiology of focal WMH clusters is unknown, the absence of age effects suggests that they may reflect a static anomaly.

  19. Treatment of Challenging Behavior Exhibited by Children with Prenatal Drug Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Patricia F.; Chin, Michelle D.; Rush, Karena S.; Dixon, Dennis R.

    2008-01-01

    A large body of literature exists describing the harmful effects of prenatal drug exposure on infant and child development. However, there is a paucity of research examining strategies to ameliorate sequelae such as externalizing behavior problems. In the present study, functional analysis procedures were used to assess challenging behavior…

  20. Toward the topology design of mechanisms that exhibit snap-through behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burns, T. E.; Sigmund, Ole

    2004-01-01

    Topology optimization has proven to be a powerful method for the conceptual design of structures and mechanisms. In previously published work, we concentrated on the development of numerical methods that accommodate the finite deformation and incorporated these analyses into the topology...... optimization. We demonstrated by relatively straightforward transversely loaded clamped-clamped beam examples that topology optimization can be used to design structures that experience snap-through behavior. Here, we focus our attention on the design problem formulation where the goal is to develop a general...... approach for the design of mechanisms that experience more complex snap-through behavior. A multiphase design strategy is outlined, numerous significant challenges to this complex design process are discussed, and several examples are presented that demonstrate progress toward this goal. (C) 2004 Elsevier...

  1. Hematopoietic stem cells from NOD mice exhibit autonomous behavior and a competitive advantage in allogeneic recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Paula M; Rezzoug, Francine; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z; Fugier-Vivier, Isabelle; Ratajczak, Janina; Kucia, Magda; Huang, Yiming; Tanner, Michael K; Ildstad, Suzanne T

    2005-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a systemic autoimmune disease that can be cured by transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from disease-resistant donors. Nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice have a number of features that distinguish them as bone marrow transplant recipients that must be understood prior to the clinical application of chimerism to induce tolerance. In the present studies, we characterized NOD HSCs, comparing their engraftment characteristics to HSCs from disease-resistant strains. Strikingly, NOD HSCs are significantly enhanced in engraftment potential compared with HSCs from disease-resistant donors. Unlike HSCs from disease-resistant strains, they do not require graft-facilitating cells to engraft in allogeneic recipients. Additionally, they exhibit a competitive advantage when coadministered with increasing numbers of syngeneic HSCs, produce significantly more spleen colony-forming units (CFU-Ss) in vivo in allogeneic recipients, and more granulocyte macrophage-colony-forming units (CFU-GMs) in vitro compared with HSCs from disease-resistant controls. NOD HSCs also exhibit significantly enhanced chemotaxis to a stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) gradient and adhere significantly better on primary stroma. This enhanced engraftment potential maps to the insulin-dependent diabetes locus 9 (Idd9) locus, and as such the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family as well as ski/sno genes may be involved in the mechanism underlying the autonomy of NOD HSCs. These findings may have important implications to understand the evolution of autoimmune disease and impact on potential strategies for cure.

  2. Abnormalities in brain structure and behavior in GSK-3alpha mutant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaidanovich-Beilin Oksana

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3 is a widely expressed and highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase encoded by two genes that generate two related proteins: GSK-3α and GSK-3β. Mice lacking a functional GSK-3α gene were engineered in our laboratory; they are viable and display insulin sensitivity. In this study, we have characterized brain functions of GSK-3α KO mice by using a well-established battery of behavioral tests together with neurochemical and neuroanatomical analysis. Results Similar to the previously described behaviours of GSK-3β+/-mice, GSK-3α mutants display decreased exploratory activity, decreased immobility time and reduced aggressive behavior. However, genetic inactivation of the GSK-3α gene was associated with: decreased locomotion and impaired motor coordination, increased grooming activity, loss of social motivation and novelty; enhanced sensorimotor gating and impaired associated memory and coordination. GSK-3α KO mice exhibited a deficit in fear conditioning, however memory formation as assessed by a passive avoidance test was normal, suggesting that the animals are sensitized for active avoidance of a highly aversive stimulus in the fear-conditioning paradigm. Changes in cerebellar structure and function were observed in mutant mice along with a significant decrease of the number and size of Purkinje cells. Conclusion Taken together, these data support a role for the GSK-3α gene in CNS functioning and possible involvement in the development of psychiatric disorders.

  3. Peptide Drug Release Behavior from Biodegradable Temperature-Responsive Injectable Hydrogels Exhibiting Irreversible Gelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyuki Takata

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the release behavior of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 from a biodegradable injectable polymer (IP hydrogel. This hydrogel shows temperature-responsive irreversible gelation due to the covalent bond formation through a thiol-ene reaction. In vitro sustained release of GLP-1 from an irreversible IP formulation (F(P1/D+PA40 was observed compared with a reversible (physical gelation IP formulation (F(P1. Moreover, pharmaceutically active levels of GLP-1 were maintained in blood after subcutaneous injection of the irreversible IP formulation into rats. This system should be useful for the minimally invasive sustained drug release of peptide drugs and other water-soluble bioactive reagents.

  4. Polyurethane-Based Ionogels Exhibiting Durable Thermoresponsive Optical Behavior Under High-Temperature Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomoya; England, Matt W; Wang, Liming; Urata, Chihiro; Kakiuchida, Hiroshi; Hozumi, Atsushi

    2018-01-01

    Polyurethane (PU)-based transparent and flexible ionogels, showing unusual thermo-responsive optical properties, were successfully prepared by mixing PU-precursor and a hydrophobic ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (EMIM-TFSI). Although the initial ionogels were transparent at room temperature, significant increases in opacity were observed with increasing temperature up to 120°C, because of macroscopic phase separation of the PU-matrix and hydrophobic EMIM-TFSI. In addition, the optical transition temperature could be arbitrarily controlled simply by varying the mixing ratio of EMIM-TFSI within the PU-matrix. As confirmed by UV-Vis spectra acquired at different temperatures, this thermo-responsive optical behavior was found to be reversible, repeatable and durable even after 30 cycles of a thermal-stress testing between 30 and 100°C.

  5. Morphometrics and behavior of a wild Asian elephant exhibiting disproportionate dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Shermin; Weerathunga, U Sameera; Pushpakumara, Tennekoon V

    2014-12-19

    Dwarfism is a condition characterized by shorter stature, at times accompanied by differential skeletal growth proportions relative to the species-typical physical conformation. Causes vary and are well-documented in humans as well as certain mammalian species in captive or laboratory conditions, but rarely observed in the wild. We report on a single case of apparent dwarfism in a free-ranging adult male Asian elephant in Sri Lanka, comparing physical dimensions to those of other males in the population as well as in previous literature. The subject M459 was found to have a shoulder height of approximately 195 cm, is shorter than the average height of typical mature males, with a body length of 218 cm. This ratio of body length to height deviates from what is typically observed, which is approximately 1:1, but was similar to the attributes of a dwarf elephant in captivity documented in 1955. We report on behavior including the surprising observation that M459 appears to have a competitive advantage in intrasexual contests. We discuss how this phenotype compares to cases of dwarfism in other non-human animals. M459 exemplifies a rare occurrence of disproportionate dwarfism in a free-ranging wild mammal that has survived to reproductive maturity and appears otherwise healthy.

  6. BDNF Overexpression Exhibited Bilateral Effect on Neural Behavior in SCT Mice Associated with AKT Signal Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Rong; Dai, Ping; Wang, Shu-Fen; Song, Shu-Hua; Wang, Hang-Ping; Zhao, Ya; Wang, Ting-Hua; Liu, Jia

    2016-10-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI), a severe health problem in worldwide, was commonly associated with functional disability and reduced quality of life. As the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was substantial event in injured spinal cord, we hypothesized whether BDNF-overexpression could be in favor of the recovery of both sensory function and hindlimb function after SCI. By using BDNF-overexpression transgene mice [CMV-BDNF 26 (CB26) mice] we assessed the role of BDNF on the recovery of neurological behavior in spinal cord transection (SCT) model. BMS score and tail-flick test was performed to evaluate locomotor function and sensory function, respectively. Immunohistochemistry was employed to detect the location and the expression of BDNF, NeuN, 5-HT, GAP-43, GFAP as well as CGRP, and the level of p-AKT and AKT were examined through western blot analysis. BDNF overexpressing resulted in significant locomotor functional recovery from 21 to 28 days after SCT, compared with wild type (WT)+SCT group. Meanwhile, the NeuN, 5-HT and GAP-43 positive cells were markedly increased in ventral horn in BDNF overexpression animals, compared with WT mice with SCT. Moreover, the crucial molecular signal, p-AKT/AKT has been largely up-regulated, which is consistent with the improvement of locomotor function. However, in this study, thermal hyperpathia encountered in sham (CB26) group and WT+SCT mice and further aggravated in CB26 mice after SCT. Also, following SCT, the significant augment of positive-GFAP astrocytes and CGRP fibers were found in WT+SCT mice, and further increase was seen in BDNF over-expression transgene mice. BDNF-overexpression may not only facilitate the recovery of locomotor function via AKT pathway, but also contributed simultaneously to thermal hyperalgesia after SCT.

  7. Epilepsy, Behavioral Abnormalities, and Physiological Comorbidities in Syntaxin-Binding Protein 1 (STXBP1 Mutant Zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P Grone

    Full Text Available Mutations in the synaptic machinery gene syntaxin-binding protein 1, STXBP1 (also known as MUNC18-1, are linked to childhood epilepsies and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Zebrafish STXBP1 homologs (stxbp1a and stxbp1b have highly conserved sequence and are prominently expressed in the larval zebrafish brain. To understand the functions of stxbp1a and stxbp1b, we generated loss-of-function mutations using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing and studied brain electrical activity, behavior, development, heart physiology, metabolism, and survival in larval zebrafish. Homozygous stxbp1a mutants exhibited a profound lack of movement, low electrical brain activity, low heart rate, decreased glucose and mitochondrial metabolism, and early fatality compared to controls. On the other hand, homozygous stxbp1b mutants had spontaneous electrographic seizures, and reduced locomotor activity response to a movement-inducing "dark-flash" visual stimulus, despite showing normal metabolism, heart rate, survival, and baseline locomotor activity. Our findings in these newly generated mutant lines of zebrafish suggest that zebrafish recapitulate clinical phenotypes associated with human syntaxin-binding protein 1 mutations.

  8. Acute behavioral symptomatology at disappearance of epileptiform EEG abnormality. Paradoxical or "forced" normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, P

    1991-01-01

    Paradoxical or "forced" normalization of the EEG of patients with epilepsy was first described by Landolt in 1953. It refers to conditions where disappearance of epileptiform discharge from the routine scalp EEG is accompanied by some kind of behavioral disorder. The best known of these is a paranoid psychotic state in clear consciousness, which is also known as "alternative" psychosis. Thus, the issue is related to much older observations which indicated a "biological antagonism" between productive psychotic symptomatology and epileptic seizures, which led to the therapy of psychoses with artificially induced convulsions. Apart from psychotic episodes, the clinical manifestations of PN comprise dysphoric states, hysterical and hypochondriacal syndromes, affective disorders, and miscellanea. PN can be observed in both generalized and localization-related epilepsies as a rare complication. A subset where it is more frequently seen are in adults with persistent absence seizures when the latter become finally controlled by succinimide therapy. These seem to be the drugs with the highest hazard of precipitation of PN, but all other AEDs have also been suspected. Sleep disturbance by succinimide treatment may play a crucial role, but a variety of other factors are also involved, including psychosocial factors. The pathogenesis of this condition has given rise to some debate but remains still unresolved. Eleven of the most important hypotheses have been discussed and seem to converge into a more comprehensive hypothesis which basically assumes that, during PN, the epilepsy is still active subcortically, perhaps with spread of discharge along unusual pathways. This activity is supposed to provide energy and, possibly, some of the symptoms included in the psychotic syndrome. A critical clinical condition results, usually with a dysphoric symptomatology, where a development towards psychosis is impending but still depends on the presence or absence of a variety of risk

  9. Dairy Cows Naturally Infected with Bovine Leukemia Virus Exhibit Abnormal B- and T-Cell Phenotypes after Primary and Secondary Exposures to Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frie, Meredith C.; Sporer, Kelly R. B.; Benitez, Oscar J.; Wallace, Joseph C.; Droscha, Casey J.; Bartlett, Paul C.; Coussens, Paul M.

    2017-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus that is highly prevalent in US dairy herds: over 83% are BLV infected and the within-herd infection rate can be almost 50% on average. While BLV is known to cause lymphosarcomas, only 5% or fewer infected cattle will develop lymphoma; this low prevalence of cancer has historically not been a concern to dairy producers. However, more recent research has found that BLV+ cows without lymphoma produce less milk and have shorter lifespans than uninfected herdmates. It has been hypothesized that BLV infection interferes with normal immune function in infected cattle, and this could lead to reduced dairy production. To assess how naturally infected BLV+ cows responded to a primary and secondary immune challenge, 10 BLV+ and 10 BLV− cows were injected subcutaneously with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide. B- and T-cell responses were characterized over the following 28 days. A total of 56 days after primary KLH exposure, cows were re-injected with KLH and B- and T-cell responses were characterized again over the following 28 days. BLV+ cows produced less KLH-specific IgM after primary immune stimulation; demonstrated fewer CD45R0+ B cells, altered proportions of CD5+ B cells, altered expression of CD5 on CD5+ B cells, and reduced MHCII surface expression on B cells ex vivo; exhibited reduced B-cell activation in vitro; and displayed an increase in BLV proviral load after KLH exposure. In addition, BLV+ cows had a reduced CD45R0+γδ+ T-cell population in the periphery and demonstrated a greater prevalence of IL4-producing T cells in vitro. All together, our results demonstrate that both B- and T-cell immunities are disrupted in BLV+ cows and that antigen-specific deficiencies can be detected in BLV+ cows even after a primary immune exposure. PMID:28770217

  10. Neonatal disruption of serine racemase causes schizophrenia-like behavioral abnormalities in adulthood: clinical rescue by d-serine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Hagiwara

    Full Text Available D-Serine, an endogenous co-agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor, is synthesized from L-serine by serine racemase (SRR. Given the role of D-serine in both neurodevelopment and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, we examined whether neonatal disruption of D-serine synthesis by SRR inhibition could induce behavioral abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia, in later life.Neonatal mice (7-9 days were injected with vehicle or phenazine methosulfate (Met-Phen: 3 mg/kg/day, an SRR inhibitor. Behavioral evaluations, such as spontaneous locomotion, novel object recognition test (NORT, and prepulse inhibition (PPI were performed at juvenile (5-6 weeks old and adult (10-12 weeks old stages. In addition, we tested the effects of D-serine on PPI deficits in adult mice after neonatal Met-Phen exposure. Finally, we assessed whether D-serine could prevent the onset of schizophrenia-like behavior in these mice. Neonatal Met-Phen treatment reduced D-serine levels in the brain, 24 hours after the final dose. Additionally, this treatment caused behavioral abnormalities relevant to prodromal symptoms in juveniles and to schizophrenia in adults. A single dose of D-serine improved PPI deficits in adult mice. Interestingly, chronic administration of D-serine (900 mg/kg/day from P35 to P70 significantly prevented the onset of PPI deficits after neonatal Met-Phen exposure.This study shows that disruption of D-serine synthesis during developmental stages leads to behavioral abnormalities relevant to prodromal symptoms and schizophrenia, in later life. Furthermore, early pharmacological intervention with D-serine may prevent the onset of psychosis in adult.

  11. Different populations of blacklegged tick nymphs exhibit differences in questing behavior that have implications for human lyme disease risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsnoe, Isis M.; Hickling, Graham J.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; McElreath, Richard; Tsao, Jean I.

    2015-01-01

    Animal behavior can have profound effects on pathogen transmission and disease incidence. We studied the questing (= host-seeking) behavior of blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) nymphs, which are the primary vectors of Lyme disease in the eastern United States. Lyme disease is common in northern but not in southern regions, and prior ecological studies have found that standard methods used to collect host-seeking nymphs in northern regions are unsuccessful in the south. This led us to hypothesize that there are behavior differences between northern and southern nymphs that alter how readily they are collected, and how likely they are to transmit the etiological agent of Lyme disease to humans. To examine this question, we compared the questing behavior of I. scapularis nymphs originating from one northern (Lyme disease endemic) and two southern (non-endemic) US regions at field sites in Wisconsin, Rhode Island, Tennessee, and Florida. Laboratory-raised uninfected nymphs were monitored in circular 0.2 m2 arenas containing wooden dowels (mimicking stems of understory vegetation) for 10 (2011) and 19 (2012) weeks. The probability of observing nymphs questing on these stems (2011), and on stems, on top of leaf litter, and on arena walls (2012) was much greater for northern than for southern origin ticks in both years and at all field sites (19.5 times greater in 2011; 3.6-11.6 times greater in 2012). Our findings suggest that southern origin I. scapularis nymphs rarely emerge from the leaf litter, and consequently are unlikely to contact passing humans. We propose that this difference in questing behavior accounts for observed geographic differences in the efficacy of the standard sampling techniques used to collect questing nymphs. These findings also support our hypothesis that very low Lyme disease incidence in southern states is, in part, a consequence of the type of host-seeking behavior exhibited by southern populations of the key Lyme disease vector.

  12. Instructors' Use of Trigger Warnings and Behavior Warnings in Abnormal Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Guy A.; Wells, Anna Mae; Dawson, Kaylee J.

    2016-01-01

    College students have been increasingly demanding warnings and accommodations in relation to course topics they believe will elicit strong, negative emotions. These "trigger warnings" are highly relevant to Abnormal Psychology because of the sensitive topics covered in the course (e.g., suicide, trauma, sex). A survey of Abnormal…

  13. Autistic-spectrum disorders in Down syndrome: further delineation and distinction from other behavioral abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John C; Capone, George T; Gray, Robert M; Cox, Christiane S; Kaufmann, Walter E

    2007-01-05

    The present study extends our previous work characterizing the behavioral features of autistic-spectrum disorder (ASD) in Down syndrome (DS) using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) and Autism Behavior Checklist (AutBehav). We examined which specific behaviors distinguished the behavioral phenotype of DS + ASD from other aberrant behavior disorders in DS, by determining the relative contribution of ABC and AutBehav subscales and items to the diagnosis of ASD. A total of 127 subjects (aged 2-24 years; mean age: 8.4 years; approximately 70% male), comprising: a cohort of 64 children and adolescents with DS and co-morbid ASD (DS + ASD), 19 with DS and stereotypic movement disorder (DS + SMD), 18 with DS and disruptive behaviors (DS + DB), and 26 with DS and no co-morbid behavior disorders (DS + none) were examined using the aforementioned measures of aberrant behavior. We found that subjects with DS + ASD showed the most severe aberrant behavior, especially stereotypy compared to DS + none and lethargy/social withdrawal and relating problems compared to DS + SMD. Specifically, relatively simple stereotypic behavior differentiated DS + ASD from DS + DB, whereas odd/bizarre stereotypic and anxious behavior characterized DS + ASD relative to DS + SMD and DS + none. Additionally, in a subset of subjects with DS + ASD and anxiety, social withdrawal was particularly pronounced. Overall, our findings indicate that a diagnosis of DS + ASD represents a distinctive set of aberrant behaviors marked by characteristic odd/bizarre stereotypic behavior, anxiety, and social withdrawal.

  14. Safety analyses for transient behavior of plasma and in-vessel components during plasma abnormal events in fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Takuro; Okazaki, Takashi; Bartels, H.W.; Uckan, N.A.; Seki, Yasushi.

    1997-01-01

    Safety analyses on plasma abnormal events have been performed using a hybrid code of a plasma dynamics model and a heat transfer model of in-vessel components. Several abnormal events, e.g., increase in fueling rate, were selected for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and transient behavior of the plasma and the invessel components during the events was analyzed. The physics model for safety analysis was conservatively prepared. In most cases, the plasma is terminated by a disruption or it returns to the original operation point. When the energy confinement improves by a factor of 2.0 in the steady state, which is a hypothetical assumption under the present plasma data, the maximum fusion power reaches about 3.3 GW at about 3.6 s and the plasma is terminated due to a disruption. However, the results obtained in this study show the confinement boundary of ITER can be kept almost intact during the abnormal plasma transients, as long as the cooling system works normally. Several parametric studies are needed to comprehend the overpower transient including structure behavior, since many uncertainties are connected to the filed of the plasma physics. And, future work will need to discuss the burn control scenario considering confinement mode transition, system specifications, experimental plans and safety regulations, etc. to confirm the safety related to the plasma anomaly. (author)

  15. The Relationship between Personality Dimensions and Resiliency to Environmental Stress in Orange-Winged Amazon Parrots (Amazona amazonica), as Indicated by the Development of Abnormal Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussen, Victoria A.; Mench, Joy A.

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are popular companion animals, but are frequently relinquished because of behavioral problems, including abnormal repetitive behaviors like feather damaging behavior and stereotypy. In addition to contributing to pet relinquishment, these behaviors are important as potential indicators of diminished psychological well-being. While abnormal behaviors are common in captive animals, their presence and/or severity varies between animals of the same species that are experiencing the same environmental conditions. Personality differences could contribute to this observed individual variation, as they are known risk factors for stress sensitivity and affective disorders in humans. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between personality and the development and severity of abnormal behaviors in captive-bred orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). We monitored between-individual behavioral differences in enrichment-reared parrots of known personality types before, during, and after enrichment deprivation. We predicted that parrots with higher scores for neurotic-like personality traits would be more susceptible to enrichment deprivation and develop more abnormal behaviors. Our results partially supported this hypothesis, but also showed that distinct personality dimensions were related to different forms of abnormal behavior. While neuroticism-like traits were linked to feather damaging behavior, extraversion-like traits were negatively related to stereotypic behavior. More extraverted birds showed resiliency to environmental stress, developing fewer stereotypies during enrichment deprivation and showing lower levels of these behaviors following re-enrichment. Our data, together with the results of the few studies conducted on other species, suggest that, as in humans, certain personality types render individual animals more susceptible or resilient to environmental stress. Further, this susceptibility/resiliency can have a long

  16. The Relationship between Personality Dimensions and Resiliency to Environmental Stress in Orange-Winged Amazon Parrots (Amazona amazonica, as Indicated by the Development of Abnormal Behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A Cussen

    Full Text Available Parrots are popular companion animals, but are frequently relinquished because of behavioral problems, including abnormal repetitive behaviors like feather damaging behavior and stereotypy. In addition to contributing to pet relinquishment, these behaviors are important as potential indicators of diminished psychological well-being. While abnormal behaviors are common in captive animals, their presence and/or severity varies between animals of the same species that are experiencing the same environmental conditions. Personality differences could contribute to this observed individual variation, as they are known risk factors for stress sensitivity and affective disorders in humans. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between personality and the development and severity of abnormal behaviors in captive-bred orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica. We monitored between-individual behavioral differences in enrichment-reared parrots of known personality types before, during, and after enrichment deprivation. We predicted that parrots with higher scores for neurotic-like personality traits would be more susceptible to enrichment deprivation and develop more abnormal behaviors. Our results partially supported this hypothesis, but also showed that distinct personality dimensions were related to different forms of abnormal behavior. While neuroticism-like traits were linked to feather damaging behavior, extraversion-like traits were negatively related to stereotypic behavior. More extraverted birds showed resiliency to environmental stress, developing fewer stereotypies during enrichment deprivation and showing lower levels of these behaviors following re-enrichment. Our data, together with the results of the few studies conducted on other species, suggest that, as in humans, certain personality types render individual animals more susceptible or resilient to environmental stress. Further, this susceptibility/resiliency can

  17. The Relationship between Personality Dimensions and Resiliency to Environmental Stress in Orange-Winged Amazon Parrots (Amazona amazonica), as Indicated by the Development of Abnormal Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussen, Victoria A; Mench, Joy A

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are popular companion animals, but are frequently relinquished because of behavioral problems, including abnormal repetitive behaviors like feather damaging behavior and stereotypy. In addition to contributing to pet relinquishment, these behaviors are important as potential indicators of diminished psychological well-being. While abnormal behaviors are common in captive animals, their presence and/or severity varies between animals of the same species that are experiencing the same environmental conditions. Personality differences could contribute to this observed individual variation, as they are known risk factors for stress sensitivity and affective disorders in humans. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between personality and the development and severity of abnormal behaviors in captive-bred orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). We monitored between-individual behavioral differences in enrichment-reared parrots of known personality types before, during, and after enrichment deprivation. We predicted that parrots with higher scores for neurotic-like personality traits would be more susceptible to enrichment deprivation and develop more abnormal behaviors. Our results partially supported this hypothesis, but also showed that distinct personality dimensions were related to different forms of abnormal behavior. While neuroticism-like traits were linked to feather damaging behavior, extraversion-like traits were negatively related to stereotypic behavior. More extraverted birds showed resiliency to environmental stress, developing fewer stereotypies during enrichment deprivation and showing lower levels of these behaviors following re-enrichment. Our data, together with the results of the few studies conducted on other species, suggest that, as in humans, certain personality types render individual animals more susceptible or resilient to environmental stress. Further, this susceptibility/resiliency can have a long

  18. Clinical Spectrum, Risk Factors, and Behavioral Abnormalities among Dementia Subtypes in a North Indian Population: A Hospital-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Kushwaha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: As variability in the clinical profile of dementia subtypes had been reported with regional differences across the world, we conducted a retrospective hospital-based study in a North Indian population. Methods: We retrieved patient records from 2007 to 2014 for details of clinical evaluation, diagnosis, neuroimaging, biochemical investigations, and follow-up of 1,876 patients with dementia (PwD, and the data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Of the total PwD, Alzheimer disease (AD accounted for 30% followed by vascular dementia (VaD 26%, mixed dementia (MD 21%, Parkinson-related dementia 11%, frontotemporal dementia (FTD 7%, and infective dementia 5%. Of all PwD excluding the infective group (n = 1,777, 63% were men, 39% were from rural areas, 87% had behavioral abnormalities along with cognitive deficits, and 73% had impaired ADLs. Among dementia subtypes, a positive family history, cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors, and behavioral abnormalities were found to be distributed. However, there existed a predominance of specific behavioral pattern in each subtype. The mean duration of follow-up varied from 2.9 ± 2.3 (VaD to 3.6 ± 2.1 (AD and greater than 30% were found to be stable on treatment (except in dementia with Lewy body. Conclusions: This large hospital-based study provides a distribution pattern and clinical spectrum of dementia subtypes in a North Indian population.

  19. Motor behavioral abnormalities and histopathological findings of Wistar rats inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Câmara

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to describe motor behavioral changes in association with histopathological and hematological findings in Wistar rats inoculated intravenously with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells. Twenty-five 4-month-old male rats were inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells and 13 control rats were inoculated with normal human lymphocytes. The behavior of the rats was observed before and 5, 10, 15, and 20 months after inoculation during a 30-min/rat testing time for 5 consecutive days. During each of 4 periods, a subset of rats was randomly chosen to be sacrificed in order to harvest the spinal cord for histopathological analysis and to obtain blood for serological and molecular studies. Behavioral analyses of the HTLV-1-inoculated rats showed a significant decrease of climbing, walking and freezing, and an increase of scratching, sniffing, biting, licking, and resting/sleeping. Two of the 25 HTLV-1-inoculated rats (8% developed spastic paraparesis as a major behavioral change. The histopathological changes were few and mild, but in some cases there was diffuse lymphocyte infiltration. The minor and major behavioral changes occurred after 10-20 months of evolution. The long-term observation of Wistar rats inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells showed major (spastic paraparesis and minor motor abnormalities in association with the degree of HTLV-1-induced myelopathy.

  20. Voluntary exercise contributed to an amelioration of abnormal feeding behavior, locomotor activity and ghrelin production concomitantly with a weight reduction in high fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mifune, Hiroharu; Tajiri, Yuji; Nishi, Yoshihiro; Hara, Kento; Iwata, Shimpei; Tokubuchi, Ichiro; Mitsuzono, Ryouichi; Yamada, Kentaro; Kojima, Masayasu

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, effects of voluntary exercise in an obese animal model were investigated in relation to the rhythm of daily activity and ghrelin production. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a high fat diet (HFD) or a chow diet (CD) from four to 16 weeks old. They were further subdivided into either an exercise group (HFD-Ex, CD-Ex) with a running wheel for three days of every other week or sedentary group (HFD-Se, CD-Se). At 16 weeks old, marked increases in body weight and visceral fat were observed in the HFD-Se group, together with disrupted rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity. The induction of voluntary exercise brought about an effective reduction of weight and fat, and ameliorated abnormal rhythms of activity and feeding in the HFD-Ex rats. Wheel counts as voluntary exercise was greater in HFD-Ex rats than those in CD-Ex rats. The HFD-obese had exhibited a deterioration of ghrelin production, which was restored by the induction of voluntary exercise. These findings demonstrated that abnormal rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity in HFD-obese rats were restored by infrequent voluntary exercise with a concomitant amelioration of the ghrelin production and weight reduction. Because ghrelin is related to food anticipatory activity, it is plausible that ghrelin participates in the circadian rhythm of daily activity including eating behavior. A beneficial effect of voluntary exercise has now been confirmed in terms of the amelioration of the daily rhythms in eating behavior and physical activity in an animal model of obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. White-matter tract abnormalities and antisocial behavior: A systematic review of diffusion tensor imaging studies across development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Waller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antisocial behavior (AB, including aggression, violence, and theft, is thought be underpinned by abnormal functioning in networks of the brain critical to emotion processing, behavioral control, and reward-related learning. To better understand the abnormal functioning of these networks, research has begun to investigate the structural connections between brain regions implicated in AB using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, which assesses white-matter tract microstructure. This systematic review integrates findings from 22 studies that examined the relationship between white-matter microstructure and AB across development. In contrast to a prior hypothesis that AB is associated with greater diffusivity specifically in the uncinate fasciculus, findings suggest that adult AB is associated with greater diffusivity across a range of white-matter tracts, including the uncinate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, cingulum, corticospinal tract, thalamic radiations, and corpus callosum. The pattern of findings among youth studies was inconclusive with both higher and lower diffusivity found across association, commissural, and projection and thalamic tracts.

  2. Abnormal relationship between GABA, neurophysiology and impulsive behavior in neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Maria J; Violante, Inês R; Bernardino, Inês; Edden, Richard A E; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a broad spectrum of cognitive deficits. In particular, executive dysfunction is recognized as a core deficit of NF1, including impairments in executive attention and inhibitory control. Yet, the neural mechanisms behind these important deficits are still unknown. Here, we studied inhibitory control in a visual go/no-go task in children and adolescents with NF1 and age- and gender-matched controls (n = 16 per group). We applied a multimodal approach using high-density electroencephalography (EEG), to study the evoked brain responses, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure the levels of GABA and glutamate + glutamine in the medial frontal cortex, a brain region that plays a pivotal role in inhibitory control, and also in a control region, the occipital cortex. Finally, we run correlation analyses to identify the relationship between inhibitory control, levels of neurotransmitters, and EEG markers of neural function. Individuals with NF1 showed impaired impulse control and reduced EEG correlates of early visual processing (parieto-occipital P1) and inhibitory control (frontal P3). MRS data revealed a reduction in medial frontal GABA+/tCr (total Creatine) levels in the NF1 group, in parallel with the already reported reduced occipital GABA levels. In contrast, glutamate + glutamine/tCr levels were normal, suggesting the existence of abnormal inhibition/excitation balance in this disorder. Notably, medial frontal but not occipital GABA levels correlated with general intellectual abilities (IQ) in NF1, and inhibitory control in both groups. Surprisingly, the relationship between inhibitory control and medial frontal GABA was reversed in NF1: higher GABA was associated with a faster response style whereas in controls it was related to a cautious strategy. Abnormal GABAergic physiology appears, thus, as an important factor underlying impaired cognition in NF1, in a level and

  3. Abnormal devitrification behavior and mechanical response of cold-rolled Mg-rich Mg-Cu-Gd metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.I.; Kim, J.W.; Oh, H.S.; Park, J.S.; Park, E.S.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal devitrification behavior and mechanical response of Mg 75 Cu 15 Gd 10 (relatively strong glass former with higher structural stability) and Mg 85 Cu 5 Gd 10 (relatively fragile glass former with lower structural stability) metallic glasses, fabricated by repeated forced cold rolling, have been investigated. When metallic glasses were cold-rolled up to a thickness reduction ratio of ∼33%, the heat of relaxation (ΔH relax. ) below T g of the cold-rolled specimens was reduced, which indicates the formation of local structural ordering via cold rolling due to stress-induced relaxation. The local structural ordering results in abnormal devitrification behavior, such as higher resistance of glass-to-supercooled liquid transition and delayed growth, in the following heat treatment due to increased nuclei density and pinning site. In particular, the fragility index, m, could assist in understanding structural stability and local structural variation by mechanical processing as well as compositional tuning. Indeed, we examine the shear avalanche size to rationalize the variation of the deformation unit size depending on the structural instability before and after cold rolling. The deformation mode in Mg 85 Cu 5 Gd 10 metallic glass might change from self-organized critical state to chaotic state by cold rolling, which results in unique hardening behavior under the condition for coexisting well distributed local structural ordering and numerous thinner shear deformed areas. These results would give us a guideline for atomic scale structural manipulation of metallic glasses, and help develop novel metallic glass matrix composites with optimal properties through effective mechanical processing as well as heat treatment.

  4. Decreased striatal D2 receptor density associated with severe behavioral abnormality in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Meguro, Kenichi; Yamaguchi, Satoshi

    2003-01-01

    Since patients manifesting behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are a burden for their families and caregivers, the underlying neurobiological mechanism of this condition should be clarified. Using positron emission tomography (PET), we previously reported that wandering behavior in dementia was associated with a disturbed dopaminergic neuron system. We herein investigated the relationship between the severity of BPSD and the striatal D 2 receptor density in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ten patients with probable AD as per the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke (NINCDS) and the AD and Related Disorders Association (ADRDA) criteria and five normal subjects were examined with PET. The tracer used was [ 11 C]raclopride (D 2 antagonist). The uptake of [ 11 C]raclopride was calculated as the estimation of binding potential (BP) of the striatum to the cerebellum. The AD patients were institutionalized in multiple nursing homes, and their BPSD were evaluated by the Behavioral Pathology in AD Frequency Weighted Severity Scale (BEHAVE-AD-FW) scale (Reisberg). There was a significant inverse Spearman's correlation between BEHAVE-AD-FW score and the BP, especially between the score of the behavioral domain and the BP values. The BP was found to be lower in severer BPSD patients. Patients with AD who manifest severe BPSD may have some dysfunction of striatal dopamine metabolism compared with those without BPSD. (author)

  5. Oseltamivir use and severe abnormal behavior in Japanese children and adolescents with influenza: Is a self-controlled case series study applicable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Wakaba; Ozasa, Kotaro; Okumura, Akihisa; Mori, Masaaki; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Nakano, Takashi; Tanabe, Takuya; Yamaguchi, Naoto; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Mori, Mitsuru; Hatayama, Hideaki; Ochiai, Hirotaka; Kondo, Kyoko; Ito, Kazuya; Ohfuji, Satoko; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Hirota, Yoshio

    2017-08-24

    Since the 1990s, self-controlled designs including self-controlled case series (SCCS) studies have been occasionally used in post-marketing evaluation of drug or vaccine safety. An SCCS study was tentatively applied to evaluate the relationship between oseltamivir use and abnormal behavior Type A (serious abnormal behavior potentially leading to an accident or harm to another person) in influenza patients. From the original prospective cohort study with approximately 10,000 Japanese children and adolescents with influenza (aged collaborating hospitals/clinics were analyzed. We hypothesized four combination patterns of the effect period (i.e., the period that effect of oseltamivir on occurrence of abnormal behavior Type A is likely) and the control period. Mantel-Haenszel rate ratio (M-H RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated as the relative risk estimate. Among 28 subjects in the SCCS study, 24 subjects (86%) were administered oseltamivir and 4 subjects (14%) were not. Abnormal behavior Type A was more likely to occur in the effect period than the control period in every pattern (M-H RR: 1.90-29.1). We observed the highest estimate when the effect period was set between the initial intake of oseltamivir and T max (M-H RR: 29.1, 95% CI: 4.21-201). Abnormal behavior Type A was more likely to develop up to approximately 30 times during the period between the initial intake of oseltamivir and T max . However, this period overlapped with the early period of influenza where high fever was observed. Since useful approaches to control the influence of the natural disease course of influenza were not available in this study, we could not deny the possibility that abnormal behavior was induced by influenza itself. The SCCS study was not an optimal method to evaluate the relationship between oseltamivir use and abnormal behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. BACHD rats expressing full-length mutant huntingtin exhibit differences in social behavior compared to wild-type littermates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfré, Giuseppe; Novati, Arianna; Faccini, Ilaria; Rossetti, Andrea C; Bosch, Kari; Molteni, Raffaella; Riva, Marco A; Van der Harst, Johanneke E; Nguyen, Huu Phuc; Homberg, Judith R

    2018-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a devastating inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms without any cure to slow down or stop the progress of the disease. The BACHD rat model for HD carrying the human full-length mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT) with 97 polyQ repeats has been recently established as a promising model which reproduces several HD-like features. While motor and cognitive functions have been characterized in BACHD rats, little is known about their social phenotype. This study focuses especially on social behavior since evidence for social disturbances exists in human patients. Our objective was to compare social behavior in BACHD and wild-type (WT) rats at different ages, using two different measures of sociability. Animals were tested longitudinally at the age of 2, 4 and 8 months in the social interaction test to examine different parameters of sociability. A separate cohort of 7 month old rats was tested in the three chamber social test to measure both sociability and social novelty. Gene expression analyses in 8 months old animals were performed by real time qRT-PCR to evaluate a potential involvement of D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors and the contribution of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to the observed behavioral alterations. In the social interaction test, BACHD rats showed age-dependent changes in behaviour when they were-re introduced to their cagemate after a 24 hours-period of individual housing. The time spent on nape attacks increased with aging. Furthermore, a significant higher level of pinning at 2 months of age was shown in the BACHD rats compared to wild-types, followed by a reduction at 4 and 8 months. On the other hand, BACHD rats exhibited a decreased active social behaviour compared to wild-types, reflected by genotype-effects on approaching, following and social nose contact. In the three chamber social test, BACHD rats seemed to show a mild deficit in

  7. BACHD rats expressing full-length mutant huntingtin exhibit differences in social behavior compared to wild-type littermates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Manfré

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is a devastating inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms without any cure to slow down or stop the progress of the disease. The BACHD rat model for HD carrying the human full-length mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT with 97 polyQ repeats has been recently established as a promising model which reproduces several HD-like features. While motor and cognitive functions have been characterized in BACHD rats, little is known about their social phenotype.This study focuses especially on social behavior since evidence for social disturbances exists in human patients. Our objective was to compare social behavior in BACHD and wild-type (WT rats at different ages, using two different measures of sociability.Animals were tested longitudinally at the age of 2, 4 and 8 months in the social interaction test to examine different parameters of sociability. A separate cohort of 7 month old rats was tested in the three chamber social test to measure both sociability and social novelty. Gene expression analyses in 8 months old animals were performed by real time qRT-PCR to evaluate a potential involvement of D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors and the contribution of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF to the observed behavioral alterations.In the social interaction test, BACHD rats showed age-dependent changes in behaviour when they were-re introduced to their cagemate after a 24 hours-period of individual housing. The time spent on nape attacks increased with aging. Furthermore, a significant higher level of pinning at 2 months of age was shown in the BACHD rats compared to wild-types, followed by a reduction at 4 and 8 months. On the other hand, BACHD rats exhibited a decreased active social behaviour compared to wild-types, reflected by genotype-effects on approaching, following and social nose contact. In the three chamber social test, BACHD rats seemed to show a mild

  8. BACHD rats expressing full-length mutant huntingtin exhibit differences in social behavior compared to wild-type littermates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfré, Giuseppe; Novati, Arianna; Faccini, Ilaria; Rossetti, Andrea C.; Bosch, Kari; Molteni, Raffaella; Riva, Marco A.; Van der Harst, Johanneke E.; Homberg, Judith R.

    2018-01-01

    Background Huntington disease (HD) is a devastating inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms without any cure to slow down or stop the progress of the disease. The BACHD rat model for HD carrying the human full-length mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT) with 97 polyQ repeats has been recently established as a promising model which reproduces several HD-like features. While motor and cognitive functions have been characterized in BACHD rats, little is known about their social phenotype. Objective This study focuses especially on social behavior since evidence for social disturbances exists in human patients. Our objective was to compare social behavior in BACHD and wild-type (WT) rats at different ages, using two different measures of sociability. Methods Animals were tested longitudinally at the age of 2, 4 and 8 months in the social interaction test to examine different parameters of sociability. A separate cohort of 7 month old rats was tested in the three chamber social test to measure both sociability and social novelty. Gene expression analyses in 8 months old animals were performed by real time qRT-PCR to evaluate a potential involvement of D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors and the contribution of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to the observed behavioral alterations. Results In the social interaction test, BACHD rats showed age-dependent changes in behaviour when they were-re introduced to their cagemate after a 24 hours-period of individual housing. The time spent on nape attacks increased with aging. Furthermore, a significant higher level of pinning at 2 months of age was shown in the BACHD rats compared to wild-types, followed by a reduction at 4 and 8 months. On the other hand, BACHD rats exhibited a decreased active social behaviour compared to wild-types, reflected by genotype-effects on approaching, following and social nose contact. In the three chamber social test, BACHD rats

  9. Technology Exhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1979-09-15

    Linked to the 25th Anniversary celebrations, an exhibition of some of CERN's technological achievements was opened on 22 June. Set up in a new 600 m{sup 2} Exhibition Hall on the CERN site, the exhibition is divided into eight technology areas — magnets, vacuum, computers and data handling, survey and alignment, radiation protection, beam monitoring and handling, detectors, and workshop techniques.

  10. Immersive Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The immersive exhibition is a specialized exhibition genre in museums, which creates the illusion of time and place by representing key characteristics of a reference world and by integrating the visitor in this three-dimensionally reconstructed world (Mortensen 2010). A successful representation...... of the reference world depends on three criteria: whether the exhibition is staged as a coherent whole with all the displayed objects supporting the representation, whether the visitor is integrated as a component of the exhibition, and whether the content and message of the exhibition become dramatized...

  11. Cocaine Self-Administration Experience Induces Pathological Phasic Accumbens Dopamine Signals and Abnormal Incentive Behaviors in Drug-Abstinent Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefei; Sugam, Jonathan A.; Carelli, Regina M.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to drugs of abuse is linked to long-lasting alterations in the function of limbic system structures, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Although cocaine acts via dopaminergic mechanisms within the NAc, less is known about whether phasic dopamine (DA) signaling in the NAc is altered in animals with cocaine self-administration experience or if these animals learn and interact normally with stimuli in their environment. Here, separate groups of rats self-administered either intravenous cocaine or water to a receptacle (controls), followed by 30 d of enforced abstinence. Next, all rats learned an appetitive Pavlovian discrimination and voltammetric recordings of real-time DA release were taken in either the NAc core or shell of cocaine and control subjects. Cocaine experience differentially impaired DA signaling in the core and shell relative to controls. Although phasic DA signals in the shell were essentially abolished for all stimuli, in the core, DA did not distinguish between cues and was abnormally biased toward reward delivery. Further, cocaine rats were unable to learn higher-order associations and even altered simple conditioned approach behaviors, displaying enhanced preoccupation with cue-associated stimuli (sign-tracking; ST) but diminished time at the food cup awaiting reward delivery (goal-tracking). Critically, whereas control DA signaling correlated with ST behaviors, cocaine experience abolished this relationship. These findings show that cocaine has persistent, differential, and pathological effects on both DA signaling and DA-dependent behaviors and suggest that psychostimulant experience may remodel the very circuits that bias organisms toward repeated relapse. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Relapsing to drug abuse despite periods of abstinence and sincere attempts to quit is one of the most pernicious facets of addiction. Unfortunately, little is known about how the dopamine (DA) system functions after periods of drug abstinence

  12. Cocaine Self-Administration Experience Induces Pathological Phasic Accumbens Dopamine Signals and Abnormal Incentive Behaviors in Drug-Abstinent Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddoris, Michael P; Wang, Xuefei; Sugam, Jonathan A; Carelli, Regina M

    2016-01-06

    Chronic exposure to drugs of abuse is linked to long-lasting alterations in the function of limbic system structures, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Although cocaine acts via dopaminergic mechanisms within the NAc, less is known about whether phasic dopamine (DA) signaling in the NAc is altered in animals with cocaine self-administration experience or if these animals learn and interact normally with stimuli in their environment. Here, separate groups of rats self-administered either intravenous cocaine or water to a receptacle (controls), followed by 30 d of enforced abstinence. Next, all rats learned an appetitive Pavlovian discrimination and voltammetric recordings of real-time DA release were taken in either the NAc core or shell of cocaine and control subjects. Cocaine experience differentially impaired DA signaling in the core and shell relative to controls. Although phasic DA signals in the shell were essentially abolished for all stimuli, in the core, DA did not distinguish between cues and was abnormally biased toward reward delivery. Further, cocaine rats were unable to learn higher-order associations and even altered simple conditioned approach behaviors, displaying enhanced preoccupation with cue-associated stimuli (sign-tracking; ST) but diminished time at the food cup awaiting reward delivery (goal-tracking). Critically, whereas control DA signaling correlated with ST behaviors, cocaine experience abolished this relationship. These findings show that cocaine has persistent, differential, and pathological effects on both DA signaling and DA-dependent behaviors and suggest that psychostimulant experience may remodel the very circuits that bias organisms toward repeated relapse. Relapsing to drug abuse despite periods of abstinence and sincere attempts to quit is one of the most pernicious facets of addiction. Unfortunately, little is known about how the dopamine (DA) system functions after periods of drug abstinence, particularly its role in

  13. Reducing prefrontal gamma-aminobutyric acid activity induces cognitive, behavioral, and dopaminergic abnormalities that resemble schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Takeshi; Tse, Maric T; Floresco, Stan B

    2011-03-01

    Perturbations in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-related markers have been reported in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients. However, a preclinical assessment of how suppression of prefrontal cortex GABA activity may reflect behavioral and cognitive pathologies observed in schizophrenia is forthcoming. We assessed the effects of pharmacologic blockade of prefrontal cortex GABA(A) receptors in rats on executive functions and other behaviors related to schizophrenia, as well as neural activity of midbrain dopamine neurons. Blockade of prefrontal cortex GABA(A) receptors with bicuculline (12.5-50 ng) did not affect working memory accuracy but did increase response latencies, resembling speed of processing deficits observed in schizophrenia. Prefrontal cortex GABA(A) blockade did not impede simple discrimination or reversal learning but did impair set-shifting in a manner dependent on when these treatments were given. Reducing GABA activity before the set-shift impaired the ability to acquire a novel strategy, whereas treatment before the initial discrimination increased perseveration during the shift. Latent inhibition was unaffected by bicuculline infusions before the preexposure/conditioning phases, suggesting that reduced prefrontal cortex GABA activity does not impair "learned irrelevance." GABA(A) blockade increased locomotor activity and showed synergic effects with a subthreshold dose of amphetamine. Furthermore, reducing medial prefrontal cortex GABA activity selectively increased phasic burst firing of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons, without altering the their overall population activity. These results suggest that prefrontal cortex GABA hypofunction may be a key contributing factor to deficits in speed of processing, cognitive flexibility, and enhanced phasic dopamine activity observed in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Identifying and Intervening with Students Exhibiting Signs of Gaming Addiction and Other Addictive Behaviors: Implications for Professional School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, W. Bryce; Young, Tabitha

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses strategies professional school counselors can use to recognize and intervene with students who are presenting with signs of addictive behaviors. First, the authors present a definition of addictive behaviors. The authors then define and discuss the most common addictive behaviors impacting adolescents, with a special…

  15. Abnormal baseline brain activity in Parkinson's disease with and without REM sleep behavior disorder: A resting-state functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Huang, Peiyu; Zang, Yufeng; Lou, Yuting; Cen, Zhidong; Gu, Quanquan; Xuan, Min; Xie, Fei; Ouyang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Minming; Luo, Wei

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the differences in spontaneous brain activity between Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD), PD patients without RBD, and normal controls, which may shed new light on the neural mechanism of RBD. Eighteen PD patients with RBD, 16 patients without RBD, and 19 age- and gender-matched normal controls underwent clinical assessment and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a 3.0T scanner. Resting-state fMRI scans were collected using an echo planar imaging sequence. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) were calculated to measure spontaneous brain activity in each subject. Compared with PD patients without RBD, patients with RBD exhibited significantly decreased ALFF values (P abnormalities. Our findings provide additional insight into the neural mechanism of RBD and may drive future research to develop better treatment. 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 3 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:697-703. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  16. Evaluation of tributyltin toxicity in Chinese rare minnow larvae by abnormal behavior, energy metabolism and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping

    2015-02-05

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a ubiquitous contaminant in aquatic environment, but the detailed mechanisms underlying the toxicity of TBT have not been fully understood. In this study, the effects of TBT on behavior, energy metabolism and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were investigated by using Chinese rare minnow larvae. Fish larvae were exposed at sublethal concentrations of TBT (100, 400 and 800 ng/L) for 7 days. Compared with the control, energy metabolic parameters (RNA/DNA ratio, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase) were significantly inhibited in fish exposed at highest concentration (800 ng/L), as well as abnormal behaviors observed. Moreover, we found that the PERK (PKR-like ER kinase)-eIF2α (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α) pathway, as the main branch was activated by TBT exposure in fish larvae. In short, TBT-induced physiological, biochemical and molecular responses in fish larvae were reflected in parameters measured in this study, which suggest that these biomarkers could be used as potential indicators for monitoring organotin compounds present in aquatic environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) deficiency leads to abnormal microglia behavior and disturbed retinal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannhausen, Katharina; Karlstetter, Marcus; Caramoy, Albert [Laboratory for Experimental Immunology of the Eye, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Volz, Cornelia; Jägle, Herbert [Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Liebisch, Gerhard [Institute for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Utermöhlen, Olaf [Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene and Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Langmann, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.langmann@uk-koeln.de [Laboratory for Experimental Immunology of the Eye, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany)

    2015-08-21

    Mutations in the acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) coding gene sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 (SMPD1) cause Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type A and B. Sphingomyelin storage in cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system cause hepatosplenomegaly and severe neurodegeneration in the brain of NPD patients. However, the effects of aSMase deficiency on retinal structure and microglial behavior have not been addressed in detail yet. Here, we demonstrate that retinas of aSMase{sup −/−} mice did not display overt neuronal degeneration but showed significantly reduced scotopic and photopic responses in electroretinography. In vivo fundus imaging of aSMase{sup −/−} mice showed many hyperreflective spots and staining for the retinal microglia marker Iba1 revealed massive proliferation of retinal microglia that had significantly enlarged somata. Nile red staining detected prominent phospholipid inclusions in microglia and lipid analysis showed significantly increased sphingomyelin levels in retinas of aSMase{sup −/−} mice. In conclusion, the aSMase-deficient mouse is the first example in which microglial lipid inclusions are directly related to a loss of retinal function. - Highlights: • aSMase-deficient mice show impaired retinal function and reactive microgliosis. • aSMase-deficient microglia express pro-inflammatory transcripts. • aSMase-deficient microglia proliferate and have increased cell body size. • In vivo imaging shows hyperreflective spots in the fundus of aSMase-deficient mice. • aSMase-deficient microglia accumulate sphingolipid-rich intracellular deposits.

  18. Exhibit Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    Science museums define the objectives of their exhibitions in terms of visitor learning outcomes. Yet, exhibit designers lack theoretical and empirical research findings on which to base the creation of such educational environments. Here, this shortcoming is addressed through the development...... of tools and processes to guide the design of educational science exhibits. The guiding paradigm for this development is design-based research, which is characterised by an iterative cycle of design, enactment, and analysis. In the design phase, an educational intervention is planned and carried out based...... on the generation of theoretical ideas for exhibit design is offered in a fourth and parallel research undertaking, namely the application of the notion of cultural border-crossing to a hypothetical case of exhibit design....

  19. Oseltamivir prescription and regulatory actions vis-à-vis abnormal behavior risk in Japan: drug utilization study using a nationwide pharmacy database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urushihara, Hisashi; Doi, Yuko; Arai, Masaru; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Fujii, Yosuke; Iino, Naoko; Kawamura, Takashi; Kawakami, Koji

    2011-01-01

    In March 2007, a regulatory advisory was issued in Japan to restrict oseltamivir use in children aged 10-19 years because of safety concerns over abnormal behavior. The effectiveness and validity of regulatory risk minimization actions remain to be reviewed, despite their significant public health implications. To assess the impact of the regulatory actions on prescribing practices and safety reporting. METHODOLOY/PRINICPAL FINDINGS: In this retrospective review of a nationwide pharmacy database, we analyzed 100,344 dispensation records for oseltamivir and zanamivir for the period from November 2006 to March 2009. The time trend in dispensations for these antiviral agents was presented before and after the regulatory actions, contrasted with intensity of media coverage and the numbers of spontaneous adverse reaction reports with regard to antivirals. The 2007 regulatory actions, together with its intense media coverage, reduced oseltamivir dispensation in targeted patients in fiscal year 2008 to 20.4% of that in fiscal year 2006, although influenza activities were comparable between these fiscal years. In contrast, zanamivir dispensation increased approximately nine-fold across all age groups. The number of abnormal behavior reports associated with oseltamivir in children aged 10-19 years decreased from fiscal year 2006 to 2008 (24 to 9 cases); this decline was offset by the increased number of reports of abnormal behavior in children under age 10 (12 to 28 cases). The number of reports associated with zanamivir increased in proportion to increased dispensation of this drug (11 to 114 cases). The 2007 actions effectively reduced oseltamivir prescriptions and the number of reports of abnormal behavior in the targeted group. The observed increase in abnormal behavior reports in oseltamivir patients under age 10 and in zanamivir patients suggests that these patient groups may also be at risk, calling into question the validity of the current discrimination by age and

  20. Oseltamivir prescription and regulatory actions vis-à-vis abnormal behavior risk in Japan: drug utilization study using a nationwide pharmacy database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisashi Urushihara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In March 2007, a regulatory advisory was issued in Japan to restrict oseltamivir use in children aged 10-19 years because of safety concerns over abnormal behavior. The effectiveness and validity of regulatory risk minimization actions remain to be reviewed, despite their significant public health implications. To assess the impact of the regulatory actions on prescribing practices and safety reporting. METHODOLOY/PRINICPAL FINDINGS: In this retrospective review of a nationwide pharmacy database, we analyzed 100,344 dispensation records for oseltamivir and zanamivir for the period from November 2006 to March 2009. The time trend in dispensations for these antiviral agents was presented before and after the regulatory actions, contrasted with intensity of media coverage and the numbers of spontaneous adverse reaction reports with regard to antivirals. The 2007 regulatory actions, together with its intense media coverage, reduced oseltamivir dispensation in targeted patients in fiscal year 2008 to 20.4% of that in fiscal year 2006, although influenza activities were comparable between these fiscal years. In contrast, zanamivir dispensation increased approximately nine-fold across all age groups. The number of abnormal behavior reports associated with oseltamivir in children aged 10-19 years decreased from fiscal year 2006 to 2008 (24 to 9 cases; this decline was offset by the increased number of reports of abnormal behavior in children under age 10 (12 to 28 cases. The number of reports associated with zanamivir increased in proportion to increased dispensation of this drug (11 to 114 cases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The 2007 actions effectively reduced oseltamivir prescriptions and the number of reports of abnormal behavior in the targeted group. The observed increase in abnormal behavior reports in oseltamivir patients under age 10 and in zanamivir patients suggests that these patient groups may also be at risk, calling into question

  1. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that deoxyhemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin, and glycated hemoglobin under compression and shear exhibit an anisotropic mechanical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesudasan, Sumith; Wang, Xianqiao; Averett, Rodney D

    2018-05-01

    We developed a new mechanical model for determining the compression and shear mechanical behavior of four different hemoglobin structures. Previous studies on hemoglobin structures have focused primarily on overall mechanical behavior; however, this study investigates the mechanical behavior of hemoglobin, a major constituent of red blood cells, using steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations to obtain anisotropic mechanical behavior under compression and shear loading conditions. Four different configurations of hemoglobin molecules were considered: deoxyhemoglobin (deoxyHb), oxyhemoglobin (HbO 2 ), carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1C ). The SMD simulations were performed on the hemoglobin variants to estimate their unidirectional stiffness and shear stiffness. Although hemoglobin is structurally denoted as a globular protein due to its spherical shape and secondary structure, our simulation results show a significant variation in the mechanical strength in different directions (anisotropy) and also a strength variation among the four different hemoglobin configurations studied. The glycated hemoglobin molecule possesses an overall higher compressive mechanical stiffness and shear stiffness when compared to deoxyhemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, and carboxyhemoglobin molecules. Further results from the models indicate that the hemoglobin structures studied possess a soft outer shell and a stiff core based on stiffness.

  2. Reverse-translational biomarker validation of Abnormal Repetitive Behaviors in mice: an illustration of the 4P's modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Joseph P; Thogerson, Collette M; Dufour, Brett D; Würbel, Hanno; Murray, James D; Mench, Joy A

    2011-06-01

    The NIMH's new strategic plan, with its emphasis on the "4P's" (Prediction, Pre-emption, Personalization, and Populations) and biomarker-based medicine requires a radical shift in animal modeling methodology. In particular 4P's models will be non-determinant (i.e. disease severity will depend on secondary environmental and genetic factors); and validated by reverse-translation of animal homologues to human biomarkers. A powerful consequence of the biomarker approach is that different closely related disorders have a unique fingerprint of biomarkers. Animals can be validated as a highly specific model of a single disorder by matching this 'fingerprint'; or as a model of a symptom seen in multiple disorders by matching common biomarkers. Here we illustrate this approach with two Abnormal Repetitive Behaviors (ARBs) in mice: stereotypies and barbering (hair pulling). We developed animal versions of the neuropsychological biomarkers that distinguish human ARBs, and tested the fingerprint of the different mouse ARBs. As predicted, the two mouse ARBs were associated with different biomarkers. Both barbering and stereotypy could be discounted as models of OCD (even though they are widely used as such), due to the absence of limbic biomarkers which are characteristic of OCD and hence are necessary for a valid model. Conversely barbering matched the fingerprint of trichotillomania (i.e. selective deficits in set-shifting), suggesting it may be a highly specific model of this disorder. In contrast stereotypies were correlated only with a biomarker (deficits in response shifting) correlated with stereotypies in multiple disorders, suggesting that animal stereotypies model stereotypies in multiple disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Gyroscopic behavior exhibited by the optical Kerr effect in bimetallic Au–Pt nanoparticles suspended in ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Valdés, D.; Torres-Torres, C., E-mail: ctorrest@ipn.mx, E-mail: crstorres@yahoo.com.mx; Martínez-González, C. L. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Sección de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica Unidad Zacatenco (Mexico); Trejo-Valdez, M. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Química e Industrias Extractivas (Mexico); Hernández-Gómez, L. H. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Sección de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica Unidad Zacatenco (Mexico); Torres-Martínez, R. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada Unidad Querétaro (Mexico)

    2016-07-15

    The modification in the third-order nonlinear optical response exhibited by rotating bimetallic Au–Pt nanoparticles in an ethanol solution was analyzed. The samples were prepared by a sol–gel processing route. The anisotropy associated to the elemental composition of the nanoparticles was confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements. The size of the nanoparticles varies in the range from 9 to 13 nm, with an average size of 11 nm. Changes in the spatial orientation of the nanomaterials automatically generated a variation in their plasmonic response evaluated by UV–Vis spectroscopy. A two-wave mixing experiment was conducted to explore an induced birefringence at 532 nm wavelength with nanosecond pulses interacting with the samples. A strong optical Kerr effect was identified to be the main responsible effect for the third-order nonlinear optical phenomenon exhibited by the nanoparticles. It was estimated that the rotation of inhomogeneous nanostructures can provide a remarkable change in the participation of different surface plasmon resonances, if they correspond to multimetallic nanoparticles. Potential applications for developing low-dimensional gyroscopic systems can be contemplated.

  4. Gyroscopic behavior exhibited by the optical Kerr effect in bimetallic Au–Pt nanoparticles suspended in ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Valdés, D.; Torres-Torres, C.; Martínez-González, C. L.; Trejo-Valdez, M.; Hernández-Gómez, L. H.; Torres-Martínez, R.

    2016-01-01

    The modification in the third-order nonlinear optical response exhibited by rotating bimetallic Au–Pt nanoparticles in an ethanol solution was analyzed. The samples were prepared by a sol–gel processing route. The anisotropy associated to the elemental composition of the nanoparticles was confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements. The size of the nanoparticles varies in the range from 9 to 13 nm, with an average size of 11 nm. Changes in the spatial orientation of the nanomaterials automatically generated a variation in their plasmonic response evaluated by UV–Vis spectroscopy. A two-wave mixing experiment was conducted to explore an induced birefringence at 532 nm wavelength with nanosecond pulses interacting with the samples. A strong optical Kerr effect was identified to be the main responsible effect for the third-order nonlinear optical phenomenon exhibited by the nanoparticles. It was estimated that the rotation of inhomogeneous nanostructures can provide a remarkable change in the participation of different surface plasmon resonances, if they correspond to multimetallic nanoparticles. Potential applications for developing low-dimensional gyroscopic systems can be contemplated.

  5. Human Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    light on the staging of exhibitions, the daily life of the exhibitees, the wider connections between shows across Europe and the thinking of the time on matters of race, science, gender and sexuality. A window onto contemporary racial understandings, the book presents interviews with the descendants...... of displayed people, connecting the attitudes and science of the past with both our (continued) modern fascination with ‘the exotic’, and contemporary language and popular culture. As such, it will be of interest to scholars of sociology, anthropology and history working in the areas of gender and sexuality...

  6. Drosophila mutants of the autism candidate gene neurobeachin (rugose) exhibit neuro-developmental disorders, aberrant synaptic properties, altered locomotion, impaired adult social behavior and activity patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Wise, Alexandra; Tenezaca, Luis; Fernandez, Robert W.; Schatoff, Emma; Flores, Julian; Ueda, Atsushi; Zhong, Xiaotian; Wu, Chun-Fang; Simon, Anne F.; Venkatesh, Tadmiri

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder in humans characterized by complex behavioral deficits, including intellectual disability, impaired social interactions and hyperactivity. ASD exhibits a strong genetic component with underlying multi-gene interactions. Candidate gene studies have shown that the neurobeachin gene is disrupted in human patients with idiopathic autism (Castermans et al., 2003). The gene for neurobeachin (NBEA) spans the common fragile site FRA 13A ...

  7. A family of mixed-metal cyanide cubes with alternating octahedral and tetrahedral corners exhibiting a variety of magnetic behaviors including single molecule magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelter, Eric J; Karadas, Ferdi; Avendano, Carolina; Prosvirin, Andrey V; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Dunbar, Kim R

    2007-07-04

    A series of structurally related pseudocubic metal cyanide clusters of Re(II) and 3d metal ions [{MX}4{Re(triphos)(CN)3}4] (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn; X = Cl, I, -OCH3) have been prepared, and their magnetic and electrochemical properties have been probed to evaluate the effect of changing the identity of the 3d metal ion. Electrochemistry of the clusters reveals several rhenium-based oxidation and reduction processes, some of which result in cluster fragmentation. The richest electrochemistry was observed for the iron congener, which exists as the Re(I)/Fe(III) cluster at the resting potential and exhibits six clear one-electron reversible redox couples and two, closely spaced one-electron quasi-reversible processes. The [{MnIICl}4{ReII(triphos)(CN)3}4] complex exhibits single molecule magnetism with a fast tunneling relaxation process observed at H = 0 determined by micro-SQUID magnetization measurements. A comparative evaluation of the magnetic properties across the series reveals that the compounds exhibit antiferromagnetic coupling between the metal ions, except for [{NiIICl}4{ReII(triphos)(CN)3}4] that shows ferromagnetic behavior. Despite the large ground-state spin value of [{NiIICl}4{ReII(triphos)(CN)3}4] (S = 6), only manganese congeners exhibit SMM behavior to 1.8 K.

  8. Alternative Education: A Comparative Case Study of the Behavior Modification Programs of Two Upstate South Carolina Alternative Schools for Youth Who Exhibit Behavior That Is Disruptive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scipio, Timothy Lamont

    2013-01-01

    This study examined behavior modification programs in schools designed to focus on discipline and that aim to reform disruptive behavior in students, usually over a limited period of time. This was a comparative case study of two type II alternative schools in the Upstate of South Carolina. The findings contributed to the research base regarding…

  9. Theory of mind mediates the prospective relationship between abnormal social brain network morphology and chronic behavior problems after pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Nicholas P; Catroppa, Cathy; Beare, Richard; Silk, Timothy J; Crossley, Louise; Beauchamp, Miriam H; Yeates, Keith Owen; Anderson, Vicki A

    2016-04-01

    Childhood and adolescence coincide with rapid maturation and synaptic reorganization of distributed neural networks that underlie complex cognitive-affective behaviors. These regions, referred to collectively as the 'social brain network' (SBN) are commonly vulnerable to disruption from pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the mechanisms that link morphological changes in the SBN to behavior problems in this population remain unclear. In 98 children and adolescents with mild to severe TBI, we acquired 3D T1-weighted MRIs at 2-8 weeks post-injury. For comparison, 33 typically developing controls of similar age, sex and education were scanned. All participants were assessed on measures of Theory of Mind (ToM) at 6 months post-injury and parents provided ratings of behavior problems at 24-months post-injury. Severe TBI was associated with volumetric reductions in the overall SBN package, as well as regional gray matter structural change in multiple component regions of the SBN. When compared with TD controls and children with milder injuries, the severe TBI group had significantly poorer ToM, which was associated with more frequent behavior problems and abnormal SBN morphology. Mediation analysis indicated that impaired theory of mind mediated the prospective relationship between abnormal SBN morphology and more frequent chronic behavior problems. Our findings suggest that sub-acute alterations in SBN morphology indirectly contribute to long-term behavior problems via their influence on ToM. Volumetric change in the SBN and its putative hub regions may represent useful imaging biomarkers for prediction of post-acute social cognitive impairment, which may in turn elevate risk for chronic behavior problems. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Only-child and non-only-child exhibit differences in creativity and agreeableness: evidence from behavioral and anatomical structural studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junyi; Hou, Xin; Wei, Dongtao; Wang, Kangcheng; Li, Yadan; Qiu, Jiang

    2017-04-01

    Different family composition and size inevitably make only-children different from non-only-children. Previous studies have focused on the differences in behaviors, such as cognitive function and personality traits, between the only-child and the non-only-child. However, there are few studies that have focused on the topic of whether different family environments influence children's brain structural development and whether behavior differentially has its neural basis between only-child and non-only-child status. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the differences in cognition (e.g., intelligence and creativity) and personality and the anatomical structural differences of gray matter volume (GMV) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) between only-children and non-only-children. The behavioral results revealed that only-children exhibited higher flexibility scores (a dimension of creativity) and lower agreeableness scores (a dimension of personality traits) than non-only-children. Most importantly, the GMV results revealed that there were significant differences in the GMV between only-children and non-only-children that occurred mainly in the brain regions of the supramarginal gyrus, which was positively correlated with flexibility scores; the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which was positively correlated with agreeableness scores; and the parahippocampal gyrus. These findings may suggest that family environment (i.e., only-child vs. non-only-child), may play important roles in the development of the behavior and brain structure of individuals.

  11. A prenatal interruption of DISC1 function in the brain exhibits a lasting impact on adult behaviors, brain metabolism, and interneuron development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dazhi; Jian, Chongdong; Lei, Ling; Zhou, Yijing; McSweeney, Colleen; Dong, Fengping; Shen, Yilun; Zou, Donghua; Wang, Yonggang; Wu, Yuan; Zhang, Limin; Mao, Yingwei

    2017-10-17

    Mental illnesses like schizophrenia (SCZ) and major depression disorder (MDD) are devastating brain disorders. The SCZ risk gene, disrupted in schizophrenia 1 ( DISC1 ), has been associated with neuropsychiatric conditions. However, little is known regarding the long-lasting impacts on brain metabolism and behavioral outcomes from genetic insults on fetal NPCs during early life. We have established a new mouse model that specifically interrupts DISC1 functions in NPCs in vivo by a dominant-negative DISC1 (DN-DISC1) with a precise temporal and spatial regulation. Interestingly, prenatal interruption of mouse Disc1 function in NPCs leads to abnormal depression-like deficit in adult mice. Here we took a novel unbiased metabonomics approach to identify brain-specific metabolites that are significantly changed in DN-DISC1 mice. Surprisingly, the inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA, is augmented. Consistently, parvalbumin (PV) interneurons are increased in the cingulate cortex, retrosplenial granular cortex, and motor cortex. Interestingly, somatostatin (SST) positive and neuropeptide Y (NPY) interneurons are decreased in some brain regions, suggesting that DN-DISC1 expression affects the localization of interneuron subtypes. To further explore the cellular mechanisms that cause this change, DN-DISC1 suppresses proliferation and promotes the cell cycle exit of progenitors in the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE), whereas it stimulates ectopic proliferation of neighboring cells through cell non-autonomous effect. Mechanistically, it modulates GSK3 activity and interrupts Dlx2 activity in the Wnt activation. In sum, our results provide evidence that specific genetic insults on NSCs at a short period of time could lead to prolonged changes of brain metabolism and development, eventually behavioral defects.

  12. A BDNF loop-domain mimetic acutely reverses spontaneous apneas and respiratory abnormalities during behavioral arousal in a mouse model of Rett syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Kron

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF are thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of Rett syndrome (RTT, a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2. In Mecp2 mutant mice, BDNF deficits have been associated with breathing abnormalities, a core feature of RTT, as well as with synaptic hyperexcitability within the brainstem respiratory network. Application of BDNF can reverse hyperexcitability in acute brainstem slices from Mecp2-null mice, suggesting that therapies targeting BDNF or its receptor, TrkB, could be effective at acute reversal of respiratory abnormalities in RTT. Therefore, we examined the ability of LM22A-4, a small-molecule BDNF loop-domain mimetic and TrkB partial agonist, to modulate synaptic excitability within respiratory cell groups in the brainstem nucleus tractus solitarius (nTS and to acutely reverse abnormalities in breathing at rest and during behavioral arousal in Mecp2 mutants. Patch-clamp recordings in Mecp2-null brainstem slices demonstrated that LM22A-4 decreases excitability at primary afferent synapses in the nTS by reducing the amplitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents and the frequency of spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents. In vivo, acute treatment of Mecp2-null and -heterozygous mutants with LM22A-4 completely eliminated spontaneous apneas in resting animals, without sedation. Moreover, we demonstrate that respiratory dysregulation during behavioral arousal, a feature of human RTT, is also reversed in Mecp2 mutants by acute treatment with LM22A-4. Together, these data support the hypothesis that reduced BDNF signaling and respiratory dysfunction in RTT are linked, and establish the proof-of-concept that treatment with a small-molecule structural mimetic of a BDNF loop domain and a TrkB partial agonist can acutely reverse abnormal breathing at rest and in response to

  13. Ginsenoside Rg1 Ameliorates Behavioral Abnormalities and Modulates the Hippocampal Proteomic Change in Triple Transgenic Mice of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulin Nie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, so far, there are no effective measures to prevent and cure this deadly condition. Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1 was shown to improve behavioral abnormalities in AD; however, the potential mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we pretreated 7-month-old 3xTg-AD mice for 6 weeks with Rg1 and evaluated the effects of Rg1 on the behaviors and the protein expression of hippocampal tissues. The behavioral tests showed that Rg1 could improve the memory impairment and ameliorate the depression-like behaviors of 3xTg-AD mice. Proteomic results revealed a total of 28 differentially expressed hippocampal proteins between Rg1-treated and nontreated 3xTg-AD mice. Among these proteins, complexin-2 (CPLX2, synapsin-2 (SYN2, and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNP25 were significantly downregulated in the hippocampus of 3xTg-AD mice compared with the WT mice, and the treatment of Rg1 modulated the expression of CPLX2 and SNP25 in the hippocampus of 3xTg-AD mice. The expression of CPLX2, SYN2, and SNP25 was further validated by Western blot analysis. Taken together, we concluded that Rg1 could be a potential candidate drug to improve the behavioral deficits in AD via modulating the expression of the proteins (i.e., CPLX2, SYN2, and SNP25.

  14. cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II knockout mice exhibit working memory impairments, decreased repetitive behavior, and increased anxiety-like traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincott, Charlotte M; Abera, Sinedu; Vunck, Sarah A; Tirko, Natasha; Choi, Yoon; Titcombe, Roseann F; Antoine, Shannon O; Tukey, David S; DeVito, Loren M; Hofmann, Franz; Hoeffer, Charles A; Ziff, Edward B

    2014-10-01

    Neuronal activity regulates AMPA receptor trafficking, a process that mediates changes in synaptic strength, a key component of learning and memory. This form of plasticity may be induced by stimulation of the NMDA receptor which, among its activities, increases cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) through the nitric oxide synthase pathway. cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II (cGKII) is ultimately activated via this mechanism and AMPA receptor subunit GluA1 is phosphorylated at serine 845. This phosphorylation contributes to the delivery of GluA1 to the synapse, a step that increases synaptic strength. Previous studies have shown that cGKII-deficient mice display striking spatial learning deficits in the Morris Water Maze compared to wild-type littermates as well as lowered GluA1 phosphorylation in the postsynaptic density of the prefrontal cortex (Serulle et al., 2007; Wincott et al., 2013). In the current study, we show that cGKII knockout mice exhibit impaired working memory as determined using the prefrontal cortex-dependent Radial Arm Maze (RAM). Additionally, we report reduced repetitive behavior in the Marble Burying task (MB), and heightened anxiety-like traits in the Novelty Suppressed Feeding Test (NSFT). These data suggest that cGKII may play a role in the integration of information that conveys both anxiety-provoking stimuli as well as the spatial and environmental cues that facilitate functional memory processes and appropriate behavioral response. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Τhe observational and empirical thermospheric CO2 and NO power do not exhibit power-law behavior; an indication of their reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varotsos, C. A.; Efstathiou, M. N.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we investigate the evolution of the energy emitted by CO2 and NO from the Earth's thermosphere on a global scale using both observational and empirically derived data. In the beginning, we analyze the daily power observations of CO2 and NO received from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) equipment on the NASA Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite for the entire period 2002-2016. We then perform the same analysis on the empirical daily power emitted by CO2 and NO that were derived recently from the infrared energy budget of the thermosphere during 1947-2016. The tool used for the analysis of the observational and empirical datasets is the detrended fluctuation analysis, in order to investigate whether the power emitted by CO2 and by NO from the thermosphere exhibits power-law behavior. The results obtained from both observational and empirical data do not support the establishment of the power-law behavior. This conclusion reveals that the empirically derived data are characterized by the same intrinsic properties as those of the observational ones, thus enhancing the validity of their reliability.

  16. Congenital Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tube defects. However, there is also a genetic influence to this type of congenital anomaly. Unknown Causes The vast majority of congenital abnormalities have no known cause. This is particularly troubling for parents who plan to have more children, because there is no way to predict if ...

  17. The novel mouse mutant, chuzhoi, has disruption of Ptk7 protein and exhibits defects in neural tube, heart and lung development and abnormal planar cell polarity in the ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paudyal Anju

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The planar cell polarity (PCP signalling pathway is fundamental to a number of key developmental events, including initiation of neural tube closure. Disruption of the PCP pathway causes the severe neural tube defect of craniorachischisis, in which almost the entire brain and spinal cord fails to close. Identification of mouse mutants with craniorachischisis has proven a powerful way of identifying molecules that are components or regulators of the PCP pathway. In addition, identification of an allelic series of mutants, including hypomorphs and neomorphs in addition to complete nulls, can provide novel genetic tools to help elucidate the function of the PCP proteins. Results We report the identification of a new N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU-induced mutant with craniorachischisis, which we have named chuzhoi (chz. We demonstrate that chuzhoi mutant embryos fail to undergo initiation of neural tube closure, and have characteristics consistent with defective convergent extension. These characteristics include a broadened midline and reduced rate of increase of their length-to-width ratio. In addition, we demonstrate disruption in the orientation of outer hair cells in the inner ear, and defects in heart and lung development in chuzhoi mutants. We demonstrate a genetic interaction between chuzhoi mutants and both Vangl2Lp and Celsr1Crsh mutants, strengthening the hypothesis that chuzhoi is involved in regulating the PCP pathway. We demonstrate that chuzhoi maps to Chromosome 17 and carries a splice site mutation in Ptk7. This mutation results in the insertion of three amino acids into the Ptk7 protein and causes disruption of Ptk7 protein expression in chuzhoi mutants. Conclusions The chuzhoi mutant provides an additional genetic resource to help investigate the developmental basis of several congenital abnormalities including neural tube, heart and lung defects and their relationship to disruption of PCP. The chuzhoi mutation

  18. Abnormal hippocampal BDNF and miR-16 expression is associated with depression-like behaviors induced by stress during early life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Bai

    Full Text Available Some environmental stressors lead to the onset of depression via inhibiting hippocampal BDNF expression, but other environmental stressors-induced depression exhibits no change in BDNF expression. The underlying mechanisms behind the divergence remain unknown. In this study, depression-like behaviors were induced in rats by maternal deprivation (MD and chronic unpredictable stress (CUPS. Depression-like behaviors were tested by open field test, forced swimming test, and sucrose consumption test. BDNF and miR-16 expressions in the hippocampus were examined by real-time PCR. MD and CUPS rats crawled less distance, exhibited decreased vertical activity, and produced more fecal pellets than control rats in the open field test. However, MD rats crawled less distance and produced significantly less fecal pellets than CUPS rats. In the forced swimming and sucrose consumption tests, CUPS and MD rats exhibited longer floating time and consumed less sucrose than control rats, but MD rats exhibited shorter floating time and consumed less sucrose than CUPS rats. MD but not CUPS rats showed lower BDNF mRNA and higher miR-16 expression than control rats. In MD rats, BDNF mRNA expression negatively correlated with the expression of miR-16. BDNF expression positively correlated with the total distance rats crawled and vertical activity in the open field test while miR-16 expression negatively correlated the two behaviors. BDNF positively correlated with sucrose preference rate while miR-16 negatively correlated with sucrose preference rate of the sucrose consumption test. Our study suggests that MD and CUPS induced different depression-like behaviors in rats. Depression induced by MD but not CUPS was significantly associated with upregulation of miR-16 and possibly subsequent downregulation of BDNF in hippocampus.

  19. Light rescues circadian behavior and brain dopamine abnormalities in diurnal rodents exposed to a winter-like photoperiod

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Itzhacki, Jacob; Clesse, Daniel; Goumon, Yannick; Van Someren, Eus J; Mendoza, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), beyond mood changes, is characterized by alterations in daily rhythms of behavior and physiology. The pathophysiological conditions of SAD involve changes in day length and its first-line treatment is bright light therapy. Animal models using nocturnal rodents have

  20. Abnormal meiotic behavior in three species of Crotalaria Comportamento meiótico anormal em três espécies de Crotalaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Ferreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare the meiotic behavior and pollen grain viability of three species of Crotalaria. Slides for meiotic analysis were prepared by the air-drying technique. Pollen grain viability was measured by three staining procedures (Alexander's solution, tetrazolium chloride and fluorescein diacetate and in vitro germination in a sucrose solution. Eight bivalents were observed, confirming previous reports on populations from other regions of Brazil, as well as from other countries. All species showed abnormal meiotic behavior as follows: in Crotalaria micans, cytomixis and abnormal chromosome pairing in diakinesis; in C. spectabilis, abnormal chromosome pairing in diplotene; in C. zanzibarica, shrunk nuclei in leptotene and zygotene. Pollen grains of all three species show low viability, which may be associated with the irregularities of the meiotic behavior.O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o comportamento meiótico e a viabilidade dos grãos de pólen de três espécies de Crotalaria. A análise meiótica foi realizada por meio da técnica de secagem ao ar. A viabilidade dos grãos de pólen foi avaliada por testes de coloração (corante de Alexander, cloreto de tetrazólio e diacetato de fluoresceína e por teste de germinação em solução de sacarose. Foram observados oito bivalentes, confirmando relatos prévios em populações de outras regiões do Brasil e de outros países. As três espécies apresentaram comportamento meiótico irregular: em Crotalaria micans, citomixia e pareamento irregular na diacinese; em C. spectabilis, pareamento irregular no diplóteno; e em C. zanzibarica, núcleo fortemente condensado nas fases de leptóteno e zigóteno. A viabilidade dos grãos de pólen das três espécies é baixa, o que pode estar associado às irregularidades do comportamento meiótico.

  1. Behavioral Abnormalities and Circuit Defects in the Basal Ganglia of a Mouse Model of 16p11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Portmann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A deletion on human chromosome 16p11.2 is associated with autism spectrum disorders. We deleted the syntenic region on mouse chromosome 7F3. MRI and high-throughput single-cell transcriptomics revealed anatomical and cellular abnormalities, particularly in cortex and striatum of juvenile mutant mice (16p11+/−. We found elevated numbers of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs expressing the dopamine D2 receptor (Drd2+ and fewer dopamine-sensitive (Drd1+ neurons in deep layers of cortex. Electrophysiological recordings of Drd2+ MSN revealed synaptic defects, suggesting abnormal basal ganglia circuitry function in 16p11+/− mice. This is further supported by behavioral experiments showing hyperactivity, circling, and deficits in movement control. Strikingly, 16p11+/− mice showed a complete lack of habituation reminiscent of what is observed in some autistic individuals. Our findings unveil a fundamental role of genes affected by the 16p11.2 deletion in establishing the basal ganglia circuitry and provide insights in the pathophysiology of autism.

  2. Abnormal Gray Matter Shape, Thickness, and Volume in the Motor Cortico-Subcortical Loop in Idiopathic Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder: Association with Clinical and Motor Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayel, Shady; Postuma, Ronald B; Montplaisir, Jacques; Bedetti, Christophe; Brambati, Simona; Carrier, Julie; Monchi, Oury; Bourgouin, Pierre-Alexandre; Gaubert, Malo; Gagnon, Jean-François

    2018-02-01

    Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is a major risk factor for Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Anatomical gray matter abnormalities in the motor cortico-subcortical loop areas remain under studied in iRBD patients. We acquired T1-weighted images and administrated quantitative motor tasks in 41 patients with polysomnography-confirmed iRBD and 41 healthy subjects. Cortical thickness and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses were performed to investigate local cortical thickness and gray matter volume changes, vertex-based shape analysis to investigate shape of subcortical structures, and structure-based volumetric analyses to investigate volumes of subcortical and brainstem structures. Cortical thickness analysis revealed thinning in iRBD patients in bilateral medial superior frontal, orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate cortices, and the right dorsolateral primary motor cortex. VBM results showed lower gray matter volume in iRBD patients in the frontal lobes, anterior cingulate gyri, and caudate nucleus. Shape analysis revealed extensive surface contraction in the external and internal segments of the left pallidum. Clinical and motor impaired features in iRBD were associated with anomalies of the motor cortico-subcortical loop. In summary, iRBD patients showed numerous gray matter structural abnormalities in the motor cortico-subcortical loop, which are associated with lower motor performance and clinical manifestations of iRBD. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Principles of Practical Training Organization in a Networking (Development of the Module "Psychological Prevention of Behavioral Disorders and Abnormalities in Development" as Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanovich N. V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents principles of inserting study subjects and practices in educational modules running with network organizations (internship sites. We proposed a methodological basis of the modular organization of educational process in the framework of the master's program, combied the activity, competence and psychotechnical approaches. Networking of leading chair and specially selected organizations providing the base for practical training solves the problem of organizing activity-related content of educational module. We discussed the main options for networking with the databases of practice and offered methodological principles of designing the educational practice-oriented module, wherein the main principle is the reflexive and activity character of networking. We proposed activity-based content of educational module "Psychological prevention of behavioral disorders and abnormalities in development", based on the substantial psychological definition of psychoprophylaxis as a directions of professional activity of the psychologist.

  4. Sleep and Sex: What Can Go Wrong? A Review of the Literature on Sleep Related Disorders and Abnormal Sexual Behaviors and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Carlos H.; Arnulf, Isabelle; Mahowald, Mark W.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To formulate the first classification of sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. Design: A computerized literature search was conducted, and other sources, such as textbooks, were searched. Results: Many categories of sleep related disorders were represented in the classification: parasomnias (confusional arousals/sleepwalking, with or without obstructive sleep apnea; REM sleep behavior disorder); sleep related seizures; Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS); severe chronic insomnia; restless legs syndrome; narcolepsy; sleep exacerbation of persistent sexual arousal syndrome; sleep related painful erections; sleep related dissociative disorders; nocturnal psychotic disorders; miscellaneous states. Kleine-Levin syndrome (78 cases) and parasomnias (31 cases) were most frequently reported. Parasomnias and sleep related seizures had overlapping and divergent clinical features. Thirty-one cases of parasomnias (25 males; mean age, 32 years) and 7 cases of sleep related seizures (4 males; mean age, 38 years) were identified. A full range of sleep related sexual behaviors with self and/or bed partners or others were reported, including masturbation, sexual vocalizations, fondling, sexual intercourse with climax, sexual assault/rape, ictal sexual hyperarousal, ictal orgasm, and ictal automatism. Adverse physical and/or psychosocial effects from the sleepsex were present in all parasomnia and sleep related seizure cases, but pleasurable effects were reported by 5 bed partners and by 3 patients with sleep related seizures. Forensic consequences were common, occurring in 35.5% (11/31) of parasomnia cases, with most (9/11) involving minors. All parasomnias cases reported amnesia for the sleepsex, in contrast to 28.6% (2/7) of sleep related seizure cases. Polysomnography (without penile tumescence monitoring), performed in 26 of 31 parasomnia cases, documented sexual moaning from slow wave sleep in 3 cases and sexual intercourse during

  5. Abnormal brain iron metabolism in Irp2 deficient mice is associated with mild neurological and behavioral impairments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly B Zumbrennen-Bullough

    Full Text Available Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (Irp2, Ireb2 is a central regulator of cellular iron homeostasis in vertebrates. Two global knockout mouse models have been generated to explore the role of Irp2 in regulating iron metabolism. While both mouse models show that loss of Irp2 results in microcytic anemia and altered body iron distribution, discrepant results have drawn into question the role of Irp2 in regulating brain iron metabolism. One model shows that aged Irp2 deficient mice develop adult-onset progressive neurodegeneration that is associated with axonal degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells in the central nervous system. These mice show iron deposition in white matter tracts and oligodendrocyte soma throughout the brain. A contrasting model of global Irp2 deficiency shows no overt or pathological signs of neurodegeneration or brain iron accumulation, and display only mild motor coordination and balance deficits when challenged by specific tests. Explanations for conflicting findings in the severity of the clinical phenotype, brain iron accumulation and neuronal degeneration remain unclear. Here, we describe an additional mouse model of global Irp2 deficiency. Our aged Irp2-/- mice show marked iron deposition in white matter and in oligodendrocytes while iron content is significantly reduced in neurons. Ferritin and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1, Tfrc, expression are increased and decreased, respectively, in the brain from Irp2-/- mice. These mice show impairments in locomotion, exploration, motor coordination/balance and nociception when assessed by neurological and behavioral tests, but lack overt signs of neurodegenerative disease. Ultrastructural studies of specific brain regions show no evidence of neurodegeneration. Our data suggest that Irp2 deficiency dysregulates brain iron metabolism causing cellular dysfunction that ultimately leads to mild neurological, behavioral and nociceptive impairments.

  6. Prenatal Immune Challenge in Mice Leads to Partly Sex-Dependent Behavioral, Microglial, and Molecular Abnormalities Associated with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin W. Hui

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies revealed that environmental factors comprising prenatal infection are strongly linked to risk for later development of neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Considering strong sex differences in schizophrenia and its increased prevalence in males, we designed a methodological approach to investigate possible sex differences in pathophysiological mechanisms. Prenatal immune challenge was modeled by systemic administration of the viral mimic polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C to C57BL/6 mice at embryonic day 9.5. The consequences on behavior, gene expression, and microglia—brain immune cells that are critical for normal development—were characterized in male vs. female offspring at adulthood. The cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum, regions where structural and functional alterations were mainly described in schizophrenia patients, were selected for cellular and molecular analyses. Confocal and electron microscopy revealed most pronounced differences in microglial distribution, arborization, cellular stress, and synaptic interactions in the hippocampus of male vs. female offspring exposed to Poly I:C. Sex differences in microglia were also measured under both steady-state and Poly I:C conditions. These microglial alterations were accompanied by behavioral impairment, affecting for instance sensorimotor gating, in males. Consistent with these results, increased expression of genes related to inflammation was measured in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of males challenged with Poly I:C. Overall, these findings suggest that schizophrenia's higher incidence in males might be associated, among other mechanisms, with an increased microglial reactivity to prenatal immune challenges, hence determining disease outcomes into adulthood.

  7. Electronic structures and abnormal phonon behaviors of cobalt-modified Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-6%BaTiO3 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T.; Zhang, P.; Xu, L. P.; Chen, C.; Zhang, J. Z.; Hu, Z. G.; Luo, H. S.; Chu, J. H.

    2016-10-01

    Optical properties, electronic structures, and structural variations of x wt% cobalt (Co) doped Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-6%BaTiO3 (x=0%, 0.5%, 0.8%) single crystals have been studied by temperature-dependent optical ellipsometry and Raman spectra from 250 to 650 K. Based on the temperature evolution of electronic transitions (Ecp1 and Ecp2) and the phonon modes involving Ti-O vibrations, two critical temperature points exhibit an increasing trend with Co dopants, which are related to structural variations for ferroelectric to anti-ferroelectric, and anti-ferroelectric to paraelectric transition, respectively. Additionally, distinguishing abnormal phonon behaviors can be observed from Raman spectra for the crystal of x=0.5% and 0.8%, which show reverse frequency shift of the modes involving Ti-O vibration. It can be ascribed to different relative concentration of Co2+ and Co3+ in the crystals, which has been confirmed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy data.

  8. Electronic structures and abnormal phonon behaviors of cobalt-modified Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-6%BaTiO3 single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Optical properties, electronic structures, and structural variations of x wt% cobalt (Co doped Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-6%BaTiO3 (x=0%, 0.5%, 0.8% single crystals have been studied by temperature-dependent optical ellipsometry and Raman spectra from 250 to 650 K. Based on the temperature evolution of electronic transitions (Ecp1 and Ecp2 and the phonon modes involving Ti-O vibrations, two critical temperature points exhibit an increasing trend with Co dopants, which are related to structural variations for ferroelectric to anti-ferroelectric, and anti-ferroelectric to paraelectric transition, respectively. Additionally, distinguishing abnormal phonon behaviors can be observed from Raman spectra for the crystal of x=0.5% and 0.8%, which show reverse frequency shift of the modes involving Ti-O vibration. It can be ascribed to different relative concentration of Co2+ and Co3+ in the crystals, which has been confirmed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy data.

  9. Ablation of Mrds1/Ofcc1 Induces Hyper-γ-Glutamyl Transpeptidasemia without Abnormal Head Development and Schizophrenia-Relevant Behaviors in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Tetsuo; Yamada, Kazuo; Watanabe, Akiko; Ohba, Hisako; Sakaguchi, Toru; Honma, Yota; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Toyota, Tomoko; Maekawa, Motoko; Watanabe, Kazutada; Detera-Wadleigh, Sevilla D.; Wakana, Shigeharu; Yoshikawa, Takeo

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the Opo gene result in eye malformation in medaka fish. The human ortholog of this gene, MRDS1/OFCC1, is a potentially causal gene for orofacial cleft, as well as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia, a devastating mental illness. Based on this evidence, we hypothesized that this gene could perform crucial functions in the development of head and brain structures in vertebrates. To test this hypothesis, we created Mrds1/Ofcc1-null mice. Mice were examined thoroughly using an abnormality screening system referred to as “the Japan Mouse Clinic”. No malformations of the head structure, eye or other parts of the body were apparent in these knockout mice. However, the mutant mice showed a marked increase in serum γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), a marker for liver damage, but no abnormalities in other liver-related measurements. We also performed a family-based association study on the gene in schizophrenia samples of Japanese origin. We found five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located across the gene that showed significant transmission distortion, supporting a prior report of association in a Caucasian cohort. However, the knockout mice showed no behavioral phenotypes relevant to schizophrenia. In conclusion, disruption of the Mrds1/Ofcc1 gene elicits asymptomatic hyper-γ-glutamyl-transpeptidasemia in mice. However, there were no phenotypes to support a role for the gene in the development of eye and craniofacial structures in vertebrates. These results prompt further examination of the gene, including its putative contribution to hyper-γ-glutamyl transpeptidasemia and schizophrenia. PMID:22242126

  10. Ablation of Mrds1/Ofcc1 induces hyper-γ-glutamyl transpeptidasemia without abnormal head development and schizophrenia-relevant behaviors in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Ohnishi

    Full Text Available Mutations in the Opo gene result in eye malformation in medaka fish. The human ortholog of this gene, MRDS1/OFCC1, is a potentially causal gene for orofacial cleft, as well as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia, a devastating mental illness. Based on this evidence, we hypothesized that this gene could perform crucial functions in the development of head and brain structures in vertebrates. To test this hypothesis, we created Mrds1/Ofcc1-null mice. Mice were examined thoroughly using an abnormality screening system referred to as "the Japan Mouse Clinic". No malformations of the head structure, eye or other parts of the body were apparent in these knockout mice. However, the mutant mice showed a marked increase in serum γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, a marker for liver damage, but no abnormalities in other liver-related measurements. We also performed a family-based association study on the gene in schizophrenia samples of Japanese origin. We found five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs located across the gene that showed significant transmission distortion, supporting a prior report of association in a Caucasian cohort. However, the knockout mice showed no behavioral phenotypes relevant to schizophrenia. In conclusion, disruption of the Mrds1/Ofcc1 gene elicits asymptomatic hyper-γ-glutamyl-transpeptidasemia in mice. However, there were no phenotypes to support a role for the gene in the development of eye and craniofacial structures in vertebrates. These results prompt further examination of the gene, including its putative contribution to hyper-γ-glutamyl transpeptidasemia and schizophrenia.

  11. Lack of parvalbumin in mice leads to behavioral deficits relevant to all human autism core symptoms and related neural morphofunctional abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhr, M; Orduz, D; Gregory, P; Moreno, H; Khan, U; Vörckel, K J; Wolfer, D P; Welzl, H; Gall, D; Schiffmann, S N; Schwaller, B

    2015-03-10

    Gene mutations and gene copy number variants are associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Affected gene products are often part of signaling networks implicated in synapse formation and/or function leading to alterations in the excitation/inhibition (E/I) balance. Although the network of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons has gained particular attention in ASD, little is known on PV's putative role with respect to ASD. Genetic mouse models represent powerful translational tools for studying the role of genetic and neurobiological factors underlying ASD. Here, we report that PV knockout mice (PV(-/-)) display behavioral phenotypes with relevance to all three core symptoms present in human ASD patients: abnormal reciprocal social interactions, impairments in communication and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior. PV-depleted mice also showed several signs of ASD-associated comorbidities, such as reduced pain sensitivity and startle responses yet increased seizure susceptibility, whereas no evidence for behavioral phenotypes with relevance to anxiety, depression and schizophrenia was obtained. Reduced social interactions and communication were also observed in heterozygous (PV(+/-)) mice characterized by lower PV expression levels, indicating that merely a decrease in PV levels might be sufficient to elicit core ASD-like deficits. Structural magnetic resonance imaging measurements in PV(-/-) and PV(+/-) mice further revealed ASD-associated developmental neuroanatomical changes, including transient cortical hypertrophy and cerebellar hypoplasia. Electrophysiological experiments finally demonstrated that the E/I balance in these mice is altered by modification of both inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission. On the basis of the reported changes in PV expression patterns in several, mostly genetic rodent models of ASD, we propose that in these models downregulation of PV might represent one of the points of convergence, thus providing a

  12. Neurologic abnormalities in murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, P Y; Pincus, J H; Buckner, C

    1995-09-01

    Thirty-one individuals awaiting trial or sentencing for murder or undergoing an appeal process requested a neurologic examination through legal counsel. We attempted in each instance to obtain EEG, MRI or CT, and neuropsychological testing. Neurologic examination revealed evidence of "frontal" dysfunction in 20 (64.5%). There were symptoms or some other evidence of temporal lobe abnormality in nine (29%). We made a specific neurologic diagnosis in 20 individuals (64.5%), including borderline or full mental retardation (9) and cerebral palsy (2), among others. Neuropsychological testing revealed abnormalities in all subjects tested. There were EEG abnormalities in eight of the 20 subjects tested, consisting mainly of bilateral sharp waves with slowing. There were MRI or CT abnormalities in nine of the 19 subjects tested, consisting primarily of atrophy and white matter changes. Psychiatric diagnoses included paranoid schizophrenia (8), dissociative disorder (4), and depression (9). Virtually all subjects had paranoid ideas and misunderstood social situations. There was a documented history of profound, protracted physical abuse in 26 (83.8%) and of sexual abuse in 10 (32.3%). It is likely that prolonged, severe physical abuse, paranoia, and neurologic brain dysfunction interact to form the matrix of violent behavior.

  13. Who exhibits more energy-saving behavior in direct and indirect ways in china? The role of psychological factors and socio-demographics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shu; Zhang, Yanbing; Zhao, Dingtao

    2016-01-01

    This research explores the possibilities for further energy saving in households in the Chinese context by conducting of a survey on energy curtailment behaviors. We examine how people's demographic characteristics and psychological factors affect their direct and indirect energy curtailment behaviors at home, as well as the different effects of these antecedents. Results suggest that people with high sense of environmental responsibility and curtailment attitude are more likely to engage in both direct and indirect energy curtailment actions. Generally, indirect energy curtailment behavior is more strongly related to psychological and socio-demographic factors than direct behavior, and these socio-demographic factors vary for direct and indirect behaviors. Interesting patterns emerged with respect to gender, age, family structure, family income, and level of education. Results indicate that strengthening publicity and education to increase environmental awareness among Chinese urban residents would be effective in reducing household energy consumption, especially when the said measures target a specific population and specific behaviors. - Highlights: •A survey is used to explore Chinese urban residents' energy curtailment behaviors. •Make a distinction between direct and indirect energy curtailment behaviors. •Effects of demographic and psychological variables are different on two behaviors. •Policy should target at specific behaviors and specific population.

  14. Prevalence of abnormal eating behaviors in adolescents in Mexico: Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 Prevalencia de conductas alimentarias anormales de adolescentes en México: Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición ENSANUT 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Armando Barriguete-Meléndez; Claudia Unikel-Santoncini; Carlos Aguilar-Salinas; José Ángel Córdoba-Villalobos; Teresa Shamah; Simón Barquera; Juan A Rivera; Mauricio Hernández-Ávila

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of abnormal eating behaviors in a population-based nationwide survey. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A stratified, probabilistic, multistage design sampling process was used. The Brief Questionnaire for Risky Eating Behaviors was included in the Mexican Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006) and administered to participants 10-19 years old (n= 25 166). The study had the power to describe nationwide characteristics by age, regions and urban/rural settings....

  15. Nocturnal agitation in Huntington disease is caused by arousal-related abnormal movements rather than by rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neutel, Dulce; Tchikviladzé, Maya; Charles, Perrine; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Roze, Emmanuel; Durr, Alexandra; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2015-06-01

    Patients with Huntington disease (HD) and their spouses often complain of agitation during sleep, but the causes are mostly unknown. To evaluate sleep and nocturnal movements in patients with various HD stages and CAG repeats length. The clinical features and sleep studies of 29 patients with HD were retrospectively collected (11 referred for genotype-phenotype correlations and 18 for agitation during sleep) and compared with those of 29 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. All patients had videopolysomnography, but the movements during arousals were re-analyzed in six patients with HD with stored video. The patients had a longer total sleep period and REM sleep onset latency, but no other differences in sleep than controls. There was no correlation between CAG repeat length and sleep measures, but total sleep time and sleep efficiency were lower in the subgroup with moderate than milder form of HD. Periodic limb movements and REM sleep behavior disorders were excluded, although 2/29 patients had abnormal REM sleep without atonia. In contrast, they had clumsy and opisthotonos-like movements during arousals from non-REM or REM sleep. Some movements were violent and harmful. They might consist of voluntary movements inappropriately involving the proximal part of the limbs on a background of exaggerated hypotonia. Giant (>65 mcV) sleep spindles were observed in seven (24%) patients with HD and one control. The nocturnal agitation in patients with HD seems related to anosognostic voluntary movements on arousals, rather than to REM sleep behavior disorder and other sleep problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Britain exhibition at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Bertin; CERN PhotoLab

    1969-01-01

    The United Kingdom inaugurated the Industrial Exhibitions in 1968, and it wasn't till 1971 that other countries staged exhibitions at CERN. This photo was taken in 1969, at the second British exhibition, where 16 companies were present.

  17. Sexting Behaviors Exhibited by Men Who Have Sex with Men Between the Ages of 18-70 Who Live in a Socially Conservative State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currin, Joseph M; Hubach, Randolph D

    2017-07-01

    Sexting, defined as the sending and receiving of sexually suggestive or sexually explicit text or photos, has been growing in prevalence. Recent studies have demonstrated that over half of individuals sampled over 17 and regardless of gender participate in some type of sexting behavior. Most studies on sexting behaviors, including those looking at men who have sex with men (MSM) focus on emerging adult or university-based populations. The goal of the current study was to sample a nonuniversity-based MSM adult population to determine the prevalence of sexting behavior and the odds that a person engages in sexting behaviors based on certain sexual behaviors. The sample consisted of 213 MSM (mean age = 34.8 years, standard deviation [STD] = 12.1) who reside in Oklahoma. The majority of participants (133, 62.4 percent) participated in sexting behaviors. Logistic regression indicated that individuals had 10 times higher odds to engage in sexting if they had participated in a hookup (odds ratio [OR] = 10.44, 95% CI = [4.16-26.25]) and individuals who are married or in a committed relationship had 71 percent lower odds that they had sent a sext message (OR = 0.29, 95% CI = [0.12-0.71]). Sexting behaviors were not associated with condom use. Implications, including using third-party geolocation mobile application (such as Grindr) to deliver sexual health information, are discussed.

  18. White and gray matter abnormalities in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: a diffusion-tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherfler, Christoph; Frauscher, Birgit; Schocke, Michael; Iranzo, Alex; Gschliesser, Viola; Seppi, Klaus; Santamaria, Joan; Tolosa, Eduardo; Högl, Birgit; Poewe, Werner

    2011-02-01

    We applied diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) including measurements of mean diffusivity (MD), a parameter of brain tissue integrity, fractional anisotropy (FA), a parameter of neuronal fiber integrity, as well as voxel-based morphometry (VBM), a measure of gray and white matter volume, to detect brain tissue changes in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 26 patients with iRBD (mean disease duration, 9.2 ± 6.4 years) and 14 age-matched healthy control subjects. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was applied to objectively identify focal changes of MRI parameters throughout the entire brain volume. SPM localized significant decreases of FA in the tegmentum of the midbrain and rostral pons and increases of MD within the pontine reticular formation overlapping with a cluster of decreased FA in the midbrain (p < 0.001). VBM revealed increases of gray matter densities in both hippocampi of iRBD patients (p < 0.001). The observed changes in the pontomesencephalic brainstem localized 2 areas harboring key neuronal circuits believed to be involved in the regulation of REM sleep and overlap with areas of structural brainstem damage causing symptomatic RBD in humans. Bilateral increases in gray matter density of the hippocampus suggest functional neuronal reorganization in this brain area in iRBD. This study indicates that DTI detects distinct structural brainstem tissue abnormalities in iRBD in the regions where REM is modulated. Further studies should explore the relationship between MRI pathology and the risk of patients with iRBD of developing alpha-synuclein-related neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson disease. Copyright © 2010 American Neurological Association.

  19. Furnished cage system and hen well-being: Comparative effects of furnished cages and battery cages on behavioral exhibitions in White Leghorn chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohle, K; Cheng, H-W

    2009-08-01

    The battery cage system is being banned in the European Union before or by 2012, and the furnished cage system will be the only cage system allowed after 2012. This study was conducted to examine the different effects of caging systems, furnished cages vs. battery cages, on bird behaviors. One hundred ninety-two 1-d-old non-beak-trimmed Hy-Line W-36 White Leghorn chicks were reared using standard management practices in raised wire cages. At 19 wk of age, the birds were randomly assigned into battery cages or furnished cages. The battery cages were commercial wire cages containing 6 birds per cage, providing 645 cm(2) of floor space per birds. The furnished cages had wire floors and solid metal walls, with perches, a dustbathing area, scratch pads, and a nestbox area with a concealment curtain. Based on the company recommendations, 10 birds were housed per cage, providing a stocking density of 610 cm(2) of floor space per bird. Behavioral observations were conducted using the Noldus Observer software package. The birds were observed at 5-min intervals for the entire light period. The birds housed in battery cages had higher posture and behavioral transitions and increased time spent walking and performing exploratory behavior (P birds housed in furnished cages had higher levels of preening (P birds. These results may suggest that furnished cages may be a favorable alternative system for housing birds by allowing them to perform certain natural behaviors.

  20. Rats exposed to 2.45GHz of non-ionizing radiation exhibit behavioral changes with increased brain expression of apoptotic caspase 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Rini; Majumdar, Anuradha; Kumar, Girish; Shukla, Amit

    2018-03-01

    In recent years there has been a tremendous increase in use of Wi-Fi devices along with mobile phones, globally. Wi-Fi devices make use of 2.4GHz frequency. The present study evaluated the impact of 2.45GHz radiation exposure for 4h/day for 45days on behavioral and oxidative stress parameters in female Sprague Dawley rats. Behavioral tests of anxiety, learning and memory were started from day 38. Oxidative stress parameters were estimated in brain homogenates after sacrificing the rats on day 45. In morris water maze, elevated plus maze and light dark box test, the 2.45GHz radiation exposed rats elicited memory decline and anxiety behavior. Exposure decreased activities of super oxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione levels whereas increased levels of brain lipid peroxidation was encountered in the radiation exposed rats, showing compromised anti-oxidant defense. Expression of caspase 3 gene in brain samples were quantified which unraveled notable increase in the apoptotic marker caspase 3 in 2.45GHz radiation exposed group as compared to sham exposed group. No significant changes were observed in histopathological examinations and brain levels of TNF-α. Analysis of dendritic arborization of neurons showcased reduction in number of dendritic branching and intersections which corresponds to alteration in dendritic structure of neurons, affecting neuronal signaling. The study clearly indicates that exposure of rats to microwave radiation of 2.45GHz leads to detrimental changes in brain leading to lowering of learning and memory and expression of anxiety behavior in rats along with fall in brain antioxidant enzyme systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Feeding the developing brain: Juvenile rats fed diet rich in prebiotics and bioactive milk fractions exhibit reduced anxiety-related behavior and modified gene expression in emotion circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Agnieszka; Gaffney, Michelle; Roller, Rachel; Hills, Abigail; Bouchet, Courtney A; Hulen, Kristina A; Thompson, Robert S; Chichlowski, Maciej; Berg, Brian M; Fleshner, Monika

    2018-01-30

    Early life nutrition is critical for brain development. Dietary prebiotics and bioactive milk fractions support brain development by increasing plasticity and altering activity in brain regions important for cognition and emotion regulation, perhaps through the gut-microbiome-brain axis. Here we examined the impact of a diet containing prebiotics, lactoferrin, and milk fat globule membrane (test diet) on beneficial gut bacteria, basal gene expression for activity and plasticity markers within brain circuits important for cognition and anxiety, and anxiety-related behavior in the open field. Juvenile male F344 rats were fed the test diet or a calorically matched control diet beginning postnatal day 24. After 4 weeks on diets, rats were sacrificed and brains were removed. Test diet significantly increased mRNA expression for cfos, brain derived neurotropic factor, and the GluN1 subunit of the NMDA receptor in the prefrontal cortex and reduced cfos mRNA within the amygdala. Diet-induced increases in fecal Lactobacillus spp., measured using selective bacterial culture, positively correlated with altered gene expression for cfos and serotonin receptors within multiple brain regions. In a separate cohort of juvenile rats, 4 weeks of the test diet increased time spent in the center of the open field, a behavior indicative of reduced anxiety. These data demonstrate that early life diets containing prebiotics and bioactive milk fractions can adaptively alter genes in neural circuits underlying emotion regulation and decrease anxiety-related behavior. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Digital collections and exhibits

    CERN Document Server

    Denzer, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Today's libraries are taking advantage of cutting-edge technologies such as flat panel displays using touch, sound, and hands-free motions to design amazing exhibits using everything from simple computer hardware to advanced technologies such as the Microsoft Kinect. Libraries of all types are striving to add new interactive experiences for their patrons through exciting digital exhibits, both online and off. Digital Collections and Exhibits takes away the mystery of designing stunning digital exhibits to spotlight library trea

  3. Exhibiting Epistemic Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybjerg, Karin

    2017-01-01

    of exhibiting epistemic objects that utilize their knowledge-generating potential and allow them to continue to stimulate curiosity and generate knowledge in the exhibition. The epistemic potential of the objects can then be made to work together with the function of the exhibition as a knowledge-generating set...

  4. Discrimination? - Exhibition of posters

    OpenAIRE

    Jakimovska, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Participation in the exhibition with the students form the Art Academy. The exhibition consisted of 15 posters tackling the subjects of hate speech and discrimination. The exhibition happened thanks to the invitation of the Faculty of Law at UGD, and it was a part of a larger event of launching books on the aforementioned subjects.

  5. Daily oral intake of theanine prevents the decline of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation in hippocampal dentate gyrus with concomitant alleviation of behavioral abnormalities in adult mice with severe traumatic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Takarada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder is a long-lasting psychiatric disease with the consequence of hippocampal atrophy in humans exposed to severe fatal stress. We demonstrated a positive correlation between the transient decline of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU incorporation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG and long-lasting behavioral abnormalities in mice with traumatic stress. Here, we investigated pharmacological properties of theanine on the declined BrdU incorporation and abnormal behaviors in mice with traumatic stress. Prior daily oral administration of theanine at 50–500 mg/kg for 5 days significantly prevented the decline of BrdU incorporation, while theanine significantly prevented the decline in the DG even when administered for 5 days after stress. Consecutive daily administration of theanine significantly inhibited the prolonged immobility in mice with stress in forced swimming test seen 14 days later. Although traumatic stress significantly increased spontaneous locomotor activity over 30 min even when determined 14 days later, the increased total locomotion was significantly ameliorated following the administration of theanine at 50 mg/kg for 14 days after stress. These results suggest that theanine alleviates behavioral abnormalities together with prevention of the transient decline of BrdU incorporation in the hippocampal DG in adult mice with severe traumatic stress.

  6. GPR39 (zinc receptor) knockout mice exhibit depression-like behavior and CREB/BDNF down-regulation in the hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Młyniec, Katarzyna; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Holst, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    Background: Zinc may act as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system by activation of the GPR39 metabotropic receptors. Methods: In the present study, we investigated whether GPR39 knockout would cause depressive-like and/or anxiety-like behavior, as measured by the forced swim test, tail...... investigated activity in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis under both zinc- and GPR39-deficient conditions. Zinc-deficient mice had higher serum corticosterone levels and lower glucocorticoid receptor levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Conclusions: There were no changes in the GPR39 knockout...

  7. GPR39 (zinc receptor) knockout mice exhibit depression-like behavior and CREB/BDNF down-regulation in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Młyniec, Katarzyna; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Holst, Birgitte; Ostachowicz, Beata; Nowak, Gabriel

    2014-10-31

    Zinc may act as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system by activation of the GPR39 metabotropic receptors. In the present study, we investigated whether GPR39 knockout would cause depressive-like and/or anxiety-like behavior, as measured by the forced swim test, tail suspension test, and light/dark test. We also investigated whether lack of GPR39 would change levels of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB),brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin related kinase B (TrkB) protein in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of GPR39 knockout mice subjected to the forced swim test, as measured by Western-blot analysis. In this study, GPR39 knockout mice showed an increased immobility time in both the forced swim test and tail suspension test, indicating depressive-like behavior and displayed anxiety-like phenotype. GPR39 knockout mice had lower CREB and BDNF levels in the hippocampus, but not in the frontal cortex, which indicates region specificity for the impaired CREB/BDNF pathway (which is important in antidepressant response) in the absence of GPR39. There were no changes in TrkB protein in either structure. In the present study, we also investigated activity in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis under both zinc- and GPR39-deficient conditions. Zinc-deficient mice had higher serum corticosterone levels and lower glucocorticoid receptor levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. There were no changes in the GPR39 knockout mice in comparison with the wild-type control mice, which does not support a role of GPR39 in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation. The results of this study indicate the involvement of the GPR39 Zn(2+)-sensing receptor in the pathophysiology of depression with component of anxiety. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  8. Critical behavior of Y-doped Nd0.7Sr0.3MnO3 manganites exhibiting the tricritical point and large magnetocaloric effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan, The-Long; Ho, T.A.; Thang, P.D.; Tran, Q.T.; Thanh, T.D.; Phuc, N.X.; Phan, M.H.; Huy, B.T.; Yu, S.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Tricritical point in Y-doped Nd 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 manganites. • A large magnetic-entropy change. • Magnetic inhomogeneity and phase separation. - Abstract: We have determined the values of critical exponents of two polycrystalline samples (Nd 1−x Y x ) 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 (x = 0 and 0.07) from the magnetization data versus temperature and magnetic field, M(H, T), to learn about their magnetic and magnetocaloric (MC) properties. The results reveal the samples exhibiting the crossover of first-order and second-order phase transitions, where the exponent values β = 0.271 and γ = 0.922 for x = 0, and β = 0.234–0.236 and γ = 1.044–1.063 for x = 0.07 determined by using modified Arrott plots and static-scaling hypothesis are close to those expected for the tricritical mean-field theory (β = 0.25 and γ = 1.0). Particularly, the T C of x = 0 and 0.07 can be any value in the temperature ranges of 240–255 K and 170–278 K, respectively, depending on the magnitude of applied magnetic field and determination techniques. Around the T C , studying the MC effect of the samples has revealed a large magnetic-entropy change (ΔS m ) up to ∼8 J/kg K for the applied field interval ΔH = 50 kOe, corresponding to refrigerant capacity values of 200–245 J/kg. These phenomena are related to the crossover nature and the persisting of FM/anti-FM interactions even above the T C , as further confirmed by electron-spin-resonance data, Curie–Weiss law-based analyses, and an exponential parameter characteristic of magnetic order n = dLn|ΔS m |/dLnH

  9. Exhibition; Image display agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normazlin Ismail

    2008-01-01

    This article touches on the role of Malaysian Nuclear Agency as nuclear research institutions to promote, develop and encourage the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in its agricultural, medical, manufacturing, industrial, health and environment for the development of the country running successfully. Maturity of Malaysian Nuclear Agency in dealing with nuclear technology that are very competitive and globalization cannot be denied. On this basis Malaysian Nuclear Agency was given the responsibility to strengthen the nuclear technology in Malaysia. One way is through an exhibition featuring the research, discoveries and new technology products of the nuclear technology. Through this exhibition is to promote the nuclear technology and introduce the image of the agency in the public eye. This article also states a number of exhibits entered by the Malaysian Nuclear Agency and achievements during the last exhibition. Authors hope that the exhibition can be intensified further in the future.

  10. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  11. Tooth - abnormal colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  12. Abnormal uterine bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anovulatory bleeding; Abnormal uterine bleeding - hormonal; Polymenorrhea - dysfunctional uterine bleeding ... ACOG committee opinion no. 557: Management of acute abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-aged women. Reaffirmed 2015. www. ...

  13. Abnormal fear conditioning and amygdala processing in an animal model of autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markram, Kamila; Rinaldi, Tania; La Mendola, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    A core feature of autism spectrum disorders is the impairment in social interactions. Among other brain regions, a deficit in amygdala processing has been suggested to underlie this impairment, but whether the amygdala is processing fear abnormally in autism, is yet not clear. We used the valproic......-treated animals displayed several symptoms common to autism, among them impaired social interactions and increased repetitive behaviors. Furthermore, VPA-treated rats were more anxious and exhibited abnormally high and longer lasting fear memories, which were overgeneralized and harder to extinguish...

  14. Council Chamber exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    To complete the revamp of CERN’s Council Chamber, a new exhibition is being installed just in time for the June Council meetings.   Panels will showcase highlights of CERN’s history, using some of the content prepared for the exhibitions marking 50 years of the PS, which were displayed in the main building last November. The previous photo exhibition in the Council Chamber stopped at the 1970s. To avoid the new panels becoming quickly out of date, photos are grouped together around specific infrastructures, rather than following a classic time-line. “We have put the focus on the accelerators – the world-class facilities that CERN has been offering researchers over the years, from the well-known large colliders to the lesser-known smaller facilities,” says Emma Sanders, who worked on the content. The new exhibition will be featured in a future issue of the Bulletin with photos and an interview with Fabienne Marcastel, designer of the exhibit...

  15. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations. Fifty candles for CERN, an international laboratory renowned for fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting exhibitions of plastic arts and performances entitled: Accelerated Particles. Several works will be exhibited and performed in two 'salons'. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts From Tues 12 October to Wed 3 November 2004 Tuesdays to Fridays: 16:00 to 19:00 Saturdays: 14:00 to 18:00 Exhibition open late on performance nights, entrance free Salon des particules: Musical and visual performances Tues 12 and Mon 25 October from 20:00 to 23:00 Preview evening for both events: Tues 12 October from 18:...

  16. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's fiftieth anniversary celebrations. The fiftieth anniversary of a world famous organization like CERN, an international laboratory specializing in fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting two "salons" consisting of an exhibition of plastic arts and evenings of music and visual arts performances with the collective title of "Accelerated Particles". Several works will be exhibited and performed. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts Until Wednesday 3 November 2004. Tuesdays to Fridays: 4.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. Saturdays: 2.00 p.m. to 6.00 p.m. Doors open late on the evening of the performances. Salon des ...

  17. Phenotype abnormality: 31 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 31 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u537i abnormal for trait of behavior...al quality during process named localization of cell ... abnormal ... behavioral quality

  18. Phenotype abnormality: 44 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 44 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u550i abnormal for trait of behavior...al quality in organ named root during process named organ development ... root ... abnormal ... organ development ... behavioral quality

  19. Phenotype abnormality: 45 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 45 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u551i abnormal for trait of behavior...al quality in organ named stamen during process named organ development ... stamen ... abnormal ... organ development ... behavioral quality

  20. Phenotype abnormality: 37 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 37 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u543i abnormal for trait of behavior...al quality in organ named cotyledon during process named organ development ... cotyledon ... abnormal ... organ development ... behavioral quality

  1. Phenotype abnormality: 47 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 47 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u553i abnormal for trait of behavior...al quality in organ named thylakoid membrane during process named thylakoid membrane organization ... abnormal ... behavioral quality

  2. Phenotype abnormality: 39 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 39 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u545i abnormal for trait of behavior...al quality in organ named flower during process named organ development ... flower ... abnormal ... organ development ... behavioral quality

  3. Phenotype abnormality: 49 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 49 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u555i abnormal for trait of behavior...al quality in organ named whole plant during process named cell growth ... whole plant ... abnormal ... cell growth ... behavioral quality

  4. Phenotype abnormality: 48 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 48 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u554i abnormal for trait of behavior...al quality in organ named vascular leaf during process named organ development ... vascular leaf ... abnormal ... organ development ... behavioral quality

  5. Phenotype abnormality: 33 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 33 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u539i abnormal for trait of behavior...al quality during process named response to auxin stimulus ... abnormal ... behavioral quality

  6. Phenotype abnormality: 42 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 42 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u548i abnormal for trait of behavior...al quality in organ named root during process named gravitropism ... root ... abnormal ... behavioral quality

  7. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. International Space Station exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) exhibit in StenniSphere at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., gives visitors an up-close look at the largest international peacetime project in history. Step inside a module of the ISS and glimpse how astronauts will live and work in space. Currently, 16 countries contribute resources and hardware to the ISS. When complete, the orbiting research facility will be larger than a football field.

  9. Plant abnormality inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Toshio.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns a plant abnormality inspection device for conducting remote or automatic patrolling inspection in a plant and, more particularly, relates to such a device as capable of detecting abnormal odors. That is, the device comprises a moving device for moving to a predetermined position in the plant, a plurality of gas sensors for different kind of gases to be inspected mounted thereon, a comparator for comparing the concentration of a gas detected by the gas sensor with the normal gas concentration at the predetermined position and a judging means for judging the absence or presence of abnormality depending on the combination of the result of the comparison and deliverying a signal if the state is abnormal. As a result, a slight amount of gas responsible to odors released upon abnormality of the plant can be detected by a plurality of gas sensors for different kinds gases to rapidly and easily find abnormal portions in the plant. (I.S.)

  10. Upcycling CERN Exhibitions

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Summer is coming - and with it, a new Microcosm exhibition showcasing CERN (see here). But while the new exhibit is preparing to enchant visitors, many have been asking about the site's former content. Will it simply be out with the old and in with the new? Not as such!   The plasma ball from Microcosm is now on display at the LHCb site. As Microcosm's new content is moving in, its old content is moving up. From LHCb to IdeaSquare, former Microcosm displays and objects are being installed across the CERN site. "Microcosm featured many elements that were well suited to life outside of the exhibition," says Emma Sanders, Microcosm project leader in the EDU group. "We didn't want this popular content to go to waste, and so set out to find them new homes across CERN." The LHCb experiment has received a number of Microcosm favourites, including the Rutherford experiment, the cosmic ray display and the Thomson experiment. "We&...

  11. Autoshaping of abnormal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckner, C W; Wilcox, L M; Maisto, S A; Blanton, R L

    1980-09-01

    Three experimentally naive abnormal children were exposed to a terminal operant contingency, i.e., reinforcement was delivered only if the children pressed a panel during intervals when it was lighted. Despite the absence of both successive approximation and manual shaping, it was found that each child began to respond discriminatively within a small number of trials. These data replicated previous animal studies concerned with the phenomena of autoshaping and signal-controlled responding. It was also found, however, that one type of autoshaping, the classical conditioning procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on the discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted of intrasubject reversal an multiple baseline designs established the internal validity of the findings. The finding of rapid acquisition of signal-controlled responding obtained with the initial procedure is suggessted to have practical significance. The disruptive effects of the classical form of autoshaping are discussed in terms of negative behavioral contrast.

  12. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, M.

    2009-12-01

    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum (www.webexhibits.org) and SpicyNodes information visualization tool (www.spicynodes.org) as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors

  13. Mobile exhibition in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-04-15

    Since January this year, a mobile atomic energy exhibition has been touring the principal cities of Mexico. In organizing this exhibition, the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Mexico was assisted by the International Atomic Energy Agency which has placed its second mobile radioisotope laboratory at the disposal of the Mexican authorities. In many States of the Republic, the visit of the mobile laboratory has given a powerful impetus to atomic training and research. Universities have made use of the laboratory for the training of young scientists in the basic isotope techniques. As a sequel to the work initiated with its aid, some universities are planning to start regular training courses in this field. The laboratory, which is a gift to the Agency from the United States, has been put to its first assignment in Mexico. It will shortly be sent to Argentina for a period of six months for use in training courses. IAEA's first mobile radioisotope unit, also donated by the United States, has been used for training purposes in Austria, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece and Yugoslavia, and has now been sent to the Far East

  14. Mobile exhibition in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    Since January this year, a mobile atomic energy exhibition has been touring the principal cities of Mexico. In organizing this exhibition, the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Mexico was assisted by the International Atomic Energy Agency which has placed its second mobile radioisotope laboratory at the disposal of the Mexican authorities. In many States of the Republic, the visit of the mobile laboratory has given a powerful impetus to atomic training and research. Universities have made use of the laboratory for the training of young scientists in the basic isotope techniques. As a sequel to the work initiated with its aid, some universities are planning to start regular training courses in this field. The laboratory, which is a gift to the Agency from the United States, has been put to its first assignment in Mexico. It will shortly be sent to Argentina for a period of six months for use in training courses. IAEA's first mobile radioisotope unit, also donated by the United States, has been used for training purposes in Austria, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece and Yugoslavia, and has now been sent to the Far East

  15. Defining Abnormally Low Tenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard; Nyström, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The concept of an abnormally low tender is not defined in EU public procurement law. This article takes an interdisciplinary law and economics approach to examine a dataset consisting of Swedish and Danish judgments and verdicts concerning the concept of an abnormally low tender. The purpose...

  16. Anniversary Exhibition. Nechvolodov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - -

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available On the 10th of August, 2005 in Tartu (the second biggest educational and cultural city in Estonia Stanislav Nechvolodov's exhibition was opened to show the 5-year cycle of his work, traditional for the author and his admirers. At the opening ceremony Nechvolodov said that the exhibition was the last one and appointed on his 70th anniversary.The architectural and building society in Irkutsk remembers Stanislav Nechvolodov as an architect working on dwelling and civil buildings in 1960-70s. Below are some extracts from the Estonian press.«Postimees» newspaper, December 1993. The interview «Expressionistic naturalist, conservative Nechvolodov» by journalist Eric Linnumyagi. He asks about all the details and describes the troubles experienced by Nechvolodov during the perestroika period in Estonia, for example: the Tartu University refused to install the sculpture of Socrat, the art school refused to engage him as an instructor, the sculpture of Socrat moved to Vrotzlav, Poland, and Nechvolodov moved to Poland to read lectures there.«Tartu» newspaper, November 2000. Mats Oun, artist, says in the article «Nechvolodov: a man of Renaissance»: «Nechvolodov works in Estonia, his works are placed in many local and foreign museums. Regardless some insignificant faults, he deserves a high estimation, and his manysided open exhibition can be an example for other artists. He is a man of Renaissance».

  17. Glutamate receptor antibodies directed against AMPA receptors subunit 3 peptide B (GluR3B) can be produced in DBA/2J mice, lower seizure threshold and induce abnormal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganor, Yonatan; Goldberg-Stern, Hadassa; Cohen, Ran; Teichberg, Vivian; Levite, Mia

    2014-04-01

    Anti-GluR3B antibodies (GluR3B Ab's), directed against peptide B/aa372-395 of GluR3 subunit of glutamate/AMPA receptors, are found in ∼35% of epilepsy patients, activate glutamate/AMPA receptors, evoke ion currents, kill neurons and damage the brain. We recently found that GluR3B Ab's also associate with neurological/psychiatric/behavioral abnormalities in epilepsy patients. Here we asked if GluR3B Ab's could be produced in DBA/2J mice, and also modulate seizure threshold and/or cause behavioral/motor impairments in these mice. DBA/2J mice were immunized with the GluR3B peptide in Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA), or with controls: ovalbumin (OVA), CFA, or phosphate-buffer saline (PBS). GluR3B Ab's and OVA Ab's were tested. Seizures were induced in all mice by the chemoconvulsant pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) at three time points, each time with less PTZ to avoid non-specific death. Behavior was examined in Open-Field, RotaRod and Grip tests. GluR3B Ab's were produced only in GluR3B-immunized mice, while OVA Ab's were produced only in OVA-immunized mice, showing high Ab's specificity. In GluR3B Ab's negative mice, seizure severity scores and percentages of animals developing generalized seizures declined in response to decreasing PTZ doses. In contrast, both parameters remained unchanged/high in the GluR3B Ab's positive mice, showing that these mice were more susceptible to seizures. The seizure scores associated significantly with the GluR3B Ab's levels. GluR3B Ab's positive mice were also more anxious in Open-Field test, fell faster in RotaRod test, and fell more in Grip test, compared to all the control mice. GluR3B Ab's are produced in DBA/2J mice, facilitate seizures and induce behavioral/motor impairments. This animal model can therefore serve for studying autoimmune epilepsy and abnormal behavior mediated by pathogenic anti-GluR3B Ab's. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of abnormal eating behaviors in adolescents in Mexico: Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 Prevalencia de conductas alimentarias anormales de adolescentes en México: Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición ENSANUT 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Armando Barriguete-Meléndez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of abnormal eating behaviors in a population-based nationwide survey. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A stratified, probabilistic, multistage design sampling process was used. The Brief Questionnaire for Risky Eating Behaviors was included in the Mexican Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006 and administered to participants 10-19 years old (n= 25 166. The study had the power to describe nationwide characteristics by age, regions and urban/rural settings. RESULTS: A high risk for having an eating disorder was found in 0.8% of the total participants (0.4% male adolescents and 1.0% female. Inhabitants in large cities showed higher risk for having an abnormal eating behavior compared to subjects living in other settings. The highest prevalences were found in males > 15 years old and females > 13 years old for all evaluated behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: Results show less prevalence of risky eating behaviors among adolescents in comparison to other populations. The female/male ratio was 3:1, far different from the 9:1 shown in a previous study in Mexico City, but similar to results from the US national eating disorders screening.OBJETIVOS: Describir la prevalencia de conductas alimentarias anormales en una encuesta nacional de base poblacional. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Diseño muestral probabilístico, polietápico, por conglomerados y estratificado. Se utilizó el Cuestionario Breve de de Conductas Alimentarias de Riesgo de la ENSANUT 2006, en adolescentes entre 10 y 19 años de edad (n= 25 166 de ambos sexos, con resultado nacional, por región y tipo de localidad. RESULTADOS: En 0.8% de los participantes se encontró alto riesgo de desarrollar un trastorno de conducta alimentaria (0.4% hombres y 1.0% mujeres. La edad de mayor riesgo fue > 15 años en hombres y > 13 en mujeres. Los habitantes de áreas metropolitanas presentan un riesgo mayor que la población rural y urbana. CONCLUSIONES: La prevalencia de conductas

  19. Abnormal gas sensing characteristics arising from catalyzed morphological changes of ionsorbed oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Xinyu; Chen Zhaohui; Ma Chunhua; Xing Lili; Chen Yujin; Wang Yanguo; Wang Taihong

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal gas sensing characteristics are observed at low temperature in uniformly loaded Pt-SnO 2 nanorod gas sensors. The sensors operated at 200 deg. C exhibit opposite variations of resistances, and the change of resistance decreases with increasing ethanol concentration. In contrast, the sensors operated at 300 deg. C show regular behavior and the sensitivity is extremely high. Such behaviors are ascribed to Pt-catalyzed morphological changes of ionsorbed oxygen at low temperature. The present results are the bases for further investigating the effect of ionsorbed oxygen morphologies on gas sensing.

  20. Phenotype abnormality: 46 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 46 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u552i abnormal for trait of behavior.../cria224u2ria224u38i stomatal complex ... abnormal ... response to light stimulus ... behavioral quality

  1. Phenotype abnormality: 40 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 40 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u546i abnormal for trait of behavioral quality... in organ named hypocotyl during process named gravitropism ... hypocotyl ... abnormal ... behavioral quality

  2. Phenotype abnormality: 35 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 35 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u541i abnormal for trait of behavioral quality... during process named response to gravity ... abnormal ... behavioral quality

  3. Phenotype abnormality: 32 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 32 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u538i abnormal for trait of behavioral quality... during process named organ development ... abnormal ... organ development ... behavioral quality

  4. Phenotype abnormality: 34 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 34 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u540i abnormal for trait of behavioral quality... during process named response to cytokinin stimulus ... abnormal ... behavioral quality

  5. Phenotype abnormality: 43 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 43 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u549i abnormal for trait of behavioral quality... in organ named root during process named growth ... root ... abnormal ... growth ... behavioral quality

  6. Phenotype abnormality: 50 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 50 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u556i abnormal for trait of behavioral quality... in organ named whole plant during process named photomorphogenesis ... whole plant ... abnormal ... behavioral quality

  7. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  8. Chromosomal Abnormalities in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, and other cytogenetic abnormalities among 100 children (64 boys with combined type ADHD and normal intelligence was assessed at the NIMH and Georgetown University Medical Center.

  9. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  10. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... especially the progestin-only pill (also called the “mini-pill”) can actually cause abnormal bleeding for some ... Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality ...

  11. Abnormal sound detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji.

    1995-01-01

    Only components synchronized with rotation of pumps are sampled from detected acoustic sounds, to judge the presence or absence of abnormality based on the magnitude of the synchronized components. A synchronized component sampling means can remove resonance sounds and other acoustic sounds generated at a synchronously with the rotation based on the knowledge that generated acoustic components in a normal state are a sort of resonance sounds and are not precisely synchronized with the number of rotation. On the other hand, abnormal sounds of a rotating body are often caused by compulsory force accompanying the rotation as a generation source, and the abnormal sounds can be detected by extracting only the rotation-synchronized components. Since components of normal acoustic sounds generated at present are discriminated from the detected sounds, reduction of the abnormal sounds due to a signal processing can be avoided and, as a result, abnormal sound detection sensitivity can be improved. Further, since it is adapted to discriminate the occurrence of the abnormal sound from the actually detected sounds, the other frequency components which are forecast but not generated actually are not removed, so that it is further effective for the improvement of detection sensitivity. (N.H.)

  12. Electrochemical study and recovery of Pb using 1:2 choline chloride/urea deep eutectic solvent: A variety of Pb species PbSO4, PbO2, and PbO exhibits the analogous thermodynamic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Yu-Shun; Chen, Po-Yu; Sun, I-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Water-insoluble PbSO 4 , PbO 2 , and PbO are fairly soluble in choline chloride/urea deep eutectic solvent (ChCl/urea DES) in 1:2 molar ratio. Very interestingly, solution prepared from PbO 2 exhibits the almost identical electrochemical behavior as those from PbSO 4 and PbO, indicating that Pb(II) is formed in the DES regardless of what Pb compound is introduced. The electrochemical reduction of the Pb(II) species is determined as an irreversible process, and involves the three-dimensional (3D) instantaneous nucleation with diffusion-controlled growth. From the dependence of the diffusion coefficient on temperature, the activation energy for diffusion of PbSO 4 and PbO 2 is determined to be 33.7 and 34.1 kJ mol −1 , respectively. Electrodeposition of Pb was achieved potentiostatically and galvanostatically. The surface morphology of Pb deposits significantly depends on the applied potential and current. The coulombic efficiency of Pb electrodeposition is higher than 90%. Electrodeposition of Pb from a wet DES containing a mixture of three different Pb sources is also investigated. The XRD analysis confirmed that the electrodeposits consisted of metallic Pb.

  13. Loss of NCB5OR in the cerebellum disturbs iron pathways, potentiates behavioral abnormalities, and exacerbates harmaline-induced tremor in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroh, Matthew A; Winter, Michelle K; Swerdlow, Russell H; McCarson, Kenneth E; Zhu, Hao

    2016-08-01

    Iron dyshomeostasis has been implicated in many diseases, including a number of neurological conditions. Cytosolic NADH cytochrome b5 oxidoreductase (NCB5OR) is ubiquitously expressed in animal tissues and is capable of reducing ferric iron in vitro. We previously reported that global gene ablation of NCB5OR resulted in early-onset diabetes and altered iron homeostasis in mice. To further investigate the specific effects of NCB5OR deficiency on neural tissue without contributions from known phenotypes, we generated a conditional knockout (CKO) mouse that lacks NCB5OR only in the cerebellum and midbrain. Assessment of molecular markers in the cerebellum of CKO mice revealed changes in pathways associated with cellular and mitochondrial iron homeostasis. (59)Fe pulse-feeding experiments revealed cerebellum-specific increased or decreased uptake of iron by 7 and 16 weeks of age, respectively. Additionally, we characterized behavioral changes associated with loss of NCB5OR in the cerebellum and midbrain in the context of dietary iron deprivation-evoked generalized iron deficiency. Locomotor activity was reduced and complex motor task execution was altered in CKO mice treated with an iron deficient diet. A sucrose preference test revealed that the reward response was intact in CKO mice, but that iron deficient diet consumption altered sucrose preference in all mice. Detailed gait analysis revealed locomotor changes in CKO mice associated with dysfunctional proprioception and locomotor activation independent of dietary iron deficiency. Finally, we demonstrate that loss of NCB5OR in the cerebellum and midbrain exacerbated harmaline-induced tremor activity. Our findings suggest an essential role for NCB5OR in maintaining both iron homeostasis and the proper functioning of various locomotor pathways in the mouse cerebellum and midbrain.

  14. CT of pleural abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    Briefly discussed were CT diagnosis of pleural thickening, CT technique for examining the pleura or pleuro-pulmonary disease, diagnosis of pleural collections, diagnosis of pleural fluid abnormalities in patients with pneumonia, pleural neoplasms, malignant (diffuse) mesothelioma, metastases, local fibrous tumor of the pleura (benign mesothelioma) (21 refs.)

  15. CT of pleural abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, W R [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    Briefly discussed were CT diagnosis of pleural thickening, CT technique for examining the pleura or pleuro-pulmonary disease, diagnosis of pleural collections, diagnosis of pleural fluid abnormalities in patients with pneumonia, pleural neoplasms, malignant (diffuse) mesothelioma, metastases, local fibrous tumor of the pleura (benign mesothelioma) (21 refs.).

  16. Abnormal specific heat enhancement and non-Fermi-liquid behavior in the heavy-fermion system U2Cu17 -xGax (5 ≤x ≤8 )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanidze, E.; Amon, A.; Prots, Yu.; Leithe-Jasper, A.; Grin, Yu.

    2018-03-01

    In the antiferromagnetic heavy-fermion compound U2Zn17 , the Sommerfeld coefficient γ can be enhanced if all Zn atoms are replaced by a combination of Cu and Al or Cu and Ga. In the former ternary phase, glassy behavior was observed, while for the latter, conflicting ground-state reports suggest material quality issues. In this work, we investigate the U2Cu17 -xGax substitutional series for 4.5 ≤x ≤9.5 . In the homogeneity range of the phase with the Th2Zn17 -type of crystal structure, all samples exhibit glassy behavior with 0.6 K ≤Tf≤1.8 K . The value of the electronic specific heat coefficient γ in this system exceeds 900 mJ/molUK2. Such a drastic effective-mass enhancement can possibly be attributed to the effects of structural disorder, since the role of electron concentration and lattice compression is likely minimal. Crystallographic disorder is also responsible for the emergence of non-Fermi-liquid behavior in these spin-glass materials, as evidenced by logarithmic divergence of magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, and electrical resistivity.

  17. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Energie sombre, matière noire J.-J. Dalmais - J. Maréchal Du 11 au 27 novembre 2014, CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal A l’image des particules atomiques qui ont tissé des liens pour créer la matière, deux artistes haut bugistes croisent leurs regards et conjuguent leurs expressions singulières pour faire naître une vision commune de l’univers, produit des forces primordiales. Les sculptures de Jean-Jacques Dalmais et les peintures de Jacki Maréchal se rencontrent pour la première fois et se racontent par un enrichissement mutuel la belle histoire de la Vie. Dialogue magique des œuvres en mouvement qui questionnent en écho l’énergie sombre et la matière noire. Cette harmonieuse confluence de jeux de miroir et de résonnance illumine de poésie et de sobriété l’espace expos&...

  18. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Gaïa Manuella Cany Du 10 au 28 avril 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Oiseau - Manuella Cany. Tableaux abstraits inspirés de vues satellites ou photos prises du ciel. Certains sont à la frontière du figuratif alors que d'autres permettent de laisser libre cours à son imagination. Aux détails infinis, ces tableaux sont faits pour être vus de loin et de près grâce à une attention toute particulière apportée aux effets de matières et aux couleurs le long de volutes tantôt nuancées tantôt contrastées.   Pour plus d’informations : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  19. Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    En dehors des frontières Maxence Piquet Du 2 au 11 mai 2018 | CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Exposition de peinture d'un artiste autodidacte Maxence Piquet (signature artiste M-P), avec différentes techniques (acrylique, huile, fusain, collage...) et sur différents supports. Un art souvent brut et parfois provoquant, avec des touches expressionnistes et cubistes principale origine de son art. Des œuvres souvent vivent et colorées... Cette exposition est la première en dehors d ses frontières Lorraine et a pour but de faire voyager son art au regard du plus grand nombre . Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  20. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    The Elementary Particles of Painting Alfonso Fratteggiani Bianchi and Ermanno Imbergamo From September 26 to October 7, 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building With intentions similar to those of CERN physicists, the artist Alfonso Fratteggiani Bianchi investigates the color pigment, studying its interaction with light and with the support on which it is deposited. He creates monochrome paintings by spreading the color pigment in the pure state on stones, without using glue or any other type of adhesive. With intentions similar to artists, the physicist Ermanno Imbergamo investigates the use of luminescent wavelength shifters, materials commonly used in Particle Physics, for art. He creates other monochrome artworks, which disclose further aspects of interaction among light, color pigments and support. For more information: staff.association@cern.ch | Tel: 022 767 28 19

  1. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    COLORATION Sandra Duchêne From September 5 to 16, 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building La recherche de l’Universel. Après tout ! C’est de l’Amour ! What else to say ? …La couleur, l’ENERGIE de la vie…

  2. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      Parallels vision Astronomical subjects which evoke extrasensory kinetic visions Alberto Di Fabio From 8 to 10 October, CERN Meyrin, Main Building In the framework of Italy@cern, the Staff Association presents Alberto Di Fabio. Di Fabio’s work is inspired by the fundamental laws of the physical world, as well as organic elements and their interrelation. His paintings and works on paper merge the worlds of art and science, depicting natural forms and biological structures in vivid colour and imaginative detail. For all additional information: staff.association@cern.ch | Tel: 022 767 28 19

  3. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Le Point Isabelle Gailland Du 20 février au 3 mars 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal La Diagonale - Isabelle Gailland. Au départ, un toujours même point minuscule posé au centre de ce que la toile est un espace. Une réplique d'autres points, condensés, alignés, isolés, disséminés construiront dans leur extension, la ligne. Ces lignes, croisées, courbées, déviées, prolongées, seront la structure contenant et séparant la matière des couleurs. La rotation de chaque toile en cours d'exécution va offrir un accès illimité à la non-forme et à la forme. Le point final sera l'ouverture sur différents points de vue de ce que le point et la ligne sont devenus une représentation pour l'œil et l'im...

  4. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    La danse mécanique Daria Grigoryeva Du 22 mai au 1er juin 2018 | CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal La danse mécanique est une métaphore large. La mécanique établit les règles et les limites, les frontières dans lesquelles la vie et la créativité peuvent se développer. La musique est « mathématique », une poupée mécanique se tourne toujours dans la même direction, selon les règles prescrites par la nature les fleurs fleurissent au printemps. Même s'ils ne le voulaient pas. La participation à la "danse mécanique" est prédéterminée et inévitable. Il ne reste plus qu'à comprendre comment le faire "magnifiquement". En tout, il y a une signification cachée et un...

  5. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Still Life Jérémy Bajulaz Du 25 septembre au 6 octobre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building (Aubergine - Jérémy Bajulaz) Né en 1991 en Haute-Savoie, France. Diplômé de l'Ecole Emile Cohl à Lyon, Jérémy Bajulaz intègre en 2014 le programme d'artiste en résidence au Centre Genevois de Gravure Contemporaine. C'est là que son travail prendra corps, autour de la lumière et de ses vibrations aux travers de sujets comme le portrait et la nature morte, dans le souci de l'observation; le regard prenant une place importante dans le processus créatif. Lauréat 2017 du VII Premio AAAC, son travail a été présenté dans de nombreuses expositions collectives, en 2015 au Bâtiment d’Art Contemporain de Genève, en 2016 au 89e Salon de Lyon et du ...

  6. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Œuvres recentes Fabienne Wyler Du 6 au 17 février 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal L'escalier du diable B - aquarelle, encre de Chine XLV - Fabienne Wyler. En relation avec certains procédés d’écriture contemporaine (par ex. Webern ou certaines musiques conçues par ordinateur), les compositions picturales de Fabienne Wyler s’élaborent à partir de « modules » (groupes de quadrangles) qu’elle reproduit en leur faisant subir toutes sortes de transformations et de déplacements : étirements, renversements, rotations, effet miroir, transpositions, déphasages, superpositions, etc., et ceci à toutes les échelles. Au fil des œuvres sont apparues des séries intitulées, Bifurcations, Intermittences, Attracteurs étranges, Polyrythmies. Ces titres ont un lien &e...

  7. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Les vibrantes Patrick Robbe-Grillet Du 30 octobre au 10 novembre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Patrick Robbe-Grillet - Feux d'artifices Qui est Patrick Robbe-Grillet ? Artiste Franco-Suisse, né en 1968 à Genève. En recherche du sentiment de paix, autodidacte, après un séjour en Chine en 2000, puis au Japon en 2002, suivi d’un long questionnement, il trouve sa voie dans la peinture, élément libérateur de sa créativité et expression de sa sensibilité à fleur de peau. « La Chine m’a enseigné les courbes, les nuances. Le Japon, la ligne droite, la rigueur. » Vous avez su rendre visible l'invisible ! - commentaire de Monsieur Fawaz Gruosi Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél : 022 766 37 38

  8. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    La couleur des jours oriSio Du 2 au 12 mai 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal oriSio - Motus Suite à un fort intérêt pour la Chine et une curiosité pour un médium très ancien, la laque ! Je réinterprète cet art à travers un style abstrait. Je présente ici des laques sur aluminium, travaillés au plasma et ensuite colorés à l’aide de pigments pour l’essentiel. Mes œuvres je les veux brutes, déchirées, évanescentes, gondolées, voire trouées mais avec une belle approche de profondeur de la couleur.   Pour plus d’informations : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  9. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Jan Hladky, physicien de l'Institut de Physique de l'Académie des Sciences de la République tchèque, et membre de la collaboration Alice, expose ses œuvres au Bâtiment principal du 20 avril au 6 mai. Son exposition est dédiée aux victimes du séisme de Sendai. Des copies de ses œuvres seront mises en vente et les sommes récoltées seront versées au profit des victimes.

  10. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    La mosaïque ou quand détruire permet de construire Lauren Decamps Du 28 novembre au 9 décembre 2016 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Paysage d'Amsterdam - Lauren Decamps On ne doit jamais rien détruire qu'on ne soit sûr de pouvoir remplacer aussi avantageusement " écrivait Plutarque dans ses Œuvres morales du 1er siècle après JC. L'artiste mosaïste Lauren Decamps adhère à cette idée et tente à sa manière de donner une nouvelle vie à ses matériaux en les taillant puis les réassemblant, créant ainsi des œuvres abstraites et figuratives.

  11. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Firmament des toiles Joëlle Lalagüe Du 6 au 16 juin 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Phylaë Voyage - Joëlle Lalagüe. Each picture is an invitation for a cosmic trip. This is a whispering of soul, which comes from origins. A symphony of the world, some notes of love, a harmony for us to fly to infinity. Pour plus d’informations et demandes d'accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  12. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    Univers Du 9 au 20 avril 2018 | CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Stéphanie Cousin Obsédée par les rêves, les mondes surréalistes et insolites, je m’empare de formes provenant des mes propres travaux photographiques ou d’images que je modifie et mixe. Je fais évoluer mes univers oniriques de femmes-animaux ainsi que mes espaces et natures imaginaires. Avec ma démarche artistique, je cherche à mettre en images nos rêves et nos cauchemars, l’irréel et le surréel, le mystique et les affres de notre inconscient. Je cherche à représenter tout ce qui sommeille au plus profond de nous-même à l’aide de symboles, parfois en utilisant des images de cultures ancestrales. Photographie-collage, je cherche à ajouter quelques notes à la définition de la photographie du 21iè...

  13. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Harmonie Nathalie Lenoir Du 4 au 15 septembre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Peindre est un langage. Le tracé du pinceau sur le lin en est l'expression. A qui appartient un tableau en définitive ? A celui qui l'a peint ? A celui qui le regarde ? A celui qui l'emporte ? La peinture est une émotion partagée... Laissez-vous projeter de l'autre côté de la toile, prenez un moment pour rêver, en harmonie avec les éléments, parce-que la peinture parle à votre âme… Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél : 022 766 37 38

  14. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    Cosmos KOLI Du 15 au 26 janvier 2018 CERN Meyrin, Main Building (Nébuleuse d'Orion- KOLI) KOLI, Artiste confirmé, diplômé de l’Académie de Beaux Arts de Tirana, depuis 26 ans en Suisse, où il a participé à maintes expositions collectives et organisé 10 expositions privées avec  beaucoup de succès, s’exprime actuellement dans un bonheur de couleur et de matières qui côtoient des hautes sphères… le cosmos ! Gagnant d’un premier prix lors d’une exposition collective organisée par le consulat Italien, il s’est installé au bord du lac dans le canton de Vaud où il vit depuis maintenant déjà 13 ans. www.kolicreation.com Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | T&eacut...

  15. Repetitive grooming and sensorimotor abnormalities in an ephrin-A knockout model for Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzman, Rachel; Forcelli, Patrick A; Griffey, Christopher J; Kromer, Lawrence F

    2015-02-01

    EphA receptors and ephrin-A ligands play important roles in neural development and synaptic plasticity in brain regions where expression persists into adulthood. Recently, EPHA3 and EPHA7 gene mutations were linked with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) and developmental neurological delays, respectively. Furthermore, deletions of ephrin-A2 or ephrin-A3, which exhibit high binding affinity for EphA3 and EphA7 receptors, are associated with subtle deficits in learning and memory behavior and abnormalities in dendritic spine morphology in the cortex and hippocampus in mice. To better characterize a potential role for these ligands in ASDs, we performed a comprehensive behavioral characterization of anxiety-like, sensorimotor, learning, and social behaviors in ephrin-A2/-A3 double knockout (DKO) mice. The predominant phenotype in DKO mice was repetitive and self-injurious grooming behaviors such as have been associated with corticostriatal circuit abnormalities in other rodent models of neuropsychiatric disorders. Consistent with ASDs specifically, DKO mice exhibited decreased preference for social interaction in the social approach assay, decreased locomotor activity in the open field, increased prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle, and a shift towards self-directed activity (e.g., grooming) in novel environments, such as marble burying. Although there were no gross deficits in cognitive assays, subtle differences in performance on fear conditioning and in the Morris water maze resembled traits observed in other rodent models of ASD. We therefore conclude that ephrin-A2/-A3 DKO mice have utility as a novel ASD model with an emphasis on sensory abnormalities and restricted, repetitive behavioral symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Exhibition at the AAA library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Sonnesgade 11 The exhibition at the AAA library presents selected work produced by students prior to the exhibition of installations in project and praxis constructing an archive at Sonnesgade 11. The exhibition at Sonnesgade 11 was the culmination of collaboration with SLETH architects and studio...

  17. [Hysteroscopic polypectomy, treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Los Rios, P José F; López, R Claudia; Cifuentes, P Carolina; Angulo, C Mónica; Palacios-Barahona, Arlex U

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the hysteroscopic polypectomy in terms of the decrease of the abnormal uterine bleeding. A cross-sectional and analytical study was done with patients to whom a hysteroscopic polypectomy was done for treating the abnormal uterine bleeding, between January 2009 and December 2013. The response to the treatment was evaluated via a survey given to the patients about the behavior of the abnormal uterine bleeding after the procedure and about overall satisfaction. The results were obtained after a hysteroscopic polypectomy done to 128 patients and were as follows. The average time from the polypectomy applied until the survey was 30.5 months, with a standard deviation of 18 months. 67.2% of the patients reported decreased abnormal uterine bleeding and the 32.8% reported a persistence of symptoms. On average 82.8% of the. patients were satisfied with the treatment. Bivariate and multivariate analysis showed no association between the variables studied and no improvement of abnormal uterine bleeding after surgery (polypectomy). There were no complications. Hysteroscopic polypectomy is a safe surgical treatment, which decreases on two of three patients the abnormal uterine bleeding in the presence of endometrial polyps, with an acceptable level of satisfaction.

  18. Nitrofurantoin and congenital abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2001-01-01

    or fetuses with Down’s syndrome (patient controls), 23 (2.8%) pregnant women were treated with nitrofurantoin. The above differences between population controls and cases may be connected with recall bias, because the case-control pair analysis did not indicate a teratogenic potential of nitrofurantoin use......Objective: To study human teratogenic potential of oral nitrofurantoin treatment during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Pair analysis of cases with congenital abnormalities and matched population controls in the population-based dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital...... during the second and the third months of gestation, i.e. in the critical period for major congenital abnormalities. Conclusion: Treatment with nitrofurantoin during pregnancy does not present detectable teratogenic risk to the fetus....

  19. Neurological abnormalities predict disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...... at evaluating age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent predictor of the transition to disability (according to Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale) or death in independent elderly subjects that were followed up for 3 years. At baseline, a standardized neurological examination.......0 years, 45 % males), 327 (51.7 %) presented at the initial visit with ≥1 neurological abnormality and 242 (38 %) reached the main study outcome. Cox regression analyses, adjusting for MRI features and other determinants of functional decline, showed that the baseline presence of any neurological...

  20. Equipment abnormality monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yasumasa

    1991-01-01

    When an operator hears sounds in a plantsite, the operator compares normal sounds of equipment which he previously heard and remembered with sounds he actually hears, to judge if they are normal or abnormal. According to the method, there is a worry that abnormal conditions can not be appropriately judged in a case where the number of objective equipments is increased and in a case that the sounds are changed gradually slightly. Then, the device of the present invention comprises a plurality of monitors for monitoring the operation sound of equipments, a recording/reproducing device for recording and reproducing the signals, a selection device for selecting the reproducing signals among the recorded signals, an acoustic device for converting the signals to sounds, a switching device for switching the signals to be transmitted to the acoustic device between to signals of the monitor and the recording/reproducing signals. The abnormality of the equipments can be determined easily by comparing the sounds representing the operation conditions of equipments for controlling the plant operation and the sounds recorded in their normal conditions. (N.H.)

  1. Serotonin Neuron Abnormalities in the BTBR Mouse Model of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yue-Ping; Commons, Kathryn G.

    2017-01-01

    The inbred mouse strain BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J (BTBR) i studied as a model of idiopathic autism because they are less social and more resistant to change than other strains. Forebrain serotonin receptors and the response to serotonin drugs are altered in BTBR mice, yet it remains unknown if serotonin neurons themselves are abnormal. In this study, we found that serotonin tissue content and the density of serotonin axons is reduced in the hippocampus of BTBR mice in comparison to C57BL/6J (C57) mice. This was accompanied by possible compensatory changes in serotonin neurons that were most pronounced in regions known to provide innervation to the hippocampus: the caudal dorsal raphe (B6) and the median raphe. These changes included increased numbers of serotonin neurons and hyperactivation of Fos expression. Metrics of serotonin neurons in the rostral 2/3 of the dorsal raphe and serotonin content of the prefrontal cortex were less impacted. Thus, serotonin neurons exhibit region-dependent abnormalities in the BTBR mouse that may contribute to their altered behavioral profile. PMID:27478061

  2. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  3. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  4. Wild-type male offspring of fmr-1+/- mothers exhibit characteristics of the fragile X phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, Bojana; Toth, Miklos

    2008-10-01

    Fragile X syndrome is an X-linked disorder caused by the inactivation of the FMR-1 gene with symptoms ranging from impaired cognitive functions to seizures, anxiety, sensory abnormalities, and hyperactivity. Males are more severely affected than heterozygote (H) females, who, as carriers, have a 50% chance of transmitting the mutated allele in each pregnancy. fmr-1 knockout (KO) mice reproduce fragile X symptoms, including hyperactivity, seizures, and abnormal sensory processing. In contrast to the expectation that wild-type (WT) males born to H (fmr-1(+/-)) mothers (H>WT) are behaviorally normal and indistinguishable from WT males born to WT mothers (WT>WT); here, we show that H>WT offspring are more active than WT>WT offspring and that their hyperactivity is similar to male KO mice born to H or KO (fmr-1(-/-)) mothers (H>KO/KO>KO). H>WT mice, however, do not exhibit seizures or abnormal sensory processing. Consistent with their hyperactivity, the effect of the D2 agonist quinpirole is reduced in H>WT as well as in H>KO and KO>KO mice compared to WT>WT offspring, suggesting a diminished feedback inhibition of dopamine release. Our data indicate that some aspects of hyperactivity and associated dopaminergic changes in 'fragile X' mice are a maternal fmr-1 genotype rather than an offspring fmr-1 genotype effect.

  5. Abnormal thermal expansion properties of cubic NaZn13-type La(Fe,Al)13 compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Huang, Rongjin; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Yuqiang; Li, Shaopeng; Huang, Chuanjun; Li, Laifeng

    2015-02-28

    The cubic NaZn13-type La(Fe,Al)13 compounds were synthesized, and their linear thermal expansion properties were investigated in the temperature range of 4.2-300 K. It was found that these compounds exhibit abnormal thermal expansion behavior, i.e., pronounced negative thermal expansion (NTE) or zero thermal expansion (ZTE) behavior, below the Curie temperature due to the magnetovolume effect (MVE). Moreover, in the La(Fe,Al)13 compounds, the modification of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) as well as the abnormal thermal expansion (ATE) temperature-window is achieved through optimizing the proportion of Fe and Al. Typically, the average CTE of the LaFe13-xAlx compounds with x = 1.8 reaches as large as -10.47 × 10(-6) K(-1) between 100 and 225 K (ΔT = 125 K). Also, the ZTE temperature-window of the LaFe13-xAlx compounds with x = 2.5 and x = 2.7 could be broadened to 245 K (from 5 to 250 K). Besides, the magnetic properties of these compounds were measured and correlated with the abnormal thermal expansion behavior. The present results highlight the potential application of such La(Fe,Al)13 compounds with abnormal thermal expansion properties in cryogenic engineering.

  6. The World of Virtual Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Eiselt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACTSpecial collections of the National and University Library (NUK hide a lot of items of precious value. The Slovenian cultural heritage is stored on paper or on other media as a part of the library’s Manuscripts, Incunabula and Rare Books Collection, Old Prints Collection, Maps and Pictorial Collection, Music Collection, Ephemera Collection, Serials Collection, and Slovenian Diaspora Publications Collection. Only a small part of the treasures is temporary revealed to the public on special exhibitions. The idea of virtual exhibitions of library treasures was born in 2005. The library aimed to exhibit precious items of special collections of high historical or artistic value. In 2008 the first two virtual exhibitions were created in-house offering access to the rich collections of old postcards of Ljubljana at the beginning of 20th century kept in the Maps and Pictorial Collection of NUK. They were soon followed by other virtual exhibitions. At the beginning they were organised in the same way as physical exhibitions, afterwards different programs were used for creation of special effects (for ex. 3D wall. About two years ago it was decided that the creation of virtual exhibitions will be simplified. Files of digitised and borndigital library materials in jpg format are imported to MS PowerPoint 2010. Each jpg file is now formatted by adding a frame, a description … to the slides which are saved as jpg files. The last step is the import of jpg files into Cooliris application used for NUK web exhibitions. In the paper the virtual exhibition design and creation, the technical point of view and criteria for the selection of exhibition content are explained following the example of the virtual exhibitions the Old Postcards of Ljubljana, Photo Ateliers in Slovenia, a collection of photographs Four Seasons by Fran Krašovec and photos of Post-Earthquake Ljubljana in 1895.

  7. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner of how a ...

  8. Pregnancy Complications: Umbilical Cord Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Umbilical cord abnormalities Umbilical cord abnormalities Now playing: E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. ... blood supply) to the baby. The two arteries transport waste from the baby to the placenta (where ...

  9. Normal and abnormal growth plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Madewell, J.E.; Swischuk, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Skeletal growth is a dynamic process. A knowledge of the structure and function of the normal growth plate is essential in order to understand the pathophysiology of abnormal skeletal growth in various diseases. In this well-illustrated article, the authors provide a radiographic classification of abnormal growth plates and discuss mechanisms that lead to growth plate abnormalities

  10. [Penile congenital abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boillot, B; Teklali, Y; Moog, R; Droupy, S

    2013-07-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the penis are usually diagnosed at birth and pose aesthetic and functional problems sometimes requiring surgical management. A literature review was conducted on Medline considering the articles listed until January 2012. Hypospadias is the most common malformation (1 in 250 boys. Familial forms: 7%). The causes remain hypothetical but the doubling of the incidence in 30 years could be linked to fetal exposure to endocrine disruptors "estrogen-like" used in the food industry in particular. Surgical treatment is usually intended to improve the aesthetic appearance but sometimes, in case of significant curvature or posterior meatus, necessary for normal sexual life and fertility. Other malformations (epispades, buried penis, transpositions, twists and preputial abnormalities) as well as management for functional or aesthetic consequences of these malformations in adulthood require complex surgical care in a specialized environment. The improvement of surgical techniques and pediatric anesthesia allows an early and effective specialized surgical approach of penile malformations. Management of sequelae in adulthood must be discussed and requires experience of surgical techniques on pediatric and adult penis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The better of two evils? Evidence that children exhibiting continuous conduct problems high or low on callous-unemotional traits score on opposite directions on physiological and behavioral measures of fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanti, Kostas A; Panayiotou, Georgia; Lazarou, Chrysostomos; Michael, Raphaelia; Georgiou, Giorgos

    2016-02-01

    The present study examines whether heterogeneous groups of children identified based on their longitudinal scores on conduct problems (CP) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits differ on physiological and behavioral measures of fear. Specifically, it aims to test the hypothesis that children with high/stable CP differentiated on CU traits score on opposite directions on a fear-fearless continuum. Seventy-three participants (M age = 11.21; 45.2% female) were selected from a sample of 1,200 children. Children and their parents completed a battery of questionnaires assessing fearfulness, sensitivity to punishment, and behavioral inhibition. Children also participated in an experiment assessing their startle reactivity to fearful mental imagery, a well-established index of defensive motivation. The pattern of results verifies the hypothesis that fearlessness, assessed with physiological and behavioral measures, is a core characteristic of children high on both CP and CU traits (i.e., receiving the DSM-5 specifier of limited prosocial emotions). To the contrary, children with high/stable CP and low CU traits demonstrated high responsiveness to fear, high behavioral inhibition, and high sensitivity to punishment. The study is in accord with the principle of equifinality, in that different developmental mechanisms (i.e., extremes of high and low fear) may have the same behavioral outcome manifested as phenotypic antisocial behavior.

  12. Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W. [Univ. of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (United States)

    1995-02-27

    Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  13. Roentgenologic abnormalities in Down's syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Takehiko; Russell, W J; Komatsuda, Michio; Neriishi, Shotaro

    1968-07-25

    Roentgenograms of 28 patients with Down's syndrome were reviewed with emphasis on all previously reported abnormalities and any possible additional ones. Most of the abnormalities occurred with the same frequency as previously reported, but some less frequently reported findings were also seen. One abnormal vertebral measurement found in this series may be an additional stigma of Down's syndrome. All of the 27 cases studied cytogenetically had chromosomal abnormalities consistent with this disease. This study emphasizes the need for roentgenologic norms for the Japanese, and the desirability of combining chromosome studies with roentgenological abnormalities and clinical observations in diagnosing Down's syndrome. 19 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  14. Progranulin haploinsufficiency causes biphasic social dominance abnormalities in the tube test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrant, A E; Filiano, A J; Warmus, B A; Hall, A M; Roberson, E D

    2016-07-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in progranulin (GRN) are a major autosomal dominant cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a neurodegenerative disorder in which social behavior is disrupted. Progranulin-insufficient mice, both Grn(+/-) and Grn(-/-) , are used as models of FTD due to GRN mutations, with Grn(+/-) mice mimicking the progranulin haploinsufficiency of FTD patients with GRN mutations. Grn(+/-) mice have increased social dominance in the tube test at 6 months of age, although this phenotype has not been reported in Grn(-/-) mice. In this study, we investigated how the tube test phenotype of progranulin-insufficient mice changes with age, determined its robustness under several testing conditions, and explored the associated cellular mechanisms. We observed biphasic social dominance abnormalities in Grn(+/-) mice: at 6-8 months, Grn(+/-) mice were more dominant than wild-type littermates, while after 9 months of age, Grn(+/-) mice were less dominant. In contrast, Grn(-/-) mice did not exhibit abnormal social dominance, suggesting that progranulin haploinsufficiency has distinct effects from complete progranulin deficiency. The biphasic tube test phenotype of Grn(+/-) mice was associated with abnormal cellular signaling and neuronal morphology in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. At 6-9 months, Grn(+/-) mice exhibited increased mTORC2/Akt signaling in the amygdala and enhanced dendritic arbors in the basomedial amygdala, and at 9-16 months Grn(+/-) mice exhibited diminished basal dendritic arbors in the prelimbic cortex. These data show a progressive change in tube test dominance in Grn(+/-) mice and highlight potential underlying mechanisms by which progranulin insufficiency may disrupt social behavior. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  15. Photowalk Exhibition opens at Microcosm

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The winning photographs from the 2010 Global Particle Physics Photowalk competition will go on display at Microcosm from 11 February to 2 April. The exhibition is part of a global photography event taking place over three continents, with Photowalk exhibitions opening simultaneously at Fermilab in the US, KEK in Japan and here at CERN.   DESY wire chamber - First place people's choice; second place global jury competition. Photographer: Hans-Peter Hildebrandt  If you were one of the 1,300 photography lovers who voted in last year’s Photowalk competition, this exhibition is your chance to see the winning entries in print. The exhibition will take place in the downstairs gallery of Microcosm, overlooking the garden. 15 photographs will be on display, with each of the laboratories that participated in Photowalk represented by their 3 winning entries. Among them will be the “people’s choice” sunburst photo of a particle detector at DESY (Photo 1), and...

  16. Globe exhibit wins international acclaim

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The Globe’s “Universe of Particles” exhibition has recently received four prestigious awards for its avant-garde design. This external praise is great encouragement for the CERN exhibitions currently on the drawing board.   The Universe of Particles exhibition has won 4 awards for its avant-garde design. Back in 2008, the design company Atelier Brückner was presented with a challenge: to design the layout of a new permanent exhibition for CERN, one that would epitomize both the Organization and its research. The brief was concise but complex: the exhibit had to be symbolic of the Organization, use modern technology, engage and immerse visitors, and, preferably, use touch-screen technology. With the help of IArt, an interactive technology firm, and based on the content provided by CERN’s Education Group, Atelier Brückner developed the “Universe of Particles” exhibit as it is today. Its principal concept centred on the s...

  17. Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, W.H.; Caesar, S.

    1992-09-01

    The Franklin Institute Science Museum provided an exhibit entitled the Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. This 3500 square-foot exhibit on global climate change was developed in collaboration with the Association of Science-Technology Centers. The exhibit opened at The Franklin Institute on February 14, 1992, welcoming 291,000 visitors over its three-month stay. During its three-year tour, Greenhouse Earth will travel to ten US cities, reaching two million visitors. Greenhouse Earth aims to deepen public understanding of the scientific issues of global warming and the conservation measures that can be taken to slow its effects. The exhibit features hands-on exhibitry, interactive computer programs and videos, a theater production, a ''demonstration cart,'' guided tours, and lectures. supplemental educational programs at the Institute included a teachers preview, a symposium on climate change, and a ''satellite field trip.'' The development of Greenhouse Earth included front-end and formative evaluation procedures. Evaluation includes interviews with visitors, prototypes, and summative surveys for participating museums. During its stay in Philadelphia, Greenhouse Earth was covered by the local and national press, with reviews in print and broadcast media. Greenhouse Earth is the first large-scale museum exhibit to address global climate change

  18. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy.

  19. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Kanona

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively.

  20. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  1. Exhibition - Mathematics, A Beautiful Elsewhere

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    From 21 October 2011 to 18 March 2012, the Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain will present the exhibition Mathematics: A Beautiful Elsewhere, an exhibition developed in association with the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques (IHÉS) and under the patronage of UNESCO. For this unprecedented event, the foundation invited mathematicians to work with artists with whom it has previously worked to create an exhibition that allows visitors to see, hear, do, interpret and think about mathematics. By bringing mathematics into its premises, the Fondation Cartier is itself undergoing the “sudden change of scenery” described by mathematician Alexandre Grothendieck. More information is available here. Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain 261, boulevard Raspail 75014 Paris http://fondation.cartier.com Private Visit For professors, researchers and all the staff of Mathematics departments...

  2. Radiologic evaluation of structural abnormalities of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, Y.T.; Tolliver, R.A.; Stern, D.S.; Fruin, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    This exhibit concentrates on often overlooked, unfamiliar biomechanical or structural abnormalities of the foot. Pericalcaneal pathology and its correlation with the presence of heel spurs is illustrated. In the tarsal area, coalitions, prehallux, and their relationships to abnormalities of the longitudinal arch are discussed. Distally, medial, dorsal and tailor's bunions are demonstrated. Pain and disability often precede obvious deformity, and a radiologist familiar with the early findings on x-ray studies may be the first member of the medical team to identify structural abnormalities. Diagnosis allows prompt institution of appropriate therapy, reducing the period of patient discomfort and disability

  3. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  4. Abnormally dark or light skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperpigmentation; Hypopigmentation; Skin - abnormally light or dark ... Normal skin contains cells called melanocytes. These cells produce melanin , the substance that gives skin its color. Skin with ...

  5. Irgm1-deficient mice exhibit Paneth cell abnormalities and increased susceptibility to acute intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Gulati, Ajay S; Cantillana, Viviana; Henry, Stanley C; Schmidt, Elyse A; Daniell, Xiaoju; Grossniklaus, Emily; Schoenborn, Alexi A; Sartor, R Balfour; Taylor, Gregory A

    2013-10-15

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, immune-mediated, inflammatory disorder of the intestine that has been linked to numerous susceptibility genes, including the immunity-related GTPase (IRG) M (IRGM). IRGs comprise a family of proteins known to confer resistance to intracellular infections through various mechanisms, including regulation of phagosome processing, cell motility, and autophagy. However, despite its association with CD, the role of IRGM and other IRGs in regulating intestinal inflammation is unclear. We investigated the involvement of Irgm1, an ortholog of IRGM, in the genesis of murine intestinal inflammation. After dextran sodium sulfate exposure, Irgm1-deficient [Irgm1 knockout (KO)] mice showed increased acute inflammation in the colon and ileum, with worsened clinical responses. Marked alterations of Paneth cell location and granule morphology were present in Irgm1 KO mice, even without dextran sodium sulfate exposure, and were associated with impaired mitophagy and autophagy in Irgm1 KO intestinal cells (including Paneth cells). This was manifested by frequent tubular and swollen mitochondria and increased LC3-positive autophagic structures. Interestingly, these LC3-positive structures often contained Paneth cell granules. These results suggest that Irgm1 modulates acute inflammatory responses in the mouse intestine, putatively through the regulation of gut autophagic processes, that may be pivotal for proper Paneth cell functioning.

  6. Learning from Exhibitions: Chuck Close.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark M.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the artwork of Chuck Close, who is well known for his over-sized portraits of fellow artists and anonymous sitters, and the exhibition of his work that premiered at New York's Museum of Modern Art before traveling to other cities in the United States. (CMK)

  7. Mobile Technologies in Museum Exhibitions

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Medić; Nataša Pavlović

    2014-01-01

    In order to be up–to–date and give visitors a memorable and unique experience, museums are including usage of digital technologies in their exhibitions. Even though museums in Serbia are very important part of tourism offer, they still have traditional settings that are poorly interpreted. The majority of them have a scientific and historical review which is unattractive for various target groups of visitors and for museums it’s important to continually try out new ways in interpretation of t...

  8. A New Exhibition in Microcosm

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    Sebastien Pelletier explains states of matter to an enthusiastic group of youngsters during the opening of a new exhibition in Microcosm last week. The Fun with Physics workshop will be offered to all 13-14 year olds in school groups visiting CERN this year. The new Microcosm contents have been developed in collaboration with the local teaching community, and cover particles and the forces that act between them.

  9. "Big Science" exhibition at Balexert

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN is going out to meet those members of the general public who were unable to attend the recent Open Day. The Laboratory will be taking its "Big Science" exhibition from the Globe of Science and Innovation to the Balexert shopping centre from 19 to 31 May 2008. The exhibition, which shows the LHC and its experiments through the eyes of a photographer, features around thirty spectacular photographs measuring 4.5 metres high and 2.5 metres wide. Welcomed and guided around the exhibition by CERN volunteers, shoppers at Balexert will also have the opportunity to discover LHC components on display and watch films. "Fun with Physics" workshops will be held at certain times of the day. Main hall of the Balexert shopping centre, ground floor, from 9.00 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. Monday to Friday and from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. on the two Saturdays. Call for volunteers All members of the CERN personnel are invited to enrol as volunteers to help welcom...

  10. Mobile Technologies in Museum Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Medić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to be up–to–date and give visitors a memorable and unique experience, museums are including usage of digital technologies in their exhibitions. Even though museums in Serbia are very important part of tourism offer, they still have traditional settings that are poorly interpreted. The majority of them have a scientific and historical review which is unattractive for various target groups of visitors and for museums it’s important to continually try out new ways in interpretation of their settings. Because technology continues to rapidly change the way we communicate, cultural institutions should adapt to new ways of communication with their visitors. This paper examines mobile technologies that can be used in museums to give visitors a different experience and transfer the knowledge innovatively. In that way it will be presented the modern concept of presentation of museum exhibitions, focusing on usage of mobile devices through mobile applications and QR codes. The paper provides the broad understanding of usage mobile technologies in museum exhibitions with its advantages and limitations. The research results can help the museums management to improve interpretation and communication with visitors and enrich the visitor experience.

  11. Abnormal position of lymph nodes in a freemartin sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar PA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Angela M Gonella-Diaza, Luz Zoraya Duarte, Sergio Dominguez, Pedro A SalazarClínica de Grandes Animales, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y de Zootecnia, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Bucaramanga, Santander, ColombiaAbstract: In this freemartin case report the authors present the clinical and morphological findings of a freemartin ewe with an abnormal position of two lymph nodes. Freemartins, infertile females from mixed-sex twin pregnancies, are chimeras, having two cell populations: one of their own (XX DNA and one from their male twin (XY DNA. Freemartins can have varying degrees of phenotypic masculinization, including, in some cases, having active male gonads and exhibiting male behaviors such as heat detection and aggressiveness. During the clinical examination of the freemartin ewe, a morphological abnormality of the vulva, the presence of scrotal sacs, and a lack of mammary tissue development were noted. On inspection of the vaginal channel, an extremely enlarged clitoris, resembling a penis, was found. The clinical evidence suggested freemartinism. After the karyotyping diagnosis confirmation, a necropsy was performed and samples were taken for histology and immunohistochemistry. There were two structures found in the scrotal sacs; however, these were found to be lymph nodes, not testicles, and this was confirmed by CD3 lymph protein coloration. On histological study, the phallic structure showed corpus cavernosum and tunica albuginea. The testicles were found retained inside the abdominal cavity, with the presence of atrophic seminiferous tubules. Although the position of the testicles in freemartins has been reported as highly variable, this is the first time, to the best of the authors' knowledge, that a case has been reported where lymph nodes have been found inside the scrotal sacs. It is possible that these were the inguinal lymph nodes, trapped inside the scrotum during fetal growth and development.Keywords: freemartinism

  12. Rai1 Haploinsufficiency Is Associated with Social Abnormalities in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini R. Rao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism is characterized by difficulties in social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors; with different degrees of severity in each of the core areas. Haploinsufficiency and point mutations of RAI1 are associated with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS, a genetic condition that scores within the autism spectrum range for social responsiveness and communication, and is characterized by neurobehavioral abnormalities, intellectual disability, developmental delay, sleep disturbance, and self-injurious behaviors. Methods: To investigate the relationship between Rai1 and social impairment, we evaluated the Rai1+/− mice with a battery of tests to address social behavior in mice. Results: We found that the mutant mice showed diminished interest in social odors, abnormal submissive tendencies, and increased repetitive behaviors when compared to wild type littermates. Conclusions: These findings suggest that Rai1 contributes to social behavior in mice, and prompt it as a candidate gene for the social behaviors observed in Smith-Magenis Syndrome patients.

  13. Contemporary Developments in Cinema Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    he work offered for this PhD by Published Works charts the history of cinema exhibition in Britain from the late 1950s to the present. At the start of this period, cinemagoing as a form of public entertainment entered a long period of decline that was only arrested with the development and growth of multiplex cinemas in the 1980s and 1990s. Despite these changes, the feature film itself remained a culturally and commercially valuable artefact, though increasingly this meant the Hollywood fil...

  14. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in opiate addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Christina; Stöllberger, Claudia; Hlavin, Anton; Finsterer, Josef; Hager, Isabella; Hermann, Peter

    2008-12-01

    To determine in a cross-sectional study the prevalence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities in opiate addicts who were therapy-seeking and its association with demographic, clinical and drug-specific parameters. In consecutive therapy-seeking opiate addicts, a 12-lead ECG was registered within 24 hours after admission and evaluated according to a pre-set protocol between October 2004 and August 2006. Additionally, demographic, clinical and drug-specific parameters were recorded. Included were 511 opiate-addicts, 25% female, with a mean age of 29 years (range 17-59 years). One or more ECG abnormalities were found in 314 patients (61%). In the 511 patients we found most commonly ST abnormalities (19%), QTc prolongation (13%), tall R- and/or S-waves (11%) and missing R progression (10%). ECG abnormalities were more common in males than in females (64 versus 54%, P seizures less often (16 versus 27%, P opiate addicts. The most frequent ECG abnormalities are ST abnormalities, QTc prolongation and tall R- and/or S-waves. ST abnormalities are associated with cannabis, and QTc prolongation with methadone and benzodiazepines.

  15. Collaborative virtual environments art exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinsky, Margaret; Anstey, Josephine; Pape, Dave E.; Aguilera, Julieta C.; Kostis, Helen-Nicole; Tsoupikova, Daria

    2005-03-01

    This panel presentation will exhibit artwork developed in CAVEs and discuss how art methodologies enhance the science of VR through collaboration, interaction and aesthetics. Artists and scientists work alongside one another to expand scientific research and artistic expression and are motivated by exhibiting collaborative virtual environments. Looking towards the arts, such as painting and sculpture, computer graphics captures a visual tradition. Virtual reality expands this tradition to not only what we face, but to what surrounds us and even what responds to our body and its gestures. Art making that once was isolated to the static frame and an optimal point of view is now out and about, in fully immersive mode within CAVEs. Art knowledge is a guide to how the aesthetics of 2D and 3D worlds affect, transform, and influence the social, intellectual and physical condition of the human body through attention to psychology, spiritual thinking, education, and cognition. The psychological interacts with the physical in the virtual in such a way that each facilitates, enhances and extends the other, culminating in a "go together" world. Attention to sharing art experience across high-speed networks introduces a dimension of liveliness and aliveness when we "become virtual" in real time with others.

  16. Imaging findings of sternal abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franquet, T.; Gimenez, A.; Alegret, X.; Sanchis, E.; Rivas, A.

    1997-01-01

    Radiographic findings in the sternal abnormalities are often nonspecific, showing appearances from a localized benign lesion to an aggressive lesion as seen with infections and malignant neoplasms. A specific diagnosis of sternal abnormalities can be suggested on the basis of CT and MR characteristics. Familiarity with the presentation and variable appearance of sternal abnormalities may aid the radiologist is suggesting a specific diagnosis. We present among others characteristic radiographic findings of hemangioma, chondrosarcoma, hydatid disease, and SAPHO syndrome. In those cases in which findings are not specific, cross-sectional imaging modalities may help the clinician in their management. (orig.)

  17. Critical behavior of Y-doped Nd{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} manganites exhibiting the tricritical point and large magnetocaloric effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phan, The-Long; Ho, T.A. [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Thang, P.D. [Faculty of Engineering Physics and Nanotechnology, VNU-University of Engineering and Technology, Xuan Thuy, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Tran, Q.T. [Center for Science and Technology Communication, Ministry of Science and Technology, 113 Tran Duy Hung, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Thanh, T.D.; Phuc, N.X. [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Phan, M.H. [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Huy, B.T. [Department of Chemistry, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, S.C., E-mail: scyu@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Tricritical point in Y-doped Nd{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} manganites. • A large magnetic-entropy change. • Magnetic inhomogeneity and phase separation. - Abstract: We have determined the values of critical exponents of two polycrystalline samples (Nd{sub 1−x}Y{sub x}){sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} (x = 0 and 0.07) from the magnetization data versus temperature and magnetic field, M(H, T), to learn about their magnetic and magnetocaloric (MC) properties. The results reveal the samples exhibiting the crossover of first-order and second-order phase transitions, where the exponent values β = 0.271 and γ = 0.922 for x = 0, and β = 0.234–0.236 and γ = 1.044–1.063 for x = 0.07 determined by using modified Arrott plots and static-scaling hypothesis are close to those expected for the tricritical mean-field theory (β = 0.25 and γ = 1.0). Particularly, the T{sub C} of x = 0 and 0.07 can be any value in the temperature ranges of 240–255 K and 170–278 K, respectively, depending on the magnitude of applied magnetic field and determination techniques. Around the T{sub C}, studying the MC effect of the samples has revealed a large magnetic-entropy change (ΔS{sub m}) up to ∼8 J/kg K for the applied field interval ΔH = 50 kOe, corresponding to refrigerant capacity values of 200–245 J/kg. These phenomena are related to the crossover nature and the persisting of FM/anti-FM interactions even above the T{sub C}, as further confirmed by electron-spin-resonance data, Curie–Weiss law-based analyses, and an exponential parameter characteristic of magnetic order n = dLn|ΔS{sub m}|/dLnH.

  18. Enrico Fermi exhibition at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A touring exhibition celebrating the centenary of Enrico Fermi's birth in 1901 will be on display at CERN (Main Building, Mezzanine) from 12-27 September. You are cordially invited to the opening celebration on Thursday 12 September at 16:00 (Main Building, Council Chamber), which will include speechs from: Luciano Maiani Welcome and Introduction Arnaldo Stefanini Celebrating Fermi's Centenary in Documents and Pictures Antonino Zichichi The New 'Centro Enrico Fermi' at Via Panisperna Ugo Amaldi Fermi at Via Panisperna and the birth of Nuclear Medicine Jack Steinberger Fermi in Chicago Valentin Telegdi A Close-up of Fermi and the screening of a documentary video about Fermi: Scienziati a Pisa: Enrico Fermi (Scientists at Pisa: Enrico Fermi) created by Francesco Andreotti for La Limonaia from early film, photographs and sound recordings (In Italian, with English subtitles - c. 30 mins). This will be followed by an aperitif on the Mezz...

  19. Somatosensory abnormalities in knee OA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylde, Vikki; Palmer, Shea; Learmonth, Ian D; Dieppe, Paul

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to use quantitative sensory testing (QST) to explore the range and prevalence of somatosensory abnormalities demonstrated by patients with advanced knee OA. One hundred and seven knee OA patients and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy participants attended a 1-h QST session. Testing was performed on the medial side of the knee and the pain-free forearm. Light-touch thresholds were assessed using von Frey filaments, pressure pain thresholds using a digital pressure algometer, and thermal sensation and pain thresholds using a Thermotest MSA. Significant differences in median threshold values from knee OA patients and healthy participants were identified using Mann-Whitney U-tests. The z-score transformations were used to determine the prevalence of the different somatosensory abnormalities in knee OA patients. Testing identified 70% of knee OA patients as having at least one somatosensory abnormality. Comparison of median threshold values between knee OA patients and healthy participants revealed that patients had localized thermal and tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia at the osteoarthritic knee. Tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia were also present at the pain-free forearm. The most prevalent somatosensory abnormalities were tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia, evident in between 20 and 34% of patients. This study found that OA patients demonstrate an array of somatosensory abnormalities, of which the most prevalent were tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia. Further research is now needed to establish the clinical implications of these somatosensory abnormalities.

  20. EU Climate Change Exhibition Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On April 25, the CPAFFC, the China-EU Association (CEUA) and the Delegation of the European Commission to China jointly held the opening ceremony for the EU Exhibition on Climate Change in the CPAFFC. He Luli, former vice chairperson of the NPC Standing Committee and honorary president of the CEUA, Jose Manuel Barroso, president of the European Commission, and Li Jianping, vice president of the CPAFFC, attended the opening ceremony and made speeches. Honorary President He Luli highly praised the achievements made by China and the EU in their longtime cooperation of mutual benefits in various fields including environmental protection. She said, for many years China and EU have both committed to the development of all-round strategic partnership and establishment of a multi-level mechanism of political dialogue. She expressed, with increasing enthusiasm the CEUA would continue to actively carry out nongovernmental exchanges between China and the EU, and promote cooperation between the two sides in the fields of economy, society, environmental protection, science and technology, culture, etc.

  1. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test ...

  2. Quantifying the abnormal hemodynamics of sickle cell anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Huan; Karniadakis, George

    2012-02-01

    Sickle red blood cells (SS-RBC) exhibit heterogeneous morphologies and abnormal hemodynamics in deoxygenated states. A multi-scale model for SS-RBC is developed based on the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) method. Different cell morphologies (sickle, granular, elongated shapes) typically observed in deoxygenated states are constructed and quantified by the Asphericity and Elliptical shape factors. The hemodynamics of SS-RBC suspensions is studied in both shear and pipe flow systems. The flow resistance obtained from both systems exhibits a larger value than the healthy blood flow due to the abnormal cell properties. Moreover, SS-RBCs exhibit abnormal adhesive interactions with both the vessel endothelium cells and the leukocytes. The effect of the abnormal adhesive interactions on the hemodynamics of sickle blood is investigated using the current model. It is found that both the SS-RBC - endothelium and the SS-RBC - leukocytes interactions, can potentially trigger the vicious ``sickling and entrapment'' cycles, resulting in vaso-occlusion phenomena widely observed in micro-circulation experiments.

  3. Comprehensive Behavioral Analysis of Activating Transcription Factor 5-Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Umemura

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5 is a member of the CREB/ATF family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors. We previously reported that ATF5-deficient (ATF5-/- mice demonstrated abnormal olfactory bulb development due to impaired interneuron supply. Furthermore, ATF5-/- mice were less aggressive than ATF5+/+ mice. Although ATF5 is widely expressed in the brain, and involved in the regulation of proliferation and development of neurons, the physiological role of ATF5 in the higher brain remains unknown. Our objective was to investigate the physiological role of ATF5 in the higher brain. We performed a comprehensive behavioral analysis using ATF5-/- mice and wild type littermates. ATF5-/- mice exhibited abnormal locomotor activity in the open field test. They also exhibited abnormal anxiety-like behavior in the light/dark transition test and open field test. Furthermore, ATF5-/- mice displayed reduced social interaction in the Crawley’s social interaction test and increased pain sensitivity in the hot plate test compared with wild type. Finally, behavioral flexibility was reduced in the T-maze test in ATF5-/- mice compared with wild type. In addition, we demonstrated that ATF5-/- mice display disturbances of monoamine neurotransmitter levels in several brain regions. These results indicate that ATF5 deficiency elicits abnormal behaviors and the disturbance of monoamine neurotransmitter levels in the brain. The behavioral abnormalities of ATF5-/- mice may be due to the disturbance of monoamine levels. Taken together, these findings suggest that ATF5-/- mice may be a unique animal model of some psychiatric disorders.

  4. Screening human populations for abnormal radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentner, N.E.; Morrison, D.P.

    1990-07-01

    A relatively rapid and inexpensive in vitro growback assay was developed that uses the irradiated versus the unirradiated re-growth responses of lymphoblastoid cell lines developed from individual donors as an estimator of donor radioresponse. The purpose of this project was to furnish an estimate of the proportion of strains derived from various study populations that may be regarded as exhibiting abnormal radioresponse. The emphasis in this study was on hypersensitivity, because of the known radiation-hypersensitivity and cancer proneness associated with the genetic disorder ataxia-telangiectasia. Using methods developed especially for survival analyses, the percentage of significantly hypersensitive responses was 5.5% in a donor population composed of ostensibly normal individuals. We also examined lines derived from an unselected cancer patient population. These were not enriched, compared to the reference normal population, for hypersensitive responses. We thus conclude that hypersensitivity in vitro is not associated with increased risk for spontaneous development of cancer. However, the failure to observe an association between hypersensitivity and spontaneous cancer does not preclude a correlation between such sensitivity and radiogenic cancer. At the present stage, we would caution against the application of this assay or related in vitro tests to the situation of an individual, as opposed to a population. While we have clear indications that hypersensitivity in vitro is associated with abnormal radioresponse in vivo, this study has identified sources of variation that must be understood before attempts are made to unambiguously attribute a particular type of radioresponse to an individual

  5. Behavioral Variability and Somatic Mosaicism: A Cytogenomic Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorsanova, Svetlana G; Zelenova, Maria A; Yurov, Yuri B; Iourov, Ivan Y

    2018-04-01

    Behavioral sciences are inseparably related to genetics. A variety of neurobehavioral phenotypes are suggested to result from genomic variations. However, the contribution of genetic factors to common behavioral disorders (i.e. autism, schizophrenia, intellectual disability) remains to be understood when an attempt to link behavioral variability to a specific genomic change is made. Probably, the least appreciated genetic mechanism of debilitating neurobehavioral disorders is somatic mosaicism or the occurrence of genetically diverse (neuronal) cells in an individual's brain. Somatic mosaicism is assumed to affect directly the brain being associated with specific behavioral patterns. As shown in studies of chromosome abnormalities (syndromes), genetic mosaicism is able to change dynamically the phenotype due to inconsistency of abnormal cell proportions. Here, we hypothesize that brain-specific postzygotic changes of mosaicism levels are able to modulate variability of behavioral phenotypes. More precisely, behavioral phenotype variability in individuals exhibiting somatic mosaicism might correlate with changes in the amount of genetically abnormal cells throughout the lifespan. If proven, the hypothesis can be used as a basis for therapeutic interventions through regulating levels of somatic mosaicism to increase functioning and to improve overall condition of individuals with behavioral problems.

  6. The Therapeutic Function of the Instructor in Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgin, Richard P.

    1982-01-01

    Describes three main types of therapeutic problems which college instructors of abnormal psychology courses may encounter with their students. Students may seek the instructor's assistance in helping a relative or acquaintance or for self-help. Often a student may not seek help but may display pathological behavior. (AM)

  7. Development of Abnormality Detection System for Bathers using Ultrasonic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Yosuke; Abe, Takehiko; Nambo, Hidetaka; Kimura, Haruhiko; Ogoshi, Yasuhiro

    This paper proposes an abnormality detection system for bather sitting in bathtub. Increasing number of in-bathtub drowning accidents in Japan draws attention. Behind this large number of bathing accidents, Japan's unique social and cultural background come surface. For majority of people in Japan, bathing serves purpose in deep warming up of body, relax and enjoyable time. Therefore it is the custom for the Japanese to soak in bathtub. However overexposure to hot water may cause dizziness or fainting, which is possible to cause in-bathtub drowning. For drowning prevention, the system detects bather's abnormal state using an ultrasonic sensor array. The array, which has many ultrasonic sensors, is installed on the ceiling of bathroom above bathtub. The abnormality detection system uses the following two methods: posture detection and behavior detection. The function of posture detection is to estimate the risk of drowning by monitoring bather's posture. Meanwhile, the function of behavior detection is to estimate the risk of drowning by monitoring bather's behavior. By using these methods, the system detects bathers' different state from normal. As a result of experiment with a subject in the bathtub, the system was possible to detect abnormal state using subject's posture and behavior. Therefore the system is useful for monitoring bather to prevent drowning in bathtub.

  8. Morphometric Brain Abnormalities in Boys with Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Thomas; Vloet, Timo D.; Marx, Ivo; Konrad, Kerstin; Fink, Gereon R.; Herpertz, Sabine C.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2008-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is associated with antisocial personality behavior that violates the basic rights of others. Results, on examining the structural brain aberrations in boys' CD, show that boys with CD and cormobid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder showed abnormalities in frontolimbic areas that could contribute to antisocial…

  9. Lentiginosis, Deafness and Cardiac Abnormalities*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1973-01-06

    Jan 6, 1973 ... His height. mass. intelligence and genitalia were normal. The aSSOCiatIOn between deafness and disturbance of cardiac conduction and between pigmented skin lesions and cardiac abnormalities, has been well described. Should. ~I patient present with multiple lentigines and/or familial sensineural ...

  10. Cardiac abnormalities after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilt, I.A.C. van der

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage(aSAH) is a devastating neurological disease. During the course of the aSAH several neurological and medical complications may occur. Cardiac abnormalities after aSAH are observed often and resemble stress cardiomyopathy or Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy(Broken Heart

  11. Chromosomal Abnormalities Associated With Omphalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup(3q, dup(11p, inv(11, dup(1q, del(1q, dup(4q, dup(5p, dup(6q, del(9p, dup(15q, dup(17q, Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling.

  12. Admission haematological abnormalities and postoperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admission haematological abnormalities and postoperative outcomes in neonates with acute surgical conditions in Alexandria, Egypt. HL Wella, SMM Farahat. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals ...

  13. Abnormal early brain responses during visual search are evident in schizophrenia but not bipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanMeerten, Nicolaas J; Dubke, Rachel E; Stanwyck, John J; Kang, Seung Suk; Sponheim, Scott R

    2016-01-01

    People with schizophrenia show deficits in processing visual stimuli but neural abnormalities underlying the deficits are unclear and it is unknown whether such functional brain abnormalities are present in other severe mental disorders or in individuals who carry genetic liability for schizophrenia. To better characterize brain responses underlying visual search deficits and test their specificity to schizophrenia we gathered behavioral and electrophysiological responses during visual search (i.e., Span of Apprehension [SOA] task) from 38 people with schizophrenia, 31 people with bipolar disorder, 58 biological relatives of people with schizophrenia, 37 biological relatives of people with bipolar disorder, and 65 non-psychiatric control participants. Through subtracting neural responses associated with purely sensory aspects of the stimuli we found that people with schizophrenia exhibited reduced early posterior task-related neural responses (i.e., Span Endogenous Negativity [SEN]) while other groups showed normative responses. People with schizophrenia exhibited longer reaction times than controls during visual search but nearly identical accuracy. Those individuals with schizophrenia who had larger SENs performed more efficiently (i.e., shorter reaction times) on the SOA task suggesting that modulation of early visual cortical responses facilitated their visual search. People with schizophrenia also exhibited a diminished P300 response compared to other groups. Unaffected first-degree relatives of people with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia showed an amplified N1 response over posterior brain regions in comparison to other groups. Diminished early posterior brain responses are associated with impaired visual search in schizophrenia and appear to be specifically associated with the neuropathology of schizophrenia. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Abnormal intrinsic functional hubs in alcohol dependence: evidence from a voxelwise degree centrality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo X

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoping Luo,1,2 Linghong Guo,1 Xi-Jian Dai,3 Qinglai Wang,2 Wenzhong Zhu,2 Xinjun Miao,2 Honghan Gong1 1Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nangchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Radiology, Wenzhou Chinese Medicine Hospital, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China Objective: To explore the abnormal intrinsic functional hubs in alcohol dependence using voxelwise degree centrality analysis approach, and their relationships with clinical features.Materials and methods: Twenty-four male alcohol dependence subjects free of medicine (mean age, 50.21±9.62 years and 24 age- and education-matched male healthy controls (mean age, 50.29±8.92 years were recruited. The alcohol use disorders identification test and the severity of alcohol dependence questionnaire (SADQ were administered to assess the severity of alcohol craving. Voxelwise degree centrality approach was used to assess the abnormal intrinsic functional hubs features in alcohol dependence. Simple linear regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationships between the clinical features and abnormal intrinsic functional hubs.Results: Compared with healthy controls, alcohol dependence subjects exhibited significantly different degree centrality values in widespread left lateralization brain areas, including higher degree centrality values in the left precentral gyrus (BA 6, right hippocampus (BA 35, 36, and left orbitofrontal cortex (BA 11 and lower degree centrality values in the left cerebellum posterior lobe, bilateral secondary visual network (BA 18, and left precuneus (BA 7, 19. SADQ revealed a negative linear correlation with the degree centrality value in the left precentral gyrus (R2=0.296, P=0.006.Conclusion: The specific abnormal intrinsic functional hubs appear

  15. Cognitive control dysfunction and abnormal frontal cortex activation in stimulant drug users and their biological siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D G; Jones, P S; Bullmore, E T; Robbins, T W; Ersche, K D

    2013-05-14

    Cognitive and neural abnormalities are known to accompany chronic drug abuse, with impairments in cognition and changes in cortical structure seen in stimulant-dependent individuals. However, premorbid differences have also been observed in the brains and behavior of individuals at risk for substance abuse, before they develop dependence. Endophenotype research has emerged as a useful method for assessing preclinical traits that may be risk factors for pathology by studying patient populations and their undiagnosed first-degree relatives. This study used the color-word Stroop task to assess executive functioning in stimulant-dependent individuals, their unaffected biological siblings and unrelated healthy control volunteers using a functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm. Both the stimulant-dependent and sibling participants demonstrated impairments in cognitive control and processing speed on the task, registering significantly longer response latencies. However, the two groups generated very different neural responses, with the sibling participants exhibiting a significant decrease in activation in the inferior frontal gyrus compared with both stimulant-dependent individuals and control participants. Both target groups also demonstrated a decrease in hemispheric laterality throughout the task, exhibiting a disproportionate increase in right hemispheric activation, which was associated with their behavioral inefficiencies. These findings not only suggest a possible risk factor for stimulant abuse of poor inhibitory control and cortical inefficiency but they also demonstrate possible adaptations in the brains of stimulant users.

  16. Structural brain abnormalities in Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauduin, Stephanie E E C; van der Wee, Nic J A; van der Werff, Steven J A

    2018-05-08

    Alongside various physical symptoms, patients with Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome display a wide variety of neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms, which are indicative of involvement of the central nervous system. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the structural brain abnormalities that are associated with Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome and their relation to behavioral and cognitive symptomatology. In this review, we discuss the gray matter structural abnormalities found in patients with active Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome, the reversibility and persistence of these changes and the white matter structural changes related to Cushing's syndrome. Recent findings are of particular interest because they provide more detailed information on localization of the structural changes as well as possible insights into the underlying biological processes. Active Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome is related to volume reductions of the hippocampus and in a prefrontal region involving the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial frontal gyrus (MFG). Whilst there are indications that the reductions in hippocampal volume are partially reversible, the changes in the ACC and MFG appear to be more persistent. In contrast to the volumetric findings, changes in white matter connectivity are typically widespread involving multiple tracts.

  17. Environmental enrichment for a mixed-species nocturnal mammal exhibit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Fay E; Melfi, Vicky A

    2012-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is an integral aspect of modern zoo animal management but, empirical evaluation of it is biased toward species housed in single-species groups. Nocturnal houses, where several nocturnal species are housed together, are particularly overlooked. This study investigated whether three species (nine-banded armadillos, Dasypus novemcinctus; Senegal bush babies, Galago senegalensis; two-toed sloths, Choloepus didactylus) in the nocturnal house at Paignton Zoo Environmental Park, UK could be enriched using food-based and sensory EE. Subjects were an adult male and female of each species. EE was deemed effective if it promoted target species-typical behaviors, behavioral diversity, and increased use of enriched exhibit zones. Results from generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that food-based EE elicited the most positive behavioral effects across species. One set of food-based EEs (Kong®, termite mound and hanging food) presented together was associated with a significant increase in species-typical behaviors, increased behavioral diversity, and increased use of enriched exhibit zones in armadillos and bush babies. Although one type of sensory EE (scented pine cones) increased overall exhibit use in all species, the other (rainforest sounds) was linked to a significant decrease in species-typical behavior in bush babies and sloths. There were no intra or interspecies conflicts over EE, and commensalism occurred between armadillos and bush babies. Our data demonstrate that simple food-based and sensory EE can promote positive behavioral changes in a mixed-species nocturnal mammal exhibit. We suggest that both food and sensory EE presented concurrently will maximize opportunities for naturalistic activity in all species. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Echocardiographic abnormalities in hypertensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodulfo Garcia, Maikel; Tornes Perez, Victor Manuel; Castellanos Tardo, Juan Ramon

    2012-01-01

    A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 120 hypertensive patients with a course of 5 or more years, who went to the emergency room of 'Saturnino Lora' Provincial Teaching Hospital from November 2010 to November 2011 in order to determine the presence or absence of echocardiographic abnormalities typical of hypertension. Of these, 78,3 % was affected, most of whom reported not to continue with regular previous medical treatment, and 21,7 % had not these abnormalities. Age group of 50-60 years, males and blacks prevailed in the case material. The most significant echocardiographic findings were left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure with ejection fraction of left ventricle preserved

  19. Goldenhar syndrome and urogenital abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Marulaiah

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Goldenhar syndrome (oculo-auriculo-vertebral syn-drome or 1st and 2nd branchial arch syndrome is a com-plex of craniofacial anomalies. It has been associated with anomalies in other systems and with abnormalities of the urogenital system. We present a case of Goldenhar syn-drome with multiple renal anomalies and a urogenital si-nus, which has not been reported before.

  20. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, R.B.J.; Yousefzadeh, D.K.; Roizen, N.J.

    1989-06-01

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development.

  1. Computed tomography of thymic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, P.; Candardjis, G.

    1987-05-01

    Computed tomographic examinations of 38 patients with surgically and histologically proven diagnosis were reviewed. Twenty subjects (52%) had an invasive thymoma and 16% an hyperplastic thymus. Myasthenia gravis was present in 6 cases (16%) of thymic abnormalities, four (10,5%) with invasive thymoma and two (5%) with thymic hyperplasia. Graves' disease was also present in one case of thymic hyperplasia. We emphasize the contribution of CT to the diagnosis and the prognosis.

  2. Computed tomography of thymic abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnyder, P.; Candardjis, G.

    1987-01-01

    Computed tomographic examinations of 38 patients with surgically and histologically proven diagnosis were reviewed. Twenty subjects (52%) had an invasive thymoma and 16% an hyperplastic thymus. Myasthenia gravis was present in 6 cases (16%) of thymic abnormalities, four (10,5%) with invasive thymoma and two (5%) with thymic hyperplasia. Graves' disease was also present in one case of thymic hyperplasia. We emphasize the contribution of CT to the diagnosis and the prognosis. (orig.)

  3. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.B.J.; Yousefzadeh, D.K.; Roizen, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development. (orig.)

  4. Abnormal uterine bleeding in perimenopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, S R; Lumsden, M A

    2017-10-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the commonest presenting complaints encountered in a gynecologist's office or primary-care setting. The wider availability of diagnostic tools has allowed prompt diagnosis and treatment of an increasing number of menstrual disorders in an office setting. This White Paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of transvaginal ultrasound, blind endometrial sampling and diagnostic hysteroscopy. Once a proper diagnosis has been established, appropriate therapy may be embarked upon. Fortunately, only a minority of such patients will have premalignant or malignant disease. When bleeding is sufficient to cause severe anemia or even hypovolemia, prompt intervention is called for. In most of the cases, however, the abnormal uterine bleeding will be disquieting to the patient and significantly affect her 'quality of life'. Sometimes, reassurance and expectant management will be sufficient in such patients. Overall, however, in cases of benign disease, some intervention will be required. The use of oral contraceptive pills especially those with a short hormone-free interval, the insertion of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system, the incorporation of newer medical therapies including antifibrinolytic drugs and selective progesterone receptor modulators and minimally invasive treatments have made outpatient therapy increasingly effective. For others, operative hysteroscopy and endometrial ablation are proven therapeutic tools to provide both long- and short-term relief of abnormal uterine bleeding, thus avoiding, or deferring, hysterectomy.

  5. Hemostatic abnormalities in Noonan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artoni, Andrea; Selicorni, Angelo; Passamonti, Serena M; Lecchi, Anna; Bucciarelli, Paolo; Cerutti, Marta; Cianci, Paola; Gianniello, Francesca; Martinelli, Ida

    2014-05-01

    A bleeding diathesis is a common feature of Noonan syndrome, and various coagulation abnormalities have been reported. Platelet function has never been carefully investigated. The degree of bleeding diathesis in a cohort of patients with Noonan syndrome was evaluated by a validated bleeding score and investigated with coagulation and platelet function tests. If ratios of prothrombin time and/or activated partial thromboplastin time were prolonged, the activity of clotting factors was measured. Individuals with no history of bleeding formed the control group. The study population included 39 patients and 28 controls. Bleeding score was ≥2 (ie, suggestive of a moderate bleeding diathesis) in 15 patients (38.5%) and ≥4 (ie, suggestive of a severe bleeding diathesis) in 7 (17.9%). Abnormal coagulation and/or platelet function tests were found in 14 patients with bleeding score ≥2 (93.3%) but also in 21 (87.5%) of those with bleeding score Noonan syndrome had a bleeding diathesis and >90% of them had platelet function and/or coagulation abnormalities. Results of these tests should be taken into account in the management of bleeding or invasive procedures in these patients. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Proportionate Responses to Life Events Influence Clinicians' Judgments of Psychological Abnormality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nancy S.; Paulus, Daniel J.; Gonzalez, Jeffrey S.; Khalife, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Psychological abnormality is a fundamental concept in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM-IV-TR"; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) and in all clinical evaluations. How do practicing clinical psychologists use the context of life events to judge the abnormality of a person's current behaviors? The appropriate…

  7. Unsupervised behaviour-specific dictionary learning for abnormal event detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Liu, Weifeng; Olsen, Søren Ingvor

    2015-01-01

    the training data is only a small proportion of the surveillance data. Therefore, we propose behavior-specific dictionaries (BSD) through unsupervised learning, pursuing atoms from the same type of behavior to represent one behavior dictionary. To further improve the dictionary by introducing information from...... potential infrequent normal patterns, we refine the dictionary by searching ‘missed atoms’ that have compact coefficients. Experimental results show that our BSD algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art dictionaries in abnormal event detection on the public UCSD dataset. Moreover, BSD has less false alarms...

  8. Artefacts and the performance of an exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2008-01-01

    The article explores the role of mediating artefacts in children's encounters with a museum of natural history. Using actor network theory it explores how a specific artefact shapes the way users relate to exhibited objects and how the artefact guides users' movements in the exhibition....... The mediated performance of an exhibition is explored through an empirical case....

  9. Special report on abnormal climate in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    This reports on abnormal climate in 2010 with impact on the each field. It is comprised of four chapters, which deal with Introduction with purpose of publish and background, current situation and cause of abnormal climate in 2010 on abnormal climate around the world and Korea, Action and impact against abnormal climate in 2010 to agriculture, industry and energy, prevention of disasters, forest, fishery products, environment and health, Evaluation and policy proposal. It also has an appendix about occurrence and damage on abnormal climate of the world in 2010 and media reports on abnormal climate in Korea in 2010.

  10. Autism-relevant social abnormalities and cognitive deficits in engrailed-2 knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Brielmaier

    Full Text Available ENGRAILED 2 (En2, a homeobox transcription factor, functions as a patterning gene in the early development and connectivity of rodent hindbrain and cerebellum, and regulates neurogenesis and development of monoaminergic pathways. To further understand the neurobiological functions of En2, we conducted neuroanatomical expression profiling of En2 wildtype mice. RTQPCR assays demonstrated that En2 is expressed in adult brain structures including the somatosensory cortex, hippocampus, striatum, thalamus, hypothalamus and brainstem. Human genetic studies indicate that EN2 is associated with autism. To determine the consequences of En2 mutations on mouse behaviors, including outcomes potentially relevant to autism, we conducted comprehensive phenotyping of social, communication, repetitive, and cognitive behaviors. En2 null mutants exhibited robust deficits in reciprocal social interactions as juveniles and adults, and absence of sociability in adults, replicated in two independent cohorts. Fear conditioning and water maze learning were impaired in En2 null mutants. High immobility in the forced swim test, reduced prepulse inhibition, mild motor coordination impairments and reduced grip strength were detected in En2 null mutants. No genotype differences were found on measures of ultrasonic vocalizations in social contexts, and no stereotyped or repetitive behaviors were observed. Developmental milestones, general health, olfactory abilities, exploratory locomotor activity, anxiety-like behaviors and pain responses did not differ across genotypes, indicating that the behavioral abnormalities detected in En2 null mutants were not attributable to physical or procedural confounds. Our findings provide new insight into the role of En2 in complex behaviors and suggest that disturbances in En2 signaling may contribute to neuropsychiatric disorders marked by social and cognitive deficits, including autism spectrum disorders.

  11. Abnormal transient analysis by using PWR plant simulator, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naitoh, Akira; Murakami, Yoshimitsu; Yokobayashi, Masao.

    1983-06-01

    This report describes results of abnormal transient analysis by using a PWR plant simulator. The simulator is based on an existing 822MWe power plant with 3 loops, and designed to cover wide range of plant operation from cold shutdown to full power at EOL. In the simulator, malfunctions are provided for abnormal conditions of equipment failures, and in this report, 17 malfunctions for secondary system and 4 malfunctions for nuclear instrumentation systems were simulated. The abnormal conditions are turbine and generator trip, failure of condenser, feedwater system and valve and detector failures of pressure and water level. Fathermore, failure of nuclear instrumentations are involved such as source range channel, intermediate range channel and audio counter. Transient behaviors caused by added malfunctions were reasonable and detail information of dynamic characteristics for turbine-condenser system were obtained. (author)

  12. How does structured sparsity work in abnormal event detection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Pan, Hong; Olsen, Søren Ingvor

    the training, which is the due to the fact that abnormal videos are limited or even unavailable in advance in most video surveillance applications. As a result, there could be only one label in the training data which hampers supervised learning; 2) Even though there are multiple types of normal behaviors, how...... many normal patterns lie in the whole surveillance data is still unknown. This is because there is huge amount of video surveillance data and only a small proportion is used in algorithm learning, consequently, the normal patterns in the training data could be incomplete. As a result, any sparse...... structure learned from the training data could have a high bias and ruin the precision of abnormal event detection. Therefore, we in the paper propose an algorithm to solve the abnormality detection problem by sparse representation, in which local structured sparsity is preserved in coefficients. To better...

  13. Detection of Abnormal Events via Optical Flow Feature Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel algorithm is proposed to detect abnormal events in video streams. The algorithm is based on the histogram of the optical flow orientation descriptor and the classification method. The details of the histogram of the optical flow orientation descriptor are illustrated for describing movement information of the global video frame or foreground frame. By combining one-class support vector machine and kernel principal component analysis methods, the abnormal events in the current frame can be detected after a learning period characterizing normal behaviors. The difference abnormal detection results are analyzed and explained. The proposed detection method is tested on benchmark datasets, then the experimental results show the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  14. Detection of Abnormal Events via Optical Flow Feature Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Snoussi, Hichem

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel algorithm is proposed to detect abnormal events in video streams. The algorithm is based on the histogram of the optical flow orientation descriptor and the classification method. The details of the histogram of the optical flow orientation descriptor are illustrated for describing movement information of the global video frame or foreground frame. By combining one-class support vector machine and kernel principal component analysis methods, the abnormal events in the current frame can be detected after a learning period characterizing normal behaviors. The difference abnormal detection results are analyzed and explained. The proposed detection method is tested on benchmark datasets, then the experimental results show the effectiveness of the algorithm. PMID:25811227

  15. Affordances and distributed cognition in museum exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne; May, Michael; Marandino, Martha

    2014-01-01

    consistent framework. Here, we invoke the notions of affordance and distributed cognition to explain in a coherent way how visitors interact with exhibits and exhibit spaces and make meaning from those interactions, and we exemplify our points using observations of twelve visitors to exhibits at a natural...... history museum. We show how differences in exhibit characteristics give rise to differences in the interpretive strategies used by visitors in their meaning-making process, and conclude by discussing how the notions of affordance and distributed cognition can be used in an exhibit design perspective....

  16. Evidence for a role of orexin/hypocretin system in vestibular lesion-induced locomotor abnormalities in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Pan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Vestibular damage can induce locomotor abnormalities in both animals and humans. Rodents with bilateral vestibular loss showed vestibular deficits syndrome such as circling, opisthotonus as well as locomotor and exploratory hyperactivity. Previous studies have investigated the changes in the dopamine system after vestibular loss, but the results are inconsistent and inconclusive. Numerous evidences indicate that the orexin system is implicated in central motor control. We hypothesized that orexin may be potentially involved in vestibular loss-induced motor disorders. In this study, we examined the effects of arsanilate- or 3, 3′-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN-induced vestibular lesion (AVL or IVL on the orexin-A (OXA labeling in rat hypothalamus using immunohistochemistry. The vestibular lesion-induced locomotor abnormalities were recorded and verified using a histamine H4 receptor antagonist JNJ7777120 (20 mg/kg, i.p.. The effects of the orexin receptor type 1 antagonist SB334867 (16 μg, i.c.v. on these behavior responses were also investigated. At 72 h post-AVL and IVL, animals exhibited vestibular deficit syndrome and locomotor hyperactivity in the home cages. These responses were significantly alleviated by JNJ7777120 which also eliminated AVL-induced increases in exploratory behavior in an open field. The numbers of OXA-labeled neurons in the hypothalamus were significantly increased in the AVL animals at 72 h post-AVL and in the IVL animals at 24, 48 and 72 h post-IVL. SB334867 significantly attenuated the vestibular deficit syndrome and locomotor hyperactivity at 72 h post-AVL and IVL. It also decreased exploratory behavior in the AVL animals. These results suggested that the alteration of OXA expression might contribute to locomotor abnormalities after acute vestibular lesion. The orexin receptors might be the potential therapeutic targets for vestibular disorders.

  17. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect - pinna; Congenital defect - pinna ... conditions: Abnormal folds or location of the pinna Low-set ears No opening to the ear canal ...

  18. Enhanced monitoring of abnormal emergency department demands

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying; Kadri, Farid

    2016-01-01

    of abnormal situations caused by abnormal patient arrivals to the ED. More specifically, This work proposed the application of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models combined with the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) test for anomaly-detection. ARMA

  19. MR imaging of abnormal synovial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, S.F.; Sanchez, R.; Murray, W.T.; Silbiger, M.L.; Ogden, J.; Cochran, C.

    1987-01-01

    MR imaging can directly image abnormal synovium. The authors reviewed over 50 cases with abnormal synovial processes. The abnormalities include Baker cysts, semimembranous bursitis, chronic shoulder bursitis, peroneal tendon ganglion cyst, periarticular abscesses, thickened synovium from rheumatoid and septic arthritis, and synovial hypertrophy secondary to Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. MR imaging has proved invaluable in identifying abnormal synovium, defining the extent and, to a limited degree, characterizing its makeup

  20. Operator training for the abnormal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzec, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    Training of nuclear power plant control room operators, on actions to be taken for an abnormal event, has classically been limited to discussion, on-shift and/or during requalification training classes, of symptoms, logical thought processes, systems analysis, and operator experience. The prerequisites for these discussions are a common technical vocabulary, and a minimum basic comprehension of nuclear power plant fundamentals, plant component theory of operation, system configuration, system control philosophy and operating procedures. Nuclear power plant control room operators are not the only personnel who are or should be involved in these discussions. The shift supervisors, operations management, and auxiliary equipment operators require continuing training in abnormal operations, as well. More in-depth training is necessary for shift supervisors and control room operators. The availability of vendor simulators has improved the effectiveness of training efforts for these individuals to some extent by displaying typical situations and plant performance characteristics and by providing a degree of ''hands on'' experience. The evolution of in-depth training with these simulators is reviewed

  1. Psychosocial animal model of PTSD produces a long-lasting traumatic memory, an increase in general anxiety and PTSD-like glucocorticoid abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Fleshner, Monika; Diamond, David M

    2012-09-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by a pathologically intense memory for a traumatic experience, persistent anxiety and physiological abnormalities, such as low baseline glucocorticoid levels and increased sensitivity to dexamethasone. We have addressed the hypothesis that rats subjected to chronic psychosocial stress would exhibit PTSD-like sequelae, including traumatic memory expression, increased anxiety and abnormal glucocorticoid responses. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a cat on two occasions separated by 10 days, in conjunction with chronic social instability. Three weeks after the second cat exposure, the rats were tested for glucocorticoid abnormalities, general anxiety and their fear-conditioned memory of the two cat exposures. Stressed rats exhibited reduced basal glucocorticoid levels, increased glucocorticoid suppression following dexamethasone administration, heightened anxiety and a robust fear memory in response to cues that were paired with the two cat exposures. The commonalities in endocrine and behavioral measures between psychosocially stressed rats and traumatized people with PTSD provide the opportunity to explore mechanisms underlying psychological trauma-induced changes in neuroendocrine systems and cognition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. SNP array analysis reveals novel genomic abnormalities including copy neutral loss of heterozygosity in anaplastic oligodendrogliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Idbaih

    Full Text Available Anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AOD are rare glial tumors in adults with relative homogeneous clinical, radiological and histological features at the time of diagnosis but dramatically various clinical courses. Studies have identified several molecular abnormalities with clinical or biological relevance to AOD (e.g. t(1;19(q10;p10, IDH1, IDH2, CIC and FUBP1 mutations.To better characterize the clinical and biological behavior of this tumor type, the creation of a national multicentric network, named "Prise en charge des OLigodendrogliomes Anaplasiques (POLA," has been supported by the Institut National du Cancer (InCA. Newly diagnosed and centrally validated AOD patients and their related biological material (tumor and blood samples were prospectively included in the POLA clinical database and tissue bank, respectively.At the molecular level, we have conducted a high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis, which included 83 patients. Despite a careful central pathological review, AOD have been found to exhibit heterogeneous genomic features. A total of 82% of the tumors exhibited a 1p/19q-co-deletion, while 18% harbor a distinct chromosome pattern. Novel focal abnormalities, including homozygously deleted, amplified and disrupted regions, have been identified. Recurring copy neutral losses of heterozygosity (CNLOH inducing the modulation of gene expression have also been discovered. CNLOH in the CDKN2A locus was associated with protein silencing in 1/3 of the cases. In addition, FUBP1 homozygous deletion was detected in one case suggesting a putative tumor suppressor role of FUBP1 in AOD.Our study showed that the genomic and pathological analyses of AOD are synergistic in detecting relevant clinical and biological subgroups of AOD.

  3. Investigating Design Research Landscapes through Exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Li; Hansen, Flemming Tvede; Mäkelä, Maarit

    2013-01-01

    What characterizes a design research exhibition compared to a traditional design and art exhibition? How do you show the very materialities of the design experiments as a means for communicating knowledge of research and of practice? How do you present, review and utilize such an exhibition......? With those questions in mind, the intention and challenge for the Nordes 2013 Design Research Exhibition was to expand on current notions of staging research enquires in design research conference contexts. Artefacts, installations, performances, and other materialities that relate to the theme...... of the conference - Experiments in Design Research – were displayed as tools to express and communicate different design research enquires. Through this paper we will describe the Nordes exhibition as a specific case that renders questions visible in relation to how to utilize a design research exhibition...

  4. System for automatic detection of lung nodules exhibiting growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Carol L.; Shen, Hong; Odry, Benjamin L.; Ko, Jane P.; Naidich, David P.

    2004-05-01

    Lung nodules that exhibit growth over time are considered highly suspicious for malignancy. We present a completely automated system for detection of growing lung nodules, using initial and follow-up multi-slice CT studies. The system begins with automatic detection of lung nodules in the later CT study, generating a preliminary list of candidate nodules. Next an automatic system for registering locations in two studies matches each candidate in the later study to its corresponding position in the earlier study. Then a method for automatic segmentation of lung nodules is applied to each candidate and its matching location, and the computed volumes are compared. The output of the system is a list of nodule candidates that are new or have exhibited volumetric growth since the previous scan. In a preliminary test of 10 patients examined by two radiologists, the automatic system identified 18 candidates as growing nodules. 7 (39%) of these corresponded to validated nodules or other focal abnormalities that exhibited growth. 4 of the 7 true detections had not been identified by either of the radiologists during their initial examinations of the studies. This technique represents a powerful method of surveillance that may reduce the probability of missing subtle or early malignant disease.

  5. Superconductive microstrip exhibiting negative differential resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebener, R.P.; Gallus, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    A device capable of exhibiting negative differential electrical resistivity over a range of values of current and voltage is formed by vapor-depositing a thin layer of a material capable of exhibiting superconductivity on an insulating substrate, establishing electrical connections at opposite ends of the deposited strip, and cooling the alloy into its superconducting range. The device will exhibit negative differential resistivity when biased in the current-induced resistive state

  6. Abnormality diagnosis device for nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utsunomiya, Kazuhiro; Oyama, Shinmi; Sakaba, Hideo

    1989-02-21

    According to the present invention, abnormality such as abnormal increase of temperature in a nuclear reactor is detected to send a signal to control rod drives, etc. thereby stopping the operation of the nuclear reactor. Receiving/transmission device transmits a signal for conducting normal operation of an abnormality information section, as well as receives an echo signal from the abnormality information section to transmit an abnormal signal to a reactor protection system. The abnormality information section is disposed to fuel assemblies, receives a signal from the receiving/transmission device for conducting the normal operation to transmit a normal echo signal, as well as changes the echo signal when detecting the nuclear reactor abnormality. By the foregoing method, since the abnormality information section is disposed to the fuel assemblies, various effects can be attained such as: (1) there is no response delay from the occurrence of abnormality to emergency counter measure after detection, (2) high burnup degree for fuels can thus be possible to improve the economical property, (3) the abnormality information section can be taken out from the reactor container together with fuel assemablies by an existent take-out mechanism and (4) since wireless transmission and reception are established between the receiving/transmission device and the abnormality information section, cables are not required in the container. (K.M.).

  7. Abnormal glutamate release in aged BTBR mouse model of autism

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Hongen; Ding, Caiyun; Jin, Guorong; Yin, Haizhen; Liu, Jianrong; Hu, Fengyun

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormal reciprocal social interactions, communication deficits, and repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. Most of the available research on autism is focused on children and young adults and little is known about the pathological alternation of autism in older adults. In order to investigate the neurobiological alternation of autism in old age stage, we compared the morphology and synaptic function of excitatory synapses betw...

  8. Abnormal stress responsivity in a rodent developmental disruption model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Eric C; Bellaire, Mark; Ewing, Samuel G; Grace, Anthony A

    2013-10-01

    Although numerous studies have implicated stress in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, less is known about how the effects of stress interact with genetic, developmental, and/or environmental determinants to promote disease progression. In particular, it has been proposed that in humans, stress exposure in adolescence could combine with a predisposition towards increased stress sensitivity, leading to prodromal symptoms and eventually psychosis. However, the neurobiological substrates for this interaction are not fully characterized. Previous work in our lab has demonstrated that rats born to dams administered with the DNA-methylating agent methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) at gestational day 17 exhibit as adults behavioral and anatomical abnormalities consistent with those observed in patients with schizophrenia. Here, we examined behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stress in the MAM model of schizophrenia. MAM-treated male rats were exposed to acute and repeated footshock stress at prepubertal, peripubteral, and adult ages. Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), freezing, and corticosterone responses were quantified. We found that juvenile MAM-treated rats emitted significantly more calls, spent more time vocalizing, emitted calls at a higher rate, and showed more freezing in response to acute footshock stress when compared with their saline (SAL) treated counterparts, and that this difference is not present in older animals. In addition, adolescent MAM-treated animals displayed a blunted HPA axis corticosterone response to acute footshock that did not adapt after 10 days of stress exposure. These data demonstrate abnormal stress responsivity in the MAM model of schizophrenia and suggest that these animals are more sensitive to the effects of stress in youth.

  9. A Heuristic for Improving Transmedia Exhibition Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selvadurai, Vashanth; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss

    2017-01-01

    in the scientific field of designing transmedia experience in an exhibition context that links the pre- and post-activities to the actual visit (during-activities). The result of this study is a preliminary heuristic for establishing a relation between the platform and content complexity in transmedia exhibitions....

  10. Memory and Mourning: An Exhibit History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Scott G.

    2005-01-01

    Mounted by the Strong Museum in Rochester, New York, in 1993, and traveling nationally thereafter, the exhibit Memory and Mourning provided historical and contemporary perspectives to help museum guests explore their own reactions to loss and grief. In the process the exhibit's development team encountered a range of philosophical, historical,…

  11. Let's play game exhibitions : A curator's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Jesse; Glas, M.A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330981447; van Vught, J.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413532682

    2017-01-01

    The Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision is home to The Experience, a museum exhibiting the history of media in the Netherlands. For ten months in 2016 and 2017, The Experience hosted a temporary exhibition entitled Let’s YouTube . During the Let’s YouTube game month, we programmed a ten-day

  12. Science Fiction Exhibits as STEM Gateways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robie, Samantha

    Women continue to hold less than a quarter of all STEM jobs in the United States, prompting many museums to develop programs and exhibits with the express goal of interesting young girls in scientific fields. At the same time, a number of recent museum exhibits have harnessed the popularity of pop culture and science fiction in order to interest general audiences in STEM subject matter, as well as using the exhibits as springboards to expand or shift mission goals and focus. Because science fiction appears to be successful at raising interest in STEM fields, it may be an effective way to garner the interest of young girls in STEM in particular. This research seeks to describe the ways in which museums are currently using science fiction exhibits to interest young girls in STEM fields and careers. Research focused on four institutions across the country hosting three separate exhibits, and included staff interviews and content analysis of exhibit descriptions, promotional materials, a summative evaluation and supplementary exhibit productions. In some ways, science fiction exhibits do serve young girls, primarily through the inclusion of female role models, staff awareness, and prototype testing to ensure interactives are attractive to girls as well as to boys. However, STEM appears to be underutilized, which may be partly due to a concern within the field that the outcome of targeting a specific gender could be construed as "stereotyping".

  13. Abnormal Returns and Contrarian Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Dall'Agnol

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We test the hypothesis that strategies which are long on portfolios of looser stocks and short on portfolios of winner stocks generate abnormal returns in Brazil. This type of evidence for the US stock market was interpreted by The Bondt and Thaler (1985 as reflecting systematic evaluation mistakes caused by investors overreaction to news related to the firm performance. We found evidence of contrarian strategies profitability for horizons from 3 months to 3 years in a sample of stock returns from BOVESPA and SOMA from 1986 to 2000. The strategies are more profitable for shorter horizons. Therefore, there was no trace of the momentum effect found by Jagadeesh and Titman (1993 for the same horizons with US data. There are remaing unexplained positive returns for contrarian strategies after accounting for risk, size, and liquidity. We also found that the strategy profitability is reduced after the Real Plan, which suggests that the Brazilian stock market became more efficient after inflation stabilization.

  14. Musculo-Skeletal Abnormalities in Patients with Marfan Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Kaissi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background A leptosomic body type is tall and thin with long hands. Marfanoid features may be familial in nature or pathological, as occurs in congenital contractual arachnodactyly (Beal's syndrome and Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome mimicking some of the changes of Marfan syndrome, although not accompanied by luxation of lens and dissecting aneurysm of aorta. Methods In this article we collected eight patients who were consistent with the diagnosis of Marfan syndrome via phenotypic and genotypic characterization. Results Our patients manifested a constellation of variable presentations of musculo-skeletal abnormalities ranging from developmental dysplasia of the hip, protrusio acetabuli, leg length inequality, patellar instability, scoliosis, to early onset osteoarthritis. Each abnormality has been treated accordingly. Conclusion This is the first paper which includes the diagnosis and the management of the associated musculo-skeletal abnormalities in patients with Marfan syndrome, stressing that patients with Marfan syndrome are exhibiting great variability in the natural history and the severity of musculo-skeletal abnormalities.

  15. Gastrointestinal mucosal abnormalities using videocapsule endoscopy in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, I; Antonietti, M; Houivet, E; Hachulla, E; Maunoury, V; Bienvenu, B; Viennot, S; Smail, A; Duhaut, P; Dupas, J-L; Dominique, S; Hatron, P-Y; Levesque, H; Benichou, J; Ducrotté, P

    2014-07-01

    To date, there are no large studies on videocapsule endoscopy in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Consequently, the prevalence and features of gastrointestinal mucosal abnormalities in SSc have not been determined. To determine both prevalence and characteristics of gastrointestinal mucosal abnormalities in unselected patients with SSc, using videocapsule endoscopy. To predict which SSc patients are at risk of developing potentially bleeding gastrointestinal vascular mucosal abnormalities. Videocapsule endoscopy was performed on 50 patients with SSc. Prevalence of gastrointestinal mucosal abnormalities was 52%. Potentially bleeding vascular mucosal lesions were predominant, including: watermelon stomach (34.6%), gastric and/or small intestinal telangiectasia (26.9%) and gastric and/or small intestinal angiodysplasia (38.5%). SSc patients with gastrointestinal vascular mucosal lesions more often exhibited: limited cutaneous SSc (P = 0.06), digital ulcers (P = 0.05), higher score of nailfold videocapillaroscopy (P = 0.0009), anaemia (P = 0.02), lower levels of ferritin (P correlation between gastrointestinal vascular mucosal lesions and presence of severe extra-digestive vasculopathy (digital ulcers and higher nailfold videocapillaroscopy scores). This latter supports the theory that SSc-related diffuse vasculopathy is responsible for both cutaneous and digestive vascular lesions. Therefore, we suggest that nailfold videocapillaroscopy may be a helpful test for managing SSc patients. In fact, nailfold videocapillaroscopy score should be calculated routinely, as it may result in identification of SSc patients at higher risk of developing potentially bleeding gastrointestinal vascular mucosal lesions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Abnormal megakaryocyte development and platelet function in Nbeal2(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahr, Walter H A; Lo, Richard W; Li, Ling; Pluthero, Fred G; Christensen, Hilary; Ni, Ran; Vaezzadeh, Nima; Hawkins, Cynthia E; Weyrich, Andrew S; Di Paola, Jorge; Landolt-Marticorena, Carolina; Gross, Peter L

    2013-11-07

    Gray platelet syndrome (GPS) is an inherited bleeding disorder associated with macrothrombocytopenia and α-granule-deficient platelets. GPS has been linked to loss of function mutations in NEABL2 (neurobeachin-like 2), and we describe here a murine GPS model, the Nbeal2(-/-) mouse. As in GPS, Nbeal2(-/-) mice exhibit splenomegaly, macrothrombocytopenia, and a deficiency of platelet α-granules and their cargo, including von Willebrand factor (VWF), thrombospondin-1, and platelet factor 4. The platelet α-granule membrane protein P-selectin is expressed at 48% of wild-type levels and externalized upon platelet activation. The presence of P-selectin and normal levels of VPS33B and VPS16B in Nbeal2(-/-) platelets suggests that NBEAL2 acts independently of VPS33B/VPS16B at a later stage of α-granule biogenesis. Impaired Nbeal2(-/-) platelet function was shown by flow cytometry, platelet aggregometry, bleeding assays, and intravital imaging of laser-induced arterial thrombus formation. Microscopic analysis detected marked abnormalities in Nbeal2(-/-) bone marrow megakaryocytes, which when cultured showed delayed maturation, decreased survival, decreased ploidy, and developmental abnormalities, including abnormal extracellular distribution of VWF. Our results confirm that α-granule secretion plays a significant role in platelet function, and they also indicate that abnormal α-granule formation in Nbeal2(-/-) mice has deleterious effects on megakaryocyte survival, development, and platelet production.

  17. The Culture of Exhibitions and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Doumas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects on temporary exhibitions from a theoretical as well as practical perspective. Regarded as a particularly effective mass-communication medium, exhibitions have a dual nature: they are scholarly undertakings, bringing off a curator’s vision and, simultaneously, they are projects with economic implications that need to be well managed and administered. The role of conservation in the making of temporary exhibitions, either in-house or touring, is here discussed in relation to how work is planned and prioritized as well as how time is managed and staff is allocated. Reference to weaknesses that lessen the crucial input of conservation in the decision-making process is also made. Much of the debate, which focuses on art exhibitions, concerns practicalities encountered in a private museum that extend from the very early stages of selecting objects for display to the mounting of an exhibition.

  18. Holland at CERN – Industrial exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Sponsored by EVD, an agency of the Dutch Ministry of the Economy From 8 to 11 November 2010 Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg. 61 9-00 - 17-30 Twenty seven companies will present their latest technology at the industrial exhibition "Holland at CERN". Dutch industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. Individual interviews will take place directly at the stands in the Main Building. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each departmental secretariat or at the following URL: http://gs-dep.web.cern.ch/gs-dep/groups/sem/ls/Industrial_Exhibitions.htm#Industrial_exhibitions You will find the list of exhibitors below. LIST OF EXHIBITORS: Schelde Exotech Vernooy BV Triumph Group INCAA Computers DeMaCo Holland bv TNO Science & Industry Janssen Precision Engi...

  19. A mini-exhibition with maximum content

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    The University of Budapest has been hosting a CERN mini-exhibition since 8 May. While smaller than the main travelling exhibition it has a number of major advantages: its compact design alleviates transport difficulties and makes it easier to find suitable venues in the Member States. Its content can be updated almost instantaneously and it will become even more interactive and high-tech as time goes by.   The exhibition on display in Budapest. The purpose of CERN's new mini-exhibition is to be more interactive and easier to install. Due to its size, the main travelling exhibition cannot be moved around quickly, which is why it stays in the same country for 4 to 6 months. But this means a long waiting list for the other Member States. To solve this problem, the Education Group has designed a new exhibition, which is smaller and thus easier to install. Smaller maybe, but no less rich in content, as the new exhibition conveys exactly the same messages as its larger counterpart. However, in the slimm...

  20. Associations Among Cardiometabolic Abnormalities, Obesity, and Sociobehavioral Factors in a Southern Nevada Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jing; Johnson, Michael D; Iser, Joseph P

    Cardiometabolic abnormalities underlie many health risks associated with obesity. We determined the relationship between cardiometabolic abnormalities, sociodemographic characteristics, and modifiable risk factors among adults in Southern Nevada. We included 2415 participants older than 20 years from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys conducted in 2011, 2013, and 2015 in Southern Nevada. Cardiometabolic abnormalities were assessed on the combined basis of blood pressure, cholesterol, and diabetes status. Logistic regression stratified by body mass index status was used to examine cardiometabolic abnormalities in different body mass index classes. Odds ratio estimates for cardiometabolic abnormalities after accounting for sociodemographic and health behavior characteristics. Cardiometabolic abnormalities followed a socioeconomic gradient, although adjustment for lifestyle variables attenuated the associative link. Non-Hispanic black (vs white) race did not elevate cardiometabolic abnormalities risk among nonobese adults, yet conferred a multivariable-adjusted odds ratio of 2.18 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-4.61) among obese adults. By comparison, odds of cardiometabolic abnormalities among nonobese adults were 2.42 (95% CI, 0.99-5.92) times higher for Hispanics and 2.83 (95% CI, 1.23-6.55) times higher for other or multiracial minorities. Among obese adults, male gender (odds ratio: 1.84; 95% CI, 1.03-3.27) and former (odds ratio: 2.09; 95% CI, 1.14-3.85) smoker status were associated with cardiometabolic abnormalities independent of other covariates. The present data support intervention strategies tailored to reinforce and promote positive health behaviors among disadvantaged groups. There were variable patterns of ethnic group disparities in clustered cardiometabolic abnormalities across body mass index classes. Targeted prevention approaches incorporating an explicit health equity perspective may help mitigate observed differences.

  1. Zebrafish Lacking Circadian Gene per2 Exhibit Visual Function Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng-feng Huang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The retina has an intrinsic circadian clock, but the importance of this clock for vision is unknown. Zebrafish offer many advantages for studying vertebrate vision and circadian rhythm. Here, we explored the role of zebrafish per2, a light-regulated gene, in visual behavior and the underlying mechanisms. We observed that per2 mutant zebrafish larvae showed decreased contrast sensitivity and visual acuity using optokinetic response (OKR assays. Using a visual motor response (VMR assay, we observed normal OFF responses but abnormal ON responses in mutant zebrafish larvae. Immunofluorescence showed that mutants had a normal morphology of cone photoreceptor cells and retinal organization. However, electron microscopy showed that per2 mutants displayed abnormal and decreased photoreceptor ribbon synapses with arciform density, which resulted in retinal ON pathway defect. We also examined the expression of three cone opsins by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR, and the expression of long-wave-sensitive opsin (opn1lw and short-wave-sensitive opsin (opn1sw was reduced in mutant zebrafish larvae. qRT-PCR analyses also showed a down-regulation of the clock genes cry1ba and bmal1b in the adult eye of per2 mutant zebrafish. This study identified a mechanism by which a clock gene affects visual function and defined important roles of per2 in retinal information processing.

  2. France at CERN – Industrial exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department

    2012-01-01

    Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg 61 – 1st Floor Tuesday 27 March: 9 a.m. – 5.30 p.m. Wednesday 28 March: 9 a.m. – 2 p.m.   About thirty French companies are presenting their latest technological advances during the industrial exhibition "France at CERN", featuring products and technologies specifically related to CERN activities. Individual B2B meetings can be organized with the sales and technical representatives of participating firms and will take place at either the companies’ exhibition stands or in conference rooms in the Main Building. Individuals wishing to make contact with one or more companies must use the contact details available from each secretariat of department or by using this link. B2B meetings will be coordinated by UBIFRANCE. You will also find the list of exhibiting and participating companies online here. This event is sponsored by the French subsidiary of RS Components, the most important distri...

  3. High Quality Virtual Reality for Architectural Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzberg, Anette

    2016-01-01

    This paper will summarise the findings from creating and implementing a visually high quality Virtual Reality (VR) experiment as part of an international architecture exhibition. It was the aim to represent the architectural spatial qualities as well as the atmosphere created from combining natural...... and artificial lighting in a prominent not yet built project. The outcome is twofold: Findings concerning the integration of VR in an exhibition space and findings concerning the experience of the virtual space itself. In the exhibition, an important aspect was the unmanned exhibition space, requiring the VR...... experience to be self-explanatory. Observations of different visitor reactions to the unmanned VR experience compared with visitor reactions at guided tours with personal instructions are evaluated. Data on perception of realism, spatial quality and light in the VR model were collected with qualitative...

  4. Medan Convention & Exhibition Center (Arsitektur Ekspresionisme)

    OpenAIRE

    Iskandar, Nurul Auni

    2015-01-01

    Medan is one of the third largest city in Indonesia, which is currently being developed, and a city with lots of activities. In the city of Medan has a high investment opportunities for a convention, because of its strategic position in Southeast Asia and also supported by the facility and the potential for tourism in North Sumatra, Medan city has the potential for industrial MICE (Meeting, Incentive, Conference, Exhibition). The construction of Medan Convention & Exhibition Cente...

  5. The presentation of energy topics at exhibitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moergeli, H.P.

    1984-01-01

    The author examines the problems confronting an electricity supply company when trying to communicate its energy policy to the general public at exhibitions and fairs. The company has to convey a message of reliable power supplies, increasing demand, the advantages of nuclear energy, the safe storage of radioactive waste and the need for new generating plants. The author describes some of the displays being used to attract the public to the Bern Power Stations stand at the Bern Exhibition 1984. (R.S.)

  6. An Astrobiology Microbes Exhibit and Education Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Allen, Jaclyn S.; Stocco, Karen; Tobola, Kay; Olendzenski, Lorraine

    2001-01-01

    Telling the story of NASA-sponsored scientific research to the public in exhibits is best done by partnerships of scientists and museum professionals. Likewise, preparing classroom activities and training teachers to use them should be done by teams of teachers and scientists. Here we describe how we used such partnerships to develop a new astrobiology augmentation to the Microbes! traveling exhibit and a companion education module. "Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract."

  7. Hemostatic abnormalities in liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendal YALÇIN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 44 patients with liver cirrhosis were investigated for hemostatic parameters. Patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatorenal syndrome and cholestatic liver diseases were excluded. Patients were classified by Child-Pugh criterion and according to this 4 patients were in Class A, 20 in Class B and 20 in C. Regarding to these results, it was aimed to investigate the haematological disturbances in liver cirrhotic patients.In the result there was a correlation between activated partial thromboplastin time, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, haptoglobin and Child-Pugh classification. Besides there was no correlation between prothrombin time, factor 8 and 9, protein C and S, anti-thrombin 3, fibrinogen, fibrin degradation products, serum iron binding capacity, hemoglobin, leukocyte, mean corpuscular volume and Child-Pugh classification.There were significant difference, in terms of AST, ferritin, haptoglobulin, sex and presence of ascites between groups (p0.05. In the summary, we have found correlation between hemostatic abnormalities and disease activity and clinical prognosis in patients with liver cirrhosis which is important in the management of these patients. This is also important for identification of liver transplant candidiates earlier.

  8. [Cognitive abnormalities and cannabis use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solowij, Nadia; Pesa, Nicole

    2010-05-01

    Evidence that cannabis use impairs cognitive function in humans has been accumulating in recent decades. The purpose of this overview is to update knowledge in this area with new findings from the most recent literature. Literature searches were conducted using the Web of Science database up to February 2010. The terms searched were: "cannabi*" or "marijuana", and "cogniti*" or "memory" or "attention" or "executive function", and human studies were reviewed preferentially over the animal literature. Cannabis use impairs memory, attention, inhibitory control, executive functions and decision making, both during the period of acute intoxication and beyond, persisting for hours, days, weeks or more after the last use of cannabis. Pharmacological challenge studies in humans are elucidating the nature and neural substrates of cognitive changes associated with various cannabinoids. Long-term or heavy cannabis use appears to result in longer-lasting cognitive abnormalities and possibly structural brain alterations. Greater adverse cognitive effects are associated with cannabis use commencing in early adolescence. The endogenous cannabinoid system is involved in regulatory neural mechanisms that modulate processes underlying a range of cognitive functions that are impaired by cannabis. Deficits in human users most likely therefore reflect neuroadaptations and altered functioning of the endogenous cannabinoid system.

  9. Report on abnormal climate in 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    This paper reports of impact on abnormal climate in 2011. It has Introduction with purpose and background of publish and summary of this report. The cause and current state on abnormal climate of the world and Korea in 2011, Measurement and impact against abnormal climate in 2011 to agriculture, land and maritime, industry and energy, prevention of disasters, environment and health, assessment and advice on the policy. It lists the appendix about occurrence and damage on abnormal climate of the world and Korea in 2011 and media report data.

  10. Evaluation of Chromosomal Abnormalities and Common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Chromosomal Abnormalities and Common Trombophilic Mutations in Cases with Recurrent Miscarriage. Ahmet Karatas, Recep Eroz, Mustafa Albayrak, Tulay Ozlu, Bulent Cakmak, Fatih Keskin ...

  11. Gender-specific effects of depression and suicidal ideation in prosocial behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cáceda

    Full Text Available Prosocial behaviors are essential to the ability to relate to others. Women typically display greater prosocial behavior than men. The impact of depression on prosocial behaviors and how gender interacts with those effects are not fully understood. We explored the role of gender in the potential effects of depression on prosocial behavior.We examined prosocial behaviors using a modified version of the Trust Game in a clinical population and community controls. Study participants were characterized on the severity of depression and anxiety, presence of suicidal ideation, history of childhood trauma, recent stressful life events, and impulsivity. We correlated behavioral outcomes with gender and clinical variables using analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis.The 89 participants comprised four study groups: depressed women, depressed men, healthy women and healthy men (n = 16-36. Depressed men exhibited reciprocity more frequently than healthy men. Depression induced an inversion of the gender-specific pattern of self-centered behavior. Suicidal ideation was associated with increased reciprocity behavior in both genders, and enhancement of the effect of depression on gender-specific self-centered behavior.Depression, particularly suicidal ideation, is associated with reversal of gender-specific patterns of prosocial behavior, suggesting abnormalities in sexual hormones regulation. This explanation is supported by known abnormalities in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axes found in depression.

  12. COMPARISON OF REAL-TIME MICROVASCULAR ABNORMALITIES IN PEDIATRIC AND ADULT SICKLE CELL ANEMIA PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Anthony T.W.; Miller, Joshua W.; Craig, Sarah M.; To, Patricia L.; Lin, Xin; Samarron, Sandra L.; Chen, Peter C.Y.; Zwerdling, Theodore; Wun, Ted; Li, Chin-Shang; Green, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    The conjunctival microcirculation in 14 pediatric and 8 adult sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients was studied using computer-assisted intravital microscopy. The bulbar conjunctiva in SCA patients in both age groups exhibited a blanched/avascular appearance characterized by decreased vascularity. SCA patients from both age groups had many of the same abnormal morphometric {vessel diameter, vessel distribution, morphometry (shape), tortuosity, arteriole:venule (A:V) ratio, and hemosiderin deposits} and dynamic {vessel sludging/sludged flow, boxcar blood (trickled) flow and abnormal flow velocity} abnormalities. A severity index (SI) was computed to quantify the degree of vasculopathy for comparison between groups. The severity of vasculopathy differed significantly between the pediatric and adult patients (SI: 4.2 ± 1.8 vs 6.6 ± 2.4; p=0.028), indicative of a lesser degree of overall severity in the pediatric patients. Specific abnormalities that were less prominent in the pediatric patients included abnormal vessel morphometry and tortuosity. Sludged flow, abnormal vessel distribution, abnormal A:V ratio, and boxcar flow, appeared in high prevalence in both age groups. The results indicate that SCA microvascular abnormalities develop in childhood and the severity of vasculopathy likely progresses with age. Intervention and effective treatment/management modalities should target pediatric patients to ameliorate, slow down or prevent progressive microvascular deterioration. PMID:20872552

  13. Turning energy around: an interactive exhibition experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kellberg

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A transition from the fossil-fuel driven to a sustainable energy system is an enormous global challenge: climate change and finite resources require countries all over the world to change their way of producing, transporting and using energy. The Energiewende (energy transition will require major changes in the current energy supply system in Germany – but also worldwide. These changes will not only affect the technical sector but will also include ecological questions, social issues and political matters. Whether any transition is going to favour large scale solutions or decentralised technologies depends on local situations and global interconnections, and above all on a democratic process. Hence energy transition succeeds or fails with the acceptance and participation of society. To deal with this overwhelmingly complex topic and its multi-layered dependencies, the Deutsches Museum has designed an exhibition providing visitors with background knowledge about the necessities and challenges of energy transition, unpicking the links between the different technical, economic and social challenges. The exhibition accomplishes the task with an engaging and facilitating approach while taking into account the highly emotive aspects of energy transition as a societal issue. This paper presents the concept of the travelling exhibition energie.wenden, relating it to the Deutsches Museum´s tradition of exhibitions as well as to the challenge of how to deal with socio-scientific topics in scientific exhibitions.

  14. CERN exhibition a big hit in Bulgaria

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The first CERN exhibition in Bulgaria attracted many visitors. In the first ever CERN exhibition to be held in Bulgaria, over 1,400 visitors, many of them students and young physicists, visited the 10-day event in Sofia. The CERN mini-exhibition took place at the National Earth and Mankind Museum between 8 and 17 November. Permanently staffed by young physicists from Sofia University, there were exhibits on display about research activities at CERN, as well as four additional posters describing Bulgaria's participation. The inauguration took place on the morning of 8 November in the presence of the Vice-Minister for Science and Education, Mrs. Vanya Dobreva, and some 200 guests. A series of short speeches were followed by a visit to the exhibition. CERN's representative at the event, Ray Lewis, was then asked by Professor Matey Mateev, President of the Union of Physicists in Bulgaria, to say a few words on behalf of the Organization. Numerous journalists were also present at the inauguration. A painting enti...

  15. Education or business? - exhibition of human corpses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Wróbel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Exhibition "BODY WORLDS" which are presented exhibits of human remains are presented all over the world and are a major problem for the modern man, as presented on the preparations of the human not only serve scientific research, are not transferred to the medical schools to educate future doctors, but they were made available to the general public in the form of commercial and ambiguous. The aim of this study was to assess the ethical commercialization of human corpses "BODY WORLDS" exhibitions. Individual approach to the problems presented the dignity and value of human remains after death, of course, strongly related to the professed worldview. In the exhibits can be seen in both the scientific interest anatomical structures, as well as desecrated human remains or beautiful by its functional perfection of the body, understood also in terms of art. The question of ethics determines the right to decide for themselves, on the other hand, allows you to protect bodily integrity even after death. "BODY WORLDS" exhibition goes for the moral and ethical boundaries. In terms of people Gunther von Hagens for plastination of human remains which became a very profitable business, and its current activities defined as "plastination business" should be firmly said about the lack of moral principles.

  16. Abnormal topological organization in white matter structural networks revealed by diffusion tensor tractography in unmedicated patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhaoxi; Zhao, Tengda; Luo, Jia; Guo, Zhihua; Guo, Meng; Li, Ping; Sun, Jing; He, Yong; Li, Zhanjiang

    2014-06-03

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder defined by recurrent thoughts, intrusive and distressing impulses, or images and ritualistic behaviors. Although focal diverse regional abnormalities white matter integrity in specific brain regions have been widely studied in populations with OCD, alterations in the structural connectivities among them remain poorly understood. The aim was to investigate the abnormalities in the topological efficiency of the white matter networks and the correlation between the network metrics and Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores in unmedicated OCD patients, using diffusion tensor tractography and graph theoretical approaches. This study used diffusion tensor imaging and deterministic tractography to map the white matter structural networks in 26 OCD patients and 39 age- and gender-matched healthy controls; and then applied graph theoretical methods to investigate abnormalities in the global and regional properties of the white matter network in these patients. The patients and control participants both showed small-world organization of the white matter networks. However, the OCD patients exhibited significant abnormal global topology, including decreases in global efficiency (t = -2.32, p = 0.02) and increases in shortest path length, Lp (t = 2.30, p = 0.02), the normalized weighted shortest path length, λ (t = 2.08, p=0.04), and the normalized clustering coefficient, γ (t = 2.26, p = 0.03), of their white matter structural networks compared with healthy controls. Further, the OCD patients showed a reduction in nodal efficiency predominately in the frontal regions, the parietal regions and caudate nucleus. The normalized weighted shortest path length of the network metrics was significantly negatively correlated with obsessive subscale of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (r = -0.57, p = 0.0058). These findings demonstrate the abnormal topological efficiency in the white matter networks

  17. The Particular Aspects of Science Museum Exhibits That Encourage Students' Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaby, Neta; Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Tal, Tali

    2017-06-01

    This research explores learning in science museums through the most common activity in a science museum—interaction with exhibits. The goal of this study was to characterize the learning behaviors exhibited by students as they engage with interactive exhibits in order to draw insight regarding the design of the exhibits. In order to do so, we used a qualitative method of observation as well as the Visitor Engagement Framework (VEF) model, a visitor-based framework for assessing visitors' learning experiences with exhibits in a science center setting. The combined method produced a framework of nine learning behaviors exhibited during the visitors' interaction with the exhibits, grouped into three categories that reflect increasing levels of engagement and depth of the learning experience. Our research participants consisted of a total 1800 students aged 10-12 (4th, 5th, and 6th graders) who came to the museum with their class for a day visit. We observed nine exhibits, each visited by 200 students. Our observations revealed several design elements that contribute to engagement with exhibits in science museums. For example, exhibits that have familiar activation encourage visitors' interaction, exhibits that facilitate social interaction are more likely to increase engagement, and the highest levels of engagement can be found in exhibits that support large groups.

  18. The influence of brain abnormalities on psychosocial development, criminal history and paraphilias in sexual murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briken, Peer; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Hill, Andreas

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the number and type of brain abnormalities and their influence on psychosocial development, criminal history and paraphilias in sexual murderers. We analyzed psychiatric court reports of 166 sexual murderers and compared a group with notable signs of brain abnormalities (N = 50) with those without any signs (N = 116). Sexual murderers with brain abnormalities suffered more from early behavior problems. They were less likely to cohabitate with the victim at the time of the homicide and had more victims at the age of six years or younger. Psychiatric diagnoses revealed a higher total number of paraphilias: Transvestic fetishism and paraphilias not otherwise specified were more frequent in offenders with brain abnormalities. A binary logistic regression identified five predictors that accounted for 46.8% of the variance explaining the presence of brain abnormalities. Our results suggest the importance of a comprehensive neurological and psychological examination of this special offender group.

  19. The exploration of the exhibition informatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiankang

    2017-06-01

    The construction and management of exhibition informatization is the main task and choke point during the process of Chinese exhibition industry’s transformation and promotion. There are three key points expected to realize a breakthrough during the construction of Chinese exhibition informatization, and the three aspects respectively are adopting service outsourcing to construct and maintain the database, adopting advanced chest card technology to collect various kinds of information, developing statistics analysis to maintain good cutomer relations. The success of Chinese exhibition informatization mainly calls for mature suppliers who can provide construction and maintenance of database, the proven technology, a sense of data security, advanced chest card technology, the ability of data mining and analysis and the ability to improve the exhibition service basing on the commercial information got from the data analysis. Several data security measures are expected to apply during the process of system developing, including the measures of the terminal data security, the internet data security, the media data security, the storage data security and the application data security. The informatization of this process is based on the chest card designing. At present, there are several types of chest card technology: bar code chest card; two-dimension code card; magnetic stripe chest card; smart-chip chest card. The information got from the exhibition data will help the organizers to make relevant service strategies, quantify the accumulated indexes of the customers, and improve the level of the customer’s satisfaction and loyalty, what’s more, the information can also provide more additional services like the commercial trips, VIP ceremonial reception.

  20. Effects of theophylline administration and intracranial abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine effects of theophylline therapy for recurrent apnoea of prematurity and abnormal early (within the first 24 hours) cranial ultrasound abnormalities on protective neck turning response in preterm infants. Design: A cross sectional descriptive study. Setting: The Neonatal Unit of Hammersmith Hospital, ...

  1. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  2. Prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39,7%), raised serum ...

  3. Contrast sensitivity abnormalities in deaf individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Khorrami-Nejad

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Hearing impaired boys are at a greater risk for contrast sensitivity abnormalities than boys with normal hearing. The larger frequency of contrast sensitivity abnormalities in high spatial frequencies than in other frequencies may demonstrate greater defects in the central visual system compared with the periphery in individuals with hearing loss.

  4. Relationship among sera lipoprotein abnormalities in healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As the prevalence of lipoprotein abnormalities in adolescents is increasing dramatically, the identification of relevant risk factors is a major public health challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a family history of diabetes could be a risk factor for lipid abnormalities in healthy individuals. This study is a ...

  5. Abnormal energy deposition on the wall through plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Schmidt, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    The dissipation of plasma kinetic and magnetic energy during sawtooth oscillations and disruptions in tokamak is analyzed using Kadomtsev's disruption model and the plasma-circuit equations. New simple scalings of several characteristic times are obtained for sawteeth and for thermal and magnetic energy quenches of disruptions. The abnormal energy deposition on the wall during major or minor disruptions, estimated from this analysis, is compared with bolometric measurements in the PDX tokamak. Especially, magnetic energy dissipation during the current termination period is shown to be reduced by the strong coupling of the plasma current with external circuits. These analyses are found to be useful to predict the phenomenological behavior of plasma disruptions in large future tokamaks, and to estimate abnormal heat deposition on the wall during plasma disruptions. (orig.)

  6. Abnormal energy deposition on the wall through plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Schmidt, G.L.

    1984-07-01

    The dissipation of plasma kinetic and magnetic energy during sawtooth oscillstions and disruptions in tokamaks is analyzed using Kadomtsev's disruption model and the plasma-circuit equations. New simple scalings of several characteristic times are obtained for sawteeth and for thermal and magnetic energy quenches of disruptions. The abnormal energy deposition on the wall during major or minor disruptions, estimated from this analysis, is compared with bolometric measurements in the PDX tokamak. Especially, magnetic energy dissipation during current termination period is shown to be reduced by the strong coupling of the plasma current with external circuits. These analyses are found to be useful to predict the phenomenological behavior of plasma disruptions in large future tokamaks, and to estimate abnormal heat deposition on the wall during plasma disruptions. (author)

  7. Exhibits in libraries a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Mary E

    2005-01-01

    "Ccomprehensive...detailed"--Booklist; "thoroughly reseached...highly recommended"--Journal of Access Services. Library exhibits are more than entertainment for patrons. They can inspire and educate, stimulate an interest that can be explored in a book, or attract visitors who otherwise wouldn't stop by. Displays are also an opportunity for a library to put its creative foot forward or help patrons navigate the facility itself. This comprehensive "how-to" includes everything a librarian or staff member needs to know to put on an exhibit, from hatching ideas to evaluating the end result. Illustrations and photographs show practical methods of planning, labeling and displaying.

  8. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health and safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period January through March 1993. There is one abnormal occurrence at a nuclear power plant disposed in this report that involved a steam generator tube rupture at Palo Verde Unit 2, and none for fuel cycle facilities. Three abnormal occurrences involving medical misadminstrations (two therapeutic and one diagnostic) at NRC-licensed facilities are also discussed in this report. No abnormal occurrences were reported by NRC's Agreement States. The report also contains information updating previously reported abnormal occurrences

  9. Parenting and feeding behaviors associated with school-aged African American and White children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polfuss, Michele Lynn; Frenn, Marilyn

    2012-08-01

    Pediatric obesity is multifactorial and difficult to treat. Parenting and feeding behaviors have been shown to influence a child's weight status. Most prior studies have focused on preschool-aged White children. Additional complicating factors include parents' inability to accurately identify their child's abnormal weight status. Parenting and feeding behaviors used by 176 African American and White parents of school-age children were examined. Assessment included (a) identifying what behaviors were reported when parent expressed concern with child's weight and (b) the relationship of these behaviors on child's body mass index percentile (BMI%), considering ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and parent's body mass index (BMI). Findings included African American parents and parents concerned about their child's weight exhibited increased controlling/authoritarian parenting and feeding behaviors. Parents were able to accurately identify their child's weight status. Parenting and feeding behaviors played a significant role in the children's BMI% even when controlling for ethnicity, SES, and parent's BMI.

  10. Witnessing Each Other: An Intersubjective Stance for Exhibitions Relating to Substance Use and Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennes, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Most exhibitions are conceived to convey information the experts making the exhibition believe other people need or want. But the notion that the intended exhibition public will cooperate with the exhibition organizers. intent disregards the reasons people come to exhibitions and the way they use them. While the author contends that an exhibition cannot use facts to convince someone to abstain from substances they crave, exhibitions can nonetheless make a difference in lives complicated by substance use by providing representation for voices that are rarely heard and building empathy between witness and witnessed. The purpose of such an endeavor is not to change attitudes or behaviors toward a pre-determined outcome, but to facilitate a witnessing of others. The uniquely intersubjective medium of exhibition can thus succeed in this field by opening the potential of mutual, humanizing recognition among people with varied life experience of substance use and abuse.

  11. How do exhibition visitors describe aesthetic qualities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    In this investigation, visitors to an art and design exhibition have used an interactive computer program to express the qualities they consider important for an art or design object (artefact). They have then used the program with their individually selected qualities to assess the artefacts. In...

  12. CERN exhibition wins yet another design prize

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    The “Universe of Particles” exhibition in CERN’s Globe wins the silver design prize from the German direct business communications association FAMAB.   Not only do tens of thousands of people visit the “Universe of Particles” exhibition each year, but juries for design prizes are crossing its threshold more and more frequently too. In 2011 alone it claimed 8 awards, including winning outright the 2011 Annual Multimedia award, the iF Communication Design for Corporate Architecture award and the Modern Decoration Media award (the Bulletin already reported on some of these in July 2011). The FAMAB award is the latest to join the prestigious list. The jury of FAMAB’s “ADAM 2011” award was particularly impressed by the hands-on nature of the exhibition, which encourages visitors to get interested in science. They also appreciated the way that the space in the Globe is not just a container for the exhibits, but itself ...

  13. 49 CFR 250.2 - Required exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... carried; and identification of the ten most important industries served. (6) As Exhibit 6, statement as to... application for the financing has been made, evidencing that they have declined the financing unless guaranteed by the Secretary or specifying the terms upon which they will undertake the financing without such...

  14. CCPIT Machinery Exhibition Succeeded in Kuala Lumpur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ From August 18 to 20, 2005, China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT) held China Machinery and Electronics Trade Exhibition, CME 2005 in Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia on behalf of China, a good job has been done.

  15. CCPIT Machinery Exhibition Succeeded in Kuala Lumpur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      From August 18 to 20, 2005, China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT) held China Machinery and Electronics Trade Exhibition, CME 2005 in Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia on behalf of China, a good job has been done.……

  16. Comic Strips to Accompany Science Museum Exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Beom Sun; Park, Eun-mi; Kim, Sang-Hee; Cho, Sook-kyoung; Chung, Min Suk

    2016-01-01

    Science museums make the effort to create exhibits with amusing explanations. However, existing explanation signs with lengthy text are not appealing, and as such, visitors do not pay attention to them. In contrast, conspicuous comic strips composed of simple drawings and humors can attract science museum visitors. This study attempted to reveal…

  17. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... systems, including the special protective systems' automatic switching or load shedding system; and (ii... transfer capability (NITC); system protection; and system stability. (3) A stability analysis including... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applications: exhibits...

  18. Investigation on Abnormal Iron Metabolism and Related Inflammation in Parkinson Disease Patients with Probable RBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Yu, Shu-Yang; Zuo, Li-Jun; Piao, Ying-Shan; Cao, Chen-Jie; Wang, Fang; Chen, Ze-Jie; Du, Yang; Lian, Teng-Hong; Liu, Gai-Fen; Wang, Ya-Jie; Chan, Piu; Chen, Sheng-Di; Wang, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate potential mechanisms involving abnormal iron metabolism and related inflammation in Parkinson disease (PD) patients with probable rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (PRBD). Methods Total 210 PD patients and 31 controls were consecutively recruited. PD patients were evaluated by RBD Screening Questionnaire (RBDSQ) and classified into PRBD and probable no RBD (NPRBD) groups. Demographics information were recorded and clinical symptoms were evaluated by series of rating scales. Levels of iron and related proteins and inflammatory factors in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum were detected. Comparisons among control, NPRBD and PRBD groups and correlation analyses between RBDSQ score and levels of above factors were performed. Results (1)The frequency of PRBD in PD patients is 31.90%. (2)PRBD group has longer disease duration, more advanced disease stage, severer motor symptoms and more non-motor symptoms than NPRBD group. (3)In CSF, levels of iron, transferrin, NO and IL–1β in PRBD group are prominently increased. RBDSQ score is positively correlated with the levels of iron, transferrin, NO and IL–1β in PD group. Iron level is positively correlated with the levels of NO and IL–1β in PD group. (4)In serum, transferrin level is prominently decreased in PRBD group. PGE2 level in PRBD group is drastically enhanced. RBDSQ score exhibits a positive correlation with PGE2 level in PD group. Conclusions PRBD is common in PD patients. PRBD group has severer motor symptoms and more non-motor symptoms. Excessive iron in brain resulted from abnormal iron metabolism in central and peripheral systems is correlated with PRBD through neuroinflammation. PMID:26431210

  19. Familial Risk for Insomnia Is Associated With Abnormal Cortisol Response to Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Christopher L; Cheng, Philip; Almeida, David M; Roth, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Abnormalities in the stress system have been implicated in insomnia. However, studies examining physiological stress regulation in insomnia have not consistently detected differences in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis response to stress. One explanation may be that deficits in the stress system are associated specifically with a biological vulnerability to insomnia rather than the phenotypic expression of insomnia. To examine stress response as a function of vulnerability to insomnia, this study tested response to the Trier Social Stress Test in a sample of healthy sleepers with varying familial risks for insomnia. Thirty-five healthy individuals with and without familial risk for insomnia were recruited to complete a laboratory stressor. Participants with one or both biological parents with insomnia were categorized as positive for familial risk, whereas those without biological parents with insomnia were categorized as negative for familial risk. Participants completed the Trier Social Stress Test in the laboratory, and psychological and physiological (autonomic and HPA-axis) responses were compared. Despite self-reported increases in anxiety, those positive for familial risk exhibited a blunted cortisol response relative to those without familial risk for insomnia. Individuals with blunted cortisol also reported heightened reactivity to personal life stressors, including increased sleep disturbances, elevated cognitive intrusions, and more behavioral avoidance. Findings from this study provide initial evidence that abnormal stress regulation may be a biological predisposing factor conferred via familial risk for insomnia. This deficit may also predict negative consequences over time, including insomnia and the associated psychiatric comorbidities. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Sall1 regulates cortical neurogenesis and laminar fate specification in mice: implications for neural abnormalities in Townes-Brocks syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J. Harrison

    2012-05-01

    Progenitor cells in the cerebral cortex undergo dynamic cellular and molecular changes during development. Sall1 is a putative transcription factor that is highly expressed in progenitor cells during development. In humans, the autosomal dominant developmental disorder Townes-Brocks syndrome (TBS is associated with mutations of the SALL1 gene. TBS is characterized by renal, anal, limb and auditory abnormalities. Although neural deficits have not been recognized as a diagnostic characteristic of the disease, ∼10% of patients exhibit neural or behavioral abnormalities. We demonstrate that, in addition to being expressed in peripheral organs, Sall1 is robustly expressed in progenitor cells of the central nervous system in mice. Both classical- and conditional-knockout mouse studies indicate that the cerebral cortex is particularly sensitive to loss of Sall1. In the absence of Sall1, both the surface area and depth of the cerebral cortex were decreased at embryonic day 18.5 (E18.5. These deficiencies are associated with changes in progenitor cell properties during development. In early cortical progenitor cells, Sall1 promotes proliferative over neurogenic division, whereas, at later developmental stages, Sall1 regulates the production and differentiation of intermediate progenitor cells. Furthermore, Sall1 influences the temporal specification of cortical laminae. These findings present novel insights into the function of Sall1 in the developing mouse cortex and provide avenues for future research into potential neural deficits in individuals with TBS.

  1. Abnormalities in bivalve larvae from the Puck Bay (Gulf of Gdansk, southern Baltic Sea) as an indicator of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasota, Rafal; Gierszewska, Katarzyna; Viard, Frédérique; Wolowicz, Maciej; Dobrzyn, Katarzyna; Comtet, Thierry

    2018-01-01

    This study described the occurrence of abnormalities in bivalve larvae from the Puck Bay. Analyses of plankton samples collected in 2012-2013 showed that larval Mytilus trossulus, Mya arenaria, and Cerastoderma glaucum exhibited abnormalities that could indicate adverse environmental impacts. The deformities were mainly in shells, but missing soft tissue fragments and protruding vela were also noted. In addition to larval studies, we analyzed benthic postlarvae of Mytilus trossulus. Interestingly, grooves and notches at different locations of the prodissoconch, dissoconch, and shell margin were observed. Some of these deformations were reminiscent of the indentations found on the shell edge of larvae. Comparing the proportion of abnormal postlarvae to larvae with shell abnormalities suggested that the survival of larvae with shell abnormalities was low. Overall, our results suggested that the ratio of abnormal bivalve larvae could be used as an indicator of the biological effects of hazardous substances in the pelagic environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Travelling CERN Exhibition ''When Energy Becomes Matter''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The European Laboratory for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics together with the Institute of Physics of the Jagiellonian University and the University of Mining and Metallurgy, and under the auspices of the Polish National Atomic Energy Agency organized in the Museum of Nature in Cracow from October 16 till December 16, 2000 the exhibition ''When Energy Becomes Matter''. The Office of the ''Festival Cracow 2000'' was the main sponsor of that event. The exhibition was a part of the F estival Cracow 2000'' called ''Festival of Youngsters Cracow 2000''. Invitations, posters and information leaflets were sent to more than 3000 schools in southern Poland. The exhibition was divided into four specially designed quadrants. In the first the visitor was informed what kind of scales are in use to describe the Universe and the atom. The second introduced elementary particles via the cosmic ray demonstrations. Particle acceleration was demonstrated with the help of a TV set. The third segment was devoted to the Large Hadron Collider and its experiments: CMS, ATLAS, ALICE and LHCb. The last segment was an attempt to explain what are quarks, leptons and intermediate bosons. In addition it was also explained what is antimatter and why symmetry is broken in Nature. In one of the rooms we arranged the cinema where five movies was continuously presented. Thanks to the Cracow TV it was possible to prepare Polish translations of the films: B ack to creation , P owers of ten , L HC - time machine , S tars underground , and G eneva event . Another attraction of the exhibition was the Internet room equipped with the help of Polish Telecommunication. The exhibition was open seven days per week from 10 to 17 h. During the working days every 20 minutes a new group of about 25-30 people was visiting the exhibition. Each group was guided by students and PhD students from our Institute, Jagiellonian University and University of Mining

  3. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko eHattori

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP is a neuropeptide acting as a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, or neurotrophic factor. PACAP is widely expressed throughout the brain and exerts its functions through the PACAP-specific receptor (PAC1. Recent studies reveal that genetic variants of the PACAP and PAC1 genes are associated with mental disorders, and several behavioral abnormalities of PACAP knockout (KO mice are reported. However, an insufficient number of backcrosses was made using PACAP KO mice on the C57BL/6J background due to their postnatal mortality. To elucidate the effects of PACAP on neuropsychiatric function, the PACAP gene was knocked out in F1 hybrid mice (C57BL/6J x 129SvEv for appropriate control of the genetic background. The PACAP KO mice were then subjected to a behavioral test battery. PACAP deficiency had no significant effects on neurological screen. As shown previously, the mice exhibited significantly increased locomotor activity in a novel environment and abnormal anxiety-like behavior, while no obvious differences between genotypes were shown in home cage activity. In contrast to previous reports, the PACAP KO mice showed normal prepulse inhibition and slightly decreased depression-like behavior. Previous study demonstrates that the social interaction in a resident-intruder test was decreased in PACAP KO mice. On the other hand, we showed that PACAP KO mice exhibited increased social interaction in Crawley’s three-chamber social approach test, although PACAP KO had no significant impact on social interaction in a home cage. PACAP KO mice also exhibited mild performance deficit in working memory in an eight-arm radial maze and the T-maze, while they did not show any significant abnormalities in the left-right discrimination task in the T-maze. These results suggest that PACAP has an important role in the regulation of locomotor activity, social behavior, anxiety-like behavior and, potentially

  4. Abnormal maximal finger tapping in abstinent cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavel, Stanley C; White, Jason M; Todd, Gabrielle

    2013-11-01

    To investigate movement speed and rhythmicity in abstinent cannabis users, we hypothesized that abstinent cannabis users exhibit decreased maximal finger tapping frequency and increased variability of tapping compared with non-drug users. The study involved 10 healthy adult cannabis users and 10 age-matched and gender-matched controls with no history of illicit drug use. Subjects underwent a series of screening tests prior to participation. Subjects were then asked to tap a strain gauge as fast as possible with the index finger of their dominant hand (duration 5 s). The average intertap interval did not significantly differ between groups, but the coefficient of variation of the intertap interval was significantly greater in the cannabis group than in controls (p=0.011). The cannabis group also exhibited a slow tapping frequency at the beginning of the task. Rhythmicity of finger tapping is abnormal in individuals with a history of cannabis use. The abnormality appears to be long lasting and adds to the list of functional changes present in abstinent cannabis users. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Electrogastrography abnormalities appear early in children with diabetes type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posfay-Barbe, Klara M; Lindley, Keith J; Schwitzgebel, Valérie M; Belli, Dominique C; Schäppi, Michela G

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate gastric myoelectrical activity in young patients with diabetes and to correlate it with their metabolic control [fasting blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, and fructosamine] and BMI during a 3 years follow-up. Surface electrogastrography (EGG) was performed on 49 children with diabetes aged 10.3±4.4 (mean±SD) years and 17 age-matched healthy controls after fasting glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, and fructosamine were measured. EGG parameters [percentage of bradygastria, 3 cycles per minute, tachygastria, dominant frequency instability coefficient, and power ratio] were analysed and compared with blood analysis. Patients with diabetes exhibited an increase in preprandial bradygastria 7.9±8.8 cpm (mean±SD) compared with controls 2.1±1.0 (P=0.011), with an associated decrease in preprandial normogastria (72.2±14.5 vs. 82.7±14.7; P=0.013). Normogastric power ratio (postprandial/ preprandial power) was significantly increased in the children with diabetes compared with controls (mean: 6.67 vs. 3.14, P=0.034). A longer duration of diabetes was associated with an increased risk of EGG abnormalities (P=0.036). Marked hyperglycaemia at the time of study was associated with postprandial bradygastria (P=0.01) and power ratio bradygastria (P=0.042). Changes in glycosylated haemoglobin, fructosamine and BMI did not affect EGG parameters. EGG abnormalities, presented early in a high proportion of diabetic children, are related to the acute hyperglycaemia. These abnormalities are not consistently present in the follow-up studies and not related to the glycosylated haemoglobin and fructosamine. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy is therefore an unlikely pathogenic factor for EGG abnormalities in children with diabetes.

  6. Nanoscale abnormal grain growth in (001) epitaxial ceria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F.; Develos-Bagarinao, Katherine; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro

    2009-01-01

    X-ray reciprocal-space mapping and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are used to study kinetics and mechanisms of lateral grain growth in epitaxial (001) ceria (CeO 2 ) deposited by pulsed laser deposition on (001) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and (12 lowbar 10) (r-cut) sapphire. Rate and character of the grain growth during postannealing at 1050 deg. C are found to be strongly dependent on the type of the epitaxial substrate. Films deposited on YSZ exhibit signatures of normal grain growth, which stagnated after the lateral grain size reaches 40 nm, consistent with the grain-boundary pinning by the thermal grooving. In contrast, when r-cut sapphire substrate was used, abnormal (secondary) grain growth is observed. A small population of grains grow to well over 100 nm consuming smaller, 100 nm large (001) terminations and rendering the sample single-crystalline quality. The grain growth is accompanied by reduction in lateral rms strain, resulting in a universal grain size--rms strain dependence. Analysis of the AFM and x-ray diffraction data leads to the conclusion that bimodal initial grain population consisting of grains with very different sizes is responsible for initiation of the abnormal growth in (001) CeO 2 films on r-cut sapphire. Due to different surface chemistry, when a YSZ substrate is used, the initial grain distribution is monomodal, therefore only normal growth is active. We demonstrate that a 2.2 deg. miscut of the sapphire substrate eliminates the large-grain population, thus suppressing abnormal grain growth. It is concluded that utilization of abnormal grain growth is a promising way for synthesis of large (001) ceria terminations.

  7. Prediction of heart abnormality using MLP network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Fakroul Ridzuan; Januar, Yulni; Mat, Muhammad Hadzren; Rizman, Zairi Ismael; Awang, Mat Kamil

    2018-02-01

    Heart abnormality does not choose gender, age and races when it strikes. With no warning signs or symptoms, it can result to a sudden death of the patient. Generally, heart's irregular electrical activity is defined as heart abnormality. Via implementation of Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) network, this paper tries to develop a program that allows the detection of heart abnormality activity. Utilizing several training algorithms with Purelin activation function, an amount of heartbeat signals received through the electrocardiogram (ECG) will be employed to condition the MLP network.

  8. Hysterosalpingography: analysis of 473 abnormal examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petta, C.A.; Costa-Paiva, L.H.S. da; Pinto-Neto, A.M.; Martins, R.; Souza, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The authors reviewed the reports of 4/3 abnormal hysterosalpingographies from 1,200 medical records of patients at the sterility and infertility out-patient clinic of the School of Medical Sciences of the State University of Campinas (Unicamp), from July, 1974 to December, 1981. The objective was to evaluate the incidence and main alterations diagnosed by hysterosalpingography. The most frequent findings were tuboperitoneal factors in 91% of the examinations, uterine cavity abnormalities in 17.4% and cervical factor in 6.3% of the cases. The examinations showed a great incident of tuboperitoneal abnormalities as cause of sterility from lower social classes. (author) [pt

  9. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Brain and bone abnormalities of thanatophoric dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elka; Blaser, Susan; Shannon, Patrick; Widjaja, Elysa

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the imaging findings of skeletal and brain abnormalities in thanatophoric dwarfism, a lethal form of dysplastic dwarfism. The bony abnormalities associated with thanatophoric dwarfism include marked shortening of the tubular bones and ribs. Abnormal temporal lobe development is a common associated feature and can be visualized as early as the second trimester. It is important to assess the brains of fetuses with suspected thanatophoric dwarfism because the presence of associated brain malformations can assist in the antenatal diagnosis of thanatophoric dwarfism.

  11. Abnormal Event Detection Using Local Sparse Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    We propose to detect abnormal events via a sparse subspace clustering algorithm. Unlike most existing approaches, which search for optimized normal bases and detect abnormality based on least square error or reconstruction error from the learned normal patterns, we propose an abnormality measurem...... is found that satisfies: the distance between its local space and the normal space is large. We evaluate our method on two public benchmark datasets: UCSD and Subway Entrance datasets. The comparison to the state-of-the-art methods validate our method's effectiveness....

  12. LHC INAUGURATION, LHC Fest highlights: exhibition time!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    David Gross, one of the twenty-one Nobel Laureates who have participated in the project.Tuesday 21 October 2008 Accelerating Nobels Colliding Charm, Atomic Cuisine, The Good Anomaly, A Quark Somewhere on the White Paper, Wire Proliferation, A Tale of Two Liquids … these are just some of the titles given to artworks by Physics Nobel Laureates who agreed to make drawings of their prize-winning discoveries (more or less reluctantly) during a special photo session. Science photographer Volker Steger made portraits of Physics Nobel Laureates and before the photo sessions he asked them to make a drawing of their most important discovery. The result is "Accelerating Nobels", an exhibition that combines unusual portraits of and original drawings by twenty-one Nobel laureates in physics whose work is closely related to CERN and the LHC. This exhibition will be one of the highlights of the LHC celebrations on 21 October in the SM18 hall b...

  13. Exhibition: Women and Sciences by Fiami

    CERN Multimedia

    Globe Info

    2011-01-01

    The 19-panel exhibition is on display at CERN's Microcosm from Monday to Saturday from 10.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m.   Marie Curie won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry one hundred years ago. She is the only woman ever to win two Nobel Prizes, which is a testament to her remarkable work. But throughout history, women have played a role in science either in their own right or alongside other scientists. In this special exhibition, the comic-strip artist Fiami takes a look back at the relationship between women and science through his portraits of Mileva Einstein, Marie-Anne Lavoisier and, of course, Marie Curie. Fiami has recently published an entire album devoted to Marie Curie. Texts in French All ages - Entrance free Femmes et Sciences is on display at Microcosm: From Wednesday 21 September 2011 to Tuesday 20 December 2011.

  14. Kuala Namu Convention And Exhibition Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Gustriana, Trisna

    2017-01-01

    Aerotropolis area development that is expected to accommodate the development of business and commercial appeal and this is the chance for the designer to be able to take advantage of the situation and condition of land as well as possible. So that the revolutionary changes but is able to embrace all stakeholders is the solution needed to development Aerotropolis. Kuala Namu's Convention and Exhibition Center is expected to be a solution for regional development of Kuala Namu a...

  15. 22nd Annual Logistics Conference and Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-20

    Bill” Kenwell, Vice President, Sales and Marketing, Maersk 5:30pm-7:30pm Reception in Exhibit Hall Wednesday, April 19, 2006 7:00am-5:30pm...some commercial sales of our products, services and platforms. We provide surface, air, and undersea applications on more than 460 programs for US...diagnostic system & process • Seamless B2B integration with maintenance systems Enabled By… EOATM Overview Sensor Data Maintenance Logs Repair Data Expert

  16. The Factory of the Future, Group Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Lionel T.

    2016-01-01

    3D Printing, The factory of the future, Lieu du Design (centre for Design), Paris This exhibition dedicated entirely to 3D printing technology was billed as “the first in France wholly devoted to exploring the interdisciplinary and multifaceted topic of 3D printing technology and its undeniable influence on everything from industry, to economics, to creative and social issues, demonstrated to the public through achievements in the fields of 3D design, 3D printed architecture, 3D printed fa...

  17. Brazilian air traffic controllers exhibit excessive sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Valdenilson Ribeiro; de Almeida, Cláudia Ângela Vilela; Martins, Hugo André de Lima; Alves, Carlos Frederico de Oliveira; Alves, Marcos José Pinheiro Cândido; Carneiro, Severino Marcos de Oliveira; Ribas, Valéria Ribeiro; de Vasconcelos, Carlos Augusto Carvalho; Sougey, Everton Botelho; de Castro, Raul Manhães

    2011-01-01

    Excessive sleepiness (ES) is an increased tendency to initiate involuntary sleep for naps at inappropriate times. The objective of this study was to assess ES in air traffic controllers (ATCo). 45 flight protection professionals were evaluated, comprising 30 ATCo, subdivided into ATCo with ten or more years in the profession (ATCo≥10, n=15) and ATCo with less than ten years in the profession (ATCoair traffic controllers exhibit excessive sleepiness.

  18. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit entrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    StenniSphere at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., invites visitors to discover why America comes to Stennis Space Center before going into space. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center.

  19. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  20. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opened at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for audience of all ages, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one...

  1. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opens at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for all ages' audiences, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one m...

  2. Bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Nicholas R. T.; Song, Jeremy; Nieh, James C.

    2009-10-01

    Associative learning is key to how bees recognize and return to rewarding floral resources. It thus plays a major role in pollinator floral constancy and plant gene flow. Honeybees are the primary model for pollinator associative learning, but bumblebees play an important ecological role in a wider range of habitats, and their associative learning abilities are less well understood. We assayed learning with the proboscis extension reflex (PER), using a novel method for restraining bees (capsules) designed to improve bumblebee learning. We present the first results demonstrating that bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect. They improve their associative learning of odor and nectar reward by exhibiting increased memory acquisition, a component of long-term memory formation, when the time interval between rewarding trials is increased. Bombus impatiens forager memory acquisition (average discrimination index values) improved by 129% and 65% at inter-trial intervals (ITI) of 5 and 3 min, respectively, as compared to an ITI of 1 min. Memory acquisition rate also increased with increasing ITI. Encapsulation significantly increases olfactory memory acquisition. Ten times more foragers exhibited at least one PER response during training in capsules as compared to traditional PER harnesses. Thus, a novel conditioning assay, encapsulation, enabled us to improve bumblebee-learning acquisition and demonstrate that spaced learning results in better memory consolidation. Such spaced learning likely plays a role in forming long-term memories of rewarding floral resources.

  3. Exhibition: Dialogue between Science and religion

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Can the theory of the Big Bang reached by physicists and the concept of creation beloved of religion ever be reconciled? The two approaches have at least one point in common: they do not provide a final answer to the mysteries of the birth of the Universe. And this means that dialogue is alays possible between the two. It is to show the potential of such an exchange that Geneva's Société Evangélique organization is opening an exhibition under the title 'Big Bang and Creation', at the Planète Charmilles shopping centre, to run from 19 to 30 March. View of the 'Big Bang and Creation' exhibition. The exhibition is divided into three sections, showing the views of the scientist and those of the believer without setting them up in opposition to one another. In the first section, under a representation of the vault of heaven, the visitor will discover the different ideas explaining the birth of the Universe: Genesis and the Big Bang, and the different dominant theories ...

  4. Art exhibit focuses on African astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-07-01

    Connections between Africans and astronomy are the focus of a new exhibition in the National Museum of African Art in Washington, D. C. "African Cosmos: Stellar Arts," which includes artwork, cultural items, and scientific displays from ancient to contemporary times, is the first major exhibit "that brings together arts and science focused on Africa's contribution to keen observations of the heavens over time," curator Christine Mullen Kreamer said at a 20 June news briefing. Among the exhibit's nearly 100 objects are an ancient Egyptian mummy board that includes a representation of the sky goddess Nut, sculptures by the Dogon people of Mali depicting figures in relation to the cosmos, a video that uses data from two square degrees of the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Evolution Survey, and a nearly floor-to-ceiling "Rainbow Serpent" constructed of plastic containers by Benin artist Hazoume. An untitled acrylic painting (Figure 1) by South African Gavin Jantjes evokes a myth of the Khoi San people of southern Africa, as it portrays a girl throwing evening fire embers into the night sky, where they remained as the Milky Way.

  5. Progression of Amygdala Volumetric Abnormalities in Adolescents after Their First Manic Episode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter, Samantha M.; Mills, Neil P.; Adler, Caleb M.; Strakowski, Stephen M.; DelBello, Melissa P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Although previous neuroimaging studies suggest that adolescents with bipolar disorder exhibit smaller amygdala volumes compared with healthy adolescents, whether these abnormalities are present at illness onset or instead develop over time remains unclear. The aim of this study was to conduct a prospective longitudinal investigation…

  6. Case report of an unusual heart abnormality in Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An unusual heart abnormality in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss was recently observed. During the course of a standard hydrogen peroxide treatment (100 ppm) of production rainbow trout (mean weight, 2-3 g) affected with an external bacterial infection, a small percentage of fish exhibited morbidi...

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLE EEG changes and neuroimaging abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    salah

    Clinical Genetics Department, Human Genetics & Genome Research Division, ... neuroimaging changes of the brain and EEG abnormalities in correlation to the ... level and by developmental changes2. .... for IQ as a confounding factor.30.

  8. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from April 1 through June 30, 1990. The report discusses six abnormal occurrences, none involving a nuclear power plant. There were five abnormal occurrences at NRC licensees: (1) deficiencies in brachytherapy program; (2) a radiation overexposure of a radiographer; (3) a medical diagnostic misadministration; (4) administration of iodine-131 to a lactating female with subsequent uptake by her infant; and (5) a medical therapy misadministration. An Agreement State (Arizona) reported an abnormal occurrence involving a medical diagnostic misadministration. The report also contains information that updates a previously reported occurrence

  9. Evaluation of chromosomal abnormalities and common trombophilic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... Infections, genetic, endocrine, anatomic and immunologic problems have been suggested as causes for RM. ... Metaphase chromosome preparations from the .... The rate of karyotypically abnormal abortion specimens.

  10. On two abnormal sharks from Gujarat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalan, U.K.

    The description of the two abnormal sharks, Carchariaswalbeehmi and Eulamia dussumieri collected from Gujarat, India, is given Of these C walbeehmi was double-headed The other shark E dussumieri had thumb snouted albino...

  11. Abnormal Position and Presentation of the Fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Delivery Introduction to Complications of Labor and Delivery Abnormal Position and Presentation of the Fetus Amniotic Fluid Embolism Excessive Uterine Bleeding at Delivery Fetal Distress Inverted Uterus Labor That ...

  12. Morphological Abnormalities of Thalamic Subnuclei in Migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magon, Stefano; May, Arne; Stankewitz, Anne

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The thalamus contains third-order relay neurons of the trigeminal system, and animal models as well as preliminary imaging studies in small cohorts of migraine patients have suggested a role of the thalamus in headache pathophysiology. However, larger studies using advanced imaging te...... is a disorder of the CNS in which not only is brain function abnormal, but also brain structure is undergoing significant remodeling....... a fully automated multiatlas approach. Deformation-based shape analysis was performed to localize surface abnormalities. Differences between patients with migraine and healthy subjects were assessed using an ANCOVA model. After correction for multiple comparisons, performed using the false discovery rate.......9) was observed in patients. This large-scale study indicates structural thalamic abnormalities in patients with migraine. The thalamic nuclei with abnormal volumes are densely connected to the limbic system. The data hence lend support to the view that higher-order integration systems are altered in migraine...

  13. Ophthalmologic abnormalities among deaf students in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of African Medicine. Vol. ... Medicine, Harvard University, U.S.A. ... abnormalities such as corneal opacities (0.5%) and allergic conjunctivitis (3.4%) while others had posterior .... were administered to those with treatable eye disease.

  14. Errata :Chromosomal Abnormalities in Couples with Recurrent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chromosomal Abnormalities in Couples with Recurrent Abortions in Lagos, Nigeria. Akinde OR, Daramola A O, Taiwo I A, Afolayan M O and Akinsola Af. Sonographic Mammary Gland Density Pattern in Women in Selected ommunities of Southern Nigeria.

  15. Smokers exhibit biased neural processing of smoking and affective images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jason A; Jentink, Kade G; Drobes, David J; Evans, David E

    2016-08-01

    There has been growing interest in the role that implicit processing of drug cues can play in motivating drug use behavior. However, the extent to which drug cue processing biases relate to the processing biases exhibited to other types of evocative stimuli is largely unknown. The goal of the present study was to determine how the implicit cognitive processing of smoking cues relates to the processing of affective cues using a novel paradigm. Smokers (n = 50) and nonsmokers (n = 38) completed a picture-viewing task, in which participants were presented with a series of smoking, pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral images while engaging in a distractor task designed to direct controlled resources away from conscious processing of image content. Electroencephalogram recordings were obtained throughout the task for extraction of event-related potentials (ERPs). Smokers exhibited differential processing of smoking cues across 3 different ERP indices compared with nonsmokers. Comparable effects were found for pleasant cues on 2 of these indices. Late cognitive processing of smoking and pleasant cues was associated with nicotine dependence and cigarette use. Results suggest that cognitive biases may extend across classes of stimuli among smokers. This raises important questions about the fundamental meaning of cognitive biases, and suggests the need to consider generalized cognitive biases in theories of drug use behavior and interventions based on cognitive bias modification. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Diagnosis and treatment of abnormal dental pain

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuda, Ken-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Most dental pain is caused by an organic problem such as dental caries, periodontitis, pulpitis, or trauma. Diagnosis and treatment of these symptoms are relatively straightforward. However, patients often also complain of abnormal dental pain that has a non-dental origin, whose diagnosis is challenging. Such abnormal dental pain can be categorized on the basis of its cause as referred pain, neuromodulatory pain, and neuropathic pain. When it is difficult to diagnose a patient's dental pain, ...

  17. Syringomyelia and Craniocervical Junction Abnormalities in Chihuahuas

    OpenAIRE

    Kiviranta, A.‐M.; Rusbridge, C.; Laitinen‐Vapaavuori, O.; Hielm‐Björkman, A.; Lappalainen, A.K.; Knowler, S.P.; Jokinen, T.S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Chiari-like malformation (CM) and syringomyelia (SM) are widely reported in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and Griffon Bruxellois dogs. Increasing evidence indicates that CM and SM also occur in other small and toy breed dogs, such as Chihuahuas. Objectives: To describe the presence of SM and craniocervical junction (CCJ) abnormalities in Chihuahuas and to evaluate the possible association of CCJ abnormalities with SM. To describe CM/SM-related clinical signs and neuro...

  18. Heterotaxy syndromes and abnormal bowel rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Beverley [Stanford University, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Koppolu, Raji; Sylvester, Karl [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Surgery, Stanford, CA (United States); Murphy, Daniel [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Cardiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Bowel rotation abnormalities in heterotaxy are common. As more children survive cardiac surgery, the management of gastrointestinal abnormalities has become controversial. To evaluate imaging of malrotation in heterotaxy with surgical correlation and provide an algorithm for management. Imaging reports of heterotaxic children with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) and/or small bowel follow-through (SBFT) were reviewed. Subsequently, fluoroscopic images were re-reviewed in conjunction with CT/MR studies. The original reports and re-reviewed images were compared and correlated with surgical findings. Nineteen of 34 children with heterotaxy underwent UGI, 13/19 also had SBFT. In 15/19 reports, bowel rotation was called abnormal: 11 malrotation, 4 non-rotation, no cases of volvulus. Re-review, including CT (10/19) and MR (2/19), designated 17/19 (90%) as abnormal, 10 malrotation (abnormal bowel arrangement, narrow or uncertain length of mesentery) and 7 non-rotation (small bowel and colon on opposite sides plus low cecum with probable broad mesentery). The most useful CT/MR findings were absence of retroperitoneal duodenum in most abnormal cases and location of bowel, especially cecum. Abnormal orientation of mesenteric vessels suggested malrotation but was not universal. Nine children had elective bowel surgery; non-rotation was found in 4/9 and malrotation was found in 5/9, with discrepancies (non-rotation at surgery, malrotation on imaging) with 4 original interpretations and 1 re-review. We recommend routine, early UGI and SBFT studies once other, urgent clinical concerns have been stabilized, with elective laparoscopic surgery in abnormal or equivocal cases. Cross-sectional imaging, usually obtained for other reasons, can contribute diagnostically. Attempting to assess mesenteric width is important in differentiating non-rotation from malrotation and more accurately identifies appropriate surgical candidates. (orig.)

  19. Heterotaxy syndromes and abnormal bowel rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, Beverley; Koppolu, Raji; Sylvester, Karl; Murphy, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Bowel rotation abnormalities in heterotaxy are common. As more children survive cardiac surgery, the management of gastrointestinal abnormalities has become controversial. To evaluate imaging of malrotation in heterotaxy with surgical correlation and provide an algorithm for management. Imaging reports of heterotaxic children with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) and/or small bowel follow-through (SBFT) were reviewed. Subsequently, fluoroscopic images were re-reviewed in conjunction with CT/MR studies. The original reports and re-reviewed images were compared and correlated with surgical findings. Nineteen of 34 children with heterotaxy underwent UGI, 13/19 also had SBFT. In 15/19 reports, bowel rotation was called abnormal: 11 malrotation, 4 non-rotation, no cases of volvulus. Re-review, including CT (10/19) and MR (2/19), designated 17/19 (90%) as abnormal, 10 malrotation (abnormal bowel arrangement, narrow or uncertain length of mesentery) and 7 non-rotation (small bowel and colon on opposite sides plus low cecum with probable broad mesentery). The most useful CT/MR findings were absence of retroperitoneal duodenum in most abnormal cases and location of bowel, especially cecum. Abnormal orientation of mesenteric vessels suggested malrotation but was not universal. Nine children had elective bowel surgery; non-rotation was found in 4/9 and malrotation was found in 5/9, with discrepancies (non-rotation at surgery, malrotation on imaging) with 4 original interpretations and 1 re-review. We recommend routine, early UGI and SBFT studies once other, urgent clinical concerns have been stabilized, with elective laparoscopic surgery in abnormal or equivocal cases. Cross-sectional imaging, usually obtained for other reasons, can contribute diagnostically. Attempting to assess mesenteric width is important in differentiating non-rotation from malrotation and more accurately identifies appropriate surgical candidates. (orig.)

  20. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1% individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8% at the second screening, (P <0.001. Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8% adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1% individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6% individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3% individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5% individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6% of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6% individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1% of them. Asymp- tomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9% of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6% of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8% indivi- duals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8% individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01 and (P <0.001, respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  1. Abnormal ''Contamination' Levels On Garden Appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, U.; Levinson, S.; Elmelech, V.; Pelled, O.; Tshuva, A.; Laichter, Y.

    1999-01-01

    During routine contamination checks we encountered an abnormal high level of Alpha and Beta emitting radioisotopes on working gloves of employees of the gardening department. It came out that the source was due to ''contamination'' levels on steering wheels of some gardening machines. In order to ensure that no real contamination of these workers was involved , a series of checks was started to identity the source of the abnormal levels found during monitoring

  2. Visual field abnormalities in multiple sclerosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, V H; Heron, J R

    1980-01-01

    Visual fields were examined with a tangent screen in 54 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) or optic neuritis (ON). Visual fields were abnormal in all patients with definite MS, 94% with probable MS and 81% with possible MS. Three-quarters of the MS patients with no history of visual symptoms had abnormal fields. The commonest defect found was an arcuate scotoma. As a diagnostic test of visual pathway involvement in MS, tangent screen examination compares favourably with more sophisticated ...

  3. Abnormal nuclear envelopes in the striatum and motor deficits in DYT11 myoclonus-dystonia mouse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Fumiaki; Dang, Mai T.; Zhou, Tong; Li, Yuqing

    2012-01-01

    DYT11 myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) is a movement disorder characterized by myoclonic jerks with dystonic symptoms and caused by mutations in paternally expressed SGCE, which codes for ɛ-sarcoglycan. Paternally inherited Sgce heterozygous knock-out (KO) mice exhibit motor deficits and spontaneous myoclonus. Abnormal nuclear envelopes have been reported in cellular and mouse models of early-onset DYT1 generalized torsion dystonia; however, the relationship between the abnormal nuclear envelopes and motor symptoms are not clear. Furthermore, it is not known whether abnormal nuclear envelope exists in non-DYT1 dystonia. In the present study, abnormal nuclear envelopes in the striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) were found in Sgce KO mice. To analyze whether the loss of ɛ-sarcoglycan in the striatum alone causes abnormal nuclear envelopes, motor deficits or myoclonus, we produced paternally inherited striatum-specific Sgce conditional KO (Sgce sKO) mice and analyzed their phenotypes. Sgce sKO mice exhibited motor deficits in both beam-walking and accelerated rotarod tests, while they did not exhibit abnormal nuclear envelopes, alteration in locomotion, or myoclonus. The results suggest that the loss of ɛ-sarcoglycan in the striatum contributes to motor deficits, while it alone does not produce abnormal nuclear envelopes or myoclonus. Development of therapies targeting the striatum to compensate for the loss of ɛ-sarcoglycan function may rescue the motor deficits in DYT11 M-D patients. PMID:22080833

  4. Abnormal nuclear envelopes in the striatum and motor deficits in DYT11 myoclonus-dystonia mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Fumiaki; Dang, Mai T; Zhou, Tong; Li, Yuqing

    2012-02-15

    DYT11 myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) is a movement disorder characterized by myoclonic jerks with dystonic symptoms and caused by mutations in paternally expressed SGCE, which codes for ε-sarcoglycan. Paternally inherited Sgce heterozygous knock-out (KO) mice exhibit motor deficits and spontaneous myoclonus. Abnormal nuclear envelopes have been reported in cellular and mouse models of early-onset DYT1 generalized torsion dystonia; however, the relationship between the abnormal nuclear envelopes and motor symptoms are not clear. Furthermore, it is not known whether abnormal nuclear envelope exists in non-DYT1 dystonia. In the present study, abnormal nuclear envelopes in the striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) were found in Sgce KO mice. To analyze whether the loss of ε-sarcoglycan in the striatum alone causes abnormal nuclear envelopes, motor deficits or myoclonus, we produced paternally inherited striatum-specific Sgce conditional KO (Sgce sKO) mice and analyzed their phenotypes. Sgce sKO mice exhibited motor deficits in both beam-walking and accelerated rotarod tests, while they did not exhibit abnormal nuclear envelopes, alteration in locomotion, or myoclonus. The results suggest that the loss of ε-sarcoglycan in the striatum contributes to motor deficits, while it alone does not produce abnormal nuclear envelopes or myoclonus. Development of therapies targeting the striatum to compensate for the loss of ε-sarcoglycan function may rescue the motor deficits in DYT11 M-D patients.

  5. A Novel Rational Design Method for Laminated Composite Structures Exhibiting Complex Geometrically Nonlinear Buckling Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgaard, Esben; Lund, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel FEM-based approach for fiber angle optimal design of laminated composite structures exhibiting complicated nonlinear buckling behavior, thus enabling design of lighter and more cost-effective structures. The approach accounts for the geometrically nonlinear behavior of...

  6. White matter abnormalities in tuberous sclerosis complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, P.D. [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Academic Dept. of Radiology; Bolton, P. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Section of Developmental Psychiatry; Verity, C. [Addenbrooke`s NHS Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Dept. of Paediatric Radiology

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and describe the range of white matter abnormalities in children with tuberous sclerosis complex by means of MR imaging. Material and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed on the basis of MR imaging findings in 20 cases of tuberous sclerosis complex in children aged 17 years or younger. Results: White matter abnormalities were present in 19/20 (95%) cases of tuberous sclerosis complex. These were most frequently (19/20 cases) found in relation to cortical tubers in the supratentorial compartment. White matter abnormalities related to tubers were found in the cerebellum in 3/20 (15%) cases. White matter abnormalities described as radial migration lines were found in relation to 5 tubers in 3 (15%) children. In 4/20 (20%) cases, white matter abnormalities were found that were not related to cortical tubers. These areas had the appearance of white matter cysts in 3 cases and infarction in the fourth. In the latter case there was a definable event in the clinical history, supporting the diagnosis of stroke. Conclusion: A range of white matter abnormalities were found by MR imaging in tuberous sclerosis complex, the commonest being gliosis and hypomyelination related to cortical tubers. Radial migration lines were seen infrequently in relation to cortical tubers and these are thought to represent heterotopic glia and neurons along the expected path of cortical migration. (orig.)

  7. Library exhibits and programs boost science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, Paul B.; Curtis, Lisa

    2012-05-01

    Science museums let visitors explore and discover, but for many families there are barriers—such as cost or distance—that prevent them from visiting museums and experiencing hands-on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning. Now educators are reaching underserved audiences by developing STEM exhibits and programs for public libraries. With more than 16,000 outlets in the United States, public libraries serve almost every community in the country. Nationwide, they receive about 1.5 billion visits per year, and they offer their services for free.

  8. Discounting Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten

    2014-01-01

    We re-evaluate the theory, experimental design and econometrics behind claims that individuals exhibit non-constant discounting behavior. Theory points to the importance of controlling for the non-linearity of the utility function of individuals, since the discount rate is defined over time-dated...

  9. Abnormalities of cortical structures in adolescent-onset conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Guo, X; Zhang, J; Gao, J; Wang, X; Situ, W; Yi, J; Zhang, X; Zhu, X; Yao, S; Huang, B

    2015-12-01

    Converging evidence has revealed both functional and structural abnormalities in adolescents with early-onset conduct disorder (EO-CD). The neurological abnormalities underlying EO-CD may be different from that of adolescent-onset conduct disorder (AO-CD) patients. However, the cortical structure in AO-CD patients remains largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cortical alterations in AO-CD patients. We investigated T1-weighted brain images from AO-CD patients and age-, gender- and intelligence quotient-matched controls. Cortical structures including thickness, folding and surface area were measured using the surface-based morphometric method. Furthermore, we assessed impulsivity and antisocial symptoms using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) and the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD). Compared with the controls, we found significant cortical thinning in the paralimbic system in AO-CD patients. For the first time, we observed cortical thinning in the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in AO-CD patients which has not been reported in EO-CD patients. Prominent folding abnormalities were found in the paralimbic structures and frontal cortex while diminished surface areas were shown in the precentral and inferior temporal cortex. Furthermore, cortical thickness of the paralimbic structures was found to be negatively correlated with impulsivity and antisocial behaviors measured by the BIS and APSD, respectively. The present study indicates that AO-CD is characterized by cortical structural abnormalities in the paralimbic system, and, in particular, we highlight the potential role of deficient structures including the precuneus and PCC in the etiology of AO-CD.

  10. Implications of white striping and spaghetti meat abnormalities on meat quality and histological features in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, G; Soglia, F; Mazzoni, M; Sirri, F; Canonico, L; Babini, E; Laghi, L; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2018-01-01

    During the past few years, there has been an increasing prevalence of broiler breast muscle abnormalities, such as white striping (WS) and wooden breast conditions. More recently, a new muscular abnormality termed as spaghetti meat (SM) because of the altered structural integrity of the Pectoralis major muscle often associated with WS has emerged. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of WS and SM conditions, occurring alone or combined within the same P. major muscle, on meat quality traits and muscle histology. In two replications, 96 P. major muscles were classified into four classes: normal (N), WS, SM and WS/SM. The whole fillet was used for weight assessment and morphometric measurements, then each sample was cut in order to separate the superficial layer from the deep one and used to evaluate proximate composition, histological features, nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times, functional properties and both myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins profile. Fillets affected by WS and SM abnormalities exhibited higher weights and increased thickness and length. SM condition was associated with a relevant decrease in protein content coupled with a significant increase in moisture level, whereas fat content was affected only by the simultaneous presence of WS. Histological evaluations revealed that abnormal samples were characterized by several degenerative aspects that almost completely concerned the superficial layer of the fillets. White striped fillets exhibited necrosis and lysis of fibers, fibrosis, lipidosis, loss of cross striation and vacuolar degeneration. Moreover, SM samples were characterized by poor fiber uniformity and a progressive rarefaction of the endo- and peri-mysial connective tissue, whereas WS/SM fillets showed intermediate histological features. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation analysis revealed a higher proportion of extra-myofibrillar water in the superficial section of all the abnormal fillets, especially in SM

  11. Radiation-related information at science exhibitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannai, Tadaaki [Inst. for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    The aim of the present report was to promote an efficient utilization of science museums providing with educational information concerning radiations. Investigations were made on radiation-related materials exhibited at 38 museums including PR event sites between April 1996 and July 1998 mainly located on Kanto and Tohoku area in Japan. The investigation concerned as to whether the displays on radiation-related material (cosmic rays, X-rays, etc) existed or not, and as to the background of the display as well. As the result, 14 locations had no relevant displays, 10 of them not having things about atomic energy at all. The locations belonging to electricity company mostly had displays related to radiations and atomic energy power generation. A spark chamber was exhibited at 9 locations and a cloud chamber at 3 locations, but only one location among them displayed both. Displays on the actual use of X-radiation were found at 4 locations. Needs to prepare further improved displays exist at the sites visited. (S. Ohno)

  12. CERN Inspires Art in Major New Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Signatures of the Invisible, an exhibition inspired by CERN, opened at the Atlantis Gallery in London on Thursday, 1 March before going on a world tour. The fruit of a close collaboration between CERN and the London Institute, the exhibition brings together works from many leading European contemporary artists. White wooden boxes on a grey floor... the lids opened, unveiling brilliant white light from a bunch of optical fibres carefully stuck together in the shape of a square. Another holds a treasure of lead glass surrounded by enigmatic black mirrors. What's it all about? Signatures of the Invisible, that's what, a joint project organised by the London Institute, one of the world's largest college of art, and our Laboratory. Damien Foresy from the EST workshop putting finishing touches to the spinning tops of French artist Jérôme Basserode. Monica Sand's boxes are just one of the many works based around materials used in particle detection at CERN that was admired at the opening o...

  13. Children's drawings exhibited in the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    Elizabeth Roe

    2010-01-01

    "Draw Me A Physicist" has been a success. Members of the public visiting the exhibition in the Globe of Science and Innovation have praised the scientific and creative balance the children of neighbouring France and the Canton of Geneva have obtained through their visit to CERN.   The Draw Me a Physicist exhibition in the Globe For a six-month period 9 to 11-year olds from the Pays de Gex, Meyrin, Satigny and Vernier have been able to enjoy a balance between science and art, through drawing and defining their interpretations of a physicist. In May, eight pairs of drawings from each participating class were selected by the schools to be displayed on the second floor of the Globe. Since the images have been put up, the viewers have enjoyed the contrast between the "before" pictures of vibrant Albert Einsteins to the "after" pictures of casual people sitting in an office. The large room in the Globe has been transformed from a hollow shell int...

  14. Exhibiting the Human/Exhibiting the Cyborg: “Who Am I?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia C. Vackimes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of the museum in shaping our relationship to science and technology, particularly cyborgization, is illuminated by a close examination of the Who Am I permanent exhibition in the Wellcome Wing of the Science Museum of London. This innovative exhibition raises real questions both about the human-technology-science relationship but also about museography. In the context of the history and current practices of museums engaging contemporary technological developments the evidence suggest that even as the Who am I? exhibit did break somewhat from previous approaches, especially the didactic presentation of the socially useful, it has not changed the feld as a whole.

  15. Apolipoprotein E4 causes early olfactory network abnormalities and short-term olfactory memory impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Katherine Y; Mathews, Paul M; Levy, Efrat; Wilson, Donald A

    2017-02-20

    While apolipoprotein (Apo) E4 is linked to increased incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there is growing evidence that it plays a role in functional brain irregularities that are independent of AD pathology. However, ApoE4-driven functional differences within olfactory processing regions have yet to be examined. Utilizing knock-in mice humanized to ApoE4 versus the more common ApoE3, we examined a simple olfactory perceptual memory that relies on the transfer of information from the olfactory bulb (OB) to the piriform cortex (PCX), the primary cortical region involved in higher order olfaction. In addition, we have recorded in vivo resting and odor-evoked local field potentials (LPF) from both brain regions and measured corresponding odor response magnitudes in anesthetized young (6-month-old) and middle-aged (12-month-old) ApoE mice. Young ApoE4 compared to ApoE3 mice exhibited a behavioral olfactory deficit coinciding with hyperactive odor-evoked response magnitudes within the OB that were not observed in older ApoE4 mice. Meanwhile, middle-aged ApoE4 compared to ApoE3 mice exhibited heightened response magnitudes in the PCX without a corresponding olfactory deficit, suggesting a shift with aging in ApoE4-driven effects from OB to PCX. Interestingly, the increased ApoE4-specific response in the PCX at middle-age was primarily due to a dampening of baseline spontaneous activity rather than an increase in evoked response power. Our findings indicate that early ApoE4-driven olfactory memory impairments and OB network abnormalities may be a precursor to later network dysfunction in the PCX, a region that not only is targeted early in AD, but may be selectively vulnerable to ApoE4 genotype. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Metabolomic changes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with abnormal Savda syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-Fang; Upur, Halmurat; Wu, Yu-Hua; Mamtimin, Batur; Yang, Jian; Ga, Yong-Juan; You, Li

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the metabolic biomarkers for abnormal Savda syndrome in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Based on Traditional Uyghur Medicine (TUM) theory, a total of 103 patients with COPD were classified into abnormal Savda and non-abnormal Savda syndrome groups and 52 healthy volunteers acted as the control group. Blood samples from the three groups were analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy combined with orthogonal projection to latent structure-discriminant analysis. NMR tests showed that the regional distributions of the patients with COPD with abnormal Savda syndrome, those with non-abnormal Savda syndrome and the control group were completely separate (P>0.05). The patients with COPD with abnormal Savda syndrome exhibited relatively low levels of amino acids, glycoproteins and unsaturated lipids (PAbnormal Savda syndrome was one of the main types of syndrome among the patients with COPD; increased age, a longer duration of illness and a higher disease severity were characteristic of this type of syndrome. In addition, the present study provided biochemical evidence for the TUM theory-based classification of patients with COPD; these biomarkers can be used in the clinic for the diagnosis of COPD with abnormal Savda syndrome. The study also demonstrated that the plasma metabolic disorder in patients with COPD with abnormal Savda syndrome was more serious than that in the control and COPD with non-abnormal Savda syndrome groups. The plasma metabolic disorder was also associated with a low immune function of the body and endocrine and energy metabolism disorders.

  17. Deep learning architecture for recognition of abnormal activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatrouch, Marwa; Gnouma, Mariem; Ejbali, Ridha; Zaied, Mourad

    2018-04-01

    The video surveillance is one of the key areas in computer vision researches. The scientific challenge in this field involves the implementation of automatic systems to obtain detailed information about individuals and groups behaviors. In particular, the detection of abnormal movements of groups or individuals requires a fine analysis of frames in the video stream. In this article, we propose a new method to detect anomalies in crowded scenes. We try to categorize the video in a supervised mode accompanied by unsupervised learning using the principle of the autoencoder. In order to construct an informative concept for the recognition of these behaviors, we use a technique of representation based on the superposition of human silhouettes. The evaluation of the UMN dataset demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  18. HRA Data Collection from the Simulations of Abnormal Situations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yo Chan; Park, Jink Yun; Jung, Won Dea [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In this study, it was revealed that the designed worksheets were feasible to collect HRA data, especially in abnormal situations. The defined taxonomy of UAs was unambiguous to distinguish actions of operators and quantify the probabilities. It is widely recognized that reliability of operators are critical to complex socio-technical systems. For this reason, human reliability analysis (HRA), which aims to identify unsafe actions (UAs) that contribute to risks of the systems and assess the failure rates of the actions, has been conducted. Although many techniques of HRA have been developed and used in many years, many reports indicated lack of database for supporting empirical bases of HRA methods. Thus, there have been recent efforts to collect data about human reliability from plant experience, simulator experiment or qualification, and laboratory experiments. As one of these efforts, KAERI also established a guideline to collect information about human reliability and performance shaping factors from simulators. This guideline particularly presented a set of worksheets that allows comprehensively gathering objectively observable information in simulations of emergency situations. This paper reports the process and preliminary results of the data collection from the simulations of abnormal situations based on the developed worksheets in KAERI database guideline. We analyzed operator behaviors of the sixteen experiments for the two kinds of abnormal situations: RCP (reactor coolant pump) cyclone filter blockage and CDP (condensate pump) valve stuck. The UAs of operators were identified and quantified. Because the number of simulations was limited and data of various situations will be obtained continuously, it is uncertain to conclude the resulted probabilities. Based on the worksheet, operator behaviors in many different kinds of scenarios will be analyzed and the relations between human reliabilities and the observed factors will be also investigated.

  19. Linezolid-Dependent Function and Structure Adaptation of Ribosomes in a Staphylococcus epidermidis Strain Exhibiting Linezolid Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkori, Sofia; Apostolidi, Maria; Tsakris, Athanassios; Pournaras, Spyros

    2014-01-01

    Linezolid-dependent growth was recently reported in Staphylococcus epidermidis clinical strains carrying mutations associated with linezolid resistance. To investigate this unexpected behavior at the molecular level, we isolated active ribosomes from one of the linezolid-dependent strains and we compared them with ribosomes isolated from a wild-type strain. Both strains were grown in the absence and presence of linezolid. Detailed biochemical and structural analyses revealed essential differences in the function and structure of isolated ribosomes which were assembled in the presence of linezolid. The catalytic activity of peptidyltransferase was found to be significantly higher in the ribosomes derived from the linezolid-dependent strain. Interestingly, the same ribosomes exhibited an abnormal ribosomal subunit dissociation profile on a sucrose gradient in the absence of linezolid, but the profile was restored after treatment of the ribosomes with an excess of the antibiotic. Our study suggests that linezolid most likely modified the ribosomal assembly procedure, leading to a new functional ribosomal population active only in the presence of linezolid. Therefore, the higher growth rate of the partially linezolid-dependent strains could be attributed to the functional and structural adaptations of ribosomes to linezolid. PMID:24890589

  20. Emotion processes in normal and abnormal development and preventive intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Carroll E; Fine, Sarah; Mostow, Allison; Trentacosta, Christopher; Campbell, Jan

    2002-01-01

    We present an analysis of the role of emotions in normal and abnormal development and preventive intervention. The conceptual framework stems from three tenets of differential emotions theory (DET). These principles concern the constructs of emotion utilization; intersystem connections among modular emotion systems, cognition, and action; and the organizational and motivational functions of discrete emotions. Particular emotions and patterns of emotions function differentially in different periods of development and in influencing the cognition and behavior associated with different forms of psychopathology. Established prevention programs have not emphasized the concept of emotion as motivation. It is even more critical that they have generally neglected the idea of modulating emotions, not simply to achieve self-regulation, but also to utilize their inherently adaptive functions as a means of facilitating the development of social competence and preventing psychopathology. The paper includes a brief description of a theory-based prevention program and suggestions for complementary targeted interventions to address specific externalizing and internalizing problems. In the final section, we describe ways in which emotion-centered preventions can provide excellent opportunities for research on the development of normal and abnormal behavior.

  1. Shape-Memory PVDF Exhibiting Switchable Piezoelectricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeher, Robin; Raidt, Thomas; Novak, Nikola; Katzenberg, Frank; Tiller, Joerg C

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a material is designed which combines the properties of shape-memory and electroactive polymers. This is achieved by covalent cross-linking of polyvinylidene fluoride. The resulting polymer network exhibits excellent shape-memory properties with a storable strain of 200%, and fixity as well as recovery values of 100%. Programming upon rolling induces the transformation from the nonelectroactive α-phase to the piezoelectric β-phase. The highest β-phase content is found to be 83% for a programming strain of 200% affording a d33 value of -30 pm V(-1). This is in good accordance with literature known values for piezoelectric properties. Thermal triggering this material does not only result in a shape change but also renders the material nonelectroactive. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Applied Gamification in Self-guided Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Selvadurai, Vashanth; Krishnasamy, Rameshnath Kala

    2018-01-01

    This paper contributes to the current understanding of applied digital gamification by providing insights from two design cases from the Danish aqua zoo, the North Sea Oceanarium, concerned with self-facilitated exhibitions. Grounded in a short review of the current state of art, we provide two...... empirical case examples, concerning a mobile augmented reality design and an Instagram service. Analyzing the design process behind these cases, we identify some of the challenges arising from applying gamification in practice, and whether these insights verify, extents or contradicts current examples...... of applied gamification research. Specifically, the cases provide insights to the challenge of on-boarding visitors into participating and using the designed products during their visit. In both cases, providing certain incentives for using the app or participating in the Instagram challenge, seemed...

  3. Exhibiting health and medicine as culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiteley, Louise; Tybjerg, Karin; Pedersen, Bente Vinge

    2017-01-01

    -being of their visitors, we instead focus on how museums should communicate about health and medicine. Methods: The paper describes three examples of exhibitions at Medical Museion that attempt to display medicine as culture, and draws out three of the key strategies they employ. Results: The three key strategies are: (1......Introduction: This paper discusses the potential role of medical museums in public engagement with health and medicine, based on the work of Medical Museion at the University of Copenhagen. Rather than asking whether cultural venues such as museums can directly improve the well......: There is increasing emphasis on the need for health communication to recognize people’s multiple, lived cultures. We argue that we should also recognize that medical research and practice is itself a form of culture, and as such is multiple and historically shifting. This paper demonstrates that museums are an ideal...

  4. The coordination office at SIREME 2008 exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotz, Claudia; Cassin, Fabrice; Evrard, Aurelien; Froeding, Veronique; Galaup, Serge; Kaelble, Laure; Persem, Melanie; Regnier, Yannick; )

    2008-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised several presentations at the occasion of the SIREME International exhibition of renewable energies and energy management. This document brings together these presentations (slides) dealing with: 1 - The new German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) and its impact on wind energy (Claudia Grotz); 2 - Consequences of the July 10, 2006 wind energy tariff bylaw cancelling (Fabrice Cassin); 3 - Wind energy trajectory in France and Germany: a political perspective (Aurelien Evrard); 4 - The wind energy development areas (Veronique Froeding); 5 - A commitment at the heart of our business: renewable energy sources (Serge Galaup); 6 - The wind energy coordination office (Laure Kaelble); 7 - New challenges of the German wind energy market (Melanie Persem); 8 - An industry - a qualification standard (Yannick Regnier)

  5. The Road Transport world exhibition in Paris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Following the agreement between French and German professionals of automobile and industrial vehicle, the Road Transport world exhibition will take place alternatively in Paris and Hanover. The 1995 meeting has taken place in Paris (September 15-21) and about 20 countries were represented. Road transport is the principal way of goods transportation in France and represent 88% of the traffic explained in tons gross and 70% in tons km. The petroleum dependence of the transportation sector is becoming a worrying problem as the gasoline and diesel fuels taxes will be discussed in the 1996 financial laws project. According to the last ''Worldwide energetic perspectives'' report published by the IEA, in 2010 the transportation sector could absorb more than 60% of the worldwide petroleum consumption. This increase represents a challenge to the petroleum industry to increase the energetic efficiency of the vehicle fuels and the production of diesel fuels, and conversely to reduce the pollution effluents. (J.S.). 4 tabs

  6. Application of an imaging system to a museum exhibition for developing interactive exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Kimiyoshi; Inoue, Yuka; Takiguchi, Takahiro; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Miyake, Yoichi

    2009-10-01

    In the National Museum of Japanese History, 215,759 artifacts are stored and used for research and exhibitions. In museums, due to the limitation of space in the galleries, a guidance system is required to satisfy visitors' needs and to enhance their understanding of the artifacts. We introduce one exhibition using imaging technology to improve visitors' understanding of a kimono (traditional Japanese clothing) exhibition. In the imaging technology introduced, one data projector, one display with touch panel interface, and magnifiers were used as exhibition tools together with a real kimono. The validity of this exhibition method was confirmed by results from a visitors' interview survey. Second, to further develop the interactive guidance system, an augmented reality system that consisted of cooperation between the projector and a digital video camera was also examined. A white paper board in the observer's hand was used as a projection screen and also as an interface to control the images projected on the board. The basic performance of the proposed system was confirmed; however continuous development was necessary for applying the system to actual exhibitions.

  7. Abnormal speech spectrum and increased pitch variability in young autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoram S Bonneh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD who can speak often exhibit abnormal voice quality and speech prosody, but the exact nature and underlying mechanisms of these abnormalities, as well as their diagnostic power are currently unknown. Here we quantified speech abnormalities in terms of the properties of the long-term average spectrum (LTAS and pitch variability in speech samples of 83 children (41 with ASD, 42 controls ages 4-6.5 years, recorded while they named a sequence of daily-life pictures for 60 sec. We found a significant difference in the group’s average spectra, with ASD spectra being shallower and exhibiting less harmonic structure. Contrary to the common impression of monotonic speech in autism, the ASD children had a significantly larger pitch range and variability across time. A measure of this variability, optimally tuned for the sample, yielded 86% success (90% specificity, 80% sensitivity in classifying ASD in the sample. These results indicate that speech abnormalities in ASD are reflected in its spectral content and pitch variability. This variability could imply abnormal processing of auditory feedback or elevated noise and instability in the mechanisms that control pitch. The current results are a first step towards developing speech-spectrum-based bio-markers for early diagnosis of ASD.

  8. Chromosomal abnormality in patients with secondary amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safai, Akbar; Vasei, Mohammad; Attaranzadeh, Armin; Azad, Fariborz; Tabibi, Narjes

    2012-04-01

    Secondary amenorrhea is a condition in which there is cessation of menses after at least one menstruation. It is a symptom of different diseases, such as hormonal disturbances which range from pituitary to ovarian origin, as well as chromosomal abnormalities. Knowledge of the distinct cause of secondary amenorrhea is of tremendous benefit for the management and monitoring of patients. In this study, we determine the chromosomal abnormalities in patients with secondary amenorrhea in Southwest Iran. We selected 94 patients with secondary amenorrhea who referred to our Cytogenetic Ward from 2004 until 2009. For karyotyping, peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures were set up by conventional technique. In this study, 5.3% (n=5) of patients with secondary amenorrhea presented with chromosomal abnormalities, of which all contained an X element. The chromosomal abnormalities were: i) 45, X (n=1); ii) 47, XXX (n=1); iii) 45, X [13]/ 45, Xi(X)q[17] (n=1);  iv) 45, X[12]/46,X,+mar[12] (n=1); and v) 46,X,del(Xq)(q23q28) (n=1). Our study revealed that some causes of secondary amenorrhea could be due to chromosomal abnormalities. Therefore, cytogenetic studies should be important tests in the evaluation of patients with secondary amenorrhea.

  9. Effects of an Informal Energy Exhibit on Knowledge and Attitudes of Fourth Grade Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Goodman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The public has limited knowledge of renewable energy technologies. An increase in energy literacy can potentially lead to desired energy-related behavioral changes in the future. One potential solution is to increase the public’s access to renewable energy information by placing informal energy education exhibits in libraries, community centers, and parks. After calibrating the exhibit based on observations of children’s interactions at a children’s museum, the exhibit was displayed at a university, a private school, and a community center. The opinion surveys and interviews both showed that participants enjoyed and learned from the exhibit. Students showed no significant statistical improvement between the pretests and posttests, but interviews showed that they could recall facts, explain processes, and make inferences from the exhibit. Fourth-grade students can benefit from interacting with an informal energy exhibit in order to increase their knowledge of energy topics and technologies.

  10. Cardiac abnormality prediction using HMLP network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Ja'afar; Ahmad, K. A.; Mat, Muhamad Hadzren; Rizman, Zairi Ismael; Ahmad, Shahril

    2018-02-01

    Cardiac abnormality often occurs regardless of gender, age and races but depends on the lifestyle. This problem sometimes does not show any symptoms and usually detected once it already critical which lead to a sudden death to the patient. Basically, cardiac abnormality is the irregular electrical signal that generate by the pacemaker of the heart. This paper attempts to develop a program that can detect cardiac abnormality activity through implementation of Hybrid Multilayer Perceptron (HMLP) network. A certain amount of data of the heartbeat signals from the electrocardiogram (ECG) will be used in this project to train the MLP and HMLP network by using Modified Recursive Prediction Error (MRPE) algorithm and to test the network performance.

  11. Neurological abnormalities associated with CDMA exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, B; Westerman, R

    2001-09-01

    Dysaesthesiae of the scalp and neurological abnormality after mobile phone use have been reported previously, but the roles of the phone per se or the radiations in causing these findings have been questioned. We report finding a neurological abnormality in a patient after accidental exposure of the left side of the face to mobile phone radiation [code division multiple access (CDMA)] from a down-powered mobile phone base station antenna. He had headaches, unilateral left blurred vision and pupil constriction, unilateral altered sensation on the forehead, and abnormalities of current perception thresholds on testing the left trigeminal ophthalmic nerve. His nerve function recovered during 6 months follow-up. His exposure was 0.015-0.06 mW/cm(2) over 1-2 h. The implications regarding health effects of radiofrequency radiation are discussed.

  12. Report on Congress on abnormal occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    Section 208 of the energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from January 1 through March 31, 1991. The report discusses six abnormal occurrences, none of which involved a nuclear power plant. Five of the events occurred at NRC-licensed facilities: one involved a significant degradation of plant safety at a nuclear fuel cycle facility, one involved a medical diagnostic misadministration, and three involved medical therapy misadministrations. An Agreement State (Arizona) reported one abnormal occurrence that involved medical therapy misadministrations

  13. Enhanced monitoring of abnormal emergency department demands

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2016-06-13

    This paper presents a statistical technique for detecting signs of abnormal situation generated by the influx of patients at emergency department (ED). The monitoring strategy developed was able to provide early alert mechanisms in the event of abnormal situations caused by abnormal patient arrivals to the ED. More specifically, This work proposed the application of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models combined with the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) test for anomaly-detection. ARMA was used as the modelling framework of the ARMA-based GLR anomaly-detection methodology. The GLR test was applied to the uncorrelated residuals obtained from the ARMA model to detect anomalies when the data did not fit the reference ARMA model. The ARMA-based GLR hypothesis testing scheme was successfully applied to the practical data collected from the database of the pediatric emergency department (PED) at Lille regional hospital center, France. © 2015 IEEE.

  14. Osseous temporomandibular joint abnormalities in rheumatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larheim, T.A.; Kolbenstvedt, A.; Rikshospitalet, Oslo

    1990-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) was compared with hypocycloidal tomography in 30 joints of 15 adults with rheumatic disease. CT included 1.5 mm thick axial scans (at 1.0 mm intervals) with reformatted oblique sagittal and oblique coronal sections. Multisection (at 2.0 mm intervals) tomography included oblique sagittal and occasionally, oblique coronal sections. CT demonstrated bone abnormalities in 21 and tomography in 20 joints, indicating high agreement between the imaging modalities regarding number of abnormal TMJs. Bone structures were, however, better visualized by multiplanar CT due to superior contrast and spatial resolution particularly in the most lateral and medial parts of the joint, indicating superiority of CT for depicting subtle bony TMJ abnormalities in patients with rheumatic disease. (orig.)

  15. Radiographic abnormalities in tricyclic acid overdose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varnell, R.M.; Richardson, M.L.; Vincent, J.M.; Godwin, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Several case reports have described adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to tricyclic acid (TCA) overdose. During a 1-year period 83 patients requiring intubation secondary to drug overdose were evaluated. Abnormalities on chest radiographs occurred in 26 (50%) of the 54 patients with TCA overdose, compared to six (21%) of the 29 patients overdosed with other drugs. In addition, five (9%) of the patients with TCA overdose subsequently had radiographic and clinical abnormalities meeting the criteria for ARDS. Only one (3%) of the patients with non-TCA overdose subsequently had change suggesting ARDS. TCAs should be added to the list of drugs associated with ARDS, and TCA overdose should be considered a major risk factor in the development of radiographically evident abnormalities

  16. Device for diagnoising abnormalities of equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Hiroshi.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To measure the collision energy easily and at high accuracy by applying impact shocks at known collision energy from a simulated acoustic wave generator and using the generated acoustic signal as reference data. Constitution: A plurality of acoustic detectors are attached to the surface of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. These acoustic detectors are connected respectively to an abnormality diagnosis device for equipments. Then, when metal obstacles collide against the inner surface of the reactor pressure vessel, acoustic signals generated upon collision are detected by the acoustic detectors and acoustic information thus obtained from the acoustic detectors determines the colliding position of the metal obstacles by means of the abnormality diagnosis device and then the collision energy is measured. In this case, by applying impact shocks at known collision energy near the colliding position of metal obstacles determined by the abnormality diagnosis device, collision energy can be determined at a higher accuracy. (Kawakami, Y.)

  17. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  18. Exhibition of Stochastic Resonance in Vestibular Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan-Garza, R. C.; Clark, T. K.; Merfeld, D. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Oman, C. M.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor changes during spaceflight, particularly during G-transitions. Post flight sensorimotor changes include spatial disorientation, along with postural and gait instability that may degrade operational capabilities of the astronauts and endanger the crew. A sensorimotor countermeasure that mitigates these effects would improve crewmember safety and decrease risk. The goal of this research is to investigate the potential use of stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) as a technology to improve sensorimotor function. We hypothesize that low levels of SVS will improve sensorimotor perception through the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR), when the response of a nonlinear system to a weak input signal is enhanced by the application of a particular nonzero level of noise. This study aims to advance the development of SVS as a potential countermeasure by 1) demonstrating the exhibition of stochastic resonance in vestibular perception, a vital component of sensorimotor function, 2) investigating the repeatability of SR exhibition, and 3) determining the relative contribution of the semicircular canals (SCC) and otolith (OTO) organs to vestibular perceptual SR. A constant current stimulator was used to deliver bilateral bipolar SVS via electrodes placed on each of the mastoid processes, as previously done. Vestibular perceptual motion recognition thresholds were measured using a 6-degree of freedom MOOG platform and a 150 trial 3-down/1-up staircase procedure. In the first test session, we measured vestibular perceptual thresholds in upright roll-tilt at 0.2 Hz (SCC+OTO) with SVS ranging from 0-700 µA. In a second test session a week later, we re-measured roll-tilt thresholds with 0, optimal (from test session 1), and 1500 µA SVS levels. A subset of these subjects, plus naive subjects, participated in two additional test sessions in which we measured thresholds in supine roll-rotation at 0.2 Hz (SCC) and upright y-translation at 1 Hz

  19. Upper airway alterations/abnormalities in a case series of obstructive sleep apnea patients identified with cone-beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigeta, Y.; Shintaku, W.H.; Clark, G.T.; Enciso, R.; Ogawa, T.

    2007-01-01

    There are many factors that influence the configuration of the upper airway and may contribute to the development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This paper presents a series of 12 consecutive OSA cases where various upper airway alteration/abnormalities were identified using 3D anatomic reconstructions generated from cone-beam CT (CBCT) images. Some cases exhibited more than one type of abnormality and below we describe each of the six types identified with CBCT in this case series. (orig.)

  20. Upper airway alterations/abnormalities in a case series of obstructive sleep apnea patients identified with cone-beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigeta, Y; Shintaku, W H; Clark, G T [Orofacial Pain/Oral Medicine Center, Div. of Diagnostic Sciences, School of Dentistry, Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Enciso, R [Div. of Craniofacial Sciences and Therapeutics, School of Dentistry, Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ogawa, T [Dept. of Fixed Prosthodontic Dentistry, Tsurumi Univ., School of Dental Medicine, Tsurumi (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    There are many factors that influence the configuration of the upper airway and may contribute to the development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This paper presents a series of 12 consecutive OSA cases where various upper airway alteration/abnormalities were identified using 3D anatomic reconstructions generated from cone-beam CT (CBCT) images. Some cases exhibited more than one type of abnormality and below we describe each of the six types identified with CBCT in this case series. (orig.)

  1. Mechanism of gastrointestinal abnormal motor activity induced by cisplatin in conscious dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Hiroyuki; Mochiki, Erito; Ohno, Tetsuro; Yanai, Mitsuhiro; Toyomasu, Yoshitaka; Ogata, Kyoichi; Tabe, Yuichi; Aihara, Ryuusuke; Nakabayashi, Toshihiro; Asao, Takayuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-14

    To investigate whether 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin; 5-HT) is involved in mediating abnormal motor activity in dogs after cisplatin administration. After the dogs had been given a 2-wk recovery period, all of them were administered cisplatin, and the motor activity was recorded using strain gauge force transducers. Blood and intestinal fluid samples were collected to measure 5-HT for 24 h. To determine whether 5-HT in plasma or that in intestinal fluids is more closely related to abnormal motor activity we injected 5-HT into the bloodstream and the intestinal tract of the dogs. Cisplatin given intravenously produced abnormal motor activity that lasted up to 5 h. From 3 to 4 h after cisplatin administration, normal intact dogs exhibited retropropagation of motor activity accompanied by emesis. The concentration of 5-HT in plasma reached the peak at 4 h, and that in intestinal fluids reached the peak at 3 h. In normal intact dogs with resection of the vagus nerve that were administered kytril, cisplatin given intravenously did not produce abnormal motor activity. Intestinal serotonin administration did not produce abnormal motor activity, but intravenous serotonin administration did. After the intravenous administration of cisplatin, abnormal motor activity was produced in the involved vagus nerve and in the involved serotonergic neurons via another pathway. This study was the first to determine the relationship between 5-HT and emesis-induced motor activity.

  2. Pygmoid Australomelanesian Homo sapiens skeletal remains from Liang Bua, Flores: population affinities and pathological abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, T; Indriati, E; Soejono, R P; Hsü, K; Frayer, D W; Eckhardt, R B; Kuperavage, A J; Thorne, A; Henneberg, M

    2006-09-05

    Liang Bua 1 (LB1) exhibits marked craniofacial and postcranial asymmetries and other indicators of abnormal growth and development. Anomalies aside, 140 cranial features place LB1 within modern human ranges of variation, resembling Australomelanesian populations. Mandibular and dental features of LB1 and LB6/1 either show no substantial deviation from modern Homo sapiens or share features (receding chins and rotated premolars) with Rampasasa pygmies now living near Liang Bua Cave. We propose that LB1 is drawn from an earlier pygmy H. sapiens population but individually shows signs of a developmental abnormality, including microcephaly. Additional mandibular and postcranial remains from the site share small body size but not microcephaly.

  3. Abnormal development of the lesser wing of the sphenoid with microphthalmos and microcephaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquemin, C.; Bosley, T.M.

    2001-01-01

    We report two patients with abnormal development of the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone, globe, optic nerve and cerebral hemisphere without stigmata of neurofibromatosis type 1. The lesser wing of the sphenoid bone was abnormally formed and was not ossified ipsilateral to the dysmorphic eye and underdeveloped cerebral hemisphere. Maldevelopment of the sphenoid wing may interfere with the normal closure of the optic vesicle and normal growth of encephalic structures, possibly by disturbing developmental tissue interactions. These patients may exhibit a type of restricted primary sphenoid dysplasia, while the sphenoid dysplasia of neurofibromatosis type 1 may be secondary to orbital or ocular neurofibromas and other factors associated with that disease. (orig.)

  4. Abnormal development of the lesser wing of the sphenoid with microphthalmos and microcephaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquemin, C. [King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Radiology Dept.; Mullaney, P. [Paediatric Ophthalmology Div., King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Bosley, T.M. [Neuro-Ophthalmology Div., King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2001-02-01

    We report two patients with abnormal development of the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone, globe, optic nerve and cerebral hemisphere without stigmata of neurofibromatosis type 1. The lesser wing of the sphenoid bone was abnormally formed and was not ossified ipsilateral to the dysmorphic eye and underdeveloped cerebral hemisphere. Maldevelopment of the sphenoid wing may interfere with the normal closure of the optic vesicle and normal growth of encephalic structures, possibly by disturbing developmental tissue interactions. These patients may exhibit a type of restricted primary sphenoid dysplasia, while the sphenoid dysplasia of neurofibromatosis type 1 may be secondary to orbital or ocular neurofibromas and other factors associated with that disease. (orig.)

  5. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research.

  6. Migraine and structural abnormalities in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Ashina, Messoud

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim is to provide an overview of recent studies of structural brain abnormalities in migraine and to discuss the potential clinical significance of their findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Brain structure continues to be a topic of extensive research in migraine. Despite advances...... in neuroimaging techniques, it is not yet clear if migraine is associated with grey matter changes. Recent large population-based studies sustain the notion of increased prevalence of white matter abnormalities in migraine, and possibly of silent infarct-like lesions. The clinical relevance of this association...

  7. Temporal abnormalities in children with developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Rappo, Gaetano; Pepi, Annamaria; Pavan, Andrea; Martino, Davide

    2012-01-01

    Recent imaging studies have associated Developmental dyscalculia (DD) to structural and functional alterations corresponding Parietal and the Prefrontal cortex (PFC). Since these areas were shown also to be involved in timing abilities, we hypothesized that time processing is abnormal in DD. We compared time processing abilities between 10 children with pure DD (8 years old) and 11 age-matched healthy children. Results show that the DD group underestimated duration of a sub-second scale when asked to perform a time comparison task. The timing abnormality observed in our DD participants is consistent with evidence of a shared fronto-parietal neural network for representing time and quantity.

  8. Intestinal Rotation Abnormalities and Midgut Volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Jacob C

    2017-02-01

    Rotation abnormalities may be asymptomatic or may be associated with obstruction caused by bands, midgut volvulus, or associated atresia or web. The most important goal of clinicians is to determine whether the patient has midgut volvulus with intestinal ischemia, in which case an emergency laparotomy should be done. If the patient is not acutely ill, the next goal is to determine whether the patient has a narrow-based small bowel mesentery. In general, the outcomes for children with a rotation abnormality are excellent, unless there has been midgut volvulus with significant intestinal ischemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  10. VIRTUAL EXHIBITION AND FRUITION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL FINDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Manferdini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, since digital technologies have become more sophisticated in acquiring real data and building faithful copies of them, their improvements have suggested interesting applications in the field of valorisation of Historical, Cultural and Artistic Heritage, with significant consequences in the share and widespread of knowledge. But although several technologies and methodologies for 3d digitization have recently been developed and improved, the lack of a standard procedure and the costs connected to their use still doesn't encourage the systematic digital acquisition of wide collections and heritage. The aim of this paper is to show the state of the art of a project whose aim is to provide a methodology and a procedure to create digital reproductions of artefacts for Institutions called to preserve, manage and enhance the fruition of archaeological finds inside museums or through digital exhibitions. Our project’s aim is to find the most suitable procedure to digitally acquire archaeo logical artefacts that usually have small dimensions and have very complex and detailed surfaces. Within our methodology, particular attention has been paid to the use of widely shared and open-source visualization systems that enhance the involvement of the user by emphasizing three-dimensional characteristics of artefacts through virtual reality.

  11. Exposure to the cytokine EGF leads to abnormal hyperactivity of pallidal GABA neurons: implications for schizophrenia and its modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotoyama, Hidekazu; Namba, Hisaaki; Chiken, Satomi; Nambu, Atsushi; Nawa, Hiroyuki

    2013-08-01

    Previous studies on a cytokine model for schizophrenia reveal that the hyperdopaminergic innervation and neurotransmission in the globus pallidus (GP) is involved in its behavioral impairments. Here, we further explored the physiological consequences of the GP abnormality in the indirect pathway, using the same schizophrenia model established by perinatal exposure to epidermal growth factor (EGF). Single-unit recordings revealed that the neural activity from the lateral GP was elevated in EGF-treated rats in vivo and in vitro (i.e., slice preparations), whereas the central area of the GP exhibited no significant differences. The increase in the pallidal activity was normalized by subchronic treatment with risperidone, which is known to ameliorate their behavioral deficits. We also monitored extracellular GABA concentrations in the substantia nigra, one of the targets of pallidal efferents. There was a significant increase in basal GABA levels in EGF-treated rats, whereas high potassium-evoked GABA effluxes and glutamate levels were not affected. A neurotoxic lesion in the GP of EGF-treated rats normalized GABA concentrations to control levels. Corroborating our in vivo results, GABA release from GP slices was elevated in EGF-treated animals. These findings suggest that the hyperactivity and enhanced GABA release of GP neurons represent the key pathophysiological features of this cytokine-exposure model for schizophrenia. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  12. Exploration of microstructural abnormalities in borderline personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, Klaus H.; Brunner, Romuald; Henze, Romy; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Stieltjes, Bram

    2012-03-01

    As with other mental disorders, the causes of borderline personality disorder (BPD) are complex and not fully understood. In this study we aimed to determine whether adults with BPD exhibit microstructural abnormalities using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). 56 female right-handed individuals (age range, 14-18 years), 19 with a DSM-IV diagnosis of BPD, 18 patients with a DSM-IV defined current psychiatric disorder and 19 healthy control subjects were included. Groups were matched for age and IQ. DTI Images were analyzed using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS). The analysis revealed significanty reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the group of BPD patients compared to the normal controls. Similar FA reductions could not be found comparing BPD patients to clinical controls. Several clusters of increased radial (DR), axial (DA), and mean (MD) diffusivity were consistently identified when comparing the BPD patients to clinical as well as to healthy controls. None of the measures showed significant differences between the clinical and healthy controls. Diverse possible factors have been suggested to play a role in the disease, including environmental factors, neurobiological factors, or brain abnormalities. The presented results may play an important role in this ongoing debate.

  13. Application of distributed optical fiber sensing technologies to the monitoring of leakage and abnormal disturbance of oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaojun; Zhu, Xiaofei; Deng, Chi; Li, Junyi; Liu, Cheng; Yu, Wenpeng; Luo, Hui

    2017-10-01

    To improve the level of management and monitoring of leakage and abnormal disturbance of long distance oil pipeline, the distributed optical fiber temperature and vibration sensing system is employed to test the feasibility for the healthy monitoring of a domestic oil pipeline. The simulating leakage and abnormal disturbance affairs of oil pipeline are performed in the experiment. It is demonstrated that the leakage and abnormal disturbance affairs of oil pipeline can be monitored and located accurately with the distributed optical fiber sensing system, which exhibits good performance in the sensitivity, reliability, operation and maintenance etc., and shows good market application prospect.

  14. White matter abnormalities in young males with antisocial personality disorder Evidence from voxel-based morphometry-diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated lie algebra analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daxing Wu; Ying Zhao; Jian Liao; Huifang Yin; Wei Wang

    2011-01-01

    Voxel-based morphometry-diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated lie algebra analysis was used to investigate the structural characteristics of white matter in young males with antisocial personality disorder (APD) and healthy controls without APD. The results revealed that APD subjects, relative to healthy subjects, exhibited increased white matter volume in the bilateral prefrontal lobe, right insula, precentral gyrus, bilateral superior temporal gyrus, right postcentral gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, right precuneus, right middle occipital lobe, right parahippocampal gyrus and bilateral cingulate, and decreased volume in the middle temporal cortex and right cerebellum. The white matter volume in the medial frontal gyrus was significantly correlated with antisocial type scores on the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire in APD subjects. These experimental findings indicate that white matter abnormalities in several brain areas may contribute to antisocial behaviors in APD subjects.

  15. Chimpanzees and bonobos exhibit divergent spatial memory development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Hare, Brian

    2012-11-01

    Spatial cognition and memory are critical cognitive skills underlying foraging behaviors for all primates. While the emergence of these skills has been the focus of much research on human children, little is known about ontogenetic patterns shaping spatial cognition in other species. Comparative developmental studies of nonhuman apes can illuminate which aspects of human spatial development are shared with other primates, versus which aspects are unique to our lineage. Here we present three studies examining spatial memory development in our closest living relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (P. paniscus). We first compared memory in a naturalistic foraging task where apes had to recall the location of resources hidden in a large outdoor enclosure with a variety of landmarks (Studies 1 and 2). We then compared older apes using a matched memory choice paradigm (Study 3). We found that chimpanzees exhibited more accurate spatial memory than bonobos across contexts, supporting predictions from these species' different feeding ecologies. Furthermore, chimpanzees - but not bonobos - showed developmental improvements in spatial memory, indicating that bonobos exhibit cognitive paedomorphism (delays in developmental timing) in their spatial abilities relative to chimpanzees. Together, these results indicate that the development of spatial memory may differ even between closely related species. Moreover, changes in the spatial domain can emerge during nonhuman ape ontogeny, much like some changes seen in human children. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. A Case-Study Assignment to Teach Theoretical Perspectives in Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, David V.

    1991-01-01

    Describes an assignment that requires students to organize, prepare, and revise a case study in abnormal behavior. Explains that students employ a single theoretical perspective in preparing a report on a figure from history, literature, the arts, or current events. Discusses the value of the assignment for students. (SG)

  17. Olfaction in Eating Disorders and Abnormal Eating Behaviour: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Anisul eIslam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insights with regard to the complex etiopathology of ED and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct and Web of Science were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1,352 articles, 14 articles were selected (820 patients and 385 control participants for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6% followed by BN (35.7% and obesity (14.3%. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and Obesity and indicates towards there being no differences in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior.

  18. Severe Impairments of Social Interaction and Associated Abnormalities in Children: Epidemiology and Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Lorna; Gould, Judith

    1979-01-01

    The prevalence of severe impairments of social interaction, language abnormalities, and repetitive stereotyped behaviors was investigated in a group of 132 children under 15 years old, consisting of a socially impaired group (more than half of whom were severely retarded) and a comparison group of sociable severely mentally retarded. Author/DLS)

  19. Abnormal electrocardiographic findings in athletes: Correlation with intensity of sport and level of competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dores, Hélder; Malhotra, Aneil; Sheikh, Nabeel; Millar, Lynne; Dhutia, Harshil; Narain, Rajay; Merghani, Ahmed; Papadakis, Michael; Sharma, Sanjay

    2016-11-01

    Athletes can exhibit abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) phenotypes that require further evaluation prior to competition. These are apparently more prevalent in high-intensity endurance sports. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between ECG findings in athletes and intensity of sport and level of competition. A cohort of 3423 competitive athletes had their ECGs assessed according to the Seattle criteria (SC). The presence of abnormal ECGs was correlated with: (1) intensity of sport (low/moderate vs. at least one high static or dynamic component); (2) competitive level (regional vs. national/international); (3) training volume (≤20 vs. >20 hours/week); (4) type of sport (high dynamic vs. high static component). The same endpoints were studied according to the 'Refined Criteria' (RC). Abnormal ECGs according to the SC were present in 225 (6.6%) athletes, more frequently in those involved in high-intensity sports (8.0% vs. 5.4%; p=0.002), particularly in dynamic sports, and competing at national/international level (7.1% vs. 4.9%; p=0.028). Training volume was not significantly associated with abnormal ECGs. By multivariate analysis, high-intensity sport (OR 1.55, 1.18-2.03; p=0.002) and national/international level (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.04-2.14; p=0.027) were independent predictors of abnormal ECGs, and these variables, when combined, doubled the prevalence of this finding. According to the RC, abnormal ECGs decreased to 103 (3.0%), but were also more frequent in high-intensity sports (4.2% vs. 2.0%; psports and increased prevalence of ECG abnormalities. This relationship persists with the use of more restrictive criteria for ECG interpretation, although the number of abnormal ECGs is lower. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  1. Chromosome abnormalities in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomonaga, Y [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1976-09-01

    Chromosome abnormalities in bone marrow cells were recognized in 6 cases which consisted of one case of chronic myelogenous leukemia, two cases of acute myelogenous leukemia, one case of sideroblastic anemia, and two cases of myelodysplasis. Frequency of stable type chromosome abnormalities in bone marrow cells was investigated in 45 atomic bomb survivors without hematologic disorders and 15 controls. It was 1.4% (15 cases) in the group exposed to atomic bomb within 1 km from the hypocenter, which was significantly higher as compared with 0.1% (15 cases) in the group exposed to atomic bomb over 2.5 km from the hypocenter and 0.2% in normal controls. Examination of chromosome was also made on 2 of 3 cases which were the seconds born of female with high chromosome abnormality, who was exposed to within 1 km from the hypocenter, and healthy male exposed 3 km from the hypocenter. These two cases showed chromosome of normal male type, and balanced translocation was not recognized. There was not a significant difference in chromosome abnormalities between the seconds of atomic bomb survivors and controls.

  2. Common echocardiographic abnormalities in Nigerians of different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-17

    Sep 17, 2012 ... artery disease, cardiac murmurs, atrial fibrillation, stroke, and transient ischaemic attack.[4,5] In some circumstances, the examination is an appropriate screening test even in the absence of cardiovascular symptoms, especially. Common echocardiographic abnormalities in. Nigerians of different age groups.

  3. Learning from anticipated and abnormal plant transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varnado, B.

    1983-01-01

    A report is given of the American Nuclear Society topical meeting on Anticipated and Abnormal Transients in Light Water Reactors held in Jackson, Wyoming in September 1983. Industry involvement in the evaluation of operating experience, human error contributions, transient management, thermal hydraulic modelling, the role of probabilistic risk assessment and the cost of transient incidents are discussed. (U.K.)

  4. Heat stress protection in abnormally hot environments.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schutte, PC

    1994-11-01

    Full Text Available The present report presents the findings of SIMRAC project GAP 045 entitled ‘Heat stress protection in abnormally hot environments’. It is intended as a reference to develop guidelines which, in turn would assist mine management in establishing safe...

  5. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S; De Jesus, Danilo R; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Schutter, Dennis J L G

    2014-01-01

    Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders.

  6. Teaching Abnormal Psychology in a Multimedia Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, JoAnne

    1996-01-01

    Examines the techniques used in teaching an abnormal psychology class in a multimedia environment with two computers and a variety of audiovisual equipment. Students respond anonymously to various questions via keypads mounted on their desks, then immediately view and discuss summaries of their responses. (MJP)

  7. Schizophrenogenic Parenting in Abnormal Psychology Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Otto F.

    1989-01-01

    Considers the treatment of family causation of schizophrenia in undergraduate abnormal psychology textbooks. Reviews texts published only after 1986. Points out a number of implications for psychologists which arise from the inclusion in these texts of the idea that parents cause schizophrenia, not the least of which is the potential for…

  8. immunological arthritis Prevalence of biochemical and abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-02

    Feb 2, 1991 ... the serum creatinine valuell and abnormalities of calcium and cholesterol have .... 16 high. Creatinine (JLmolJl). 75 - 115. 81,3 ± 20,9. 6,6 high. 7 high. 43,4 low ... acid levels without any obvious secondary cause. A raised.

  9. Fetal chromosome abnormalities and congenital malformations: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results also showed that Multiple congenital anomalies (MCA) represented among 42.2%, congenital malformation of CNS represents 26.6%, congenital malformation of the skeletal system 20%, congenital polycystic kidney 8.8% and pyloric stenosis in 2.2%. Among the 21 women with abnormal karyotype of amniotic ...

  10. Neurobehavioural Correlates of Abnormal Repetitive Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ford

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Conditions in which echolalia and echopraxia occur are reviewed, followed by an attempt to elicit possible mechanisms of these phenomena. A brief description of stereotypical and perseverative behaviour and obsessional phenomena is given. It is suggested that abnormal repetitive behaviour may occur partly as a result of central dopaminergic dysfunction.

  11. Ophthalmologic abnormalities among deaf students in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... syndrome (0.6%) and Ushers syndrome (0.6%). Refractive error was the most common (7.9%). Conclusion: Since these deaf students use their sight to compensate for the deafness, routine ophthalmologic examination should be carried out on them so that ophthalmologic abnormalities are detected early and treatment ...

  12. The prevalence of electroencephalographic abnormalities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    2004-05-20

    May 20, 2004 ... South African studies. There is little South African data examining either prevalence or usefulness of EEG abnormalities among adult psychiatric patients. Some work has been done in adolescents. Szabo1 reviewed all admissions to the adolescent inpatient unit at Tara. Hospital between 1990 and 1995.

  13. Relationship among sera lipoprotein abnormalities in healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-29

    Aug 29, 2011 ... This study is a cross-sectional case control study. 179 men and women were ... can lead to lipid parameters abnormalities and CVD risk factor via aggregation of ... insulin kit is the brand of DRG German Company. The insulin.

  14. Abnormal Events for Emergency Trip in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Guk Hun; Choi, M. J.; Park, S. I.; Kim, H. W.; Kim, S. J.; Park, J. H.; Kwon, I. C

    2006-12-15

    This report gathers abnormal events related to emergency trip of HANARO that happened during its operation over 10 years since the first criticality on February 1995. The collected examples will be utilized to the HANARO's operators as a useful guide.

  15. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

    1986-07-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.

  16. Chromosome abnormalities in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomonaga, Yu

    1976-01-01

    Chromosome abnormalities in bone marrow cells were recognized in 6 cases which consisted of one case of chronic myelogenous leukemia, two cases of acute myelogenous leukemia, one case of sideroblastic anemia, and two cases of myelodysplasis. Frequency of stable type chromosome abnormalities in bone marrow cells was investigated in 45 atomic bomb survivors without hematologic disorders and 15 controls. It was 1.4% (15 cases) in the group exposed to atomic bomb within 1 km from the hypocenter, which was significantly higher as compared with 0.1% (15 cases) in the group exposed to atomic bomb over 2.5 km from the hypocenter and 0.2% in normal controls. Examination of chromosome was also made on 2 of 3 cases which were the seconds born of female with high chromosome abnormality, who was exposed to within 1 km from the hypocenter, and healthy male exposed 3 km from the hypocenter. These two cases showed chromosome of normal male type, and balanced translocation was not recognized. There was not a significant difference in chromosome abnormalities between the seconds of atomic bomb survivors and controls. (Kanao, N.)

  17. Correcting abnormal speaking through communication partners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The listed characteristics are called speech disorders. Abnormal speaking attracts some penalties to the speaker. The penalties are usually very disturbing to the speaker that undertaking some therapeutic measures becomes inevitable. Communication partners strategy is a speech correction approach which makes use of ...

  18. Abnormality diagnosis device for PWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Masahiko.

    1993-01-01

    The device of the present invention rapidly detects a small amount of primary coolants leaked from a heat transfer pipes in a steam generator to estimate the scale of the rupture and forecast the transition of the amount of the leakage. That is, a gamma-ray spectrum and dose rate measuring system having a bypass line capable of decaying short half-time nuclides disposed to each of second main steam pipelines and primary coolant pipelines. Data obtained from the measuring systems are compared, to judge the presence of abnormal symptom due to leakage and further, radioactivity concentration in main steams is calculated based on the dose rate at each of the measuring points. Further, radioactivity concentration of the leakage from the secondary main steam pipelines is calculated by change with passage of time. With such procedures, when primary coolants are leaked to the secondary main steam pipelines, the dose rate of the measured system is changed, thereby enabling to recognize the state at the abnormal point. The transition of abnormalities can be forecast with reference to the dose rate by change with passage of time. Further, state of the abnormal point can be recognized based on the gamma-ray spectrum, which is inherent upon occurrence of fuel rupture. (T.S.)

  19. Craniofacial abnormalities among patients with Edwards Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fabiano M. Rosa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and types of craniofacial abnormalities observed in patients with trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome (ES. METHODS This descriptive and retrospective study of a case series included all patients diagnosed with ES in a Clinical Genetics Service of a reference hospital in Southern Brazil from 1975 to 2008. The results of the karyotypic analysis, along with clinical data, were collected from medical records. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 50 patients, of which 66% were female. The median age at first evaluation was 14 days. Regarding the karyotypes, full trisomy of chromosome 18 was the main alteration (90%. Mosaicism was observed in 10%. The main craniofacial abnormalities were: microretrognathia (76%, abnormalities of the ear helix/dysplastic ears (70%, prominent occiput (52%, posteriorly rotated (46% and low set ears (44%, and short palpebral fissures/blepharophimosis (46%. Other uncommon - but relevant - abnormalities included: microtia (18%, orofacial clefts (12%, preauricular tags (10%, facial palsy (4%, encephalocele (4%, absence of external auditory canal (2% and asymmetric face (2%. One patient had an initial suspicion of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS or Goldenhar syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the literature description of a characteristic clinical presentation for ES, craniofacial alterations may be variable among these patients. The OAVS findings in this sample are noteworthy. The association of ES with OAVS has been reported once in the literature.

  20. Ophthalmological abnormalities in wild European hedgehogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we aimed to examine wild European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) in rescue centres and to determine ocular abnormalities in this animal population. Three hundred animals varying in age from 2 months to 5 years were examined, 147 being male and 153 female. All animals were evaluated with direct ...