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Sample records for exhibited potent anti-hiv

  1. AMD3465, a monomacrocyclic CXCR4 antagonist and potent HIV entry inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatse, Sigrid; Princen, Katrien; De Clercq, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 function as coreceptors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and are attractive targets for the development of anti-HIV drugs. The most potent CXCR4 antagonists described until today are the bicyclams. The prototype compound, AMD3100, exhibits potent and s...

  2. Sifuvirtide, a potent HIV fusion inhibitor peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Rui-Rui; Yang, Liu-Meng; Wang, Yun-Hua; Pang, Wei; Tam, Siu-Cheung; Tien, Po; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2009-01-01

    Enfuvirtide (ENF) is currently the only FDA approved HIV fusion inhibitor in clinical use. Searching for more drugs in this category with higher efficacy and lower toxicity seems to be a logical next step. In line with this objective, a synthetic peptide with 36 amino acid residues, called Sifuvirtide (SFT), was designed based on the crystal structure of gp41. In this study, we show that SFT is a potent anti-HIV agent with relatively low cytotoxicity. SFT was found to inhibit replication of all tested HIV strains. The effective concentrations that inhibited 50% viral replication (EC 50 ), as determined in all tested strains, were either comparable or lower than benchmark values derived from well-known anti-HIV drugs like ENF or AZT, while the cytotoxic concentrations causing 50% cell death (CC 50 ) were relatively high, rendering it an ideal anti-HIV agent. A GST-pull down assay was performed to confirm that SFT is a fusion inhibitor. Furthermore, the activity of SFT on other targets in the HIV life cycle was also investigated, and all assays showed negative results. To further understand the mechanism of action of HIV peptide inhibitors, resistant variants of HIV-1 IIIB were derived by serial virus passage in the presence of increasing doses of SFT or ENF. The results showed that there was cross-resistance between SFT and ENF. In conclusion, SFT is an ideal anti-HIV agent with high potency and low cytotoxicity, but may exhibit a certain extent of cross-resistance with ENF.

  3. Lignosulfonic acid exhibits broadly anti-HIV-1 activity--potential as a microbicide candidate for the prevention of HIV-1 sexual transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Qiu

    Full Text Available Some secondary metabolites from plants show to have potent inhibitory activities against microbial pathogens, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, herpes simplex virus (HSV, Treponema pallidum, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, etc. Here we report that lignosulfonic acid (LSA, a polymeric lignin derivative, exhibits potent and broad activity against HIV-1 isolates of diverse subtypes including two North America strains and a number of Chinese clinical isolates values ranging from 21.4 to 633 nM. Distinct from other polyanions, LSA functions as an entry inhibitor with multiple targets on viral gp120 as well as on host receptor CD4 and co-receptors CCR5/CXCR4. LSA blocks viral entry as determined by time-of-drug addiction and cell-cell fusion assays. Moreover, LSA inhibits CD4-gp120 interaction by blocking the binding of antibodies specific for CD4-binding sites (CD4bs and for the V3 loop of gp120. Similarly, LSA interacts with CCR5 and CXCR4 via its inhibition of specific anti-CCR5 and anti-CXCR4 antibodies, respectively. Interestingly, the combination of LSA with AZT and Nevirapine exhibits synergism in viral inhibition. For the purpose of microbicide development, LSA displays low in vitro cytotoxicity to human genital tract epithelial cells, does not stimulate NF-κB activation and has no significant up-regulation of IL-1α/β and IL-8 as compared with N-9. Lastly, LSA shows no adverse effect on the epithelial integrity and the junctional protein expression. Taken together, our findings suggest that LSA can be a potential candidate for tropical microbicide.

  4. Altertoxins with potent anti-HIV activity from Alternaria tenuissima QUE1Se, a fungal endophyte of Quercus emoryi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashyal, Bharat P; Wellensiek, Brian P; Ramakrishnan, Rajesh; Faeth, Stanley H; Ahmad, Nafees; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie

    2014-11-01

    Screening of a small library of natural product extracts derived from endophytic fungi of the Sonoran desert plants in a cell-based anti-HIV assay involving T-cells infected with the HIV-1 virus identified the EtOAc extract of a fermentation broth of Alternaria tenuissima QUE1Se inhabiting the stem tissue of Quercus emoryi as a promising candidate for further investigation. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation and identification of two new metabolites, altertoxins V (1) and VI (2) together with the known compounds, altertoxins I (3), II (4), and III (5). The structures of 1 and 2 were determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis and those of 3-5 were established by comparison with reported data. When tested in our cell-based assay at concentrations insignificantly toxic to T-cells, altertoxins V (1), I (3), II (4), and III (5) completely inhibited replication of the HIV-1 virus at concentrations of 0.50, 2.20, 0.30, and 1.50 μM, respectively. Our findings suggest that the epoxyperylene structural scaffold in altertoxins may be manipulated to produce potent anti-HIV therapeutics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 6-Hydroxyflavone and derivatives exhibit potent anti-inflammatory activity among mono-, di- and polyhydroxylated flavones in kidney mesangial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wang

    Full Text Available Inflammatory responses by kidney mesangial cells play a critical role in the glomerulonephritis. The anti-inflammatory potential of nineteen mono-, di- and polyhydroxylated flavones including fisetin, quercetin, morin, tricetin, gossypetin, apigenin and myricetin were investigated on rat mesangial cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS as the inflammatory stimuli. 6-Hydroxyflavone and 4',6-dihydroxyflavone exhibited high activity with IC50 in the range of 2.0 μM, a much better inhibition potential in comparison to the well-studied polyhydroxylated flavones. Interestingly, the anti-inflammatory activity was not due to direct quenching of NO radicals. Investigation on derivatives with methylation, acetylation or sulfation of 6-hydroxyl group revealed that 6-methoxyflavone was the most potent with an IC50 of 192 nM. Mechanistic study indicated that the anti-inflammatory activity of 6-methoxyflavone arose via the inhibition of LPS-induced downstream inducible NO synthase in mesangial cells. The identification of 6-hydroxyflavone and 6-methoxyflavone with potent anti-inflammatory activity in kidney mesangial cells provides a new flavone scaffold and direction to develop naturally derived products for potential nephritis prevention and treatment.

  6. Lectins with Anti-HIV Activity: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouafae Akkouh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins including flowering plant lectins, algal lectins, cyanobacterial lectins, actinomycete lectin, worm lectins, and the nonpeptidic lectin mimics pradimicins and benanomicins, exhibit anti-HIV activity. The anti-HIV plant lectins include Artocarpus heterophyllus (jacalin lectin, concanavalin A, Galanthus nivalis (snowdrop agglutinin-related lectins, Musa acuminata (banana lectin, Myrianthus holstii lectin, Narcissus pseudonarcissus lectin, and Urtica diocia agglutinin. The anti-HIV algal lectins comprise Boodlea coacta lectin, Griffithsin, Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin. The anti-HIV cyanobacterial lectins are cyanovirin-N, scytovirin, Microcystis viridis lectin, and microvirin. Actinohivin is an anti-HIV actinomycete lectin. The anti-HIV worm lectins include Chaetopterus variopedatus polychaete marine worm lectin, Serpula vermicularis sea worm lectin, and C-type lectin Mermaid from nematode (Laxus oneistus. The anti-HIV nonpeptidic lectin mimics comprise pradimicins and benanomicins. Their anti-HIV mechanisms are discussed.

  7. Human Galectin-9 Is a Potent Mediator of HIV Transcription and Reactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdel-Mohsen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Identifying host immune determinants governing HIV transcription, latency and infectivity in vivo is critical to developing an HIV cure. Based on our recent finding that the host factor p21 regulates HIV transcription during antiretroviral therapy (ART, and published data demonstrating that the human carbohydrate-binding immunomodulatory protein galectin-9 regulates p21, we hypothesized that galectin-9 modulates HIV transcription. We report that the administration of a recombinant, stable form of galectin-9 (rGal-9 potently reverses HIV latency in vitro in the J-Lat HIV latency model. Furthermore, rGal-9 reverses HIV latency ex vivo in primary CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected, ART-suppressed individuals (p = 0.002, more potently than vorinostat (p = 0.02. rGal-9 co-administration with the latency reversal agent "JQ1", a bromodomain inhibitor, exhibits synergistic activity (p<0.05. rGal-9 signals through N-linked oligosaccharides and O-linked hexasaccharides on the T cell surface, modulating the gene expression levels of key transcription initiation, promoter proximal-pausing, and chromatin remodeling factors that regulate HIV latency. Beyond latent viral reactivation, rGal-9 induces robust expression of the host antiviral deaminase APOBEC3G in vitro and ex vivo (FDR<0.006 and significantly reduces infectivity of progeny virus, decreasing the probability that the HIV reservoir will be replenished when latency is reversed therapeutically. Lastly, endogenous levels of soluble galectin-9 in the plasma of 72 HIV-infected ART-suppressed individuals were associated with levels of HIV RNA in CD4+ T cells (p<0.02 and with the quantity and binding avidity of circulating anti-HIV antibodies (p<0.009, suggesting a role of galectin-9 in regulating HIV transcription and viral production in vivo during therapy. Our data suggest that galectin-9 and the host glycosylation machinery should be explored as foundations for novel HIV cure strategies.

  8. Rational design of highly potent HIV-1 fusion inhibitory proteins: Implication for developing antiviral therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Ling; Gao, George F.; Tien Po

    2005-01-01

    Recombinant protein containing one heptad-repeat 1 (HR1) segment and one HR2 segment of the HIV-1 gp41 (HR1-HR2) has been shown to fold into thermally stable six-helix bundle, representing the fusogenic core of gp41. In this study, we have used the fusogenic core as a scaffold to design HIV-1 fusion inhibitory proteins by linking another HR1 to the C terminus of HR1-HR2 (HR121) or additional HR2 to the N terminus of HR1-HR2 (HR212). Both recombinant proteins could be abundantly and solubly expressed and easily purified, exhibiting high stability and potent inhibitory activity on HIV-1 fusion with IC 50 values of 16.2 ± 2.8 and 2.8 ± 0.63 nM, respectively. These suggest that these rationally designed proteins can be further developed as novel anti-HIV-1 therapeutics

  9. Potent inhibition of HIV-1 replication by a Tat mutant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke W Meredith

    Full Text Available Herein we describe a mutant of the two-exon HIV-1 Tat protein, termed Nullbasic, that potently inhibits multiple steps of the HIV-1 replication cycle. Nullbasic was created by replacing the entire arginine-rich basic domain of wild type Tat with glycine/alanine residues. Like similarly mutated one-exon Tat mutants, Nullbasic exhibited transdominant negative effects on Tat-dependent transactivation. However, unlike previously reported mutants, we discovered that Nullbasic also strongly suppressed the expression of unspliced and singly-spliced viral mRNA, an activity likely caused by redistribution and thus functional inhibition of HIV-1 Rev. Furthermore, HIV-1 virion particles produced by cells expressing Nullbasic had severely reduced infectivity, a defect attributable to a reduced ability of the virions to undergo reverse transcription. Combination of these inhibitory effects on transactivation, Rev-dependent mRNA transport and reverse transcription meant that permissive cells constitutively expressing Nullbasic were highly resistant to a spreading infection by HIV-1. Nullbasic and its activities thus provide potential insights into the development of potent antiviral therapeutics that target multiple stages of HIV-1 infection.

  10. Imidazopyridine-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-8-quinolinamine derivatives with potent activity against HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Kristjan S; Boggs, Sharon D; Catalano, John G; Svolto, Angilique; Spaltenstein, Andrew; Thomson, Michael; Wheelan, Pat; Jenkinson, Stephen

    2009-11-15

    Synthesis of several novel imidazopyridine-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-8-quinolinamine derivatives with potent activity against HIV are described. Synthetic approaches allowing for variation of the substitution pattern are outlined and resulting changes in antiviral activity and pharmacokinetics are highlighted. Several compounds with low nanomolar anti-HIV activity and oral bioavailability are described.

  11. Library-based discovery and characterization of daphnane diterpenes as potent and selective HIV inhibitors in Daphne gnidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Vincent; Potterat, Olivier; Louvel, Séverine; Hamy, François; Mojarrab, Mahdi; Sanglier, Jean-Jacques; Klimkait, Thomas; Hamburger, Matthias

    2012-03-23

    Despite the existence of an extended armamentarium of effective synthetic drugs to treat HIV, there is a continuing need for new potent and affordable drugs. Given the successful history of natural product based drug discovery, a library of close to one thousand plant and fungal extracts was screened for antiretroviral activity. A dichloromethane extract of the aerial parts of Daphne gnidium exhibited strong antiretroviral activity and absence of cytotoxicity. With the aid of HPLC-based activity profiling, the antiviral activity could be tracked to four daphnane derivatives, namely, daphnetoxin (1), gnidicin (2), gniditrin (3), and excoecariatoxin (4). Detailed anti-HIV profiling revealed that the pure compounds were active against multidrug-resistant viruses irrespective of their cellular tropism. Mode of action studies that narrowed the site of activity to viral entry events suggested a direct interference with the expression of the two main HIV co-receptors, CCR5 and CXCR4, at the cell surface by daphnetoxin (1).

  12. Interleukin-27 is a potent inhibitor of cis HIV-1 replication in monocyte-derived dendritic cells via a type I interferon-independent pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Chen

    Full Text Available IL-27, a member of the IL-12 family of cytokines, plays an important and diverse role in the function of the immune system. Whilst generally recognized as an anti-inflammatory cytokine, in addition IL-27 has been found to have broad anti-viral effects. Recently, IL-27 has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 infection in CD4+ T cells and macrophages. The main objective of this study was to see whether IL-27 has a similar inhibitory effect on HIV-1 replication in dendritic cells (DCs. Monocytes were differentiated into immature DCs (iDCs and mature DCs (mDCs with standard techniques using a combination of GM-CSF, IL-4 and LPS. Following differentiation, iDCs were infected with HIV-1 and co-cultured in the presence or absence of IL-27. IL-27 treated DCs were shown to be highly potent inhibitors of cis HIV-1, particularly of CCR5 tropic strains. Of note, other IL-12 family members (IL-12, IL-23 and IL-35 had no effect on HIV-1 replication. Microarray studies of IL-27 treated DCs showed no up-regulation of Type I (IFN gene expression. Neutralization of the Type-I IFN receptor had no impact on the HIV inhibition. Lastly, IL-27 mediated inhibition was shown to act post-viral entry and prior to completion of reverse transcription. These results show for the first time that IL-27 is a potent inhibitor of cis HIV-1 infection in DCs by a Type I IFN independent mechanism. IL-27 has previously been reported to inhibit HIV-1 replication in CD4+ T cells and macrophages, thus taken together, this cytokine is a potent anti-HIV agent against all major cell types targeted by the HIV-1 virus and may have a therapeutic role in the future.

  13. Indolyl aryl sulfones (IASs): development of highly potent NNRTIs active against wt-HIV-1 and clinically relevant drug resistant mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Romano; Artico, Marino

    2005-01-01

    Indolyl aryl sulfones (IASs) are a potent class of NNRTIs developed from L-737,126, a lead agent discovered by Merck AG. IAS derivatives are endowed with inhibitory activities against wt HIV-1 in the low nanomolar concentration range. Introduction of two methyl groups at positions 3 and 5 of the phenyl ring of the aryl sulfonyl moiety furnished IAS derivatives such as 5-chloro- or 5-bromo-3-[(3,5-dimethylphenyl)sulfonyl]indole-2-carboxyamide, which showed very potent and selective anti-HIV-1 activity against some mutants carrying NNRTI resistant mutations at positions 103 and 181 of the reverse transcriptase. IAS derivatives bearing 2-hydroxyethylcarboxyamide or 2-hydroxyethylcarboxyhydrazide groups at position 2 of the indole nucleus were more active than L-737,126 against the K103N-Y181C double mutant. A great improvement of antiviral activity against wt HIV-1 and resistant mutants was obtained by coupling 1-3 simple amino acids, such as glycine and alanine, in sequence, with the 3-[(3,5-dimethylphenyl)sulfonyl]-1H-indole-2-carbonyl moiety. The transformation of the chain terminus into amide or hydrazide, produced short peptides with high selectivity and potent activity against wt HIV-1, and the viral mutants Y181C, K103N-Y181C and EFV(R). IAS having two halogen atoms at the indole showed potent inhibitory activity against the Y181C and the EFV(R) resistant mutant strains. In particular, the introduction of a fluorine atom at position 4 of the indole ring notably contributed to improve the antiviral activities against both wt and the related resistant mutants. 5-Nitro-IASs were highly active against wt HIV-1 and exhibited low cytotoxicity. Experimental data highlighted the class IAS derivatives as promising candidates for clinical trials.

  14. New findings on the d(TGGGAG) sequence: Surprising anti-HIV-1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanucci, Valeria; Zarrelli, Armando; Liekens, Sandra; Noppen, Sam; Pannecouque, Christophe; Di Fabio, Giovanni

    2018-02-10

    The biological relevance of tetramolecular G-quadruplexes especially as anti-HIV agents has been extensively reported in the literature over the last years. In the light of our recent results regarding the slow G-quadruplex folding kinetics of ODNs based on d(TGGGAG) sequence, here we report a systematic anti-HIV screening to investigate the impact of the G-quadruplex folding on their anti-HIV activity. In particular, varying the single stranded concentrations of ODNs, it has been tested a pool of ODN sample solutions with different G-quadruplex concentrations. The anti-HIV assays have been designed favouring the limited kinetics involved in the tetramolecular G4-association based on the d(TGGGAG) sequence. Aiming to determine the stoichiometry of G-quadruplex structures in the same experimental conditions of the anti-HIV assays, a native gel electrophoresis was performed. The gel confirmed the G-quadruplex formation for almost all sample solutions while showing the formation of high order G4 structures for the more concentrated ODNs solutions. The most significant result is the discovery of a potent anti-HIV activity of the G-quadruplex formed by the natural d(TGGGAG) sequence (IC 50  = 14 nM) that, until now, has been reported to be completely inactive against HIV infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Flazinamide, a novel β-carboline compound with anti-HIV actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yunhua; Tang Jianguo; Wang Ruirui; Yang Liumeng; Dong Zejun; Du Li; Shen Xu; Liu Jikai; Zheng Yongtang

    2007-01-01

    A β-carboline compound, flazin isolated from Suillus granulatus has been shown weak anti-HIV-1 activity. Based on the structure of flazin, flazinamide [1-(5'- hydromethyl-2'-furyl)-β-carboline-3-carboxamide] was synthesized and its anti-HIV activities were evaluated in the present study. The cytotoxicity of flazinamide was about 4.1-fold lower than that of flazin. Flazinamide potently reduced syncytium formation induced by HIV-1IIIB with EC50 value of 0.38 μM, the EC50 of flazinamide was about 6.2-fold lower than that of flazin. Flazinamide also inhibited HIV-2ROD and HIV-2CBL-20 infection with EC50 values of 0.57 and 0.89 μM, respectively. Flazinamide reduced p24 antigen expression in HIV-1IIIB acute infected C8166 and in clinical isolated strain HIV-1KM018 infected PBMC, with EC50 values of 1.45 and 0.77 μM, respectively. Flazinamide did not suppress HIV-1 replication in chronically infected H9 cells. Flazinamide blocked the fusion between normal cells and HIV-1 or HIV-2 chronically infected cells. It weakly inhibited activities of recombinant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, protease or integrase at higher concentrations. In conclusion, the conversion of the carboxyl group in 3 position of flazin markedly enhanced the anti-viral activity (TI value increased from 12.1 to 312.2) and flazinamide might interfere in the early stage of HIV life cycle

  16. D77, one benzoic acid derivative, functions as a novel anti-HIV-1 inhibitor targeting the interaction between integrase and cellular LEDGF/p75

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Li; Zhao Yaxue; Chen, Jing; Yang Liumeng; Zheng Yongtang; Tang Yun; Shen Xu; Jiang Hualiang

    2008-01-01

    Integration of viral-DNA into host chromosome mediated by the viral protein HIV-1 integrase (IN) is an essential step in the HIV-1 life cycle. In this process, Lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) is discovered to function as a cellular co-factor for integration. Since LEDGF/p75 plays an important role in HIV integration, disruption of the LEDGF/p75 interaction with IN has provided a special interest for anti-HIV agent discovery. In this work, we reported that a benzoic acid derivative, 4-[(5-bromo-4-{[2,4-dioxo-3-(2-oxo-2-phenylethyl) -1,3-thiazolidin-5-ylidene]methyl}-2-ethoxyphenoxy)methyl]benzoic acid (D77) could potently inhibit the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction and affect the HIV-1 IN nuclear distribution thus exhibiting antiretroviral activity. Molecular docking with site-directed mutagenesis analysis and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding assays has clarified possible binding mode of D77 against HIV-1 integrase. As the firstly discovered small molecular compound targeting HIV-1 integrase interaction with LEDGF/p75, D77 might supply useful structural information for further anti-HIV agent discovery

  17. eCD4-Ig variants that more potently neutralize HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzer, Ina; Gardner, Matthew R; Davis-Gardner, Meredith E; Prasad, Neha R; Alfant, Barnett; Weber, Jesse A; Farzan, Michael

    2018-03-28

    The HIV-1 entry inhibitor eCD4-Ig is a fusion of CD4-Ig and a coreceptor-mimetic peptide. eCD4-Ig is markedly more potent than CD4-Ig, with neutralization efficiencies approaching those of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). However, unlike bNAbs, eCD4-Ig neutralizes all HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV isolates that it has been tested against, suggesting that it may be useful in clinical settings where antibody escape is a concern. Here we characterize three new eCD4-Ig variants, each with different architectures and each utilizing D1.22, a stabilized form of CD4 domain 1. These variants were 10- to 20-fold more potent than our original eCD4-Ig variant, with a construct bearing four D1.22 domains (eD1.22-HL-Ig) exhibiting the greatest potency. However, this variant mediated less efficient antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity than eCD4-Ig itself or several other eCD4-Ig variants, including the smallest variant (eD1.22-Ig). A variant with the same architecture as original eCD4-Ig (eD1.22-D2-Ig) showed modestly higher thermal stability and best prevented promotion of infection of CCR5-positive, CD4-negative cells. All three variants, and eCD4-Ig itself, mediated more efficient shedding of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 than did CD4-Ig. Finally, we show that only three D1.22 mutations contributed to the potency of eD1.22-D2-Ig, and that introduction of these changes into eCD4-Ig resulted in a variant 9-fold more potent than eCD4-Ig and 2-fold more potent than eD1.22-D2-Ig. These studies will assist in developing eCD4-Ig variants with properties optimized for prophylaxis, therapy, and cure applications. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 bNAbs have properties different from antiretroviral compounds. Specifically, antibodies can enlist immune effector cells to eliminate infected cells, whereas antiretroviral compounds simply interfere with various steps in the viral lifecycle. Unfortunately, HIV-1 is adept at evading antibody recognition, limiting the

  18. Exploiting the anti-HIV 6-desfluoroquinolones to design multiple ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancineto, Luca; Iraci, Nunzio; Barreca, Maria Letizia; Massari, Serena; Manfroni, Giuseppe; Corazza, Gianmarco; Cecchetti, Violetta; Marcello, Alessandro; Daelemans, Dirk; Pannecouque, Christophe; Tabarrini, Oriana

    2014-09-01

    It is getting clearer that many drugs effective in different therapeutic areas act on multiple rather than single targets. The application of polypharmacology concepts might have numerous advantages especially for disease such as HIV/AIDS, where the rapid emergence of resistance requires a complex combination of more than one drug. In this paper, we have designed three hybrid molecules combining WM5, a quinolone derivative we previously identified as HIV Tat-mediated transcription (TMT) inhibitor, with the tricyclic core of nevirapine and BILR 355BS (BILR) non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) to investigate whether it could be possible to obtain molecules acting on both transcription steps of the HIV replicative cycle. One among the three designed multiple ligands, reached this goal. Indeed, compound 1 inhibited both TMT and reverse transcriptase (RT) activity. Unexpectedly, while the anti-TMT activity exerted by compound 1 resulted into a selective inhibition of HIV-1 reactivation from latently infected OM10.1 cells, the anti-RT properties shown by all of the synthesized compounds did not translate into an anti-HIV activity in acutely infected cells. Thus, we have herein produced the proof of concept that the design of dual TMT-RT inhibitors is indeed possible, but optimization efforts are needed to obtain more potent derivatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Potent nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors target HIV-1 Gag-Pol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Figueiredo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs target HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT by binding to a pocket in RT that is close to, but distinct, from the DNA polymerase active site and prevent the synthesis of viral cDNA. NNRTIs, in particular, those that are potent inhibitors of RT polymerase activity, can also act as chemical enhancers of the enzyme's inter-subunit interactions. However, the consequences of this chemical enhancement effect on HIV-1 replication are not understood. Here, we show that the potent NNRTIs efavirenz, TMC120, and TMC125, but not nevirapine or delavirdine, inhibit the late stages of HIV-1 replication. These potent NNRTIs enhanced the intracellular processing of Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins, and this was associated with a decrease in viral particle production from HIV-1-transfected cells. The increased polyprotein processing is consistent with premature activation of the HIV-1 protease by NNRTI-enhanced Gag-Pol multimerization through the embedded RT sequence. These findings support the view that Gag-Pol multimerization is an important step in viral assembly and demonstrate that regulation of Gag-Pol/Gag-Pol interactions is a novel target for small molecule inhibitors of HIV-1 production. Furthermore, these drugs can serve as useful probes to further understand processes involved in HIV-1 particle assembly and maturation.

  20. New structural analogues of curcumin exhibit potent growth suppressive activity in human colorectal carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cen, Ling; Hutzen, Brian; Ball, Sarah; DeAngelis, Stephanie; Chen, Chun-Liang; Fuchs, James R; Li, Chenglong; Li, Pui-Kai; Lin, Jiayuh

    2009-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the Western World. Novel therapeutic approaches are needed for colorectal carcinoma. Curcumin, the active component and yellow pigment of turmeric, has been reported to have several anti-cancer activities including anti-proliferation, anti-invasion, and anti-angiogenesis. Clinical trials have suggested that curcumin may serve as a potential preventive or therapeutic agent for colorectal cancer. We compared the inhibitory effects of curcumin and novel structural analogues, GO-Y030, FLLL-11, and FLLL-12, in three independent human colorectal cancer cell lines, SW480, HT-29, and HCT116. MTT cell viability assay was used to examine the cell viability/proliferation and western blots were used to determine the level of PARP cleavages. Half-Maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 ) were calculated using Sigma Plot 9.0 software. Curcumin inhibited cell viability in all three of the human colorectal cancer cell lines studied with IC 50 values ranging between 10.26 μM and 13.31 μM. GO-Y030, FLLL-11, and FLLL-12 were more potent than curcumin in the inhibition of cell viability in these three human colorectal cancer cell lines with IC 50 values ranging between 0.51 μM and 4.48 μM. In addition, FLLL-11 and FLLL-12 exhibit low toxicity to WI-38 normal human lung fibroblasts with an IC-50 value greater than 1,000 μM. GO-Y030, FLLL-11, and FLLL-12 are also more potent than curcumin in the induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by cleaved PARP and cleaved caspase-3 in all three human colorectal cancer cell lines studied. The results indicate that the three curcumin analogues studied exhibit more potent inhibitory activity than curcumin in human colorectal cancer cells. Thus, they may have translational potential as chemopreventive or therapeutic agents for colorectal carcinoma

  1. Maraviroc (UK-427,857), a Potent, Orally Bioavailable, and Selective Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Chemokine Receptor CCR5 with Broad-Spectrum Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Dorr, Patrick; Westby, Mike; Dobbs, Susan; Griffin, Paul; Irvine, Becky; Macartney, Malcolm; Mori, Julie; Rickett, Graham; Smith-Burchnell, Caroline; Napier, Carolyn; Webster, Rob; Armour, Duncan; Price, David; Stammen, Blanda; Wood, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    Maraviroc (UK-427,857) is a selective CCR5 antagonist with potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) activity and favorable pharmacological properties. Maraviroc is the product of a medicinal chemistry effort initiated following identification of an imidazopyridine CCR5 ligand from a high-throughput screen of the Pfizer compound file. Maraviroc demonstrated potent antiviral activity against all CCR5-tropic HIV-1 viruses tested, including 43 primary isolates from various clades a...

  2. Structural insights into the anti-HIV activity of the Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin homolog lectin family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koharudin, Leonardus M I; Kollipara, Sireesha; Aiken, Christopher; Gronenborn, Angela M

    2012-09-28

    Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin homolog (OAAH) proteins belong to a recently discovered lectin family. All members contain a sequence repeat of ~66 amino acids, with the number of repeats varying among different family members. Apart from data for the founding member OAA, neither three-dimensional structures, information about carbohydrate binding specificities, nor antiviral activity data have been available up to now for any other members of the OAAH family. To elucidate the structural basis for the antiviral mechanism of OAAHs, we determined the crystal structures of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Myxococcus xanthus lectins. Both proteins exhibit the same fold, resembling the founding family member, OAA, with minor differences in loop conformations. Carbohydrate binding studies by NMR and x-ray structures of glycan-lectin complexes reveal that the number of sugar binding sites corresponds to the number of sequence repeats in each protein. As for OAA, tight and specific binding to α3,α6-mannopentaose was observed. All the OAAH proteins described here exhibit potent anti-HIV activity at comparable levels. Altogether, our results provide structural details of the protein-carbohydrate interaction for this novel lectin family and insights into the molecular basis of their HIV inactivation properties.

  3. Discovery of natural mouse serum derived HIV-1 entry inhibitor(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, M; Chen, Y; Xi, J; Ru, S; Ji, M; Zhang, D; Fang, Q; Tang, B

    Among rationally designed human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) inhibitors, diverse natural factors have showed as potent anti-HIV activity in human blood. We have discovered that the boiled supernatant of healthy mouse serum could suppress HIV-1 entry, and exhibited reduced inhibitory activity after trypsin digestion. Further analysis demonstrated that only the fraction containing 10-25 K proteins could inhibit HIV-1 mediated cell-cell fusion. These results suggest that the 10-25 K protein(s) is novel natural HIV-1 entry inhibitor(s). Our findings provide important information about novel natural HIV entry inhibitors in mouse serum.

  4. Anti-HIV-1 activities of the extracts from the medicinal plant Linum grandiflorum Desf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammed, Magdy M. D.; Christensen, Lars Porskjær; Ibrahim, Nabaweya A.

    2009-01-01

    As part of our screening of anti-AIDS agents from natural sources e.g. Ixora undulata, Paulownia tomentosa, Fortunella margarita, Aegle marmelos and Erythrina abyssinica, the different organic and aqueous extracts of Linum grandiflorum leaves and seeds were evaluated in vitro by the microculture...... tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The activity of the tested extracts against multiplication of HIV-1 wild type IIIB, N119, A17, and EFVR in acutely infected cells was based on inhibition of virus-induced cytopathicity in MT-4 cells. Results revealed that both the MeOH and the CHCl3 extracts of L. grandiflorum have...... significant inhibitory effects against HIV-1 induced infection with MT-4 cells. The MeOH extract of the leaves is more potent than other extracts against MT-4 cell cultures infected with the wild type HIV-1, strain IIIB with an ED50 of 46 ± 6 µM, while the CHCl3 extract of the seeds is more potent than other...

  5. Nullbasic, a potent anti-HIV tat mutant, induces CRM1-dependent disruption of HIV rev trafficking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Hsuan Lin

    Full Text Available Nullbasic, a mutant of the HIV-1 Tat protein, has anti-HIV-1 activity through mechanisms that include inhibition of Rev function and redistribution of the HIV-1 Rev protein from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. Here we investigate the mechanism of this effect for the first time, establishing that redistribution of Rev by Nullbasic is not due to direct interaction between the two proteins. Rather, Nullbasic affects subcellular localization of cellular proteins that regulate Rev trafficking. In particular, Nullbasic induced redistribution of exportin 1 (CRM1, nucleophosmin (B23 and nucleolin (C23 from the nucleolus to the nucleus when Rev was coexpressed, but never in its absence. Inhibition of the Rev:CRM1 interaction by leptomycin B or a non-interacting RevM10 mutant completely blocked redistribution of Rev by Nullbasic. Finally, Nullbasic did not inhibit importin β- or transportin 1-mediated nuclear import, suggesting that cytoplasmic accumulation of Rev was due to increased export by CRM1. Overall, our data support the conclusion that CRM1-dependent subcellular redistribution of Rev from the nucleolus by Nullbasic is not through general perturbation of either nuclear import or export. Rather, Nullbasic appears to interact with and disrupt specific components of a Rev trafficking complex required for its nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and, in particular, its nucleolar accumulation.

  6. Database-Guided Discovery of Potent Peptides to Combat HIV-1 or Superbugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangshun Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, small host defense proteins, are indispensable for the protection of multicellular organisms such as plants and animals from infection. The number of AMPs discovered per year increased steadily since the 1980s. Over 2,000 natural AMPs from bacteria, protozoa, fungi, plants, and animals have been registered into the antimicrobial peptide database (APD. The majority of these AMPs (>86% possess 11–50 amino acids with a net charge from 0 to +7 and hydrophobic percentages between 31–70%. This article summarizes peptide discovery on the basis of the APD. The major methods are the linguistic model, database screening, de novo design, and template-based design. Using these methods, we identified various potent peptides against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. While the stepwise designed anti-HIV peptide is disulfide-linked and rich in arginines, the ab initio designed anti-MRSA peptide is linear and rich in leucines. Thus, there are different requirements for antiviral and antibacterial peptides, which could kill pathogens via different molecular targets. The biased amino acid composition in the database-designed peptides, or natural peptides such as θ-defensins, requires the use of the improved two-dimensional NMR method for structural determination to avoid the publication of misleading structure and dynamics. In the case of human cathelicidin LL-37, structural determination requires 3D NMR techniques. The high-quality structure of LL-37 provides a solid basis for understanding its interactions with membranes of bacteria and other pathogens. In conclusion, the APD database is a comprehensive platform for storing, classifying, searching, predicting, and designing potent peptides against pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and cancer cells.

  7. Picomolar dichotomous activity of gnidimacrin against HIV-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Huang

    Full Text Available Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has offered a promising approach for controlling HIV-1 replication in infected individuals. However, with HARRT, HIV-1 is suppressed rather than eradicated due to persistence of HIV-1 in latent viral reservoirs. Thus, purging the virus from latent reservoirs is an important strategy toward eradicating HIV-1 infection. In this study, we discovered that the daphnane diterpene gnidimacrin, which was previously reported to have potent anti-cancer cell activity, activated HIV-1 replication and killed persistently-infected cells at picomolar concentrations. In addition to its potential to purge HIV-1 from latently infected cells, gnidimacrin potently inhibited a panel of HIV-1 R5 virus infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs at an average concentration lower than 10 pM. In contrast, gnidimacrin only partially inhibited HIV-1 ×4 virus infection of PBMCs. The strong anti-HIV-1 R5 virus activity of gnidimacrin was correlated with its effect on down-regulation of the HIV-1 coreceptor CCR5. The anti-R5 virus activity of gnidimacrin was completely abrogated by a selective protein kinase C beta inhibitor enzastaurin, which suggests that protein kinase C beta plays a key role in the potent anti-HIV-1 activity of gnidimacrin in PBMCs. In summary, these results suggest that gnidimacrin could activate latent HIV-1, specifically kill HIV-1 persistently infected cells, and inhibit R5 viruses at picomolar concentrations.

  8. Quarter Century of Anti-HIV CAR T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Thor A

    2018-04-01

    A therapy that might cure HIV is a very important goal for the 30-40 million people living with HIV. Chimeric antigen receptor T cells have recently had remarkable success against certain leukemias, and there are reasons to believe they could be successful for HIV. This manuscript summarizes the published research on HIV CAR T cells and reviews the current anti-HIV chimeric antigen receptor strategies. Research on anti-HIV chimeric antigen receptor T cells has been going on for at least the last 25 years. First- and second-generation anti-HIV chimeric antigen receptors have been developed. First-generation anti-HIV chimeric antigen receptors were studied in clinical trials more than 15 years ago, but did not have meaningful clinical efficacy. There are some reasons to be optimistic about second-generation anti-HIV chimeric antigen receptor T cells, but they have not yet been tested in vivo.

  9. Discovery of novel piperidine-substituted indolylarylsulfones as potent HIV NNRTIs via structure-guided scaffold morphing and fragment rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Gao, Ping; Huang, Boshi; Zhou, Zhongxia; Yu, Zhao; Yuan, Zheng; Liu, Huiqing; Pannecouque, Christophe; Daelemans, Dirk; De Clercq, Erik; Zhan, Peng; Liu, Xinyong

    2017-01-27

    To further explore the chemical space around the entrance channel of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT), a series of novel indolylarylsulfones (IASs) bearing N-substituted piperidine at indole-2-carboxamide were identified as potent HIV NNRTIs by structure-guided scaffold morphing and fragment rearrangement. All the IASs exhibited moderate to excellent potency against wild-type HIV-1 with EC 50 values ranging from 0.62 μM to 0.006 μM 8 (EC 50  = 6 nM) and 18 (EC 50  = 9 nM) were identified as the most potent compounds, which were more active than NVP and DLV, and reached the same order of EFV and ETV. Furthermore, most compounds maintained high activity agaist various single HIV-1 mutants (L100I, K103N, E138K, Y181C) as well as one double mutant (F227L/V106A) with EC 50 values in low-micromolar to double-digit nanomolar concentration ranges. Especially, 8 displayed outstanding potency against L100I (EC 50  = 17 nM with a 2.8-fold resistance ratio) and 18 was relatively more potent to E138K mutant (EC 50  = 43 nM with a 4.7-fold resistance ratio). Preliminary SARs and molecular modeling studies were also discussed in detail, which may provide valuable insights for further optimization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis and biological properties of novel 2-aminopyrimidin-4(3H)-ones highly potent against HIV-1 mutant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Antonello; Artico, Marino; Rotili, Dante; Tarantino, Domenico; Clotet-Codina, Imma; Armand-Ugón, Mercedes; Ragno, Rino; Simeoni, Silvia; Sbardella, Gianluca; Nawrozkij, Maxim B; Samuele, Alberta; Maga, Giovanni; Esté, José A

    2007-11-01

    Following the disclosure of dihydro-alkoxy-, dihydro-alkylthio-, and dihydro-alkylamino-benzyl-oxopyrimidines (DABOs, S-DABOs, and NH-DABOs) as potent and selective anti-HIV-1 agents belonging to the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) class, we report here the synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel series of DABOs bearing a N,N-disubstituted amino group or a cyclic amine at the pyrimidine-C2 position, a hydrogen atom or a small alkyl group at C5 and/or at the benzylic position, and the favorable 2,6-difluorobenzyl moiety at the C6 position (F2-N,N-DABOs). The new compounds were highly active up to the subnanomolar level against both wt HIV-1 and the Y181C mutant and at the submicromolar to nanomolar range against the K103N and Y188L mutant strains. Such derivatives were more potent than S-DABOs, NH-DABOs, and nevirapine and efavirenz were chosen as reference drugs. The higher inhibitor adaptability to the HIV-1 RT non-nucleoside binding site (NNBS) may account for the higher inhibitory effect exerted by the new molecules against the mutated RTs.

  11. Altertoxins with potent anti-HIV activity from Alternaria tenuissima QUE1Se, a fungal endophyte of Quercus emoryi

    OpenAIRE

    Bashyal, Bharat P.; Wellensiek, Brian P.; Ramakrishnan, Rajesh; Faeth, Stanley H.; Ahmad, Nafees; Leslie Gunatilaka, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Screening of a small library of natural product extracts derived from endophytic fungi of the Sonoran desert plants in a cell-based anti-HIV assay involving T-cells infected with the HIV-1 virus identified the EtOAc extract of a fermentation broth of Alternaria tenuissima QUE1Se inhabiting the stem tissue of Quercus emoryi as a promising candidate for further investigation. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation and identification of two new metabolites, alterto...

  12. Synergistic activity profile of carbosilane dendrimer G2-STE16 in combination with other dendrimers and antiretrovirals as topical anti-HIV-1 microbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda-Crespo, Daniel; Lorente, Raquel; Leal, Manuel; Gómez, Rafael; De la Mata, Francisco J; Jiménez, José Luis; Muñoz-Fernández, M Ángeles

    2014-04-01

    Polyanionic carbosilane dendrimers represent opportunities to develop new anti-HIV microbicides. Dendrimers and antiretrovirals (ARVs) acting at different stages of HIV replication have been proposed as compounds to decrease new HIV infections. Thus, we determined the potential use of our G2-STE16 carbosilane dendrimer in combination with other carbosilane dendrimers and ARVs for the use as topical microbicide against HIV-1. We showed that these combinations obtained 100% inhibition and displayed a synergistic profile against different HIV-1 isolates in our model of TZM.bl cells. Our results also showed their potent activity in the presence of an acidic vaginal or seminal fluid environment and did not activate an inflammatory response. This study is the first step toward exploring the use of different anionic carbosilane dendrimers in combination and toward making a safe microbicide. Therefore, our results support further studies on dendrimer/dendrimer or dendrimer/ARV combinations as topical anti-HIV-1 microbicide. This paper describes the first steps toward the use of anionic carbosilane dendrimers in combination with antivirals to address HIV-1, paving the way to further studies on dendrimer/dendrimer or dendrimer/ARV combinations as topical anti-HIV-1 microbicides. © 2014.

  13. Creation of chimeric human/rabbit APOBEC1 with HIV-1 restriction and DNA mutation activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Terumasa; Ong, Eugene Boon Beng; Watanabe, Nobumoto; Sakaguchi, Nobuo; Maeda, Kazuhiko; Koito, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    APOBEC1 (A1) proteins from lagomorphs and rodents have deaminase-dependent restriction activity against HIV-1, whereas human A1 exerts a negligible effect. To investigate these differences in the restriction of HIV-1 by A1 proteins, a series of chimeric proteins combining rabbit and human A1s was constructed. Homology models of the A1s indicated that their activities derive from functional domains that likely act in tandem through a dimeric interface. The C-terminal region containing the leucine-rich motif and the dimerization domains of rabbit A1 is important for its anti-HIV-1 activity. The A1 chimeras with strong anti-HIV-1 activity were incorporated into virions more efficiently than those without anti-HIV-1 activity, and exhibited potent DNA-mutator activity. Therefore, the C-terminal region of rabbit A1 is involved in both its packaging into the HIV-1 virion and its deamination activity against both viral cDNA and genomic RNA. This study identifies the novel molecular mechanism underlying the target specificity of A1.

  14. Prospects for Foamy Viral Vector Anti-HIV Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun K. Nalla

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell gene therapy approaches for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection have been explored in clinical trials and several anti-HIV genes delivered by retroviral vectors were shown to block HIV replication. However, gammaretroviral and lentiviral based retroviral vectors have limitations for delivery of anti-HIV genes into hematopoietic stem cells (HSC. Foamy virus vectors have several advantages including efficient delivery of transgenes into HSC in large animal models, and a potentially safer integration profile. This review focuses on novel anti-HIV transgenes and the potential of foamy virus vectors for HSC gene therapy of HIV.

  15. Bicyclams, selective antagonists of the human chemokine receptor CXCR4, potently inhibit feline immunodeficiency virus replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Egberink, H.F.; Clercq, E. de; Vliet, A.L.W. van; Balzarini, J.; Bridger, G.J.; Henson, G.; Schols, D.

    1999-01-01

    Bicyclams are low-molecular-weight anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) agents that have been shown to act as potent and selective CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) antagonists. Here, we demonstrate that bicyclams are potent inhibitors of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) replication when

  16. The pharmacological profile of CGP 28238, a novel highly potent anti-inflammatory compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesenberg-Boettcher, I; Schweizer, A; Green, J R; Mueller, K; Maerki, F; Pfeilschifter, J

    1989-01-01

    CGP 28238 (6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-5-methylsulfonylamino-1-indanone ) exhibits very potent anti-inflammatory activity in rat adjuvant arthritis (ED40 = 0.05 mg/kg, p.o.) and pronounced analgesic and antipyretic activity in acute models in mice and rats (ED50 2-5 mg/kg, p.o.), but has clear advantages over reference NSAIDs with respect to gastro-intestinal tolerability. Threshold doses for gastro-intestinal ulcerogenicity in rats after single and repeated (10x) doses were found to be 30 mg/kg, p.o., and prostaglandin (PGE2) production in rat gastric and ileal mucosa was only marginally inhibited (ED50 greater than 30 mg/kg, p.o.). On the other hand, PGE2 production in rat inflammatory exudate and thromboxane synthesis in rat blood were inhibited with ED50 values of less than or equal to 2 mg/kg, p.o. Although CGP28238 does not inhibit cyclooxygenase in bovine seminal vesicle microsomal preparations (IC50 greater than 10(-3) mol/l), potent inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis was shown in various in vitro systems using human and animal cells with IC50 values of less than 10(-6) mol/l. IL-1-stimulated bone resorption and PGE2 production in murine calvarial cultures were inhibited with IC50 values of 3 x 10(-7) and 2 x 10(-8) mol/l, respectively. 5-Lipoxygenase (murine macrophages), phospholipase A2 (human PMN) and phospholipase C (human platelets) were not inhibited. CGP 28238 may represent a novel highly potent anti-inflammatory compound with improved gastro-intestinal safety.

  17. High-Mannose Specific Lectin and Its Recombinants from a Carrageenophyta Kappaphycus alvarezii Represent a Potent Anti-HIV Activity Through High-Affinity Binding to the Viral Envelope Glycoprotein gp120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Makoto; Shibata, Hiromi; Imamura, Koji; Sakaguchi, Takemasa; Hori, Kanji

    2016-02-01

    We previously reported that a high-mannose binding lectin KAA-2 from the red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii, which is an economically important species and widely cultivated as a source of carrageenans, had a potent anti-influenza virus activity. In this study, the full-length sequences of two KAA isoforms, KAA-1 and KAA-2, were elucidated by a combination of peptide mapping and complementary DNA (cDNA) cloning. They consisted of four internal tandem-repeated domains, which are conserved in high-mannose specific lectins from lower organisms, including a cyanobacterium Oscillatoria agardhii and a red alga Eucheuma serra. Using an Escherichia coli expression system, an active recombinant form of KAA-1 (His-tagged rKAA-1) was successfully generated in the yield of 115 mg per liter of culture. In a detailed oligosaccharide binding analysis by a centrifugal ultrafiltration-HPLC method with 27 pyridylaminated oligosaccharides, His-tagged rKAA-1 and rKAA-1 specifically bound to high-mannose N-glycans with an exposed α1-3 mannose in the D2 arm as the native lectin did. Predicted from oligosaccharide binding specificity, a surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that the recombinants exhibit strong interaction with gp120, a heavily glycosylated envelope glycoprotein of HIV with high association constants (1.48 - 1.61 × 10(9) M(-1)). Native KAAs and the recombinants inhibited the HIV-1 entry at IC50s of low nanomolar levels (7.3-12.9 nM). Thus, the recombinant proteins would be useful as antiviral reagents targeting the viral surface glycoproteins with high-mannose N-glycans, and the cultivated alga K. alvarezii could also be a good source of not only carrageenans but also this functional lectin(s).

  18. An anti-HIV microbicide engineered in commensal bacteria: secretion of HIV-1 fusion inhibitors by lactobacilli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pusch, O.; Kalyanaraman, R.; Tucker, L.D.; Wells, J.; Rmanratnam, B.; Boden, D.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To engineer Lactobacillus spp. to secrete HIV-1 fusion inhibitors with potent neutralizing activity against primary HIV-1 isolates. Methods: HIV-1 fusion inhibitors (FI-1, FI-2, and FI-3) were introduced into the previously developed shuttle vector pTSV2 and transformed in L. plantarum

  19. Anti-topoisomerase drugs as potent inducers of chromosomal aberrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Bassi

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA topoisomerases catalyze topological changes in DNA that are essential for normal cell cycle progression and therefore they are a preferential target for the development of anticancer drugs. Anti-topoisomerase drugs can be divided into two main classes: "cleavable complex" poisons and catalytic inhibitors. The "cleavable complex" poisons are very effective as anticancer drugs but are also potent inducers of chromosome aberrations so they can cause secondary malignancies. Catalytic inhibitors are cytotoxic but they do not induce chromosome aberrations. Knowledge about the mechanism of action of topoisomerase inhibitors is important to determine the best anti-topoisomerase combinations, with a reduced risk of induction of secondary malignancies.As topoisomerases de DNA catalisam alterações topológicas no DNA que são essenciais para a progressão do ciclo celular normal e, portanto, são um alvo preferencial para o desenvolvimento de drogas anticâncer. Drogas anti-topoisomerases podem ser divididas em duas classes principais: drogas anti-"complexos cliváveis" e inibidores catalíticos. As drogas anti-"complexos cliváveis" são muito eficazes como drogas anticancerígenas, mas são também potentes indutores de aberrações cromossômicas, podendo causar neoplasias malignas secundárias. Inibidores catalíticos são citotóxicos mas não induzem aberrações cromossômicas. Conhecimento a respeito do mecanismo de ação de inibidores de topoisomerases é importante para determinar as melhores combinações anti-topoisomerases, com um reduzido risco de indução de neoplasias malignas secundárias.

  20. Design, synthesis and evaluation of a potent substrate analog inhibitor identified by scanning Ala/Phe mutagenesis, mimicking substrate co-evolution, against multidrug-resistant HIV-1 protease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yedidi, Ravikiran S. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Muhuhi, Joseck M. [Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Liu, Zhigang [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Bencze, Krisztina Z. [Department of Chemistry, Fort Hays State University, Hays, KS 67601 (United States); Koupparis, Kyriacos [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); O’Connor, Carrie E.; Kovari, Iulia A. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Spaller, Mark R. [Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Kovari, Ladislau C., E-mail: kovari@med.wayne.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Inhibitors against MDR HIV-1 protease were designed, synthesized and evaluated. •Lead peptide (6a) showed potent inhibition (IC{sub 50}: 4.4 nM) of MDR HIV-1 protease. •(6a) Showed favorable binding isotherms against NL4-3 and MDR proteases. •(6a) Induced perturbations in the {sup 15}N-HSQC spectrum of MDR HIV-1 protease. •Molecular modeling suggested that (6a) may induce total flap closure inMDR protease. -- Abstract: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) clinical isolate-769, human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) protease (PDB ID: (1TW7)), was shown to exhibit wide-open flaps and an expanded active site cavity, causing loss of contacts with protease inhibitors. In the current study, the expanded active site cavity of MDR769 HIV-1 protease was screened with a series of peptide-inhibitors that were designed to mimic the natural substrate cleavage site, capsid/p2. Scanning Ala/Phe chemical mutagenesis approach was incorporated into the design of the peptide series to mimic the substrate co-evolution. Among the peptides synthesized and evaluated, a lead peptide (6a) with potent activity (IC{sub 50}: 4.4 nM) was identified against the MDR769 HIV-1 protease. Isothermal titration calorimetry data showed favorable binding profile for 6aagainst both wild type and MDR769 HIV-1 protease variants. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of {sup 15}N-labeled MDR769 HIV-1 protease in complex with 6a showed some major perturbations in chemical shift, supporting the peptide induced conformational changes in protease. Modeling analysis revealed multiple contacts between 6a and MDR769 HIV-1 protease. The lead peptide-inhibitor, 6a, with high potency and good binding profile can be used as the basis for developing potent small molecule inhibitors against MDR variants of HIV.

  1. Design, synthesis and evaluation of a potent substrate analog inhibitor identified by scanning Ala/Phe mutagenesis, mimicking substrate co-evolution, against multidrug-resistant HIV-1 protease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yedidi, Ravikiran S.; Muhuhi, Joseck M.; Liu, Zhigang; Bencze, Krisztina Z.; Koupparis, Kyriacos; O’Connor, Carrie E.; Kovari, Iulia A.; Spaller, Mark R.; Kovari, Ladislau C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Inhibitors against MDR HIV-1 protease were designed, synthesized and evaluated. •Lead peptide (6a) showed potent inhibition (IC 50 : 4.4 nM) of MDR HIV-1 protease. •(6a) Showed favorable binding isotherms against NL4-3 and MDR proteases. •(6a) Induced perturbations in the 15 N-HSQC spectrum of MDR HIV-1 protease. •Molecular modeling suggested that (6a) may induce total flap closure inMDR protease. -- Abstract: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) clinical isolate-769, human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) protease (PDB ID: (1TW7)), was shown to exhibit wide-open flaps and an expanded active site cavity, causing loss of contacts with protease inhibitors. In the current study, the expanded active site cavity of MDR769 HIV-1 protease was screened with a series of peptide-inhibitors that were designed to mimic the natural substrate cleavage site, capsid/p2. Scanning Ala/Phe chemical mutagenesis approach was incorporated into the design of the peptide series to mimic the substrate co-evolution. Among the peptides synthesized and evaluated, a lead peptide (6a) with potent activity (IC 50 : 4.4 nM) was identified against the MDR769 HIV-1 protease. Isothermal titration calorimetry data showed favorable binding profile for 6aagainst both wild type and MDR769 HIV-1 protease variants. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of 15 N-labeled MDR769 HIV-1 protease in complex with 6a showed some major perturbations in chemical shift, supporting the peptide induced conformational changes in protease. Modeling analysis revealed multiple contacts between 6a and MDR769 HIV-1 protease. The lead peptide-inhibitor, 6a, with high potency and good binding profile can be used as the basis for developing potent small molecule inhibitors against MDR variants of HIV

  2. Anti-HIV Antibody Responses and the HIV Reservoir Size during Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulggi A Lee

    Full Text Available A major challenge to HIV eradication strategies is the lack of an accurate measurement of the total burden of replication-competent HIV (the "reservoir". We assessed the association of anti-HIV antibody responses and the estimated size of the reservoir during antiretroviral therapy (ART.We evaluated anti-HIV antibody profiles using luciferase immunoprecipitation systems (LIPS assay in relation to several blood-based HIV reservoir measures: total and 2-LTR DNA (rtPCR or droplet digital PCR; integrated DNA (Alu PCR; unspliced RNA (rtPCR, multiply-spliced RNA (TILDA, residual plasma HIV RNA (single copy PCR, and replication-competent virus (outgrowth assay. We also assessed total HIV DNA and RNA in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (rtPCR. Spearman correlations and linear regressions were performed using log-transformed blood- or tissue-based reservoir measurements as predictors and log-transformed antibody levels as outcome variables.Among 51 chronically HIV-infected ART-suppressed participants (median age = 57, nadir CD4+ count = 196 cells/mm3, ART duration = 9 years, the most statistically significant associations were between antibody responses to integrase and HIV RNA in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (1.17 fold-increase per two-fold RNA increase, P = 0.004 and between antibody responses to matrix and integrated HIV DNA in resting CD4+ T cells (0.35 fold-decrease per two-fold DNA increase, P = 0.003. However, these associations were not statistically significant after a stringent Bonferroni-adjustment of P<0.00045. Multivariate models including age and duration of ART did not markedly alter results.Our findings suggest that anti-HIV antibody responses may reflect the size of the HIV reservoir during chronic treated HIV disease, possibly via antigen recognition in reservoir sites. Larger, prospective studies are needed to validate the utility of antibody levels as a measure of the total body burden of HIV during treatment.

  3. Seropositivity of HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV in preoperative patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrin Karaayak Uzun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The infections caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B (HBV and C (HCV viruses pose a serious occupational risk for the healthcare workers especially those in emergency services, laboratories and surgery wards. Vaccination and establishment of the strict biosafety procedures are the main principles to prevent blood-borne infections in healthcare workers. Additionally, serological screening of the preoperative patients could decrease the risk for exposure. In this study, we aimed to determine the seroprevalence of HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV 1/2 in preoperative patients. Methods: Hospital automation records were evaluated retrospectively for 4.367 patients who were scheduled for surgery and scanned for anti-HIV 1/2, HBsAg and anti-HCV as preoperative procedures in the preparation period of operation between January 2012 and December 2012. Results: HBsAg positivity rate was found in 7.7% (n=336, anti-HCV positivity rate was found in 2.3% (n=101. A two (0.05% of five patients were positive for anti-HIV 1/2 was found positive verification test and the other three samples were accepted as false positive test results. Conclusion: All healthcare workers must be trained about occupational diseases and vaccinated against Hepatitis B. Universal precautions must be strictly followed particularly in the operating room. In addition, all patients should be considered as potential carriers regarded as a carrier of the potential for infection. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (4: 449-452

  4. Enhanced anti-HIV-1 activity of G-quadruplexes comprising locked nucleic acids and intercalating nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Erik Bjerregaard; Nielsen, Jakob Toudahl; Nielsen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Two G-quadruplex forming sequences, 50-TGGGAG and the 17-mer sequence T30177, which exhibit anti-HIV-1 activity on cell lines, were modified using either locked nucleic acids (LNA) or via insertions of (R)-1-O-(pyren-1-ylmethyl)glycerol (intercalating nucleic acid, INA) or (R)-1-O-[4-(1......-pyrenylethynyl)phenylmethyl]glycerol (twisted intercalating nucleic acid, TINA). Incorporation of LNA or INA/TINA monomers provide as much as 8-fold improvement of anti-HIV-1 activity. We demonstrate for the first time a detailed analysis of the effect the incorporation of INA/TINA monomers in quadruplex forming...

  5. Novel Bifunctional Quinolonyl Diketo Acid Derivatives as HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors: Design, Synthesis, Biological Activities and Mechanism of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Santo, Roberto; Costi, Roberta; Roux, Alessandra; Artico, Marino; Lavecchia, Antonio; Marinelli, Luciana; Novellino, Ettore; Palmisano, Lucia; Andreotti, Mauro; Amici, Roberta; Galluzzo, Clementina Maria; Nencioni, Lucia; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Pommier, Yves; Marchand, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    The virally encoded integrase protein is an essential enzyme in the life cycle of the HIV-1 virus and represents an attractive and validated target in the development of therapeutics against HIV infection. Drugs that selectively inhibit this enzyme, when used in combination with inhibitors of reverse transcriptase and protease, are believed to be highly effective in suppressing the viral replication. Among the HIV-1 integrase inhibitors, the β-diketo acids (DKAs) represent a major lead for anti-HIV-1drug development. In this study, novel bifunctional quinolonyl diketo acid derivatives were designed, synthesized and tested for their inhibitory ability against HIV-1 integrase. The compounds are potent inhibitors of integrase activity. Particularly, derivative 8 is a potent IN inhibitor for both steps of the reaction (3′-processing and strand transfer) and exhibits both high antiviral activity against HIV-1 infected cells and low cytotoxicity. Molecular modeling studies provide a plausible mechanism of action, which is consistent with ligand SARs and enzyme photo-crosslinking experiments. PMID:16539381

  6. Evaluation of HBsAg and anti-HBc assays in saliva and dried blood spot samples according HIV status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Geane Lopes; Cruz, Helena Medina; Potsch, Denise Vigo; May, Silvia Beatriz; Brandão-Mello, Carlos Eduardo; Pires, Marcia Maria Amendola; Pilotto, Jose Henrique; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia Laura; Lampe, Elisabeth; Villar, Livia Melo

    2017-09-01

    Influence of HIV status in HBV markers detection in saliva and dried blood spots (DBS) was not well established. This study aims to evaluate the performance of optimized commercial immunoassay for identifying HBsAg and anti-HBc in saliva and DBS according HIV status. A sum of 535 individuals grouped as HIV + , HBV + , HIV/HBV + and HIV/HBV- were recruited where 347 and 188 were included for HBsAg and anti-HBc evaluation, respectively. Serum, DBS collected in Whatman 903 paper and saliva obtained using salivette device were analyzed using EIA. Increased sample volume and ROC curve analysis for cut off determination were used for DBS and saliva testing. HBsAg detection in saliva and DBS exhibited sensitivities of 80.9% and 85.6% and specificities of 86.8% and 96.3%. Sensitivity of anti-HBc in saliva and DBS were 82.4% and 76.9% and specificities in saliva and DBS were 96.9% and 91.7%. Low sensitivities were observed for HBsAg (62%) and anti-HBc (47%) detection in saliva of HIV/HBV+ individuals. OD values were also lower for HBsAg detection in DBS and saliva of HIV/HBV+ individuals compared to their serum samples. Statistical significance was found for sensitivities in HBsAg detection between saliva and DBS demonstrating high sensitivity for DBS specimens. In conclusion, HIV status or antiretroviral treatment appears to interfere in the performance of HBsAg and anti-HBc detection in DBS and saliva samples using the adapted commercial EIA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Broad, Intense Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Ex Vivo CD8+ Responses in HIV Type 1-Infected Patients: Comparison with Anti-Epstein-Barr Virus Responses and Changes during Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalod, Marc; Dupuis, Marion; Deschemin, Jean-Christophe; Sicard, Didier; Salmon, Dominique; Delfraissy, Jean-Francois; Venet, Alain; Sinet, Martine; Guillet, Jean-Gerard

    1999-01-01

    The ex vivo antiviral CD8+ repertoires of 34 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive patients with various CD4+ T-cell counts and virus loads were analyzed by gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunospot assay, using peptides derived from HIV type 1 and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Most patients recognized many HIV peptides, with markedly high frequencies, in association with all the HLA class I molecules tested. We found no correlation between the intensity of anti-HIV CD8+ responses and the CD4+ counts or virus load. In contrast, the polyclonality of anti-HIV CD8+ responses was positively correlated with the CD4+ counts. The anti-EBV responses were significantly less intense than the anti-HIV responses and were positively correlated with the CD4+ counts. Longitudinal follow-up of several patients revealed the remarkable stability of the anti-HIV and anti-EBV CD8+ responses in two patients with stable CD4+ counts, while both antiviral responses decreased in two patients with obvious progression toward disease. Last, highly active antiretroviral therapy induced marked decreases in the number of anti-HIV CD8+ T cells, while the anti-EBV responses increased. These findings emphasize the magnitude of the ex vivo HIV-specific CD8+ responses at all stages of HIV infection and suggest that the CD8+ hyperlymphocytosis commonly observed in HIV infection is driven mainly by virus replication, through intense, continuous activation of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells until ultimate progression toward disease. Nevertheless, highly polyclonal anti-HIV CD8+ responses may be associated with a better clinical status. Our data also suggest that a decrease of anti-EBV CD8+ responses may occur with depletion of CD4+ T cells, but this could be restored by highly active antiretroviral treatment. PMID:10438796

  8. Fluorine Substituted 1,2,4-Triazinones as Potential Anti-HIV-1 and CDK2 Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed S. I. Makki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorine substituted 1,2,4-triazinones have been synthesized via alkylation, amination, and/or oxidation of 6-(2-amino-5-fluorophenyl-3-thioxo-3,4-dihydro-1,2,4-triazin-5(2H-one 1 and 4-fluoro-N-(4-fluoro-2-(5-oxo-3-thioxo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1,2,4-triazin-6-ylphenylbenzamide 5 as possible anti-HIV-1 and CDK2 inhibitors. Alkylation on positions 2 and 4 in 1,2,4-triazinone gave compounds 6–8. Further modification was performed by selective alkylation and amination on position 3 to form compounds 9–15. However oxidation of 5 yielded compounds 16–18. Structures of the target compounds have been established by spectral analysis data. Five compounds (5, 11, 14, 16, and 17 have shown very good anti-HIV activity in MT-4 cells. Similarly, five compounds (1, 3, and 14–16 have exhibited very significant CDK2 inhibition activity. Compounds 14 and 16 were found to have dual anti-HIV and anticancer activities.

  9. Secapin, a bee venom peptide, exhibits anti-fibrinolytic, anti-elastolytic, and anti-microbial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Sik; Kim, Bo Yeon; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Choi, Yong Soo; Jin, Byung Rae

    2016-10-01

    Bee venom contains a variety of peptide constituents that have various biological, toxicological, and pharmacological actions. However, the biological actions of secapin, a venom peptide in bee venom, remain largely unknown. Here, we provide the evidence that Asiatic honeybee (Apis cerana) secapin (AcSecapin-1) exhibits anti-fibrinolytic, anti-elastolytic, and anti-microbial activities. The recombinant mature AcSecapin-1 peptide was expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells. AcSecapin-1 functions as a serine protease inhibitor-like peptide that has inhibitory effects against plasmin, elastases, microbial serine proteases, trypsin, and chymotrypsin. Consistent with these functions, AcSecapin-1 inhibited the plasmin-mediated degradation of fibrin to fibrin degradation products, thus indicating the role of AcSecapin-1 as an anti-fibrinolytic agent. AcSecapin-1 also inhibited both human neutrophil and porcine pancreatic elastases. Furthermore, AcSecapin-1 bound to bacterial and fungal surfaces and exhibited anti-microbial activity against fungi and gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Taken together, our data demonstrated that the bee venom peptide secapin has multifunctional roles as an anti-fibrinolytic agent during fibrinolysis and an anti-microbial agent in the innate immune response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ectopic expression of anti-HIV-1 shRNAs protects CD8+ T cells modified with CD4ζ CAR from HIV-1 infection and alleviates impairment of cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, Masakazu; Kim, Patrick Y.; Ng, Hwee L.; Ringpis, Gene-Errol E.; Kranz, Emiko; Chan, Joshua; O'Connor, Sean; Yang, Otto O.; Chen, Irvin S.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are artificially engineered receptors that confer a desired specificity to immune effector T cells. As an HIV-1-specific CAR, CD4ζ CAR has been extensively tested in vitro as well as in clinical trials. T cells modified with this CAR mediated highly potent anti-HIV-1 activities in vitro and were well-tolerated in vivo, but exerted limited effects on viral load and reservoir size due to poor survival and/or functionality of the transduced cells in patients. We hypothesize that ectopic expression of CD4ζ on CD8 + T cells renders them susceptible to HIV-1 infection, resulting in poor survival of those cells. To test this possibility, highly purified CD8 + T cells were genetically modified with a CD4ζ-encoding lentiviral vector and infected with HIV-1. CD8 + T cells were vulnerable to HIV-1 infection upon expression of CD4ζ as evidenced by elevated levels of p24 Gag in cells and culture supernatants. Concurrently, the number of CD4ζ-modified CD8 + T cells was reduced relative to control cells upon HIV-1 infection. To protect these cells from HIV-1 infection, we co-expressed two anti-HIV-1 shRNAs previously developed by our group together with CD4ζ. This combination vector was able to suppress HIV-1 infection without impairing HIV-1-dependent effector activities of CD4ζ. In addition, the number of CD4ζ-modified CD8 + T cells maintained similar levels to that of the control even under HIV-1 infection. These results suggest that protecting CD4ζ-modified CD8 + T cells from HIV-1 infection is required for prolonged HIV-1-specific immune surveillance. - Highlights: • Ectopic expression of CD4ζ CAR in CD8 + T cells renders them susceptible to HIV-1 infection. • Co-expression of two anti-HIV-1 shRNAs protects CD4ζ CAR-modified CD8 + T cells from HIV-1 infection. • Protecting CD4ζ CAR-modified CD8 + T cells from HIV-1 infection suppresses its cytopathic effect

  11. Anti-HIV activity in cervical-vaginal secretions from HIV-positive and -negative women correlate with innate antimicrobial levels and IgG antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Ghosh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of antimicrobials in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL from HIV(+ and HIV(- women on target cell infection with HIV. Since female reproductive tract (FRT secretions contain a spectrum of antimicrobials, we hypothesized that CVL from healthy HIV(+ and (- women inhibit HIV infection.CVL from 32 HIV(+ healthy women with high CD4 counts and 15 healthy HIV(- women were collected by gently washing the cervicovaginal area with 10 ml of sterile normal saline. Following centrifugation, anti-HIV activity in CVL was determined by incubating CVL with HIV prior to addition to TZM-bl cells. Antimicrobials and anti-gp160 HIV IgG antibodies were measured by ELISA. When CXCR4 and CCR5 tropic HIV-1 were incubated with CVL from HIV(+ women prior to addition to TZM-bl cells, anti-HIV activity in CVL ranged from none to 100% inhibition depending on the viral strains used. CVL from HIV(- controls showed comparable anti-HIV activity. Analysis of CH077.c (clone of an R5-tropic, mucosally-transmitted founder virus viral inhibition by CVL was comparable to laboratory strains. Measurement of CVL for antimicrobials HBD2, trappin-2/elafin, SLPI and MIP3alpha indicated that each was present in CVL from HIV(+ and HIV(- women. HBD2 and MIP3alpha correlated with anti-HIV activity as did anti-gp160 HIV IgG antibodies in CVL from HIV(+ women.These findings indicate that CVL from healthy HIV(+ and HIV(- women contain innate and adaptive defense mechanisms that inhibit HIV infection. Our data suggest that innate endogenous antimicrobials and HIV-specific IgG in the FRT can act in concert to contribute toward the anti-HIV activity of the CVL and may play a role in inhibition of HIV transmission to women.

  12. Ectopic expression of anti-HIV-1 shRNAs protects CD8{sup +} T cells modified with CD4ζ CAR from HIV-1 infection and alleviates impairment of cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamata, Masakazu, E-mail: masa3k@ucla.edu [Division of Hematology-Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kim, Patrick Y. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ng, Hwee L. [Division of Infectious Diseases, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ringpis, Gene-Errol E.; Kranz, Emiko; Chan, Joshua; O' Connor, Sean [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Yang, Otto O. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Division of Infectious Diseases, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); UCLA AIDS Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); AIDS Healthcare Foundation, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chen, Irvin S.Y. [Division of Hematology-Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); UCLA AIDS Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-07-31

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are artificially engineered receptors that confer a desired specificity to immune effector T cells. As an HIV-1-specific CAR, CD4ζ CAR has been extensively tested in vitro as well as in clinical trials. T cells modified with this CAR mediated highly potent anti-HIV-1 activities in vitro and were well-tolerated in vivo, but exerted limited effects on viral load and reservoir size due to poor survival and/or functionality of the transduced cells in patients. We hypothesize that ectopic expression of CD4ζ on CD8{sup +} T cells renders them susceptible to HIV-1 infection, resulting in poor survival of those cells. To test this possibility, highly purified CD8{sup +} T cells were genetically modified with a CD4ζ-encoding lentiviral vector and infected with HIV-1. CD8{sup +} T cells were vulnerable to HIV-1 infection upon expression of CD4ζ as evidenced by elevated levels of p24{sup Gag} in cells and culture supernatants. Concurrently, the number of CD4ζ-modified CD8{sup +} T cells was reduced relative to control cells upon HIV-1 infection. To protect these cells from HIV-1 infection, we co-expressed two anti-HIV-1 shRNAs previously developed by our group together with CD4ζ. This combination vector was able to suppress HIV-1 infection without impairing HIV-1-dependent effector activities of CD4ζ. In addition, the number of CD4ζ-modified CD8{sup +} T cells maintained similar levels to that of the control even under HIV-1 infection. These results suggest that protecting CD4ζ-modified CD8{sup +} T cells from HIV-1 infection is required for prolonged HIV-1-specific immune surveillance. - Highlights: • Ectopic expression of CD4ζ CAR in CD8{sup +} T cells renders them susceptible to HIV-1 infection. • Co-expression of two anti-HIV-1 shRNAs protects CD4ζ CAR-modified CD8{sup +} T cells from HIV-1 infection. • Protecting CD4ζ CAR-modified CD8{sup +} T cells from HIV-1 infection suppresses its cytopathic effect.

  13. A simple, rapid, and sensitive system for the evaluation of anti-viral drugs in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaoguang [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Department of Medical Microbiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Qian, Hua [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Miyamoto, Fusako [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Naito, Takeshi [Laboratory of Virus Control, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaramachi, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Kawaji, Kumi [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Kajiwara, Kazumi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); JST Innovation Plaza Kyoto, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Nishigyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8245 (Japan); Hattori, Toshio [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Matsuoka, Masao [Laboratory of Virus Control, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaramachi, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Watanabe, Kentaro; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); and others

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We established a novel, simple and rapid in vivo system for evaluation of anti-HIV-1 drugs with rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The system may be applicable for other antiviral drugs, and/or useful for initial screening in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this system, TRI-1144 displayed the most potent anti-HIV-1 activity in vivo. -- Abstract: The lack of small animal models for the evaluation of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) agents hampers drug development. Here, we describe the establishment of a simple and rapid evaluation system in a rat model without animal infection facilities. After intraperitoneal administration of test drugs to rats, antiviral activity in the sera was examined by the MAGI assay. Recently developed inhibitors for HIV-1 entry, two CXCR4 antagonists, TF14016 and FC131, and four fusion inhibitors, T-20, T-20EK, SC29EK, and TRI-1144, were evaluated using HIV-1{sub IIIB} and HIV-1{sub BaL} as representative CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic HIV-1 strains, respectively. CXCR4 antagonists were shown to only possess anti-HIV-1{sub IIIB} activity, whereas fusion inhibitors showed both anti-HIV-1{sub IIIB} and anti-HIV-1{sub BaL} activities in rat sera. These results indicate that test drugs were successfully processed into the rat sera and could be detected by the MAGI assay. In this system, TRI-1144 showed the most potent and sustained antiviral activity. Sera from animals not administered drugs showed substantial anti-HIV-1 activity, indicating that relatively high dose or activity of the test drugs might be needed. In conclusion, the novel rat system established here, 'phenotypic drug evaluation', may be applicable for the evaluation of various antiviral drugs in vivo.

  14. A simple, rapid, and sensitive system for the evaluation of anti-viral drugs in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaoguang; Qian, Hua; Miyamoto, Fusako; Naito, Takeshi; Kawaji, Kumi; Kajiwara, Kazumi; Hattori, Toshio; Matsuoka, Masao; Watanabe, Kentaro; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We established a novel, simple and rapid in vivo system for evaluation of anti-HIV-1 drugs with rats. ► The system may be applicable for other antiviral drugs, and/or useful for initial screening in vivo. ► In this system, TRI-1144 displayed the most potent anti-HIV-1 activity in vivo. -- Abstract: The lack of small animal models for the evaluation of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) agents hampers drug development. Here, we describe the establishment of a simple and rapid evaluation system in a rat model without animal infection facilities. After intraperitoneal administration of test drugs to rats, antiviral activity in the sera was examined by the MAGI assay. Recently developed inhibitors for HIV-1 entry, two CXCR4 antagonists, TF14016 and FC131, and four fusion inhibitors, T-20, T-20EK, SC29EK, and TRI-1144, were evaluated using HIV-1 IIIB and HIV-1 BaL as representative CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic HIV-1 strains, respectively. CXCR4 antagonists were shown to only possess anti-HIV-1 IIIB activity, whereas fusion inhibitors showed both anti-HIV-1 IIIB and anti-HIV-1 BaL activities in rat sera. These results indicate that test drugs were successfully processed into the rat sera and could be detected by the MAGI assay. In this system, TRI-1144 showed the most potent and sustained antiviral activity. Sera from animals not administered drugs showed substantial anti-HIV-1 activity, indicating that relatively high dose or activity of the test drugs might be needed. In conclusion, the novel rat system established here, “phenotypic drug evaluation”, may be applicable for the evaluation of various antiviral drugs in vivo.

  15. Accuracy of different thresholds for the anti-HIV avidity index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Galli

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance programs for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection are based on the reporting of newly diagnosed cases. In order to guarantee a more accurate estimate of the trends and behaviours of infected people, simple and reliable methods aimed at identifying recent (< 6 months HIV infections are needed. We evaluated the accuracy of the avidity index (AI of anti-HIV antibodies on 357 serum samples obtained from 127 subjects for whom an estimated date of seroconversion was calculated on the basis of the interval between the last negative and first positive anti-HIV test result.The ROC curve analysis performed at different thresholds of the AI showed that a cutoff of 0.80 (93.0% sensitivity and 98.5% specificity yields the best overall accuracy (95.8% and should be employed for surveillance purposes, whereas the application of the anti-HIV AI on individual cases is not recommended.

  16. Use of Anti-HIV Immunotoxins as Probes of the Biology of HIV-Infected Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SETH H Pincus

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV immunotoxins are potential treatments for HIV infection. but they may also be used as probes to study the relationship between HIV and the cell it infects. Data from the present study indicate the complexity of this relationship.

  17. Anti-HIV-1 activity of flavonoid myricetin on HIV-1 infection in a dual-chamber in vitro model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Pasetto

    Full Text Available HIV infection by sexual transmission remains an enormous global health concern. More than 1 million new infections among women occur annually. Microbicides represent a promising prevention strategy that women can easily control. Among emerging therapies, natural small molecules such as flavonoids are an important source of new active substances. In this study we report the in vitro cytotoxicity and anti-HIV-1 and microbicide activity of the following flavonoids: Myricetin, Quercetin and Pinocembrin. Cytotoxicity tests were conducted on TZM-bl, HeLa, PBMC, and H9 cell cultures using 0.01-100 µM concentrations. Myricetin presented the lowest toxic effect, with Quercetin and Pinocembrin relatively more toxic. The anti-HIV-1 activity was tested with TZM-bl cell plus HIV-1 BaL (R5 tropic, H9 and PBMC cells plus HIV-1 MN (X4 tropic, and the dual tropic (X4R5 HIV-1 89.6. All flavonoids showed anti-HIV activity, although Myricetin was more effective than Quercetin or Pinocembrin. In TZM-bl cells, Myricetin inhibited ≥90% of HIV-1 BaL infection. The results were confirmed by quantification of HIV-1 p24 antigen in supernatant from H9 and PBMC cells following flavonoid treatment. In H9 and PBMC cells infected by HIV-1 MN and HIV-1 89.6, Myricetin showed more than 80% anti-HIV activity. Quercetin and Pinocembrin presented modest anti-HIV activity in all experiments. Myricetin activity was tested against HIV-RT and inhibited the enzyme by 49%. Microbicide activities were evaluated using a dual-chamber female genital tract model. In the in vitro microbicide activity model, Myricetin showed promising results against different strains of HIV-1 while also showing insignificant cytotoxic effects. Further studies of Myricetin should be performed to identify its molecular targets in order to provide a solid biological foundation for translational research.

  18. The anti-HIV-1 effect of scutellarin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Gaohong; Wang Qian; Chen Jijun; Zhang Xuemei; Tam, S.-C.; Zheng Yongtang

    2005-01-01

    Scutellarin was purified from the plant Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand.-Mazz. The activity against 3 strains of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was determined in vitro in this study. These were laboratory-derived virus (HIV-1 IIIB ), drug-resistant virus (HIV-1 74V ), and low-passage clinical isolated virus (HIV-1 KM018 ). From syncytia inhibition study, the EC 50 of scutellarin against HIV-1 IIIB direct infection in C8166 cells was 26 μM with a therapeutic index of 36. When the mode of infection changed from acute infection to cell-to-cell infection, this compound became even more potent and the EC 50 reduced to 15 μM. This suggested that cell fusion might be affected by this compound. By comparing the inhibitory effects on p24 antigen, scutellarin was also found to be active against HIV-1 74V (EC 50 253 μM) and HIV-1 KM018 (EC 50 136 μM) infection with significant difference in potency. The mechanism of its action was also explored in this study. At a concentration of 433 μM, scutellarin inhibited 48% of the cell free recombinant HIV-1 RT activity. It also caused 82% inhibition of HIV-1 particle attachment and 45% inhibition of fusion at the concentrations of 54 μM. In summary, scutellarin was found to inhibit several strains of HIV-1 replication with different potencies. It appeared to inhibit HIV-1 RT activity, HIV-1 particle attachment and cell fusion. These are essential activities for viral transmission and replication

  19. Development of an anti-HIV vaccine eliciting broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Yousuf; Tian, Meijuan; Gao, Yong

    2017-09-12

    The extreme HIV diversity posts a great challenge on development of an effective anti-HIV vaccine. To solve this problem, it is crucial to discover an appropriate immunogens and strategies that are able to prevent the transmission of the diverse viruses that are circulating in the world. Even though there have been a number of broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies (bNAbs) been discovered in recent years, induction of such antibodies to date has only been observed in HIV-1 infection. Here, in this mini review, we review the progress in development of HIV vaccine in eliciting broad immune response, especially production of bNAbs, discuss possible strategies, such as polyvalent sequential vaccination, that facilitates B cell maturation leading to bNAb response.

  20. 9G4 autoreactivity is increased in HIV-infected patients and correlates with HIV broadly neutralizing serum activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Kobie

    Full Text Available The induction of a broadly neutralizing antibody (BNAb response against HIV-1 would be a desirable feature of a protective vaccine. Vaccine strategies thus far have failed to elicit broadly neutralizing antibody responses; however a minority of HIV-infected patients do develop circulating BNAbs, from which several potent broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs have been isolated. The findings that several BNmAbs exhibit autoreactivity and that autoreactive serum antibodies are observed in some HIV patients have advanced the possibility that enforcement of self-tolerance may contribute to the rarity of BNAbs. To examine the possible breakdown of tolerance in HIV patients, we utilized the 9G4 anti-idiotype antibody system, enabling resolution of both autoreactive VH4-34 gene-expressing B cells and serum antibodies. Compared with healthy controls, HIV patients had significantly elevated 9G4+ serum IgG antibody concentrations and frequencies of 9G4+ B cells, a finding characteristic of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE patients, both of which positively correlated with HIV viral load. Compared to the global 9G4-IgD--memory B cell population, the 9G4+IgD--memory fraction in HIV patients was dominated by isotype switched IgG+ B cells, but had a more prominent bias toward "IgM only" memory. HIV envelope reactivity was observed both in the 9G4+ serum antibody and 9G4+ B cell population. 9G4+ IgG serum antibody levels positively correlated (r = 0.403, p = 0.0019 with the serum HIV BNAbs. Interestingly, other serum autoantibodies commonly found in SLE (anti-dsDNA, ANA, anti-CL did not correlate with serum HIV BNAbs. 9G4-associated autoreactivity is preferentially expanded in chronic HIV infection as compared to other SLE autoreactivities. Therefore, the 9G4 system provides an effective tool to examine autoreactivity in HIV patients. Our results suggest that the development of HIV BNAbs is not merely a consequence of a general breakdown in

  1. Contribution of the anti HIV/AIDS community conversation programs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: HIV/AIDS has now been around for about three and half decades since first diagnosed in 1981. If we wish to curb the spread of HIV/AIDS effectively and sustainably, we need to design strategies that help mobilizing communities at large. Anti-HIV/AIDS Community Conversation (CC) Programs are part of ...

  2. In vivo mitochondrial function in HIV-infected persons treated with contemporary anti-retroviral therapy: a magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan A I Payne

    Full Text Available Modern anti-retroviral therapy is highly effective at suppressing viral replication and restoring immune function in HIV-infected persons. However, such individuals show reduced physiological performance and increased frailty compared with age-matched uninfected persons. Contemporary anti-retroviral therapy is thought to be largely free from neuromuscular complications, whereas several anti-retroviral drugs previously in common usage have been associated with mitochondrial toxicity. It has recently been established that patients with prior exposure to such drugs exhibit irreversible cellular and molecular mitochondrial defects. However the functional significance of such damage remains unknown. Here we use phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31P-MRS to measure in vivo muscle mitochondrial oxidative function, in patients treated with contemporary anti-retroviral therapy, and compare with biopsy findings (cytochrome c oxidase (COX histochemistry. We show that dynamic oxidative function (post-exertional ATP (adenosine triphosphate resynthesis was largely maintained in the face of mild to moderate COX defects (affecting up to ∼10% of fibers: τ½ ADP (half-life of adenosine diphosphate clearance, HIV-infected 22.1±9.9 s, HIV-uninfected 18.8±4.4 s, p = 0.09. In contrast, HIV-infected patients had a significant derangement of resting state ATP metabolism compared with controls: ADP/ATP ratio, HIV-infected 1.24±0.08×10(-3, HIV-uninfected 1.16±0.05×10(-3, p = 0.001. These observations are broadly reassuring in that they suggest that in vivo mitochondrial function in patients on contemporary anti-retroviral therapy is largely maintained at the whole organ level, despite histochemical (COX defects within individual cells. Basal energy requirements may nevertheless be increased.

  3. Arzanol, a Potent mPGES-1 Inhibitor: Novel Anti-Inflammatory Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj S. Kothavade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Arzanol is a novel phloroglucinol α-pyrone, isolated from a Mediterranean plant Helichrysum italicum (Roth Don ssp. microphyllum which belongs to the family Asteraceae. Arzanol has been reported to possess a variety of pharmacological activities. However, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV, and antioxidant activities have been studied in some detail. Arzanol has been reported to inhibit inflammatory transcription factor NFκB activation, HIV replication in T cells, releases of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α, and biosynthesis of PGE2 by potentially inhibiting mPGES-1 enzyme. Diversity of mechanisms of actions of arzanol may be useful in treatment of disease involving these inflammatory mediators such as autoimmune diseases and cancer. This review presents comprehensive information on the chemistry, structure-activity relationship, and pharmacological activities of arzanol. In addition this review discusses recent developments and the scope for future research in these aspects.

  4. Arzanol, a Potent mPGES-1 Inhibitor: Novel Anti-Inflammatory Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothavade, Pankaj S.; Nagmoti, Dnyaneshwar M.; Bulani, Vipin D.; Juvekar, Archana R.

    2013-01-01

    Arzanol is a novel phloroglucinol α-pyrone, isolated from a Mediterranean plant Helichrysum italicum (Roth) Don ssp. microphyllum which belongs to the family Asteraceae. Arzanol has been reported to possess a variety of pharmacological activities. However, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV, and antioxidant activities have been studied in some detail. Arzanol has been reported to inhibit inflammatory transcription factor NFκB activation, HIV replication in T cells, releases of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α, and biosynthesis of PGE2 by potentially inhibiting mPGES-1 enzyme. Diversity of mechanisms of actions of arzanol may be useful in treatment of disease involving these inflammatory mediators such as autoimmune diseases and cancer. This review presents comprehensive information on the chemistry, structure-activity relationship, and pharmacological activities of arzanol. In addition this review discusses recent developments and the scope for future research in these aspects. PMID:24198734

  5. Design, Conformation, and Crystallography of 2-Naphthyl Phenyl Ethers as Potent Anti-HIV Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won-Gil; Chan, Albert H.; Spasov, Krasimir A.; Anderson, Karen S.; Jorgensen, William L.

    2016-12-08

    Catechol diethers that incorporate a 7-cyano-2-naphthyl substituent are reported as non-nucleoside inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (NNRTIs). Many of the compounds have 1–10 nM potencies toward wild-type HIV-1. An interesting conformational effect allows two unique conformers for the naphthyl group in complexes with HIV-RT. X-ray crystal structures for 4a and 4f illustrate the alternatives.

  6. Anti-HIV-1 integrase activity of medicinal plants used as self medication by AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopa Kummee

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The extracts of selected medicinal plants used as self medication by AIDS patients were investigated for their inhibitory activities against HIV-1 integrase (HIV-1 IN using the multiplate integration assay (MIA. Of these, the water extract of Eclipta prostrata (whole plant exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 4.8 μg/ml, followed by the methanol extract of Eclipta prostrata (whole plant, IC50 = 21.1 μg/ ml, the water extract of Barleria lupulina (stem, IC50 = 26.4 μg/ml, the chloroform extract of Barleria lupulina (stem, IC50 = 33.0 μg/ml, the methanol extract of Barleria lupulina (stem, IC50 = 38.2 μg/ml and the chloroform extract of Piper betle (leaf, IC50 = 39.3 μg/ml, respectively.

  7. Resistance of Subtype C HIV-1 Strains to Anti-V3 Loop Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Almond

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1’s subtype C V3 loop consensus sequence exhibits increased resistance to anti-V3 antibody-mediated neutralization as compared to the subtype B consensus sequence. The dynamic 3D structure of the consensus C V3 loop crown, visualized by ab initio folding, suggested that the resistance derives from structural rigidity and non-β-strand secondary protein structure in the N-terminal strand of the β-hairpin of the V3 loop crown, which is where most known anti-V3 loop antibodies bind. The observation of either rigidity or non-β-strand structure in this region correlated with observed resistance to antibody-mediated neutralization in a series of chimeric pseudovirus (psV mutants. The results suggest the presence of an epitope-independent, neutralization-relevant structural difference in the antibody-targeted region of the V3 loop crown between subtype C and subtype B, a difference that we hypothesize may contribute to the divergent pattern of global spread between these subtypes. As antibodies to a variable loop were recently identified as an inverse correlate of risk for HIV infection, the structure-function relationships discussed in this study may have relevance to HIV vaccine research.

  8. Therapeutic genes for anti-HIV/AIDS gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovolenta, Chiara; Porcellini, Simona; Alberici, Luca

    2013-01-01

    The multiple therapeutic approaches developed so far to cope HIV-1 infection, such as anti-retroviral drugs, germicides and several attempts of therapeutic vaccination have provided significant amelioration in terms of life-quality and survival rate of AIDS patients. Nevertheless, no approach has demonstrated efficacy in eradicating this lethal, if untreated, infection. The curative power of gene therapy has been proven for the treatment of monogenic immunodeficiensies, where permanent gene modification of host cells is sufficient to correct the defect for life-time. No doubt, a similar concept is not applicable for gene therapy of infectious immunodeficiensies as AIDS, where there is not a single gene to be corrected; rather engineered cells must gain immunotherapeutic or antiviral features to grant either short- or long-term efficacy mostly by acquisition of antiviral genes or payloads. Anti-HIV/AIDS gene therapy is one of the most promising strategy, although challenging, to eradicate HIV-1 infection. In fact, genetic modification of hematopoietic stem cells with one or multiple therapeutic genes is expected to originate blood cell progenies resistant to viral infection and thereby able to prevail on infected unprotected cells. Ultimately, protected cells will re-establish a functional immune system able to control HIV-1 replication. More than hundred gene therapy clinical trials against AIDS employing different viral vectors and transgenes have been approved or are currently ongoing worldwide. This review will overview anti-HIV-1 infection gene therapy field evaluating strength and weakness of the transgenes and payloads used in the past and of those potentially exploitable in the future.

  9. CD4-specific designed ankyrin repeat proteins are novel potent HIV entry inhibitors with unique characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schweizer

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Here, we describe the generation of a novel type of HIV entry inhibitor using the recently developed Designed Ankyrin Repeat Protein (DARPin technology. DARPin proteins specific for human CD4 were selected from a DARPin DNA library using ribosome display. Selected pool members interacted specifically with CD4 and competed with gp120 for binding to CD4. DARPin proteins derived in the initial selection series inhibited HIV in a dose-dependent manner, but showed a relatively high variability in their capacity to block replication of patient isolates on primary CD4 T cells. In consequence, a second series of CD4-specific DARPins with improved affinity for CD4 was generated. These 2nd series DARPins potently inhibit infection of genetically divergent (subtype B and C HIV isolates in the low nanomolar range, independent of coreceptor usage. Importantly, the actions of the CD4 binding DARPins were highly specific: no effect on cell viability or activation, CD4 memory cell function, or interference with CD4-independent virus entry was observed. These novel CD4 targeting molecules described here combine the unique characteristics of DARPins-high physical stability, specificity and low production costs-with the capacity to potently block HIV entry, rendering them promising candidates for microbicide development.

  10. Anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis in an HIV positive patient: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo José Bellotto Monteiro

    Full Text Available We report on a case of a patient with HIV infection, diagnosed 18 months prior to the development of an anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis; this is probably the first report of such an association. A 30-year-old white man presented with elevation of serum creatinine (1.3 - 13.5 mg/dL within one month. At admission, the urinalysis showed proteinuria of 7.2 g/L and 8,000,000 erythrocytes/mL. Renal biopsy corresponded to a crescentic diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis mediated by anti-GBM, and serum testing for anti-GBM antibodies was positive; antinuclear antibodies (ANA and anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA were also positive. The patient underwent hemodyalisis and was treated with plasmapheresis, cyclophosphamide and prednisone. The association described here is not casual, as crescentic glomerulonephritis is not common in HIV-positive patients, anti-GBM glomerulonephritis is rare and anti-GBM antibodies are frequently observed in HIV-positive subjects when compared to the overall population. Based on the current case and on the elevated frequency of the positivity for such antibodies in this group of patients, it is advisable to be aware of the eventual association between these two conditions and to promote an active search for anti-GBM antibodies and early diagnosis of eventual urinary abnormalities in HIV-positive subjects, considering the severity of anti-GBM glomerulonephritis.

  11. Fused heterocyclic compounds bearing bridgehead nitrogen as potent HIV-1 NNRTIs. Part 1: design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 5,7-disubstituted pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Du, Deping; Rai, Diwakar; Wang, Liu; Liu, Huiqing; Zhan, Peng; De Clercq, Erik; Pannecouque, Christophe; Liu, Xinyong

    2014-04-01

    In our continuous efforts to identify novel potent HIV-1 NNRTIs, a novel class of 5,7-disubstituted pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine derivatives were rationally designed, synthesized and evaluated for their anti-HIV activities in MT4 cell cultures. Biological results showed that most of the tested compounds displayed excellent activity against wild-type HIV-1 with a wide range of EC50 values from 5.98 to 0.07μM. Among the active compounds, 5a was found to be the most promising analogue with an EC50 of 0.07μM against wild-type HIV-1 and very high selectivity index (SI, 3999). Compound 5a was more effective than the reference drugs nevirapine (by 2-fold) and delavirdine (by 2-fold). In order to further confirm their binding target, an HIV-1 RT inhibitory assay was also performed. Furthermore, SAR analysis among the newly synthesized compounds was discussed and the binding mode of the active compound 5a was rationalized by molecular modeling studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Aaptamine Derivatives with Antifungal and Anti-HIV-1 Activities from the South China Sea Sponge Aaptos aaptos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Bing Yu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Five new alkaloids of aaptamine family, compounds (1–5 and three known derivatives (6–8, have been isolated from the South China Sea sponge Aaptos aaptos. The structures of all compounds were unambiguously elucidated by spectroscopic analyses, as well as by comparison with the literature data. Compounds 1–2 are characterized with triazapyrene lactam skeleton, whereas compounds 4–5 share an imidazole-fused aaptamine moiety. These compounds were evaluated in antifungal and anti-HIV-1 assays. Compounds 3, 7, and 8 showed antifungal activity against six fungi, with MIC values in the range of 4 to 64 μg/mL. Compounds 7–8 exhibited anti-HIV-1 activity, with inhibitory rates of 88.0% and 72.3%, respectively, at a concentration of 10 μM.

  13. A Survey of Plants with Anti-HIV Active Compounds and their Modes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Several limitations of current antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes will continue to push patients towards the use of plants to manage HIV/AIDS. However, evidence about the use of anti-HIV plants is anecdotal. Objectives: Search the literature for research articles that document plants with anti-HIV ...

  14. Latent HIV reservoirs exhibit inherent resistance to elimination by CD8+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Szu-Han; Ren, Yanqin; Thomas, Allison S; Chan, Dora; Mueller, Stefanie; Ward, Adam R; Patel, Shabnum; Bollard, Catherine M; Cruz, Conrad Russell; Karandish, Sara; Truong, Ronald; Macedo, Amanda B; Bosque, Alberto; Kovacs, Colin; Benko, Erika; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Wong, Hing; Jeng, Emily; Nixon, Douglas F; Ho, Ya-Chi; Siliciano, Robert F; Walker, Bruce D; Jones, R Brad

    2018-02-01

    The presence of persistent, latent HIV reservoirs in CD4+ T cells obstructs current efforts to cure infection. The so-called kick-and-kill paradigm proposes to purge these reservoirs by combining latency-reversing agents with immune effectors such as cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Support for this approach is largely based on success in latency models, which do not fully reflect the makeup of latent reservoirs in individuals on long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART). Recent studies have shown that CD8+ T cells have the potential to recognize defective proviruses, which comprise the vast majority of all infected cells, and that the proviral landscape can be shaped over time due to in vivo clonal expansion of infected CD4+ T cells. Here, we have shown that treating CD4+ T cells from ART-treated individuals with combinations of potent latency-reversing agents and autologous CD8+ T cells consistently reduced cell-associated HIV DNA, but failed to deplete replication-competent virus. These CD8+ T cells recognized and potently eliminated CD4+ T cells that were newly infected with autologous reservoir virus, ruling out a role for both immune escape and CD8+ T cell dysfunction. Thus, our results suggest that cells harboring replication-competent HIV possess an inherent resistance to CD8+ T cells that may need to be addressed to cure infection.

  15. Anti-tuberculosis therapy-induced hepatotoxicity among Ethiopian HIV-positive and negative patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getnet Yimer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available To assess and compare the prevalence, severity and prognosis of anti-TB drug induced hepatotoxicity (DIH in HIV positive and HIV negative tuberculosis (TB patients in Ethiopia.In this study, 103 HIV positive and 94 HIV negative TB patients were enrolled. All patients were evaluated for different risk factors and monitored biochemically and clinically for development of DIH. Sub-clinical hepatotoxicity was observed in 17.3% of the patients and 8 out of the 197 (4.1% developed clinical hepatotoxicity. Seven of the 8 were HIV positive and 2 were positive for HBsAg.Sub-clinical hepatotoxicity was significantly associated with HIV co-infection (p = 0.002, concomitant drug intake (p = 0.008, and decrease in CD4 count (p = 0.001. Stepwise restarting of anti TB treatment was also successful in almost all the patients who developed clinical DIH. We therefore conclude that anti-TB DIH is a major problem in HIV-associated TB with a decline in immune status and that there is a need for a regular biochemical and clinical follow up for those patients who are at risk.

  16. HIV testing among pregnant women in Brazil: rates and predictors Prueba anti-HIV en mujeres embarazadas en Brasil: tasas y predictivos Testagem anti-HIV em mulheres grávidas no Brasil: taxas e preditores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiléa G Veloso

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess rates of offering and uptake of HIV testing and their predictors among women who attended prenatal care. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted among postpartum women (N=2,234 who attended at least one prenatal care visit in 12 cities. Independent and probabilistic samples were selected in the cities studied. Sociodemographic data, information about prenatal care and access to HIV prevention interventions during the current pregnancy were collected. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to assess independent effects of the covariates on offering and uptake of HIV testing. Data collection took place between November 1999 and April 2000. RESULTS: Overall, 77.5% of the women reported undergoing HIV testing during the current pregnancy. Offering of HIV testing was positively associated with: previous knowledge about prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV; higher number of prenatal care visits; higher level of education and being white. HIV testing acceptance rate was 92.5%. CONCLUSIONS: The study results indicate that dissemination of information about prevention of mother-to-child transmission among women may contribute to increasing HIV testing coverage during pregnancy. Non-white women with lower level of education should be prioritized. Strategies to increase attendance of vulnerable women to prenatal care and to raise awareness among health care workers are of utmost importance.OBJETIVO: Estimar las tasas de oferta y realización de la prueba anti-HIV y sus predictivos entre mujeres que recibieron atención prenatal. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal, de base poblacional, con 2.234 puérperas en 12 ciudades de Brasil. Las muestras probabilísticas fueron seleccionadas independientemente por ciudad, entre puérperas que asistieron a por lo menos una visita prenatal. Se colectaron datos sociodemográficos, informaciones sobre cuidado prenatal y acceso a

  17. Arzanol, an anti-inflammatory and anti-HIV-1 phloroglucinol alpha-Pyrone from Helichrysum italicum ssp. microphyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appendino, Giovanni; Ottino, Michela; Marquez, Nieves; Bianchi, Federica; Giana, Anna; Ballero, Mauro; Sterner, Olov; Fiebich, Bernd L; Munoz, Eduardo

    2007-04-01

    An acetone extract of Helichrysum italicum ssp. microphyllum afforded the phloroglucinol alpha-pyrone arzanol (1a) as a potent NF-kappaB inhibitor. Arzanol is identical with homoarenol (2a), whose structure should be revised. The phloroglucinol-type structure of arzanol and the 1,2,4-trihydroxyphenyl-type structure of the base-induced fragmentation product of homoarenol could be reconciled in light of a retro-Fries-type fragmentation that triggers a change of the hydroxylation pattern of the aromatic moiety. On the basis of these findings, the structure of arenol, the major constituent of the clinically useful antibiotic arenarin, should be revised from 2b to 1b, solving a long-standing puzzle over its biogenetic derivation. An alpha-pyrone (micropyrone, 7), the monoterpene rac-E-omega-oleoyloxylinalol (10), four known tremetones (9a-d), and the dimeric pyrone helipyrone (8) were also obtained. Arzanol inhibited HIV-1 replication in T cells and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated primary monocytes, qualifying as a novel plant-derived anti-inflammatory and antiviral chemotype worth further investigation.

  18. Lipophilic stinging nettle extracts possess potent anti-inflammatory activity, are not cytotoxic and may be superior to traditional tinctures for treating inflammatory disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tyler A.; Sohn, Johann; Inman, Wayne D.; Bjeldanes, Leonard F.; Rayburn, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Extracts of four plant portions (roots, stems, leaves and flowers) of Urtica dioica, (the stinging nettle) were prepared using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) involving water, hexanes, methanol and dichloromethane. The extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity in an NF-κB luciferase and MTT assay using macrophage immune (RAW264.7) cells. A standardized commercial ethanol extract of nettle leaves were also evaluated. The methanolic extract of the flowering portions displayed significant anti-inflammatory activity on par with the standard anti-inflammatory agent celastrol (1) but was moderately cytotoxic. Alternatively, the polar extracts (water, methanol, ethanol) of the roots, stems and leaves plant portions displayed moderate to weak anti-inflammatory activity, while the methanol and especially the water soluble extracts exhibited noticeable cytotoxicity. In contrast, the lipophilic dichloromethane extracts of the roots, stems and leaves exhibited potent anti-inflammatory effects ≥ 1 with minimal cytotoxicity to RAW264.7 cells. Collectively these results suggest that using lipophilic extracts of the roots, stems or leaves of stinging nettle may be more effective then traditional tinctures (water, methanol, ethanol) to undergo clinical evaluations for the treatment of inflammatory disorders including arthritis. A chemical investigation into the lipophillic extracts of stinging nettle to identify the bioactive compound(s) responsible for their observed anti-inflammatory activity is further warranted. PMID:23092723

  19. HIV-1 gp41 Fusion Intermediate: A Target for HIV Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chungen Pan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 infection is initiated by the binding of gp120 envelope glyco-protein to its cell receptor (CD4 and a coreceptor (CXCR4 or CCR5, followed by a series of conformational changes in the gp41 transmembrane subunit. These changes include insertion of fusion peptide into the target cell membrane and association of C-heptad repeat (CHR peptide with the N-heptad repeat (NHR trimer, a pre-hairpin fusion intermediate. A stable six-helix bundle core is then formed, bringing the viral envelope and target cell membrane into close proximity for fusion. Peptides derived from the CHR region, such as T20 and C34, inhibit HIV-1 fusion by interacting with the gp41 fusion intermediate. A number of anti-HIV-1 peptides and small molecule compounds targeting the gp41 NHR-trimer have been identified. By combining HIV fusion/entry inhibitors targeting different sites in the gp41 fusion intermediate, a potent synergistic effect takes place, resulting in a potential new therapeutic strategy for the HIV infection/AIDS. Here, we present an overview of the current development of anti-HIV drugs, particularly those targeting the gp41 fusion intermediate.

  20. Frequency of class I anti-HLA alloantibodies in patients infected by HIV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Regina Manzolli Leite

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of class I anti-HLA alloantibodies in patients infected by HIV-1 and relate it with the different clinical courses of the disease. Blood samples were collected in EDTA tubes from 145 individuals. HIV-1 infection was confirmed by ELISA test. The presence of class I anti-HLA alloantibodies and HLA allele's were determined. Clinical evolution was set as fast (3 years. Class I anti-HLA alloantibodies presence was lower in healthy individuals than in those infected by HIV-1 (4.2% against 32.4%. However, an equal distribution of these alloantibodies was found among the individuals infected, independent on the clinical evolution. Thus, class I anti-HLA alloantibodies was not a determinant factor for patient worsening.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a presença de aloanticorpos anti-HLA classe I em pacientes infectados pelo HIV-1 e relacioná-la aos diferentes cursos clínicos da doença. Amostras de sangue de 145 indivíduos HIV positivo foram coletadas em tubos com EDTA. A infecção pelo HIV-1 foi confirmada por teste ELISA e a presença de aloanticorpos anti-HLA classe I determinada em seguida. A evolução clínica foi definida como rápida (3 anos. A presença de aloanticorpos anti-HLA classe I foi menor em indivíduos saudáveis em relação aos infectados pelo HIV-1 (4,2% contra 32,4%. Porém, a distribuição destes aloanticorpos entre os indivíduos infectados foi igual, independente da evolução clínica. Deste modo, a presença de aloanticorpos anti-HLA classe I não é um fator determinante na piora clínica do paciente.

  1. Novel anti-HIV peptides containing multiple copies of artificially designed heptad repeat motifs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Weiguo; Qi Zhi; Pan Chungen; Xue Na; Debnath, Asim K.; Qie Jiankun; Jiang Shibo; Liu Keliang

    2008-01-01

    The peptidic anti-HIV drug T20 (Fuzeon) and its analog C34 share a common heptad repeat (HR) sequence, but they have different functional domains, i.e., pocket- and lipid-binding domains (PBD and LBD, respectively). We hypothesize that novel anti-HIV peptides may be designed by using artificial sequences containing multiple copies of HR motifs plus zero, one or two functional domains. Surprisingly, we found that the peptides containing only the non-natural HR sequences could significantly inhibit HIV-1 infection, while addition of PBD and/or LBD to the peptides resulted in significant improvement of anti-HIV-1 activity. These results suggest that these artificial HR sequences, which may serve as structural domains, could be used as templates for the design of novel antiviral peptides against HIV and other viruses with class I fusion proteins

  2. HIV-1 tat promotes integrin-mediated HIV transmission to dendritic cells by binding Env spikes and competes neutralization by anti-HIV antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Monini

    Full Text Available Use of Env in HIV vaccine development has been disappointing. Here we show that, in the presence of a biologically active Tat subunit vaccine, a trimeric Env protein prevents in monkeys virus spread from the portal of entry to regional lymph nodes. This appears to be due to specific interactions between Tat and Env spikes that form a novel virus entry complex favoring R5 or X4 virus entry and productive infection of dendritic cells (DCs via an integrin-mediated pathway. These Tat effects do not require Tat-transactivation activity and are blocked by anti-integrin antibodies (Abs. Productive DC infection promoted by Tat is associated with a highly efficient virus transmission to T cells. In the Tat/Env complex the cysteine-rich region of Tat engages the Env V3 loop, whereas the Tat RGD sequence remains free and directs the virus to integrins present on DCs. V2 loop deletion, which unshields the CCR5 binding region of Env, increases Tat/Env complex stability. Of note, binding of Tat to Env abolishes neutralization of Env entry or infection of DCs by anti-HIV sera lacking anti-Tat Abs, which are seldom present in natural infection. This is reversed, and neutralization further enhanced, by HIV sera containing anti-Tat Abs such as those from asymptomatic or Tat-vaccinated patients, or by sera from the Tat/Env vaccinated monkeys. Thus, both anti-Tat and anti-Env Abs are required for efficient HIV neutralization. These data suggest that the Tat/Env interaction increases HIV acquisition and spreading, as a mechanism evolved by the virus to escape anti-Env neutralizing Abs. This may explain the low effectiveness of Env-based vaccines, which are also unlikely to elicit Abs against new Env epitopes exposed by the Tat/Env interaction. As Tat also binds Envs from different clades, new vaccine strategies should exploit the Tat/Env interaction for both preventative and therapeutic interventions.

  3. Adherence to anti-retroviral drugs in pregnant and lactating HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anti-retroviral drugs reduce morbidity and mortality due to HIV and prevent transmission from mother to child. But compliance on anti-retroviral treatment is an essential element for the success of therapeutic goals. Objective: To assess the level of compliance of anti-retroviral treatment in pregnant and lactating ...

  4. Anti-staphylococcal, anti-HIV and cytotoxicity studies of four South African medicinal plants and isolation of bioactive compounds from Cassine transvaalensis (Burtt. Davy) codd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mthethwa, Ningy S; Oyedeji, Bola A O; Obi, Larry C; Aiyegoro, Olayinka A

    2014-12-18

    Medicinal plants represent an important opportunity to rural communities in Africa, as a source of affordable medicine and as a source of income. Increased patient awareness about safe usage is important as well as more training with regards to traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ethnomedicinal prowess of some indigenous South African plants commonly used in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa for the treatment of skin and respiratory tract infections, HIV and their toxicity potential. Cassine transvaalensis, Vangueria infausta, Croton gratissimus and Vitex ferruginea were tested for antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion and minimum inhibition concentration (MIC). Cytotoxic and anti-HIV-1 activities of plants were tested using MTT Assay (3- (Dimethylthiozole-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide)) and anti- HIV-1iib assay. In search of bioactive lead compounds, Cassine transvaalensis which was found to be the most active plant extract against the two Staphylocoous bacteria was subjected to various chromatographic. Thin layer chromatography, Column chromatography and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), (1H-1H, 13C-13C, in DMSO_d6, Bruker 600 MHz) were used to isolate and characterize 3-Oxo-28-hydroxylbetuli-20(29)-ene and 3,28-dihydroxylbetuli-20(29)-ene bioactive compounds from C. transvaalensis. The four plants studied exhibited bioactive properties against the test isolates. The zones of inhibition ranged between 16 mm to 31 mm for multi-drug resistant staphylococci species. MIC values varied between 0.6 and 0.02 μg/ml. C. gratissimus and C. transvaalensis exhibited the abilities to inhibit HIV-1iib. Two bioactive compounds were isolated from C. transvaalensis. Data from this study reveals the use of these plant by traditional healers in the Eastern Cape. Furthermore, C. transvaalensis and C. gratissimus were found to be more active as against HIV-1iib

  5. Anti-retroviral therapy-induced status epilepticus in "pseudo-HIV serodeconversion".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etgen, Thorleif; Eberl, Bernhard; Freudenberger, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Diligence in the interpretation of results is essential as information gained from the psychiatric patient's history might often be restricted. Nonobservance of established guidelines may lead to a wrong diagnosis, induce a false therapy and result in life-threatening situations. Communication errors between hospitals and doctors and uncritical acceptance of prior diagnoses add substantially to this problem. We present a patient with alcohol-related dementia who received anti-retroviral therapy that promoted a non-convulsive status epilepticus. HIV serodeconversion was considered after our laboratory result yielded a HIV-negative status. Critical review of previous diagnostic investigations revealed several errors in the diagnosis of HIV infection leading to a "pseudo-serodeconversion." Finally, anti-retroviral therapy could be discontinued. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nanomedicine in the development of anti-HIV microbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Neves, José; Nunes, Rute; Rodrigues, Francisca; Sarmento, Bruno

    2016-08-01

    Prevention plays an invaluable role in the fight against HIV/AIDS. The use of microbicides is considered an interesting potential approach for topical pre-exposure prophylaxis of HIV sexual transmission. The prospects of having an effective product available are expected to be fulfilled in the near future as driven by recent and forthcoming results of clinical trials. Different dosage forms and delivery strategies have been proposed and tested for multiple microbicide drug candidates presently at different stages of the development pipeline. One particularly interesting approach comprises the application of nanomedicine principles to the development of novel anti-HIV microbicides, but its implications to efficacy and safety are not yet fully understood. Nanotechnology-based systems, either presenting inherent anti-HIV activity or acting as drug nanocarriers, may significantly influence features such as drug solubility, stability of active payloads, drug release, interactions between active moieties and virus/cells, intracellular drug delivery, drug targeting, safety, antiviral activity, mucoadhesive behavior, drug distribution and tissue penetration, and pharmacokinetics. The present manuscript provides a comprehensive and holistic overview of these topics as relevant to the development of vaginal and rectal microbicides. In particular, recent advances pertaining inherently active microbicide nanosystems and microbicide drug nanocarriers are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. HIV-protease inhibitors for the treatment of cancer: Repositioning HIV protease inhibitors while developing more potent NO-hybridized derivatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimovic-Ivanic, Danijela; Fagone, Paolo; McCubrey, James; Bendtzen, Klaus; Mijatovic, Sanja; Nicoletti, Ferdinando

    2017-04-15

    The possible use of HIV protease inhibitors (HIV-PI) as new therapeutic option for the treatment of cancer primarily originated from their success in treating HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). While these findings were initially attributed to immune reconstitution and better control of oncogenic viral infections, the number of reports on solid tumors, KS, lymphoma, fibrosarcoma, multiple myeloma and prostate cancer suggest other mechanisms for the anti-neoplastic activity of PIs. However, a major drawback for the possible adoption of HIV-PIs in the therapy of cancer relies on their relatively weak anticancer potency and important side effects. This has propelled several groups to generate derivatives of HIV-PIs for anticancer use, through modifications such as attachment of different moieties, ligands and transporters, including saquinavir-loaded folic acid conjugated nanoparticles and nitric oxide (NO) derivatives of HIV-PIs. In this article, we discuss the current preclinical and clinical evidences for the potential use of HIV-PIs, and of novel derivatives, such as saquinavir-NO in the treatment of cancer. © 2016 UICC.

  8. Lipophilic stinging nettle extracts possess potent anti-inflammatory activity, are not cytotoxic and may be superior to traditional tinctures for treating inflammatory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tyler A; Sohn, Johann; Inman, Wayne D; Bjeldanes, Leonard F; Rayburn, Keith

    2013-01-15

    Extracts of four plant portions (roots, stems, leaves and flowers) of Urtica dioica (the stinging nettle) were prepared using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) involving water, hexanes, methanol and dichloromethane. The extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities in an NF-κB luciferase and MTT assay using macrophage immune (RAW264.7) cells. A standardized commercial ethanol extract of nettle leaves was also evaluated. The methanolic extract of the flowering portions displayed significant anti-inflammatory activity on par with a standard compound celastrol (1) but were moderately cytotoxic. Alternatively, the polar extracts (water, methanol, ethanol) of the roots, stems and leaves displayed moderate to weak anti-inflammatory activity, while the methanol and especially the water soluble extracts exhibited noticeable cytotoxicity. In contrast, the lipophilic dichloromethane extracts of the roots, stems and leaves exhibited potent anti-inflammatory effects greater than or equal to 1 with minimal cytotoxicity to RAW264.7 cells. Collectively these results suggest that using lipophilic extracts of stinging nettle may be more effective than traditional tinctures (water, methanol, ethanol) in clinical evaluations for the treatment of inflammatory disorders especially arthritis. A chemical investigation into the lipophilic extracts of stinging nettle to identify the bioactive compound(s) responsible for their observed anti-inflammatory activity is further warranted. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  9. Testing of viscous anti-HIV microbicides using Lactobacillus

    OpenAIRE

    Moncla, B.J.; Pryke, K.; Rohan, L. C.; Yang, H.

    2011-01-01

    The development of topical microbicides for intravaginal use to prevent HIV infection requires that the drugs and formulated products be nontoxic to the endogenous vaginal Lactobacillus. In 30 min exposure tests we found dapivirine, tenofovir and UC781 (reverse transcriptase inhibitor anti-HIV drugs) as pure drugs or formulated as film or gel products were not deleterious to Lactobacillus species; however, PSC-RANTES (a synthetic CCR5 antagonist) killed 2 strains of Lactobacillus jensenii. To...

  10. Broad and potent HIV-1 neutralization by a human antibody that binds the gp41-gp120 interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jinghe; Kang, Byong H.; Pancera, Marie; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Tong, Tommy; Feng, Yu; Imamichi, Hiromi; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Druz, Aliaksandr; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Laub, Leo; Sliepen, Kwinten; van Gils, Marit J.; de la Peña, Alba Torrents; Derking, Ronald; Klasse, Per-Johan; Migueles, Stephen A.; Bailer, Robert T.; Alam, Munir; Pugach, Pavel; Haynes, Barton F.; Wyatt, Richard T.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Binley, James M.; Ward, Andrew B.; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D.; Connors, Mark [NIH

    2015-10-15

    The isolation of human monoclonal antibodies is providing important insights into the specificities that underlie broad neutralization of HIV-1 (reviewed in ref. 1). Here we report a broad and extremely potent HIV-specific monoclonal antibody, termed 35O22, which binds a novel HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) epitope. 35O22 neutralized 62% of 181 pseudoviruses with a half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) <50 μg ml-1. The median IC50 of neutralized viruses was 0.033 μg ml-1, among the most potent thus far described. 35O22 did not bind monomeric forms of Env tested, but did bind the trimeric BG505 SOSIP.664. Mutagenesis and a reconstruction by negative-stain electron microscopy of the Fab in complex with trimer revealed that it bound to a conserved epitope, which stretched across gp120 and gp41. The specificity of 35O22 represents a novel site of vulnerability on HIV Env, which serum analysis indicates to be commonly elicited by natural infection. Binding to this new site of vulnerability may thus be an important complement to current monoclonal-antibody-based approaches to immunotherapies, prophylaxis and vaccine design.

  11. Inhibition of HIV-1 by curcumin A, a novel curcumin analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Namita; Kulkarni, Amol A; Lin, Xionghao; McLean, Charlee; Ammosova, Tatiana; Ivanov, Andrey; Hipolito, Maria; Nekhai, Sergei; Nwulia, Evaristus

    2015-01-01

    Despite the remarkable success of combination antiretroviral therapy at curtailing HIV progression, emergence of drug-resistant viruses, chronic low-grade inflammation, and adverse effects of combination antiretroviral therapy treatments, including metabolic disorders collectively present the impetus for development of newer and safer antiretroviral drugs. Curcumin, a phytochemical compound, was previously reported to have some in vitro anti-HIV and anti-inflammatory activities, but poor bioavailability has limited its clinical utility. To circumvent the bioavailability problem, we derivatized curcumin to sustain retro-aldol decomposition at physiological pH. The lead compound derived, curcumin A, showed increased stability, especially in murine serum where it was stable for up to 25 hours, as compared to curcumin that only had a half-life of 10 hours. Both curcumin and curcumin A showed similar inhibition of one round of HIV-1 infection in cultured lymphoblastoid (also called CEM) T cells (IC50=0.7 μM). But in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells, curcumin A inhibited HIV-1 more potently (IC50=2 μM) compared to curcumin (IC50=12 μM). Analysis of specific steps of HIV-1 replication showed that curcumin A inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcription, but had no effect on HIV-1 long terminal repeat basal or Tat-induced transcription, or NF-κB-driven transcription at low concentrations that affected reverse transcription. Finally, we showed curcumin A induced expression of HO-1 and decreased cell cycle progression of T cells. Our findings thus indicate that altering the core structure of curcumin could yield more stable compounds with potent antiretroviral and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:26366056

  12. Preclinical evaluation of the imipridone family, analogs of clinical stage anti-cancer small molecule ONC201, reveals potent anti-cancer effects of ONC212.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jessica; Kline, Christina Leah; Ralff, Marie D; Lev, Avital; Lulla, Amriti; Zhou, Lanlan; Olson, Gary L; Nallaganchu, Bhaskara Rao; Benes, Cyril H; Allen, Joshua E; Prabhu, Varun V; Stogniew, Martin; Oster, Wolfgang; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2017-10-02

    Anti-cancer small molecule ONC201 upregulates the integrated stress response (ISR) and acts as a dual inactivator of Akt/ERK, leading to TRAIL gene activation. ONC201 is under investigation in multiple clinical trials to treat patients with cancer. Given the unique imipridone core chemical structure of ONC201, we synthesized a series of analogs to identify additional compounds with distinct therapeutic properties. Several imipridones with a broad range of in vitro potencies were identified in an exploration of chemical derivatives. Based on in vitro potency in human cancer cell lines and lack of toxicity to normal human fibroblasts, imipridones ONC206 and ONC212 were prioritized for further study. Both analogs inhibited colony formation, and induced apoptosis and downstream signaling that involves the integrated stress response and Akt/ERK, similar to ONC201. Compared to ONC201, ONC206 demonstrated improved inhibition of cell migration while ONC212 exhibited rapid kinetics of activity. ONC212 was further tested in >1000 human cancer cell lines in vitro and evaluated for safety and anti-tumor efficacy in vivo. ONC212 exhibited broad-spectrum efficacy at nanomolar concentrations across solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Skin cancer emerged as a tumor type with improved efficacy relative to ONC201. Orally administered ONC212 displayed potent anti-tumor effects in vivo, a broad therapeutic window and a favorable PK profile. ONC212 was efficacious in vivo in BRAF V600E melanoma models that are less sensitive to ONC201. Based on these findings, ONC212 warrants further development as a drug candidate. It is clear that therapeutic utility extends beyond ONC201 to include additional imipridones.

  13. Synthesis and biological evaluation of new C-12(α/β)-(N-) sulfamoyl-phenylamino-14-deoxy-andrographolide derivatives as potent anti-cancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandanur, Sai Giridhar Sarma; Nanduri, Srinivas; Golakoti, Nageswara Rao

    2017-07-01

    Andrographolide, the major diterpenoidal constituent of Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae) and its derivatives have been reported to possess plethora of biological properties including potent anti-cancer activity. In this work, synthesis and in-vitro anti-cancer evaluation of new C-12-substituted aryl amino 14-deoxy-andrographolide derivatives (III a-f) are reported. The substitutions include various sulfonamide moieties -SO 2 -NH-R 1 . The new derivatives (III a-e) exhibited improved cytotoxicity (GI 50 , TGI and LC 50 ) compared to andrographolide (I) and the corresponding 3,14,19-O-triacetyl andrographolide (II) when evaluated against 60 NCI cell line panel. Compounds III c and III e are found to be non-toxic to normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) cells compared to reference drug THZ-1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Photo-translocation of anti-HIV-1 drugs into TZM-bl cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khanyile, T

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Targeted drug delivery into HIV-1 infected cells offers a reduction in toxicity and side effect. Using a femtosecond (fs) laser of different beam shapes anti-HIV-1 drugs are efficiently delivered into TZM-bl cells....

  15. Lym-1 Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells Exhibit Potent Anti-Tumor Effects against B-Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Zheng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs recognizing CD19 epitopes have produced remarkable anti-tumor effects in patients with B-cell malignancies. However, cancer cells lacking recognized epitopes can emerge, leading to relapse and death. Thus, CAR T cells targeting different epitopes on different antigens could improve immunotherapy. The Lym-1 antibody targets a conformational epitope of Human Leukocyte Antigen-antigen D Related (HLA-DR on the surface of human B-cell lymphomas. Lym-1 CAR T cells were thus generated for evaluation of cytotoxic activity towards lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Human T cells from healthy donors were transduced to express a Lym-1 CAR, and assessed for epitope-driven function in culture and towards Raji xenografts in NOD-scidIL2Rgammanull (NSG mice. Lym-1 CAR T cells exhibited epitope-driven activation and lytic function against human B-cell lymphoma cell lines in culture and mediated complete regression of Raji/Luciferase-Green fluorescent protein (Raji/Luc-GFP in NSG mice with similar or better reactivity than CD19 CAR T cells. Lym-1 CAR transduction of T cells is a promising immunotherapy for patients with Lym-1 epitope positive B-cell malignancies.

  16. Characterization of a Large Panel of Rabbit Monoclonal Antibodies against HIV-1 gp120 and Isolation of Novel Neutralizing Antibodies against the V3 Loop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Qin

    Full Text Available We recently reported the induction of potent, cross-clade neutralizing antibodies (nAbs against Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1 in rabbits using gp120 based on an M-group consensus sequence. To better characterize these antibodies, 93 hybridomas were generated, which represent the largest panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs ever generated from a vaccinated rabbit. The single most frequently recognized epitope of the isolated mAbs was at the very C-terminal end of the protein (APTKAKRRVVEREKR, followed by the V3 loop. A total of seven anti-V3 loop mAbs were isolated, two of which (10A3 and 10A37 exhibited neutralizing activity. In contrast to 10A3 and most other anti-V3 loop nAbs, 10A37 was atypical with its epitope positioned more towards the C-terminal half of the loop. To our knowledge, 10A37 is the most potent and broadly neutralizing anti-V3 loop mAb induced by vaccination. Interestingly, all seven anti-V3 loop mAbs competed with PGT121, suggesting a possibility that early induction of potent anti-V3 loop antibodies could prevent induction of more broadly neutralizing PGT121-like antibodies that target the conserved base of the V3 loop stem.

  17. Methamphetamine inhibits HIV-1 replication in CD4+ T cells by modulating anti-HIV-1 miRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantri, Chinmay K; Mantri, Jyoti V; Pandhare, Jui; Dash, Chandravanu

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine is the second most frequently used illicit drug in the United States. Methamphetamine abuse is associated with increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition, higher viral loads, and enhanced HIV-1 pathogenesis. Although a direct link between methamphetamine abuse and HIV-1 pathogenesis remains to be established in patients, methamphetamine has been shown to increase HIV-1 replication in macrophages, dendritic cells, and cells of HIV transgenic mice. Intriguingly, the effects of methamphetamine on HIV-1 replication in human CD4(+) T cells that serve as the primary targets of infection in vivo are not clearly understood. Therefore, we examined HIV-1 replication in primary CD4(+) T cells in the presence of methamphetamine in a dose-dependent manner. Our results demonstrate that methamphetamine had a minimal effect on HIV-1 replication at concentrations of 1 to 50 μmol/L. However, at concentrations >100 μmol/L, it inhibited HIV-1 replication in a dose-dependent manner. We also discovered that methamphetamine up-regulated the cellular anti-HIV-1 microRNAs (miR-125b, miR-150, and miR-28-5p) in CD4(+) T cells. Knockdown experiments illustrated that up-regulation of the anti-HIV miRNAs inhibited HIV-1 replication. These results are contrary to the paradigm that methamphetamine accentuates HIV-1 pathogenesis by increasing HIV-1 replication. Therefore, our findings underline the complex interaction between drug use and HIV-1 and necessitate comprehensive understanding of the effects of methamphetamine on HIV-1 pathogenesis. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Potent Inhibition of HIV-1 Replication in Resting CD4 T Cells by Resveratrol and Pterostilbene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chi N; Trinité, Benjamin; Levy, David N

    2017-09-01

    HIV-1 infection of resting CD4 T cells plays a crucial and numerically dominant role during virus transmission at mucosal sites and during subsequent acute replication and T cell depletion. Resveratrol and pterostilbene are plant stilbenoids associated with several health-promoting benefits. Resveratrol has been shown to inhibit the replication of several viruses, including herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2, papillomaviruses, severe acute respiratory syndrome virus, and influenza virus. Alone, resveratrol does not inhibit HIV-1 infection of activated T cells, but it does synergize with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in these cells to inhibit reverse transcription. Here, we demonstrate that resveratrol and pterostilbene completely block HIV-1 infection at a low micromolar dose in resting CD4 T cells, primarily at the reverse transcription step. The anti-HIV effect was fully reversed by exogenous deoxynucleosides and Vpx, an HIV-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus protein that increases deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) levels. These findings are consistent with the reported ability of resveratrol to inhibit ribonucleotide reductase and to lower dNTP levels in cells. This study supports the potential use of resveratrol, pterostilbene, or related compounds as adjuvants in anti-HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) formulations. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Current Peptide and Protein Candidates Challenging HIV Therapy beyond the Vaccine Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koollawat Chupradit

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is a causative agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART can slow down the replication of HIV-1, leading to an improvement in the survival of HIV-1-infected patients. However, drug toxicities and poor drug administration has led to the emergence of a drug-resistant strain. HIV-1 immunotherapy has been continuously developed, but antibody therapy and HIV vaccines take time to improve its efficiency and have limitations. HIV-1-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-based immunotherapy founded on neutralizing antibodies is now being developed. In HIV-1 therapy, anti-HIV chimeric antigen receptors showed promising data in the suppression of HIV-1 replication; however, autologous transfusion is still a problem. This has led to the development of effective peptides and proteins for an alternative HIV-1 treatment. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of potent anti-HIV-1 peptides and proteins that reveal promising therapeutic activities. The inhibitory mechanisms of each therapeutic molecule in the different stages of the HIV-1 life cycle will be discussed herein.

  20. Sulfated Polysaccharides in Marine Sponges: Extraction Methods and Anti-HIV Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. S. Esteves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction, fractionation and HIV-1 inhibition potential of polysaccharides extracted from three species of marine sponges, Erylus discophorus, Cliona celata and Stelletta sp., collected in the Northeastern Atlantic, is presented in this work. The anti-HIV activity of 23 polysaccharide pellets and three crude extracts was tested. Crude extracts prepared from Erylus discophorus specimens were all highly active against HIV-1 (90 to 95% inhibition. Cliona celata pellets showed low polysaccharide content (bellow 38.5% and almost no anti-HIV activity (<10% inhibition. Stelletta sp. pellets, although quite rich in polysaccharide (up to 97.3%, showed only modest bioactivity (<36% HIV-1 inhibition. Erylus discophorus pellets were among the richest in terms of polysaccharide content (up to 98% and the most active against HIV-1 (up to 95% inhibition. Chromatographic fractionation of the polysaccharide pellet obtained from a specimen of Erylus discophorus (B161 yielded only modestly active fractions. However, we could infer that the active molecule is most probably a high molecular weight sulfated polysaccharide (>2000 kDa, whose mechanism is possibly preventing viral attachment and entry (fusion inhibitor.

  1. Identification of a methylated oligoribonucleotide as a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcription complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorov, Boyan; Bocquin, Anne; Gabus, Caroline; Avilov, Sergey; Mély, Yves; Agopian, Audrey; Divita, Gilles; Gottikh, Marina; Witvrouw, Myriam; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2011-07-01

    Upon HIV-1 infection of a target cell, the viral reverse transcriptase (RT) copies the genomic RNA to synthesize the viral DNA. The genomic RNA is within the incoming HIV-1 core where it is coated by molecules of nucleocapsid (NC) protein that chaperones the reverse transcription process. Indeed, the RT chaperoning properties of NC extend from the initiation of cDNA synthesis to completion of the viral DNA. New and effective drugs against HIV-1 continue to be required, which prompted us to search for compounds aimed at inhibiting NC protein. Here, we report that the NC chaperoning activity is extensively inhibited in vitro by small methylated oligoribonucleotides (mODN). These mODNs were delivered intracellularly using a cell-penetrating-peptide and found to impede HIV-1 replication in primary human cells at nanomolar concentrations. Extensive analysis showed that viral cDNA synthesis was severely impaired by mODNs. Partially resistant viruses with mutations in NC and RT emerged after months of passaging in cell culture. A HIV-1 molecular clone (NL4.3) bearing these mutations was found to replicate at high concentrations of mODN, albeit with a reduced fitness. Small, methylated ODNs such as mODN-11 appear to be a new type of highly potent inhibitor of HIV-1.

  2. Mechanism of anti-HIV activity of succinylated human serum albumin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, ME; Berg, HVD; Swart, PJ; Laman, Jon; Meijer, DKF; Kopelman, MHGM; Huisman, H

    1999-01-01

    In the present study, we described the interaction of succinylated human serum albumin (Suc-HSA), a negatively charged anti-HIV-1 active protein, with HIV-1 gp120 and in detail with the third variable domain of gp120 (V3 loop). To this end, different assay formats were tested in which gp120- and

  3. Thiazoline peptides and a tris-phenethyl urea from Didemnum molle with anti-HIV activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhenyu; Harper, Mary Kay; Pond, Christopher D; Barrows, Louis R; Ireland, Chris M; Van Wagoner, Ryan M

    2012-08-24

    As part of our screening for anti-HIV agents from marine invertebrates, the MeOH extract of Didemnum molle was tested and showed moderate in vitro anti-HIV activity. Bioassay-guided fractionation of a large-scale extract allowed the identification of two new cyclopeptides, mollamides E and F (1 and 2), and one new tris-phenethyl urea, molleurea A (3). The absolute configurations were established using the advanced Marfey's method. The three compounds were evaluated for anti-HIV activity in both an HIV integrase inhibition assay and a cytoprotective cell-based assay. Compound 2 was active in both assays with IC(50) values of 39 and 78 μM, respectively. Compound 3 was active only in the cytoprotective cell-based assay, with an IC(50) value of 60 μM.

  4. Maraviroc (UK-427,857), a potent, orally bioavailable, and selective small-molecule inhibitor of chemokine receptor CCR5 with broad-spectrum anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorr, Patrick; Westby, Mike; Dobbs, Susan; Griffin, Paul; Irvine, Becky; Macartney, Malcolm; Mori, Julie; Rickett, Graham; Smith-Burchnell, Caroline; Napier, Carolyn; Webster, Rob; Armour, Duncan; Price, David; Stammen, Blanda; Wood, Anthony; Perros, Manos

    2005-11-01

    Maraviroc (UK-427,857) is a selective CCR5 antagonist with potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) activity and favorable pharmacological properties. Maraviroc is the product of a medicinal chemistry effort initiated following identification of an imidazopyridine CCR5 ligand from a high-throughput screen of the Pfizer compound file. Maraviroc demonstrated potent antiviral activity against all CCR5-tropic HIV-1 viruses tested, including 43 primary isolates from various clades and diverse geographic origin (geometric mean 90% inhibitory concentration of 2.0 nM). Maraviroc was active against 200 clinically derived HIV-1 envelope-recombinant pseudoviruses, 100 of which were derived from viruses resistant to existing drug classes. There was little difference in the sensitivity of the 200 viruses to maraviroc, as illustrated by the biological cutoff in this assay (= geometric mean plus two standard deviations [SD] of 1.7-fold). The mechanism of action of maraviroc was established using cell-based assays, where it blocked binding of viral envelope, gp120, to CCR5 to prevent the membrane fusion events necessary for viral entry. Maraviroc did not affect CCR5 cell surface levels or associated intracellular signaling, confirming it as a functional antagonist of CCR5. Maraviroc has no detectable in vitro cytotoxicity and is highly selective for CCR5, as confirmed against a wide range of receptors and enzymes, including the hERG ion channel (50% inhibitory concentration, >10 microM), indicating potential for an excellent clinical safety profile. Studies in preclinical in vitro and in vivo models predicted maraviroc to have human pharmacokinetics consistent with once- or twice-daily dosing following oral administration. Clinical trials are ongoing to further investigate the potential of using maraviroc for the treatment of HIV-1 infection and AIDS.

  5. Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus essential oil as a potent anti-inflammatory and antifungal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Nadjib Boukhatem

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Volatile oils obtained from lemon grass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf, Poaceae family] are used in traditional medicine as remedies for the treatment of various diseases. Aims: In the present study, lemon grass essential oil (LGEO was evaluated for its in vivo topical and oral anti-inflammatory effects, and for its in vitro antifungal activity using both liquid and vapor phases. Methods: The chemical profile of LGEO as determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis revealed two major components: geranial (42.2%, and neral (31.5%. The antifungal activity of LGEO was evaluated against several pathogenic yeasts and filamentous fungi using disc diffusion and vapor diffusion methods. Results: LGEO exhibited promising antifungal effect against Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, and Aspergillus niger, with different inhibition zone diameters (IZDs (35–90 mm. IZD increased with increasing oil volume. Significantly, higher anti-Candida activity was observed in the vapor phase. For the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect, LGEO (10 mg/kg, administered orally significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema with a similar effect to that observed for oral diclofenac (50 mg/kg, which was used as the positive control. Oral administration of LGEO showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, topical application of LGEO in vivo resulted in a potent anti-inflammatory effect, as demonstrated by using the mouse model of croton oil-induced ear edema. To our knowledge, this is the first such report to be published. The topical application of LGEO at doses of 5 and 10 µL/ear significantly reduced acute ear edema induced by croton oil in 62.5 and 75% of the mice, respectively. In addition, histological analysis clearly confirmed that LGEO inhibits the skin inflammatory response in animal models. Conclusion: Results of the present study indicate that LGEO has a noteworthy potential for the development of drugs for

  6. A new activity of anti-HIV and anti-tumor protein GAP31: DNA adenosine glycosidase - Structural and modeling insight into its functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui-Guang [Department of Biochemistry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Huang, Philip L. [American Biosciences, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Zhang, Dawei; Sun, Yongtao [Department of Biochemistry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Chen, Hao-Chia [Endocrinology and Reproduction Research Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Zhang, John [Department of Chemistry, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Huang, Paul L. [Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Kong, Xiang-Peng, E-mail: xiangpeng.kong@med.nyu.edu [Department of Biochemistry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Lee-Huang, Sylvia, E-mail: sylvia.lee-huang@med.nyu.edu [Department of Biochemistry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016 (United States)

    2010-01-01

    We report here the high-resolution atomic structures of GAP31 crystallized in the presence of HIV-LTR DNA oligonucleotides systematically designed to examine the adenosine glycosidase activity of this anti-HIV and anti-tumor plant protein. Structural analysis and molecular modeling lead to several novel findings. First, adenine is bound at the active site in the crystal structures of GAP31 to HIV-LTR duplex DNA with 5' overhanging adenosine ends, such as the 3'-processed HIV-LTR DNA but not to DNA duplex with blunt ends. Second, the active site pocket of GAP31 is ideally suited to accommodate the 5' overhanging adenosine of the 3'-processed HIV-LTR DNA and the active site residues are positioned to perform the adenosine glycosidase activity. Third, GAP31 also removes the 5'-end adenine from single-stranded HIV-LTR DNA oligonucleotide as well as any exposed adenosine, including that of single nucleotide dAMP but not from AMP. Fourth, GAP31 does not de-purinate guanosine from di-nucleotide GT. These results suggest that GAP31 has DNA adenosine glycosidase activity against accessible adenosine. This activity is distinct from the generally known RNA N-glycosidase activity toward the 28S rRNA. It may be an alternative function that contributes to the antiviral and anti-tumor activities of GAP31. These results provide molecular insights consistent with the anti-HIV mechanisms of GAP31 in its inhibition on the integration of viral DNA into the host genome by HIV-integrase as well as irreversible topological relaxation of the supercoiled viral DNA.

  7. 1,4-Bis(5-(naphthalen-1-yl)thiophen-2-yl)naphthalene, a small molecule, functions as a novel anti-HIV-1 inhibitor targeting the interaction between integrase and cellular Lens epithelium-derived growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wan-gang; Ip, Denis Tsz-Ming; Liu, Si-jie; Chan, Joseph H; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Xuan; Zheng, Yong-tang; Wan, David Chi-Cheong

    2014-04-25

    Translocation of viral integrase (IN) into the nucleus is a critical precondition of integration during the life cycle of HIV, a causative agent of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndromes (AIDS). As the first discovered cellular factor to interact with IN, Lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) plays an important role in the process of integration. Disruption of the LEDGF/p75-IN interaction has provided a great interest for anti-HIV agent discovery. In this work, we reported that one small molecular compound, 1,4-bis(5-(naphthalen-1-yl)thiophen-2-yl)naphthalene(Compound 15), potently inhibit the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction and affect the HIV-1 IN nuclear distribution at 1 μM. The putative binding mode of Compound 15 was constructed by a molecular docking simulation to provide structural insights into the ligand-binding mechanism. Compound 15 suppressed viral replication by measuring p24 antigen production in HIV-1IIIB acute infected C8166 cells with EC50 value of 11.19 μM. Compound 15 might supply useful structural information for further anti-HIV agent discovery. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Meliae cortex extract exhibits anti-allergic activity through the inhibition of Syk kinase in mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jun Ho; Ko, Na Young; Kim, Nam Wook; Mun, Se Hwan; Kim, Jie Wan; Her, Erk; Kim, Bo Kyung; Seo, Dong Wan; Chang, Hyun Wook; Moon, Tae Chul; Han, Jeung Whan; Kim, Young Mi; Choi, Wahn Soo

    2007-01-01

    The anti-allergic action of various Oriental medicinal herbs was investigated using in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Of these extracts, the ethanol extract of Meliae cortex (MC) exhibited the most potent activity in mast cells; its IC 50 values were 29 ± 1.5 μg/ml for antigen stimulation and 57 ± 3.4 μg/ml for thapsigargin stimulation. It inhibited compound-48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis by 52.9% at a dose of 300 mg/kg in mice; it also inhibited the expression of the proinflammatory mediator TNF-α. With regard to its mechanism of action, MC suppressed the activating phosphorylation of Syk, a key enzyme in mast-cell signaling processes and that of Akt in a dose-dependent manner. It also inhibited the MAP kinase ERK1/2, which is critical for the production of inflammatory cytokines in mast cells, as indicated by the suppression of the activating phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Taken together, these results suggest that the anti-allergic activity of MC may be due to the inhibition of histamine secretion and cytokine expression through the Syk inhibition in mast cells

  9. Anti-HIV-1 B cell responses are dependent on B cell precursor frequency and antigen-binding affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosenovic, Pia; Kara, Ervin E; Pettersson, Anna-Klara; McGuire, Andrew T; Gray, Matthew; Hartweger, Harald; Thientosapol, Eddy S; Stamatatos, Leonidas; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2018-04-16

    The discovery that humans can produce potent broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to several different epitopes on the HIV-1 spike has reinvigorated efforts to develop an antibody-based HIV-1 vaccine. Antibody cloning from single cells revealed that nearly all bNAbs show unusual features that could help explain why it has not been possible to elicit them by traditional vaccination and instead would require a sequence of different immunogens. This idea is supported by experiments with genetically modified immunoglobulin (Ig) knock-in mice. Sequential immunization with a series of specifically designed immunogens was required to shepherd the development of bNAbs. However, knock-in mice contain superphysiologic numbers of bNAb precursor-expressing B cells, and therefore how these results can be translated to a more physiologic setting remains to be determined. Here we make use of adoptive transfer experiments using knock-in B cells that carry a synthetic intermediate in the pathway to anti-HIV-1 bNAb development to examine how the relationship between B cell receptor affinity and precursor frequency affects germinal center (GC) B cell recruitment and clonal expansion. Immunization with soluble HIV-1 antigens can recruit bNAb precursor B cells to the GC when there are as few as 10 such cells per mouse. However, at low precursor frequencies, the extent of clonal expansion is directly proportional to the affinity of the antigen for the B cell receptor, and recruitment to GCs is variable and dependent on recirculation.

  10. The hidden mechanism beyond ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) potent in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Shahira M; Ezzat, Marwa I; Okba, Mona M; Menze, Esther T; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2018-03-25

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a well known anti-inflammatory drug in the Egyptian, Indian and Chinese folk medicines, yet its mechanism of action is unclear. To explore its mechanism of action and to correlate it to its biophytochemicals. Various extracts viz. water, 50%, 70%, 80%, and 90% ethanol were prepared from ginger rhizomes. Fractionation of the aqueous extract (AE) was accomplished using Diaion HP-20. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the different extracts and isolated compounds was evaluated using protein denaturation inhibition, membrane stabilization, protease inhibition, and anti-lipoxygenase assays. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity of AE was estimated using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in rats at doses 25, 50, 100 and 200mg/kg b.wt. All the tested extracts showed significant (p< 0.1) in vitro anti-inflammatory activities. The strongest anti-lipoxygenase activity was observed for AE that was more significant than that of diclofenac (58% and 52%, respectively) at the same concentration (125μg/ml). Purification of AE led to the isolation of 6-poradol (G1), 6-shogaol (G2); methyl 6- gingerol (G3), 5-gingerol (G4), 6-gingerol (G5), 8-gingerol (G6), 10-gingerol (G7), and 1-dehydro-6-gingerol (G8). G1, G2 and G8 exhibited potent activity in all the studied assays, while G4 and G5 exhibited moderate activity. In vivo administration of AE ameliorated rat paw edema in a dose-dependent manner. AE (at 200mg/kg) showed significant reduction in production of PGE2, TNF-α, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity by 60%, 57%, 60%, 41%, 32% and 67%, respectively. AE at 100 and 200mg/kg was equipotent to indomethacin in reduction of NO x level and in increasing the total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Histopathological examination revealed very few inflammatory cells infiltration and edema after administration of AE (200mg/kg) prior to

  11. Stereoselective total synthesis of the potent anti-asthmatic compound CMI-977 (LDP-977)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Luiz Carlos; Farina, Lui Strambi; Ferreira, Marco Antonio Barbosa, E-mail: ldias@iqm.unicamp.br [Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2013-02-15

    A short and efficient stereoselective total synthesis of CMI-977 (LDP-977), a potent and orally active anti-asthmatic compound, was developed. The key steps involve a highly diastereoselective Mukaiyama oxidative cyclization, which provides the trans-THF (tetrahydrofuran) unit and a Seyferth-Gilbert homologation to construct the triple bond in the target molecule. The synthesis of the key chiral building block was performed using Jacobsen hydrolytic kinetic resolution. (author)

  12. Stereoselective total synthesis of the potent anti-asthmatic compound CMI-977 (LDP-977)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Luiz Carlos; Farina, Lui Strambi; Ferreira, Marco Antonio Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    A short and efficient stereoselective total synthesis of CMI-977 (LDP-977), a potent and orally active anti-asthmatic compound, was developed. The key steps involve a highly diastereoselective Mukaiyama oxidative cyclization, which provides the trans-THF (tetrahydrofuran) unit and a Seyferth-Gilbert homologation to construct the triple bond in the target molecule. The synthesis of the key chiral building block was performed using Jacobsen hydrolytic kinetic resolution. (author)

  13. Potent anti-cervical cancer activity: synergistic effects of Thai medicinal plants in recipe N040 selected from the MANOSROI III database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitdamrongtham, Worapong; Manosroi, Aranya; Akazawa, Hiroyuki; Gidado, Abubakar; Stienrut, Pramote; Manosroi, Worapaka; Lohcharoenkal, Warangkana; Akihisa, Toshihiro; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2013-08-26

    its methanolic extract and ascorbic acid, respectively. Poor metal chelating activity (MC50>500 µg/ml) was observed in methanolic extract and all fractions. The highest phenolic and flavonoid contents were observed in the methanolic extract. Brazilin, the known compound isolated from the EtOAc fraction exhibited potent anti-proliferative activity with the IC50 of 0.28 µg/ml which was higher than its methanolic extract and EtOAc fraction of 119.50 and 63.61 folds, respectively, but only 0.39 fold of the recipe extract N040. The tumor size of the HeLa cell xenograft nude mice treated with the recipe N040 at the dose of 44.50mg/kg body weight per day was significantly smaller (precipe which resulted in the potent anti-cancer activity and confirmed the traditionally use of the recipe N040. In addition, this study has also suggested the compound brazilin isolated from Caesalpinia sappan for its high potential to be further investigated as a novel anti-cervical cancer drug. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ruxolitinib and Tofacitinib Are Potent and Selective Inhibitors of HIV-1 Replication and Virus Reactivation In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavegnano, Christina; Detorio, Mervi; Montero, Catherine; Bosque, Alberto; Planelles, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    The JAK-STAT pathway is activated in both macrophages and lymphocytes upon human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and thus represents an attractive cellular target to achieve HIV suppression and reduced inflammation, which may impact virus sanctuaries. Ruxolitinib and tofacitinib are JAK1/2 inhibitors that are FDA approved for rheumatoid arthritis and myelofibrosis, respectively, but their therapeutic application for treatment of HIV infection was unexplored. Both drugs demonstrated submicromolar inhibition of infection with HIV-1, HIV-2, and a simian-human immunodeficiency virus, RT-SHIV, across primary human or rhesus macaque lymphocytes and macrophages, with no apparent significant cytotoxicity at 2 to 3 logs above the median effective antiviral concentration. Combination of tofacitinib and ruxolitinib increased the efficacy by 53- to 161-fold versus that observed for monotherapy, respectively, and each drug applied alone to primary human lymphocytes displayed similar efficacy against HIV-1 containing various polymerase substitutions. Both drugs inhibited virus replication in lymphocytes stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) plus interleukin-2 (IL-2), but not PHA alone, and inhibited reactivation of latent HIV-1 at low-micromolar concentrations across the J-Lat T cell latency model and in primary human central memory lymphocytes. Thus, targeted inhibition of JAK provided a selective, potent, and novel mechanism to inhibit HIV-1 replication in lymphocytes and macrophages, replication of drug-resistant HIV-1, and reactivation of latent HIV-1 and has the potential to reset the immunologic milieu in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:24419350

  15. Purinergic Receptors: Key Mediators of HIV-1 infection and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talia H Swartz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 causes a chronic infection that afflicts more than 38 million individuals worldwide. While the infection can be suppressed with potent anti-retroviral therapies, individuals infected with HIV have elevated levels of inflammation as indicated by increased T cell activation, soluble biomarkers, and associated morbidity and mortality. A single mechanism linking HIV pathogenesis to this inflammation has yet to be identified. Purinergic receptors are known to mediate inflammation and have been shown to be required for HIV-1 infection at the level of HIV-1 membrane fusion. Here we review the literature on the role of purinergic receptors in HIV-1 infection and associated inflammation and describe a role for these receptors as potential therapeutic targets.

  16. Fragment-based approaches to anti-HIV drug discovery: state of the art and future opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Boshi; Kang, Dongwei; Zhan, Peng; Liu, Xinyong

    2015-12-01

    The search for additional drugs to treat HIV infection is a continuing effort due to the emergence and spread of HIV strains resistant to nearly all current drugs. The recent literature reveals that fragment-based drug design/discovery (FBDD) has become an effective alternative to conventional high-throughput screening strategies for drug discovery. In this critical review, the authors describe the state of the art in FBDD strategies for the discovery of anti-HIV drug-like compounds. The article focuses on fragment screening techniques, direct fragment-based design and early hit-to-lead progress. Rapid progress in biophysical detection and in silico techniques has greatly aided the application of FBDD to discover candidate agents directed at a variety of anti-HIV targets. Growing evidence suggests that structural insights on key proteins in the HIV life cycle can be applied in the early phase of drug discovery campaigns, providing valuable information on the binding modes and efficiently prompting fragment hit-to-lead progression. The combination of structural insights with improved methodologies for FBDD, including the privileged fragment-based reconstruction approach, fragment hybridization based on crystallographic overlays, fragment growth exploiting dynamic combinatorial chemistry, and high-speed fragment assembly via diversity-oriented synthesis followed by in situ screening, offers the possibility of more efficient and rapid discovery of novel drugs for HIV-1 prevention or treatment. Though the use of FBDD in anti-HIV drug discovery is still in its infancy, it is anticipated that anti-HIV agents developed via fragment-based strategies will be introduced into the clinic in the future.

  17. Mucosal IgA Responses: Damaged in Established HIV Infection—Yet, Effective Weapon against HIV Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viraj Kulkarni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection not only destroys CD4+ T cells but also inflicts serious damage to the B-cell compartment, such as lymphadenopathy, destruction of normal B-cell follicle architecture, polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia, increased apoptosis of B cells, and irreversible loss of memory B-cell responses with advanced HIV disease. Subepithelial B cells and plasma cells are also affected, which results in loss of mucosal IgG and IgA antibodies. This leaves the mucosal barrier vulnerable to bacterial translocation. The ensuing immune activation in mucosal tissues adds fuel to the fire of local HIV replication. We postulate that compromised mucosal antibody defenses also facilitate superinfection of HIV-positive individuals with new HIV strains. This in turn sets the stage for the generation of circulating recombinant forms of HIV. What can the mucosal B-cell compartment contribute to protect a healthy, uninfected host against mucosal HIV transmission? Here, we discuss proof-of-principle studies we have performed using passive mucosal immunization, i.e., topical administration of preformed anti-HIV monoclonal antibodies (mAbs as IgG1, dimeric IgA1 (dIgA1, and dIgA2 isotypes, alone or in combination. Our data indicate that mucosally applied anti-HIV envelope mAbs can provide potent protection against mucosal transmission of simian-human immunodeficiency virus. Our review also discusses the induction of mucosal antibody defenses by active vaccination and potential strategies to interrupt the vicious cycle of bacterial translocation, immune activation, and stimulation of HIV replication in individuals with damaged mucosal barriers.

  18. AtriplaR/anti-TB combination in TB/HIV patients. Drug in focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semvua Hadija H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-administration of anti-tuberculosis and antiretroviral therapy is often inevitable in high-burden countries where tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic infection associated with HIV/AIDS. Concurrent use of rifampicin and several antiretroviral drugs is complicated by pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction. Method Pubmed and Google search following the key words tuberculosis, HIV, emtricitabine, tenofovir efavirenz, interaction were used to find relevant information on each drug of the fixed dose combination AtriplaR Results Information on generic name, trade name, pharmacokinetic parameter, metabolism and the pharmacokinetic interaction with Anti-TB drugs of emtricitabine, tenofovir, and efavirenz was obtained. Conclusion Fixed dose combination of emtricitabine/tenofovir/efavirenz (ATRIPLAR which has been approved by Food and Drug Administration shows promising results as far as safety and efficacy is concerned in TB/HIV co-infection patients, hence can be considered effective and safe antiretroviral drug in TB/HIV management for adult and children above 3 years of age.

  19. Recombinant protein of heptad-repeat HR212, a stable fusion inhibitor with potent anti-HIV action in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Wei; Wang Ruirui; Yang Liumeng; Liu Changmei; Tien Po; Zheng Yongtang

    2008-01-01

    HR212, a recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli, has been previously reported to inhibit HIV-1 membrane fusion at low nanomolar level. Here we report that HR212 is effective in blocking laboratory strain HIV-1 IIIB entry and replication with EC 50 values of 3.92 ± 0.62 and 6.59 ± 1.74 nM, respectively, and inhibiting infection by clinic isolate HIV-1 KM018 with EC 50 values of 44.44 ± 10.20 nM, as well as suppressing HIV-1-induced cytopathic effect with an EC 50 value of 3.04 ± 1.20 nM. It also inhibited HIV-2 ROD and HIV-2 CBL-20 entry and replication in the μM range. Notably, HR212 was highly effective against T20-resistant strains with EC 50 values ranging from 5.09 to 7.75 nM. Unlike T20, HR212 showed stability sufficient to inhibit syncytia formation in a time-of-addition assay, and was insensitive to proteinase K digestion. These results suggest that HR212 has great potential to be further developed as novel HIV-1 fusion inhibitor for treatment of HIV/AIDS patients, particularly for those infected by T20-resistant variants

  20. Characterization of Nanodiamond-based anti-HIV drug Delivery to the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Upal; Drozd, Vadym; Durygin, Andriy; Rodriguez, Jesse; Barber, Paul; Atluri, Venkata; Liu, Xiaohua; Voss, Thomas G; Saxena, Surendra; Nair, Madhavan

    2018-01-25

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Present combination antiretroviral therapy has substantially improved HIV-1 related pathology. However, delivery of therapeutic agents to the HIV reservoir organ like Central nervous system (CNS) remains a major challenge primarily due to the ineffective transmigration of drugs through Blood Brain Barrier (BBB). The recent advent of nanomedicine-based drug delivery has stimulated the development of innovative systems for drug delivery. In this regard, particular focus has been given to nanodiamond due to its natural biocompatibility and non-toxic nature-making it a more efficient drug carrier than other carbon-based materials. Considering its potential and importance, we have characterized unmodified and surface-modified (-COOH and -NH 2 ) nanodiamond for its capacity to load the anti-HIV-1 drug efavirenz and cytotoxicity, in vitro. Overall, our study has established that unmodified nanodiamond conjugated drug formulation has significantly higher drug loading capacity than surface-modified nanodiamond with minimum toxicity. Further, this nanodrug formulation was characterized by its drug dissolution profile, transmigration through the BBB, and its therapeutic efficacy. The present biological characterizations provide a foundation for further study of in-vivo pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of nanodiamond-based anti-HIV drugs.

  1. Immunity in the Vagina (Part II): Anti-HIV Activity and Antiviral Content of Human Vaginal Secretions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mickey V.; Ghosh, Mimi; Fahey, John V.; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Rossoll, Richard M.; Wira, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Problem Whether the concentrations of antiviral proteins, and anti-HIV activity, within human vaginal secretions changes across the menstrual cycle is unknown. Method of Study Using a menstrual cup, vaginal secretions from premenopausal women were recovered at the proliferative (d6–8), mid-cycle (d13–15) and secretory (d21–23) stages of the menstrual cycle. Antiviral protein concentration was determined by ELISA, and anti-HIV activity assessed using the TZM-bl reporter cell line. Results CCL20, RANTES, elafin, HBD2, SDF-1α and IL-8 levels were detectable in the secretions. Vaginal secretions had anti-HIV activity against specific clade B strains of HIV, with significant inhibition of IIIB and increased infectivity of transmitted/founder CH077.t. No significant differences in either antiviral protein concentration or anti-HIV activity with respect to menstrual cycle stage were measured, but marked differences were observed in both parameters over the course of the cycle between different women, and in consecutive cycles from the same woman. Conclusion The vagina contains a complement of antiviral proteins. The variation in anti-HIV activity demonstrates that immune protection in the vagina is not constant. Intra- and inter-individual variations suggest that factors in addition to sex hormones influence antiviral protection. Lastly, the menstrual cup is a new model for recovering undiluted vaginal secretions from women throughout their reproductive life. PMID:24806967

  2. The First Synthesis and Anti-retroviral Activity of 5',5'-Difluoro-3'-Hydroxy-Apiosyl Nucleoside Cyclomonophosphonic Acid Analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seyeon; Hong, Joon Hee [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    The first synthesis of novel 5',5'-difluoro-30-hydroxy apiose nucleoside cyclomonophosphonic acid analogs was performed as potent anti-retroviral agents. Phosphonation was performed by direct displacement of a triflate intermediate with diethyl(lithiodifluoromethyl) phosphonate to give the corresponding(α, α-difluoroalkyl) phosphonate. Condensation successfully proceeded from a glycosyl donor with persilylated bases to yield the nucleoside phosphonate analogs. Deprotection of diethyl phosphonates provided the target nucleoside cyclomonophosphonic acid analogs. The synthesized nucleoside analogs were subjected to anti-viral screening against the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1). Cytosine analogs show significant anti-HIV activity.

  3. Diaryltriazine non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors are potent candidates for pre-exposure prophylaxis in the prevention of sexual HIV transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariën, Kevin K; Venkatraj, Muthusamy; Michiels, Johan; Joossens, Jurgen; Vereecken, Katleen; Van der Veken, Pieter; Abdellati, Saïd; Cuylaerts, Vicky; Crucitti, Tania; Heyndrickx, Leo; Heeres, Jan; Augustyns, Koen; Lewi, Paul J; Vanham, Guido

    2013-09-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis and topical microbicides are important strategies in the prevention of sexual HIV transmission, especially since partial protection has been shown in proof-of-concept studies. In search of new candidate drugs with an improved toxicity profile and with activity against common non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-resistant HIV, we have synthesized and investigated a library of 60 new diaryltriazine analogues. From this library, 15 compounds were evaluated in depth using a broad armamentarium of in vitro assays that are part of a preclinical testing algorithm for microbicide development. Antiviral activity was assessed in a cell line, and in primary human cells, against both subtype B and subtype C HIV-1 and against viruses resistant to therapeutic NNRTIs and the candidate NNRTI microbicide dapivirine. Toxicity towards primary blood-derived cells, cell lines originating from the female reproductive tract and female genital microflora was also studied. We identified several compounds with highly potent antiviral activity and toxicity profiles that are superior to that of dapivirine. In particular, compound UAMC01398 is an interesting new candidate that warrants further investigation because of its superior toxicity profile and potent activity against dapivirine-resistant viruses.

  4. Evolution of Neutralization Response in HIV-1 Subtype C-Infected Individuals Exhibiting Broad Cross-Clade Neutralization of HIV-1 Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanaiah Cheedarla

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Strain-specific neutralizing antibodies develop in all human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1-infected individuals. However, only 10–30% of infected individuals produce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs. Identification and characterization of these bNAbs and understanding their evolution dynamics are critical for obtaining useful clues for the development of an effective HIV vaccine. Very recently, we published a study in which we identified 12 HIV-1 subtype C-infected individuals from India whose plasma showed potent and broad cross-clade neutralization (BCN ability (1. In the present study, we report our findings on the evolution of host bNAb response over a period of 4 years in a subset of these individuals. Three of the five individuals (NAB033, NAB059, and NAB065 demonstrated a significant increase (p < 0.05 in potency. Interestingly, two of the three samples also showed a significant increase in CD4 binding site-specific antibody response, maintained stable CD4+ T cell counts (>350 cells/mm3 and continued to remain ART-naïve for more than 10 years after initial diagnosis, implying a strong clinical correlation with the development and evolution of broadly neutralizing antibody response against HIV-1.

  5. Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of Untreated, Germinated, and Fermented Mung Bean Aqueous Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norlaily Mohd Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of untreated mung bean (MB, germinated mung bean (GMB, and fermented mung bean (FMB was performed on both in vitro (inhibition of inflammatory mediator, nitric oxide(NO and in vivo (inhibition of ear oedema and reduction of response to pain stimulus studies. Results showed that both GMB and FMB aqueous extract exhibited potent anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities in a dose-dependent manner. In vitro results showed that GMB and FMB were potent inflammatory mediator (NO inhibitors at both 2.5 and 5 mg/mL. Further in vivo studies showed that GMB and FMB aqueous extract at 1000 mg/kg can significantly reduce ear oedema in mice caused by arachidonic acid. Besides, both 200 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg concentrations of GMB and FMB were found to exhibit potent antinociceptive effects towards hotplate induced pain. With these, it can be concluded that GMB and FMB aqueous extract exhibited potential anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects.

  6. Sero-prevalance of anti-R7V antibody in HIV infected patients in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seroprevalence of Anti-R7V antibody was therefore investigated in HIV patients attending clinic within the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) and compared with HIV negative patients. Correlation between the presence of the antibody and the clinical status of patients was also investigated. The HIV positive patients were ...

  7. Innate immunity in the vagina (Part II): Anti-HIV activity and antiviral content of human vaginal secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mickey V; Ghosh, Mimi; Fahey, John V; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Rossoll, Richard M; Wira, Charles R

    2014-07-01

    Whether the concentrations of antiviral proteins, and anti-HIV activity, within human vaginal secretions change across the menstrual cycle is unknown. Using a menstrual cup, vaginal secretions from pre-menopausal women were recovered at the proliferative (d6-8), mid-cycle (d13-15), and secretory (d21-23) stages of the menstrual cycle. Antiviral protein concentration was determined by ELISA, and anti-HIV activity assessed using the TZM-bl reporter cell line. CCL20, RANTES, elafin, HBD2, SDF-1α, and IL-8 levels were detectable in the secretions. Vaginal secretions had anti-HIV activity against specific clade B strains of HIV, with significant inhibition of IIIB and increased infectivity of transmitted/founder CH077.t. No significant differences in either antiviral protein concentration or anti-HIV activity with respect to menstrual cycle stage were measured, but marked differences were observed in both parameters over the course of the cycle between different women and in consecutive cycles from the same woman. The vagina contains a complement of antiviral proteins. The variation in anti-HIV activity demonstrates that immune protection in the vagina is not constant. Intra- and interindividual variations suggest that factors in addition to sex hormones influence antiviral protection. Lastly, the menstrual cup is a new model for recovering undiluted vaginal secretions from women throughout their reproductive life. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Role of the carbohydrate-binding sites of griffithsin in the prevention of DC-SIGN-mediated capture and transmission of HIV-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Hoorelbeke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The glycan-targeting C-type DC-SIGN lectin receptor is implicated in the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV by binding the virus and transferring the captured HIV-1 to CD4(+ T lymphocytes. Carbohydrate binding agents (CBAs have been reported to block HIV-1 infection. We have now investigated the potent mannose-specific anti-HIV CBA griffithsin (GRFT on its ability to inhibit the capture of HIV-1 to DC-SIGN, its DC-SIGN-directed transmission to CD4(+ T-lymphocytes and the role of the three carbohydrate-binding sites (CBS of GRFT in these processes. FINDINGS: GRFT inhibited HIV-1(IIIB infection of CEM and HIV-1(NL4.3 infection of C8166 CD4(+ T-lymphocytes at an EC50 of 0.059 and 0.444 nM, respectively. The single mutant CBS variants of GRFT (in which a key Asp in one of the CBS was mutated to Ala were about ∼20 to 60-fold less potent to prevent HIV-1 infection and ∼20 to 90-fold less potent to inhibit syncytia formation in co-cultures of persistently HIV-1 infected HuT-78 and uninfected C8166 CD4(+ T-lymphocytes. GRFT prevents DC-SIGN-mediated virus capture and HIV-1 transmission to CD4(+ T-lymphocytes at an EC50 of 1.5 nM and 0.012 nM, respectively. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR studies revealed that wild-type GRFT efficiently blocked the binding between DC-SIGN and immobilized gp120, whereas the point mutant CBS variants of GRFT were ∼10- to 15-fold less efficient. SPR-analysis also demonstrated that wild-type GRFT and its single mutant CBS variants have the capacity to expel bound gp120 from the gp120-DC-SIGN complex in a dose dependent manner, a property that was not observed for HHA, another mannose-specific potent anti-HIV-1 CBA. CONCLUSION: GRFT is inhibitory against HIV gp120 binding to DC-SIGN, efficiently prevents DC-SIGN-mediated transfer of HIV-1 to CD4(+ T-lymphocytes and is able to expel gp120 from the gp120-DC-SIGN complex. Functionally intact CBS of GRFT are important for the optimal action of

  9. Is nelfinavir exposure associated with cancer incidence in HIV-positive individuals?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boettiger, David C.; Sabin, Caroline A.; Grulich, Andrew; Ryom, Lene; Bonnet, Fabrice; Reiss, Peter; Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; Kirk, Ole; Phillips, Andrew; Bower, Mark; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Lundgren, Jens D.; Law, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Nelfinavir exhibits potent anticancer properties against a range of tumours. However, in 2006/2007, nelfinavir supplies were accidently contaminated with a carcinogen. This analysis investigated the association between nelfinavir use and cancer risk in HIV-positive persons. Observational cohort

  10. Latest animal models for anti-HIV drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliva, Katja

    2015-02-01

    HIV research is limited by the fact that lentiviruses are highly species specific. The need for appropriate models to promote research has led to the development of many elaborate surrogate animal models. This review looks at the history of animal models for HIV research. Although natural animal lentivirus infections and chimeric viruses such as chimera between HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus and simian-tropic HIV are briefly discussed, the main focus is on small animal models, including the complex design of the 'humanized' mouse. The review also traces the historic evolution and milestones as well as depicting current models and future prospects for HIV research. HIV research is a complex and challenging task that is highly manpower-, money- and time-consuming. Besides factors such as hypervariability and latency, the lack of appropriate animal models that exhibit and recapitulate the entire infectious process of HIV, is one of the reasons behind the failure to eliminate the lentivirus from the human population. This obstacle has led to the exploitation and further development of many sophisticated surrogate animal models for HIV research. While there is no animal model that perfectly mirrors and mimics HIV infections in humans, there are a variety of host species and viruses that complement each other. Combining the insights from each model, and critically comparing the results obtained with data from human clinical trials should help expand our understanding of HIV pathogenesis and drive future drug development.

  11. Rational design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of third generation α-noscapine analogues as potent tubulin binding anti-cancer agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Kumar Manchukonda

    Full Text Available Systematic screening based on structural similarity of drugs such as colchicine and podophyllotoxin led to identification of noscapine, a microtubule-targeted agent that attenuates the dynamic instability of microtubules without affecting the total polymer mass of microtubules. We report a new generation of noscapine derivatives as potential tubulin binding anti-cancer agents. Molecular modeling experiments of these derivatives 5a, 6a-j yielded better docking score (-7.252 to -5.402 kCal/mol than the parent compound, noscapine (-5.505 kCal/mol and its existing derivatives (-5.563 to -6.412 kCal/mol. Free energy (ΔG bind calculations based on the linear interaction energy (LIE empirical equation utilizing Surface Generalized Born (SGB continuum solvent model predicted the tubulin-binding affinities for the derivatives 5a, 6a-j (ranging from -4.923 to -6.189 kCal/mol. Compound 6f showed highest binding affinity to tubulin (-6.189 kCal/mol. The experimental evaluation of these compounds corroborated with theoretical studies. N-(3-brormobenzyl noscapine (6f binds tubulin with highest binding affinity (KD, 38 ± 4.0 µM, which is ~ 4.0 times higher than that of the parent compound, noscapine (KD, 144 ± 1.0 µM and is also more potent than that of the first generation clinical candidate EM011, 9-bromonoscapine (KD, 54 ± 9.1 µM. All these compounds exhibited substantial cytotoxicity toward cancer cells, with IC50 values ranging from 6.7 µM to 72.9 µM; compound 6f showed prominent anti-cancer efficacy with IC50 values ranging from 6.7 µM to 26.9 µM in cancer cells of different tissues of origin. These compounds perturbed DNA synthesis, delayed the cell cycle progression at G2/M phase, and induced apoptotic cell death in cancer cells. Collectively, the study reported here identified potent, third generation noscapinoids as new anti-cancer agents.

  12. Human-Phosphate-Binding-Protein inhibits HIV-1 gene transcription and replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candolfi Ermanno

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Human Phosphate-Binding protein (HPBP is a serendipitously discovered lipoprotein that binds phosphate with high affinity. HPBP belongs to the DING protein family, involved in various biological processes like cell cycle regulation. We report that HPBP inhibits HIV-1 gene transcription and replication in T cell line, primary peripherical blood lymphocytes and primary macrophages. We show that HPBP is efficient in naïve and HIV-1 AZT-resistant strains. Our results revealed HPBP as a new and potent anti HIV molecule that inhibits transcription of the virus, which has not yet been targeted by HAART and therefore opens new strategies in the treatment of HIV infection.

  13. Raltegravir: first in class HIV integrase inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelalem Temesgen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Zelalem Temesgen1, Dawd S Siraj21Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 2East Carolina University Greenville, NC, USAAbstract: On October 16, 2007, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved raltegravir for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 infection in combination with other antiretroviral agents in treatment-experienced adult patients who have evidence of viral replication and HIV-1 strains resistant to multiple antiretroviral agents. Raltegravir is first in a novel class of antiretroviral drugs known as integrase inhibitors. It has demonstrated potent anti HIV activity in both antiretroviral treatment-naïve and experienced patients. The most common adverse events reported with raltegravir during phase 2 and 3 clinical trials were diarrhea, nausea, and headache. Laboratory abnormalities include mild elevations in liver transaminases and creatine phosphokinase.Keywords: raltegravir, HIV, antiretroviral agents, integrase inhibitors

  14. Poly (I:C) enhances the anti-tumor activity of canine parvovirus NS1 protein by inducing a potent anti-tumor immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shishir Kumar; Yadav, Pavan Kumar; Tiwari, A K; Gandham, Ravi Kumar; Sahoo, A P

    2016-09-01

    The canine parvovirus NS1 (CPV2.NS1) protein selectively induces apoptosis in the malignant cells. However, for an effective in vivo tumor treatment strategy, an oncolytic agent also needs to induce a potent anti-tumor immune response. In the present study, we used poly (I:C), a TLR3 ligand, as an adjuvant along with CPV2.NS1 to find out if the combination can enhance the oncolytic activity by inducing a potent anti-tumor immune response. The 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells were used to induce mammary tumor in Balb/c mice. The results suggested that poly (I:C), when given along with CPV2.NS1, not only significantly reduced the tumor growth but also augmented the immune response against tumor antigen(s) as indicated by the increase in blood CD4+ and CD8+ counts and infiltration of immune cells in the tumor tissue. Further, blood serum analysis of the cytokines revealed that Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2) were significantly upregulated in the treatment group indicating activation of cell-mediated immune response. The present study reports the efficacy of CPV2.NS1 along with poly (I:C) not only in inhibiting the mammary tumor growth but also in generating an active anti-tumor immune response without any visible toxicity. The results of our study may help in developing CPV2.NS1 and poly (I: C) combination as a cancer therapeutic regime to treat various malignancies.

  15. Antigen sensitivity is a major determinant of CD8+ T-cell polyfunctionality and HIV-suppressive activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Jorge R; Sauce, Delphine; Price, David A; Papagno, Laura; Shin, So Youn; Moris, Arnaud; Larsen, Martin; Pancino, Gianfranco; Douek, Daniel C; Autran, Brigitte; Sáez-Cirión, Asier; Appay, Victor

    2009-06-18

    CD8(+) T cells are major players in the immune response against HIV. However, recent failures in the development of T cell-based vaccines against HIV-1 have emphasized the need to reassess our basic knowledge of T cell-mediated efficacy. CD8(+) T cells from HIV-1-infected patients with slow disease progression exhibit potent polyfunctionality and HIV-suppressive activity, yet the factors that unify these properties are incompletely understood. We performed a detailed study of the interplay between T-cell functional attributes using a bank of HIV-specific CD8(+) T-cell clones isolated in vitro; this approach enabled us to overcome inherent difficulties related to the in vivo heterogeneity of T-cell populations and address the underlying determinants that synthesize the qualities required for antiviral efficacy. Conclusions were supported by ex vivo analysis of HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells from infected donors. We report that attributes of CD8(+) T-cell efficacy against HIV are linked at the level of antigen sensitivity. Highly sensitive CD8(+) T cells display polyfunctional profiles and potent HIV-suppressive activity. These data provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying CD8(+) T-cell efficacy against HIV, and indicate that vaccine strategies should focus on the induction of HIV-specific T cells with high levels of antigen sensitivity to elicit potent antiviral efficacy.

  16. RAM, an RGDS analog, exerts potent anti-melanoma effects in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Simona Aguzzi

    Full Text Available Peptides containing the RGD sequence are under continuous investigation given their ability to control cell adhesion and apoptosis. Since small peptides are quickly metabolized and degraded in vivo, developing analogs resistant to serum-induced degradation is a challenging task. RGD analogs developed so far are known as molecules mostly inhibiting cell adhesion; this feature may reduce cell proliferation and tumor development but may not induce regression of tumors or metastases already formed. In the current study, carried out in melanoma in vitro and in vivo models, we show that RAM, an RGD-non-peptide Analog-Molecule, strongly inhibits cells adhesion onto plastic, vitronectin, fibronectin, laminin and von Willebrand Factor while it does not inhibit cell adhesion onto collagen IV, similarly to the RGDS template peptide. It also strongly inhibits in vitro cell proliferation, migration and DNA-synthesis, increases melanoma cells apoptosis and reduces survivin expression. All such effects were observed in collagen IV seeded cells, therefore are most likely independent from the anti adhesive properties. Further, RAM is more stable than the template RGDS; in fact it maintains its anti-proliferation and anti-adhesion effects after long serum exposure while RGDS almost completely loses its effects upon serum exposure. In a mouse metastatic melanoma in vivo model, increasing doses of RAM significantly reduce up to about 80% lung metastases development, while comparable doses of RGDS are less potent. In conclusion these data show that RAM is a potent inhibitor of melanoma growth in vitro, strongly reduces melanoma metastases development in vivo and represents a novel candidate for further in vivo investigations in the cancer treatment field.

  17. Human Exportin-1 is a Target for Combined Therapy of HIV and AIDS Related Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Boons

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Infection with HIV ultimately leads to advanced immunodeficiency resulting in an increased incidence of cancer. For example primary effusion lymphoma (PEL is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma with very poor prognosis that typically affects HIV infected individuals in advanced stages of immunodeficiency. Here we report on the dual anti-HIV and anti-PEL effect of targeting a single process common in both diseases. Inhibition of the exportin-1 (XPO1 mediated nuclear transport by clinical stage orally bioavailable small molecule inhibitors (SINE prevented the nuclear export of the late intron-containing HIV RNA species and consequently potently suppressed viral replication. In contrast, in CRISPR-Cas9 genome edited cells expressing mutant C528S XPO1, viral replication was unaffected upon treatment, clearly demonstrating the anti-XPO1 mechanism of action. At the same time, SINE caused the nuclear accumulation of p53 tumor suppressor protein as well as inhibition of NF-κB activity in PEL cells resulting in cell cycle arrest and effective apoptosis induction. In vivo, oral administration arrested PEL tumor growth in engrafted mice. Our findings provide strong rationale for inhibiting XPO1 as an innovative strategy for the combined anti-retroviral and anti-neoplastic treatment of HIV and PEL and offer perspectives for the treatment of other AIDS-associated cancers and potentially other virus-related malignancies.

  18. Immunologic Intervention in HIV Infection: Anti-Polymerase Responses and Hormonal Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    34), has serious physical ad psyhdologic cosequn , including further compromise of irmmu status in AIMS (1). Dr. D. Kotler of Columbia University recently...nutritional factors in the induction of immunologic abnormalities in HIV-positive homosexual men. J. AIDS 2:235, 1989. 2. Kotler D, Nutrition in AIDS...1051, 1990. 14. Korq X-B, Zhu Q-Y, Vidal PM, Watanole AM, Polsky B, Armstrong D, Ostrandz M, lang SA Jr, Rxthors E, Cmaa T-C. Cmparisons of anti-HIV

  19. Lichen Secondary Metabolites in Flavocetraria cucullata Exhibit Anti-Cancer Effects on Human Cancer Cells through the Induction of Apoptosis and Suppression of Tumorigenic Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh Thi; Yoon, Somy; Yang, Yi; Lee, Ho-Bin; Oh, Soonok; Jeong, Min-Hye; Kim, Jong-Jin; Yee, Sung-Tae; Crişan, Florin; Moon, Cheol; Lee, Kwang Youl; Kim, Kyung Keun; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Kim, Hangun

    2014-01-01

    Lichens are symbiotic organisms which produce distinct secondary metabolic products. In the present study, we tested the cytotoxic activity of 17 lichen species against several human cancer cells and further investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying their anti-cancer activity. We found that among 17 lichens species, F. cucullata exhibited the most potent cytotoxicity in several human cancer cells. High performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that the acetone extract of F. cucullata contains usnic acid, salazinic acid, Squamatic acid, Baeomycesic acid, d-protolichesterinic acid, and lichesterinic acid as subcomponents. MTT assay showed that cancer cell lines were more vulnerable to the cytotoxic effects of the extract than non-cancer cell lines. Furthermore, among the identified subcomponents, usnic acid treatment had a similar cytotoxic effect on cancer cell lines but with lower potency than the extract. At a lethal dose, treatment with the extract or with usnic acid greatly increased the apoptotic cell population and specifically activated the apoptotic signaling pathway; however, using sub-lethal doses, extract and usnic acid treatment decreased cancer cell motility and inhibited in vitro and in vivo tumorigenic potentials. In these cells, we observed significantly reduced levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers and phosphor-Akt, while phosphor-c-Jun and phosphor-ERK1/2 levels were only marginally affected. Overall, the anti-cancer activity of the extract is more potent than that of usnic acid alone. Taken together, F. cucullata and its subcomponent, usnic acid together with additional component, exert anti-cancer effects on human cancer cells through the induction of apoptosis and the inhibition of EMT. PMID:25360754

  20. Biosynthesis of ilamycins featuring unusual building blocks and engineered production of enhanced anti-tuberculosis agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junying; Huang, Hongbo; Xie, Yunchang; Liu, Zhiyong; Zhao, Jin; Zhang, Chunyan; Jia, Yanxi; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Tianyu; Ju, Jianhua

    2017-08-30

    Tuberculosis remains one of the world's deadliest communicable diseases, novel anti-tuberculosis agents are urgently needed due to severe drug resistance and the co-epidemic of tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus. Here, we show the isolation of six anti-mycobacterial ilamycin congeners (1-6) bearing rare L-3-nitro-tyrosine and L-2-amino-4-hexenoic acid structural units from the deep sea-derived Streptomyces atratus SCSIO ZH16. The biosynthesis of the rare L-3-nitrotyrosine and L-2-amino-4-hexenoic acid units as well as three pre-tailoring and two post-tailoring steps are probed in the ilamycin biosynthetic machinery through a series of gene inactivation, precursor chemical complementation, isotope-labeled precursor feeding experiments, as well as structural elucidation of three intermediates (6-8) from the respective mutants. Most impressively, ilamycins E 1 /E 2 , which are produced in high titers by a genetically engineered mutant strain, show very potent anti-tuberculosis activity with an minimum inhibitory concentration value ≈9.8 nM to Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv constituting extremely potent and exciting anti-tuberculosis drug leads.Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the world's deadliest communicable diseases, novel anti-TB agents are urgently needed due to severe drug resistance and the co-epidemic of TB/HIV. Here, the authors show that anti-mycobacterial ilamycin congeners bearing unusual structural units possess extremely potent anti-tuberculosis activities.

  1. HIV-1 protease inhibitory substances from Cassia garrettiana

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    Jindaporn Puripattanvong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassia garrettiana Craib, a Thai medicinal plant locally known as Samae-sarn, was investigated for its active constituents against HIV-1 protease (HIV-1 PR. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the heart woodof this plant led to the isolation of a stilbene derivative (1, piceatannol and an anthraquinone derivative (2, chrysophanol. Piceatannol exhibited appreciable inhibitory effect against HIV-1 PR with an IC50 value of25.4 μg/ml, whereas that of chrysophanol was 73.5 μg/ml. In addition, other two stilbenoids together with three anthraquinone derivatives were also investigated for their anti-HIV-1 PR activities. The resultindicated that resveratrol possessed anti-HIV-1 PR activity with an IC50 value of 85.0 μg/ml, whereas other stilbenoid (oxyresveratrol and anthraquinone derivatives (emodin, aloe-emodin, rhein were inactive (IC50 > 100 μg/ml.

  2. Immunotherapy of HIV-infected patients with Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Nobuto; Ushijima, Naofumi; Koga, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Serum Gc protein (known as vitamin D3-binding protein) is the precursor for the principal macrophage activating factor (MAF). The MAF precursor activity of serum Gc protein of HIV-infected patients was lost or reduced because Gc protein is deglycosylated by alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (Nagalase) secreted from HIV-infected cells. Therefore, macrophages of HIV-infected patients having deglycosylated Gc protein cannot be activated, leading to immunosuppression. Since Nagalase is the intrinsic component of the envelope protein gp120, serum Nagalase activity is the sum of enzyme activities carried by both HIV virions and envelope proteins. These Nagalase carriers were already complexed with anti-HIV immunoglobulin G (IgG) but retained Nagalase activity that is required for infectivity. Stepwise treatment of purified Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generated the most potent macrophage activating factor (termed GcMAF), which produces no side effects in humans. Macrophages activated by administration of 100 ng GcMAF develop a large amount of Fc-receptors as well as an enormous variation of receptors that recognize IgG-bound and unbound HIV virions. Since latently HIV-infected cells are unstable and constantly release HIV virions, the activated macrophages rapidly intercept the released HIV virions to prevent reinfection resulting in exhaustion of infected cells. After less than 18 weekly administrations of 100 ng GcMAF for nonanemic patients, they exhibited low serum Nagalase activities equivalent to healthy controls, indicating eradication of HIV-infection, which was also confirmed by no infectious center formation by provirus inducing agent-treated patient PBMCs. No recurrence occurred and their healthy CD + cell counts were maintained for 7 years.

  3. Antimalarial activity of HIV-1 protease inhibitor in chromone series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerdsirisuk, Pradith; Maicheen, Chirattikan; Ungwitayatorn, Jiraporn

    2014-12-01

    Increasing parasite resistance to nearly all available antimalarial drugs becomes a serious problem to human health and necessitates the need to continue the search for new effective drugs. Recent studies have shown that clinically utilized HIV-1 protease (HIV-1 PR) inhibitors can inhibit the in vitro and in vivo growth of Plasmodium falciparum. In this study, a series of chromone derivatives possessing HIV-1 PR inhibitory activity has been tested for antimalarial activity against P. falciparum (K1 multi-drug resistant strain). Chromone 15, the potent HIV-1 PR inhibitor (IC50=0.65μM), was found to be the most potent antimalarial compound with IC50=0.95μM while primaquine and tafenoquine showed IC50=2.41 and 1.95μM, respectively. Molecular docking study of chromone compounds against plasmepsin II, an aspartic protease enzyme important in hemoglobin degradation, revealed that chromone 15 exhibited the higher binding affinity (binding energy=-13.24kcal/mol) than the known PM II inhibitors. Thus, HIV-1 PR inhibitor in chromone series has the potential to be a new class of antimalarial agent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Survey of Plants with Anti-HIV Active Compounds and their Modes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    proteins, alkaloids, and biflavonoids inhibit various ... several plant families and species contain anti-HIV .... articles reviewed, only about a third were included .... membranes against free .... Pedersen, B.K. Low plasma level of adiponectin.

  5. Essential oils from Origanum vulgare and Salvia officinalis exhibit antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities against Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesundara, Niluni M; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, essential oils (EOs) extracted from oregano, sage, cloves, and ginger were evaluated for the phytochemical profile, antibacterial, and anti-biofilm activities against Streptococcus pyogenes. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of EOs. The minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBICs) were determined using MTT assay and fixed biofilms were observed through scan electron microscopy. The oregano and sage EOs showed the lowest MIC as well as MBC of 0.25-0.5 mg/mL. Time kill assay results showed that oregano and sage EOs exhibited bactericidal effects within 5 min and 4 h, respectively. Both oregano and sage extracts acts as a potent anti-biofilm agent with dual actions, preventing and eradicating the biofilm. The microscopic visualization of biofilms treated with EOs have shown morphological and density changes compared to the untreated control. Oregano EO was constituted predominantly carvacrol (91.6%) and in sage EO, higher levels of α-thujone (28.5%) and camphor (16.6%) were revealed. EOs of oregano and sage inhibit the growth and biofilm formation of S. pyogenes. Effective concentrations of oregano and sage EOs and their phytochemicals can be used in developing potential plant-derived antimicrobial agents in the management of streptococcal pharyngitis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A novel immunomodulatory hemocyanin from the limpet Fissurella latimarginata promotes potent anti-tumor activity in melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Arancibia

    Full Text Available Hemocyanins, the huge oxygen-transporting glycoproteins of some mollusks, are used as immunomodulatory proteins with proven anti-cancer properties. The biodiversity of hemocyanins has promoted interest in identifying new anti-cancer candidates with improved immunological properties. Hemocyanins promote Th1 responses without known side effects, which make them ideal for long-term sustained treatment of cancer. In this study, we evaluated a novel hemocyanin from the limpet/gastropod Fissurella latimarginata (FLH. This protein has the typical hollow, cylindrical structure of other known hemocyanins, such as the keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH and the Concholepas hemocyanin (CCH. FLH, like the KLH isoforms, is composed of a single type of polypeptide with exposed N- and O-linked oligosaccharides. However, its immunogenicity was significantly greater than that of KLH and CCH, as FLH induced a stronger humoral immune response and had more potent anti-tumor activity, delaying tumor growth and increasing the survival of mice challenged with B16F10 melanoma cells, in prophylactic and therapeutic settings. Additionally, FLH-treated mice demonstrated increased IFN-γ production and higher numbers of tumor-infiltrating CD4(+ lymphocytes. Furthermore, in vitro assays demonstrated that FLH, but not CCH or KLH, stimulated the rapid production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-12, IL-23 and TNF-α by dendritic cells, triggering a pro-inflammatory milieu that may explain its enhanced immunological activity. Moreover, this effect was abolished when deglycosylated FLH was used, suggesting that carbohydrates play a crucial role in the innate immune recognition of this protein. Altogether, our data demonstrate that FLH possesses increased anti-tumor activity in part because it activates a more potent innate immune response in comparison to other known hemocyanins. In conclusion, FLH is a potential new marine adjuvant for immunization and possible cancer

  7. A novel immunomodulatory hemocyanin from the limpet Fissurella latimarginata promotes potent anti-tumor activity in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arancibia, Sergio; Espinoza, Cecilia; Salazar, Fabián; Del Campo, Miguel; Tampe, Ricardo; Zhong, Ta-Ying; De Ioannes, Pablo; Moltedo, Bruno; Ferreira, Jorge; Lavelle, Ed C; Manubens, Augusto; De Ioannes, Alfredo E; Becker, María Inés

    2014-01-01

    Hemocyanins, the huge oxygen-transporting glycoproteins of some mollusks, are used as immunomodulatory proteins with proven anti-cancer properties. The biodiversity of hemocyanins has promoted interest in identifying new anti-cancer candidates with improved immunological properties. Hemocyanins promote Th1 responses without known side effects, which make them ideal for long-term sustained treatment of cancer. In this study, we evaluated a novel hemocyanin from the limpet/gastropod Fissurella latimarginata (FLH). This protein has the typical hollow, cylindrical structure of other known hemocyanins, such as the keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and the Concholepas hemocyanin (CCH). FLH, like the KLH isoforms, is composed of a single type of polypeptide with exposed N- and O-linked oligosaccharides. However, its immunogenicity was significantly greater than that of KLH and CCH, as FLH induced a stronger humoral immune response and had more potent anti-tumor activity, delaying tumor growth and increasing the survival of mice challenged with B16F10 melanoma cells, in prophylactic and therapeutic settings. Additionally, FLH-treated mice demonstrated increased IFN-γ production and higher numbers of tumor-infiltrating CD4(+) lymphocytes. Furthermore, in vitro assays demonstrated that FLH, but not CCH or KLH, stimulated the rapid production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-12, IL-23 and TNF-α) by dendritic cells, triggering a pro-inflammatory milieu that may explain its enhanced immunological activity. Moreover, this effect was abolished when deglycosylated FLH was used, suggesting that carbohydrates play a crucial role in the innate immune recognition of this protein. Altogether, our data demonstrate that FLH possesses increased anti-tumor activity in part because it activates a more potent innate immune response in comparison to other known hemocyanins. In conclusion, FLH is a potential new marine adjuvant for immunization and possible cancer immunotherapy.

  8. Synthesis and biological evaluation of tricyclic guanidine analogues of batzelladine K for antimalarial, antileishmanial, antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-HIV activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nafees; Brahmbhatt, Keyur G; Khan, Shabana I; Jacob, Melissa; Tekwani, Babu L; Sabde, Sudeep; Mitra, Debashis; Singh, Inder P; Khan, Ikhlas A; Bhutani, Kamlesh K

    2013-04-01

    Fifty analogues of batzelladine K were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro antimalarial (Plasmodium falciparum), antileishmanial (Leishmania donovani), antimicrobial (panel of bacteria and fungi), antiviral (HIV-1) activities. Analogues 14h and 20l exhibited potential antimalarial activity against chloroquine-sensitive D6 strain with IC(50) 1.25 and 0.88 μM and chloroquine-resistant W2 strain with IC(50) 1.64 and 1.07 μM, respectively. Analogues 12c and 14c having nonyl substitution showed the most potent antileishmanial activity with IC(50) 2.39 and 2.78 μM and IC(90) 11.27 and 12.76 μM, respectively. Three analogues 12c, 14c, and 14i were the most active against various pathogenic bacteria and fungi with IC(50) Analogue 20l having pentyl and methyl substituents on tricycle showed promising activities against all pathogens. However, none was found active against HIV-1. Our study demonstrated that the tricyclic guanidine compounds provide new structural class for broad spectrum activity. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Production and characterization of human anti-V3 monoclonal antibodies from the cells of HIV-1 infected Indian donors

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    Andrabi Raiees

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs developed from HIV-1 infected donors have enormously contributed to the identification of neutralization sensitive epitopes on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. The third variable region (V3 is a crucial target on gp120, primarily due to its involvement in co-receptor (CXCR4 or CCR5 binding and presence of epitopes recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies. Methods Thirty-three HIV-1 seropositive drug naive patients (18 males and 15 females within the age range of 20–57 years (median = 33 years were recruited in this study for mAb production. The mAbs were selected from EBV transformed cultures with conformationally constrained Cholera-toxin-B containing V3C (V3C-CTB fusion protein. We tested the mAbs for their binding with HIV-1 derived proteins and peptides by ELISA and for neutralization against HIV-1 viruses by TZM-bl assays. Results We isolated three anti-V3 mAbs, 277, 903 and 904 from the cells of different individuals. The ELISA binding revealed a subtype-C and subtype-A specific binding of antibody 277 and 903 while mAb 904 exhibited cross reactivity also with subtype-B V3. Epitope mapping of mAbs with overlapping V3 peptides showed exclusive binding to V3 crown. The antibodies displayed high and low neutralizing activity against 2/5 tier 1 and 1/6 tier 2 viruses respectively. Overall, we observed a resistance of the tier 2 viruses to neutralization by the anti-V3 mAbs, despite the exposure of the epitopes recognized by these antibodies on two representative native viruses (Du156.12 and JRFL, suggesting that the affinity of mAb might equally be crucial for neutralization, as the epitope recognition. Conclusions Our study suggests that the anti-V3 antibodies derived from subtype-C infected Indian patients display neutralization potential against tier 1 viruses while such activity may be limited against more resistant tier 2 viruses. Defining the fine epitope

  10. Synthesis of single- and double-chain fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon galactosyl amphiphiles and their anti-HIV-1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroux-Corlay, B; Clary, L; Gadras, C; Hammache, D; Greiner, J; Santaella, C; Aubertin, A M; Vierling, P; Fantini, J

    2000-07-24

    Galactosylceramide (GalCer) is an alternative receptor allowing HIV-1 entry into CD4(-)/GalCer(+) cells. This glycosphingolipid recognizes the V3 loop of HIV gp120, which plays a key role in the fusion of the HIV envelope and cellular membrane. To inhibit HIV uptake and infection, we designed and synthesized analogs of GalCer. These amphiphiles and bolaamphiphiles consist of single and double hydrocarbon and/or fluorocarbon chain beta-linked to galactose and galactosamine. They derive from serine (GalSer), cysteine (GalCys), and ethanolamine (GalAE). The anti-HIV activity and cytotoxicity of these galactolipids were evaluated in vitro on CEM-SS (a CD4(+) cell line), HT-29, a CD4(-) cell line expressing high levels of GalCer receptor, and/or HT29 genetically modified to express CD4. GalSer and GalAE derivatives, tested in aqueous medium or as part of liposome preparation, showed moderate anti-HIV-1 activities (IC50 in the 20-220 microM range), whereas none of the GalCys derivatives was found to be active. Moreover, only some of these anti-HIV active analogs inhibited the binding of [3H]suramin (a polysulfonyl compound which displays a high affinity for the V3 loop) to SPC3, a synthetic peptide which contains the conserved GPGRAF region of the V3 loop. Our results most likely indicate that the neutralization of the virion through masking of this conserved V3 loop region is not the only mechanism involved in the HIV-1 antiviral activity of our GalCer analogs.

  11. HLA-DQBl*0402 alleles polymorphisms detected in Javanese HIV patients with positive anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Yulia; Haryati, Sri; Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Hartono, Adnan, Zainal Arifin

    2017-02-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQB1 gene polymorphisms may associated with the infection risk of Toxoplasma gondii in HIV patients. The HLA-DQB1*0402 in HIV-1-positive patients could be considered risk factors for developing neurological opportunistic infections, mainly Toxoplasma encephalitis. However, the HLA-DQB1*0402 gene polymorphisms status in the Javanese HIV patients is unknown. This study evaluated the prevalence of HLA-DQB*0402 alleles polymorphisms in Javanese HIV patients with positive anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM status. Since 2009 our research group performing a molecular epidemiology of blood borne viruses in Central Java Indonesia, by collecting the epidemiological and clinical data from the high risk communities. All blood samples were screened for blood borne pathogens by serological and molecular assays including for HIV and Toxoplasma gondii. The genomic DNA was isolated from the whole blood samples. Genetic polymorphisms of HLA-DQB1*0402 alleles were detected with polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSPs) technique. The genotypes were defined according to generated fragment patterns in the agarose gel electrophoresis analysis of PCR products. All of the samples were tested at least in duplicate. HLA-DQB1*0402 alleles were detected in 20.8% (16/77) patients and not detected in all HIV positive samples with negative anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM status (n= 200). The HLA-DQB1*0402 alleles polymorphisms were detected in Javanese HIV patients with positive anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM. The polymorphisms found may have association with the infection risk of Toxoplasma gondii in HIV patients.

  12. Trigocherrierin A, a Potent Inhibitor of Chikungunya Virus Replication

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    Mélanie Bourjot

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Trigocherrierin A (1 and trigocherriolide E (2, two new daphnane diterpenoid orthoesters (DDOs, and six chlorinated analogues, trigocherrins A, B, F and trigocherriolides A–C, were isolated from the leaves of Trigonostemon cherrieri. Their structures were identified by mass spectrometry, extensive one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and through comparison with data reported in the literature. These compounds are potent and selective inhibitors of chikungunya virus (CHIKV replication. Among the DDOs isolated, compound 1 exhibited the strongest anti-CHIKV activity (EC50 = 0.6 ± 0.1 µM, SI = 71.7.

  13. Role of seminal plasma in the anti-HIV-1 activity of candidate microbicides

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    Li Yun-Yao

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluation of microbicides for prevention of HIV-1 infection in macaque models for vaginal infection has indicated that the concentrations of active compounds needed for protection by far exceed levels sufficient for complete inhibition of infection in vitro. These experiments were done in the absence of seminal plasma (SP, a vehicle for sexual transmission of the virus. To gain insight into the possible effect of SP on the performance of selected microbicides, their anti-HIV-1 activity in the presence, and absence of SP, was determined. Methods The inhibitory activity of compounds against the X4 virus, HIV-1 IIIB, and the R5 virus, HIV-1 BaL was determined using TZM-bl indicator cells and quantitated by measuring β-galactosidase induced by infection. The virucidal properties of cellulose acetate 1,2-benzene-dicarboxylate (CAP, the only microbicide provided in water insoluble, micronized form, in the presence of SP was measured. Results The HIV-1 inhibitory activity of the polymeric microbicides, poly(naphthalene sulfonate, cellulose sulfate, carrageenan, CAP (in soluble form and polystyrene sulfonate, respectively, was considerably (range ≈ 4 to ≈ 73-fold diminished in the presence of SP (33.3%. Formulations of micronized CAP, providing an acidic buffering system even in the presence of an SP volume excess, effectively inactivated HIV-1 infectivity. Conclusion The data presented here suggest that the in vivo efficacy of polymeric microbicides, acting as HIV-1 entry inhibitors, might become at least partly compromised by the inevitable presence of SP. These possible disadvantages could be overcome by combining the respective polymers with acidic pH buffering systems (built-in for formulations of micronized CAP or with other anti-HIV-1 compounds, the activity of which is not affected by SP, e.g. reverse transcriptase and zinc finger inhibitors.

  14. Anti-gp120 minibody gene transfer to female genital epithelial cells protects against HIV-1 virus challenge in vitro.

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    Ussama M Abdel-Motal

    Full Text Available Although cervico-vaginal epithelial cells of the female lower genital tract provide the initial defense system against HIV-1 infection, the protection is sometimes incomplete. Thus, enhancing anti-HIV-1 humoral immunity at the mucosal cell surface by local expression of anti-HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (BnAb that block HIV-1 entry would provide an important new intervention that could slow the spread of HIV/AIDS.This study tested the hypothesis that adeno-associated virus (AAV-BnAb gene transfer to cervico-vaginal epithelial cells will lead to protection against HIV-1. Accordingly, a recombinant AAV vector that encodes human b12 anti-HIV gp120 BnAb as a single-chain variable fragment Fc fusion (scFvFc, or "minibody" was constructed. The secreted b12 minibody was shown to be biologically functional in binding to virus envelope protein, neutralizing HIV-1 and importantly, blocking transfer and infectivity of HIV-1(bal in an organotypic human vaginal epithelial cell (VEC model. Furthermore, cervico-vaginal epithelial stem cells were found to be efficiently transduced by the optimal AAV serotype mediated expression of GFP.This study provides the foundation for a novel microbicide strategy to protect against sexual transmission of HIV-1 by AAV transfer of broadly neutralizing antibody genes to cervico-vaginal epithelial stem cells that could replenish b12 BnAb secreting cells through multiple menstrual cycles.

  15. Anti-Stigma HIV-Related Social Advertising: No Evidence for Side Effects on Condom Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Florian; Hauck, Patricia; Mayr, Johanna; Negwer, Flavia

    2017-10-17

    Recent campaigns try to reduce social stigma associated with persons living with HIV. For example, a German campaign raised awareness that infection is unlikely in low-risk day-to-day interactions. Research has yet to show that there are no harmful side effects. This is essential because such messages promote a less threatening picture of HIV and thus may unintentionally increase complacency. We tested the possible side effects on the willingness to have sex without condoms. An experiment was conducted in which participants were exposed to anti-stigma messages or not. Anti-stigma messages did not elicit an increase in the willingness to have sex without condoms.

  16. K20E, an oxidative-coupling compound of methyl caffeate, exhibits anti-angiogenic activities through down-regulations of VEGF and VEGF receptor-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Chun-Hsu [Department of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Lin, Wen-Hsin; Chien, Yi-Chung; Liu, Fon-Chang; Sheu, Ming-Jyh [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung, E-mail: kuoyh@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Tsuzuki Institute for Traditional Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Department of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences and Chinese Medicine Resources, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chieh-Hsi, E-mail: chhswu@tmu.edu.tw [Department of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Department of Biological Science and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China)

    2015-01-15

    Anti-angiogenesis is one of the most popular clinical interventions for cancer chemotherapy. A series of synthesized derivative of methyl caffeate were used to evaluate the anti-angiogenic activity and to investigate possible pharmacological mechanisms in the present study. The most potent anti-angiogenic compound was evaluated in the experiments of murine allograft tumor model and Matrigel plug assay as well as cell models in the human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the LLC1 lung cancer cells. Our results suggested that K20E suppressed the tumor growth in the allograft tumor model and exhibited anti-angiogenic activity in Matrigel plug assay. Besides, HUVEC viability was found to be significantly reduced by arresting cell cycle at G{sub 2}/M phase and apoptosis. Cell migration, invasion, and tube formation of the HUVECs were also markedly suppressed by K20E treatment. K20E largely down-regulated the intracellular and secreted vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the LLC1 cancer cells. Besides, VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and its downstream signaling cascades (AKT-mTOR and MEK1/2-ERK1/2) as well as gelatinases were all evidently reduced in the HUVECs treated with K20E. Inversely, K20E can up-regulate the expression levels of p53 and p21 proteins in the HUVECs. Based on these results, our study suggested that K20E possessed inhibiting angiogenesis through regulation of VEGF/VEGFR-2 and its downstream signaling cascades in the vascular endothelial cells (VECs). - Highlights: • K20E is an oxidative-coupling compound of methyl caffeate. • K20E exhibits anti-tumor and anti-angiogenesis effects. • K20E suppresses the expressions of VEGF and VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) proteins. • K20E deactivates VEGFR-2-mediated downstream signaling pathways to inhibit angiogenesis. • K20E up-regulates p53-p21 pathway to induce apoptosis and cell arrest at G2/M phase.

  17. Outstanding Anti-inflammatory Potential of Selected Asteraceae Species through the Potent Dual Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-Lipoxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Paula, Daniela Aparecida; Oliveira, Tiago Branquinho; Faleiro, Danniela Príscylla Vasconcelos; Oliveira, Rejane Barbosa; Costa, Fernando Batista Da

    2015-09-01

    Cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase are enzymes that catalyze important inflammatory pathways, suggesting that dual cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase inhibitors should be more efficacious as anti-inflammatory medicines with lower side effects than the currently available nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Many plants from the family Asteraceae have anti-inflammatory activities, which could be exerted by inhibiting the cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-lipoxygenase enzymes. Nevertheless, only a small number of compounds from this family have been directly evaluated for their ability to inhibit the enzymes in cell-free assays. Therefore, this study systematically evaluated 57 Asteraceae extracts in vitro in enzyme activity experiments to determine whether any of these extracts exhibit dual inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-lipoxygenase. The chemical profiles of the extracts were obtained by the high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-diode array detector method, and their major constituents were dereplicated. Of the 57 tested extracts, 13 (26.6 %, IC50 range from 0.03-36.2 µg/mL) of them displayed dual inhibition. Extracts from known anti-inflammatory herbs, food plants, and previously uninvestigated species are among the most active. Additionally, the extract action was found to be specific with IC50 values close to or below those of the standard inhibitors. Thus, the active extracts and active substances of these species are potent inhibitors acting through the mechanism of dual inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-lipoxygenase. The extracts were prepared for this study using nontoxic extraction solvents (EtOH-H2O), requiring only a small amount of plant material to carry out the bioassays and the phytochemical analyses. In summary, this study demonstrated the potential of the investigated species as dual inhibitors, revealing their potential as pharmaceuticals or nutraceuticals. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. The HIV-1 transcriptional activator Tat has potent nucleic acid chaperoning activities in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuciak, Monika; Gabus, Caroline; Ivanyi-Nagy, Roland; Semrad, Katharina; Storchak, Roman; Chaloin, Olivier; Muller, Sylviane; Mély, Yves; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2008-06-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a primate lentivirus that causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In addition to the virion structural proteins and enzyme precursors, that are Gag, Env and Pol, HIV-1 encodes several regulatory proteins, notably a small nuclear transcriptional activator named Tat. The Tat protein is absolutely required for virus replication since it controls proviral DNA transcription to generate the full-length viral mRNA. Tat can also regulate mRNA capping and splicing and was recently found to interfere with the cellular mi- and siRNA machinery. Because of its extensive interplay with nucleic acids, and its basic and disordered nature we speculated that Tat had nucleic acid-chaperoning properties. This prompted us to examine in vitro the nucleic acid-chaperoning activities of Tat and Tat peptides made by chemical synthesis. Here we report that Tat has potent nucleic acid-chaperoning activities according to the standard DNA annealing, DNA and RNA strand exchange, RNA ribozyme cleavage and trans-splicing assays. The active Tat(44-61) peptide identified here corresponds to the smallest known sequence with DNA/RNA chaperoning properties.

  19. Novel dual small-molecule HIV inhibitors: scaffolds and discovery strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Anran; Yu, Haiqing; Wang, Changyuan; Zhu, Xingqi; Liu, Kexin; Ma, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Searching for safe and effective treatments for HIV infection is still a great challenge worldwide in spite of the 27 marketed anti-HIV drugs and the powerful highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). As a promising prospect for generation of new HIV therapy drugs, multiple ligands (MDLs) were greatly focused on recently due to their lower toxicity, simplified dosing and patient adherence than single-target drugs. Till now, by disrupting two active sites or steps of HIV replications, a number of HIV dual inhibitors, such as CD4-gssucap120 inhibitors, CXCR4-gp20 inhibitors, RT-CXCR4 inhibitors, RT-protease inhibitors, RT-integrase inhibitors, and RTassociated functions inhibitors have been identified. Generally, these dual inhibitors were discovered mainly through screening approaches and design strategies. Of these compounds, the molecules bearing small skeletons exhibited strong anti-HIV activity and aroused great attention recently. Reviewing the progress of the dual small-molecule HIV inhibitors from the point of view of their scaffolds and discovery strategies will provide valuable information for producing more effective anti-HIV drugs. In this regard, novel dual small-molecule HIV inhibitors were illustrated, and their discovery paradigms as the major contents were also summarized in this manuscript.

  20. New preclinical antimalarial drugs potently inhibit hepatitis C virus genotype 1b RNA replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youki Ueda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV infection causes chronic liver diseases and is a global health problem. Although new triple therapy (pegylated-interferon, ribavirin, and telaprevir/boceprevir has recently been started and is expected to achieve a sustained virologic response of more than 70% in HCV genotype 1 patients, there are several problems to be resolved, including skin rash/ageusia and advanced anemia. Thus a new type of anti-HCV drug is still needed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Recently developed HCV drug assay systems using HCV-RNA-replicating cells (e.g., HuH-7-derived OR6 and Li23-derived ORL8 were used to evaluate the anti-HCV activity of drug candidates. During the course of the evaluation of anti-HCV candidates, we unexpectedly found that two preclinical antimalarial drugs (N-89 and its derivative N-251 showed potent anti-HCV activities at tens of nanomolar concentrations irrespective of the cell lines and HCV strains of genotype 1b. We confirmed that replication of authentic HCV-RNA was inhibited by these drugs. Interestingly, however, this anti-HCV activity did not work for JFH-1 strain of genotype 2a. We demonstrated that HCV-RNA-replicating cells were cured by treatment with only N-89. A comparative time course assay using N-89 and interferon-α demonstrated that N-89-treated ORL8 cells had more rapid anti-HCV kinetics than did interferon-α-treated cells. This anti-HCV activity was largely canceled by vitamin E. In combination with interferon-α and/or ribavirin, N-89 or N-251 exhibited a synergistic inhibitory effect. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found that the preclinical antimalarial drugs N-89 and N-251 exhibited very fast and potent anti-HCV activities using cell-based HCV-RNA-replication assay systems. N-89 and N-251 may be useful as a new type of anti-HCV reagents when used singly or in combination with interferon and/or ribavirin.

  1. SCH-C (SCH 351125), an orally bioavailable, small molecule antagonist of the chemokine receptor CCR5, is a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 infection in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strizki, J M; Xu, S; Wagner, N E; Wojcik, L; Liu, J; Hou, Y; Endres, M; Palani, A; Shapiro, S; Clader, J W; Greenlee, W J; Tagat, J R; McCombie, S; Cox, K; Fawzi, A B; Chou, C C; Pugliese-Sivo, C; Davies, L; Moreno, M E; Ho, D D; Trkola, A; Stoddart, C A; Moore, J P; Reyes, G R; Baroudy, B M

    2001-10-23

    We describe here the identification and properties of SCH-C (SCH 351125), a small molecule inhibitor of HIV-1 entry via the CCR5 coreceptor. SCH-C, an oxime-piperidine compound, is a specific CCR5 antagonist as determined in multiple receptor binding and signal transduction assays. This compound specifically inhibits HIV-1 infection mediated by CCR5 in U-87 astroglioma cells but has no effect on infection of CXCR4-expressing cells. SCH-C has broad and potent antiviral activity in vitro against primary HIV-1 isolates that use CCR5 as their entry coreceptor, with mean 50% inhibitory concentrations ranging between 0.4 and 9 nM. Moreover, SCH-C strongly inhibits the replication of an R5-using HIV-1 isolate in SCID-hu Thy/Liv mice. SCH-C has a favorable pharmacokinetic profile in rodents and primates with an oral bioavailability of 50-60% and a serum half-life of 5-6 h. On the basis of its novel mechanism of action, potent antiviral activity, and in vivo pharmacokinetic profile, SCH-C is a promising new candidate for therapeutic intervention of HIV infection.

  2. Synthesis of highly anti-HIV active sulfated poly- and oligo-saccharides and analysis of their action mechanisms by NMR [nuclear magnetic resonance] spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uryu, Toshiyuki

    1998-01-01

    We have been synthesizing sulfated polysaccharides and oligosaccharides with highly anti-HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) activities. It has been known that sulfated polysaccharides such as dextran sulfate and pentosan polysulfate have biological activities such as anticoagulant activity and recently anti-HIV activity. Curdlan sulfate having 1,3-β-linked glucan backbone had high anti-HIV activity but low anticoagulant activity. Phase I/II test for the curdlan sulfate as an AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) drug was carried out in the United States. In this study, regioselectivity sulfatec curdlan sulfates were prepared in order to study effects of sulfate groups and conformation of curdlan sulfates. In addition, action mechanisms of curdlan sulfate as anti-AIDS drug and of heparin as an anticoagulant were examined by means of NMR spectroscopy. 1. Structure dependence of anti-HIV and anticoagulant activities of sulfated polysaccharides. Curdlan with M n 9000 was regioselectively sulfated on its hydroxyl groups at 6, 4, and 2 positions. Those were a curdlan sulfate 62S in which 100% of 6-OH, and about 50% of 2-OH was sulfated, a curdlan sulfate 42S in which 4- and 2-OH's were sulfated, and a curdlan sulfate in which 6, 4, and 2-OH's were partially sulfated. All curdlan sulfates had very high anti-HIV activities exhibited by the drug concentration of 50% inhibition of infection, i.e., EC 50 of 0.04 - 0.25 μg/mL. However, there was almost no difference in the activity among the samples. Therefore, it was revealed that the degree of sulfation and putative conformation of the curdlan sulfates but not the position of sulfate groups have large effects on the anti-HIV activity. On the other hand, the anticoagulant activity increased with increasing molecular weight of the curdlan sulfates. As a result, it is assumed that the size of reaction sites of the virus protein reacting with curdlan sulfate is different from that of the proteins related to anticoagulant

  3. Short communication: Anti-HIV-1 envelope immunoglobulin Gs in blood and cervicovaginal samples of Beninese commercial sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batraville, Laurie-Anne; Richard, Jonathan; Veillette, Maxime; Labbé, Annie-Claude; Alary, Michel; Guédou, Fernand; Kaufmann, Daniel E; Poudrier, Johanne; Finzi, Andrés; Roger, Michel

    2014-11-01

    Characterization of the immune correlates of protection against HIV infection is crucial for the development of preventive strategies. This study examined HIV-1 envelope (Env) glycoproteins, specifically immunoglobulin G (IgG), in systemic and mucosal compartments of female Beninese commercial sex workers (CSWs). Samples of 23 HIV-1-positive and 20 highly exposed HIV-1-seronegative (HESN) CSWs were studied. HIV-1 Env-specific IgG detection in sera and cervicovaginal lavages (CVLs) from the study population was done by cell-based ELISA. The HIV neutralizing activity was evaluated with a neutralization assay. The HIV-1-specific antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) response of the cohort was measured with a FACS-based assay evaluating the ADCC-mediated elimination of gp120-coated target cells. No anti-HIV-1 Env-specific IgG neutralizing or ADCC activities were detected in samples from HESN CSWs. Samples from HIV-1-infected CSWs presented ADCC activity in both sera and CVLs. Anti-Env IgG from sera and CVLs from HIV-1-infected CSWs preferentially recognized Env in its CD4-bound conformation. HIV-1-infected CSWs have ADCC-mediating IgG that preferentially recognizes Env in its CD4-bound conformation at the mucosal site.

  4. Synthesis and Anti-HIV-1 Activity of New MKC-442 Analogues with an Alkynyl-Substituted 6-Benzyl Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aly, Youssef L.; Pedersen, Erik Bjerreg.; La Colla, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Synthesis and antiviral activities are reported of a series of 6-(3-alkynyl benzyl)-substituted analogues of MKC-442 (6-benzyl-1-(ethoxymethyl)-5-isopropyluracil), a highly potent agent against HIV. The 3-alkynyl group is assumed to give a better stacking of the substituted benzyl group to reverse...... transcriptase (RT) and this was believed to improve antiviral activity against HIV-1. The bromo derivatives, 5-alkyl-6-(3-bromo-benzyl)-1-ethoxymethyl derivatives 7a, b and 5-alkyl-6-(3-bromobenzyl)-1-allyloxymethyl derivatives 9a, b, showed activity against HIV on the same level as their corresponding...

  5. Developing a community-level anti-HIV/AIDS stigma and homophobia intervention in new York city: The project CHHANGE model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Victoria; Paige, Mark Q; Gordon, Steven; Matthews, David; Musgrave, Geneva; Kornegay, Mark; Greene, Emily; Phelan, Jo C; Koblin, Beryl A; Taylor-Akutagawa, Vaughn

    2017-08-01

    HIV/AIDS stigma and homophobia are associated with significant negative health and social outcomes among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and those at risk of infection. Interventions to decrease HIV stigma have focused on providing information and education, changing attitudes and values, and increasing contact with people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), activities that act to reduce stereotyped beliefs and prejudice, as well as acts of discrimination. Most anti-homophobia interventions have focused on bullying reduction and have been implemented at the secondary and post-secondary education levels. Few interventions address HIV stigma and homophobia and operate at the community level. Project CHHANGE, Challenge HIV Stigma and Homophobia and Gain Empowerment, was a community-level, multi-component anti-HIV/AIDS stigma and homophobia intervention designed to reduce HIV stigma and homophobia thus increasing access to HIV prevention and treatment access. The theory-based intervention included three primary components: workshops and trainings with local residents, businesses and community-based organizations (CBO); space-based events at a CBO-partner drop-in storefront and "pop-up" street-based events and outreach; and a bus shelter ad campaign. This paper describes the intervention design process, resultant intervention and the study team's experiences working with the community. We conclude that CHHANGE was feasible and acceptable to the community. Promoting the labeling of gay and/or HIV-related "space" as a non-stigmatized, community resource, as well as providing opportunities for residents to have contact with targeted groups and to understand how HIV stigma and homophobia relate to HIV/AIDS prevalence in their neighborhood may be crucial components of successful anti-stigma and discrimination programming. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Non-adherence to anti-TB drugs among TB/HIV co-infected patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-adherence to anti-TB drugs among TB/HIV co-infected patients in Mbarara Hospital ... and its associated factors have not been studied in these patients in Uganda. ... Methods: A cross-sectional study with qualitative and quantitative data ...

  7. The dual action of poly(ADP-ribose polymerase -1 (PARP-1 inhibition in HIV-1 infection: HIV-1 LTR inhibition and diminution in Rho GTPase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slava eRom

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The transcription of HIV-1 (HIV is regulated by complex mechanisms involving various cellular factors and virus-encoded transactivators. Poly(ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1 inhibition has emerged recently as a potent anti-inflammatory tool, since PARP-1 is involved in the regulation of some genes through its interaction with various transcription factors. We propose a novel approach to diminish HIV replication via PARP-1 inhibition using human primary monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM as an in vitro model system. PARP-1 inhibitors were able to reduce HIV replication in MDM by 60-80% after 7 days infection. Long Terminal Repeat (LTR acts as a switch in virus replication and can be triggered by several agents such as: Tat, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα, and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA. Overexpression of Tat in MDM transfected with an LTR reporter plasmid led to a 4.2-fold increase in LTR activation; PARP inhibition resulted in 70% reduction of LTR activity. LTR activity, which increased 3-fold after PMA or TNFα treatment, was reduced by PARP inhibition (by 85-95%. MDM treated with PARP inhibitors showed 90% reduction in NFκB activity (known to mediate PMA- and TNFα-induced HIV LTR activation. Cytoskeleton rearrangements are important in effective HIV-1 infection. PARP inactivation reduced actin cytoskeleton rearrangements by affecting Rho GTPase machinery. These findings suggest that HIV replication in MDM could be suppressed by PARP inhibition via NFκB suppression, diminution of LTR activation and its effects on the cytoskeleton. PARP appears to be essential for HIV replication and its inhibition may provide a potent approach to treatment of HIV infection.

  8. Extracellular histones identified in crocodile blood inhibit in-vitro HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Hannah N; Lai, Eric T L; Havugimana, Pierre C; White, Carl; Emili, Andrew; Sakac, Darinka; Binnington, Beth; Neschadim, Anton; McCarthy, Stephen D S; Branch, Donald R

    2016-08-24

    It has been reported that crocodile blood contains potent antibacterial and antiviral properties. However, its effects on HIV-1 infection remain unknown. We obtained blood from saltwater crocodiles to examine whether serum or plasma could inhibit HIV-1 infection. We purified plasma fractions then used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify the inhibitory protein factor(s). We then analyzed the ability of recombinant proteins to recapitulate HIV-1 inhibition and determine their mechanism of action. Crocodylus porosus plasma was tested for inhibition of Jurkat T-cell HIV-1 infection. Inhibitor(s) were purified by reverse-phase chromatography then identified by protein liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anti-HIV-1 activity of purified plasma or recombinant proteins were measured by p24 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and luciferase readouts, and mechanism of action was determined by measuring HIV-1 RNA, cDNA and transcription (using 1G5 cells). Crocodile plasma contains potent inhibitors of HIV-1IIIB infection, which were identified as histones. Recombinant human histones H1 and H2A significantly reduced HIV-1JR-FL infection (IC50 of 0.79 and 0.45 μmol/l, respectively), whereas H4 enhanced JR-FL luciferase activity. The inhibitory effects of crocodile plasma, recombinant H1 or recombinant H2A on HIV-1 infection were during or post-viral transcription. Circulating histones in crocodile blood, possibly released by neutrophil extracellular traps, are significant inhibitors of HIV-1 infection in-vitro. Extracellular recombinant histones have different effects on HIV-1 transcription and protein expression and are downregulated in HIV-1 patients. Circulating histones may be a novel resistance factor during HIV-1 infection, and peptide versions should be explored as future HIV-1 therapeutics that modulate viral transcription.

  9. Nucleic acid amplification of HIV-1 integrase sequence subtypes CRF01_AE and B for development of HIV anti-integrase drug resistance genotyping assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlar, F. R.; Bela, B.

    2017-08-01

    To anticipate the potential use of anti-integrase drugs in Indonesia for treatment of HIV-1 infection, the development of a drug resistance genotyping assay for anti-integrase is crucial in identifying the genetic drug resistance profile of Indonesian HIV-1 strains. This experiment aimed to amplify a target region in the integrase gene of Indonesian HIV-1 subtypes CRF01_AE and B that contain genetic mutations known to confer resistance to anti-integrase drug. Eleven archived plasma samples from individuals living with HIV-1 were obtained from the Virology and Cancer Pathobiology Research Center for Health Service (VCPRC FKUI-RSCM) laboratory. One of the plasma samples contained HIV-1 subtype B, and the remaining plasma samples contained subtype CRF01_AE. The target regions for all samples were amplified through RT-PCR, with an annealing temperature of 55 °C, using the primer pair AE_POL 4086F and AE_POL 5232R that were designed by VCPRC FKUI-RSCM. The results of this experiment show that 18.2% (2/11) of the samples were successfully amplified using the one-step RT-PCR. While the primer pair was effective in amplifying the target region in the integrase gene sequence for subtype B (100%; 1/1), it had a low efficacy (10%, 1/10) for subtype CRF01_AE. In conclusion, the primer pair can be used to amplify the target region in Indonesian HIV-1 strain subtypes CRF01_AE and B. However, optimization of the PCR condition and an increased number of samples would help to determine an accurate representation of the efficacy of the primer pair.

  10. Alkaloids from the Sponge Stylissa carteri Present Prospective Scaffolds for the Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1)

    KAUST Repository

    O’Rourke, Aubrie

    2016-02-04

    The sponge Stylissa carteri is known to produce a number of secondary metabolites displaying anti-fouling, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activity. However, the anti-viral potential of metabolites produced by S. carteri has not been extensively explored. In this study, an S. carteri extract was HPLC fractionated and a cell based assay was used to evaluate the effects of HPLC fractions on parameters of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) infection and cell viability. Candidate HIV-1 inhibitory fractions were then analyzed for the presence of potential HIV-1 inhibitory compounds by mass spectrometry, leading to the identification of three previously characterized compounds, i.e., debromohymenialdisine (DBH), hymenialdisine (HD), and oroidin. Commercially available purified versions of these molecules were re-tested to assess their antiviral potential in greater detail. Specifically, DBH and HD exhibit a 30%–40% inhibition of HIV-1 at 3.1 μM and 13 μM, respectively; however, both exhibited cytotoxicity. Conversely, oroidin displayed a 50% inhibition of viral replication at 50 μM with no associated toxicity. Additional experimentation using a biochemical assay revealed that oroidin inhibited the activity of the HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase up to 90% at 25 μM. Taken together, the chemical search space was narrowed and previously isolated compounds with an unexplored anti-viral potential were found. Our results support exploration of marine natural products for anti-viral drug discovery.

  11. Synergy against drug-resistant HIV-1 with the microbicide antiretrovirals, dapivirine and tenofovir, in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schader, Susan M; Colby-Germinario, Susan P; Schachter, Jordana R; Xu, Hongtao; Wainberg, Mark A

    2011-08-24

    To evaluate the candidate antiretroviral microbicide compounds, dapivirine (DAP) and tenofovir (TFV), alone and in combination against the transmission of wild-type and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-resistant HIV-1 from different subtypes. We determined single-drug efficacy of the RTIs, DAP and TFV, against subtype B and non-B wild-type and NNRTI-resistant HIV-1 in vitro. To assess breadth of activity, compounds were tested alone and in combination against wild-type and NNRTI-resistant subtype C primary HIV-1 isolates and complimentary clonal HIV-1 from subtypes B, C and CRF02_AG to control for viral variation. Early infection was quantified by counting light units emitted from TZM-bl cells less than 48-h postinfection. Combination ratios were based on drug inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) and combined effects were determined by calculating combination indices. Both candidate microbicide antiretrovirals demonstrated potent anti-NNRTI-resistant HIV-1 activity in vitro, albeit the combination protected better than the single-drug treatments. Of particular interest, the DAP with TFV combination exhibited synergy (50% combination index, CI(50) = 0.567) against subtype C NNRTI-resistant HIV-1, whereas additivity (CI(50) = 0.987) was observed against the wild-type counterpart from the same patient. The effect was not compounded by the presence of subdominant viral fractions, as experiments using complimentary clonal subtype C wild-type (CI(50) = 0.968) and NNRTI-resistant (CI(50) = 0.672) HIV-1, in lieu of the patient quasispecies, gave similar results. This study supports the notion that antiretroviral drug combinations may retain antiviral activity against some drug-resistant HIV-1 despite subtype classification and quasispecies diversity.

  12. Turmeric and laurel aqueous extracts exhibit in vitro anti-atherosclerotic activity and in vivo hypolipidemic effects in a zebrafish model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Seori; Hong, Joo-Heon; Jung, Seung-Hyeon; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2011-03-01

    Culinary herbs and spices have been widely used for their hypoglycemic, lipid-lowering, and anti-inflammatory activities. This study examined the physiologic activity of hydrophilic components using extracts of turmeric or laurel leaf powder. Aqueous extracts of turmeric and laurel showed potent inhibitory activity against fructose-mediated glycation with antioxidant ability against low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and radical scavenging activity. The turmeric and laurel extracts had potent cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitory ability (up to 23% and 40% inhibition, respectively) at a final concentration of 10 μg/mL. The turmeric and laurel extracts inhibited the cellular uptake of oxidized LDL into macrophages, which is the initial step in atherogenesis. For in vivo testing, zebrafish consumed a high cholesterol diet (HCD) (final concentration, 4% [wt/wt]) with or without turmeric or laurel powder (final concentration, 10% [wt/wt]). The turmeric and laurel groups had a 14% and 12% decrease, respectively, in the weight and height ratios compared to the HCD group. The plasma total cholesterol level was significantly lower in the turmeric and laurel groups (48% and 28% less, respectively, than in the HCD group). Plasma triglycerides were more markedly reduced in the turmeric and laurel groups than in the HCD group (68% and 56% less, respectively, than the HCD group). In conclusion, the hydrophilic extracts of turmeric and laurel potently suppressed the incidence of atherosclerosis via a strong antioxidant potential, prevention of apolipoprotein A-I glycation and LDL phagocytosis, and inhibition of CETP. Consumption of turmeric and laurel extracts exhibited hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities in a hypercholesterolemic zebrafish model.

  13. Synergistic activity profile of griffithsin in combination with tenofovir, maraviroc and enfuvirtide against HIV-1 clade C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferir, Geoffrey; Palmer, Kenneth E.; Schols, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Griffithsin (GRFT) is possibly the most potent anti-HIV peptide found in natural sources. Due to its potent and broad-spectrum antiviral activity and unique safety profile it has great potential as topical microbicide component. Here, we evaluated various combinations of GRFT against HIV-1 clade B and clade C isolates in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in CD4 + MT-4 cells. In all combinations tested, GRFT showed synergistic activity profile with tenofovir, maraviroc and enfuvirtide based on the median effect principle with combination indices (CI) varying between 0.34 and 0.79 at the calculated EC 95 level. Furthermore, the different glycosylation patterns on the viral envelope of clade B and clade C gp120 had no observable effect on the synergistic interactions. Overall, we can conclude that the evaluated two-drug combination increases their antiviral potency and supports further clinical investigations in pre-exposure prophylaxis for GRFT combinations in the context of HIV-1 clade C infection.

  14. Molecular cloning and anti-HIV-1 activities of APOBEC3s from northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Liang ZHANG

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Northern pig-tailed macaques (NPMs, Macaca leonina are susceptible to HIV-1 infection largely due to the loss of HIV-1-restricting factor TRIM5α. However, great impediments still exist in the persistent replication of HIV-1 in vivo, suggesting some viral restriction factors are reserved in this host. The APOBEC3 proteins have demonstrated a capacity to restrict HIV-1 replication, but their inhibitory effects in NPMs remain elusive. In this study, we cloned the NPM A3A-A3H genes, and determined by BLAST searching that their coding sequences (CDSs showed 99% identity to the corresponding counterparts from rhesus and southern pig-tailed macaques. We further analyzed the anti-HIV-1 activities of the A3A-A3H genes, and found that A3G and A3F had the greatest anti-HIV-1 activity compared with that of other members. The results of this study indicate that A3G and A3F might play critical roles in limiting HIV-1 replication in NPMs in vivo. Furthermore, this research provides valuable information for the optimization of monkey models of HIV-1 infection.

  15. New anti-HIV-1, antimalarial, and antifungal compounds from Terminalia bellerica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsaraj, R; Pushpangadan, P; Smitt, U W

    1997-01-01

    A bioactivity-guided fractionation of an extract of Terminalia bellerica fruit rind led to the isolation of two new lignans named termilignan (1) and thannilignan (2), together with 7-hydroxy-3',4'-(methylenedioxy)flavan (3) and anolignan B (4). All four compounds possessed demonstrable anti-HIV-......, antimalarial, and antifungal activity in vitro....

  16. Analysis of Select Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) Proteins for Restriction of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1): HSV-1 gM Protein Potently Restricts HIV-1 by Preventing Intracellular Transport and Processing of Env gp160.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polpitiya Arachchige, Sachith; Henke, Wyatt; Pramanik, Ankita; Kalamvoki, Maria; Stephens, Edward B

    2018-01-15

    Virus-encoded proteins that impair or shut down specific host cell functions during replication can be used as probes to identify potential proteins/pathways used in the replication of viruses from other families. We screened nine proteins from herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) for the ability to enhance or restrict human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. We show that several HSV-1 proteins (glycoprotein M [gM], US3, and UL24) potently restricted the replication of HIV-1. Unlike UL24 and US3, which reduced viral protein synthesis, we observed that gM restriction of HIV-1 occurred through interference with the processing and transport of gp160, resulting in a significantly reduced level of mature gp120/gp41 released from cells. Finally, we show that an HSV-1 gM mutant lacking the majority of the C-terminal domain (HA-gM[Δ345-473]) restricted neither gp160 processing nor the release of infectious virus. These studies identify proteins from heterologous viruses that can restrict viruses through novel pathways. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 infection of humans results in AIDS, characterized by the loss of CD4 + T cells and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. Both HIV-1 and HSV-1 can infect astrocytes and microglia of the central nervous system (CNS). Thus, the identification of HSV-1 proteins that directly restrict HIV-1 or interfere with pathways required for HIV-1 replication could lead to novel antiretroviral strategies. The results of this study show that select viral proteins from HSV-1 can potently restrict HIV-1. Further, our results indicate that the gM protein of HSV-1 restricts HIV-1 through a novel pathway by interfering with the processing of gp160 and its incorporation into virus maturing from the cell. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. Assessing the effects of anti-homosexuality legislation in Uganda on HIV prevention, treatment, and care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semugoma, Paul; Beyrer, Chris; Baral, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Uganda's response to the HIV epidemic has been lauded for its robustness and achievements. However, a key component of HIV prevention programming has been missing, for men who have sex with men (MSM). The main reason cited has been criminalization of male homosexual behavior. In 2009, the Anti-Homosexuality Bill (AHB) was introduced in the parliament to enhance existing anti-homosexuality law. A multi-disciplinary team made a Health Impact Assessment of the proposed AHB. The bill as tabled would severely increase punishments, increased closeting. Social capital of MSM would be eroded by clauses mandating reporting by friends, relatives, and acquaintances. Health-care professionals would have to inform on homosexuals. Mandatory HIV testing would be a blow to programming. Probable disclosure of HIV status in a public space (court) would also be a deterrent. Heftier punishments for those testing positive increases stigma and hobbles subsequent care. The AHB argues for exclusion, and more discrimination targeting persons living with HIV and sexual minorities. It will exacerbate the negative public health consequences of the existing legislation. The government of Uganda should review guidance documents published by authoritative bodies including the World Bank, World Health Organization to develop and bring to scale Human rights-affirming HIV prevention, treatment, and care responses.

  18. Structure and function of broadly reactive antibody PG16 reveal an H3 subdomain that mediates potent neutralization of HIV-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pejchal, Robert; Walker, Laura M.; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Phogat, Sanjay K.; Koff, Wayne C.; Poignard, Pascal; Burton, Dennis R.; Wilson, Ian A. (Scripps); (IAVI)

    2010-11-15

    Development of an effective vaccine against HIV-1 will likely require elicitation of broad and potent neutralizing antibodies against the trimeric surface envelope glycoprotein (Env). Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) PG9 and PG16 neutralize {approx}80% of HIV-1 isolates across all clades with extraordinary potency and target novel epitopes preferentially expressed on Env trimers. As these neutralization properties are ideal for a vaccine-elicited antibody response to HIV-1, their structural basis was investigated. The crystal structure of the antigen-binding fragment (Fab) of PG16 at 2.5 {angstrom} resolution revealed its unusually long, 28-residue, complementarity determining region (CDR) H3 forms a unique, stable subdomain that towers above the antibody surface. A 7-residue 'specificity loop' on the 'hammerhead' subdomain was identified that, when transplanted from PG16 to PG9 and vice versa, accounted for differences in the fine specificity and neutralization of these two mAbs. The PG16 electron density maps also revealed that a CDR H3 tyrosine was sulfated, which was confirmed for both PG9 (doubly) and PG16 (singly) by mass spectral analysis. We further showed that tyrosine sulfation plays a role in binding and neutralization. An N-linked glycan modification is observed in the variable light chain, but not required for antigen recognition. Further, the crystal structure of the PG9 light chain at 3.0 {angstrom} facilitated homology modeling to support the presence of these unusual features in PG9. Thus, PG9 and PG16 use unique structural features to mediate potent neutralization of HIV-1 that may be of utility in antibody engineering and for high-affinity recognition of a variety of therapeutic targets.

  19. Seroprevalence of anti-HCV and hepatitis B surface antigen in HIV infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tankhiwale S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is known to influence the natural history of infections with certain hepatitis viruses and interactions between HIV and hepatitis viruses may potentiate HIV replication. There is high degree of epidemiological similarity between hepatitis B virus and HIV as regard to high-risk group and route of transmission. Transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV through blood transfusion and intravenous drug abuse is well documented. Present study deals with the study of concurrent infection of HBV and HCV with HIV infection. In the study of 110 HIV seropositive patients, 34(30.4% were positive for HBV and 8(7.27% for HCV. The difference of concomitant infection was highly significant compared to controls. (p value < 0.0001. Heterosexual high risk behaviour was observed in 89(80.91% of 110 HIV positive patients, out of which 23(25.8% and 5(5.62% were HBsAg and anti-HCV positive respectively. History of transmission was unclear in remaining patients. Concomitant infection of HIV and HBV was found to be significantly more in the symptomatic group (40.68% compared to asymptomatic group (19.6%. As HIV infection is known to affect the natural history of both HBV and HCV infection, screening of their concurrent association is necessary.

  20. Neutralizing Activity of Broadly Neutralizing Anti-HIV-1 Antibodies against Clade B Clinical Isolates Produced in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Yehuda Z; Lorenzi, Julio C C; Seaman, Michael S; Nogueira, Lilian; Schoofs, Till; Krassnig, Lisa; Butler, Allison; Millard, Katrina; Fitzsimons, Tomas; Daniell, Xiaoju; Dizon, Juan P; Shimeliovich, Irina; Montefiori, David C; Caskey, Marina; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2018-03-01

    Recently discovered broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against HIV-1 demonstrate extensive breadth and potency against diverse HIV-1 strains and represent a promising approach for the treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection. The breadth and potency of these antibodies have primarily been evaluated by using panels of HIV-1 Env-pseudotyped viruses produced in 293T cells expressing molecularly cloned Env proteins. Here we report on the ability of five bNAbs currently in clinical development to neutralize circulating primary HIV-1 isolates derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and compare the results to those obtained with the pseudovirus panels used to characterize the bNAbs. The five bNAbs demonstrated significantly less breadth and potency against clinical isolates produced in PBMCs than against Env-pseudotyped viruses. The magnitude of this difference in neutralizing activity varied, depending on the antibody epitope. Glycan-targeting antibodies showed differences of only 3- to 4-fold, while antibody 10E8, which targets the membrane-proximal external region, showed a nearly 100-fold decrease in activity between published Env-pseudotyped virus panels and PBMC-derived primary isolates. Utilizing clonal PBMC-derived primary isolates and molecular clones, we determined that the observed discrepancy in bNAb performance is due to the increased sensitivity to neutralization exhibited by 293T-produced Env-pseudotyped viruses. We also found that while full-length molecularly cloned viruses produced in 293T cells exhibit greater sensitivity to neutralization than PBMC-derived viruses do, Env-pseudotyped viruses produced in 293T cells generally exhibit even greater sensitivity to neutralization. As the clinical development of bNAbs progresses, it will be critical to determine the relevance of each of these in vitro neutralization assays to in vivo antibody performance. IMPORTANCE Novel therapeutic and preventive strategies are needed to contain the

  1. Identification of anti-HIV active dicaffeoylquinic- and tricaffeoylquinic acids in Helichrysum populifolium by NMR-based metabolomic guided fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Heino Martin; Senejoux, François; Seibert, Isabell; Klimkait, Thomas; Maharaj, Vinesh Jaichand; Meyer, Jacobus Johannes Marion

    2015-06-01

    South Africa being home to more than 35% of the world's Helichrysum species (c.a. 244) of which many are used in traditional medicine, is seen potentially as a significant resource in the search of new anti-HIV chemical entities. It was established that five of the 30 Helichrysum species selected for this study had significant anti-HIV activity ranging between 12 and 21 μg/mL (IC50) by using an in-house developed DeCIPhR method on a full virus model. Subsequent toxicity tests also revealed little or no toxicity for these active extracts. With the use of NMR-based metabolomics, the search for common chemical characteristics within the plant extract was conducted, which resulted in specific chemical shift areas identified that could be linked to the anti-HIV activity of the extracts. The NMR chemical shifts associated with the activity were identified to be 2.56-3.08 ppm, 5.24-6.28 ppm, 6.44-7.04 ppm and 7.24-8.04 ppm. This activity profile was then used to guide the fractionation process by narrowing down and focusing the fractionation and purification processes to speed up the putative identification of five compounds with anti-HIV activity in the most active species, Helichrysum populifolium. The anti-HIV compounds identified for the first time from H. populifolium were three dicaffeoylquinic acid derivatives, i.e. 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid as well as two tricaffeoylquinic acid derivatives i.e. 1,3,5-tricaffeoylquinic acid and either 5-malonyl-1,3,4-tricaffeoylquinic or 3-malonyl-1,4,5-tricaffeoylquinic acid, with the latter being identified for the first time in the genus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A randomized trial to assess anti-HIV activity in female genital tract secretions and soluble mucosal immunity following application of 1% tenofovir gel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla J Keller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical and early phase clinical microbicide studies have not consistently predicted the outcome of efficacy trials. To address this gap, candidate biomarkers of microbicide pharmacodynamics and safety were evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of tenofovir gel, the first microbicide to demonstrate significant protection against HIV acquisition.30 women were randomized to apply a single daily dose of tenofovir or placebo gel for 14 consecutive days. Anti-HIV activity was measured in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL on Days 0, 3, 7, 14 and 21 by luciferase assay as a surrogate marker of pharmacodynamics. Endogenous activity against E. coli and HSV-2 and concentrations of immune mediators were quantified in CVL as candidate biomarkers of safety. Tenofovir levels were measured in CVL and blood.A significant increase in anti-HIV activity was detected in CVL from women who applied tenofovir gel compared to their endogenous anti-HIV activity in genital tract secretions on Day 0 and compared to activity in CVL from women in the placebo group. The activity correlated significantly with CVL concentration of tenofovir (r = 0.6, p<0.001 and fit a sigmoid E(max pharmacodynamic model. Anti-HIV activity in CVL from women who applied tenofovir persisted when virus was introduced in semen, whereas endogenous anti-HIV activity decreased. Tenofovir did not trigger an inflammatory response or induce sustained loss in endogenous antimicrobial activity or immune mediators.Tenofovir gel had no deleterious impact on soluble mucosal immunity. The increased anti-HIV activity in CVL, which persisted in the presence of semen and correlated with tenofovir concentration, is consistent with the efficacy observed in a recent clinical trial. These results promote quantified CVL anti-HIV activity as a surrogate of tissue pharmacodynamics and as a potential biomarker of adherence to product. This simple, feasible and inexpensive bioassay may promote the development

  3. Histone deacetylase inhibitors: can we consider potent anti-neoplastic agents for the treatment of asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, Simon G; Ververis, Katherine; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2012-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors have emerged as a new class of anti-cancer therapeutics due to their potent anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects in malignant cells. Accumulating evidence is indicating that histone deacetylase inhibitors may also have potential clinical utility in non-oncological applications, including asthma. However, the potential of histone deacetylase inhibitors in asthma remains controversial. For example, the mechanisms of action of the broad-spectrum histone deacetylase inhibitor, Trichostatin A, in animal models of allergic airways disease are conflicting. Further, there is evidence suggesting potential problems associated with histone deacetylase 2 inhibition and conventional glucocorticosteroid therapy. Similarly, disparate findings are emerging following modulation of the class III, sirtuin 1 enzyme. Indeed, it is becoming apparent that the mechanism of action may not be related to histone deacetylase inhibition activity per se. Further, there is only limited evidence that these compounds possess anti-inflammatory effects in models of asthma. In this review, we provide an overview of the biology of the metal-dependent and sirtuin deacetylases in the context of asthma. The controversies surrounding the potential use of histone deacetylase inhibitors in asthma are discussed and future directions involving the investigation of more specific analogues are explored.

  4. A Single Domain–Based Anti-Her2 Antibody Has Potent Antitumor Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiong Wu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 is overexpressed in approximately 20% to 30% of breast cancers and various other types of cancers, which plays a vital role in the cancer progression. Monoclonal antibodies targeting Her2 are now used in the clinic to treat Her2 overexpression cancer patients. However, relapse or resistance is frequent with the current therapies. To generate a new treatment avenue against Her2, we immunized and selected a specific anti-Her2 single domain antibody C3 for further studies. The C3-Fc antibody drove antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity against Her2-positive tumor cells in vitro and resulted in potent antitumor growth in vivo. These data suggest that the C3-Fc antibody may provide an alternative avenue for Her2-positive cancer therapy.

  5. Assessment of Anti-inflammatory Activity of Taxus Baccata Linn. Bark Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Satyajit; Mariappan, G; Sarkar, Dipankar; Sarkar, Piyali

    2010-01-01

    Taxus baccata (L) known as Sthauneyaka in Sanskrit(1) has wide range of biological activities including analgesic, anti-malarial, anti-rheumatic, sedative, anti-spasmodic, aphrodisiac and anti-asthmatic. In the present study, the dried and powdered bark of Taxus baccata (L) was extracted with 95% ethanol and ether at room temperature and screened for their anti--inflammatory activity by Carrageenan-induced paw edema method in rat. 95% ethanol extract exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activity at 200mg/kg four hours after administration in comparison with ether extract, as well reference standard, Aspirin. The observed pharmacological activities provide a scientific basis for the folklore use of the plant in treating acute inflammation.

  6. Pyrazole compound BPR1P0034 with potent and selective anti-influenza virus activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh Jiann-Yih

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza viruses are a major cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. More recently, a swine-origin influenza A (H1N1 virus that is spreading via human-to-human transmission has become a serious public concern. Although vaccination is the primary strategy for preventing infections, influenza antiviral drugs play an important role in a comprehensive approach to controlling illness and transmission. In addition, a search for influenza-inhibiting drugs is particularly important in the face of high rate of emergence of influenza strains resistant to several existing influenza antivirals. Methods We searched for novel anti-influenza inhibitors using a cell-based neutralization (inhibition of virus-induced cytopathic effect assay. After screening 20,800 randomly selected compounds from a library from ChemDiv, Inc., we found that BPR1P0034 has sub-micromolar antiviral activity. The compound was resynthesized in five steps by conventional chemical techniques. Lead optimization and a structure-activity analysis were used to improve potency. Time-of-addition assay was performed to target an event in the virus life cycle. Results The 50% effective inhibitory concentration (IC50 of BPR1P0034 was 0.42 ± 0.11 μM, when measured with a plaque reduction assay. Viral protein and RNA synthesis of A/WSN/33 (H1N1 was inhibited by BPR1P0034 and the virus-induced cytopathic effects were thus significantly reduced. BPR1P0034 exhibited broad inhibition spectrum for influenza viruses but showed no antiviral effect for enteroviruses and echovirus 9. In a time-of-addition assay, in which the compound was added at different stages along the viral replication cycle (such as at adsorption or after adsorption, its antiviral activity was more efficient in cells treated with the test compound between 0 and 2 h, right after viral infection, implying that an early step of viral replication might be the target of the compound. These results suggest

  7. Cloaked similarity between HIV-1 and SARS-CoV suggests an anti-SARS strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kliger Yossef

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS is a febrile respiratory illness. The disease has been etiologically linked to a novel coronavirus that has been named the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV, whose genome was recently sequenced. Since it is a member of the Coronaviridae, its spike protein (S2 is believed to play a central role in viral entry by facilitating fusion between the viral and host cell membranes. The protein responsible for viral-induced membrane fusion of HIV-1 (gp41 differs in length, and has no sequence homology with S2. Results Sequence analysis reveals that the two viral proteins share the sequence motifs that construct their active conformation. These include (1 an N-terminal leucine/isoleucine zipper-like sequence, and (2 a C-terminal heptad repeat located upstream of (3 an aromatic residue-rich region juxtaposed to the (4 transmembrane segment. Conclusions This study points to a similar mode of action for the two viral proteins, suggesting that anti-viral strategy that targets the viral-induced membrane fusion step can be adopted from HIV-1 to SARS-CoV. Recently the FDA approved Enfuvirtide, a synthetic peptide corresponding to the C-terminal heptad repeat of HIV-1 gp41, as an anti-AIDS agent. Enfuvirtide and C34, another anti HIV-1 peptide, exert their inhibitory activity by binding to a leucine/isoleucine zipper-like sequence in gp41, thus inhibiting a conformational change of gp41 required for its activation. We suggest that peptides corresponding to the C-terminal heptad repeat of the S2 protein may serve as inhibitors for SARS-CoV entry.

  8. Anti-proliferative therapy for HIV cure: a compound interest approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Daniel B; Duke, Elizabeth R; Hughes, Sean M; Prlic, Martin; Hladik, Florian; Schiffer, Joshua T

    2017-06-21

    In the era of antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-1 infection is no longer tantamount to early death. Yet the benefits of treatment are available only to those who can access, afford, and tolerate taking daily pills. True cure is challenged by HIV latency, the ability of chromosomally integrated virus to persist within memory CD4 + T cells in a non-replicative state and activate when ART is discontinued. Using a mathematical model of HIV dynamics, we demonstrate that treatment strategies offering modest but continual enhancement of reservoir clearance rates result in faster cure than abrupt, one-time reductions in reservoir size. We frame this concept in terms of compounding interest: small changes in interest rate drastically improve returns over time. On ART, latent cell proliferation rates are orders of magnitude larger than activation and new infection rates. Contingent on subtypes of cells that may make up the reservoir and their respective proliferation rates, our model predicts that coupling clinically available, anti-proliferative therapies with ART could result in functional cure within 2-10 years rather than several decades on ART alone.

  9. Adding an Artificial Tail—Anchor to a Peptide-Based HIV-1 Fusion Inhibitor for Improvement of Its Potency and Resistance Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Su

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Peptides derived from the C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 envelope protein transmembrane subunit gp41, such as T20 (enfuvirtide, can bind to the N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR of gp41 and block six-helix bundle (6-HB formation, thus inhibiting HIV-1 fusion with the target cell. However, clinical application of T20 is limited because of its low potency and genetic barrier to resistance. HP23, the shortest CHR peptide, exhibits better anti-HIV-1 activity than T20, but the HIV-1 strains with E49K mutations in gp41 will become resistant to it. Here, we modified HP23 by extending its C-terminal sequence using six amino acid residues (E6 and adding IDL (Ile-Asp-Leu to the C-terminus of E6, which is expected to bind to the shallow pocket in the gp41 NHR N-terminal region. The newly designed peptide, designated HP23-E6-IDL, was about 2- to 16-fold more potent than HP23 against a broad spectrum of HIV-1 strains and more than 12-fold more effective against HIV-1 mutants resistant to HP23. These findings suggest that addition of an anchor–tail to the C-terminus of a CHR peptide will allow binding with the pocket in the gp41 NHR that may increase the peptide’s antiviral efficacy and its genetic barrier to resistance.

  10. Hibiscus vitifolius (Linn.) root extracts shows potent protective action against anti-tubercular drug induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Anbu Jeba Sunilson John; Mohan, Syam; Chellappan, Dinesh Kumar; Kalusalingam, Anandarajagopal; Ariamuthu, Saraswathi

    2012-05-07

    The roots of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. (Malvaceae) is used for the treatment of jaundice in the folklore system of medicine in India. This study is an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of the roots of Hibiscus vitifolius against anti-tubercular drug induced hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxicity was induced in albino rats of either sex by oral administration of a combination of three anti-tubercular drugs. Petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of roots of Hibiscus vitifolius (400mg/kg/day) were evaluated for their possible hepatoprotective potential. All the extracts were found to be safe up to a dose of 2000mg/kg. Among the four extracts studied, oral administration of methanol extract of Hibiscus vitifolius at 400mg/kg showed significant difference in all the parameters when compared to control. There was a significant (PHibiscus vitifolius have potent hepatoprotective activity, thereby justifying its ethnopharmacological claim. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibition of HIV Expression and Integration in Macrophages by Methylglyoxal-Bis-Guanylhydrazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xia; McGrath, Michael S; Xu, Hua

    2015-11-01

    Macrophages are a target for infection with HIV and represent one of the viral reservoirs that are relatively resistant to current antiretroviral drugs. Here we demonstrate that methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone (MGBG), a polyamine analog and potent S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase inhibitor, decreases HIV expression in monocytes and macrophages. MGBG is selectively concentrated by these cells through a mechanism consistent with active transport by the polyamine transporter. Using a macrophage-tropic reporter virus tagged with the enhanced green fluorescent protein, we demonstrate that MGBG decreases the frequency of HIV-infected cells. The effect is dose dependent and correlates with the production of HIV p24 in culture supernatants. This anti-HIV effect was further confirmed using three macrophage-tropic primary HIV isolates. Viral life cycle mapping studies show that MGBG inhibits HIV DNA integration into the cellular DNA in both monocytes and macrophages. Our work demonstrates for the first time the selective concentration of MGBG by monocytes/macrophages, leading to the inhibition of HIV-1 expression and a reduction in proviral load within macrophage cultures. These results suggest that MGBG may be useful in adjunctive macrophage-targeted therapy for HIV infection. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Incidence and risk factors for new-onset diabetes in HIV-infected patients: the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Wit, Stephane; Sabin, Caroline A; Weber, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to determine the incidence of diabetes among HIV-infected patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) cohort, to identify demographic, HIV-related, and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-related factors associated...... with the onset of diabetes, and to identify possible mechanisms for any relationships found. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: D:A:D is a prospective observational study of 33,389 HIV-infected patients; diabetes is a study end point. Poisson regression models were used to assess the relation between diabetes...

  13. Anti-cancer effect of HIV-1 viral protein R on doxorubicin resistant neuroblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Y Zhao

    Full Text Available Several unique biological features of HIV-1 Vpr make it a potentially powerful agent for anti-cancer therapy. First, Vpr inhibits cell proliferation by induction of cell cycle G2 arrest. Second, it induces apoptosis through multiple mechanisms, which could be significant as it may be able to overcome apoptotic resistance exhibited by many cancerous cells, and, finally, Vpr selectively kills fast growing cells in a p53-independent manner. To demonstrate the potential utility of Vpr as an anti-cancer agent, we carried out proof-of-concept studies in vitro and in vivo. Results of our preliminary studies demonstrated that Vpr induces cell cycle G2 arrest and apoptosis in a variety of cancer types. Moreover, the same Vpr effects could also be detected in some cancer cells that are resistant to anti-cancer drugs such as doxorubicin (DOX. To further illustrate the potential value of Vpr in tumor growth inhibition, we adopted a DOX-resistant neuroblastoma model by injecting SK-N-SH cells into C57BL/6N and C57BL/6J-scid/scid mice. We hypothesized that Vpr is able to block cell proliferation and induce apoptosis regardless of the drug resistance status of the tumors. Indeed, production of Vpr via adenoviral delivery to neuroblastoma cells caused G2 arrest and apoptosis in both drug naïve and DOX-resistant cells. In addition, pre-infection or intratumoral injection of vpr-expressing adenoviral particles into neuroblastoma tumors in SCID mice markedly inhibited tumor growth. Therefore, Vpr could possibly be used as a supplemental viral therapeutic agent for selective inhibition of tumor growth in anti-cancer therapy especially when other therapies stop working.

  14. Disclosure of HIV status and its impact on the loss in the follow-up of HIV-infected patients on potent anti-retroviral therapy programs in a (post- conflict setting: A retrospective cohort study from Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Zalagile Akilimali

    Full Text Available The study aimed to identify the impact of non-disclosure of HIV status on the loss to follow-up (LTFU of patients receiving anti-retroviral therapy.A historic cohort of HIV patients from 2 major hospitals in Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo was followed from 2004 to 2012. LTFU was defined as not taking an ART refill for a period of 3 months or longer since the last attendance, and had not yet been classified as 'dead' or 'transferred-out'. Kaplan-Meier plots were used to determine the probability of LTFU as a function of time as inclusive of the cohort. The log-rank test was used to compare survival curves based on determinants. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to measure predictors of LTFU from the time of treatment induction until December 15th, 2012 (the end-point.The median follow-up time was 3.99 years (IQR = 2.33 to 5.59. Seventy percent of patients had shared their HIV status with others (95% CI: 66.3-73.1. The proportion of LTFU was 12% (95%CI: 9.6-14.4. Patients who did not share their HIV status (Adjusted HR 2.28, 95% CI 1.46-2.29, patients who did not live in the city of Goma (Adjusted HR 1.97, 95% CI 1.02-3.77, and those who attained secondary or higher education level (Adjusted HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.02-2.53 had a higher hazard of being LTFU.This study shows the relationship between the non-disclosure HIV status and LTFU. Healthcare workers in similar settings should pay more attention to clients who have not disclosed their HIV status, and to those living far from health settings where they receive medication.

  15. Induction of potent NK cell-dependent anti-myeloma cytotoxic T cells in response to combined mapatumumab and bortezomib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeson, Paul J; Hsu, Andy K; Chen, Yin R; Halse, Heloise M; Loh, Joanna; Cordy, Reece; Fielding, Kate; Davis, Joanne; Noske, Josh; Davenport, Alex J; Lindqvist-Gigg, Camilla A; Humphreys, Robin; Tai, Tsin; Prince, H Miles; Trapani, Joseph A; Smyth, Mark J; Ritchie, David S

    2015-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that some cancer therapies can promote tumor immunogenicity to boost the endogenous antitumor immune response. In this study, we used the novel combination of agonistic anti-TRAIL-R1 antibody (mapatumumab, Mapa) with low dose bortezomib (LDB) for this purpose. The combination induced profound myeloma cell apoptosis, greatly enhanced the uptake of myeloma cell apoptotic bodies by dendritic cell (DC) and induced anti-myeloma cytotoxicity by both CD8 + T cells and NK cells. Cytotoxic lymphocyte expansion was detected within 24 h of commencing therapy and was maximized when myeloma-pulsed DC were co-treated with low dose bortezomib and mapatumumab (LDB+Mapa) in the presence of NK cells. This study shows that Mapa has two distinct but connected modes of action against multiple myeloma (MM). First, when combined with LDB, Mapa produced powerful myeloma cell apoptosis; secondly, it promoted DC priming and an NK cell-mediated expansion of anti-myeloma cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL). Overall, this study indicates that Mapa can be used to drive potent anti-MM immune responses.

  16. Dynamic features of apo and bound HIV-Nef protein reveal the anti-HIV dimerization inhibition mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonsamy, Suri; Bhakat, Soumendranath; Soliman, Mahmoud E S

    2015-01-01

    The first account on the dynamic features of Nef or negative factor, a small myristoylated protein located in the cytoplasm believes to increase HIV-1 viral titer level, is reported herein. Due to its major role in HIV-1 pathogenicity, Nef protein is considered an emerging target in anti-HIV drug design and discovery process. In this study, comparative long-range all-atom molecular dynamics simulations were employed for apo and bound protein to unveil molecular mechanism of HIV-Nef dimerization and inhibition. Results clearly revealed that B9, a newly discovered Nef inhibitor, binds at the dimeric interface of Nef protein and caused significant separation between orthogonally opposed residues, namely Asp108, Leu112 and Gln104. Large differences in magnitudes were observed in the radius of gyration (∼1.5 Å), per-residue fluctuation (∼2 Å), C-alpha deviations (∼2 Å) which confirm a comparatively more flexible nature of apo conformation due to rapid dimeric association. Compared to the bound conformer, a more globally correlated motion in case of apo structure of HIV-Nef confirms the process of dimeric association. This clearly highlights the process of inhibition as a result of ligand binding. The difference in principal component analysis (PCA) scatter plot and per-residue mobility plot across first two normal modes further justifies the same findings. The in-depth dynamic analyses of Nef protein presented in this report would serve crucial in understanding its function and inhibition mechanisms. Information on inhibitor binding mode would also assist in designing of potential inhibitors against this important HIV target.

  17. Contracepção hormonal e anti-retrovirais em mulheres infectadas pelo HIV Hormonal contraception and antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Amaral

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Há controvérsia sobre a relação entre o uso de contraceptivos hormonais e o risco de adquirir o vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV, e pouco se sabe sobre os efeitos da contracepção hormonal em mulheres infectadas (efeitos colaterais, distúrbios menstruais, progressão da doença, interações com terapias anti-retrovirais. O objetivo deste artigo foi revisar os dados disponíveis quanto à vulnerabilidade ao HIV e à sua transmissibilidade na vigência do uso de contraceptivos hormonais bem como as conseqüências potenciais do uso desses contraceptivos por mulheres HIV-positivas sob terapia anti-retroviral (TARV, com ênfase nas interações medicamentosas. Concluiu-se que ainda não é possível elaborar recomendações, baseadas em evidências, sobre a contracepção hormonal em mulheres portadoras do HIV sob TARV. Assim, os infectologistas e os ginecologistas devem estar atentos às interações potenciais que possam representar aumento de efeitos adversos, individualizando a orientação sobre os esteróides contraceptivos, suas doses e vias de administração, considerando a TARV em uso.There is much controversy regarding the realtionship between the use of hormonal contraceptives and the risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, and little is known about the effects of hormonal contraception in HIV-infected women (adverse events, menstrual disorders, disease progression, antiretroviral therapy interactions. The aim of the present study was to review available data regarding HIV vulnerability and transmission associated with hormonal contraceptives and the use of these contraceptives by women on antiretroviral therapy, with emphasis on drug interactions. In conclusion, it was not possible to offer evidence-based recommendations for the use of hormonal contraceptives among HIV-infected women under antiretroviral therapy. Infectious disease specialists and gynecologists providing care should be cautious about potential

  18. Safety and immunogenicity of HIV-1 Tat toxoid in immunocompromised HIV-1-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gringeri, A; Santagostino, E; Muça-Perja, M; Mannucci, P M; Zagury, J F; Bizzini, B; Lachgar, A; Carcagno, M; Rappaport, J; Criscuolo, M; Blattner, W; Burny, A; Gallo, R C; Zagury, D

    1998-01-01

    To antagonize the deleterious effects of the HIV-1 toxin extracellular Tat on uninfected immune cells, we developed a new strategy of anti-HIV-1 vaccine using an inactivated but immunogenic Tat (Tat toxoid). Tat toxoid has been assayed for safety and immunogenicity in seropositive patients. The phase I vaccine clinical trial testing Tat toxoid preparation in Seppic Isa 51 oil adjuvant was performed on 14 HIV-1-infected asymptomatic although biologically immunocompromised individuals (500-200 CD4+ cells/mm3). Following as many as 8 injections, no clinical defects were observed. All patients exhibited an antibody (Ab) response to Tat, and some had cell-mediated immunity (CMI) as evaluated by skin test in vivo and T-cell proliferation in vitro. These results provide initial evidence of safety and potency of Tat toxoid vaccination in HIV-1-infected individuals.

  19. HIV enhancing activity of semen impairs the antiviral efficacy of microbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirafi, Onofrio; Kim, Kyeong-Ae; Roan, Nadia R.; Kluge, Silvia F.; Müller, Janis A.; Jiang, Shibo; Mayer, Benjamin; Greene, Warner C.; Kirchhoff, Frank; Münch, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Topically applied microbicides potently inhibit HIV in vitro but have largely failed to exert protective effects in clinical trials. One possible reason for this discrepancy is that the preclinical testing of microbicides does not faithfully reflect the conditions of HIV sexual transmission. Here, we report that candidate microbicides that target HIV components show greatly reduced antiviral efficacy in the presence of semen, the main vector for HIV transmission. This diminished antiviral activity was dependent on the ability of amyloid fibrils in semen to enhance the infectivity of HIV. Thus, the anti-HIV efficacy of microbicides determined in the absence of semen greatly underestimated the drug concentrations needed to block semen-exposed virus. One notable exception was Maraviroc. This HIV entry inhibitor targets the host cell CCR5 coreceptor and was highly active against both untreated and semen-exposed HIV. These data help explain why microbicides have failed to protect against HIV in clinical trials and suggest that antiviral compounds targeting host factors hold promise for further development. These findings also suggest that the in vitro efficacy of candidate microbicides should be determined in the presence of semen to identify the best candidates for the prevention of HIV sexual transmission. PMID:25391483

  20. Structure of CC Chemokine Receptor 5 with a Potent Chemokine Antagonist Reveals Mechanisms of Chemokine Recognition and Molecular Mimicry by HIV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yi; Han, Gye Won; Abagyan, Ruben; Wu, Beili; Stevens, Raymond C.; Cherezov, Vadim; Kufareva, Irina; Handel, Tracy M. (USC); (Chinese Aca. Sci.); (UCSD)

    2017-06-01

    CCR5 is the primary chemokine receptor utilized by HIV to infect leukocytes, whereas CCR5 ligands inhibit infection by blocking CCR5 engagement with HIV gp120. To guide the design of improved therapeutics, we solved the structure of CCR5 in complex with chemokine antagonist [5P7]CCL5. Several structural features appeared to contribute to the anti-HIV potency of [5P7]CCL5, including the distinct chemokine orientation relative to the receptor, the near-complete occupancy of the receptor binding pocket, the dense network of intermolecular hydrogen bonds, and the similarity of binding determinants with the FDA-approved HIV inhibitor Maraviroc. Molecular modeling indicated that HIV gp120 mimicked the chemokine interaction with CCR5, providing an explanation for the ability of CCR5 to recognize diverse ligands and gp120 variants. Our findings reveal that structural plasticity facilitates receptor-chemokine specificity and enables exploitation by HIV, and provide insight into the design of small molecule and protein inhibitors for HIV and other CCR5-mediated diseases.

  1. Inhibitory effects of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate on the life cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Koushi; Honda, Mitsuo; Ikigai, Hajime; Hara, Yukihiko; Shimamura, Tadakatsu

    2002-01-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), the major tea catechin, is known as a potent anti-bacterial agent. In addition, anti-tumor promoting, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and antiviral activities have been reported. In the present study, we investigated possible anti-human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) activity of EGCg and its mechanisms of action in the viral life cycle. EGCg impinges on each step of the HIV life cycle. Thus, destruction of the viral particles, viral attachment to cells, post-adsorption entry into cells, reverse transcription (RT), viral production from chronically-infected cells, and the level of expression of viral mRNA, were analyzed using T-lymphoid (H9) and monocytoid (THP-1) cell systems, and antiviral protease activity was measured using a cell-free assay. Inhibitory effects of EGCg on specific binding of the virions to the cellular surfaces and changes in the steady state viral regulation (mRNA expression) due to EGCg were not observed. However, EGCg had a destructive effect on the viral particles, and post-adsorption entry and RT in acutely infected monocytoid cells were significantly inhibited at concentrations of EGCg greater than 1 microM, and protease kinetics were suppressed at a concentration higher than 10 microM in the cell-free study. Viral production by THP-1 cells chronically-infected with HIV-1 was also inhibited in a dose-dependent manner and the inhibitory effect was enhanced by liposome modification of EGCg. As expected, increased viral mRNA production was observed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated chronically HIV-1-infected cells. This production was significantly inhibited by EGCg treatment of THP-1 cells. In contrast, production of HIV-1 viral mRNA in unstimulated or LPS-stimulated T-lymphoid cells (H9) was not inhibited by EGCg. Anti-HIV viral activity of EGCg may thus result from an interaction with several steps in the HIV-1 life cycle.

  2. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C virus rapid tests underestimate hepatitis prevalence among HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hønge, Bl; Jespersen, S; Medina, C; Té, Ds; da Silva, Zj; Ostergaard, L; Laursen, Al; Wejse, C; Krarup, H; Erikstrup, C

    2014-10-01

    In the case of coinfection with HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatic disease progression is often accelerated, with higher rates of liver cirrhosis and liver-related mortality. We aimed to evaluate the performance of the rapid tests used routinely to detect HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV among HIV-infected patients in Guinea-Bissau. Blood samples from HIV-infected patients in Guinea-Bissau were stored after testing for HBsAg and anti-HCV with rapid tests. Samples were subsequently re-tested for HBsAg and anti-HCV in Denmark. Two rapid tests were used in Guinea-Bissau: HBsAg Strip Ref 2034 (VEDA.LAB, Alençon, France; sensitivity 62.3%; specificity 99.2%) and HEPA-SCAN (Bhat Bio-Tech, Bangalore, India; sensitivity 57.1%; specificity 99.7%). In the two tests the ability to obtain the correct outcome depended on the antigen and antibody concentrations, respectively. Sex, age, CD4 cell count and antiretroviral therapy status did not differ between false negative and true positive samples in either of the tests. The study is limited by a low number of anti-HCV positive samples. New diagnostic rapid tests should always be evaluated in the setting in which they will be used before implementation. © 2014 British HIV Association.

  3. Replicating rather than nonreplicating adenovirus-human immunodeficiency virus recombinant vaccines are better at eliciting potent cellular immunity and priming high-titer antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bo; Wang, Liqun Rejean; Gómez-Román, Victor Raúl; Davis-Warren, Alberta; Montefiori, David C; Kalyanaraman, V S; Venzon, David; Zhao, Jun; Kan, Elaine; Rowell, Thomas J; Murthy, Krishna K; Srivastava, Indresh; Barnett, Susan W; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2005-08-01

    A major challenge in combating the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic is the development of vaccines capable of inducing potent, persistent cellular immunity and broadly reactive neutralizing antibody responses to HIV type 1 (HIV-1). We report here the results of a preclinical trial using the chimpanzee model to investigate a combination vaccine strategy involving sequential priming immunizations with different serotypes of adenovirus (Ad)/HIV-1(MN)env/rev recombinants and boosting with an HIV envelope subunit protein, oligomeric HIV(SF162) gp140deltaV2. The immunogenicities of replicating and nonreplicating Ad/HIV-1(MN)env/rev recombinants were compared. Replicating Ad/HIV recombinants were better at eliciting HIV-specific cellular immune responses and better at priming humoral immunity against HIV than nonreplicating Ad-HIV recombinants carrying the same gene insert. Enhanced cellular immunity was manifested by a greater frequency of HIV envelope-specific gamma interferon-secreting peripheral blood lymphocytes and better priming of T-cell proliferative responses. Enhanced humoral immunity was seen in higher anti-envelope binding and neutralizing antibody titers and better induction of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. More animals primed with replicating Ad recombinants mounted neutralizing antibodies against heterologous R5 viruses after one or two booster immunizations with the mismatched oligomeric HIV-1(SF162) gp140deltaV2 protein. These results support continued development of the replicating Ad-HIV recombinant vaccine approach and suggest that the use of replicating vectors for other vaccines may prove fruitful.

  4. A novel small molecule inhibits STAT3 phosphorylation and DNA binding activity and exhibits potent growth suppressive activity in human cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Targeting Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3 signaling is an attractive therapeutic approach for most types of human cancers with constitutively activated STAT3. A novel small molecular STAT3 inhibitor, FLLL32 was specifically designed from dietary agent, curcumin to inhibit constitutive STAT3 signaling in multiple myeloma, glioblastoma, liver cancer, and colorectal cancer cells. Results FLLL32 was found to be a potent inhibitor of STAT3 phosphorylation, STAT3 DNA binding activity, and the expression of STAT3 downstream target genes in vitro, leading to the inhibition of cell proliferation as well as the induction of Caspase-3 and PARP cleavages in human multiple myeloma, glioblastoma, liver cancer, and colorectal cancer cell lines. However, FLLL32 exhibited little inhibition on some tyrosine kinases containing SH2 or both SH2 and SH3 domains, and other protein and lipid kinases using a kinase profile assay. FLLL32 was also more potent than four previously reported JAK2 and STAT3 inhibitors as well as curcumin to inhibit cell viability in these cancer cells. Furthermore, FLLL32 selectively inhibited the induction of STAT3 phosphorylation by Interleukin-6 but not STAT1 phosphorylation by IFN-γ. Conclusion Our findings indicate that FLLL32 exhibits potent inhibitory activity to STAT3 and has potential for targeting multiple myeloma, glioblastoma, liver cancer, and colorectal cancer cells expressing constitutive STAT3 signaling.

  5. Decoding the anti-Trypanosoma cruzi action of HIV peptidase inhibitors using epimastigotes as a model.

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    Leandro S Sangenito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aspartic peptidase inhibitors have shown antimicrobial action against distinct microorganisms. Due to an increase in the occurrence of Chagas' disease/AIDS co-infection, we decided to explore the effects of HIV aspartic peptidase inhibitors (HIV-PIs on Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas' disease. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HIV-PIs presented an anti-proliferative action on epimastigotes of T. cruzi clone Dm28c, with IC50 values ranging from 0.6 to 14 µM. The most effective inhibitors, ritonavir, lopinavir and nelfinavir, also had an anti-proliferative effect against different phylogenetic T. cruzi strains. The HIV-PIs induced some morphological alterations in clone Dm28c epimastigotes, as reduced cell size and swollen of the cellular body. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the flagellar membrane, mitochondrion and reservosomes are the main targets of HIV-PIs in T. cruzi epimastigotes. Curiously, an increase in the epimastigote-into-trypomastigote differentiation process of clone Dm28c was observed, with many of these parasites presenting morphological alterations including the detachment of flagellum from the cell body. The pre-treatment with the most effective HIV-PIs drastically reduced the interaction process between epimastigotes and the invertebrate vector Rhodnius prolixus. It was also noted that HIV-PIs induced an increase in the expression of gp63-like and calpain-related molecules, and decreased the cruzipain expression in epimastigotes as judged by flow cytometry and immunoblotting assays. The hydrolysis of a cathepsin D fluorogenic substrate was inhibited by all HIV-PIs in a dose-dependent manner, showing that the aspartic peptidase could be a possible target to these drugs. Additionally, we verified that ritonavir, lopinavir and nelfinavir reduced drastically the viability of clone Dm28c trypomastigotes, causing many morphological damages. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The results

  6. Identification of N-phenyl-N'-(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidin-4-yl)-oxalamides as a new class of HIV-1 entry inhibitors that prevent gp120 binding to CD4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Qian; Ma Liying; Jiang Shibo; Lu Hong; Liu Shuwen; He Yuxian; Strick, Nathan; Neamati, Nouri; Debnath, Asim Kumar

    2005-01-01

    We have identified two N-phenyl-N'-(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidin-4-yl)-oxalamide analogs as a novel class of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry inhibitors that block the gp120-CD4 interaction, using database screening techniques. The lead compounds, NBD-556 and NBD-557, are small molecule organic compounds with drug-like properties. These compounds showed potent cell fusion and virus-cell fusion inhibitory activity at low micromolar levels. A systematic study showed that these compounds target viral entry by inhibiting the binding of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 to the cellular receptor CD4 but did not inhibit reverse transcriptase, integrase, or protease, indicating that they do not target the later stages of the HIV-1 life cycle to inhibit HIV-1 infection. These compounds were equally potent inhibitors of both X4 and R5 viruses tested in CXCR4 and CCR5 expressing cell lines, respectively, indicating that their anti-HIV-1 activity is not dependent on the coreceptor tropism of the virus. A surface plasmon resonance study, which measures binding affinity, clearly demonstrated that these compounds bind to unliganded HIV-1 gp120 but not to the cellular receptor CD4. NBD-556 and NBD-557 were active against HIV-1 laboratory-adapted strains including an AZT-resistant strain and HIV-1 primary isolates, indicating that these compounds can potentially be further modified to become potent HIV-1 entry inhibitors

  7. Aqueous Extracts of the Marine Brown Alga Lobophora variegata Inhibit HIV-1 Infection at the Level of Virus Entry into Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kremb, Stephan

    2014-08-21

    In recent years, marine algae have emerged as a rich and promising source of molecules with potent activities against various human pathogens. The widely distributed brown alga Lobophora variegata that is often associated with tropical coral reefs exerts strong antibacterial and antiprotozoal effects, but so far has not been associated with specific anti-viral activities. This study investigated potential HIV-1 inhibitory activity of L. variegata collected from different geographical regions, using a cell-based full replication HIV-1 reporter assay. Aqueous L. variegata extracts showed strong inhibitory effects on several HIV-1 strains, including drug-resistant and primary HIV-1 isolates, and protected even primary cells (PBMC) from HIV-1-infection. Anti-viral potency was related to ecological factors and showed clear differences depending on light exposition or epiphyte growth. Assays addressing early events of the HIV-1 replication cycle indicated that L. variegata extracts inhibited entry of HIV-1 into cells at a pre-fusion step possibly by impeding mobility of virus particles. Further characterization of the aqueous extract demonstrated that even high doses had only moderate effects on viability of cultured and primary cells (PBMCs). Imaging-based techniques revealed extract effects on the plasma membrane and actin filaments as well as induction of apoptosis at concentrations exceeding EC50 of anti-HIV-1 activity by more than 400 fold. In summary, we show for the first time that L. variegata extracts inhibit HIV-1 entry, thereby suggesting this alga as promising source for the development of novel HIV-1 inhibitors.

  8. Preparation and characterization of anti-HIV nanodrug targeted to microfold cell of gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Upal; Ding, Hong; Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Sudheesh; Raymond, Andrea D; Atluri, Venkata; Yndart, Adriana; Kaftanovskaya, Elena M; Batrakova, Elena; Agudelo, Marisela; Nair, Madhavan

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) still remains one of the leading life-threatening diseases in the world. The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy has significantly reduced disease morbidity and mortality. However, most of the drugs have variable penetrance into viral reservoir sites, including gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Being the largest lymphoid organ, GALT plays a key role in early HIV infection and host-pathogen interaction. Many different treatment options have been proposed to eradicate the virus from GALT. However, it becomes difficult to deliver traditional drugs to the GALT because of its complex physiology. In this regard, we developed a polymer-based Pluronic nanocarrier containing anti-HIV drug called efavirenz (EFV) targeting Microfold cells (M-cells) in the GALT. M-cells are specialized epithelial cells that are predominantly present in the GALT. In this work, we have exploited this paracellular transport property of M-cells for targeted delivery of Pluronic nanocarrier tagged EFV, bioconjugated with anti-M-cell-specific antibodies to the GALT (nanodrug). Preliminary characterization showed that the nanodrug (EFV-F12-COOH) is of 140 nm size with 0.3 polydispersion index, and the zeta potential of the particles was -19.38±2.2 mV. Further, drug dissolution study has shown a significantly improved sustained release over free drugs. Binding potential of nanodrug with M-cell was also confirmed with fluorescence microscopy and in vitro uptake and release studies. The anti-HIV activity of the nanodrug was also significantly higher compared to that of free drug. This novel formulation was able to show sustained release of EFV and inhibit the HIV-1 infection in the GALT compared to the free drug. The present study has potential for our in vivo targeted nanodrug delivery system by combining traditional enteric-coated capsule technique via oral administration.

  9. Broad anti-HIV activity of the Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin homologue lectin family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Férir, Geoffrey; Huskens, Dana; Noppen, Sam; Koharudin, Leonardus M I; Gronenborn, Angela M; Schols, Dominique

    2014-10-01

    Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin homologue (OAAH) proteins belong to a recently discovered lectin family. The founding member OAA and a designed hybrid OAAH (OPA) recognize similar but unique carbohydrate structures of Man-9, compared with other antiviral carbohydrate-binding agents (CBAs). These two newly described CBAs were evaluated for their inactivating properties on HIV replication and transmission and for their potential as microbicides. Various cellular assays were used to determine antiviral activity against wild-type and certain CBA-resistant HIV-1 strains: (i) free HIV virion infection in human T lymphoma cell lines and PBMCs; (ii) syncytium formation assay using persistently HIV-infected T cells and non-infected CD4+ T cells; (iii) DC-SIGN-mediated viral capture; and (iv) transmission to uninfected CD4+ T cells. OAA and OPA were also evaluated for their mitogenic properties and potential synergistic effects using other CBAs. OAA and OPA inhibit HIV replication, syncytium formation between HIV-1-infected and uninfected T cells, DC-SIGN-mediated HIV-1 capture and transmission to CD4+ target T cells, thereby rendering a variety of HIV-1 and HIV-2 clinical isolates non-infectious, independent of their coreceptor use. Both CBAs competitively inhibit the binding of the Manα(1-2)Man-specific 2G12 monoclonal antibody (mAb) as shown by flow cytometry and surface plasmon resonance analysis. The HIV-1 NL4.3(2G12res), NL4.3(MVNres) and IIIB(GRFTres) strains were equally inhibited as the wild-type HIV-1 strains by these CBAs. Combination studies indicate that OAA and OPA act synergistically with Hippeastrum hybrid agglutinin, 2G12 mAb and griffithsin (GRFT), with the exception of OPA/GRFT. OAA and OPA are unique CBAs with broad-spectrum anti-HIV activity; however, further optimization will be necessary for microbicidal application. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights

  10. Selective survival of peripheral blood lymphocytes in children with HIV-1 following delivery of an anti-HIV gene to bone marrow CD34(+) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsakoff, Greg M; Engel, Barbara C; Carbonaro, Denise A; Choi, Chris; Smogorzewska, Elzbieta M; Bauer, Gerhard; Selander, David; Csik, Susan; Wilson, Kathy; Betts, Michael R; Koup, Richard A; Nabel, Gary J; Bishop, Keith; King, Steven; Schmidt, Manfred; von Kalle, Christof; Church, Joseph A; Kohn, Donald B

    2005-07-01

    Two HIV-1-infected children on antiretroviral therapy were enrolled into a clinical study of retroviral-mediated transfer of a gene that inhibits replication of HIV-1, targeting bone marrow CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Two retroviral vectors were used, one encoding a "humanized" dominant-negative REV protein (huM10) that is a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 replication and one encoding a nontranslated marker gene (FX) to serve as an internal control for the level of gene marking. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) containing the huM10 gene or FX gene were detected by quantitative PCR at frequencies of approximately 1/10,000 in both subjects for the first 1-3 months following re-infusion of the gene-transduced bone marrow, but then were at or below the limits of detection (<1/1,000,000) at most times over 2 years. In one patient, a reappearance of PBMC containing the huM10 gene, but not the FX gene, occurred concomitant with a rise in the HIV-1 viral load during a period of nonadherence to the antiretroviral regimen. Unique clones of gene-marked PBMC were detected by LAM-PCR during the time of elevated HIV-1 levels. These findings indicate that there was a selective survival advantage for PBMC containing the huM10 gene during the time of increased HIV-1 load.

  11. Identification of a human protein-derived HIV-1 fusion inhibitor targeting the gp41 fusion core structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Chao

    Full Text Available The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env gp41 plays a crucial role in the viral fusion process. The peptides derived from the C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR of gp41 are potent HIV fusion inhibitors. However, the activity of these anti-HIV-1 peptides in vivo may be attenuated by their induction of anti-gp41 antibodies. Thus, it is essential to identify antiviral peptides or proteins with low, or no, immunogenicity to humans. Here, we found that the C-terminal fragment (aa 462-521 of the human POB1 (the partner of RalBP1, designated C60, is an HIV-1 fusion inhibitor. It bound to N36, the peptide derived from the N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR of gp41, and to the six-helix bundle (6-HB formed by N36 and C34, a CHR-peptide, but it did not bind to C34. Unlike the CHR-peptides, C60 did not block gp41 6-HB formation. Rather, results suggest that C60 inhibits HIV-1 fusion by binding to the 6-HB, in particular, the residues in the gp41 NHR domain that are exposed on the surface of 6-HB. Since 6-HB plays a crucial role in the late stage of fusion between the viral envelope and endosomal membrane during the endocytic process of HIV-1, C60 may serve as a host restriction factor to suppress HIV-1 entry into CD4+ T lymphocytes. Taken together, it can be concluded from these results that C60 can be used as a lead for the development of anti-HIV-1 therapeutics or microbicides for the treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection, as well as a molecular probe to study the fusogenic mechanism of HIV-1.

  12. Safety and anti-HIV assessments of natural vaginal cleansing products in an established topical microbicides in vitro testing algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Maureen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At present, there is no effective vaccine or other approved product for the prevention of sexually transmitted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection. It has been reported that women in resource-poor communities use vaginally applied citrus juices as topical microbicides. These easily accessible food products have historically been applied to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and cytotoxicity of these substances using an established topical microbicide testing algorithm. Freshly squeezed lemon and lime juice and household vinegar were tested in their original state or in pH neutralized form for efficacy and cytotoxicity in the CCR5-tropic cell-free entry and cell-associated transmission assays, CXCR4-tropic entry and fusion assays, and in a human PBMC-based anti-HIV-1 assay. These products were also tested for their effect on viability of cervico-vaginal cell lines, human cervical explant tissues, and beneficial Lactobacillus species. Results Natural lime and lemon juice and household vinegar demonstrated anti-HIV-1 activity and cytotoxicity in transformed cell lines. Neutralization of the products reduced both anti-HIV-1 activity and cytotoxicity, resulting in a low therapeutic window for both acidic and neutralized formulations. For the natural juices and vinegar, the IC50 was ≤ 3.5 (0.8-3.5% and the TC50 ≤ 6.3 (1.0-6.3%. All three liquid products inhibited viability of beneficial Lactobacillus species associated with vaginal health. Comparison of three different toxicity endpoints in the cervical HeLa cell line revealed that all three products affected membrane integrity, cytosolic enzyme release, and dehydrogenase enzyme activity in living cells. The juices and vinegar also exerted strong cytotoxicity in cervico-vaginal cell lines, mainly due to their acidic pH. In human cervical explant tissues, treatment with 5% lemon or lime juice

  13. Elite suppressor-derived HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins exhibit reduced entry efficiency and kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara G Lassen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Elite suppressors (ES are a rare subset of HIV-1-infected individuals who are able to maintain HIV-1 viral loads below the limit of detection by ultra-sensitive clinical assays in the absence of antiretroviral therapy. Mechanism(s responsible for this elite control are poorly understood but likely involve both host and viral factors. This study assesses ES plasma-derived envelope glycoprotein (env fitness as a function of entry efficiency as a possible contributor to viral suppression. Fitness of virus entry was first evaluated using a novel inducible cell line with controlled surface expression levels of CD4 (receptor and CCR5 (co-receptor. In the context of physiologic CCR5 and CD4 surface densities, ES envs exhibited significantly decreased entry efficiency relative to chronically infected viremic progressors. ES envs also demonstrated slow entry kinetics indicating the presence of virus with reduced entry fitness. Overall, ES env clones were less efficient at mediating entry than chronic progressor envs. Interestingly, acute infection envs exhibited an intermediate phenotypic pattern not distinctly different from ES or chronic progressor envs. These results imply that lower env fitness may be established early and may directly contribute to viral suppression in ES individuals.

  14. Compounds from Terminalia mantaly L. (Combretaceae Stem Bark Exhibit Potent Inhibition against Some Pathogenic Yeasts and Enzymes of Metabolic Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthe Aimée Tchuente Tchuenmogne

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pathogenic yeasts resistance to current drugs emphasizes the need for new, safe, and cost-effective drugs. Also, new inhibitors are needed to control the effects of enzymes that are implicated in metabolic dysfunctions such as cancer, obesity, and epilepsy. Methods: The anti-yeast extract from Terminalia mantaly (Combretaceae was fractionated and the structures of the isolated compounds established by means of spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. Activity was assessed against Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. krusei using the microdilution method, and against four enzymes of metabolic significance: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, human erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase I and II, and glutathione S-transferase. Results: Seven compounds, 3,3′-di-O-methylellagic acid 4′-O-α-rhamnopyranoside; 3-O-methylellagic acid; arjungenin or 2,3,19,23-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-oïc acid; arjunglucoside or 2,3,19,23-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-oïc acid glucopyranoside; 2α,3α,24-trihydroxyolean-11,13(18-dien-28-oïc acid; stigmasterol; and stigmasterol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside were isolated from the extract. Among those, 3,3′-di-O-methylellagic acid 4′-O-α-rhamnopyranoside, 3-O-methylellagic acid, and arjunglucoside showed anti-yeast activity comparable to that of reference fluconazole with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC below 32 µg/mL. Besides, Arjunglucoside potently inhibited the tested enzymes with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50 below 4 µM and inhibitory constant (Ki <3 µM. Conclusions: The results achieved indicate that further SAR studies will likely identify potent hit derivatives that should subsequently enter the drug development pipeline.

  15. Synergistic anti-tumor therapy by a comb-like multifunctional antibody nanoarray with exceptionally potent activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huafei; Sun, Yun; Chen, Di; Zhao, He; Zhao, Mengxin; Zhu, Xiandi; Ke, Changhong; Zhang, Ge; Jiang, Cheng; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Fulei; Wei, Huafeng; Li, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Simultaneously blocking multiple mediators offers new hope for the treatment of complex diseases. However, the curative potential of current combination therapy by chronological administration of separate monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) or multi-specific mAbs is still moderate due to inconvenient manipulation, low cooperative effectors, poor pharmacokinetics and insufficient tumor accumulation. Here, we describe a facile strategy that arms distinct mAbs with cooperative effectors onto a long chain to form a multicomponent comb-like nano mAb. Unlike dissociative parental mAbs, the multifunctional mAb nanoarray (PL-RB) constructed from type I/II anti-CD20 mAbs shows good pharmacokinetics. This PL-RB simultaneously targets distinct epitopes on a single antigen (Ag) and neighboring Ags on different lymphocytes. This unique intra- and intercellular Ag cross-linking endows the multifunctional mAb nanoarray with potent apoptosis activity. The exceptional apoptosis, complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) that are synchronously evoked by the nano PL-RB are further synergistically promoted via enhanced permeability and retention (EPR), which resulted in high intratumor accumulation and excellent anti-lymphoma efficiency.

  16. G-Quadruplex Forming Oligonucleotides as Anti-HIV Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Domenica; Riccardi, Claudia; Montesarchio, Daniela

    2015-09-22

    Though a variety of different non-canonical nucleic acids conformations have been recognized, G-quadruplex structures are probably the structural motifs most commonly found within known oligonucleotide-based aptamers. This could be ascribed to several factors, as their large conformational diversity, marked responsiveness of their folding/unfolding processes to external stimuli, high structural compactness and chemo-enzymatic and thermodynamic stability. A number of G-quadruplex-forming oligonucleotides having relevant in vitro anti-HIV activity have been discovered in the last two decades through either SELEX or rational design approaches. Improved aptamers have been obtained by chemical modifications of natural oligonucleotides, as terminal conjugations with large hydrophobic groups, replacement of phosphodiester linkages with phosphorothioate bonds or other surrogates, insertion of base-modified monomers, etc. In turn, detailed structural studies have elucidated the peculiar architectures adopted by many G-quadruplex-based aptamers and provided insight into their mechanism of action. An overview of the state-of-the-art knowledge of the relevance of putative G-quadruplex forming sequences within the viral genome and of the most studied G-quadruplex-forming aptamers, selectively targeting HIV proteins, is here presented.

  17. GC-MS analysis, evaluation of phytochemicals, anti-oxidant, thrombolytic and anti-inflammatory activities of Exacum bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appaji Mahesh Ashwini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the GC-MS analysis, phytochemical screening, anti-oxidant, thrombolytic and anti-inflammatory activities of methanol extract of leaves of Exacum bicolor. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of alcohol, phenols, alkanes, aromatic compounds, aldehyde and ethers. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of eight phyto-constituents. The total phenol, flavonoid and alkaloid contents were 18.0 ± 0.2 mg/GAE/g, 13.1 ± 0.4 mg QE/g and 108.0 ± 1.2 mg AE/g respectively. The DPPH assay exhibited potent anti-oxidant abilities with IC50 8.8 µg/mL. Significant thrombolytic activity was demonstrated by clot lysis method (45.1 ± 0.8%. The methanol extract showed significant membrane stabilization on human red blood cell with IC50 value of 37.4 µg/mL. There was a significant correlation (R2>0.98 with total phenolic content versus anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. The above results confirmed that E. bicolor could be a promising anti-oxidant, thrombolytic and anti-inflammatory agent.

  18. Ligand-based modeling of Akt3 lead to potent dual Akt1/Akt3 inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sha'er, Mahmoud A; Taha, Mutasem O

    2018-02-13

    Akt1 and Akt3 are important serine/threonine-specific protein kinases involved in G2 phase required by cancer cells to maintain cell cycle and to prevent cell death. Accordingly, inhibitors of these kinases should have potent anti-cancer properties. This prompted us to use pharmacophore/QSAR modeling to identify optimal binding models and physicochemical descriptors that explain bioactivity variation within a set of 74 diverse Akt3 inhibitors. Two successful orthogonal pharmacophores were identified and further validated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. The pharmacophoric models and associated QSAR equation were applied to screen the national cancer institute (NCI) list of compounds for new Akt3 inhibitors. Six hits showed significant experimental anti-Akt3 IC 50 values, out of which one compound exhibited dual low micromolar anti-Akt1 and anti-Akt3 inhibitory profiles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular evolution of broadly neutralizing Llama antibodies to the CD4-binding site of HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Laura E; Rutten, Lucy; Frampton, Dan; Anderson, Ian; Granger, Luke; Bashford-Rogers, Rachael; Dekkers, Gillian; Strokappe, Nika M; Seaman, Michael S; Koh, Willie; Grippo, Vanina; Kliche, Alexander; Verrips, Theo; Kellam, Paul; Fassati, Ariberto; Weiss, Robin A

    2014-12-01

    To date, no immunization of humans or animals has elicited broadly neutralizing sera able to prevent HIV-1 transmission; however, elicitation of broad and potent heavy chain only antibodies (HCAb) has previously been reported in llamas. In this study, the anti-HIV immune responses in immunized llamas were studied via deep sequencing analysis using broadly neutralizing monoclonal HCAbs as a guides. Distinct neutralizing antibody lineages were identified in each animal, including two defined by novel antibodies (as variable regions called VHH) identified by robotic screening of over 6000 clones. The combined application of five VHH against viruses from clades A, B, C and CRF_AG resulted in neutralization as potent as any of the VHH individually and a predicted 100% coverage with a median IC50 of 0.17 µg/ml for the panel of 60 viruses tested. Molecular analysis of the VHH repertoires of two sets of immunized animals showed that each neutralizing lineage was only observed following immunization, demonstrating that they were elicited de novo. Our results show that immunization can induce potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies in llamas with features similar to human antibodies and provide a framework to analyze the effectiveness of immunization protocols.

  20. Modulation of HIV replication in monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) by steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadas, Krishnakumar; Biswas, Santanu; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Lee, Sherwin; Dayton, Andrew; Hewlett, Indira

    2018-01-01

    Significant sex specific differences in the progression of HIV/AIDS have been reported. Several studies have implicated steroid hormones in regulating host factor expression and modulating HIV transmission and replication. However, the exact mechanism exerted by steroid hormones estrogen and progesterone in the regulation of HIV-1 replication is still unclear. Results from the current study indicated a dose dependent down regulation of HIV-1 replication in monocyte derived macrophages pre-treated with high concentrations of estrogen or progesterone. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms associated with the down regulation of HIV-1 replication by estrogen and progesterone we used PCR arrays to analyze the expression profile of host genes involved in antiviral responses. Several chemokines, cytokines, transcription factors, interferon stimulated genes and genes involved in type-1 interferon signaling were down regulated in cells infected with HIV-1 pre-treated with high concentrations of estrogen or progesterone compared to untreated HIV-1 infected cells or HIV-1 infected cells treated with low concentrations of estrogen or progesterone. The down regulation of CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 chemokines and IL-1β, IL-6 cytokines in response to high concentrations of estrogen and progesterone pre-treatment in HIV-1 infected cells was confirmed at the protein level by quantitating chemokine and cytokine concentrations in the culture supernatant. These results demonstrate that a potent anti-inflammatory response is mediated by pre-treatment with high concentrations of estrogen and progesterone. Thus, our study suggests a strong correlation between the down-modulation of anti-viral and pro-inflammatory responses mediated by estrogen and progesterone pre-treatment and the down regulation of HIV-1 replication. These findings may be relevant to clinical observations of sex specific differences in patient populations and point to the need for further investigation.

  1. Evaluation of the combination effect of different antiviral compounds against HIV in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A M; Nielsen, C; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    1993-01-01

    by combining many evaluated antiviral agents with AZT. We observed a difference in the degree of synergism depending on the evaluated compound; the results indicate that compounds with the same target in the viral replicative cycle (ddI: 2',3'-dideoxyinosine, didanosine; d4T: 2',3'-dideoxy-2......3'-azido-3'deoxythymidine (AZT), a clinically used anti-HIV compound, was evaluated for antiviral effect on HIV infection in combination with other antiviral compounds in vitro. Interactions were evaluated by the median-effect principle and the isobologram technique. Synergistic effect was obtained...... with the adhesion/penetration process of virus (ConA: Concanavalin A; DS: dextran sulfate) were most potent with AZT when used in rather high concentrations. At this moment in the HIV epidemic, these observations suggest that combinations of antiviral compounds should be evaluated in clinical trials, with the major...

  2. Oral manifestations of HIV infection in children and adults receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy [HAART] in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamza, O.J.M.; Matee, M.I.N.; Simon, E.N.; Kikwilu, E.N.; Moshi, M.J.; Mugusi, F.; Mikx, F.H.M.; Verweij, P.E.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence and types of HIV-related oral lesions between children and adult Tanzanian patients on HAART with those not on HAART and to relate the occurrence of the lesions with anti-HIV drug regimen, clinical stage of HIV disease and CD4+

  3. Priming B cell-mediated anti-HIV envelope responses by vaccination allows for the long-term control of infection in macaques exposed to a R5-tropic SHIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckner, Clarisa; Gines, Leoned G.; Saunders, Cheryl J.; Vojtech, Lucia; Srivastava, Indresh; Gettie, Agegnehu; Bohm, Rudolph; Blanchard, James; Barnett, Susan W.; Safrit, Jeffrey T.; Stamatatos, Leonidas

    2004-01-01

    The potential of vaccine-elicited anti-HIV envelope antibodies to control HIV-infection was evaluated by immunizing macaques with the HIV envelope protein and transiently depleting them of their CD8+ cells before intravenous challenge with the pathogenic CCR5-tropic SIV/HIV chimeric virus, SHIV SF162P4 . Although sterilizing immunity was not achieved, all vaccinated animals effectively controlled infection and remained free of disease for the duration of observation (over 3 years). In contrast, during the same period, the control animals progressed to disease. Both the vaccinees and the controls developed robust cell-mediated antiviral and neutralizing antibody responses following infection. A comparative analysis of these responses suggests that the more effective long-term control of infection by the vaccinated animals is due to the more rapid development of anti-HIV envelope antibodies. These studies suggest that priming by vaccination of B cell anti-HIV envelope responses maybe crucial for the long-term control of HIV infection

  4. Potent anti-inflammatory effects of systemically-administered curcumin modulates periodontal disease in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Morgana R.; Coimbra, Leila S.; de Aquino, Sabrina Garcia; Spolidorio, Luis C.; Kirkwood, Keith L.; Junior, Carlos Rossa

    2011-01-01

    Background Curcumin is a plant-derived dietary spice with various biological activities, including anti-tumoral and anti-inflammatory. Its therapeutic applications have been studied in a variety of conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, colon cancer and depression; but no studies evaluated the effects of curcumin on periodontal disease in vivo. Methods Experimental periodontal disease was induced in rats by placing cotton ligatures around both lower first molars. Curcumin was given to the rats intragastrically daily in two doses (30 and 100 mg/Kg) during 15 days. Control animals received ligatures but only the corn oil vehicle by gavage and no treatment negative control animals were included. Bone resorption was assessed by microcomputer tomography and the inflammatory status was evaluated by stereometric analysis. RT-qPCR and ELISA were used to determine the expression of interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthase on the gingival tissues. Modulation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NK-kB activation was assessed by western blot. Results Bone resorption was effectively induced in the experimental period, but it was not affected by either dose of curcumin. Curcumin effectively inhibited cytokine gene expression at mRNA and protein levels and dose-dependently inhibited activation of NF-kB in the gingival tissues. p38 MAPK activation was not inhibited by curcumin. Curcumin-treated animals also presented a marked reduction on the inflammatory cell infiltrate and increased collagen content and fibroblastic cell numbers. Conclusions Curcumin did not prevent alveolar bone resorption, but its potent anti-inflammatory effect suggests it may have a therapeutic potential in periodontal diseases. PMID:21306385

  5. G-CSF/anti-G-CSF antibody complexes drive the potent recovery and expansion of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells without compromising CD8+ T cell immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Administration of recombinant G-CSF following cytoreductive therapy enhances the recovery of myeloid cells, minimizing the risk of opportunistic infection. Free G-CSF, however, is expensive, exhibits a short half-life, and has poor biological activity in vivo. Methods We evaluated whether the biological activity of G-CSF could be improved by pre-association with anti-G-CSF mAb prior to injection into mice. Results We find that the efficacy of G-CSF therapy can be enhanced more than 100-fold by pre-association of G-CSF with an anti-G-CSF monoclonal antibody (mAb). Compared with G-CSF alone, administration of G-CSF/anti-G-CSF mAb complexes induced the potent expansion of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells in mice with or without concomitant cytoreductive treatment including radiation or chemotherapy. Despite driving the dramatic expansion of myeloid cells, in vivo antigen-specific CD8+ T cell immune responses were not compromised. Furthermore, injection of G-CSF/anti-G-CSF mAb complexes heightened protective immunity to bacterial infection. As a measure of clinical value, we also found that antibody complexes improved G-CSF biological activity much more significantly than pegylation. Conclusions Our findings provide the first evidence that antibody cytokine complexes can effectively expand myeloid cells, and furthermore, that G-CSF/anti-G-CSF mAb complexes may provide an improved method for the administration of recombinant G-CSF. PMID:24279871

  6. A new class of HIV-1 protease inhibitor: the crystallographic structure, inhibition and chemical synthesis of an aminimide peptide isostere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutenber, E E; McPhee, F; Kaplan, A P; Gallion, S L; Hogan, J C; Craik, C S; Stroud, R M

    1996-09-01

    The essential role of HIV-1 protease (HIV-1 PR) in the viral life cycle makes it an attractive target for the development of substrate-based inhibitors that may find efficacy as anti-AIDS drugs. However, resistance has arisen to potent peptidomimetic drugs necessitating the further development of novel chemical backbones for diversity based chemistry focused on probing the active site for inhibitor interactions and binding modes that evade protease resistance. AQ148 is a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 PR and represents a new class of transition state analogues incorporating an aminimide peptide isostere. A 3-D crystallographic structure of AQ148, a tetrapeptide isostere, has been determined in complex with its target HIV-1 PR to a resolution of 2.5 A and used to evaluate the specific structural determinants of AQ148 potency and to correlate structure-activity relationships within the class of related compounds. AQ148 is a competitive inhibitor of HIV-1 PR with a Ki value of 137 nM. Twenty-nine derivatives have been synthesized and chemical modifications have been made at the P1, P2, P1', and P2' sites. The atomic resolution structure of AQ148 bound to HIV-1 PR reveals both an inhibitor binding mode that closely resembles that of other peptidomimetic inhibitors and specific protein/inhibitor interactions that correlate with structure-activity relationships. The structure provides the basis for the design, synthesis and evaluation of the next generation of hydroxyethyl aminimide inhibitors. The aminimide peptide isostere is a scaffold with favorable biological properties well suited to both the combinatorial methods of peptidomimesis and the rational design of potent and specific substrate-based analogues.

  7. A novel strategy for efficient production of anti-V3 human scFvs against HIV-1 clade C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Rajesh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Production of human monoclonal antibodies that exhibit broadly neutralizing activity is needed for preventing HIV-1 infection, however only a few such antibodies have been generated till date. Isolation of antibodies by the hybridoma technology is a cumbersome process with fewer yields. Further, the loss of unstable or slowly growing clones which may have unique binding specificities often occurs during cloning and propagation and the strongly positive clones are often lost. This has been avoided by the process described in this paper, wherein, by combining the strategy of EBV transformation and recombinant DNA technology, we constructed human single chain variable fragments (scFvs against the third variable region (V3 of the clade C HIV-1 envelope. Results An antigen specific phage library of 7000 clones was constructed from the enriched V3- positive antibody secreting EBV transformed cells. By ligation of the digested scFv DNA into phagemid vector and bio panning against the HIV-1 consensus C and B V3 peptides followed by random selection of 40 clones, we identified 15 clones that showed V3 reactivity in phage ELISA. DNA fingerprinting analysis and sequencing showed that 13 out of the 15 clones were distinct. Expression of the positive clones was tested by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. All the 13 anti-V3 scFvs showed cross-reactivity against both the clade C and B V3 peptides and did not show any reactivity against other unrelated peptides in ELISA. Preliminary neutralization assays indicated varying degrees of neutralization of clade C and B viruses. EBV transformation, followed by antigen selection of lines to identify specific binders, enabled the selection of phage from un-cloned lines for scFv generation, thus avoiding the problems of hybridoma technology. Moreover, as the clones were pretested for antigen binding, a comparatively small library sufficed for the selection of a considerable number of unique antigen binding

  8. Rapid High-Level Production of Functional HIV Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies in Transient Plant Expression Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Yvonne; Sack, Markus; Montefiori, David; Forthal, Donald; Mao, Lingjun; -Abanto, Segundo Hernandez; Urban, Lori; Landucci, Gary; Fischer, Rainer; Jiang, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Passive immunotherapy using anti-HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has shown promise as an HIV treatment, reducing mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) in non-human primates and decreasing viral rebound in patients who ceased receiving anti-viral drugs. In addition, a cocktail of potent mAbs may be useful as mucosal microbicides and provide an effective therapy for post-exposure prophylaxis. However, even highly neutralizing HIV mAbs used today may lose their effectiveness if resistance occurs, requiring the rapid production of new or engineered mAbs on an ongoing basis in order to counteract the viral resistance or the spread of a certain HIV-1 clade in a particular region or patient. Plant-based expression systems are fast, inexpensive and scalable and are becoming increasingly popular for the production of proteins and monoclonal antibodies. In the present study, Agrobacterium-mediated transient transfection of plants, utilizing two species of Nicotiana, have been tested to rapidly produce high levels of an HIV 89.6PΔ140env and several well-studied anti-HIV neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (b12, 2G12, 2F5, 4E10, m43, VRC01) or a single chain antibody construct (m9), for evaluation in cell-based viral inhibition assays. The protein-A purified plant-derived antibodies were intact, efficiently bound HIV envelope, and were equivalent to, or in one case better than, their counterparts produced in mammalian CHO or HEK-293 cells in both neutralization and antibody dependent viral inhibition assays. These data indicate that transient plant-based transient expression systems are very adaptable and could rapidly generate high levels of newly identified functional recombinant HIV neutralizing antibodies when required. In addition, they warrant detailed cost-benefit analysis of prolonged incubation in plants to further increase mAb production. PMID:23533588

  9. Rapid high-level production of functional HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies in transient plant expression systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Rosenberg

    Full Text Available Passive immunotherapy using anti-HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs has shown promise as an HIV treatment, reducing mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT of simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV in non-human primates and decreasing viral rebound in patients who ceased receiving anti-viral drugs. In addition, a cocktail of potent mAbs may be useful as mucosal microbicides and provide an effective therapy for post-exposure prophylaxis. However, even highly neutralizing HIV mAbs used today may lose their effectiveness if resistance occurs, requiring the rapid production of new or engineered mAbs on an ongoing basis in order to counteract the viral resistance or the spread of a certain HIV-1 clade in a particular region or patient. Plant-based expression systems are fast, inexpensive and scalable and are becoming increasingly popular for the production of proteins and monoclonal antibodies. In the present study, Agrobacterium-mediated transient transfection of plants, utilizing two species of Nicotiana, have been tested to rapidly produce high levels of an HIV 89.6PΔ140env and several well-studied anti-HIV neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (b12, 2G12, 2F5, 4E10, m43, VRC01 or a single chain antibody construct (m9, for evaluation in cell-based viral inhibition assays. The protein-A purified plant-derived antibodies were intact, efficiently bound HIV envelope, and were equivalent to, or in one case better than, their counterparts produced in mammalian CHO or HEK-293 cells in both neutralization and antibody dependent viral inhibition assays. These data indicate that transient plant-based transient expression systems are very adaptable and could rapidly generate high levels of newly identified functional recombinant HIV neutralizing antibodies when required. In addition, they warrant detailed cost-benefit analysis of prolonged incubation in plants to further increase mAb production.

  10. Diarylpyrimidine-dihydrobenzyloxopyrimidine hybrids: new, wide-spectrum anti-HIV-1 agents active at (sub)-nanomolar level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotili, Dante; Tarantino, Domenico; Artico, Marino; Nawrozkij, Maxim B; Gonzalez-Ortega, Emmanuel; Clotet, Bonaventura; Samuele, Alberta; Esté, José A; Maga, Giovanni; Mai, Antonello

    2011-04-28

    Here, we describe a novel small series of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) that combine peculiar structural features of diarylpyrimidines (DAPYs) and dihydro-alkoxy-benzyl-oxopyrimidines (DABOs). These DAPY-DABO hybrids (1-4) showed a characteristic SAR profile and a nanomolar anti-HIV-1 activity at both enzymatic and cellular level. In particular, the two compounds 4d and 2d, with a (sub)nanomolar activity against wild-type and clinically relevant HIV-1 mutant strains, were selected as lead compounds for next optimization studies.

  11. Detection of anti-HIV-1 IgG antibodies in whole saliva by GACELISA and Western blot assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matee, M I; Lyamuya, E F; Simon, E; Mbena, E C; Kagoma, C; Samaranayake, L P; Scheutz, F

    1996-05-01

    The present study, based on 158 HIV seropositives and 167 HIV seronegatives, demonstrates that saliva collected with the Omni-SAL device and tested with GACELISA (an IgG antibody capture ELISA) is an effective non-invasive alternative to serum for anti-HIV IgG antibody screening. The study also shows that a conventional serum Western blot kit can be used, with slight modifications, for confirmatory testing of saliva specimens. Collecting saliva with the Omni-SAL device had a very good acceptance rate among Tanzanian subjects, and although this diagnostic method is not yet known by the general public, 65% of the study participants preferred to give saliva instead of blood for HIV testing.

  12. HIV-1 anti-retroviral drug effect on the C. albicans hyphal growth rate by a Bio-Cell Tracer system Efeito da droga anti-retroviral HIV-1 no crescimento de hifas de C. albicans monitoradas pelo sistema "Bio-Cell Tracer"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Rodrigues de Melo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Declining incidence of oropharyngeal candidosis and opportunistic infections over recent years can be attributed to the use of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART. Infection with C. albicans generally involves adherence and colonization of superficial tissues. During this process, budding yeasts are able to transform to hyphae and penetrate into the deep tissue. Using the biocell tracer system, C. albicans hyphal growth was dynamically observed at the cellular level. Ritonavir was effective in the inhibition of hyphal growth with growth rate of 0.8 mum/min. This study showed the in vitro effect of HIV anti-retroviral drug on the growth rate of the C. albicans hyphae.O declínio na incidência de candidose orofaríngea e infecções oportunistas associadas a infecção pelo HIV tem sido atribuído a introdução da terapia antiretroviral combinada (HAART. Infecção por C. albicans envolve aderência e colonização da mucosa superficial. Durante este processo leveduras são capazes de transformar-se na forma de hifas e penetrar nos tecidos mais profundos. Usando o sistema "Bio-Cell Tracer", o crescimento de hifas de C. albicans foi observado dinamicamente a nível celular. Ritonavir, inibidor de protease do HIV, foi efetivo na inibição do crescimento de hifas com media de 0.8 mim/min.O presente estudo demonstrou o efeito in vitro de um agente anti-retroviral HIV sobre o crescimento de hifas de C. albicans.

  13. Bone Marrow Gene Therapy for HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Herrera-Carrillo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow gene therapy remains an attractive option for treating chronic immunological diseases, including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. This technology combines the differentiation and expansion capacity of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs with long-term expression of therapeutic transgenes using integrating vectors. In this review we summarize the potential of bone marrow gene therapy for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. A broad range of antiviral strategies are discussed, with a particular focus on RNA-based therapies. The idea is to develop a durable gene therapy that lasts the life span of the infected individual, thus contrasting with daily drug regimens to suppress the virus. Different approaches have been proposed to target either the virus or cellular genes encoding co-factors that support virus replication. Some of these therapies have been tested in clinical trials, providing proof of principle that gene therapy is a safe option for treating HIV/AIDS. In this review several topics are discussed, ranging from the selection of the antiviral molecule and the viral target to the optimal vector system for gene delivery and the setup of appropriate preclinical test systems. The molecular mechanisms used to formulate a cure for HIV infection are described, including the latest antiviral strategies and their therapeutic applications. Finally, a potent combination of anti-HIV genes based on our own research program is described.

  14. Testing of viscous anti-HIV microbicides using Lactobacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncla, B J; Pryke, K; Rohan, L C; Yang, H

    2012-02-01

    The development of topical microbicides for intravaginal use to prevent HIV infection requires that the drugs and formulated products be nontoxic to the endogenous vaginal Lactobacillus. In 30min exposure tests we found dapivirine, tenofovir and UC781 (reverse transcriptase inhibitor anti-HIV drugs) as pure drugs or formulated as film or gel products were not deleterious to Lactobacillus species; however, PSC-RANTES (a synthetic CCR5 antagonist) killed 2 strains of Lactobacillus jensenii. To demonstrate the toxicity of formulated products a new assay was developed for use with viscous and non-viscous samples that we have termed the Lactobacillus toxicity test. We found that the vortex mixing of vaginal Lactobacillus species can lead to reductions in bacterial viability. Lactobacillus can survive briefly, about 2s, but viability declines with increased vortex mixing. The addition of heat inactivated serum or bovine serum albumin, but not glycerol, prevented the decrease in bacterial viability. Bacillus atrophaeus spores also demonstrated loss of viability upon extended mixing. We observed that many of the excipients used in film formulation and the films themselves also afford protection from the killing during vortex mixing. This method is of relevance for toxicity for cidal activities of viscous products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of a D-amino acid decapeptide HIV-1 entry inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boggiano, Cesar; Jiang Shibo; Lu Hong; Zhao Qian; Liu Shuwen; Binley, James; Blondelle, Sylvie E.

    2006-01-01

    Entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virion into host cells involves three major steps, each being a potential target for the development of entry inhibitors: gp120 binding to CD4, gp120-CD4 complex interacting with a coreceptor, and gp41 refolding to form a six-helix bundle. Using a D-amino acid decapeptide combinatorial library, we identified peptide DC13 as having potent HIV-1 fusion inhibitory activity, and effectively inhibiting infection by several laboratory-adapted and primary HIV-1 strains. While DC13 did not block binding of gp120 to CD4, nor disrupt the gp41 six-helix bundle formation, it effectively blocked the binding of an anti-CXCR4 monoclonal antibody and chemokine SDF-1α to CXCR4-expressing cells. However, because R5-using primary viruses were also neutralized, the antiviral activity of DC13 implies additional mode(s) of action. These results suggest that DC13 is a useful HIV-1 coreceptor antagonist for CXCR4 and, due to its biostability and simplicity, may be of value for developing a new class of HIV-1 entry inhibitors

  16. 7,8-secolignans from Schisandra neglecta and their anti-HIV-1 activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xuemei; Mu, Huaixue; Hu, Qiufen, E-mail: huqiufena@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Chemistry in Ethnic Medicinal Resources, State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, Yunnan University of Nationalities (China); Wang, Ruirui; Yang, Liumeng; Zheng, Yongtang [Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Sun, Handong; Xiao, Weilie, E-mail: xwl@mail.kib.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming (China)

    2012-10-15

    Four new 7,8-secolignans (neglectahenols A-D), together with two known 7,8-secolignans, were isolated from leaves and stems of Schisandra neglecta. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including extensive one and two dimension NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) techniques. 7,8-Secolignans and neglectahenols A-D were also tested for their anti-HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1) activities, and all of them showed modest activities. (author)

  17. Attitudes toward Shock Advertising of Western-European and Serbian University Students With Regard To Public Health Context (Anti-Smoking and Anti-HIV/AIDS Campaigns)

    OpenAIRE

    Krstic, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this dissertation is to examine attitudes toward shock advertising of western-European and Serbian university students with regard to public health context (anti-smoking and anti-HIV/AIDS campaigns). Although the use of shock advertising is widely adopted in practice, there has not been extensive research with regard to this topic. Public health context is of special interest in this dissertation as there is an urge for social marketing on Serbian market. The results of ...

  18. Structure-guided Design and Immunological Characterization of Immunogens Presenting the HIV-1 gp120 V3 Loop on a CTB Scaffold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Totrov; X Jiang; X Kong; S Cohen; C Krachmarov; A Salomon; C Williams; M Seaman; R Abagyan; et al.

    2011-12-31

    V3 loop is a major neutralizing determinant of the HIV-1 gp120. Using 3D structures of cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), complete V3 in the gp120 context, and V3 bound to a monoclonal antibody (mAb), we designed two V3-scaffold immunogen constructs (V3-CTB). The full-length V3-CTB presenting the complete V3 in a structural context mimicking gp120 was recognized by the large majority of our panel of 24 mAbs. The short V3-CTB presenting a V3 fragment in the conformation observed in the complex with the 447-52D Fab, exhibited high-affinity binding to this mAb. The immunogens were evaluated in rabbits using DNA-prime/protein-boost protocol. Boosting with the full-length V3-CTB induced high anti-V3 titers in sera that potently neutralize multiple HIV virus strains. The short V3-CTB was ineffective. The results suggest that very narrow antigenic profile of an immunogen is associated with poor Ab response. An immunogen with broader antigenic activity elicits robust Ab response.

  19. Homeostatic properties of Lactobacillus jensenii engineered as a live vaginal anti-HIV microbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hidemi S; Xu, Qiang; Fichorova, Raina N

    2013-01-08

    Vaginal probiotics are investigated as a binary strategy for prevention of bacterial vaginosis and HIV. We applied an innovative experimental model using primary and immortalized human cervical and vaginal epithelial cells to assess the functional properties of Lactobacillus jensenii, a predominant constituent of the healthy vaginal microbiome, engineered to express the HIV-1 entry inhibitor modified cyanovirin-N (mCV-N). In this model bacteria colonize the epithelial cells over a period of 24-72 h. Staurosporine and the Toll-like receptor 2/6 ligand macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 (MALP-2) serve as positive controls for apoptosis and proinflammatory activation, respectively. In 24-hour intervals, the colonized epithelium is assessed microscopically, supernatants are collected for measurement of soluble immunoinflammatory mediators and production of CV-N, and cells are lysed for assessment of: 1) apoptosis by cleaved versus total caspase-3 assay; 2) NF-κB activation by a luciferase reporter assay; or 3) epithelia-associated colony forming units (CFU) in Brucella agar. Wild type (WT) L. jensenii 1153 consistently colonized cervical and vaginal cells in the absence of epithelial damage and apoptosis. The bioengineered derivatives expressing mCV-N or control plasmids showed the same stable colonization pattern, which was reproducible between technologists and bacterial batches (CFU coefficient of variation <10% within and between experiments and epithelial cell types). MALP-2 activated NF-κB and caused fold-increased levels of proinflammatory mediators with clinically established significance in the cervicovaginal environment (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-8, RANTES, MIP-3α, and ICAM-1), measured by a multiplex electrochemiluminescence assay. At the same time levels of protective anti-inflammatory mediators interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), both measured by ELISA, remained constant (IL-1RA) or

  20. Discovery and Evaluation of Thiazinoquinones as Anti-Protozoal Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Kaiser

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pure compound screening has identified the dioxothiazino-quinoline-quinone ascidian metabolite ascidiathiazone A (2 to be a moderate growth inhibitor of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (IC50 3.1 μM and Plasmodium falciparum (K1 dual drug resistant strain (IC50 3.3 μM while exhibiting low levels of cytotoxicity (L6, IC50 167 μM. A series of C-7 amide and Δ2(3 analogues were prepared that explored the influence of lipophilicity and oxidation state on observed anti-protozoal activity and selectivity. Little variation in anti-malarial potency was observed (IC50 0.62–6.5 μM, and no correlation was apparent between anti-malarial and anti-T. brucei activity. Phenethylamide 7e and Δ2(3-glycine analogue 8k exhibited similar anti-Pf activity to 2 but with slightly enhanced selectivity (SI 72 and 93, respectively, while Δ2(3-phenethylamide 8e (IC50 0.67 μM, SI 78 exhibited improved potency and selectivity towards T. brucei rhodesiense compared to the natural product hit. A second series of analogues were prepared that replaced the quinoline ring of 2 with benzofuran or benzothiophene moieties. While esters 10a/10b and 15 were once again found to exhibit cytotoxicity, carboxylic acid analogues exhibited potent anti-Pf activity (IC50 0.34–0.035 μM combined with excellent selectivity (SI 560–4000. In vivo evaluation of a furan carboxylic acid analogue against P. berghei was undertaken, demonstrating 85.7% and 47% reductions in parasitaemia with ip or oral dosing respectively.

  1. Sangivamycin-Like Molecule 6 (SLM6) exhibits potent anti-multiple myeloma activity through inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase-9 (CDK9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolloff, Nathan G.; Allen, Joshua E.; Dicker, David T.; Aqui, Nicole; Vogl, Dan; Malysz, Jozef; Talamo, Giampaolo; El-Deiry, Wafik S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant treatment advances over the past decade, multiple myeloma (MM) remains largely incurable. In this study we found that MM cells were remarkably sensitive to the death-inducing effects of a new class of sangivamycin-like molecules (SLMs). A panel of structurally related SLMs selectively induced apoptosis in MM cells but not other tumor or non-malignant cell lines at sub-micromolar concentrations. SLM6 was the most active compound in vivo, where it was well-tolerated and significantly inhibited growth and induced apoptosis of MM tumors. We determined that the anti-MM activity of SLM6 was mediated by direct inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9), which resulted in transcriptional repression of oncogenes that are known to drive MM progression (c-Maf, cyclin D1, and c-Myc). Furthermore, SLM6 demonstrated superior in vivo anti-MM activity over the CDK inhibitor flavopiridol, which is currently in clinical trials for MM. These findings demonstrate that SLM6 is a novel CDK9 inhibitor with promising preclinical activity as an anti-MM agent. PMID:22964485

  2. Rational Design and Synthesis of Biologically Active Disubstituted 2(3H) Furanones and Pyrrolone Derivatives as Potent and Safer Non Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokra, S L; Khan, S A; Choudhary, D; Hasan, S M; Ahmad, A; Husain, Asif

    2016-01-01

    Furanone and pyrrolone heterocyclic ring system represent important and interesting classes of bioactive compounds. Medicinal chemists use these heterocycyclic moieties as scaffolds in drug design and discovery. A series of 3-arylidene-5-(naphthalene-2-yl)-furan-2(3H)-ones (2a-j) were synthesized by incorporating pharmacophore of COX-2 inhibitor rofecoxib and naphthyl ring of naproxen as potential non steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. These furanone derivatives were subsequently reacted with dry ammonia gas and benzylamine to furnish corresponding 3-arylidene-5-(naphthlen-2-yl)-1H-pyrrol-2(3H)-ones (3a-e) and 3-arylidene-1-benzyl-5- (naphthalene-2-yl)-1H-pyrrol-2(3H)-ones (4a-e), respectively. The newly prepared heterocyclics were screened for their expected in-vivo biological activities including anti-inflammatory, analgesic and ulcerogenic actions in rodents. The COX-2 inhibitory behavior of synthesized compounds was also assessed via automated docking studies. The chemical structure of the synthesized compounds was characterized by using modern spectroscopic techniques. Result of in-vivo pharmacological studies demonstrated that almost all N-Benzyl-pyrrol-2(3H)-ones (4a-e) showed better anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in comparison with the other two series of furan-2(3H)-ones and pyrrol- 2(3H)-ones. The moldock score value of the tested compounds was found in the range of -116.66 to -170.328 and was better than the standard drug. Among all the synthesized compounds, only nine compounds (2d, 2g, 2h, 3d, 4a, 4b, 4c, 4d and 4e) exhibited potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities with significantly reduced gastrointestinal toxicity in various animal models in comparison to standard drug, diclofenac. Therefore, it is recommended to explore the potential of the synthesized compounds as lead candidates for the development of new therapeutic agents.

  3. L-Asparaginase Isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris Seeds Exhibited Potent Anti-Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Effects In-Vitro and Low Immunogenic Properties In-Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh A. Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli-derived L-asparaginases have been used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, however, clinical hypersensitivity reactions and silent inactivation due to antibodies against E. coli-asparaginase, lead to inactivation of these preparations in most cases.Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity and antitumor effects ofa novel L-asparaginaseenzyme, isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris seeds (P-Asp on the ALL cell line (Jurkat. The immunogenicity of the enzyme was also evaluated in-vivo and results were compared to commercially available enzymes of microbial sources. The data demonstrated that P-Asp has an enhanced anti-proliferative effect on ALL cells as detected by the WST-8 cell viability assay kit. Cells treated with P-Asp also exhibited a higher degree of early apoptosis compared with asparaginase from Escherichia coli (L-Asp or its pegylated form Pegasparagas (PEG-ASP that induced higher rates of late apoptosis and necrosis as detected by an Annexin V/Propidium iodide binding assay. In-vivo experiments indicated that mice treated with P-Asp had less distinct allergenic responses than other bacterial enzyme preparations as indicated by lower serum concentrations of IgG, IgE, IgM and mMCP-1 compared with other treated groups. In conclusion, P-Asp can be considered as a promising candidate for use in the treatment of ALL.

  4. Substantially Higher and Earlier Occurrence of Anti-Tuberculosis Drug-Related Adverse Reactions in HIV Coinfected Tuberculosis Patients: A Matched-Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matono, Takashi; Nishijima, Takeshi; Teruya, Katsuji; Morino, Eriko; Takasaki, Jin; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Oka, Shinichi

    2017-11-01

    Little information exists on the frequency, severity, and timing of first-line anti-tuberculosis drug-related adverse events (TB-AEs) in HIV-tuberculosis coinfected (HIV-TB) patients in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era. This matched-cohort study included HIV-TB patients as cases and HIV-uninfected tuberculosis (non-HIV-TB) patients as controls. Tuberculosis was culture-confirmed in both groups. Cases were matched to controls in a 1:4 ratio on age, sex, and year of diagnosis. TB-AEs were defined as Grade 2 or higher requiring drug discontinuation/regimen change. From 2003 to 2015, 94 cases and 376 controls were analyzed (95% men, 98% Asians). Standard four-drug combination therapy was initiated in 91% of cases and 89% of controls (p = 0.45). Cases had a higher frequency of TB-AE [51% (48/94) vs. 10% (39/376), p tuberculosis treatment. HIV infection was an independent risk factor for TB-AEs in the multivariate Cox analysis [adjusted HR (aHR): 6.96; 95% confidence interval: 3.93-12.3]. TB-AEs occurred more frequently in HIV-TB than in non-HIV-TB patients, and were more severe. The majority of TB-AEs occurred within 4 weeks of initiating anti-tuberculosis treatment. Because TB-AEs may delay ART initiation, careful monitoring during this period is warranted in coinfected patients.

  5. "Every drug goes to treat its own disease…" - a qualitative study of perceptions and experiences of taking anti-retrovirals concomitantly with anti-malarials among those affected by HIV and malaria in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangesho, Peter E; Reynolds, Joanna; Lemnge, Martha

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about how people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) experience malaria and the concomitant use of anti-malarial treatments with anti-retrovirals (ARVs). An understanding of how patients make sense of these experiences is important to consider in planning......, perceptions of drug strength appeared to compel some people not enrolled in the clinical study to take the drugs at separate times to avoid anticipated harm to the body. CONCLUSIONS: Management of HIV and malaria concurrently often requires individuals to cross the domains of different disease programmes...

  6. Plant-based anti-HIV-1 strategies: vaccine molecules and antiviral approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Nunzia; Buonaguro, Luigi; Tornesello, Maria Lina; Cardi, Teodoro; Buonaguro, Franco Maria

    2010-08-01

    The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy has drastically changed HIV infection from an acute, very deadly, to a chronic, long-lasting, mild disease. However, this requires continuous care management, which is difficult to implement worldwide, especially in developing countries. Sky-rocketing costs of HIV-positive subjects and the limited success of preventive recommendations mean that a vaccine is urgently needed, which could be the only effective strategy for the real control of the AIDS pandemic. To be effective, vaccination will need to be accessible, affordable and directed against multiple antigens. Plant-based vaccines, which are easy to produce and administer, and require no cold chain for their heat stability are, in principle, suited to such a strategy. More recently, it has been shown that even highly immunogenic, enveloped plant-based vaccines can be produced at a competitive and more efficient rate than conventional strategies. The high variability of HIV epitopes and the need to stimulate both humoral neutralizing antibodies and cellular immunity suggest the importance of using the plant system: it offers a wide range of possible strategies, from single-epitope to multicomponent vaccines, modulators of the immune response (adjuvants) and preventive molecules (microbicides), either alone or in association with plant-derived monoclonal antibodies, besides the potential use of the latter as therapeutic agents. Furthermore, plant-based anti-HIV strategies can be administered not only parenterally but also by the more convenient and safer oral route, which is a more suitable approach for possible mass vaccination.

  7. Estimation of Anti-HIV Activity of HEPT Analogues Using MLR, ANN, and SVM Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basheerulla Shaik

    2013-01-01

    value than those of MLR and SVM techniques. Rm2= metrics and ridge regression analysis indicated that the proposed four-variable model MATS5e, RDF080u, T(O⋯O, and MATS5m as correlating descriptors is the best for estimating the anti-HIV activity (log 1/C present set of compounds.

  8. Yessotoxin, a Marine Toxin, Exhibits Anti-Allergic and Anti-Tumoural Activities Inhibiting Melanoma Tumour Growth in a Preclinical Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Tobío

    Full Text Available Yessotoxins (YTXs are a group of marine toxins produced by the dinoflagellates Protoceratium reticulatum, Lingulodinium polyedrum and Gonyaulax spinifera. They may have medical interest due to their potential role as anti-allergic but also anti-cancer compounds. However, their biological activities remain poorly characterized. Here, we show that the small molecular compound YTX causes a slight but significant reduction of the ability of mast cells to degranulate. Strikingly, further examination revealed that YTX had a marked and selective cytotoxicity for the RBL-2H3 mast cell line inducing apoptosis, while primary bone marrow derived mast cells were highly resistant. In addition, YTX exhibited strong cytotoxicity against the human B-chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cell line MEC1 and the murine melanoma cell line B16F10. To analyse the potential role of YTX as an anti-cancer drug in vivo we used the well-established B16F10 melanoma preclinical mouse model. Our results demonstrate that a few local application of YTX around established tumours dramatically diminished tumour growth in the absence of any significant toxicity as determined by the absence of weight loss and haematological alterations. Our data support that YTX may have a minor role as an anti-allergic drug, but reveals an important potential for its use as an anti-cancer drug.

  9. In silico investigation of lavandulyl flavonoids for the development of potent fatty acid synthase-inhibitory prototypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Joonseok; Liu, Haining; Park, Hyun Bong; Ferreira, Daneel; Jeong, Gil-Saeng; Hamann, Mark T; Doerksen, Robert J; Na, MinKyun

    2017-01-01

    Inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FAS) is regarded as a sensible therapeutic strategy for the development of optimal anti-cancer agents. Flavonoids exhibit potent anti-neoplastic properties. The MeOH extract of Sophora flavescens was subjected to chromatographic analyses such as VLC and HPLC for the purification of active flavonoids. The DP4 chemical-shift analysis protocol was employed to investigate the elusive chirality of the lavandulyl moiety of the purified polyphenols. Induced Fit docking protocols and per-residue analyses were utilized to scrutinize structural prerequisites for hampering FAS activity. The FAS-inhibitory activity of the purified flavonoids was assessed via the incorporation of [ 3 H] acetyl-CoA into palmitate. Six flavonoids, including lavandulyl flavanones, were purified and evaluated for FAS inhibition. The lavandulyl flavanone sophoraflavanone G (2) exhibited the highest potency (IC 50 of 6.7±0.2μM), which was more potent than the positive controls. Extensive molecular docking studies revealed the structural requirements for blocking FAS. Per-residue interaction analysis demonstrated that the lavandulyl functional group in the active flavonoids (1-3 and 5) significantly contributed to increasing their binding affinity towards the target enzyme. This research suggests a basis for the in silico design of a lavandulyl flavonoid-based architecture showing anti-cancer effects via enhancement of the binding potential to FAS. FAS inhibition by flavonoids and their derivatives may offer significant potential as an approach to lower the risk of various cancer diseases and related fatalities. In silico technologies with available FAS crystal structures may be of significant use in optimizing preliminary leads. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Natural Immunity to HIV: A Template for Vaccine Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourcade, Lyvia; Poudrier, Johanne; Roger, Michel

    2018-04-23

    Africa accounts for the majority of global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, most of which affect women through heterosexual intercourse. Currently, there is no cure for HIV and the development of vaccines and microbicides remains the best solution to eradicate the pandemic. We and others have identified HIV highly-exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals among African female commercial sex workers (CSWs). Analyses of genital samples from HESNs have demonstrated potent innate and anti-inflammatory conditions, HIV-specific CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T-cells as well as immunoglobulins (Igs), and increased regulatory cell populations, all of which support a delicate balance between strength and control against HIV intrusion. Moreover, we have recently shown that frequencies of innate marginal zone (MZ) B-cells are decreased in the blood of HESNs when compared to HIV-uninfected non-CSW women, suggesting their recruitment to peripheral sites. This coincides with the fact that levels of B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS/BAFF), known to shape the MZ pool and whose overexpression leads to MZ deregulation in HIV-infected progressors, are significantly lower in the blood of HESNs when compared to both HIV-infected CSWs and HIV-uninfected non-CSW women. Interestingly, MZ B-cells can bind HIV gp120 and produce specific IgG and IgA, and have a propensity for B regulatory potential, which could help both the fight against HIV and maintenance of low inflammatory conditions in HESNs. HESN individuals provide an exceptional opportunity to identify important clues for the development of protective devices, and efforts should aim at soliciting immune responses observed in the context of their natural immunity to HIV.

  11. Natural Immunity to HIV: A Template for Vaccine Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyvia Fourcade

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Africa accounts for the majority of global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infections, most of which affect women through heterosexual intercourse. Currently, there is no cure for HIV and the development of vaccines and microbicides remains the best solution to eradicate the pandemic. We and others have identified HIV highly-exposed seronegative (HESN individuals among African female commercial sex workers (CSWs. Analyses of genital samples from HESNs have demonstrated potent innate and anti-inflammatory conditions, HIV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells as well as immunoglobulins (Igs, and increased regulatory cell populations, all of which support a delicate balance between strength and control against HIV intrusion. Moreover, we have recently shown that frequencies of innate marginal zone (MZ B-cells are decreased in the blood of HESNs when compared to HIV-uninfected non-CSW women, suggesting their recruitment to peripheral sites. This coincides with the fact that levels of B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS/BAFF, known to shape the MZ pool and whose overexpression leads to MZ deregulation in HIV-infected progressors, are significantly lower in the blood of HESNs when compared to both HIV-infected CSWs and HIV-uninfected non-CSW women. Interestingly, MZ B-cells can bind HIV gp120 and produce specific IgG and IgA, and have a propensity for B regulatory potential, which could help both the fight against HIV and maintenance of low inflammatory conditions in HESNs. HESN individuals provide an exceptional opportunity to identify important clues for the development of protective devices, and efforts should aim at soliciting immune responses observed in the context of their natural immunity to HIV.

  12. Isolation of Anti-Ricin Protective Antibodies Exhibiting High Affinity from Immunized Non-Human Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Noy-Porat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ricin, derived from the castor bean plant Ricinus communis, is one of the most potent and lethal toxins known, against which there is no available antidote. To date, the use of neutralizing antibodies is the most promising post-exposure treatment for ricin intoxication. The aim of this study was to isolate high affinity anti-ricin antibodies that possess potent toxin-neutralization capabilities. Two non-human primates were immunized with either a ricin-holotoxin- or subunit-based vaccine, to ensure the elicitation of diverse high affinity antibodies. By using a comprehensive set of primers, immune scFv phage-displayed libraries were constructed and panned. A panel of 10 antibodies (five directed against the A subunit of ricin and five against the B subunit was isolated and reformatted into a full-length chimeric IgG. All of these antibodies were found to neutralize ricin in vitro, and several conferred full protection to ricin-intoxicated mice when given six hours after exposure. Six antibodies were found to possess exceptionally high affinity toward the toxin, with KD values below pM (koff < 1 × 10−7 s−1 that were well correlated with their ability to neutralize ricin. These antibodies, alone or in combination, could be used for the development of a highly-effective therapeutic preparation for post-exposure treatment of ricin intoxication.

  13. Molecular mimicry of human tRNALys anti-codon domain by HIV-1 RNA genome facilitates tRNA primer annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher P; Saadatmand, Jenan; Kleiman, Lawrence; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

    2013-02-01

    The primer for initiating reverse transcription in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is tRNA(Lys3). Host cell tRNA(Lys) is selectively packaged into HIV-1 through a specific interaction between the major tRNA(Lys)-binding protein, human lysyl-tRNA synthetase (hLysRS), and the viral proteins Gag and GagPol. Annealing of the tRNA primer onto the complementary primer-binding site (PBS) in viral RNA is mediated by the nucleocapsid domain of Gag. The mechanism by which tRNA(Lys3) is targeted to the PBS and released from hLysRS prior to annealing is unknown. Here, we show that hLysRS specifically binds to a tRNA anti-codon-like element (TLE) in the HIV-1 genome, which mimics the anti-codon loop of tRNA(Lys) and is located proximal to the PBS. Mutation of the U-rich sequence within the TLE attenuates binding of hLysRS in vitro and reduces the amount of annealed tRNA(Lys3) in virions. Thus, LysRS binds specifically to the TLE, which is part of a larger LysRS binding domain in the viral RNA that includes elements of the Psi packaging signal. Our results suggest that HIV-1 uses molecular mimicry of the anti-codon of tRNA(Lys) to increase the efficiency of tRNA(Lys3) annealing to viral RNA.

  14. Design and cellular kinetics of dansyl-labeled CADA derivatives with anti-HIV and CD4 receptor down-modulating activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeire, Kurt; Lisco, Andrea; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Scarbrough, Emily; Dey, Kaka; Duffy, Noah; Margolis, Leonid; Bell, Thomas W; Schols, Dominique

    2007-08-15

    A new class of anti-retrovirals, cyclotriazadisulfonamide (CADA) and its derivatives, specifically down-regulate CD4, the main receptor of HIV, and prevent HIV infection in vitro. In this work, several CADA derivatives, chemically labeled with a fluorescent dansyl group, were evaluated for their biological features and cellular uptake kinetics. We identified a derivative KKD-016 with antiviral and CD4 down-modulating capabilities similar to those of the parental compound CADA. By using flow cytometry, we demonstrated that the dose-dependent cellular uptake of this derivative correlated with CD4 down-modulation. The uptake and activity of the dansyl-labeled compounds were not dependent on the level of expression of CD4 at the cell surface. Removal of the CADA compounds from the cell culture medium resulted in their release from the cells followed by a complete restoration of CD4 expression. The inability of several fluorescent CADA derivatives to down-modulate CD4 was not associated with their lower cellular uptake and was not reversed by facilitating their cell penetration by a surfactant. These results prove the successful integration of the dansyl fluorophore into the chemical structure of a CD4 down-modulating anti-HIV compound, and show the feasibility of tracking a receptor and its down-modulator simultaneously. These fluorescent CADA analogs with reversible CD4 down-regulating potency can now be applied in further studies on receptor modulation, and in the exploration of their potentials as preventive and therapeutic anti-HIV drugs.

  15. Cerebrospinal fluid neopterin: an informative biomarker of central nervous system immune activation in HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestetti Arabella

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HIV-1 invades the central nervous system (CNS in the context of acute infection, persists thereafter in the absence of treatment, and leads to chronic intrathecal immunoactivation that can be measured by the macrophage activation marker, neopterin, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. In this review we describe our experience with CSF neopterin measurements in 382 untreated HIV-infected patients across the spectrum of immunosuppression and HIV-related neurological diseases, in 73 untreated AIDS patients with opportunistic CNS infections, and in 233 treated patients. In untreated patients, CSF neopterin concentrations are almost always elevated and increase progressively as immunosuppression worsens and blood CD4 cell counts fall. However, patients with HIV dementia exhibit particularly high CSF neopterin concentrations, above those of patients without neurological disease, though patients with CNS opportunistic infections, including CMV encephalitis and cryptococcal meningitis, also exhibit high levels of CSF neopterin. Combination antiretroviral therapy, with its potent effect on CNS HIV infection and CSF HIV RNA, mitigates both intrathecal immunoactivation and lowers CSF neopterin. However, despite suppression of plasma and CSF HIV RNA to below the detection limits of clinical assays ( Although nonspecific, CSF neopterin can serve as a useful biomarker in the diagnosis of HIV dementia in the setting of confounding conditions, in monitoring the CNS inflammatory effects of antiretroviral treatment, and give valuable information to the cause of ongoing brain injury.

  16. HIV-1 Tat and AIDS-associated cancer: targeting the cellular anti-cancer barrier?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel René

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is accompanied by a significant increase in the incidence of neoplasms. Several causative agents have been proposed for this phenomenon. These include immunodeficiency and oncogenic DNA viruses and the HIV-1 protein Tat. Cancer in general is closely linked to genomic instability and DNA repair mechanisms. The latter maintains genomic stability and serves as a cellular anti-cancer barrier. Defects in DNA repair pathway are associated with carcinogenesis. This review focuses on newly discovered connections of the HIV-1 protein Tat, as well as cellular co-factors of Tat, to double-strand break DNA repair. We propose that the Tat-induced DNA repair deficiencies may play a significant role in the development of AIDS-associated cancer.

  17. Immigration as a crisis tendency for HIV vulnerability among racialised women living with HIV in Ontario, Canada: an anti-oppressive lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kteily-Hawa, Roula N; Islam, Shazia; Loutfy, Mona

    2018-04-16

    South Asian immigrant women in Canada face unique structural barriers that influence their HIV vulnerability. Using an intersectional and anti-oppressive lens, we explored the role of immigration in bringing about changes in gender roles and the structure of gender relations and their effect on HIV risk among immigrant women as they experienced crisis tendencies in the face of hegemonic masculinity. Informed by Connell's theory of gender, the study entailed in-depth interviews with 12 self-identified South Asian immigrant women living in the Greater Toronto Area, in Ontario, Canada. A thematic analysis yielded four themes: power relations, emotional relations, gendered division of labour and social norms. Our findings revealed interdependencies between immigration and each of structural, individual and normative factors (the themes) as they pertain to crisis tendencies when patriarchy is disrupted. Given the rapid increase in global immigration, the connections between transnationalism and hegemony, and the established link between immigration and HIV, future research should extend this work to other immigrant communities.

  18. Isoliquiritigenin exhibits anti-proliferative properties in the pituitary independent of estrogen receptor function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, Karen E.; Raetzman, Lori T.

    2016-01-01

    The plant flavonoid isoliquiritigenin (ISL) is a botanical estrogen widely taken as an herbal supplement to ease the symptoms of menopause. ISL has been also shown to have anti-tumor properties in a number of cancer cell backgrounds. However, the effects of ISL on normal cells are less well known and virtually unstudied in the context of the pituitary gland. We have established a pituitary explant culture model to screen chemical agents for gene expression changes within the pituitary gland during a period of active proliferation and differentiation. Using this whole-organ culture system we found ISL to be weakly estrogenic based on its ability to induce Cckar mRNA expression, an estrogen receptor (ER) mediated gene. Using a range of ISL from 200 nM to 200 μM, we discovered that ISL promoted cell proliferation at a low concentration, yet potently inhibited proliferation at the highest concentration. ICI 182,780 failed to antagonize ISL's repression of pituitary cell proliferation, indicating the effect is independent of ER signaling. Coincident with a decrease in proliferating cells, we observed down-regulation of transcript for cyclin D2 and E2 and a strong induction of mRNA and protein for the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor Cdkn1a (p21). Importantly, high dose ISL did not alter the balance of progenitor vs. differentiated cell types within the pituitary explants and they seemed otherwise healthy; however, TUNEL staining revealed an increase in apoptotic cell death in ISL treated cultures. Our results merit further examination of ISL as an anti-tumor agent in the pituitary gland. - Highlights: • Isoliquiritigenin possesses weak estrogenic activity based on induction of Cckar. • ISL can be anti-proliferative in pituitary explants without altering cell lineages. • Anti-proliferative behavior of ISL is not estrogen receptor mediated. • ISL induces p21 expression leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

  19. Isoliquiritigenin exhibits anti-proliferative properties in the pituitary independent of estrogen receptor function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis, Karen E.; Raetzman, Lori T., E-mail: raetzman@life.illinois.edu

    2016-12-15

    The plant flavonoid isoliquiritigenin (ISL) is a botanical estrogen widely taken as an herbal supplement to ease the symptoms of menopause. ISL has been also shown to have anti-tumor properties in a number of cancer cell backgrounds. However, the effects of ISL on normal cells are less well known and virtually unstudied in the context of the pituitary gland. We have established a pituitary explant culture model to screen chemical agents for gene expression changes within the pituitary gland during a period of active proliferation and differentiation. Using this whole-organ culture system we found ISL to be weakly estrogenic based on its ability to induce Cckar mRNA expression, an estrogen receptor (ER) mediated gene. Using a range of ISL from 200 nM to 200 μM, we discovered that ISL promoted cell proliferation at a low concentration, yet potently inhibited proliferation at the highest concentration. ICI 182,780 failed to antagonize ISL's repression of pituitary cell proliferation, indicating the effect is independent of ER signaling. Coincident with a decrease in proliferating cells, we observed down-regulation of transcript for cyclin D2 and E2 and a strong induction of mRNA and protein for the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor Cdkn1a (p21). Importantly, high dose ISL did not alter the balance of progenitor vs. differentiated cell types within the pituitary explants and they seemed otherwise healthy; however, TUNEL staining revealed an increase in apoptotic cell death in ISL treated cultures. Our results merit further examination of ISL as an anti-tumor agent in the pituitary gland. - Highlights: • Isoliquiritigenin possesses weak estrogenic activity based on induction of Cckar. • ISL can be anti-proliferative in pituitary explants without altering cell lineages. • Anti-proliferative behavior of ISL is not estrogen receptor mediated. • ISL induces p21 expression leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

  20. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extracts and fractions of Mangifera indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, C G; Deepak, M; Viswanatha, G L; Savinay, G; Hanumantharaju, V; Rajendra, C E; Halemani, Praveen D

    2013-04-13

    To evaluate the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extracts and fractions of Mangifera indica in in vitro conditions. In vitro DPPH radical scavenging activity and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition assays were used to evaluate the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities respectively. Methanolic extract (MEMI), successive water extract (SWMI) and ethyl acetate fraction (EMEMI), n-butanol fraction (BMEMI) and water soluble fraction (WMEMI) of methanolic extract were evaluated along with respective reference standards. In in vitro DPPH radical scavenging activity, the MEMI, EMEMI and BMEMI have offered significant antioxidant activity with IC(50) values of 13.37, 3.55 and 14.19 μg/mL respectively. Gallic acid, a reference standard showed significant antioxidant activity with IC(50) value of 1.88 and found to be more potent compared to all the extracts and fractions. In in vitro LOX inhibition assay, the MEMI, EMEMI and BMEMI have showed significant inhibition of LOX enzyme activity with IC(50) values of 96.71, 63.21 and 107.44 μg/mL respectively. While, reference drug Indomethacin also offered significant inhibition against LOX enzyme activity with IC(50) of 57.75. Furthermore, MEMI was found to more potent than SWMI and among the fractions EMEMI was found to possess more potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. These findings suggest that the MEMI and EMEMI possess potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in in vitro conditions. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Biocatalytically Oligomerized Epicatechin with Potent and Specific Anti-proliferative Activity for Human Breast Cancer Cells

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    Ramaswamy Nagarajan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Catechins, naturally occurring flavonoids derived from wine and green tea, are known to exhibit multiple health benefits. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG is one of the most widely investigated catechins, but its efficacy in cancer therapy is still inconsistent and limited. The poor stability of EGCG has contributed to the disparity in the reported anti-cancer activity and other beneficial properties. Here we report an innovative enzymatic strategy for the oligomerization of catechins (specifically epicatechin that yields stable, water-soluble oligomerized epicatechins with enhanced and highly specific anti-proliferative activity for human breast cancer cells. This one-pot oxidative oligomerization is carried out in ambient conditions using Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP as a catalyst yielding water-soluble oligo(epicatechins. The oligomerized epicatechins obtained exhibit excellent growth inhibitory effects against human breast cancer cells with greater specificity towards growth-inhibiting cancer cells as opposed to normal cells, achieving a high therapeutic differential. Our studies indicate that water-soluble oligomeric epicatechins surpass EGCG in stability, selectivity and efficacy at lower doses.

  2. Clinical outcomes and immune benefits of anti-epileptic drug therapy in HIV/AIDS

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    Krentz Hartmut B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs are frequently prescribed to persons with HIV/AIDS receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART although the extent of AED use and their interactions with cART are uncertain. Herein, AED usage, associated toxicities and immune consequences were investigated. Methods HIV replication was analysed in proliferating human T cells during AED exposure. Patients receiving AEDs in a geographically-based HIV care program were assessed using clinical and laboratory variables in addition to assessing AED indication, type, and cumulative exposures. Results Valproate suppressed proliferation in vitro of both HIV-infected and uninfected T cells (p 0.05 but AED exposures did not affect HIV production in vitro. Among 1345 HIV/AIDS persons in active care between 2001 and 2007, 169 individuals were exposed to AEDs for the following indications: peripheral neuropathy/neuropathic pain (60%, seizure/epilepsy (24%, mood disorder (13% and movement disorder (2%. The most frequently prescribed AEDs were calcium channel blockers (gabapentin/pregabalin, followed by sodium channel blockers (phenytoin, carbamazepine, lamotrigine and valproate. In a nested cohort of 55 AED-treated patients receiving cART and aviremic, chronic exposure to sodium and calcium channel blocking AEDs was associated with increased CD4+ T cell levels (p 0.05 with no change in CD8+ T cell levels over 12 months from the beginning of AED therapy. Conclusions AEDs were prescribed for multiple indications without major adverse effects in this population but immune status in patients receiving sodium or calcium channel blocking drugs was improved.

  3. Baccharis trimera (Less. DC Exhibits an Anti-Adipogenic Effect by Inhibiting the Expression of Proteins Involved in Adipocyte Differentiation

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    Daniele de Souza Marinho do Nascimento

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Baccharis trimera (Less. DC (gorse is a plant popularly used for the treatment of obesity. In this study, we prepared three B. trimera extracts aqueous extract (AE, decoction (AE-D, and methanol extract (ME and investigated their antioxidant effects in six different tests and their anti-adipogenic effect in 3T3-L1 cells. The extracts showed a dose-dependent antioxidant activity in all tests. AE was the most potent antioxidant in copper and ferric ion chelation assays, whereas AE-D was the most potent in superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays, reducing power assay, and total antioxidant capacity analysis. Only ME showed a cytotoxic effect against 3T3-L1 cells. Lipid accumulation decreased in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in the presence of AE and AE-D extracts (0.5 to 1.0 mg/mL. In addition, the extracts dramatically attenuated the levels of adipogenic transcriptional factors, including CCAAT enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα, CCAAT enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ, and gamma receptors by peroxisome proliferators (PPARγ, during adipogenesis. AE-D (1.0 mg/mL caused an approximately 90% reduction in the levels of these molecules. We propose that B. trimera has an anti-adipogenic effect and could be used in the development of functional foods.

  4. [Isolation, idetification and anti-HIV-1 integrase activity of culturable endophytic fungi from Tibetan medicinal plant Phlomis younghusbandii Mukerjee].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da-Wei; Zhao, Ming-Ming; Chen, Juan; Li, Chao; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2013-05-01

    A total of 52 endophytic fungi were isolated from roots and stems of Tibetan medicinal plant Phlomis younghusbandii Mukerjee. These fungal isolates were molecularly identified based on ITS sequnces and 28S sequences distributed to 12 genera, including Phoma, Chaetosphaeronema, Fusarium and Leptosphaeria, etc. Among them, the dominant genus was Phoma. Extracts of all strains were evaluated for anti-HIV-1 integrase activity by using soluable integrase expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The results showed that seven samples from five fungal endophytes PHY-24, PHY-38, PHY-40, PHY-51, PHY-53, which belonged to genus Chaetosphaeronema, inhibited strand transfer reaction catalyzed by HIV-1 integrase with IC50 values, of 6.60, 5.20, 2.86, 7.86, 4.47, 4.56 and 3.23 microg x mL(-1) respectively. In conclusion, the endophytic fungi of Phlomis younghusbandii Mukerjee are valuable for further screening anti-HIV-1 integrase agents.

  5. Potent Anti-Inflammatory and Antiadipogenic Properties of Bamboo (Sasa coreana Nakai) Leaves Extract and Its Major Constituent Flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji Hye; Choi, Moon-Hee; Yang, Seung Hwa; Cho, Sam Seok; Park, Su Jung; Shin, Hyun-Jae; Ki, Sung Hwan

    2017-08-09

    The pro-inflammatory response and recruitment of macrophages into adipose tissue contribute to metabolic dysfunction. Here, we reported the anti-inflammatory and antiadipogenic effects of the methanol (MeOH) extract and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of bamboo leaf and its molecular mechanism in RAW264.7 cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes, respectively. Functional macrophage migration assays also were performed. Surprisingly, the EtOAc fraction of MeOH extracts from native Korean plant species Sasa coreana Nakai (SCN) has shown potent anti-inflammatory properties; SCN pretreatment inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production (p 0.05). Similar to leaf extracts of other bamboo species, we identified that SCN contained several flavonoids including orientin, isoorientin, and vitexin; these compounds inhibited LPS-induced NO production (p flavonoids of SCN also inhibited adipogenesis. Furthermore, conditioned medium obtained from adipocytes stimulated macrophage chemotaxis, whereas medium from adipocytes treated with SCN significantly inhibited macrophage migration. Therefore, SCN is a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention of inflammation and obesity.

  6. Macrolactone Nuiapolide, Isolated from a Hawaiian Marine Cyanobacterium, Exhibits Anti-Chemotactic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Shogo; Williams, Howard; Cagle, Davey; Karanovich, Kristopher; Horgen, F David; Smith, Roger; Watanabe, Coran M H

    2015-10-09

    A new bioactive macrolactone, nuiapolide (1) was identified from a marine cyanobacterium collected off the coast of Niihau, near Lehua Rock. The natural product exhibits anti-chemotactic activity at concentrations as low as 1.3 μM against Jurkat cells, cancerous T lymphocytes, and induces a G2/M phase cell cycle shift. Structural characterization of the natural product revealed the compound to be a 40-membered macrolactone with nine hydroxyl functional groups and a rare tert-butyl carbinol residue.

  7. Macrolactone Nuiapolide, Isolated from a Hawaiian Marine Cyanobacterium, Exhibits Anti-Chemotactic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Shogo; Williams, Howard; Cagle, Davey; Karanovich, Kristopher; Horgen, F. David; Smith, Roger; Watanabe, Coran M. H.

    2015-01-01

    A new bioactive macrolactone, nuiapolide (1) was identified from a marine cyanobacterium collected off the coast of Niihau, near Lehua Rock. The natural product exhibits anti-chemotactic activity at concentrations as low as 1.3 μM against Jurkat cells, cancerous T lymphocytes, and induces a G2/M phase cell cycle shift. Structural characterization of the natural product revealed the compound to be a 40-membered macrolactone with nine hydroxyl functional groups and a rare tert-butyl carbinol re...

  8. Macrolactone Nuiapolide, Isolated from a Hawaiian Marine Cyanobacterium, Exhibits Anti-Chemotactic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Mori

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new bioactive macrolactone, nuiapolide (1 was identified from a marine cyanobacterium collected off the coast of Niihau, near Lehua Rock. The natural product exhibits anti-chemotactic activity at concentrations as low as 1.3 μM against Jurkat cells, cancerous T lymphocytes, and induces a G2/M phase cell cycle shift. Structural characterization of the natural product revealed the compound to be a 40-membered macrolactone with nine hydroxyl functional groups and a rare tert-butyl carbinol residue.

  9. In Vitro Antioxidant Properties, HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Effects of Traditional Herbal Preparations Sold in South Africa

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    Johannes Van Staden

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant potentials for fourteen multipurpose traditional herbal preparations sold in South Africa were determined using the DPPH radical scavenging, ferric reducing power and β-carotene-linoleic acid model system, the anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT enzyme inhibitory effects using an ELISA kit and acetylcholinesterase (AChE enzyme inhibition using the microtitre plate assay. Nine of the herbal mixtures (Umzimba omubi, Umuthi wekukhwehlela ne zilonda, Mvusa ukunzi, Umpatisa inkosi, Imbiza ephuzwato, Vusa umzimba, Supreme one hundred, Sejeso herbal mixture Ingwe® and Ingwe® special muti exhibited higher antioxidant potentials, while only four (Imbiza ephuzwato, Ingwe® muthi mixture, Sejeso herbal mixture Ingwe® and African potato extractTM showed potent activity against the RT enzyme. Nine mixtures (Imbiza ephuzwato, Umpatisa inkosi, African potato extractTM, Sejeso herbal mixture Ingwe®, Vusa umzimba; Ingwe® muthi mixture, Ibhubezi™, Lion izifozonke Ingwe® and Ingwe® special muti showed AChE enzyme inhibitory activity greater than 50%. The observed activity exhibited by some of the herbal mixtures gives some credence to the manufacturers’ claims and goes part of the way towards validating their use against certain conditions such as oxidative stress, HIV/AIDS proliferation and some mental conditions. It is however, desirable to carry out further studies to determine the effects of mixing plant species/parts in one mixture on the antioxidant potency as well as isolating active constituents from the herbal mixtures.

  10. HIV treatment 2020: what will it look like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Currently there are 28 approved antiretroviral drugs in six mechanistic classes, and recommended first-line regimens are highly potent, well tolerated, and as convenient as one pill, once-a-day. How will HIV treatment change by 2020? Over the next few years, we are likely to see potent 2-drug regimens tested head-to-head with standard three-drug regimens, and some of these will likely become standard-of-care. Newer agents with novel drug resistance profiles (e.g. doravirine, an NNRTI) or new mechanisms of action (e.g. BMS 663068, a CD4 attachment inhibitor) will provide virologic activity in patients with drug-resistant viral strains. Comparative studies of current and newer agents such as the investigational prodrug of tenofovir (TAF) will help define less toxic regimens. We will see additional convenient co-formulations developed; with them, we are likely to have second- and even third-line regimens administered one pill, once-daily. Long-acting injectable investigational formulations currently in clinical trials such as rilpivirine LA (administered monthly) and cabotegravir (administered quarterly), and others (including combinations of these agents) could provide additional convenient treatment options. Other novel formulations (e.g. patches, implants, rings) and combinations of antiretrovirals with other kinds of medications (e.g. contraceptives) may be developed and tested. In the developing world, we will see increasing numbers of patients taking potent, well-tolerated convenient first-line and subsequent regimens with the goal of "20 by 20" - 20 million treated people by 2020. Generic formulations of antiretroviral drugs, including combinations, will be increasingly available and used worldwide. With the current appreciation that inflammation and immune activation play an important role in the natural history of treated HIV infection, anti-inflammatory agents will be tested and may supplement (or even be co-formulated with) standard antiretroviral regimens

  11. Potential use of rapamycin in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donia, Marco; McCubrey, James A; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The strong need for the development of alternative anti-HIV agents is primarily due to the emergence of strain-resistant viruses, the need for sustained adherence to complex treatment regimens and the toxicity of currently used antiviral drugs. This review analyzes proof of concept studies...... indicating that the immunomodulatory drug rapamycin (RAPA) possesses anti-HIV properties both in vitro and in vivo that qualifies it as a potential new anti-HIV drug. It represents a literature review of published studies that evaluated the in vitro and in vivo activity of RAPA in HIV. RAPA represses HIV-1...... replication in vitro through different mechanisms including, but not limited, to down regulation of CCR5. In addition RAPA synergistically enhances the anti-HIV activity of entry inhibitors such as vicriviroc, aplaviroc and enfuvirtide in vitro. RAPA also inhibits HIV-1 infection in human peripheral blood...

  12. Discovery of a potent and orally available acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor as an anti-atherosclerotic agent: (4-phenylcoumarin)acetanilide derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Masaki; Fukui, Seiji; Nakada, Yoshihisa; Tokunoh, Ryosuke; Itokawa, Shigekazu; Kakoi, Yuichi; Nishimura, Satoshi; Sanada, Tsukasa; Fuse, Hiromitsu; Kubo, Kazuki; Wada, Takeo; Marui, Shogo

    2011-01-01

    Acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is an intracellular enzyme that catalyzes cholesterol esterification. ACAT inhibitors are expected to be potent therapeutic agents for the treatment of atherosclerosis. A series of potent ACAT inhibitors based on an (4-phenylcoumarin)acetanilide scaffold was identified. Evaluation of the structure-activity relationships of a substituent on this scaffold, with an emphasis on improving the pharmacokinetic profile led to the discovery of 2-[7-chloro-4-(3-chlorophenyl)-6-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl]-N-[4-chloro-2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]acetamide (23), which exhibited potent ACAT inhibitory activity (IC50=12 nM) and good pharmacokinetic profile in mice. Compound 23 also showed regressive effects on atherosclerotic plaques in apolipoprotein (apo)E knock out (KO) mice at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg per os (p.o.).

  13. Virus-like-vaccines against HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Anne Marie C.; Schwerdtfeger, Melanie; Holst, Peter J.

    2018-01-01

    Protection against chronic infections has necessitated the development of ever-more potent vaccination tools. HIV seems to be the most challenging foe, with a remarkable, poorly immunogenic and fragile surface glycoprotein and the ability to overpower the cell immune system. Virus-like-particle (......Protection against chronic infections has necessitated the development of ever-more potent vaccination tools. HIV seems to be the most challenging foe, with a remarkable, poorly immunogenic and fragile surface glycoprotein and the ability to overpower the cell immune system. Virus...... of HIV. Such vaccines are immunologically perceived as viruses, as they infect cells and produce VLPs in situ, but they only resemble viruses, as the replication defective vectors and VLPs cannot propagate an infection. The inherent safety of such a platform, despite robust particle production...

  14. Fatores associados à submissão ao teste rápido anti-HIV na assistência ao parto

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    Maria Inês Couto de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Resumo Os testes rápidos anti-HIV vêm sendo empregados nas maternidades com vistas à prevenção da transmissão vertical. O objetivo do estudo foi analisar os fatores associados à submissão ao teste rápido anti-HIV (desfecho. Estudo transversal, conduzido em 2009, em 15 hospitais do SUS do Rio de Janeiro/RJ, mediante entrevista a amostra representativa de 835 parturientes internadas e consulta a prontuários. Razões de prevalência ajustadas foram obtidas por regressão de Poisson, segundo modelo hierarquizado, permanecendo no modelo final as variáveis associadas ao desfecho (p ≤ 0,05. Segundo os prontuários (SP, 79,6% das mães foram submetidas ao teste rápido anti-HIV e, segundo as entrevistas (SE, 55,7%. No nível distal, a ausência de companheiro (SP, ter ≥ 6 moradores na residência (SP e a cor da pele não branca (SE se associaram a uma maior prevalência do desfecho. No nível intermediário, não dispor de sorologia negativa para o HIV do pré-natal (SP e SE se associou a uma maior prevalência do desfecho, bem como a realização de pré-natal na rede básica (SP e a não realização de pré-natal (SE. No nível proximal, o parto em hospital não certificado como amigo da criança se associou a uma maior prevalência do desfecho (SP e SE.

  15. Adverse Events among HIV/MDR-TB Co-Infected Patients Receiving Antiretroviral and Second Line Anti-TB Treatment in Mumbai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaakidis, Petros; Varghese, Bhanumati; Mansoor, Homa; Cox, Helen S.; Ladomirska, Joanna; Saranchuk, Peter; Da Silva, Esdras; Khan, Samsuddin; Paryani, Roma; Udwadia, Zarir; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Reid, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Background Significant adverse events (AE) have been reported in patients receiving medications for multidrug- and extensively-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB & XDR-TB). However, there is little prospective data on AE in MDR- or XDR-TB/HIV co-infected patients on antituberculosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) in programmatic settings. Methods Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) is supporting a community-based treatment program for drug-resistant tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients in a slum setting in Mumbai, India since 2007. Patients are being treated for both diseases and the management of AE is done on an outpatient basis whenever possible. Prospective data were analysed to determine the occurrence and nature of AE. Results Between May 2007 and September 2011, 67 HIV/MDR-TB co-infected patients were being treated with anti-TB treatment and ART; 43.3% were female, median age was 35.5 years (Interquartile Range: 30.5–42) and the median duration of anti-TB treatment was 10 months (range 0.5–30). Overall, AE were common in this cohort: 71%, 63% and 40% of patients experienced one or more mild, moderate or severe AE, respectively. However, they were rarely life-threatening or debilitating. AE occurring most frequently included gastrointestinal symptoms (45% of patients), peripheral neuropathy (38%), hypothyroidism (32%), psychiatric symptoms (29%) and hypokalaemia (23%). Eleven patients were hospitalized for AE and one or more suspect drugs had to be permanently discontinued in 27 (40%). No AE led to indefinite suspension of an entire MDR-TB or ART regimen. Conclusions AE occurred frequently in this Mumbai HIV/MDR-TB cohort but not more frequently than in non-HIV patients on similar anti-TB treatment. Most AE can be successfully managed on an outpatient basis through a community-based treatment program, even in a resource-limited setting. Concerns about severe AE in the management of co-infected patients are justified, however, they should not cause delays

  16. Qualitative and quantitative intravaginal targeting: key to anti-HIV-1 microbicide delivery from test tube to in vivo success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Viness; Mashingaidze, Felix; Choonara, Yahya E; Du Toit, Lisa C; Buchmann, Eckhart; Maharaj, Vinesh; Ndesendo, Valence M K; Kumar, Pradeep

    2012-06-01

    The past decade has seen several effective anti-HIV-1 agent discoveries, yet microbicides continue to disappoint clinically. Our review expounds the view that unsatisfactory microbicide failures may be a result of inefficient delivery systems employed. We hereby propose a thorough scientific qualitative and quantitative investigation of important aspects involved in HIV-1 transmission as a prerequisite for microbicide delivery. Intravaginal targeting of HIV-1 increases the chances of microbicide success, wherein vaginal microenvironmental factors including pH should be maintained at HIV-1 prohibitive acidic levels simultaneously to ward off other sexually transmitted diseases, which compromise vaginal epithelial barrier properties. Furthermore, choice of receptors to target both on HIV-1 and on target cells is vital in deterring transmission. Appropriate modeling of virus-target cell interactions as well as targeting early stages of the HIV-1 infection accompanied by computation and delivery of appropriate microbicide quantities could revolutionize microbicide research, ultimately delivering a female-controlled HIV-1 prevention modality appropriately. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. One-dimensional poly(L-lysine)-block-poly(L-threonine) assemblies exhibit potent anticancer activity by enhancing membranolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Fon; Shiau, Ai-Li; Chang, Sue-Joan; Fan, Nai-Shin; Wang, Chung-Teng; Wu, Chao-Liang; Jan, Jeng-Shiung

    2017-06-01

    Herein, we report the oncolytic activity of cationic, one-dimensional (1D) fibril assemblies formed from coil-sheet poly(L-lysine)-block-poly(L-threonine) (PLL-b-PLT) block copolypeptides for cancer therapy. The 1D fibril assemblies can efficiently interact with negatively charged cellular and mitochondrial membranes via electrostatic interactions, leading to necrosis via membrane lysis and apoptosis via the mitochondria-lytic effect. The concept is analogous to that of 1D drug carriers that exhibit enhanced cell penetration. In comparison to free PLL chains, PLL-b-PLT fibril assemblies exhibit selective cytotoxicity toward cancer cells, low hemolysis activity, enhanced membranolytic activity, and a different apoptosis pathway, which may be due to differences in the peptide-membrane interactions. Antitumor studies using a metastatic LL2 lung carcinoma model indicate that the fibril assemblies significantly inhibited tumor growth, improved survival in tumor-bearing mice and suppressed lung metastasis without obvious body weight loss. An additive efficacy was also observed for treatment with both PLL-b-PLT and cisplatin. These results support the feasibility of using 1D fibril assemblies as potential apoptotic anticancer therapeutics. We report that cationic, one-dimensional (1D) fibril assemblies formed by coil-sheet poly(L-lysine)-block-poly(L-threonine) (PLL-b-PLT) block copolypeptides exhibited potent anticancer activity by enhancing membranolysis. The 1D fibril assemblies can efficiently interact with negatively charged cellular and mitochondrial membranes via electrostatic interactions, leading to necrosis via membrane lysis and apoptosis via mitochondria-lytic effect. Moreover, the fibril assemblies exhibited low hemolytic activity and selective cytotoxicity toward cancer cell, which is advantageous as compared to PLL and most antimicrobial/anticancerous peptides. This study provides a new concept of using cationic, 1D fibril assemblies for cancer therapy

  18. Cutaneous porphyrins exhibit anti-stokes fluorescence that is detectable in sebum (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Giselle; Zeng, Haishan; Zhao, Jianhua; Wu, Zhenguo; Al Jasser, Mohammed; Lui, Harvey; Mclean, David I.

    2016-02-01

    Porphyrins produced by Propionibacterium acnes represent the principal fluorophore associated with acne, and appear as orange-red luminescence under the Wood's lamp. Assessment of acne based on Wood's lamp (UV) or visible light illumination is limited by photon penetration depth and has limited sensitivity for earlier stage lesions. Inducing fluorescence with near infrared (NIR) excitation may provide an alternative way to assess porphyrin-related skin disorders. We discovered that under 785 nm CW laser excitation PpIX powder exhibits fluorescence emission in the shorter wavelength range of 600-715 nm with an intensity that is linearly dependent on the excitation power. We attribute this shorter wavelength emission to anti-Stokes fluorescence. Similar anti-Stokes fluorescence was also detected focally in all skin-derived samples containing porphyrins. Regular (Stokes) fluorescence was present under UV and visible light excitation on ex vivo nasal skin and sebum from uninflamed acne, but not on nose surface smears or sebum from inflamed acne. Co-registered CW laser-excited anti-Stokes fluorescence and fs laser-excited multi-photon fluorescence images of PpIX powder showed similar features. In the skin samples because of the anti-Stokes effect, the NIR-induced fluorescence was presumably specific for porphyrins since there appeared to be no anti-Stokes emission signals from other typical skin fluorophores such as lipids, keratins and collagen. Anti-Stokes fluorescence under NIR CW excitation is more sensitive and specific for porphyrin detection than UV- or visible light-excited regular fluorescence and fs laser-excited multi-photon fluorescence. This approach also has higher image contrast compared to NIR fs laser-based multi-photon fluorescence imaging. The anti-Stokes fluorescence of porphyrins within sebum could potentially be applied to detecting and targeting acne lesions for treatment via fluorescence image guidance.

  19. Novel Radiolytic Rotenone Derivative, Rotenoisin B with Potent Anti-Carcinogenic Activity in Hepatic Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srilatha Badaboina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rotenone, isolated from roots of derris plant, has been shown to possess various biological activities, which lead to attempting to develop a potent drug against several diseases. However, recent studies have demonstrated that rotenone has the potential to induce several adverse effects such as a neurodegenerative disease. Radiolytic transformation of the rotenone with gamma-irradiation created a new product, named rotenoisin B. The present work was designed to investigate the anticancer activity of rotenoisin B with low toxicity and its molecular mechanism in hepatic cancer cells compared to a parent compound, rotenone. Our results showed rotenoisin B inhibited hepatic cancer cells’ proliferation in a dose dependent manner and increased in apoptotic cells. Interestingly, rotenoisin B showed low toxic effects on normal cells compared to rotenone. Mitochondrial transmembrane potential has been decreased, which leads to cytochrome c release. Down regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 levels as well as the up regulation of proapoptotic Bax levels were observed. The cleaved PARP (poly ADP-ribose polymerase level increased as well. Moreover, phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK and p38 slightly up regulated and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS increased as well as cell cycle arrest predominantly at the G2/M phase observed. These results suggest that rotenoisin B might be a potent anticancer candidate similar to rotenone in hepatic cancer cells with low toxicity to normal cells even at high concentrations compared to rotenone.

  20. A Short Peptide That Mimics the Binding Domain of TGF-β1 Presents Potent Anti-Inflammatory Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília R Vaz

    Full Text Available The transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1 is a pleiotropic cytokine with multiple roles in development, wound healing, and immune regulation. TGF-β1-mediated immune dysfunction may lead to pathological conditions, such as inflammation. Chronic inflammatory process is characterized by a continuous release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and the inhibition or the blockage of these cytokines signaling pathways are considered a target treatment. In this context, despite the high numbers of TGF-β-targeted pathways, the inducible regulatory T cells (iTreg to control inflammation seems to be a promising approach. Our aim was to develop novel peptides through phage display (PhD technology that could mimic TGF-β1 function with higher potency. Specific mimetic peptides were obtained through a PhD subtraction strategy from whole cell binding using TGF-β1 recombinant as a competitor during elution step. We have selected a peptide that seems to play an important role on cellular differentiation and modulation of TNF-α and IL-10 cytokines. The synthetic pm26TGF-β1 peptide tested in PBMC significantly down-modulated TNF-α and up-regulated IL-10 responses, leading to regulatory T cells (Treg phenotype differentiation. Furthermore, the synthetic peptide was able to decrease leukocytes rolling in BALB/C mice and neutrophils migration during inflammatory process in C57BL/6 mice. These data suggest that this peptide may be useful for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, especially because it displays potent anti-inflammatory properties and do not exhibit neutrophils' chemoattraction.

  1. Endogenous MCM7 microRNA cluster as a novel platform to multiplex small interfering and nucleolar RNAs for combinational HIV-1 gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Janet; Zhang, Jane; Li, Haitang; Ouellet, Dominique L; DiGiusto, David L; Rossi, John J

    2012-11-01

    Combinational therapy with small RNA inhibitory agents against multiple viral targets allows efficient inhibition of viral production by controlling gene expression at critical time points. Here we explore combinations of different classes of therapeutic anti-HIV-1 RNAs expressed from within the context of an intronic MCM7 (minichromosome maintenance complex component-7) platform that naturally harbors 3 microRNAs (miRNAs). We replaced the endogenous miRNAs with anti-HIV small RNAs, including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting HIV-1 tat and rev messages that function to induce post-transcriptional gene silencing by the RNA interference pathway, a nucleolar-localizing RNA ribozyme that targets the conserved U5 region of HIV-1 transcripts for degradation, and finally nucleolar trans-activation response (TAR) and Rev-binding element (RBE) RNA decoys designed to sequester HIV-1 Tat and Rev proteins inside the nucleolus. We demonstrate the versatility of the MCM7 platform in expressing and efficiently processing the siRNAs as miRNA mimics along with nucleolar small RNAs. Furthermore, three of the combinatorial constructs tested potently suppressed viral replication during a 1-month HIV challenge, with greater than 5-log inhibition compared with untransduced, HIV-1-infected CEM T lymphocytes. One of the most effective constructs contains an anti-HIV siRNA combined with a nucleolar-localizing U5 ribozyme and TAR decoy. This represents the first efficacious example of combining Drosha-processed siRNAs with small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein (snoRNP)-processed nucleolar RNA chimeras from a single intron platform for effective inhibition of viral replication. Moreover, we demonstrated enrichment/selection for cells expressing levels of the antiviral RNAs that provide optimal inhibition under the selective pressure of HIV. The combinations of si/snoRNAs represent a new paradigm for combinatorial RNA-based gene therapy applications.

  2. A Novel Method for Determining the Inhibitory Potential of Anti-HIV Drugs

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    Shen, Lin; Rabi, S. Alireza; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    In the absence of a cure, most HIV-1-infected individuals will require life-long treatment. It is therefore essential to optimize highly active antiretroviral therapy. Recent research has shown that the slope parameter or Hill coefficient, which describes the steepness of a dose-response curve, is a critical missing dimension in the evaluation of antiviral drug activity. Based on this finding, the instantaneous inhibitory potential (IIP) has been derived as a new measure of antiviral drug activity. IIP incorporates the slope parameter and thus is a more accurate pharmacodynamic measure of antiviral activity than current measures such as IC50 and inhibitory quotient. However, it remains important to determine how to use IIP to predict the in vivo efficacy of anti-HIV-1 drugs. This article discusses recent advances in in vitro measures of antiviral activity and the therapeutic implications of the dose-response curve slope and IIP. PMID:19837466

  3. Reactivation of HIV-1 from Latency by an Ingenol Derivative from Euphorbia Kansui.

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    Wang, Pengfei; Lu, Panpan; Qu, Xiying; Shen, Yinzhong; Zeng, Hanxian; Zhu, Xiaoli; Zhu, Yuqi; Li, Xian; Wu, Hao; Xu, Jianqing; Lu, Hongzhou; Ma, Zhongjun; Zhu, Huanzhang

    2017-08-25

    Cells harboring latent HIV-1 pose a major obstacle to eradication of the virus. The 'shock and kill' strategy has been broadly explored to purge the latent reservoir; however, none of the current latency-reversing agents (LRAs) can safely and effectively activate the latent virus in patients. In this study, we report an ingenol derivative called EK-16A, isolated from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Euphorbia kansui, which displays great potential in reactivating latent HIV-1. A comparison of the doses used to measure the potency indicated EK-16A to be 200-fold more potent than prostratin in reactivating HIV-1 from latently infected cell lines. EK-16A also outperformed prostratin in ex vivo studies on cells from HIV-1-infected individuals, while maintaining minimal cytotoxicity effects on cell viability and T cell activation. Furthermore, EK-16A exhibited synergy with other LRAs in reactivating latent HIV-1. Mechanistic studies indicated EK-16A to be a PKCγ activator, which promoted both HIV-1 transcription initiation by NF-κB and elongation by P-TEFb signal pathways. Further investigations aimed to add this compound to the therapeutic arsenal for HIV-1 eradication are in the pipeline.

  4. 3D printed, controlled release, tritherapeutic tablet matrix for advanced anti-HIV-1 drug delivery.

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    Siyawamwaya, Margaret; du Toit, Lisa C; Kumar, Pradeep; Choonara, Yahya E; Kondiah, Pierre P P D; Pillay, Viness

    2018-04-12

    A 3D-Bioplotter® was employed to 3D print (3DP) a humic acid-polyquaternium 10 (HA-PQ10) controlled release fixed dose combination (FDC) tablet comprising of the anti-HIV-1 drugs, efavirenz (EFV), tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC). Chemical interactions, surface morphology and mechanical strength of the FDC were ascertained. In vitro drug release studies were conducted in biorelevant media followed by in vivo study in the large white pigs, in comparison with a market formulation, Atripla®. In vitro-in vivo correlation of results was undertaken. EFV, TDF and FTC were successfully entrapped in the 24-layered rectangular prism-shaped 3DP FDC with a loading of ∼12.5 mg/6.3 mg/4 mg of EFV/TDF/FTC respectively per printed layer. Hydrogen bonding between the EFV/TDF/FTC and HA-PQ10 was detected which was indicative of possible drug solubility enhancement. The overall surface of the tablet exhibited a fibrilla structure and the 90° inner pattern was determined to be optimal for 3DP of the FDC. In vitro and in vivo drug release profiles from the 3DP FDC demonstrated that intestinal-targeted and controlled drug release was achieved. A 3DP FDC was successfully manufactured with the aid of a 3D-Bioplotter in a single step process. The versatile HA-PQ10 entrapped all drugs and achieved an enhanced relative bioavailability of EFV, TDF, and FTC compared to the market formulation for potentially enhanced HIV treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Paradoxical Deterioration During Anti-Tuberculous Therapy in Non-HIV-Infected Patients with Pleural Tuberculosis: A Pragmatic Approach

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    Luis Corral-Gudino

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of paradoxical deterioration. A male patient diagnosed with pleural tuberculosis, but who was not infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, experienced clinical deterioration 3 weeks after the initiation of anti-tuberculous treatment. After other diagnoses were ruled out, a paradoxical response to treatment was established and the patient was started on systemic corticosteroids. Paradoxical response to treatment should be considered in patients with clinical deterioration after they start on anti-tuberculous treatment.

  6. Anti-HIV double variable domain immunoglobulins binding both gp41 and gp120 for targeted delivery of immunoconjugates.

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    Ryan B Craig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anti-HIV immunoconjugates targeted to the HIV envelope protein may be used to eradicate the latent reservoir of HIV infection using activate-and-purge protocols. Previous studies have identified the two target epitopes most effective for the delivery of cytotoxic immunoconjugates the CD4-binding site of gp120, and the hairpin loop of gp41. Here we construct and test tetravalent double variable domain immunoglobulin molecules (DVD-Igs that bind to both epitopes. METHODS: Synthetic genes that encode DVD-Igs utilizing V-domains derived from human anti-gp120 and anti-gp41 Abs were designed and expressed in 293F cells. A series of constructs tested different inter-V-linker domains and orientations of the two V domains. Antibodies were tested for binding to recombinant Ag and native Env expressed on infected cells, for neutralization of infectious HIV, and for their ability to deliver cytotoxic immunoconjugates to infected cells. FINDINGS: The outer V-domain was the major determinant of binding and functional activity of the DVD-Ig. Function of the inner V-domain and bifunctional binding required at least 15 AA in the inter-V-domain linker. A molecular model showing the spatial orientation of the two epitopes is consistent with this observation. Linkers that incorporated helical domains (A[EAAAK](nA resulted in more effective DVD-Igs than those based solely on flexible domains ([GGGGS](n. In general, the DVD-Igs outperformed the less effective parental antibody and equaled the activity of the more effective. The ability of the DVD-Igs to deliver cytotoxic immunoconjugates in the absence of soluble CD4 was improved over that of either parent. CONCLUSIONS: DVD-Igs can be designed that bind to both gp120 and gp41 on the HIV envelope. DVD-Igs are effective in delivering cytotoxic immunoconjugates. The optimal design of these DVD-Igs, in which both domains are fully functional, has not yet been achieved.

  7. JS-K has Potent Anti-Angiogenic Activity in vitro and Inhibits Tumor Angiogenesis in a Multiple Myeloma Model in vivo

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    Kaur, Gurmeet; Kiziltepe, Tanyel; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Kutok, Jeffery L.; Jia, Lee; Boucher, Kenneth M.; Saavedra, Joseph E.; Keefer, Larry K.; Shami, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Glutathione S-Transferases (GST) play an important role in multidrug resistance and are upregulated in multiple cancers. We have designed a prodrug class that releases NO on metabolism by GST. O2-(2,4-Dinitrophenyl) 1-[(4-ethoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (JS-K, a member of this class) has potent anti-neoplastic activity. We studied the effect of JS-K on angiogenesis. JS-K inhibited the proliferation of HUVEC’s with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.432, 0.466, and 0.505 µM at 24, 48, and 72 hours, respectively. In the cord formation assay, JS-K led to a decrease in the number of cord junctions and cord length with an IC50 of 0.637 and 0.696 µM, respectively. JS-K inhibited cell migration at 5 hours using VEGF as a chemoattractant. Migration inhibition occurred with an IC50 of 0.493 µM. In the chick aortic ring assay using VEGF or FGF-b for vessel growth stimulation, 0.5 µM JS-K completely inhibited vessel growth. JS-K inhibited tumor angiogenesis in vivo in NIH III mice implanted subcutaneously with OPM1 multiple myeloma cells. JS-K is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis in vitro and tumor vessel growth in vivo. As such, it establishes a new class of anti-neoplastic agents that target the malignant cells directly as well as their microenvironment. PMID:20723011

  8. Kaempferia parviflora Extract Exhibits Anti-cancer Activity against HeLa Cervical Cancer Cells.

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    Potikanond, Saranyapin; Sookkhee, Siriwoot; Na Takuathung, Mingkwan; Mungkornasawakul, Pitchaya; Wikan, Nitwara; Smith, Duncan R; Nimlamool, Wutigri

    2017-01-01

    tumor progression and metastasis in patients with cervical cancer. Taken together, the present report provides accumulated evidence revealing the potent anti-cancer activities of Kaempferia parviflora against cervical cancer HeLa cells, and suggests its potential use as an alternative way for cervical cancer prevention and therapy.

  9. HIV-1 Promotes the Degradation of Components of the Type 1 IFN JAK/STAT Pathway and Blocks Anti-viral ISG Induction.

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    Gargan, Siobhan; Ahmed, Suaad; Mahony, Rebecca; Bannan, Ciaran; Napoletano, Silvia; O'Farrelly, Cliona; Borrow, Persephone; Bergin, Colm; Stevenson, Nigel J

    2018-04-01

    Anti-retroviral therapy successfully suppresses HIV-1 infection, but fails to provide a cure. During infection Type 1 IFNs normally play an essential role in viral clearance, but in vivo IFN-α only has a modest impact on HIV-1 infection, suggesting its possible targeting by HIV. Here, we report that the HIV protein, Vif, inhibits effective IFN-α signalling via degradation of essential JAK/STAT pathway components. We found that STAT1 and STAT3 are specifically reduced in HEK293T cells expressing Vif and that full length, infectious HIV-1 IIIB strain promotes their degradation in a Vif-dependent manner. HIV-1 IIIB infection of myeloid ThP-1 cells also reduced the IFN-α-mediated induction of the anti-viral gene, ISG15, but not MxA, revealing a functional consequence of this HIV-1-mediated immune evasion strategy. Interestingly, while total STAT levels were not reduced upon in vitro IIIB infection of primary human PBMCs, IFN-α-mediated phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 and ISG induction were starkly reduced, with removal of Vif (IIIBΔVif), partially restoring pSTATs, ISG15 and MxB induction. Similarly, pSTAT1 and pSTAT3 expression and IFN-α-induced ISG15 were reduced in PBMCs from HIV-infected patients, compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, IFN-α pre-treatment of a CEM T lymphoblast cells significantly inhibited HIV infection/replication (measured by cellular p24), only in the absence of Vif (IIIBΔVif), but was unable to suppress full length IIIB infection. When analysing the mechanism by which Vif might target the JAK/STAT pathway, we found Vif interacts with both STAT1 and STAT3, (but not STAT2), and its expression promotes ubiquitination and MG132-sensitive, proteosomal degradation of both proteins. Vif's Elongin-Cullin-SOCS-box binding motif enables the formation of an active E3 ligase complex, which we found to be required for Vif's degradation of STAT1 and STAT3. In fact, the E3 ligase scaffold proteins, Cul5 and Rbx2, were also found to be

  10. Survey of malaria and anti-dengue virus IgG among febrile HIV-infected patients attending a tertiary hospital in Abuja, Nigeria.

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    Mustapha, Jelili Olaide; Emeribe, Anthony Uchenna; Nasir, Idris Abdullahi

    2017-01-01

    Dengue and malaria are infections, of great public health concern, especially in sub-Saharan Africa where the burden of HIV infection is high. This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of dengue virus IgG antibodies and dengue/malaria coinfection among febrile HIV-infected patients attending the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja. In this cross-sectional study, blood samples from 178 consenting HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy were collected and tested for plasmodiasis and anti-Dengue virus IgG using malaria microscopy and ELISA, respectively. Interviewer-based questionnaires were used to assess subjects' sociodemographic variables and dengue risk factors. Of the 178 screened participants, 44.4% were seropositive for dengue virus IgG antibody, whereas 29.2% were positive for Plasmodium falciparum. About 44.2% were positive for both dengue virus and P. falciparum . There was a statistical association between anti-dengue IgG and occupation ( p =0.03) but not with age, residential area, educational level and patients' gender ( p >0.05). Seroprevalence of anti-dengue specific IgG was relatively higher in participants who adopted protective measures. There was a statistical association between seroprevalence of anti-dengue IgG and adoption of preventive measures ( p <0.05). The high prevalence of malaria and dengue virus IgG indicates the need to strengthen vector control and dengue surveillance programs.

  11. Structure-Based Design of Novel HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors to Combat Drug Resistance

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    Ghosh,A.; Sridhar, P.; Leshchenko, S.; Hussain, A.; Li, J.; Kovalevsky, A.; Walters, D.; Wedelind, J.; Grum-Tokars, V.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    Structure-based design and synthesis of novel HIV protease inhibitors are described. The inhibitors are designed specifically to interact with the backbone of HIV protease active site to combat drug resistance. Inhibitor 3 has exhibited exceedingly potent enzyme inhibitory and antiviral potency. Furthermore, this inhibitor maintains impressive potency against a wide spectrum of HIV including a variety of multi-PI-resistant clinical strains. The inhibitors incorporated a stereochemically defined 5-hexahydrocyclopenta[b]furanyl urethane as the P2-ligand into the (R)-(hydroxyethylamino)sulfonamide isostere. Optically active (3aS,5R,6aR)-5-hydroxy-hexahydrocyclopenta[b]furan was prepared by an enzymatic asymmetrization of meso-diacetate with acetyl cholinesterase, radical cyclization, and Lewis acid-catalyzed anomeric reduction as the key steps. A protein-ligand X-ray crystal structure of inhibitor 3-bound HIV-1 protease (1.35 Angstroms resolution) revealed extensive interactions in the HIV protease active site including strong hydrogen bonding interactions with the backbone. This design strategy may lead to novel inhibitors that can combat drug resistance.

  12. Profiles of HIV-infected anti-retroviral therapy naïve children from Mumbai, India.

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    Paranjpe, Supriya Mayur; Sarkate, Purva Pankaj; Ingole, Nayana Avinash; Raut, Shweta Sadanand; Mehta, Preeti Rajeev

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the demographic profiles of human immunodifficiency virus (HIV) infected anti-retroviral therapy (ART) naïve children in our hospital and their relations to the clinical, immunological and nutritional status. A cross-sectional study was conducted in an Integrated Counselling and Testing Center (ICTC) at a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai. ART naïve HIV positive children were enrolled in the study. The demographic profiles, clinical features, immunological (CD4%/CD4 count) and nutritional status of these children were recorded. The agreement between clinical, immunological and nutritional staging was determined using Cohen's kappa test. In 192 HIV-infected ART naive children enrolled with a median age of 9 years (range 3 months-14 years), 97.4% acquired infection through vertical transmission. The most common clinical presentation was fever (39.6 %), followed by generalized lymphadenopathy (32.3%), cough (22.4%) and diarrhoea (9.9%). Tuberculosis was seen in 22.9% of the children. The agreement was fair between clinical and immunological staging, and slight between nutritional, immunological and clinical staging. Perinatal transmission is the most common mode of acquiring HIV infection in children. The Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission (PPTCT) program should be strengthened for lowering the transmission rate by providing extended ART to mothers during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Tuberculosis remains a major concern in HIV-infected children. The poor correlation between WHO clinical and immunological staging emphasizes the importance of making CD4 facilities available in HIV prevalent areas. Malnutrition cannot be used as a surrogate marker for predicting stage or severity as it is common at all stages of HIV disease.

  13. HLBT-100: a highly potent anti-cancer flavanone from Tillandsia recurvata (L.) L.

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    Lowe, Henry I C; Toyang, Ngeh J; Watson, Charah T; Ayeah, Kenneth N; Bryant, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The incidence and mortalities from cancers remain on the rise worldwide. Despite significant efforts to discover and develop novel anticancer agents, many cancers remain in the unmet need category. As such, efforts to discover and develop new and more effective and less toxic agents against cancer remain a top global priority. Our drug discovery approach is natural products based with a focus on plants. Tillandsia recurvata (L.) L. is one of the plants selected by our research team for further studies based on previous bioactivity findings on the anticancer activity of this plant. The plant biomass was extracted using supercritical fluid extraction technology with CO 2 as the mobile phase. Bioactivity guided isolation was achieved by use of chromatographic technics combined with anti-proliferative assays to determine the active fraction and subsequently the pure compound. Following in house screening, the identified molecule was submitted to the US National Cancer Institute for screening on the NCI60 cell line panel using standard protocols. Effect of HLBT-100 on apoptosis, caspase 3/7, cell cycle and DNA fragmentation were assessed using standard protocols. Antiangiogenic activity was carried out using the ex vivo rat aortic ring assay. A flavonoid of the flavanone class was isolated from T. recurvata (L.) L. with potent anticancer activity. The molecule was code named as HLBT-100 (also referred to as HLBT-001). The compound inhibited brain cancer (U87 MG), breast cancer (MDA-MB231), leukemia (MV4-11), melanoma (A375), and neuroblastoma (IMR-32) with IC 50 concentrations of 0.054, 0.030, 0.024, 0.003 and 0.05 µM, respectively. The molecule also exhibited broad anticancer activity in the NCI60 panel inhibiting especially hematological, colon, CNS, melanoma, ovarian, breast and prostate cancers. Twenty-three of the NCI60 cell lines were inhibited with GI 50 values <0.100 µM. In terms of potential mechanisms of action, the molecule demonstrated effect on the

  14. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by aqueous extracts of Prunella vulgaris L.

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    McCoy Joe-Ann

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mint family (Lamiaceae produces a wide variety of constituents with medicinal properties. Several family members have been reported to have antiviral activity, including lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L., sage (Salvia spp., peppermint (Mentha × piperita L., hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L., basil (Ocimum spp. and self-heal (Prunella vulgaris L.. To further characterize the anti-lentiviral activities of Prunella vulgaris, water and ethanol extracts were tested for their ability to inhibit HIV-1 infection. Results Aqueous extracts contained more anti-viral activity than did ethanol extracts, displaying potent antiviral activity against HIV-1 at sub μg/mL concentrations with little to no cellular cytotoxicity at concentrations more than 100-fold higher. Time-of-addition studies demonstrated that aqueous extracts were effective when added during the first five hours following initiation of infection, suggesting that the botanical constituents were targeting entry events. Further analysis revealed that extracts inhibited both virus/cell interactions and post-binding events. While only 40% inhibition was maximally achieved in our virus/cell interaction studies, extract effectively blocked post-binding events at concentrations similar to those that blocked infection, suggesting that it was targeting of these latter steps that was most important for mediating inhibition of virus infectivity. Conclusions We demonstrate that aqueous P. vulgaris extracts inhibited HIV-1 infectivity. Our studies suggest that inhibition occurs primarily by interference of early, post-virion binding events. The ability of aqueous extracts to inhibit early events within the HIV life cycle suggests that these extracts, or purified constituents responsible for the antiviral activity, are promising microbicides and/or antivirals against HIV-1.

  15. A formulation of pancreatic pro-enzymes provides potent anti-tumour efficacy: a pilot study focused on pancreatic and ovarian cancer.

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    Perán, Macarena; López-Ruiz, Elena; García, María Ángel; Nadaraia-Hoke, Shorena; Brandt, Ralf; Marchal, Juan A; Kenyon, Julian

    2017-10-25

    Proteolytic enzymes have shown efficacy in cancer therapy. We present a combination of the two pro-enzymes Trypsinogen and Chymotrypsinogen A with potent in vitro and in vivo anti-tumour efficacy. A synergetic anti-tumour effect for Trypsinogen and Chymotrypsinogen A was determined at a ratio 1:6 (named PRP) using 24 human cancer cell lines. The antiangiogenic effect of PRP was analysed by matrigel-based tube formation and by fibrous capsule formation assays. Furthermore, cell invasion and wound healing assays together with qRT-PCR determination of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers were performed on human cancer cells treated with PRP. Additionally, in vivo pharmacokinetic studies were implemented and the PRP's anti-tumour efficacy was explored against orthotopic pancreatic and ovarian cancer tumours. PRP formulation was proven to inhibit in vitro angiogenesis, tumour growth, cancer cell migration and invasiveness; and to be an effective and well tolerated in vivo anti-tumour treatment. Finally, the clinical efficacy of a suppository formulation containing both pancreatic pro-enzymes in the context of a UK Pharmaceuticals Special Scheme was evaluated in advanced cancer patients. Consequently, PRP could have relevant oncological clinical applications for the treatment of advanced or metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma and advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

  16. Genome-wide expression profiling analysis to identify key genes in the anti-HIV mechanism of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.

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    Gao, Lijie; Wang, Yunqi; Li, Yi; Dong, Ya; Yang, Aimin; Zhang, Jie; Li, Fengying; Zhang, Rongqiang

    2018-07-01

    Comprehensive bioinformatics analyses were performed to explore the key biomarkers in response to HIV infection of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. The numbers of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells of HIV infected individuals were analyzed and the GEO database (GSE6740) was screened for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in HIV infected CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. Gene Ontology enrichment, KEGG pathway analyses, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network were performed to identify the key pathway and core proteins in anti-HIV virus process of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. Finally, we analyzed the expressions of key proteins in HIV-infected T cells (GSE6740 dataset) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMCs) (GSE511 dataset). 1) CD4 + T cells counts and ratio of CD4 + /CD8 + T cells decreased while CD8 + T cells counts increased in HIV positive individuals; 2) 517 DEGs were found in HIV infected CD4 + and CD8 + T cells at acute and chronic stage with the criterial of P-value T cells. The main biological processes of the DEGs were response to virus and defense response to virus. At chronic stage, ISG15 protein, in conjunction with IFN-1 pathway might play key roles in anti-HIV responses of CD4 + T cells; and 4) The expression of ISG15 increased in both T cells and PBMCs after HIV infection. Gene expression profile of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells changed significantly in HIV infection, in which ISG15 gene may play a central role in activating the natural antiviral process of immune cells. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A predominance of R5-like HIV genotypes in vaginal secretions is associated with elevated plasma HIV-1 RNA levels and the absence of anti-retroviral therapy

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    Lacour Nedra

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HIV expressed in genital secretions provides the inoculum from which transmitting variants are selected, both in sexual transmission and mother-to-infant transmission during partuition. Characterization of HIV levels and genotypes found in vaginal secretions and the impact of anti-retroviral therapy (ART on this virus can provide valuable insight for the prevention of HIV transmission. Vaginal HIV was evaluated in a cohort of 43 women attending a New Orleans HIV outpatient clinic. Predominant vaginal genotypes were characterized as R5- or X4-like by heteroduplex tracking analyses of the envelope V3 region. Most women (67.4% shed R5-like genotypes in vaginal secretions which was associated with elevated plasma HIV levels (≥ 10,000 copies HIV-RNA/mL and absence of ART. Because R5-like genotypes are more frequently associated with transmission, these observations suggest that the majority of women shedding HIV in genital secretions present a transmission risk. The levels of vaginal virus were similar between both groups, but shedding of X4-like genotypes was associated with lower plasma viral loads and the use of ART, suggesting that ART use may impact the genotypes of virus found in the female genital compartment.

  18. Mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among HIV-infected pregnant women on highly active anti-retroviral therapy with premature rupture of membranes at term.

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    Eleje, George Uchenna; Edokwe, Emeka Stephen; Ikechebelu, Joseph Ifeanyichukwu; Onubogu, Chinyere Ukamaka; Ugochukwu, Ebele Francesca; Okam, Princeston Chukwuemeka; Ibekwe, Adaobi Maryann

    2018-01-01

    To determine mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rate and associated risk factors of human immune-deficiency virus (HIV) among HIV-infected pregnant women with term premature rupture of membranes (PROM) in comparison with those without PROM at term. All optimally managed HIV-positive pregnant women of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, on highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) who had PROM at term were enrolled. Maternal HIV-1 viral load was not assessed. Follow up was for a minimum of 18 months for evidence of HIV infection. Of the 121 women with PROM at term, 46 (38.0%) were HIV sero-positive, 22/46 (47.8%) of which had their babies followed up till 18 months. The mean latency period was 10.5 ± 5.3 h in PROM group. Apart from duration of PROM (OR = 0.01; 95%CI = 0.00-0.13; p  0.05). Of the 22 (47.8%) babies followed-up in the PROM group and 13 in non-PROM group, none tested positive to HIV, given an MTCT rate of 0%. MTCT rate was 0% following term PROM and in women without PROM. Since maternal HIV-1 viral load was not assessed, we need to be critical while interpreting the findings.

  19. Spectrum of imaging appearances of intracranial cryptococcal infection in HIV/AIDS patients in the anti-retroviral therapy era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offiah, Curtis E.; Naseer, Aisha

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans infection is the most common fungal infection of the central nervous system (CNS) in advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, but remains a relatively uncommon CNS infection in both the immunocompromised and immunocompetent patient population, rendering it a somewhat elusive and frequently overlooked diagnosis. The morbidity and mortality associated with CNS cryptococcal infection can be significantly reduced by early recognition of the imaging appearances by the radiologist in order to focus and expedite clinical management and treatment. The emergence and evolution of anti-retroviral therapy have also impacted significantly on the imaging appearances, morbidity, and mortality of this neuro-infection. The constellation of varied imaging appearances associated with cryptococcal CNS infection in the HIV and AIDS population in the era of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) will be presented in this review.

  20. GRL-09510, a Unique P2-Crown-Tetrahydrofuranylurethane -Containing HIV-1 Protease Inhibitor, Maintains Its Favorable Antiviral Activity against Highly-Drug-Resistant HIV-1 Variants in vitro

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    Amano, Masayuki; Miguel Salcedo-Gómez, Pedro; Yedidi, Ravikiran S.; Delino, Nicole S.; Nakata, Hirotomo; Venkateswara Rao, Kalapala; Ghosh, Arun K.; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2017-09-25

    We report that GRL-09510, a novel HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI) containing a newly-generated P2-crown-tetrahydrofuranylurethane (Crwn-THF), a P2'-methoxybenzene, and a sulfonamide isostere, is highly active against laboratory and primary clinical HIV-1 isolates (EC50: 0.0014–0.0028 μM) with minimal cytotoxicity (CC50: 39.0 μM). Similarly, GRL-09510 efficiently blocked the replication of HIV-1NL4-3 variants, which were capable of propagating at high-concentrations of atazanavir, lopinavir, and amprenavir (APV). GRL-09510 was also potent against multi-drug-resistant clinical HIV-1 variants and HIV-2ROD. Under the selection condition, where HIV-1NL4-3 rapidly acquired significant resistance to APV, an integrase inhibitor raltegravir, and a GRL-09510 congener (GRL-09610), no variants highly resistant against GRL-09510 emerged over long-term in vitro passage of the virus. Crystallographic analysis demonstrated that the Crwn-THF moiety of GRL-09510 forms strong hydrogen-bond-interactions with HIV-1 protease (PR) active-site amino acids and is bulkier with a larger contact surface, making greater van der Waals contacts with PR than the bis-THF moiety of darunavir. The present data demonstrate that GRL-09510 has favorable features for treating patients infected with wild-type and/or multi-drug-resistant HIV-1 variants, that the newly generated P2-Crwn-THF moiety confers highly desirable anti-HIV-1 potency. The use of the novel Crwn-THF moiety sheds lights in the design of novel PIs.

  1. Antioxidative Flavonol Glucuronides and Anti-HBsAg Flavonol from Rotala rotundifolia

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    Li-Jie Zhang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new flavonol glucuronides, quercetin 3-O-β-d-2″-acetylglucuronide (1 and quercetin 3-O-β-d-2″-acetylglucuronide methyl ester (2, along with four known flavonoids (3-6 were isolated from the whole parts of Rotala rotundifolia. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by application of various spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques. Biological evaluation showed that all of isolated flavonoid compounds have potent anti-oxidative activities by DPPH and superoxide anion methods, and kaempferol (3 and quercetin (4 exhibited significant anti-HBV activity assayed by anti-HBsAg production. The HPLC fingerprint with photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD for quality control of R. rotundifolia partitioned EtOAc layer was also established.

  2. A realização do teste anti-hiv no pré-natal: os significados para a gestante El establecimiento de la lucha contra la prueba del vih en pre-navidad: significados para el embarazo The establishment of anti-hiv test in pre-natal: meanings for pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Maria de Oliveira Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve por objetivo conhecer e analisar o significado da realização do teste anti-HIV no pré-natal para as gestantes. Trata-se de uma pesquisa com abordagem qualitativa e foi realizada em um Hospital Escola e em uma Maternidade do município do Rio de Janeiro. Como recurso técnico-metodológico utilizou-se o discurso do sujeito coletivo (DSC. Após a análise dos discursos verificamos que para as gestantes a realização do teste significa a possibilidade de prevenir a transmissão vertical do HIV e como parte da assistência pré-natal. O pré-natal foi considerado pelas gestantes uma excelente oportunidade para a realização do teste anti HIV, para o conhecimento da condição sorológica e início precoce do tratamento. Conclui-se que o teste, para a maioria das gestantes, representa a possibilidade de proteger o filho do HIV, além de fazer parte da construção do papel materno a partir de um cuidado concreto com a saúde do bebê.El estudio que tenía para que el objetivo sepa y analice el significado de la realización del anti-VIH de la prueba en el prenatal para las mujeres embarazadas. Uno está sobre una investigación con acercamiento cualitativo y fue ejecutado en una escuela del hospital y una maternidad de la ciudad de Rio de Janeiro. Como recurso técnico-metodológico el discurso del ciudadano colectivo fue utilizado (DSC. Después de que el análisis de los discursos, nosotros verificamos que para las mujeres embarazadas la realización de la prueba significa la posibilidad para prevenir la transmisión vertical del VIH y como parte de la ayuda prenatal. El prenatal era considerado por las mujeres embarazadas una ocasión excelente para la realización del anti VIH de la prueba, para el conocimiento de la condición sorological y del principio precoz del tratamiento. Se concluye que la prueba, para la mayoría de las mujeres embarazadas, representa la posibilidad para proteger al hijo del VIH, más allá de ser

  3. Comparative pharmacokinetic, immunologic and hematologic studies on the anti-HIV-1/2 compounds aconitylated and succinylated HSA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, P J; Beljaars, E; Smit, C; Pasma, A; Schuitemaker, H; Meijer, D K

    1996-01-01

    Charge modification by succinylation or cis-aconitylation of the terminal epsilon NH2 functions of the amino acid lysine in human serum albumin, resulted in polyanionic compounds with an anti-HIV-1 activity in the low nanomolar concentration range. After iv injections in rats of the negatively

  4. Anti-HIV therapy with AZT prodrugs: AZT phosphonate derivatives, current state and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandazhinskaya, Anastasiya; Matyugina, Elena; Shirokova, Elena

    2010-06-01

    AIDS, a disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus, was called 'plague of the twentieth century'. 3'-Azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT), the first compound approved for the treatment of HIV, is still a mandatory component of treatment schemes. However, its toxicity stimulated a search for new agents. This review presents the history and current state of the design of AZT prodrugs based on its phosphonate derivatives. Although every effort was made to include as many AZT structures bearing phosphonate residues and demonstrate the variety they offer, we also concentrated on the studies performed in our laboratory. Special attention was also paid to AZT 5'-H-phosphonate (phosphazide, Nikavir) approved in the Russian Federation as a drug for the prevention and treatment of HIV infection. The prodrug strategy applied to AZT phosphonate derivatives enriched chemistry, biology and medicine not only with new knowledge, methods and structures, but also with a new anti-HIV drug Nikavir. Currently, study of another phosphonate, AZT 5'-aminocarbonylphosphonate, is underway. Slow release of AZT following oral administration and penetration into cells, decreased toxicity and the lack of cumulative properties make the compounds of this group promising as extended-release forms of AZT.

  5. Expression of a Recombinant Anti-HIV and Anti-Tumor Protein, MAP30, in Nicotiana tobacum Hairy Roots: A pH-Stable and Thermophilic Antimicrobial Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moghadam

    Full Text Available In contrast to conventional antibiotics, which microorganisms can readily evade, it is nearly impossible for a microbial strain that is sensitive to antimicrobial proteins to convert to a resistant strain. Therefore, antimicrobial proteins and peptides that are promising alternative candidates for the control of bacterial infections are under investigation. The MAP30 protein of Momordica charantia is a valuable type I ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP with anti-HIV and anti-tumor activities. Whereas the antimicrobial activity of some type I RIPs has been confirmed, less attention has been paid to the antimicrobial activity of MAP30 produced in a stable, easily handled, and extremely cost-effective protein-expression system. rMAP30-KDEL was expressed in Nicotiana tobacum hairy roots, and its effect on different microorganisms was investigated. Analysis of the extracted total proteins of transgenic hairy roots showed that rMAP30-KDEL was expressed effectively and that this protein exhibited significant antibacterial activity in a dose-dependent manner. rMAP30-KDEL also possessed thermal and pH stability. Bioinformatic analysis of MAP30 and other RIPs regarding their conserved motifs, amino-acid contents, charge, aliphatic index, GRAVY value, and secondary structures demonstrated that these factors accounted for their thermophilicity. Therefore, RIPs such as MAP30 and its derived peptides might have promising applications as food preservatives, and their analysis might provide useful insights into designing clinically applicable antibiotic agents.

  6. Controlled assembly of silver nano-fluid in Heliotropium crispum extract: A potent anti-biofilm and bactericidal formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Faria; Hashmi, Muhammad Uzair; Khalid, Nauman; Hayat, Muhammad Qasim; Ikram, Aamer; Janjua, Hussnain A.

    2016-11-01

    The study describes the optimized method for silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) synthesis using Heliotropium crispum (HC) plant extract. Optimization of physicochemical parameters resulted in stable and rapidly assembled AgNPs. FTIR results suggest presence of plant phytochemicals that helped in the reduction, stabilization and capping of AgNPs. The assembled Ag nano-composites displayed the peak surface plasmon resonance (SPR) around 428 nm. The presence of uniquely assembled Ag-biomolecule composites, cap and stabilize nanoparticles in aqueous plant suspension. Spherical, uniform-shaped AgNPs with low poly-dispersion and average particle size of 42 nm and was determined through dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning election microscopy (SEM) which present robust interaction with microbes. The study also evaluates the antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties of biologically synthesized AgNPs on clinical isolates of MRSA, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. Minimum inhibitory concentration (0.5 mg mL-1) of nanoparticles that presented bactericidal effect was made through inhibition assays on bacterial strains. The concentration which presented potent bactericidal response was then evaluated through growth inhibition in liquid medium for anti-biofilm studies at 2.0 mg mL-1. HC-Ag nanoparticles mediated anti-biofilm effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa was revealed through SEM. Complete breakdown of biofilm's extracellular polymeric substances resulted after incubation with AgNPs. Peptidoglycan cell wall destruction was also revealed on planktonic bacterial images after 24 h of incubation.

  7. Potential use of rapamycin in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donia, Marco; McCubrey, James A; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The strong need for the development of alternative anti-HIV agents is primarily due to the emergence of strain-resistant viruses, the need for sustained adherence to complex treatment regimens and the toxicity of currently used antiviral drugs. This review analyzes proof of concept studies......, the evidence presented in this review suggests that RAPA may be a useful drug that should be evaluated for the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection....... indicating that the immunomodulatory drug rapamycin (RAPA) possesses anti-HIV properties both in vitro and in vivo that qualifies it as a potential new anti-HIV drug. It represents a literature review of published studies that evaluated the in vitro and in vivo activity of RAPA in HIV. RAPA represses HIV-1...

  8. Antibodies to the HIV-1 Tat protein correlated with nonprogression to AIDS: a rationale for the use of Tat toxoid as an HIV-1 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagury, J F; Sill, A; Blattner, W; Lachgar, A; Le Buanec, H; Richardson, M; Rappaport, J; Hendel, H; Bizzini, B; Gringeri, A; Carcagno, M; Criscuolo, M; Burny, A; Gallo, R C; Zagury, D

    1998-01-01

    To investigate which immune parameters, such as antibodies against HIV-1 specificities, or viral parameters, such as p24 antigenemia, are predictive of disease progression. We performed studies on serum collected from individuals exhibiting two extremes of disease evolution--67 fast progressors (FP) and 182 nonprogressors (NP)--at their enrollment. After a 1- to 2-year clinical follow-up of 104 nonprogressors after their enrollment, we could determine the best serologic predictors for disease progression. We investigated levels of antibodies to tetanus toxoid and to HIV antigens including Env, Gag, Nef, and Tat proteins, as well as p24 antigenemia, viremia, CD4 cell count, and interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) titers in FPs and NPs, and we correlated these data with clinical and biologic signs of progression. p24 Antigenemia, a marker of viral replication, and anti-Tat antibodies were highly and inversely correlated in both groups (P < .001). Furthermore, anti-p24 antibodies and low serum IFN-alpha levels were correlated to the NP versus the FP cohort. Finally, among NPs, only antibodies to Tat and not to the other HIV specificities (Env, Nef, Gag) were significantly predictive of clinical stability during their follow-up. Antibodies toward HIV-1 Tat, which are inversely correlated to p24 antigenemia, appear as a critical marker for a lack of disease progression. This study strongly suggests that rising anti-Tat antibodies through active immunization may be beneficial in AIDS vaccine development to control viral replication.

  9. PEGylated bilirubin nanoparticle as an anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory demulcent in pancreatic islet xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jun; Lee, Yonghyun; Jon, Sangyong; Lee, Dong Yun

    2017-07-01

    Transplanted islets suffer hypoxic stress, which leads to nonspecific inflammation. This is the major cause of islet graft failure during the early stage of intrahepatic islet transplantation. Although bilirubin has shown potent anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory functions, its clinical applications have been limited due to its insolubility and short half-life. To overcome this problem, novel amphiphilic bilirubin nanoparticles are designed. Hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is conjugated to the hydrophobic bilirubin molecule. Then, the PEG-bilirubin conjugates form nanoparticles via self-assembly, i.e., so-called to BRNPs. BRNPs can protect islet cells not only from chemically induced oxidative stress by scavenging reactive oxygen species molecules, but also from activated macrophages by suppressing cytokine release. Importantly, in vivo experiments demonstrate that BRNP treatment can dramatically and significantly prolong islet graft survival compared to bilirubin treatment. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis shows BRNPs have potent anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory capabilities. Collectively, novel BRNPs can be a new potent remedy for successful islet transplantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reactivation of latent HIV-1 by new semi-synthetic ingenol esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandeló José, Diego [Departamento de Genética, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-902 (Brazil); Bartholomeeusen, Koen [Department of Medicine, Microbiology and Immunology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143-0703 (United States); Delveccio da Cunha, Rodrigo; Abreu, Celina Monteiro [Departamento de Genética, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-902 (Brazil); Glinski, Jan [PlantaAnalytica LLC, Danbury, CT 06810 (United States); Barbizan Ferreira da Costa, Thais; Bacchi Rabay, Ana Flávia Mello; Pianowski Filho, Luiz Francisco [Kyolab Laboratories, Valinhos, São Paulo 13273-105 (Brazil); Dudycz, Lech W. [Lex Company Research Laboratories, Shirley 01464, MA (United States); Ranga, Udaykumar [Molecular Biology and Genetics Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bengaluru 560064 (India); Peterlin, Boris Matija [Department of Medicine, Microbiology and Immunology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143-0703 (United States); Pianowski, Luiz Francisco [Kyolab Laboratories, Valinhos, São Paulo 13273-105 (Brazil); Tanuri, Amilcar [Departamento de Genética, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-902 (Brazil); Aguiar, Renato Santana, E-mail: santana@biologia.ufrj.br [Departamento de Genética, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-902 (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    The ability of HIV to establish long-lived latent infection is mainly due to transcriptional silencing of viral genome in resting memory T lymphocytes. Here, we show that new semi-synthetic ingenol esters reactivate latent HIV reservoirs. Amongst the tested compounds, 3-caproyl-ingenol (ING B) was more potent in reactivating latent HIV than known activators such as SAHA, ingenol 3,20-dibenzoate, TNF-α, PMA and HMBA. ING B activated PKC isoforms followed by NF-κB nuclear translocation. As virus reactivation is dependent on intact NF-κB binding sites in the LTR promoter region ING B, we have shown that. ING B was able to reactivate virus transcription in primary HIV-infected resting cells up to 12 fold and up to 25 fold in combination with SAHA. Additionally, ING B promoted up-regulation of P-TEFb subunits CDK9/Cyclin T1. The role of ING B on promoting both transcription initiation and elongation makes this compound a strong candidate for an anti-HIV latency drug combined with suppressive HAART. - Highlights: • 3-caproyl-ingenol (ING B) reactivates latent HIV better than SAHA, ingenol 3,20-dibenzoate, TNF-α, PMA and HMBA. • ING B promotes PKC activation and NF-kB translocation to the nucleus. • ING B activates virus transcription of B and non-B subtypes of HIV-1. • ING B activates HIV transcription in infected primary resting CD4+ T cells. • ING B induces higher levels of P-TEFb components in human primary cells.

  11. Characterization of the anti-HIV effects of native lactoferrin and other milk proteins and protein-derived peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, Ben; van Wamel, Jeroen L. B.; Beljaars, Leonie; Meijer, Dirk K. F.; Visser, Servaas; Floris, René

    2002-01-01

    In a search for natural proteins with anti-HIV activity, we screened a large set of purified proteins from bovine milk and peptide fragments thereof. Because several charged proteins and peptides are known to inhibit the process of virus entry, we selected proteins with an unusual charge composition

  12. Characterization of the anti-HIV effects of native lactoferrin and other milk proteins and protein-derived peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, B; van Wamel, JLB; Beljaars, L; Meijer, DKF; Visser, Servaas; Floris, R

    In a search for natural proteins with anti-HIV activity, we screened a large set of purified proteins from bovine milk and peptide fragments thereof. Because several charged proteins and peptides are known to inhibit the process of virus entry, we selected proteins with an unusual charge composition

  13. Novel host restriction factors implicated in HIV-1 replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Dibya; Rai, Madhu; Gaur, Ritu

    2018-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is known to interact with multiple host cellular proteins during its replication in the target cell. While many of these host cellular proteins facilitate viral replication, a number of them are reported to inhibit HIV-1 replication at various stages of its life cycle. These host cellular proteins, which are known as restriction factors, constitute an integral part of the host's first line of defence against the viral pathogen. Since the discovery of apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme 3G (APOBEC3G) as an HIV-1 restriction factor, several human proteins have been identified that exhibit anti-HIV-1 restriction. While each restriction factor employs a distinct mechanism of inhibition, the HIV-1 virus has equally evolved complex counter strategies to neutralize their inhibitory effect. APOBEC3G, tetherin, sterile alpha motif and histidine-aspartate domain 1 (SAMHD1), and trim-5α are some of the best known HIV-1 restriction factors that have been studied in great detail. Recently, six novel restriction factors were discovered that exhibit significant antiviral activity: endoplasmic reticulum α1,2-mannosidase I (ERManI), translocator protein (TSPO), guanylate-binding protein 5 (GBP5), serine incorporator (SERINC3/5) and zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP). The focus of this review is to discuss the antiviral mechanism of action of these six restriction factors and provide insights into the probable counter-evasion strategies employed by the HIV-1 virus. The recent discovery of new restriction factors substantiates the complex host-pathogen interactions occurring during HIV-1 pathogenesis and makes it imperative that further investigations are conducted to elucidate the molecular basis of HIV-1 replication.

  14. Heterosexual transmission of HIV in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumelioutou-Karayannis, A; Nestoridou, K; Mandalaki, T; Stefanou, T; Papaevangelou, G

    1988-06-01

    To provide further evidence for the heterosexual transmission of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Greece we examined 53 Greek female steady heterosexual partners of 53 anti-HIV-positive men. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission was estimated by the detection of anti-HIV antibodies. Our results showed that 27.8% (5 of 18) of the female partners of bisexuals, 33.3% (2 of 6) of intravenous drug abusers (IVDA), and 100% (4 of 4) of those who had lived for a long time in Africa were found anti-HIV positive. In contrast, only 4% (1 of 25) of the studied sexual partners of hemophiliac carriers were found to be HIV seropositive. The use of condoms seemed to be the most important factor in reducing HIV transmission. According to our results the duration of sexual relationships and the practice of anal intercourse did not increase the possibility of seroconversion. These results confirm the heterosexual transmission of HIV. However, further studies should be conducted to evaluate the relative role of various risk factors and the overall importance of heterosexual spread of HIV infections.

  15. An improved protocol for efficient engraftment in NOD/LTSZ-SCIDIL-2Rγnull mice allows HIV replication and development of anti-HIV immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneesh Singh

    Full Text Available Cord blood hematopoietic progenitor cells (CB-HPCs transplanted immunodeficient NOD/LtsZ-scidIL2Rγ(null (NSG and NOD/SCID/IL2Rγ(null (NOG mice need efficient human cell engraftment for long-term HIV-1 replication studies. Total body irradiation (TBI is a classical myeloablation regimen used to improve engraftment levels of human cells in these humanized mice. Some recent reports suggest the use of busulfan as a myeloablation regimen to transplant HPCs in neonatal and adult NSG mice. In the present study, we further ameliorated the busulfan myeloablation regimen with fresh CB-CD34+cell transplantation in 3-4 week old NSG mice. In this CB-CD34+transplanted NSG mice engraftment efficiency of human CD45+cell is over 90% in peripheral blood. Optimal engraftment promoted early and increased CD3+T cell levels, with better lymphoid tissue development and prolonged human cell chimerism over 300 days. These humanized NSG mice have shown long-lasting viremia after HIV-1JRCSF and HIV-1Bal inoculation through intravenous and rectal routes. We also saw a gradual decline of the CD4+T cell count, widespread immune activation, up-regulation of inflammation marker and microbial translocation after HIV-1 infection. Humanized NSG mice reconstituted according to our new protocol produced, moderate cellular and humoral immune responses to HIV-1 postinfection. We believe that NSG mice reconstituted according to our easy to use protocol will provide a better in vivo model for HIV-1 replication and anti-HIV-1 therapy trials.

  16. HIV-specific antibodies but not t-cell responses are associated with protection in seronegative partners of HIV-1-infected individuals in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Marie; Pean, Polidy; Lopalco, Lucia; Nouhin, Janin; Phoung, Viseth; Ly, Nary; Vermisse, Pierre; Henin, Yvette; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Burastero, Samuele E; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Carcelain, Guislaine; Pancino, Gianfranco

    2006-08-01

    To study biological factors related to protection against HIV-1 infection in Cambodia, we recruited 48 partners of HIV-1-infected patients who remained uninfected (exposed uninfected individuals, EUs) despite unprotected sexual intercourse for more than 1 year and 49 unexposed controls (UCs). HIV-1-specific antibodies (IgA anti-gp41 and IgG anti-CD4-gp120 complex), T-cell responses, and cellular factors that may be involved in protection (peripheral blood mononuclear cell [PBMC] resistance to HIV-1 infection and beta-chemokine production) were evaluated. Anti-HIV-1 antibodies were higher in EUs than those in UCs (P = 0.01 and P = 0.04 for anti-gp41 and anti-CD4-gp120, respectively). We observed a decreased susceptibility to a primary Cambodian isolate, HIV-1KH019, in EU PBMCs as compared with UC PBMCs (P = 0.03). A weak T-cell response to one pool of HIV-1 Gag peptides was found by ELISpot in 1 of 19 EUs. Whereas T-cell specific immunity was not associated to protection, our results suggest that HIV-specific humoral immunity and reduced cell susceptibility to infection may contribute to protection against HIV-1 infection in Cambodian EUs.

  17. Interferon-α Subtypes in an Ex Vivo Model of Acute HIV-1 Infection: Expression, Potency and Effector Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Harper

    Full Text Available HIV-1 is transmitted primarily across mucosal surfaces and rapidly spreads within the intestinal mucosa during acute infection. The type I interferons (IFNs likely serve as a first line of defense, but the relative expression and antiviral properties of the 12 IFNα subtypes against HIV-1 infection of mucosal tissues remain unknown. Here, we evaluated the expression of all IFNα subtypes in HIV-1-exposed plasmacytoid dendritic cells by next-generation sequencing. We then determined the relative antiviral potency of each IFNα subtype ex vivo using the human intestinal Lamina Propria Aggregate Culture model. IFNα subtype transcripts from the centromeric half of the IFNA gene complex were highly expressed in pDCs following HIV-1 exposure. There was an inverse relationship between IFNA subtype expression and potency. IFNα8, IFNα6 and IFNα14 were the most potent in restricting HIV-1 infection. IFNα2, the clinically-approved subtype, and IFNα1 were both highly expressed but exhibited relatively weak antiviral activity. The relative potencies correlated with binding affinity to the type I IFN receptor and the induction levels of HIV-1 restriction factors Mx2 and Tetherin/BST-2 but not APOBEC3G, F and D. However, despite the lack of APOBEC3 transcriptional induction, the higher relative potency of IFNα8 and IFNα14 correlated with stronger inhibition of virion infectivity, which is linked to deaminase-independent APOBEC3 restriction activity. By contrast, both potent (IFNα8 and weak (IFNα1 subtypes significantly induced HIV-1 GG-to-AG hypermutation. The results unravel non-redundant functions of the IFNα subtypes against HIV-1 infection, with strong implications for HIV-1 mucosal immunity, viral evolution and IFNα-based functional cure strategies.

  18. Potent anti-inflammatory effects of systemically administered curcumin modulate periodontal disease in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, M R; Coimbra, L S; de Aquino, S G; Spolidorio, L C; Kirkwood, K L; Rossa, C

    2011-04-01

    Curcumin is a plant-derived dietary spice with various biological activities, including anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. Its therapeutic applications have been studied in a variety of conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, colon cancer and depression, but no studies have evaluated the effects of curcumin on periodontal disease in vivo. Experimental periodontal disease was induced in rats by placing cotton ligatures around both lower first molars. Curcumin was given to the rats by the intragastric route daily at two dosages (30 and 100 mg/kg) for 15 d. Control animals received ligatures but only the corn oil vehicle by gavage, and no treatment-negative control animals were included. Bone resorption was assessed by micro-computed tomography, and the inflammatory status was evaluated by stereometric analysis. Both RT-qPCR and ELISA were used to determine the expression of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and prostaglandin E(2) synthase in the gingival tissues. Modulation of p38 MAPK and nuclear factor-κB activation were assessed by western blotting. Bone resorption was effectively induced in the experimental period, but it was not affected by either dose of curcumin. Curcumin effectively inhibited cytokine gene expression at both the mRNA and the protein level and produced a dose-dependent inhibition of the activation of nuclear factor-κB in the gingival tissues. Activation of p38 MAPK was not inhibited by curcumin. Curcumin-treated animals also presented a marked reduction of the inflammatory cell infiltrate and increased collagen content and fibroblastic cell numbers. Curcumin did not prevent alveolar bone resorption, but its potent anti-inflammatory effect suggests that it may have a therapeutic potential in periodontal diseases. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Risk of myocardial infarction in patients with HIV infection exposed to specific individual antiretroviral drugs from the 3 major drug classes: the data collection on adverse events of anti-HIV drugs (D:A:D) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Signe Westring; Sabin, Caroline; Weber, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been assessed in 13 anti-HIV drugs in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study. METHODS. Poisson regression models were adjusted for cardiovascular risk...... factors, cohort, calendar year, and use of other antiretroviral drugs and assessed the association between MI risk and cumulative (per year) or recent (current or in the past 6 months) use of antiretroviral drugs, with >30,000 person-years of exposure. RESULTS. Over 178,835 person-years, 580 patients......% CI, 1.01-1.17], respectively) after adjustment for lipids but were not altered further after adjustment for other metabolic parameters. CONCLUSIONS. Of the drugs considered, only indinavir, lopinavir-ritonavir, didanosine, and abacavir were associated with a significantly increased risk of MI...

  20. Candida species from oral cavity of HIV-infected children exhibit reduced virulence factors in the HAART era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Maristela Barbosa; Lima de Amorim, Elaine; Santos, Adrielle Mangabeira; Alexandre da Rocha Curvelo, José; de Oliveira Martins, Karol; Capillé, Cauli Lima; Maria de Araújo Soares, Rosangela; Barbosa de Araújo Castro, Gloria Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess, in vitro, the biofilm viability and the phospholipase and protease production of Candida spp. from the saliva of HIV infected children and healthy controls, and to correlate the results with the use of medical data. A total of 79 isolates were analyzed: 48 Candida albicans isolates (33/15) and 20 Candida parapsilosis sensu lato complex isolates (12/8) (from HIV/control patients, respectively), and 8 Candida krusei, 1 Candida tropicalis, 1 Candida dubliniensis and 1 Candida guilliermondii from HIV patients. The XTT (2, 3-bis (2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-Carboxanilide) reduction assay analyzed the biofilm viability. Phospholipase and protease assays were performed using the egg yolk and Bovine Serum Albumin agar plate methods, respectively. All isolates were able to form biofilm with cell viability. Quantitatively, Candida isolates from both groups presented a similar ability to form biofilm (p > 0.05). The biofilm viability activity was higher in C. albicans isolates than in non-albicans Candida isolates (p Candida spp. isolates from HIV-positive children presented higher phospholipase production, in vitro they exhibited reduced virulence factors compared to isolates from healthy individuals. This finding may enlighten the role played by immunosuppression in the modulation of Candida virulence attributes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Artificial 64-Residue HIV-1 Enhancer-Binding Peptide Is a Potent Inhibitor of Viral Replication in HIV-1-Infected Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oufir, Mouhssin; Bisset, Leslie R; Hoffmann, Stefan R K; Xue, Gongda; Klauser, Stephan; Bergamaschi, Bianca; Gervaix, Alain; Böni, Jürg; Schüpbach, Jörg; Gutte, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    An artificial HIV-1 enhancer-binding peptide was extended by nine consecutive arginine residues at the C-terminus and by the nuclear localization signal of SV40 large T antigen at the N-terminus. The resulting synthetic 64-residue peptide was found to bind to the two enhancers of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat, cross the plasma membrane and the nuclear envelope of human cells, and suppress the HIV-1 enhancer-controlled expression of a green fluorescent protein reporter gene. Moreover, HIV-1 replication is inhibited by this peptide in HIV-1-infected CEM-GFP cells as revealed by HIV-1 p24 ELISA and real-time RT-PCR of HIV-1 RNA. Rapid uptake of this intracellular stable and inhibitory peptide into the cells implies that this peptide may have the potential to attenuate HIV-1 replication in vivo.

  2. Combination of anti-retroviral drugs and radioimmunotherapy specifically kills infected cells from HIV infected individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Tsukrov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Eliminating virally infected cells is an essential component of any HIV eradication strategy. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT, a clinically established method for killing cells using radiolabeled antibodies, was recently applied to target HIV-1 gp41 antigen expressed on the surface of infect-ed cells. Since gp41 expression by infected cells is likely down-regulated in patients on an-tiretroviral therapy (ART, we evaluated the ability of RIT to kill ART-treated infected cells us-ing both in vitro models and lymphocytes isolated from HIV-infected subjects. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were infected with HIV and cultured in the presence of two clinically relevant ART combinations. Scatchard analysis of the 2556 human monoclonal anti-body to HIV gp41 binding to the infected and ART-treated cells demonstrated sufficient residual expression of gp41 on the cell surface to warrant subsequent RIT. This is the first time the quantification of gp41 post-ART is being reported. Cells were then treated with Bismuth-213-labeled 2556 antibody. conjugated to the human monoclonal antibody 2556, which binds to HIV gp41. Cell survival was quantified by Trypan blue and residual viremia by p24 ELISA. Cell surface gp41 expression was assessed by Scatchard analysis. The experiments were repeated using PBMCs isolated from blood specimens obtained from 15 HIV-infected individuals: ten on ART and five ART-naive. We found that 213Bi-2556 killed ART-treated infected PBMCs and reduced viral production to undetectable levels. ART and RIT co-treatment was more effective at reducing viral load in vitro than either therapy alone, indicating that gp41 expression under ART was sufficient to allow 213Bi-2556 to deliver cytocidal doses of radiation to infected cells. This study provides proof of concept that 213Bi-2556 may represent an innovative and effective targeting method for killing HIV-infected cells treated with ART, and supports continued development of 213Bi

  3. Design, synthesis, X-ray studies, and biological evaluation of novel macrocyclic HIV-1 protease inhibitors involving the P1'-P2' ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Arun K.; Sean Fyvie, W.; Brindisi, Margherita; Steffey, Melinda; Agniswamy, Johnson; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Aoki, Manabu; Amano, Masayuki; Weber, Irene T.; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2017-11-01

    Design, synthesis, and evaluation of a new class of HIV-1 protease inhibitors containing diverse flexible macrocyclic P1'-P2' tethers are reported. Inhibitor 5a with a pyrrolidinone-derived macrocycle exhibited favorable enzyme inhibitory and antiviral activity (Ki = 13.2 nM, IC50 = 22 nM). Further incorporation of heteroatoms in the macrocyclic skeleton provided macrocyclic inhibitors 5m and 5o. These compounds showed excellent HIV-1 protease inhibitory (Ki = 62 pM and 14 pM, respectively) and antiviral activity (IC50 = 5.3 nM and 2.0 nM, respectively). Inhibitor 5o also remained highly potent against a DRV-resistant HIV-1 variant.

  4. Synthesis and anti-HIV activity of novel 3-substituted phenyl-6,7-dimethoxy-3a,4-dihydro-3H-indeno[1,2-c]isoxazole analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohamed A; Ismail, Rusli; Choon, Tan S; Yoon, Yeong K; Wei, Ang C; Pandian, Suresh; Samy, Jeyabalan G; De Clercq, Eric; Pannecouque, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    A series of novel 3-(substituted phenyl)-6,7-dimethoxy-3a,4-dihydro-3H-indeno[1,2-c]isoxazole analogues were synthesized by the reaction of 5,6-dimethoxy-2-[(E)-1-phenylmethylidene]-1-indanone with hydroxylamine hydrochloride. The title compounds were tested for their in vitro anti-HIV activity. Among the compounds, (4g) showed a promising anti-HIV activity in the in vitro testing against IIIB and ROD strains. The IC50 of both IIIB and ROD were found to be 9.05 microM and > 125 microM, respectively.

  5. The cyclophilin inhibitor Debio-025 shows potent anti-hepatitis C effect in patients coinfected with hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flisiak, Robert; Horban, Andrzej; Gallay, Philippe; Bobardt, Michael; Selvarajah, Suganya; Wiercinska-Drapalo, Alicja; Siwak, Ewa; Cielniak, Iwona; Higersberger, Jozef; Kierkus, Jarek; Aeschlimann, Christian; Grosgurin, Pierre; Nicolas-Métral, Valérie; Dumont, Jean-Maurice; Porchet, Hervé; Crabbé, Raf; Scalfaro, Pietro

    2008-03-01

    Debio-025 is an oral cyclophilin (Cyp) inhibitor with potent anti-hepatitis C virus activity in vitro. Its effect on viral load as well as its influence on intracellular Cyp levels was investigated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Mean hepatitis C viral load decreased significantly by 3.6 log(10) after a 14-day oral treatment with 1200 mg twice daily (P CypB) levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells decreased from 67 +/- 6 (standard error) ng/mg protein (baseline) to 5 +/- 1 ng/mg protein at day 15 (P CypB levels, coinciding with the decrease in hepatitis C viral load. These are the first preliminary human data supporting the hypothesis that CypB may play an important role in hepatitis C virus replication and that Cyp inhibition is a valid target for the development of anti-hepatitis C drugs.

  6. The angular structure of ONC201, a TRAIL pathway-inducing compound, determines its potent anti-cancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jessica; Kline, Christina Leah; Pottorf, Richard S; Nallaganchu, Bhaskara Rao; Olson, Gary L; Dicker, David T; Allen, Joshua E; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2014-12-30

    We previously identified TRAIL-inducing compound 10 (TIC10), also known as NSC350625 or ONC201, from a NCI chemical library screen as a small molecule that has potent anti-tumor efficacy and a benign safety profile in preclinical cancer models. The chemical structure that was originally published by Stahle, et. al. in the patent literature was described as an imidazo[1,2-a]pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidine derivative. The NCI and others generally accepted this as the correct structure, which was consistent with the mass spectrometry analysis outlined in the publication by Allen et. al. that first reported the molecule's anticancer properties. A recent publication demonstrated that the chemical structure of ONC201 material from the NCI is an angular [3,4-e] isomer of the originally disclosed, linear [4,3-d] structure. Here we confirm by NMR and X-ray structural analysis of the dihydrochloride salt form that the ONC201 material produced by Oncoceutics is the angular [3,4-e] structure and not the linear structure originally depicted in the patent literature and by the NCI. Similarly, in accordance with our biological evaluation, the previously disclosed anti-cancer activity is associated with the angular structure and not the linear isomer. Together these studies confirm that ONC201, produced by Oncoceutics or obtained from the NCI, possesses an angular [3,4-e] structure that represents the highly active anti-cancer compound utilized in prior preclinical studies and now entering clinical trials in advanced cancers.

  7. Artificial 64-Residue HIV-1 Enhancer-Binding Peptide Is a Potent Inhibitor of Viral Replication in HIV-1-Infected Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouhssin Oufir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An artificial HIV-1 enhancer-binding peptide was extended by nine consecutive arginine residues at the C-terminus and by the nuclear localization signal of SV40 large T antigen at the N-terminus. The resulting synthetic 64-residue peptide was found to bind to the two enhancers of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat, cross the plasma membrane and the nuclear envelope of human cells, and suppress the HIV-1 enhancer-controlled expression of a green fluorescent protein reporter gene. Moreover, HIV-1 replication is inhibited by this peptide in HIV-1-infected CEM-GFP cells as revealed by HIV-1 p24 ELISA and real-time RT-PCR of HIV-1 RNA. Rapid uptake of this intracellular stable and inhibitory peptide into the cells implies that this peptide may have the potential to attenuate HIV-1 replication in vivo.

  8. Cerebrospinal fluid neopterin: an informative biomarker of central nervous system immune activation in HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, Lars; Cinque, Paola; Gisslen, Magnus; Brew, Bruce J; Spudich, Serena; Bestetti, Arabella; Price, Richard W; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2010-06-03

    HIV-1 invades the central nervous system (CNS) in the context of acute infection, persists thereafter in the absence of treatment, and leads to chronic intrathecal immunoactivation that can be measured by the macrophage activation marker, neopterin, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In this review we describe our experience with CSF neopterin measurements in 382 untreated HIV-infected patients across the spectrum of immunosuppression and HIV-related neurological diseases, in 73 untreated AIDS patients with opportunistic CNS infections, and in 233 treated patients.In untreated patients, CSF neopterin concentrations are almost always elevated and increase progressively as immunosuppression worsens and blood CD4 cell counts fall. However, patients with HIV dementia exhibit particularly high CSF neopterin concentrations, above those of patients without neurological disease, though patients with CNS opportunistic infections, including CMV encephalitis and cryptococcal meningitis, also exhibit high levels of CSF neopterin. Combination antiretroviral therapy, with its potent effect on CNS HIV infection and CSF HIV RNA, mitigates both intrathecal immunoactivation and lowers CSF neopterin. However, despite suppression of plasma and CSF HIV RNA to below the detection limits of clinical assays (<50 copies HIV RNA/mL), CSF neopterin often remains mildly elevated, indicating persistent low-level intrathecal immune activation and raising the important questions of whether this elevation is driven by continued CNS infection and whether it causes continued indolent CNS injury.Although nonspecific, CSF neopterin can serve as a useful biomarker in the diagnosis of HIV dementia in the setting of confounding conditions, in monitoring the CNS inflammatory effects of antiretroviral treatment, and give valuable information to the cause of ongoing brain injury.

  9. Weak anti-HIV CD8+ T-cell effector activity in HIV primary infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalod, Marc; Dupuis, Marion; Deschemin, Jean-Christophe; Goujard, Cécile; Deveau, Christiane; Meyer, Laurence; Ngo, Nicole; Rouzioux, Christine; Guillet, Jean-Gérard; Delfraissy, Jean-François; Sinet, Martine; Venet, Alain

    1999-01-01

    HIV-specific CD8+ T cells play a major role in the control of virus during HIV primary infection (PI) but do not completely prevent viral replication. We used IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay and intracellular staining to characterize the ex vivo CD8+ T-cell responses to a large variety of HIV epitopic peptides in 24 subjects with early HIV PI. We observed HIV-specific responses in 71% of subjects. Gag and Nef peptides were more frequently recognized than Env and Pol peptides. The number of peptides recognized was low (median 2, range 0–6). In contrast, a much broader response was observed in 30 asymptomatic subjects with chronic infection: all were responders with a median of 5 peptides recognized (range 1–13). The frequency of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells among PBMC for a given peptide was of the same order of magnitude in both groups. The proportion of HIV-specific CD8+CD28– terminally differentiated T cells was much lower in PI than at the chronic stage of infection. The weakness of the immune response during HIV PI could partially account for the failure to control HIV. These findings have potential importance for defining immunotherapeutic strategies and establishing the goals for effective vaccination. J. Clin. Invest. 104:1431–1439 (1999). PMID:10562305

  10. Structural basis for drug and substrate specificity exhibited by FIV encoding a chimeric FIV/HIV protease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Ying-Chuan; Perryman, Alexander L.; Olson, Arthur J.; Torbett, Bruce E.; Elder, John H.; Stout, C. David

    2011-01-01

    Crystal structures of the 6s-98S FIV protease chimera with darunavir and lopinavir bound have been determined at 1.7 and 1.8 Å resolution, respectively. A chimeric feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) protease (PR) has been engineered that supports infectivity but confers sensitivity to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) PR inhibitors darunavir (DRV) and lopinavir (LPV). The 6s-98S PR has five replacements mimicking homologous residues in HIV PR and a sixth which mutated from Pro to Ser during selection. Crystal structures of the 6s-98S FIV PR chimera with DRV and LPV bound have been determined at 1.7 and 1.8 Å resolution, respectively. The structures reveal the role of a flexible 90s loop and residue 98 in supporting Gag processing and infectivity and the roles of residue 37 in the active site and residues 55, 57 and 59 in the flap in conferring the ability to specifically recognize HIV PR drugs. Specifically, Ile37Val preserves tertiary structure but prevents steric clashes with DRV and LPV. Asn55Met and Val59Ile induce a distinct kink in the flap and a new hydrogen bond to DRV. Ile98Pro→Ser and Pro100Asn increase 90s loop flexibility, Gln99Val contributes hydrophobic contacts to DRV and LPV, and Pro100Asn forms compensatory hydrogen bonds. The chimeric PR exhibits a comparable number of hydrogen bonds, electrostatic interactions and hydrophobic contacts with DRV and LPV as in the corresponding HIV PR complexes, consistent with IC 50 values in the nanomolar range

  11. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of extracts from Musa sapientum peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuaklee, Pathompong; Ruangnoo, Srisopa; Itharat, Arunporn

    2012-01-01

    Many parts of Musa sapientum Linn. (Musaceae) are used in Thai traditional medicine as drugs, food supplements and cosmetics. The banana peel is used as an astringent in foot care, the unripe fruit is used to treat diarrhea and, the ripe fruit is used as tonic. To evaluate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of banana peel extracts obtained from different extraction methods and to determine their total phenolic content. Four extraction methods were used to extract unripe and ripe peels. Nitric oxide inhibitory and DPPH scavenging assays were used to evaluate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, respectively. Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent was used to determine total phenolic content. The water extract of fresh ripe peel exhibited the most potent NO inhibitory activity (IC50 = 6.68 +/- 0.34 microg/ml), but apparently exhibited no antioxidant activity. The decoction extract of fresh unripe peel exhibited strong antioxidant activity as well as had the highest total phenolic compound. The antioxidant activity exhibited a correlation with the total phenolic content. This study supports the use of Musa sapientum peel in Thai Traditional Medicine for treatment of inflammatory-related diseases.

  12. Challenges in integrating component level technology and system level information from Ayurveda: Insights from NMR phytometabolomics and anti-HIV potential of select Ayurvedic medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasundar, Rama; Ghatak, Somenath; Makhdoomi, Muzamil Ashraf; Luthra, Kalpana; Singh, Aruna; Velpandian, Thirumurthy

    2018-01-03

    Information from Ayurveda meeting the analytical challenges of modern technology is an area of immense relevance. Apart from the cerebral task of bringing together two different viewpoints, the question at the pragmatic level remains 'who benefits whom'. The aim is to highlight the challenges in integration of information (Ayurvedic) and technology using test examples of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) metabolomics and anti-HIV-1 potential of select Ayurvedic medicinal plants. The other value added objective is implications and relevance of such work for Ayurveda. Six medicinal plants (Azadirachta indica, Tinospora cordifolia, Swertia chirata, Terminalia bellerica, Zingiber officinale and Symplocos racemosa) were studied using high resolution proton NMR spectroscopy based metabolomics and also evaluated for anti-HIV-1 activity on three pseudoviruses (ZM53 M.PB12, ZM109F.PB4, RHPA 4259.7). Of the six plants, T.bellerica and Z.officinale showed minimum cell cytotoxicity and maximum anti-HIV-1 potential. T.bellerica was effective against all the three HIV-1 pseudoviruses. Untargeted NMR profiling and multivariate analyses demonstrated that the six plants, all of which had different Ayurvedic pharmacological properties, showed maximum differences in the aromatic region of the spectra. The work adds onto the list of potential plants for anti-HIV-1 drug molecules. At the same time, it has drawn attention to the different perspectives of Ayurveda and Western medicine underscoring the inherent limitations of conceptual bilinguism between the two systems, especially in the context of medicinal plants. The study has also highlighted the potential of NMR metabolomics in study of plant extracts as used in Ayurveda. Copyright © 2017 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Anti-alpha interferon immunization: safety and immunogenicity in asymptomatic HIV positive patients at high risk of disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gringeri, A; Santagostino, E; Mannucci, P M; Siracusano, L; Marinoni, A; Criscuolo, M; Carcagno, M; Fall, L S; M'Bika, J P; Bizzini, B

    1995-05-01

    A randomized, placebo-controlled trial was designed to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of an anti-cytokine vaccine in high risk HIV-positive patients. This strategy was aimed to modulate the impaired cytokine regulation in AIDS. Twelve asymptomatic patients on antiretroviral therapy for at least 1 year and with CD4 cell counts between 100-300/mm3 were randomized to receive adjuvanted formol-inactivated interferon alpha-2a (IFN alpha) and continue the current antiretroviral treatment, whatever it was, or to receive the adjuvant alone and the current antiretroviral treatment. All patients received 4 i.m. injections monthly, followed by booster injections every 3 months. Clinical status, immunology and virology were monitored. Immune response to vaccination was evaluated in term of antibody detection (ELISA) and serum anti-IFN alpha neutralizing capacity. Only local discomfort and transient fever were reported. All vaccines except one showed increased levels of anti-IFN alpha Abs and developed serum IFN alpha neutralizing capacity. Viral load did not increase in vaccinees while it remained unchanged or even increased in placebo-treated patients. None of them showed HIV-related symptoms and all had their CD4 cell counts stabilized over 18 months, whereas 2 placebo-treated patients developed full-blow AIDS. In conclusion, anti-IFN alpha vaccine was safe and immunogenic. Stable clinical and immunological status over 18 months was observed in vaccinees coupled to increased serum IFN alpha neutralizing capacity.

  14. Performance comparison of the 4th generation Bio-Rad Laboratories GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab EIA on the EVOLIS™ automated system versus Abbott ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo, Ortho Anti-HIV 1+2 EIA on Vitros ECi and Siemens HIV-1/O/2 enhanced on Advia Centaur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Elizabeth O; Stewart, Greg; Bajzik, Olivier; Ferret, Mathieu; Bentsen, Christopher; Shriver, M Kathleen

    2013-12-01

    A multisite study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the Bio-Rad 4th generation GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab EIA versus Abbott 4th generation ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo. The performance of two 3rd generation EIAs, Ortho Diagnostics Anti-HIV 1+2 EIA and Siemens HIV 1/O/2 was also evaluated. Study objective was comparison of analytical HIV-1 p24 antigen detection, sensitivity in HIV-1 seroconversion panels, specificity in blood donors and two HIV false reactive panels. Analytical sensitivity was evaluated with International HIV-1 p24 antigen standards, the AFFSAPS (pg/mL) and WHO 90/636 (IU/mL) standards; sensitivity in acute infection was compared on 55 seroconversion samples, and specificity was evaluated on 1000 negative blood donors and two false reactive panels. GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab demonstrated better analytical HIV antigen sensitivity compared to ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo: 0.41 IU/mL versus 1.2 IU/mL (WHO) and 12.7 pg/mL versus 20.1 pg/mL (AFSSAPS); GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab EIA also demonstrated slightly better specificity compared to ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo (100% versus 99.7%). The 4th generation HIV Combo tests detected seroconversion 7-11 days earlier than the 3rd generation HIV antibody only EIAs. Both 4th generation immunoassays demonstrated excellent performance in sensitivity, with the reduction of the serological window period (7-11 days earlier detection than the 3rd generation HIV tests). However, GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab demonstrated improved HIV antigen analytical sensitivity and slightly better specificity when compared to ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo assay, with higher positive predictive values (PPV) for low prevalence populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Placental malaria among HIV-infected and uninfected women receiving anti-folates in a high transmission area of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorsey Grant

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV infection increases the risk of placental malaria, which is associated with poor maternal and infant outcomes. Recommendations in Uganda are for HIV-infected pregnant women to receive daily trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (TS and HIV-uninfected women to receive intermittent sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP. TS decreases the risk of malaria in HIV-infected adults and children but has not been evaluated among pregnant women. Methods This was a cross sectional study comparing the prevalence of placental malaria between HIV-infected women prescribed TS and HIV-uninfected women prescribed intermittent preventive therapy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPT-SP in a high malaria transmission area in Uganda. Placental blood was evaluated for malaria using smear and PCR. Results Placentas were obtained from 150 HIV-infected women on TS and 336 HIV-uninfected women on IPT-SP. The proportion of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women with placental malaria was 19% vs. 26% for those positive by PCR and 6% vs. 9% for those positive by smear, respectively. Among all infants, smear+ placental malaria was most predictive of low birth weight (LBW. Primigravidae were at higher risk than multigravidae of having placental malaria among HIV-uninfected, but not HIV-infected, women. Adjusting for gravidity, age, and season at the time of delivery, HIV-infected women on TS were not at increased risk for placental malaria compared to HIV-uninfected women on IPT-SP, regardless of the definition used. Conclusion Prevalence of placental malaria was similar in HIV-infected women on TS and HIV-uninfected women on IPT-SP. Nonetheless, while nearly all of the women in this study were prescribed anti-folates, the overall risk of placental malaria and LBW was unacceptably high. The population attributable risk of placental malaria on LBW was substantial, suggesting that future interventions that further diminish the risk of placental malaria may have a

  16. CCL28 induces mucosal homing of HIV-1-specific IgA-secreting plasma cells in mice immunized with HIV-1 virus-like particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Rainone

    Full Text Available Mucosae-associated epithelial chemokine (MEC or CCL28 binds to CCR3 and CCR10 and recruits IgA-secreting plasma cells (IgA-ASCs in the mucosal lamina propria. The ability of this chemokine to enhance migration of IgA-ASCs to mucosal sites was assessed in a mouse immunization model using HIV-1(IIIB Virus-like particles (VLPs. Mice receiving either HIV-1(IIIB VLPs alone, CCL28 alone, or the irrelevant CCL19 chemokine were used as controls. Results showed a significantly increased CCR3 and CCR10 expression on CD19(+ splenocytes of HIV-1(IIIB VPL-CCL28-treated mice. HIV-1 Env-specific IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-5 production, total IgA, anti-Env IgA as well as gastro-intestinal mucosal IgA-secreting plasma cells were also significantly augmented in these mice. Notably, sera and vaginal secretions from HIV-1(IIIB VLP-CCL28-treated mice exhibited an enhanced neutralizing activity against both a HIV-1/B-subtype laboratory strain and a heterologous HIV-1/C-subtype primary isolate. These data suggest that CCL28 could be useful in enhancing the IgA immune response that will likely play a pivotal role in prophylactic HIV vaccines.

  17. Prolonged expression of an anti-HIV-1 gp120 minibody to the female rhesus macaque lower genital tract by AAV gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Motal, U M; Harbison, C; Han, T; Pudney, J; Anderson, D J; Zhu, Q; Westmoreland, S; Marasco, W A

    2014-09-01

    Topical microbicides are a leading strategy for prevention of HIV mucosal infection to women; however, numerous pharmacokinetic limitations associated with coitally related dosing strategy have contributed to their limited success. Here we test the hypothesis that adeno-associated virus (AAV) mediated delivery of the b12 human anti-HIV-1 gp120 minibody gene to the lower genital tract of female rhesus macaques (Rh) can provide prolonged expression of b12 minibodies in the cervical-vaginal secretions. Gene transfer studies demonstrated that, of various green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing AAV serotypes, AAV-6 most efficiently transduced freshly immortalized and primary genital epithelial cells (PGECs) of female Rh in vitro. In addition, AAV-6-b12 minibody transduction of Rh PGECs led to inhibition of SHIV162p4 transmigration and virus infectivity in vitro. AAV-6-GFP could also successfully transduce vaginal epithelial cells of Rh when applied intravaginally, including p63+ epithelial stem cells. Moreover, intravaginal application of AAV-6-b12 to female Rh resulted in prolonged minibody detection in their vaginal secretions throughout the 79-day study period. These data provide proof of principle that AAV-6-mediated delivery of anti-HIV broadly neutralizing antibody (BnAb) genes to the lower genital tract of female Rh results in persistent minibody detection for several months. This strategy offers promise that an anti-HIV-1 genetic microbicide strategy may be possible in which topical application of AAV vector, with periodic reapplication as needed, may provide sustained local BnAb expression and protection.

  18. Pharmacogenetic & pharmacokinetic biomarker for efavirenz based ARV and rifampicin based anti-TB drug induced liver injury in TB-HIV infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getnet Yimer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Implication of pharmacogenetic variations and efavirenz pharmacokinetics in concomitant efavirenz based antiviral therapy and anti-tubercular drug induced liver injury (DILI has not been yet studied. We performed a prospective case-control association study to identify the incidence, pharmacogenetic, pharmacokinetic and biochemical predictors for anti-tubercular and antiretroviral drugs induced liver injury (DILI in HIV and tuberculosis (TB co-infected patients. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Newly diagnosed treatment naïve TB-HIV co-infected patients (n = 353 were enrolled to receive efavirenz based ART and rifampicin based anti-TB therapy, and assessed clinically and biochemically for DILI up to 56 weeks. Quantification of plasma efavirenz and 8-hydroxyefaviernz levels and genotyping for NAT2, CYP2B6, CYP3A5, ABCB1, UGT2B7 and SLCO1B1 genes were done. The incidence of DILI and identification of predictors was evaluated using survival analysis and the Cox Proportional Hazards Model. The incidence of DILI was 30.0%, or 14.5 per 1000 person-week, and that of severe was 18.4%, or 7.49 per 1000 person-week. A statistically significant association of DILI with being of the female sex (p = 0.001, higher plasma efavirenz level (p = 0.009, efavirenz/8-hydroxyefavirenz ratio (p = 0.036, baseline AST (p = 0.022, ALT (p = 0.014, lower hemoglobin (p = 0.008, and serum albumin (p = 0.007, NAT2 slow-acetylator genotype (p = 0.039 and ABCB1 3435TT genotype (p = 0.001. CONCLUSION: We report high incidence of anti-tubercular and antiretroviral DILI in Ethiopian patients. Between patient variability in systemic efavirenz exposure and pharmacogenetic variations in NAT2, CYP2B6 and ABCB1 genes determines susceptibility to DILI in TB-HIV co-infected patients. Close monitoring of plasma efavirenz level and liver enzymes during early therapy and/or genotyping practice in HIV clinics is recommended for early identification

  19. Epidemiological, virological and clinical characteristics of HBV infection in 223 HIV co-infected patients: a French multi-centre collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Vincent; Gaudy-Graffin, Catherine; Colson, Philippe; Gozlan, Joël; Schnepf, Nathalie; Trimoulet, Pascale; Pallier, Coralie; Saune, Karine; Branger, Michel; Coste, Marianne; Thoraval, Francoise Roudot

    2013-03-15

    Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a clinical concern in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals due to substantial prevalence, difficulties to treat, and severe liver disease outcome. A large nationwide cross-sectional multicentre analysis of HIV-HBV co-infected patients was designed to describe and identify parameters associated with virological and clinical outcome of CHB in HIV-infected individuals with detectable HBV viremia. A multicenter collaborative cross-sectional study was launched in 19 French University hospitals distributed through the country. From January to December 2007, HBV load, genotype, clinical and epidemiological characteristics of 223 HBV-HIV co-infected patients with an HBV replication over 1000 IU/mL were investigated. Patients were mostly male (82%, mean age 42 years). Genotype distribution (A 52%; E 23.3%; D 16.1%) was linked to risk factors, geographic origin, and co-infection with other hepatitis viruses. This genotypic pattern highlights divergent contamination event timelines by HIV and HBV viruses. Most patients (74.7%) under antiretroviral treatment were receiving a drug with anti-HBV activity, including 47% receiving TDF. Genotypic lamivudine-resistance detected in 26% of the patients was linked to duration of lamivudine exposure, age, CD4 count and HIV load. Resistance to adefovir (rtA181T/V) was detected in 2.7% of patients. Advanced liver lesions were observed in 54% of cases and were associated with an older age and lower CD4 counts but not with viral load or genotype. Immune escape HBsAg variants were seldom detected. Despite the detection of advanced liver lesions in most patients, few were not receiving anti-HBV drugs and for those treated with the most potent anti-HBV drugs, persistent replication suggested non-optimal adherence. Heterogeneity in HBV strains reflects epidemiological differences that may impact liver disease progression. These findings are strong arguments to further optimize clinical management

  20. HMGB1/anti-HMGB1 antibodies define a molecular signature of early stages of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Isorders (HAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Lise Gougeon

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: We report that brain injury in chronically HIV-infected patients on stable HAART is strongly associated with persistent CNS inflammation, which is correlated with increased levels of HMGB1 and anti-HMGB1 IgG in the CSF. Moreover, we identified circulating anti-HMGB1 IgG as a very early biomarker of neurological impairment in patients without HAND. These results might have important implication for the identification of patients who are at high risk of developing neurological disorders.

  1. Sea Cucumbers Metabolites as Potent Anti-Cancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveena B. Janakiram

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers and their extracts have gained immense popularity and interest among researchers and nutritionists due to their nutritive value, potential health benefits, and use in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Many areas of the world use sea cucumbers in traditional foods and folk medicine. Though the actual components and their specific functions still remain to be investigated, most sea cucumber extracts are being studied for their anti-inflammatory functions, immunostimulatory properties, and for cancer prevention and treatment. There is large scope for the discovery of additional bioactive, valuable compounds from this natural source. Sea cucumber extracts contain unique components, such as modified triterpene glycosides, sulfated polysaccharides, glycosphingolipids, and esterified phospholipids. Frondanol A5, an isopropyl alcohol/water extract of the enzymatically hydrolyzed epithelia of the edible North Atlantic sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa, contains monosulfated triterpenoid glycoside Frondoside A, the disulfated glycoside Frondoside B, the trisulfated glycoside Frondoside C, 12-methyltetradecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and fucosylated chondroitin sulfate. We have extensively studied the efficacy of this extract in preventing colon cancer in rodent models. In this review, we discuss the anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory, and anti-tumor properties of sea cucumber extracts.

  2. Synthesis and anti-HIV activity of novel N-1 side chain-modified analogs of 1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-6-(phenylthio)thymine (HEPT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontikis, R; Benhida, R; Aubertin, A M; Grierson, D S; Monneret, C

    1997-06-06

    A series of 33 N-1 side chain-modified analogs of 1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-6-(phenylthio)thymine (1, HEPT) were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-HIV-1 activity. In particular, the influence of substitution of the terminal hydroxy group of the acyclic structure of HEPT and the structural rigidity of this side chain were investigated. Halo (7, 8), azido (9), and amino (10-15) derivatives were synthesized from HEPT via the p-tosylate derivative 6. Acylation of the primary amine 15 afforded the amido analogs 16-20. The diaryl derivatives 26-29 were prepared by reaction of HEPT, or of the 6-(2-pyridylthio) analog 23, with diaryl disulfides in the presence of tri-n-butylphosphine. Compounds 39-41, in which the N-1 side chain is rigidified by incorporation of an E-configured double bond, were obtained by palladium(0)-catalyzed coupling of several different 6-(arylthio)uracil derivatives (37, 38) with allyl acetates 33. Compounds 13, 40a,c,d,f, and 41, incorporating an aromatic ring at the end of the acyclic side chain, were found to be more potent than the known diphenyl-substituted HEPT analog BPT (2), two of them, 40c,d, being 10-fold more active.

  3. Synthesis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of New Alkyl-Substituted Phthalimide 1H-1,2,3-Triazole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalom Pôrto de Oliveira Assis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Four new 1,2,3-triazole phthalimide derivatives with a potent anti-inflammatory activity have been synthesized in the good yields by the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction from N-(azido-alkylphthalimides and terminal alkynes. The anti-inflammatory activity was determined by injecting carrageenan through the plantar tissue of the right hind paw of Swiss white mice to produce inflammation. All the compounds 3a–c and 5a–c exhibited an important anti-inflammatory activity; the best activity was found for the compounds 3b and 5c, which showed to be able to decrease by 69% and 56.2% carrageenan-induced edema in mice. These compounds may also offer a future promise as a new anti-inflammatory agent.

  4. Wound repair and anti-inflammatory potential of Lonicera japonica in excision wound-induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Cheng; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Lee, Shiow-Ling; Liu, I-Min

    2012-11-23

    Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae), a widely used traditional Chinese medicinal plant, is used to treat some infectious diseases and it may have uses as a healthy food and applications in cosmetics and as an ornamental groundcover. The ethanol extract of the flowering aerial parts of L. japonica (LJEE) was investigated for its healing efficiency in a rat excision wound model. Excision wounds were inflicted upon three groups of eight rats each. Healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction in skin wound sites in rats treated with simple ointment base, 10% (w/w) LJEE ointment, or the reference standard drug, 0.2% (w/w) nitrofurazone ointment. The effects of LJEE on the contents of hydroxyproline and hexosamine during healing were estimated. The antimicrobial activity of LJEE against microorganisms was also assessed. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of LJEE was investigated to understand the mechanism of wound healing. LJEE exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and Candida tropicalis. The ointment formulation prepared with 10% (w/w) LJEE exhibited potent wound healing capacity as evidenced by the wound contraction in the excision wound model. The contents of hydroxyproline and hexosamine also correlated with the observed healing pattern. These findings were supported by the histopathological characteristics of healed wound sections, as greater tissue regeneration, more fibroblasts, and angiogenesis were observed in the 10% (w/w) LJEE ointment-treated group. The results also indicated that LJEE possesses potent anti-inflammatory activity, as it enhanced the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines that suppress proinflammatory cytokine production. The results suggest that the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of LJEE act synergistically to accelerate wound repair.

  5. Overview of the anti-inflammatory effects, pharmacokinetic properties and clinical efficacies of arctigenin and arctiin from Arctium lappa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiong; Yang, Mengbi; Zuo, Zhong

    2018-05-01

    Arctigenin (AR) and its glycoside, arctiin, are two major active ingredients of Arctium lappa L (A lappa), a popular medicinal herb and health supplement frequently used in Asia. In the past several decades, bioactive components from A lappa have attracted the attention of researchers due to their promising therapeutic effects. In the current article, we aimed to provide an overview of the pharmacology of AR and arctiin, focusing on their anti-inflammatory effects, pharmacokinetics properties and clinical efficacies. Compared to acrtiin, AR was reported as the most potent bioactive component of A lappa in the majority of studies. AR exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) via modulation of several cytokines. Due to its potent anti-inflammatory effects, AR may serve as a potential therapeutic compound against both acute inflammation and various chronic diseases. However, pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated the extensive glucuronidation and hydrolysis of AR in liver, intestine and plasma, which might hinder its in vivo and clinical efficacy after oral administration. Based on the reviewed pharmacological and pharmacokinetic characteristics of AR, further pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies of AR via alternative administration routes are suggested to promote its ability to serve as a therapeutic agent as well as an ideal bioactive marker for A lappa.

  6. Structural basis for drug and substrate specificity exhibited by FIV encoding a chimeric FIV/HIV protease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Ying-Chuan; Perryman, Alexander L.; Olson, Arthur J.; Torbett, Bruce E.; Elder, John H.; Stout, C. David, E-mail: dave@scripps.edu [The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Crystal structures of the 6s-98S FIV protease chimera with darunavir and lopinavir bound have been determined at 1.7 and 1.8 Å resolution, respectively. A chimeric feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) protease (PR) has been engineered that supports infectivity but confers sensitivity to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) PR inhibitors darunavir (DRV) and lopinavir (LPV). The 6s-98S PR has five replacements mimicking homologous residues in HIV PR and a sixth which mutated from Pro to Ser during selection. Crystal structures of the 6s-98S FIV PR chimera with DRV and LPV bound have been determined at 1.7 and 1.8 Å resolution, respectively. The structures reveal the role of a flexible 90s loop and residue 98 in supporting Gag processing and infectivity and the roles of residue 37 in the active site and residues 55, 57 and 59 in the flap in conferring the ability to specifically recognize HIV PR drugs. Specifically, Ile37Val preserves tertiary structure but prevents steric clashes with DRV and LPV. Asn55Met and Val59Ile induce a distinct kink in the flap and a new hydrogen bond to DRV. Ile98Pro→Ser and Pro100Asn increase 90s loop flexibility, Gln99Val contributes hydrophobic contacts to DRV and LPV, and Pro100Asn forms compensatory hydrogen bonds. The chimeric PR exhibits a comparable number of hydrogen bonds, electrostatic interactions and hydrophobic contacts with DRV and LPV as in the corresponding HIV PR complexes, consistent with IC{sub 50} values in the nanomolar range.

  7. Epistatic mutations in PUMA BH3 drive an alternate binding mode to potently and selectively inhibit anti-apoptotic Bfl-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenson, Justin M.; Ryan, Jeremy A.; Grant, Robert A.; Letai, Anthony; Keating, Amy E. (DFCI); (MIT)

    2017-06-08

    Overexpression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins contributes to cancer progression and confers resistance to chemotherapy. Small molecules that target Bcl-2 are used in the clinic to treat leukemia, but tight and selective inhibitors are not available for Bcl-2 paralog Bfl-1. Guided by computational analysis, we designed variants of the native BH3 motif PUMA that are > 150-fold selective for Bfl-1 binding. The designed peptides potently trigger disruption of the mitochondrial outer membrane in cells dependent on Bfl-1, but not in cells dependent on other anti-apoptotic homologs. High-resolution crystal structures show that designed peptide FS2 binds Bfl-1 in a shifted geometry, relative to PUMA and other binding partners, due to a set of epistatic mutations. FS2 modified with an electrophile reacts with a cysteine near the peptide-binding groove to augment specificity. Designed Bfl-1 binders provide reagents for cellular profiling and leads for developing enhanced and cell-permeable peptide or small-molecule inhibitors.

  8. Profile of HIV-1 RNA viral load among HIV-TB co-infected patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profile of HIV-1 RNA viral load among HIV-TB co-infected patients in a tertiary health facility in Maiduguri, Northeastern Nigeria. ... This study aims to estimate the HIV-1 RNA viral load and impact of anti TB therapy (ATT) ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  9. Marine-derived fungi: Source of biologically potent and novel compounds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Majik, M.S.; Parvatkar, R.R.; Tilvi, S.; Gawas, S.G.

    -83) showed potent anti-mycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis, M. bovisand M. tuberculosis, with MIC values in the range 0.02–2.0 mg/mL, and were effective against both actively growing and dormant states. Trichodermaquinone (84...

  10. Replicating Rather than Nonreplicating Adenovirus-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Recombinant Vaccines Are Better at Eliciting Potent Cellular Immunity and Priming High-Titer Antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Bo; Wang, Liqun Rejean; Gómez-Román, Victor Raúl; Davis-Warren, Alberta; Montefiori, David C.; Kalyanaraman, V. S.; Venzon, David; Zhao, Jun; Kan, Elaine; Rowell, Thomas J.; Murthy, Krishna K.; Srivastava, Indresh; Barnett, Susan W.; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2005-01-01

    A major challenge in combating the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic is the development of vaccines capable of inducing potent, persistent cellular immunity and broadly reactive neutralizing antibody responses to HIV type 1 (HIV-1). We report here the results of a preclinical trial using the chimpanzee model to investigate a combination vaccine strategy involving sequential priming immunizations with different serotypes of adenovirus (Ad)/HIV-1MNenv/rev recombinants and boosting wit...

  11. Two-dimensional IR spectroscopy of the anti-HIV agent KP1212 reveals protonated and neutral tautomers that influence pH-dependent mutagenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Chunte Sam; Fedeles, Bogdan I.; Singh, Vipender; Li, Deyu; Amariuta, Tiffany; Essigmann, John M.; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    The anti-HIV drug KP1212 was designed to intentionally increase the mutation rate of HIV, thereby causing viral population collapse. Its mutagenicity and thus antiviral activity was proposed to be the result of tautomerization. We used 2D IR spectroscopy to identify rapidly interconverting tautomers under physiological conditions. The traditionally rare enol–imino tautomer for nucleobases was found to be the major species for KP1212, providing a structural support for the tautomer hypothesis....

  12. Synthesis, Characterization, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Methyl Salicylate Derivatives Bearing Piperazine Moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingfen; Yin, Yong; Wang, Lisheng; Liang, Pengyun; Li, Menghua; Liu, Xu; Wu, Lichuan; Yang, Hua

    2016-11-23

    In this study, a new series of 16 methyl salicylate derivatives bearing a piperazine moiety were synthesized and characterized. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of target compounds were investigated against xylol-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. The results showed that all synthesized compounds exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activities. Especially, the anti-inflammatory activities of compounds M15 and M16 were higher than that of aspirin and even equal to that of indomethacin at the same dose. In addition, the in vitro cytotoxicity activities and anti-inflammatory activities of four target compounds were performed in RAW264.7 macrophages, and compound M16 was found to significantly inhibit the release of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, compound M16 was found to attenuate LPS induced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 up-regulation. The current preliminary study may provide information for the development of new and safe anti-inflammatory agents.

  13. Incorporation of chimeric HIV-SIV-Env and modified HIV-Env proteins into HIV pseudovirions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devitt, Gerard; Emerson, Vanessa; Holtkotte, Denise; Pfeiffer, Tanya; Pisch, Thorsten; Bosch, Valerie

    2007-01-01

    Low level incorporation of the viral glycoprotein (Env) into human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) particles is a major drawback for vaccine strategies against HIV/AIDS in which HIV particles are used as immunogen. Within this study, we have examined two strategies aimed at achieving higher levels of Env incorporation into non-infectious pseudovirions (PVs). First, we have generated chimeric HIV/SIV Env proteins containing the truncated C-terminal tail region of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mac239-Env767 stop , which mediates strongly increased incorporation of SIV-Env into SIV particles. In a second strategy, we have employed a truncated HIV-Env protein (Env-Tr752 N750K ) which we have previously demonstrated to be incorporated into HIV virions, generated in infected T-cells, to a higher level than that of Wt-HIV-Env. Although the chimeric HIV/SIV Env proteins were expressed at the cell surface and induced increased levels of cell-cell fusion in comparison to Wt-HIV-Env, they did not exhibit increased incorporation into either HIV-PVs or SIV-PVs. Only Env-Tr752 N750K exhibited significantly higher (threefold) levels of incorporation into HIV-PVs, an improvement, which, although not dramatic, is worthwhile for the large-scale preparation of non-infectious PVs for vaccine studies aimed at inducing Env humoral responses

  14. Human adipose mesenchymal stem cells as potent anti-fibrosis therapy for systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Alexandre T J; Toupet, Karine; Maumus, Marie; Fonteneau, Guillaume; Le Quellec, Alain; Jorgensen, Christian; Guilpain, Philippe; Noël, Danièle

    2016-06-01

    Displaying immunosuppressive and trophic properties, mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are being evaluated as promising therapeutic options in a variety of autoimmune and degenerative diseases. Although benefits may be expected in systemic sclerosis (SSc), a rare autoimmune disease with fibrosis-related mortality, MSC have yet to be evaluated in this specific condition. While autologous approaches could be inappropriate because of functional alterations in MSC from patients, the objective of the present study was to evaluate allogeneic and xenogeneic MSC in the HOCl-induced model of diffuse SSc. We also questioned the source of human MSC and compared bone marrow- (hBM-MSC) and adipose-derived MSC (hASC). HOCl-challenged BALB/c mice received intravenous injection of BM-MSC from syngeneic BALB/c or allogeneic C57BL/6 mice, and xenogeneic hBM-MSC or hASC (3 donors each). Skin thickness was measured during the experiment. At euthanasia, histology, immunostaining, collagen determination and RT-qPCR were performed in skin and lungs. Xenogeneic hBM-MSC were as effective as allogeneic or syngeneic BM-MSC in decreasing skin thickness, expression of Col1, Col3, α-Sma transcripts, and collagen content in skin and lungs. This anti-fibrotic effect was not associated with MSC migration to injured skin or with long-term MSC survival. Interestingly, compared with hBM-MSC, hASC were significantly more efficient in reducing skin fibrosis, which was related to a stronger reduction of TNFα, IL1β, and enhanced ratio of Mmp1/Timp1 in skin and lung tissues. Using primary cells isolated from 3 murine and 6 human individuals, this preclinical study demonstrated similar therapeutic effects using allogeneic or xenogeneic BM-MSC while ASC exerted potent anti-inflammatory and remodeling properties. This sets the proof-of-concept prompting to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of allogeneic ASC in SSc patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. As-CATH1-6, novel cathelicidins with potent antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties from Alligator sinensis, play pivotal roles in host antimicrobial immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Cai, Shasha; Qiao, Xue; Wu, Mali; Guo, Zhilai; Wang, Renping; Kuang, Yi-Qun; Yu, Haining; Wang, Yipeng

    2017-08-10

    Crocodilians are regarded as possessing a powerful immune system. However, the composition and action of the crocodilian immune system have remained unclear until now. Cathelicidins, the principal family of host defense peptides, play pivotal roles in vertebrate immune defense against microbial invasions. However, cathelicidins from crocodilians have not been extensively studied to date. In the present study, six novel cathelicidins (As-CATH1-6) were identified and characterized from the endangered Chinese alligator ( Alligator sinensis ). As-CATH1-6 exhibit no sequence similarity with any of the known cathelicidins. Structure analysis indicated that As-CATH1-3 adopt a random coil secondary conformation, whereas As-CATH4-6 were predicted to mainly adopt an amphipathic α-helix conformation. Among them, As-CATH4-6 exhibited potent, broad-spectrum and rapid antimicrobial activity by inducing the disruption of cell membrane integrity. They also exhibited strong ability to prevent the formation of bacterial biofilms and eradicate preformed biofilms. Furthermore, As-CATH4-6 exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines in mouse peritoneal macrophages. They directly neutralized LPS toxicity and therefore inhibited the binding of LPS to the TLR4 receptor and the subsequent activation of inflammatory response pathways. In a peritonitis mice model, As-CATH2-6 provided effective protection against bacterial infection through enhanced immune cell recruitment. In the host Chinese alligator, As-CATH1-6 are mainly expressed in immune organs and epithelial tissues. Bacterial infection significantly enhances their expression, which implies an important role in host anti-infective response. Taken together, the diversity and multiple functions of As-CATH1-6 partially reveal the powerful immune system of the Chinese alligator. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland

  16. TOXOPLASMA AND VIRAL ANTIBODIES AMONG HIV PATIENTS AND INMATES IN CENTRAL JAVA, INDONESIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Yulia; Haryati, Sri; Raharjo, Irvan; Prasetyo, Afiono Agung

    2015-11-01

    In Indonesia, Toxoplasma and its associations with blood-borne viruses have been poorly studied. In order to study the association between anti-Toxoplasma antibodies and blood-borne viral antibodies, blood samples from 497 participants (375 inmates from four prisons in Central Java, Indonesia and 122 HIV patients at a Voluntary Counseling and Testing Clinic in Surakarta, Indonesia) were tested for serological markers of Toxoplasma, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV) and human T-lymphotropic virus types I and II (HTLV-1/2). Anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM positivity rates were 41.6% and 3.6%, respectively. One point two percent of participants was positive for both anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. Sixteen point five percent, 11.3%, 2.6% and 2.8% of participants were positive for anti- Toxoplasma IgG combined with anti-HCV antibodies, anti-Toxoplasma IgG combined with anti-HIV antibodies, anti-Toxoplasma IgM combined with anti-HIV antibodes and anti-Toxoplasma IgG combined with both anti-HIV and anti-HCV antibodies, respectively. Anti-Toxoplasma IgM seropositivity was associated with anti-HIV (aOR = 4.3; 95% CI: 1.112-16.204, p = 0.034). Anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies were associated with anti-HCV (aOR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.749-4.538, p < 0.001) and history of injection drug use (aOR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.905-5.093, p < 0.001). In conclusion, we recommend patients with HIV, HCV infection and injection drug users should be screened for Toxoplasma infection in Indonesia.

  17. Stimuli-sensitive thiolated hyaluronic acid based nanofibers: synthesis, preclinical safety and in vitro anti-HIV activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrahari, Vivek; Meng, Jianing; Ezoulin, Miezan Jm; Youm, Ibrahima; Dim, Daniel C; Molteni, Agostino; Hung, Wei-Ting; Christenson, Lane K; Youan, Bi-Botti C

    2016-11-01

    To develop a seminal enzyme bioresponsive, mucoadhesive nanofibers (NFs) as safe and effective nanocarriers for the prevention of HIV vaginal transmission. A novel thiolated hyaluronic acid (HA-SH) polymer was synthesized to fabricate tenofovir (TFV)-loaded electrospun NFs (HA-SH-NFs) and characterized in vitro/in vivo. A triggered drug release (87% w/w) from the engineered HA-SH-NFs (mean diameter ∼75 nm) occured within 1 h under the influence of seminal hyaluronidase enzyme. HA-SH-NFs were noncytotoxic, induced no damage on the C57BL/6 mice genital-tract and other organs. No significant CD45 cell-infiltration and changes in cytokines level in cervicovaginal tissues were observed. HA-SH-NFs significantly enhanced both TFV retention and bioavailability in vaginal tissue compared with the 1% TFV-gel. The anti-HIV activity of TFV (on pseudotyped virus followed by luciferase assay) was not adversely affected by the electrospinning process. HA-SH-NFs developed in this study could potentially serve as a safe nanotemplate for topical intravaginal delivery of HIV/AIDS microbicides.

  18. Antioxidant activity for spice oils (1) anti oxidative stability of thyme and caraway oil extracts under UV-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atef Ghazy, M.; Shaker, E.S.

    2002-01-01

    The anti oxidative activity for some spice essential oils have been investigated using thiocyanate method and compared with common natural antioxidant. The antioxidant activity for nine spice oils has been measured at 500 ppm after 13 days. The most potent one was the lemon grass (99.8), followed by orange peel, thyme, and caraway. The activities for these four oils were higher than that for Alpha-tocopherol (87.7%). Petitgrain, and geranium oils have marched activity but less than that for Alpha-tocopherol. No obvious has been found for citronella. fennel, and cardamon oils. The aqueous, butanoic, methanolic and hexanoic extracts for thyme and caraway oil exhibit effective anti oxidative activities under UV irradiation (254 nm) for 6 and 10 hr compared with that for alpha-tocopherol. The anti oxidative effect of thyme and caraway oil extracts were found to be strong and stable towards UV-irradiation, and equal to that for Alpha-tocopherol. Thyme's aqueous and caraway's hexanal extracts were the most potent extracts under the same conditions

  19. Evaluation of a rapid test for HIV antibodies in saliva and blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To test whole blood and saliva for HIV antibodies (anti-HIV) using a rapid test strip capillary flow . immunoassay, and to correlate the test strip results with blood specimen results obtained from routine diagnostic antiHIV assays. Design. A prospective pilot study of selected HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals ...

  20. BET bromodomain inhibition as a novel strategy for reactivation of HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Camellia; Archin, Nancie; Michaels, Daniel; Belkina, Anna C; Denis, Gerald V; Bradner, James; Sebastiani, Paola; Margolis, David M; Montano, Monty

    2012-12-01

    The persistence of latent HIV-1 remains a major challenge in therapeutic efforts to eradicate infection. We report the capacity for HIV reactivation by a selective small molecule inhibitor of BET family bromodomains, JQ1, a promising therapeutic agent with antioncogenic properties. JQ1 reactivated HIV transcription in models of latent T cell infection and latent monocyte infection. We also tested the effect of exposure to JQ1 to allow recovery of replication-competent HIV from pools of resting CD4(+) T cells isolated from HIV-infected, ART-treated patients. In one of three patients, JQ1 allowed recovery of virus at a frequency above unstimulated conditions. JQ1 potently suppressed T cell proliferation with minimal cytotoxic effect. Transcriptional profiling of T cells with JQ1 showed potent down-regulation of T cell activation genes, including CD3, CD28, and CXCR4, similar to HDAC inhibitors, but JQ1 also showed potent up-regulation of chromatin modification genes, including SIRT1, HDAC6, and multiple lysine demethylases (KDMs). Thus, JQ1 reactivates HIV-1 while suppressing T cell activation genes and up-regulating histone modification genes predicted to favor increased Tat activity. Thus, JQ1 may be useful in studies of potentially novel mechanisms for transcriptional control as well as in translational efforts to identify therapeutic molecules to achieve viral eradication.

  1. The TLR9 agonist MGN1703 triggers a potent type I interferon response in the sigmoid colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, A R; Abdel-Mohsen, M; Schleimann, M H

    2018-01-01

    to the change in integrated HIV DNA during MGN1703 treatment (P=0.020). In conclusion, MGN1703 induced a potent type I IFN response, without a concomitant general inflammatory response, in the intestines.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 02 August 2017; doi:10.1038/mi.2017.59....... and infectious diseases), led us to investigate the impact of MGN1703 (Lefitolimod) on intestinal homeostasis and viral persistence in HIV-positive individuals. Colonic sigmoid biopsies were collected (baseline and week four) from 11 HIV+ individuals on suppressive antiretroviral therapy, who received MGN1703...

  2. An analysis of the implementation of PEPFAR's anti-prostitution pledge and its implications for successful HIV prevention among organizations working with sex workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditmore, Melissa Hope; Allman, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Since 2003, US government funding to address the HIV and AIDS pandemic has been subject to an anti-prostitution clause. Simultaneously, the efficacy of some HIV prevention efforts for sex work in areas receiving US government funding has diminished. This article seeks to explain why. Methods This analysis utilizes a case story approach to build a narrative of defining features of organizations in receipt of funding from the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and other US funding sources. For this analysis, multiple cases were compiled within a single narrative. This helps show restrictions imposed by the anti-prostitution clause, any lack of clarity of guidelines for implementation and ways some agencies, decision-making personnel, and staff on the ground contend with these restrictions. Results Responses to PEPFAR's anti-prostitution clause vary widely and have varied over time. Organizational responses have included ending services for sex workers, gradual phase-out of services, cessation of seeking US government HIV funds and increasing isolation of sex workers. Guidance issued in 2010 did not clarify what was permitted. Implementation and enforcement has been dependent in part on the interpretations of this policy by individuals, including US government representatives and organizational staff. Conclusions Different interpretations of the anti-prostitution clause have led to variations in programming, affecting the effectiveness of work with sex workers. The case story approach proved ideal for working with information like this that is highly sensitive and vulnerable to breach of anonymity because the method limits the potential to betray confidences and sources, and limits the potential to jeopardize funding and thereby jeopardize programming. This method enabled us to use specific examples without jeopardizing the organizations and individuals involved while demonstrating unintended consequences of PEPFAR's anti

  3. Synthesis, In-Vitro Antibacterial, Antifungal, and Molecular Modeling of Potent Anti-Microbial Agents with a Combined Pyrazole and Thiophene Pharmacophore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahia Nasser Mabkhot

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl 5-acetyl-4-methyl-2-(phenylaminothiophene-3-carboxylate (2 and there derivatives 3a–c, 4, 6a–c and 9a–f were synthesized. The structure of compound 2 was deduced by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, FT-IR, MS, microanalysis, and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The compound crystallized in the monoclinic system, with space group P21/c and cell coordinates a = 8.5752(16 Å, b = 21.046(4 Å, c = 8.2941(12 Å, β = 101.131(6°, V = 1468.7(4 Å3, and Z = 4. Compounds 2, 3a–c, 4, 5a–c and 9a–f were subjected into in vitro antimicrobial activity tests. Compounds 3a and 3c were more potent than standard drug amphotericin B, showing MIC values of 23.8 ± 0.42 and 24.3 ± 0.68, respectively, against Aspergillus fumigatus while the standard drug MIC was 23.7 ± 0.1. Compound 3c was also more potent (MIC 24.8 ± 0.64 than the standard drug amphotericin B (MIC 19.7 ± 0.2 against Syncephalastrum racemosum. Compounds 4 and 9f also showed promising anti-microbial activity. Molecular modeling was performed for the most active compounds.

  4. Role of baseline HIV-1 DNA level in highly-experienced patients receiving raltegravir, etravirine and darunavir/ritonavir regimen (ANRS139 TRIO trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Charpentier

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In the ANRS 139 TRIO trial, the use of 3 new active drugs (raltegravir, etravirine, and darunavir/ritonavir, resulted in a potent and sustained inhibition of viral replication in multidrug-resistant treatment-experienced patients. The aim of this virological sub-study of the ANRS 139 TRIO trial was to assess: (i the evolution of HIV-1 DNA over the first year; and (ii the association between baseline HIV-1 DNA and virological outcome. METHODS: Among the 103 HIV-1-infected patients included in the ANRS-139 TRIO trial, HIV-1 DNA specimens were available for 92, 84, 88, and 83 patients at Week (W0, W12, W24, and W48, respectively. Quantification of total HIV-1 DNA was performed by using the commercial kit "Generic HIV DNA Cell" (Biocentric, Bandol, France. RESULTS: Baseline median HIV-1 DNA of patients displaying virological success (n= 61, viral blip (n= 20, and virological failure (n = 11 were 2.34 log(10 copies/10(6 PBMC (IQR= 2.15-2.66, 2.42 (IQR = 2.12-2.48, and 2.68 (IQR= 2.46-2.83, respectively. Although not statistically significant, patients exhibiting virological success or viral blip had a tendency to display lower baseline HIV-1 DNA than patients experiencing virological failure (P = 0.06. Median decrease of HIV-1 DNA between baseline and W48 was -0.13 log(10 copies/10(6 PBMC (IQR = -0.34 to +0.10, mainly explained by the evolution from W0 to W4. No more changes were observed in the W4-W48 period. CONCLUSIONS: In highly-experienced multidrug-resistant patients, HIV-1 DNA slightly decreased during the first month and then remained stable during the first year of highly potent antiretroviral regimen. In this population, baseline HIV-1 DNA might help to better predict the virological response and to tailor clinical therapeutic management as more aggressive therapeutic choices in patients with higher baseline HIV-1 DNA.

  5. A Novel Toll-Like Receptor 9 Agonist, MGN1703, Enhances HIV-1 Transcription and NK Cell-Mediated Inhibition of HIV-1-Infected Autologous CD4+ T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offersen, Rasmus; Nissen, Sara Konstantin; Rasmussen, Thomas A; Østergaard, Lars; Denton, Paul W; Søgaard, Ole Schmeltz; Tolstrup, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists are potent enhancers of innate antiviral immunity and may also reverse HIV-1 latency. Therefore, TLR agonists have a potential role in the context of a "shock-and-kill" approach to eradicate HIV-1. Our extensive preclinical evaluation suggests that a novel TLR9 agonist, MGN1703, may indeed perform both functions in an HIV-1 eradication trial. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from aviremic HIV-1-infected donors on antiretroviral therapy (ART) that were incubated with MGN1703 ex vivo exhibited increased secretion of interferon alpha (IFN-α) (P= 0.005) and CXCL10 (P= 0.0005) in culture supernatants. Within the incubated PBMC pool, there were higher proportions of CD69-positive CD56(dim)CD16(+)NK cells (P= 0.001) as well as higher proportions of CD107a-positive (P= 0.002) and IFN-γ-producing (P= 0.038) NK cells. Incubation with MGN1703 also increased the proportions of CD69-expressing CD4(+)and CD8(+)T cells. Furthermore, CD4(+)T cells within the pool of MGN1703-incubated PBMCs showed enhanced levels of unspliced HIV-1 RNA (P= 0.036). Importantly, MGN1703 increased the capacity of NK cells to inhibit virus spread within a culture of autologous CD4(+)T cells assessed by using an HIV-1 p24 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (P= 0.03). In conclusion, we show that MGN1703 induced strong antiviral innate immune responses, enhanced HIV-1 transcription, and boosted NK cell-mediated suppression of HIV-1 infection in autologous CD4(+)T cells. These findings support clinical testing of MGN1703 in HIV-1 eradication trials. We demonstrate that MGN1703 (a TLR9 agonist currently undergoing phase 3 clinical testing for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer) induces potent antiviral responses in immune effector cells from HIV-1-infected individuals on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. The significantly improved safety and tolerability profiles of MGN1703 versus TLR9 agonists of the CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN) family

  6. [Asymmetry in international relations, industrial property rights and anti-HIV medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Couto, Maria Helena; Nascimento, Alvaro César

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the asymmetry in the international relations as refers to the recognition of industrial property rights in the pharmaceutical industry. It focuses on the impact of such relations upon the access to ARV medication, an issue of worldwide interest due to its connection with the development of the nations. Clashing interests and the position taken by some countries in their patent laws point to a scenario less favorable for the access of peripheral countries to anti-HIV/AIDS medication. On the other hand, it seems that the success of the Brazilian STD/AIDS program in negotiating ARV prices will open new possibilities. The solution may be the internal strengthening of the National States and the active role played by the Agencies of the United Nations System in defense of the collective human interests.

  7. An overview of structure-activity relationship studies of curcumin analogs as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Laiba; Haque, Md Areeful; Abbas Bukhari, Syed Nasir; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2017-04-01

    Curcumin, extracted mainly from Curcuma longa rhizomes, has been reported to possess potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. Although safe at higher doses and exhibiting multiple biological activities, curcumin still has the problem of poor bioavailability which has been an attractive area of research over the last few years. A number of efforts have been made by modifying structural features of curcumin. This review highlights the structurally modified and more stable newly synthesized curcumin analogs that have been screened against antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Also the structure-activity relationship to gain insight into future guidelines for scheming new compounds has been discussed, and further these analogs being more stable may serve as promising agents for use in different pathological conditions.

  8. Bactericidal Immunity to Salmonella in Africans and Mechanisms Causing Its Failure in HIV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Shan Goh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nontyphoidal strains of Salmonella are a leading cause of death among HIV-infected Africans. Antibody-induced complement-mediated killing protects healthy Africans against Salmonella, but increased levels of anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS antibodies in some HIV-infected African adults block this killing. The objective was to understand how these high levels of anti-LPS antibodies interfere with the killing of Salmonella.Sera and affinity-purified antibodies from African HIV-infected adults that failed to kill invasive S. Typhimurium D23580 were compared to sera from HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected subjects with bactericidal activity. The failure of sera from certain HIV-infected subjects to kill Salmonella was found to be due to an inherent inhibitory effect of anti-LPS antibodies. This inhibition was concentration-dependent and strongly associated with IgA and IgG2 anti-LPS antibodies (p<0.0001 for both. IgG anti-LPS antibodies, from sera of HIV-infected individuals that inhibit killing at high concentration, induced killing when diluted. Conversely, IgG, from sera of HIV-uninfected adults that induce killing, inhibited killing when concentrated. IgM anti-LPS antibodies from all subjects also induced Salmonella killing. Finally, the inhibitory effect of high concentrations of anti-LPS antibodies is seen with IgM as well as IgG and IgA. No correlation was found between affinity or avidity, or complement deposition or consumption, and inhibition of killing.IgG and IgM classes of anti-S. Typhimurium LPS antibodies from HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals are bactericidal, while at very high concentrations, anti-LPS antibodies of all classes inhibit in vitro killing of Salmonella. This could be due to a variety of mechanisms relating to the poor ability of IgA and IgG2 to activate complement, and deposition of complement at sites where it cannot insert in the bacterial membrane. Vaccine trials are required to understand the significance of

  9. IL-4 and IL-13 mediated down-regulation of CD8 expression levels can dampen anti-viral CD8⁺ T cell avidity following HIV-1 recombinant pox viral vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesundara, Danushka K; Jackson, Ronald J; Tscharke, David C; Ranasinghe, Charani

    2013-09-23

    We have shown that mucosal HIV-1 recombinant pox viral vaccination can induce high, avidity HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells with reduced interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 expression compared to, systemic vaccine delivery. In the current study how these cytokines act to regulate anti-viral CD8(+) T, cell avidity following HIV-1 recombinant pox viral prime-boost vaccination was investigated. Out of a panel of T cell avidity markers tested, only CD8 expression levels were found to be enhanced on, KdGag197-205 (HIV)-specific CD8(+) T cells obtained from IL-13(-/-), IL-4(-/-) and signal transducer and, activator of transcription of 6 (STAT6)(-/-) mice compared to wild-type (WT) controls following, vaccination. Elevated CD8 expression levels in this instance also correlated with polyfunctionality, (interferon (IFN)-γ, tumour necorsis factor (TNF)-α and IL-2 production) and the avidity of HIVspecific CD8(+) T cells. Furthermore, mucosal vaccination and vaccination with the novel adjuvanted IL-13 inhibitor (i.e. IL-13Rα2) vaccines significantly enhanced CD8 expression levels on HIV-specific CD8(+), T cells, which correlated with avidity. Using anti-CD8 antibodies that blocked CD8 availability on CD8(+), T cells, it was established that CD8 played an important role in increasing HIV-specific CD8(+) T cell avidity and polyfunctionality in IL-4(-/-), IL-13(-/-) and STAT6(-/-) mice compared to WT controls, following vaccination. Collectively, our data demonstrate that IL-4 and IL-13 dampen CD8 expression levels on anti-viral CD8(+) T cells, which can down-regulate anti-viral CD8(+) T cell avidity and, polyfunctionality following HIV-1 recombinant pox viral vaccination. These findings can be exploited to, design more efficacious vaccines not only against HIV-1, but many chronic infections where high, avidity CD8(+) T cells help protection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Identifying HIV-1 dual infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelissen Marion

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is no exception to the phenomenon that a second, productive infection with another strain of the same virus is feasible. Experiments with RNA viruses have suggested that both coinfections (simultaneous infection with two strains of a virus and superinfections (second infection after a specific immune response to the first infecting strain has developed can result in increased fitness of the viral population. Concerns about dual infections with HIV are increasing. First, the frequent detection of superinfections seems to indicate that it will be difficult to develop a prophylactic vaccine. Second, HIV-1 superinfections have been associated with accelerated disease progression, although this is not true for all persons. In fact, superinfections have even been detected in persons controlling their HIV infections without antiretroviral therapy. Third, dual infections can give rise to recombinant viruses, which are increasingly found in the HIV-1 epidemic. Recombinants could have increased fitness over the parental strains, as in vitro models suggest, and could exhibit increased pathogenicity. Multiple drug resistant (MDR strains could recombine to produce a pan-resistant, transmittable virus. We will describe in this review what is presently known about super- and re-infection among ambient viral infections, as well as the first cases of HIV-1 superinfection, including HIV-1 triple infections. The clinical implications, the impact of the immune system, and the effect of anti-retroviral therapy will be covered, as will as the timing of HIV superinfection. The methods used to detect HIV-1 dual infections will be discussed in detail. To increase the likelihood of detecting a dual HIV-1 infection, pre-selection of patients can be done by serotyping, heteroduplex mobility assays (HMA, counting the degenerate base codes in the HIV-1 genotyping sequence, or surveying unexpected increases in the

  11. Discovery of a potent and selective GPR120 agonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shimpukade, Bharat; Hudson, Brian D; Hovgaard, Christine Kiel

    2012-01-01

    GPR120 is a receptor of unsaturated long-chain fatty acids reported to mediate GLP-1 secretion, insulin sensitization, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity effects and is therefore emerging as a new potential target for treatment of type 2 diabetes and metabolic diseases. Further investigation...... is however hindered by the lack of suitable receptor modulators. Screening of FFA1 ligands provided a lead with moderate activity on GPR120 and moderate selectivity over FFA1. Optimization led to the discovery of the first potent and selective GPR120 agonist....

  12. Bone-derived mesenchymal stromal cells from HIV transgenic mice exhibit altered proliferation, differentiation capacity and paracrine functions along with impaired therapeutic potential in kidney injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Kang; Rai, Partab; Lan, Xiqian; Plagov, Andrei; Malhotra, Ashwani; Gupta, Sanjeev; Singhal, Pravin C.

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete paracrine factors that could be cytoprotective and serve roles in immunoregulation during tissue injury. Although MSCs express HIV receptors, and co-receptors, and are susceptible to HIV infection, whether HIV-1 may affect biological properties of MSCs needs more study. We evaluated cellular proliferation, differentiation and paracrine functions of MSCs isolated from compact bones of healthy control mice and Tg26 HIV-1 transgenic mice. The ability of MSCs to protect against cisplatin toxicity was studied in cultured renal tubular cells as well as in intact mice. We successfully isolated MSCs from healthy mice and Tg26 HIV-1 transgenic mice and found the latter expressed viral Nef, Vpu, NL4-3 and Vif genes. The proliferation and differentiation of Tg26 HIV-1 MSCs was inferior to MSCs from healthy mice. Moreover, transplantation of Tg26 HIV-1 MSCs less effectively improved outcomes compared with healthy MSCs in mice with acute kidney injury. Also, Tg26 HIV-1 MSCs secreted multiple cytokines, but at significantly lower levels than healthy MSCs, which resulted in failure of conditioned medium from these MSCs to protect cultured renal tubular cells from cisplatin toxicity. Therefore, HIV-1 had adverse biological effects on MSCs extending to their proliferation, differentiation, function, and therapeutic potential. These findings will help in advancing mechanistical insight in renal injury and repair in the setting of HIV-1 infection. -- Highlights: •MSCs isolated from HIV mice displayed HIV genes. •MSCs isolated from HIV mice exhibited attenuated growth and paracrine functions. •AKI mice with transplanted HIV-MSC displayed poor outcome. •HIV-1 MSC secreted multiple cytokines but at a lower level

  13. Bone-derived mesenchymal stromal cells from HIV transgenic mice exhibit altered proliferation, differentiation capacity and paracrine functions along with impaired therapeutic potential in kidney injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Kang; Rai, Partab; Lan, Xiqian; Plagov, Andrei; Malhotra, Ashwani [Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhassett, NY (United States); Gupta, Sanjeev [Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Marion Bessin Liver Research Center, Diabetes Center, Cancer Center, Ruth L. and David S. Gottesman Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research, Institute for Clinical and Translational Research, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Singhal, Pravin C., E-mail: psinghal@nshs.edu [Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhassett, NY (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete paracrine factors that could be cytoprotective and serve roles in immunoregulation during tissue injury. Although MSCs express HIV receptors, and co-receptors, and are susceptible to HIV infection, whether HIV-1 may affect biological properties of MSCs needs more study. We evaluated cellular proliferation, differentiation and paracrine functions of MSCs isolated from compact bones of healthy control mice and Tg26 HIV-1 transgenic mice. The ability of MSCs to protect against cisplatin toxicity was studied in cultured renal tubular cells as well as in intact mice. We successfully isolated MSCs from healthy mice and Tg26 HIV-1 transgenic mice and found the latter expressed viral Nef, Vpu, NL4-3 and Vif genes. The proliferation and differentiation of Tg26 HIV-1 MSCs was inferior to MSCs from healthy mice. Moreover, transplantation of Tg26 HIV-1 MSCs less effectively improved outcomes compared with healthy MSCs in mice with acute kidney injury. Also, Tg26 HIV-1 MSCs secreted multiple cytokines, but at significantly lower levels than healthy MSCs, which resulted in failure of conditioned medium from these MSCs to protect cultured renal tubular cells from cisplatin toxicity. Therefore, HIV-1 had adverse biological effects on MSCs extending to their proliferation, differentiation, function, and therapeutic potential. These findings will help in advancing mechanistical insight in renal injury and repair in the setting of HIV-1 infection. -- Highlights: •MSCs isolated from HIV mice displayed HIV genes. •MSCs isolated from HIV mice exhibited attenuated growth and paracrine functions. •AKI mice with transplanted HIV-MSC displayed poor outcome. •HIV-1 MSC secreted multiple cytokines but at a lower level.

  14. BI-2 destabilizes HIV-1 cores during infection and Prevents Binding of CPSF6 to the HIV-1 Capsid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Thomas; Buffone, Cindy; Opp, Silvana; Valle-Casuso, Jose; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe

    2014-12-11

    The recently discovered small-molecule BI-2 potently blocks HIV-1 infection. BI-2 binds to the N-terminal domain of HIV-1 capsid. BI-2 utilizes the same capsid pocket used by the small molecule PF74. Although both drugs bind to the same pocket, it has been proposed that BI-2 uses a different mechanism to block HIV-1 infection when compared to PF74. This work demonstrates that BI-2 destabilizes the HIV-1 core during infection, and prevents the binding of the cellular factor CPSF6 to the HIV-1 core. Overall this short-form paper suggests that BI-2 is using a similar mechanism to the one used by PF74 to block HIV-1 infection.

  15. A novel, potent dual inhibitor of Arg-gingipains and Lys-gingipain as a promising agent for periodontal disease therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Shinsuke; Baba, Atsuyo; Suda, Yoshimitsu; Takii, Ryosuke; Hashimoto, Munetaka; Kawakubo, Tomoyo; Asao, Tetsuji; Kadowaki, Tomoko; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2014-08-01

    The periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis produces a unique class of cysteine proteinases termed gingipains that comprises Arg-gingipain (Rgp) and Lys-gingipain (Kgp). Growing evidence indicates that these 2 types of gingipains synergistically contribute to the entire virulence of the organism and increase the risk of periodontal disease (PD) by disrupting the host immune system and degrading the host tissue and plasma proteins. Therefore, a dual inhibitor of both gingipains would have attractive clinical potential for PD therapy. In this study, a novel, potent, dual inhibitor of Rgp and Kgp was developed through structure-based drug design, and its biological potency was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. This inhibitor had low nanomolar inhibitory potency (Ki=40 nM for Rgp, Ki=0.27 nM for Kgp) and good selectivity for host proteases and exhibited potent antibacterial activity against P. gingivalis by abrogating its manifold pathophysiological functions. The therapeutic potential of this inhibitor in vivo was also verified by suppressing the vascular permeability that was enhanced in guinea pigs by the organism and the gingival inflammation in beagle dog PD models. These findings suggest that a dual inhibitor of Rgp and Kgp would exhibit noteworthy anti-inflammatory activity in the treatment of PD. © FASEB.

  16. Evaluación de los reactivos hemoclasificadores monoclonales cubanos HEMO CIM ANTI-A y HEMO CIM ANTI-B en pacientes VIH/SIDA Evaluation of the Cuban anti-A Hemo CIM and anti-B Hemo CIM monoclonal hemoclassifiers in HIV/AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananidia Rivero

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un estudio realizado con los hemoclasificadores monoclonales cubanos Hemo CIM anti-A y anti-B producidos por el Centro de Inmunología Molecular (CIM y comercializados por CIMAB S.A, para ser evaluados en pacientes VIH/SIDA. Se analizaron un total de 130 pacientes en el Servicio de Transfusiones del Instituto "Pedro Kourí". Se utilizaron en paralelo los antisueros policlonales de producción nacional (Laboratorios Betera y los reactivos monoclonales comerciales producidos y donados por International Blood Group Reference Laboratory; Bristol, UK. Se demostró que los reactivos Hemo CIM anti-A y Hemo CIM anti-B se comportaron de forma similar a sus homólogos comerciales y policlonales. Al comparar la efectividad de la aglutinación para los 3 reactivos pudimos comprobar que con el reactivo monoclonal, Hemo CIM anti-A y anti-B se obtuvieron los mejores resultados expresados en crucesA study conducted with the Cuban anti-A and anti-B Hemo CIM monoclonal hemoclassifiers produced by the Center of Molecular Immunology (CMI and commercialized by CIMAB S.A. to be evaluated in HIV/AIDS patients is described. 130 patients were analyzed at the Service of Transfusions of "Pedro Kouri" Institute. The polyclonal antisera of national production (Betera Laboratories and the commercial monoclonal reagents produced and donated by the International Blood Group Reference Laboratory; Bristol, UK, were used at the same time. It was proved that the anti-A Hemo CIM and anti-B Hemo CIM reagents behaved similarly to their commercial and polyclonal homologues. On comparing the effectiveness of the agglutination for the 3 reagents, we were able to verify that the best results expressed in crosses were obtained with the anti-A and anti-B Hemo CIM monoclonal reagents

  17. Anti-leishmanial evaluation of fraxinus xanthoxyloides (G. don) DC. collected from district Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younis, T.; Khan, M.R.; Zai, J.A.; Khan, H.; Shah, N.A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated phytochemical classes, antileishmanial and cytotoxic activity of Fraxinus xanthoxyloides (Oleaceae) leaves. Powder of F. xanthoxyloides leaves was extracted with methanol to obtain the crude extract (FXM) and the resultant was fractionated with solvents in escalating polarity; n-hexane (FXH), chloroform (FXC), ethyl acetate (FXE), n-butanol (FXB) and the residual aqueous (FXA) fraction. Quantitative estimation of terpenoids, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolics and tannins was conducted. Anti-leishmanial activity was performed against Leishmania tropica promastigote stage parasite while insecticidal activity was assessed through brine shrimps lethality assay. Our results showed the maximum concentration of terpenoids in FXC while the highest quantity of coumarins, flavonoids, phenolics and tannins was recorded in FXE. Presence of terpenoids was not detected in FXB and in FXA. Among the extract/fractions, FXC exhibited the highest anti-leishmanial activity with LD/sub 50/ of 15.239+-0.9 mu g/ml to that of glucantime (LD/sub 50/ = 5.6+-2.4 mu g/ml) a reference drug. FXH exhibited the anti-leishmanial activity of LD/sub 50/ = 40.68+-1.9 mu g/ml followed by FXE (LD/sub 50/ = 102.9+-3.1 mu g/ml). Similarly potent insecticidal activity was recorded (LD/sub 50/ = 28.15+-1.8 mu g/ml) for FXC followed by FXH (LD/sub 50/ = 67.59+-2.3 mu g/ml). However, other fractions exhibited low level of anti-leishmanial and insecticidal activity. Correlation analysis exhibited a strong association (p 0.05) with the insecticidal activity. The coumarins established a medium association with the insecticidal activity. Other chemical classes exhibited a moderate to low level of association with the anti-leishmanial and the insecticidal activity. On the basis of these results we can conclude that chloroform fraction of F. xanthoxyloides is a potential source for anti-leishmanial and insecticidal activities and further studies are required to isolate the active

  18. One-by-one imprinting in two eccentric layers of hollow core-shells: Sequential electroanalysis of anti-HIV drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kislay; Jaiswal, Swadha; Singh, Richa; Fatma, Sana; Prasad, Bhim Bali

    2018-07-15

    Double layered one-by-one imprinted hollow core-shells@ pencil graphite electrode was fabricated for sequential sensing of anti-HIV drugs. For this, two eccentric layers were developed on the surface of vinylated silica nanospheres to obtain double layered one-by-one imprinted solid core-shells. This yielded hollow core-shells on treatment with hydrofluoric acid. The modified hollow core-shells (single layered dual imprinted) evolved competitive diffusion of probe/analyte molecules. However, the corresponding double layered one-by-one imprinted hollow core-shells (outer layer imprinted with Zidovudine, and inner layer with Lamivudine) were found relatively better owing to their bilateral diffusions into molecular cavities, without any competition. The entire work is based on differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry at double layered one-by-one imprinted hollow core-shells. This resulted in indirect detection of electro inactive targets with limits of detection as low as 0.91 and 0.12 (aqueous sample), 0.94 and 0.13 (blood serum), and 0.99 and 0.20 ng mL -1 (pharmaceutics) for lamivudine and zidovudine, respectively in anti-HIV drug combination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. PRGF exerts more potent proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects than autologous serum on a cell culture inflammatory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, E; Muruzabal, F; de la Fuente, M; Riestra, A; Merayo-Lloves, J; Orive, G

    2016-10-01

    Ocular graft versus host disease (oGVHD) is part of a systemic inflammatory disease that usually affects ocular surface tissues manifesting as a dry eye syndrome. Current treatments provide unsatisfactory results. Blood-derived products, like plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) emerge as a potential therapy for this disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tissue regeneration and anti-inflammatory capability of PRGF, an autologous platelet enriched plasma eye-drop, compared to autologous serum (AS) obtained from oGVHD patients on ocular surface cells cultured in a pro-inflammatory environment. PRGF and AS were obtained from four GVHD patients. Cell proliferation and inflammation markers, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), were measured in corneal and conjunctival fibroblastic cells cultured under pro-inflammatory conditions and after treatment with PRGF or AS eye drops. Moreover, cell proliferation increased after treatment with PRGF and AS, though this enhancement in the case of keratocytes was significantly higher with PRGF. PRGF eye drops showed a significant reduction of both inflammatory markers with respect to the initial inflammatory situation and to the AS treatment. Our results concluded that PRGF exerts more potent regenerative and anti-inflammatory effects than autologous serum on ocular surface fibroblasts treated with pro-inflammatory IL-1β and TNFα. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. EASY-HIT: HIV full-replication technology for broad discovery of multiple classes of HIV inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremb, Stephan; Helfer, Markus; Heller, Werner; Hoffmann, Dieter; Wolff, Horst; Kleinschmidt, Andrea; Cepok, Sabine; Hemmer, Bernhard; Durner, Jörg; Brack-Werner, Ruth

    2010-12-01

    HIV replication assays are important tools for HIV drug discovery efforts. Here, we present a full HIV replication system (EASY-HIT) for the identification and analysis of HIV inhibitors. This technology is based on adherently growing HIV-susceptible cells, with a stable fluorescent reporter gene activated by HIV Tat and Rev. A fluorescence-based assay was designed that measures HIV infection by two parameters relating to the early and the late phases of HIV replication, respectively. Validation of the assay with a panel of nine reference inhibitors yielded effective inhibitory concentrations consistent with published data and allowed discrimination between inhibitors of early and late phases of HIV replication. Finer resolution of the effects of reference drugs on different steps of HIV replication was achieved in secondary time-of-addition assays. The EASY-HIT assay yielded high Z' scores (>0.9) and signal stabilities, confirming its robustness. Screening of the LOPAC(1280) library identified 10 compounds (0.8%), of which eight were known to inhibit HIV, validating the suitability of this assay for screening applications. Studies evaluating anti-HIV activities of natural products with the EASY-HIT technology led to the identification of three novel inhibitory compounds that apparently act at different steps of HIV-1 replication. Furthermore, we demonstrate successful evaluation of plant extracts for HIV-inhibitory activities, suggesting application of this technology for the surveillance of biological extracts with anti-HIV activities. We conclude that the EASY-HIT technology is a versatile tool for the discovery and characterization of HIV inhibitors.

  1. Transient nature of long-term nonprogression and broad virus-specific proliferative T-cell responses with sustained thymic output in HIV-1 controllers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J Westrop

    Full Text Available HIV-1(+ individuals who, without therapy, conserve cellular anti-HIV-1 responses, present with high, stable CD4(+ T-cell numbers, and control viral replication, facilitate analysis of atypical viro-immunopathology. In the absence of universal definition, immune function in such HIV controllers remains an indication of non-progression.CD4 T-cell responses to a number of HIV-1 proteins and peptide pools were assessed by IFN-gamma ELISpot and lymphoproliferative assays in HIV controllers and chronic progressors. Thymic output was assessed by sjTRECs levels. Follow-up of 41 HIV-1(+ individuals originally identified as "Long-term non-progressors" in 1996 according to clinical criteria, and longitudinal analysis of two HIV controllers over 22 years, was also performed. HIV controllers exhibited substantial IFN-gamma producing and proliferative HIV-1-specific CD4 T-cell responses to both recombinant proteins and peptide pools of Tat, Rev, Nef, Gag and Env, demonstrating functional processing and presentation. Conversely, HIV-specific T-cell responses were limited to IFN-gamma production in chronic progressors. Additionally, thymic output was approximately 19 fold higher in HIV controllers than in age-matched chronic progressors. Follow-up of 41 HIV-1(+ patients identified as LTNP in 1996 revealed the transitory characteristics of this status. IFN-gamma production and proliferative T-cell function also declines in 2 HIV controllers over 22 years.Although increased thymic output and anti-HIV-1 T-cell responses are observed in HIV controllers compared to chronic progressors, the nature of nonprogressor/controller status appears to be transitory.

  2. Potent neutralizing anti-CD1d antibody reduces lung cytokine release in primate asthma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Jonathan; Clarke, Adam W; Shim, Doris; Mabon, David; Tian, Chen; Windloch, Karolina; Buhmann, Chris; Corazon, Beau; Lindgren, Matilda; Pollard, Matthew; Domagala, Teresa; Poulton, Lynn; Doyle, Anthony G

    2015-01-01

    CD1d is a receptor on antigen-presenting cells involved in triggering cell populations, particularly natural killer T (NKT) cells, to release high levels of cytokines. NKT cells are implicated in asthma pathology and blockade of the CD1d/NKT cell pathway may have therapeutic potential. We developed a potent anti-human CD1d antibody (NIB.2) that possesses high affinity for human and cynomolgus macaque CD1d (KD ∼100 pM) and strong neutralizing activity in human primary cell-based assays (IC50 typically <100 pM). By epitope mapping experiments, we showed that NIB.2 binds to CD1d in close proximity to the interface of CD1d and the Type 1 NKT cell receptor β-chain. Together with data showing that NIB.2 inhibited stimulation via CD1d loaded with different glycolipids, this supports a mechanism whereby NIB.2 inhibits NKT cell activation by inhibiting Type 1 NKT cell receptor β-chain interactions with CD1d, independent of the lipid antigen in the CD1d antigen-binding cleft. The strong in vitro potency of NIB.2 was reflected in vivo in an Ascaris suum cynomolgus macaque asthma model. Compared with vehicle control, NIB.2 treatment significantly reduced bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) levels of Ascaris-induced cytokines IL-5, IL-8 and IL-1 receptor antagonist, and significantly reduced baseline levels of GM-CSF, IL-6, IL-15, IL-12/23p40, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and VEGF. At a cellular population level NIB.2 also reduced numbers of BAL lymphocytes and macrophages, and blood eosinophils and basophils. We demonstrate that anti-CD1d antibody blockade of the CD1d/NKT pathway modulates inflammatory parameters in vivo in a primate inflammation model, with therapeutic potential for diseases where the local cytokine milieu is critical.

  3. HIV-1 vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excler, Jean-Louis; Robb, Merlin L; Kim, Jerome H

    2014-01-01

    The development of a safe and effective preventive HIV-1 vaccine remains a public health priority. Despite scientific difficulties and disappointing results, HIV-1 vaccine clinical development has, for the first time, established proof-of-concept efficacy against HIV-1 acquisition and identified vaccine-associated immune correlates of risk. The correlate of risk analysis showed that IgG antibodies against the gp120 V2 loop correlated with decreased risk of HIV infection, while Env-specific IgA directly correlated with increased risk. The development of vaccine strategies such as improved envelope proteins formulated with potent adjuvants and DNA and vectors expressing mosaics, or conserved sequences, capable of eliciting greater breadth and depth of potentially relevant immune responses including neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies, CD4+ and CD8+ cell-mediated immune responses, mucosal immune responses, and immunological memory, is now proceeding quickly. Additional human efficacy trials combined with other prevention modalities along with sustained funding and international collaboration remain key to bring an HIV-1 vaccine to licensure. PMID:24637946

  4. HIV screening among TB patients and co-trimoxazole preventive therapy for TB/HIV patients in Addis Ababa: facility based descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denegetu, Amenu Wesen; Dolamo, Bethabile Lovely

    2014-01-01

    Collaborative TB/HIV management is essential to ensure that HIV positive TB patients are identified and treated appropriately, and to prevent tuberculosis (TB) in HIV positive patients. The purpose of this study was to assess HIV case finding among TB patients and Co-trimoxazole Preventive Therapy (CPT) for HIV/TB patients in Addis Ababa. A descriptive cross-sectional, facility-based survey was conducted between June and July 2011. Data was collected by interviewing 834 TB patients from ten health facilities in Addis Ababa. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to summarize and analyze findings. The proportion of TB patients who (self reported) were offered for HIV test, tested for HIV and tested HIV positive during their anti-TB treatment follow-up were; 87.4%, 69.4% and 20.2%; respectively. Eighty seven HIV positive patients were identified, who knew their status before diagnosed for the current TB disease, bringing the cumulative prevalence of HIV among TB patients to 24.5%. Hence, the proportion of TB patients who knew their HIV status becomes 79.9%. The study revealed that 43.6% of those newly identified HIV positives during anti-TB treatment follow-up were actually treated with CPT. However, the commutative proportion of HIV positive TB patients who were ever treated with CPT was 54.4%; both those treated before the current TB disease and during anti-TB treatment follow-up. HIV case finding among TB patients and provision of CPT for TB/HIV co-infected patients needs boosting. Hence, routine offering of HIV test and provision of CPT for PLHIV should be strengthened in-line with the national guidelines.

  5. Non-adherence to anti-retroviral therapy among HIV infected adults in Mon State of Myanmar

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    Win Lei Aye

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The provision of Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART was started in Myanmar in 2005 in collaboration with the National AIDS Program and the private sector. Successful clinical management of HIV-infected patients is subject to optimal adherence. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of adherence to ART and identify factors associated with non-adherence to ART among HIV infected adults registered in a private sector setting in Mon State, Myanmar. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted with adults living with HIV receiving ART at an HIV outpatient clinic between April and May 2016. A total of three hundred People Living with HIV(PLHIV were interviewed using a pretested and structured questionnaire. The 30 days Visual Analog Scale (VAS adherence instrument was used to assess the level of adherence. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with non-adherence to ART. Results Among 300 patients (male 37.7% and female 62.3%, with a mean age of 41.3 years, standard deviation 8.7, 84% reported ≥95% adherence to ART in the past month. Among 16% of those reporting non-adherence, major reasons for skipping the medication were being busy (23%, being away from home (17.7% and being forgetful (12.3%. In multivariable logistic rgeression, low behavioural skills on ART adherence (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.10-0.94, tobacco use (OR = 3.22, 95% CI:1.28-8.12, having disclosed their HIV status (OR = 0.07, 95% CI: 0.01-0.69, having a partner who was not on ART (OR = 4.25, 95% CI: 1.70-10.64 and among men, having erectile dysfunction (OR = 15.14, 95% CI: 1.41-162.66 were significant associated with ART non-adherence. Conclusion Non-adherence to ART was associated with individual moderating factors and behavioral skills. Priority measures such as addressing risk behaviour and behavioural change communication tailored to individual patients’ lifestyles requires comprehensive

  6. Non-adherence to anti-retroviral therapy among HIV infected adults in Mon State of Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Win Lei; Puckpinyo, Apa; Peltzer, Karl

    2017-05-05

    The provision of Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) was started in Myanmar in 2005 in collaboration with the National AIDS Program and the private sector. Successful clinical management of HIV-infected patients is subject to optimal adherence. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of adherence to ART and identify factors associated with non-adherence to ART among HIV infected adults registered in a private sector setting in Mon State, Myanmar. This cross-sectional study was conducted with adults living with HIV receiving ART at an HIV outpatient clinic between April and May 2016. A total of three hundred People Living with HIV(PLHIV) were interviewed using a pretested and structured questionnaire. The 30 days Visual Analog Scale (VAS) adherence instrument was used to assess the level of adherence. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with non-adherence to ART. Among 300 patients (male 37.7% and female 62.3%, with a mean age of 41.3 years, standard deviation 8.7), 84% reported ≥95% adherence to ART in the past month. Among 16% of those reporting non-adherence, major reasons for skipping the medication were being busy (23%), being away from home (17.7%) and being forgetful (12.3%). In multivariable logistic rgeression, low behavioural skills on ART adherence (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.10-0.94), tobacco use (OR = 3.22, 95% CI:1.28-8.12), having disclosed their HIV status (OR = 0.07, 95% CI: 0.01-0.69), having a partner who was not on ART (OR = 4.25, 95% CI: 1.70-10.64) and among men, having erectile dysfunction (OR = 15.14, 95% CI: 1.41-162.66) were significant associated with ART non-adherence. Non-adherence to ART was associated with individual moderating factors and behavioral skills. Priority measures such as addressing risk behaviour and behavioural change communication tailored to individual patients' lifestyles requires comprehensive interventions to improve adherence.

  7. HIV, violence, blame and shame: pathways of risk to internalized HIV stigma among South African adolescents living with HIV.

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    Pantelic, Marija; Boyes, Mark; Cluver, Lucie; Meinck, Franziska

    2017-08-21

    Internalized HIV stigma is a key risk factor for negative outcomes amongst adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV), including non-adherence to anti-retroviral treatment, loss-to-follow-up and morbidity. This study tested a theoretical model of multi-level risk pathways to internalized HIV stigma among South African ALHIV. From 2013 to 2015, a survey using t otal population sampling of ALHIV who had ever initiated anti-retroviral treatment (ART) in 53 public health facilities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa was conducted. Community-tracing ensured inclusion of ALHIV who were defaulting from ART or lost to follow-up. 90.1% of eligible ALHIV were interviewed ( n  = 1060, 55% female, mean age = 13.8, 21% living in rural locations). HIV stigma mechanisms (internalized, enacted, and anticipated), HIV-related disability, violence victimization (physical, emotional, sexual abuse, bullying victimization) were assessed using well-validated self-report measures. Structural equation modelling was used to test a theoretically informed model of risk pathways from HIV-related disability to internalized HIV stigma. The model controlled for age, gender and urban/rural address. Prevalence of internalized HIV stigma was 26.5%. As hypothesized, significant associations between internalized stigma and anticipated stigma, as well as depression were obtained. Unexpectedly, HIV-related disability, victimization, and enacted stigma were not directly associated with internalized stigma. Instead significant pathways were identified via anticipated HIV stigma and depression. The model fitted the data well (RMSEA = .023; CFI = .94; TLI = .95; WRMR = 1.070). These findings highlight the complicated nature of internalized HIV stigma. Whilst it is seemingly a psychological process, indirect pathways suggest multi-level mechanisms leading to internalized HIV stigma. Findings suggest that protection from violence within homes, communities and schools may interrupt risk pathways from HIV

  8. 2D-QSAR study of fullerene nanostructure derivatives as potent HIV-1 protease inhibitors

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    Barzegar, Abolfazl; Jafari Mousavi, Somaye; Hamidi, Hossein; Sadeghi, Mehdi

    2017-09-01

    The protease of human immunodeficiency virus1 (HIV-PR) is an essential enzyme for antiviral treatments. Carbon nanostructures of fullerene derivatives, have nanoscale dimension with a diameter comparable to the diameter of the active site of HIV-PR which would in turn inhibit HIV. In this research, two dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships (2D-QSAR) of fullerene derivatives against HIV-PR activity were employed as a powerful tool for elucidation the relationships between structure and experimental observations. QSAR study of 49 fullerene derivatives was performed by employing stepwise-MLR, GAPLS-MLR, and PCA-MLR models for variable (descriptor) selection and model construction. QSAR models were obtained with higher ability to predict the activity of the fullerene derivatives against HIV-PR by a correlation coefficient (R2training) of 0.942, 0.89, and 0.87 as well as R2test values of 0.791, 0.67and 0.674 for stepwise-MLR, GAPLS-MLR, and PCA -MLR models, respectively. Leave-one-out cross-validated correlation coefficient (R2CV) and Y-randomization methods confirmed the models robustness. The descriptors indicated that the HIV-PR inhibition depends on the van der Waals volumes, polarizability, bond order between two atoms and electronegativities of fullerenes derivatives. 2D-QSAR simulation without needing receptor's active site geometry, resulted in useful descriptors mainly denoting ;C60 backbone-functional groups; and ;C60 functional groups; properties. Both properties in fullerene refer to the ligand fitness and improvement van der Waals interactions with HIV-PR active site. Therefore, the QSAR models can be used in the search for novel HIV-PR inhibitors based on fullerene derivatives.

  9. Effect of Micronutrient and Probiotic Fortified Yogurt on Immune-Function of Anti-Retroviral Therapy Naive HIV Patients  

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    J. Dik F. Habbema

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Micronutrient supplementation has been shown to reduce the progression of HIV but does not have an effect on the intestinal barrier or the intestinal microbiota of HIV patients. Studies have suggested that probiotics could potentially complement micronutrients in preserving the immune-function of HIV patients. Objective: Assess the impact of micronutrient supplemented probiotic yogurt on the immune function of HIV patients. Design: We performed a randomized, double blind, controlled trial with CD4 count as primary outcome among HIV patients naïve to anti-retroviral treatment. Secondary outcomes included hematological parameters, incidence of diarrhea and clinical symptoms. A total of 112 HIV patients were randomized to receive a micronutrient fortified yogurt with (n = 55 or without additional probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (n = 57 for four weeks. Results: An average decline in CD4 count of −70 cells/μL (95% CI: −154 to −15 was observed in the micronutrient, probiotic group versus a decrease of −63 cells/μL (95% CI: −157 to −30 in the micronutrient control group (p = 0.9. Additional probiotic supplementation was well tolerated and not associated with adverse events. No difference between groups was detected in incidence of diarrhea or clinical symptoms. An improvement of hemoglobin levels was observed for all subjects, based upon a mean difference from baseline of 1.4 g/L (SD = 6 (p = 0.02. Conclusion: The addition of probiotics to a micronutrient fortified yogurt was well tolerated by HIV patients but was not associated with a further increase in CD4 count after one month.

  10. Non-Neutralizing Antibodies Directed against HIV and Their Functions

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    Luzia M. Mayr

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available B cells produce a plethora of anti-HIV antibodies (Abs but only few of them exhibit neutralizing activity. This was long considered a profound limitation for the enforcement of humoral immune responses against HIV-1 infection, especially since these neutralizing Abs (nAbs are extremely difficult to induce. However, increasing evidence shows that additional non-neutralizing Abs play a significant role in decreasing the viral load, leading to partial and sometimes even total protection. Mechanisms suspected to participate in protection are numerous. They involve the Fc domain of Abs as well as their Fab part, and consequently the induced Ab isotype will be determinant for their functions, as well as the quantity and quality of the Fc-receptors (FcRs expressed on immune cells. Fc-mediated inhibitory functions, such as Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis, aggregation, and even immune activation have been proposed. However, as for nAbs, the non-neutralizing activities are limited to a subset of anti-HIV Abs. An improved in-depth characterization of the Abs displaying these functional responses is required for the development of new vaccination strategies, which aim to selectively trigger the B cells able to induce the right functional Ab combinations both at the right place and at the right time. This review summarizes our current knowledge on non-neutralizing functional inhibitory Abs and discusses the potential benefit of inducing them via vaccination. We also provide new insight into the roles of the FcγR-mediated Ab therapeutics in clinical trials for HIV diseases.

  11. Interferon α subtypes in HIV infection.

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    Sutter, Kathrin; Dickow, Julia; Dittmer, Ulf

    2018-02-13

    Type I interferons (IFN), which are immediately induced after most virus infections, are central for direct antiviral immunity and link innate and adaptive immune responses. However, several viruses have evolved strategies to evade the IFN response by preventing IFN induction or blocking IFN signaling pathways. Thus, therapeutic application of exogenous type I IFN or agonists inducing type I IFN responses are a considerable option for future immunotherapies against chronic viral infections. An important part of the type I IFN family are 12 IFNα subtypes, which all bind the same receptor, but significantly differ in their biological activities. Up to date only one IFNα subtype (IFNα2) is being used in clinical treatment against chronic virus infections, however its therapeutic success rate is rather limited, especially during Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Recent studies addressed the important question if other IFNα subtypes would be more potent against retroviral infections in in vitro and in vivo experiments. Indeed, very potent IFNα subtypes were defined and their antiviral and immunomodulatory properties were characterized. In this review we summarize the recent findings on the role of individual IFNα subtypes during HIV and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus infection. This includes their induction during HIV/SIV infection, their antiretroviral activity and the regulation of immune response against HIV by different IFNα subtypes. The findings might facilitate novel strategies for HIV cure or functional cure studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dolichos biflorus exhibits anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in an acute inflammatory model

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    Limi Elizabeth Mathew

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dolichos biflorus (Muthira is a branched, suberect, and downing herb, native to most parts of India, and found at altitudes of up to 1000 m, whose seeds can be cooked and eaten. Nutrition plays a key role in building immunity and preventing noncommunicable diseases to a certain extent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of 70% methanolic extract of seeds of D. biflorus (DME in carrageenan-induced inflammation. DME exhibited maximum percentage of oedema inhibition at a dose of 50 mg/kg at the 3rd hour of carrageenan induction. The effect was higher than that of the standard drug Voveran. The activities of cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, nitric oxide synthase, myeloperoxidase, and malondialdehyde showed significant (p < 0.05 reduction whereas the activities of antioxidant enzymes, vitamins C, and reduced glutathione level were increased significantly (p < 0.05 on treatment with DME. Also levels of the acute phase protein, ceruloplasmin, were brought to their normal range in DME-treated rats. Phytochemical analysis showed that the extract contains alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, proteins, and tannins, which may contribute to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. Thus the results demonstrate the potential beneficiary effect of DME on carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats.

  13. German-austrian recommendations for HIV1-therapy in pregnancy and in HIV1-exposed newborn - update 2008

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    Buchholz Bernd

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract German-Austrian recommendations for HIV1-therapy in pregnancy - Update 2008 Bernd Buchholz (University Medical Centre Mannheim, Pediatric Clinic, Matthias Beichert (Mannheim, Gynecology and Obstetrics Practice, Ulrich Marcus (Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Thomas Grubert, Andrea Gingelmaier (Gynecology Clinic of the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Dr. med. Annette Haberl (HIV-Department, J. W. Goethe-University Hospital, Frankfurt, Dr. med. Brigitte Schmied (Otto-Wagner Spital, Wien. In Germany during the last years about 200-250 HIV1-infected pregnant women delivered a baby each year, a number that is currently increasing. To determine the HIV-status early in pregnancy voluntary HIV-testing of all pregnant women is recommended in Germany and Austria as part of prenatal care. In those cases, where HIV1-infection was known during pregnancy, since 1995 the rate of vertical transmission of HIV1 was reduced to 1-2%. This low transmission rate has been achieved by the combination of anti-retroviral therapy of pregnant women, caesarean section scheduled before onset of labour, anti-retroviral post exposition prophylaxis in the newborn and refraining from breast-feeding by the HIV1-infected mother. To keep pace with new results in research, approval of new anti-retroviral drugs and changes in the general treatment recommendations for HIV1-infected adults, in 1998, 2001, 2003 and 2005 an interdisciplinary consensus meeting was held. Gynaecologists, infectious disease specialists, paediatricians, pharmacologists, virologists and members of the German AIDS Hilfe (NGO were participating in this conference to update the prevention strategies. A fifth update became necessary in 2008. The updating process was started in January 2008 and was terminated in September 2008. The guidelines provide new recommendations on the indication and the starting point for HIV-therapy in pregnancies without complications, drugs and drug combinations to be

  14. Development and Characterization of a Vaginal Film Containing Dapivirine, a Non- nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NNRTI), for prevention of HIV-1 sexual transmission.

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    Akil, Ayman; Parniak, Michael A; Dezzuitti, Charlene S; Moncla, Bernard J; Cost, Marilyn R; Li, Mingguang; Rohan, Lisa Cencia

    2011-06-01

    Dapivirine, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, is a potent and promising anti-HIV molecule. It is currently being investigated for use as a vaginal microbicide in two dosage forms, a semi-solid gel and a silicone elastomer ring. Quick-dissolving films are promising and attractive dosage forms that may provide an alternative platform for the vaginal delivery of microbicide drug candidates. Vaginal films may provide advantages such as discreet use, no product leakage during use, lack of requirement for an applicator for insertion, rapid drug release and minimal packaging and reduced wastage. Within this study the in vitro bioactivity of dapivirine as compared to the NNRTI UC781 was further established and a quick dissolve film was developed for vaginal application of dapivirine for prevention of HIV infection. The developed film was characterized with respect to its physical and chemical attributes including water content, mechanical strength, drug release profile, permeability, compatibility with lactobacilli and bioactivity. The anti-HIV activity of the formulated dapivirine film was confirmed in in vitro and ex vivo models. Importantly the physical and chemical properties of the film as well as its bioactivity were maintained for a period of 18 months. In conclusion, a vaginal film containing dapivirine was developed and characterized. The film was shown to prevent HIV-1 infection in vitro and ex vivo and have acceptable characteristics which make this film a promising candidate for testing as vaginal microbicide.

  15. Pessoas vivendo com HIV/AIDS: variáveis associadas à adesão ao tratamento anti-retroviral Persons living with HIV/AIDS: factors associated with adherence to antiretroviral treatment

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    Eliane Maria Fleury Seidl

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou descrever o comportamento de adesão ao tratamento anti-retroviral em pessoas vivendo com HIV/AIDS e investigar preditores da adesão entre as variáveis escolaridade, presença de efeitos colaterais, interrupção anterior da terapia anti-retroviral (TARV por conta própria, auto-estima, expectativa de auto-eficácia, estratégias de enfrentamento, suporte social e satisfação com a relação profissional de saúde-usuário. Adesão foi medida pelo auto-relato da perda do número de comprimidos/cápsulas dos medicamentos anti-retrovirais na última semana e mês, sendo considerada satisfatória na ocorrência de omissão inferior a 5% do total prescrito. Participaram 101 pessoas, 60,4% homens, idades entre 20 a 71 anos (M = 37,9 anos, 73,3% sintomáticos. A coleta de dados incluiu entrevista e instrumentos auto-aplicáveis. A maioria (n = 73; 72,3% relatou adesão igual ou superior a 95%. Nos resultados da regressão logística, interrupção anterior da TARV e expectativa de auto-eficácia foram preditores significativos da adesão. Faz-se necessária a qualificação da assistência pela constituição de equipes interdisciplinares, para o desenvolvimento de abordagens adequadas às dificuldades médicas e psicossociais de adesão das pessoas vivendo com HIV/AIDS.This study aimed to describe the adherence of persons living with HIV/AIDS to antiretroviral therapy (ART and to investigate adherence predictors among the following: level of schooling, presence of side effects, current or previous interruption of ART by the persons themselves, self-esteem, self-efficacy expectation, coping strategies, social support, and satisfaction with the health professional-patient relationship. Adherence was measured by self-reported number of ART pills/capsules missed during the previous week and previous month, evaluated as satisfactory when less than 5%. 101 HIV+ adults took part in this study, 60.4% males, ranging from 20 to 71 years

  16. Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of methanolic leaf extract of Indigofera cassioides Rottl. Ex. DC.

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    Raju Senthil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: All the results obtained revealed that the extract MEIC showed potent anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity against all the tested models and the results obtained were comparable with the standards used. The activity of the extract may be due to the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids and other phytochemicals.

  17. The offer of the anti-HIV test to the users of the health basic net units: different aproaches of professionals

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    Sergio Corrêa Marques

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: identificar e descrever as condutas dos profissionais de saúde na oferta do teste anti-HIV; analisar as práticas dos profissionais a partir dos relatos das usuárias dos serviços da rede básica de saúde. Método: é um estudo descritivo, qualitativo, com 40 mulheres assistidas em 08 Centros Municipais de Saúde. Resultados: a produção discursiva das entrevistas foi submetida ao programa Alceste, constituindo duas categorias de análise. A primeira contempla as abordagens no atendimento individual na rede de CMS do Rio de Janeiro descrevendo os três modos de conduta dos profissionais de saúde durante a oferta de teste anti-HIV. A segunda categoria refere-se às abordagens no atendimento coletivo, onde se observa que as atividades de aconselhamento não ocorrem de maneira uniforme. Conclusão: que os resultados apontam para uma prática que se desvirtua do que vem sendo preconizado pelos Programas oficiais em relação ao Aconselhamento.

  18. Addition of 2-(ethylamino)acetonitrile group to nitroxoline results in significantly improved anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo.

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    Mitrović, Ana; Sosič, Izidor; Kos, Špela; Tratar, Urša Lampreht; Breznik, Barbara; Kranjc, Simona; Mirković, Bojana; Gobec, Stanislav; Lah, Tamara; Serša, Gregor; Kos, Janko

    2017-08-29

    Lysosomal cysteine peptidase cathepsin B, involved in multiple processes associated with tumor progression, is validated as a target for anti-cancer therapy. Nitroxoline, a known antimicrobial agent, is a potent and selective inhibitor of cathepsin B, hence reducing tumor progression in vitro and in vivo . In order to further improve its anti-cancer properties we developed a number of derivatives using structure-based chemical synthesis. Of these, the 7-aminomethylated derivative (compound 17 ) exhibited significantly improved kinetic properties over nitroxoline, inhibiting cathepsin B endopeptidase activity selectively. In the present study, we have evaluated its anti-cancer properties. It was more effective than nitroxoline in reducing tumor cell invasion and migration, as determined in vitro on two-dimensional cell models and tumor spheroids, under either endpoint or real time conditions. Moreover, it exhibited improved action over nitroxoline in impairing tumor growth in vivo in LPB mouse fibrosarcoma tumors in C57Bl/6 mice. Taken together, the addition of a 2-(ethylamino)acetonitrile group to nitroxoline at position 7 significantly improves its pharmacological characteristics and its potential for use as an anti-cancer drug.

  19. Associations between HIV, highly active anti-retroviral therapy, and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy among maternal deaths in South Africa 2011-2013.

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    Sebitloane, Hannah M; Moodley, Jagidesa; Sartorius, Benn

    2017-02-01

    To explore potential relationships between HIV and highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). A retrospective secondary analysis of maternal-deaths data from the 2011-2013 Saving Mothers Report from South Africa. The incidence of HIV infection amongst individuals who died owing to HDP was determined and comparisons were made based on HIV status and the use of HAART. Among 4452 maternal deaths recorded in the Saving Mothers report, a lower risk of a maternal deaths being due to HDP was observed among women who had HIV infections compared with women who did not have HIV (relative risk [RR] 0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.64). Further, reduced odds of death being due to HDP were recorded among women with AIDS not undergoing HAART compared with women with HIV who did not require treatment (RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.3-0.58). Notably, among all women with AIDS, a greater risk of death due to HDP was demonstrated among those who received HAART compared with those who did not (RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.02-1.29). HIV and AIDS were associated with a decreased risk of HDP being the primary cause of death; the use of HAART increased this risk. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  20. Virucidal activity of the dendrimer microbicide SPL7013 against HIV-1.

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    Telwatte, Sushama; Moore, Katie; Johnson, Adam; Tyssen, David; Sterjovski, Jasminka; Aldunate, Muriel; Gorry, Paul R; Ramsland, Paul A; Lewis, Gareth R; Paull, Jeremy R A; Sonza, Secondo; Tachedjian, Gilda

    2011-06-01

    Topical microbicides for use by women to prevent the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections are urgently required. Dendrimers are highly branched nanoparticles being developed as microbicides. SPL7013 is a dendrimer with broad-spectrum activity against HIV type I (HIV-1) and -2 (HIV-2), herpes simplex viruses type-1 (HSV-1) and -2 (HSV-2) and human papillomavirus. SPL7013 [3% (w/w)] has been formulated in a mucoadhesive carbopol gel (VivaGel®) for use as a topical microbicide. Previous studies showed that SPL7013 has similar potency against CXCR4-(X4) and CCR5-using (R5) strains of HIV-1 and that it blocks viral entry. However, the ability of SPL7013 to directly inactivate HIV-1 is unknown. We examined whether SPL7013 demonstrates virucidal activity against X4 (NL4.3, MBC200, CMU02 clade EA and 92UG046 clade D), R5 (Ba-L, NB25 and 92RW016 clade A) and dual-tropic (R5X4; MACS1-spln) HIV-1 using a modified HLA-DR viral capture method and by polyethylene glycol precipitation. Evaluation of virion integrity was determined by ultracentrifugation through a sucrose cushion and detection of viral proteins by Western blot analysis. SPL7013 demonstrated potent virucidal activity against X4 and R5X4 strains, although virucidal activity was less potent for the 92UG046 X4 clade D isolate. Where potent virucidal activity was observed, the 50% virucidal concentrations were similar to the 50% effective concentrations previously reported in drug susceptibility assays, indicating that the main mode of action of SPL7013 is by direct viral inactivation for these strains. In contrast, SPL7013 lacked potent virucidal activity against R5 HIV-1 strains. Evaluation of the virucidal mechanism showed that SPL7013-treated NL4.3, 92UG046 and MACS1-spln virions were intact with no significant decrease in gp120 surface protein with respect to p24 capsid content compared to the corresponding untreated virus. These studies demonstrate that SPL

  1. A novel simple QSAR model for the prediction of anti-HIV activity using multiple linear regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afantitis, Antreas; Melagraki, Georgia; Sarimveis, Haralambos; Koutentis, Panayiotis A; Markopoulos, John; Igglessi-Markopoulou, Olga

    2006-08-01

    A quantitative-structure activity relationship was obtained by applying Multiple Linear Regression Analysis to a series of 80 1-[2-hydroxyethoxy-methyl]-6-(phenylthio) thymine (HEPT) derivatives with significant anti-HIV activity. For the selection of the best among 37 different descriptors, the Elimination Selection Stepwise Regression Method (ES-SWR) was utilized. The resulting QSAR model (R (2) (CV) = 0.8160; S (PRESS) = 0.5680) proved to be very accurate both in training and predictive stages.

  2. Control of HIV infection by IFN-α: implications for latency and a cure.

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    Bourke, Nollaig M; Napoletano, Silvia; Bannan, Ciaran; Ahmed, Suaad; Bergin, Colm; McKnight, Áine; Stevenson, Nigel J

    2018-03-01

    Viral infections, including HIV, trigger the production of type I interferons (IFNs), which in turn, activate a signalling cascade that ultimately culminates with the expression of anti-viral proteins. Mounting evidence suggests that type I IFNs, in particular IFN-α, play a pivotal role in limiting acute HIV infection. Highly active anti-retroviral treatment reduces viral load and increases life expectancy in HIV positive patients; however, it fails to fully eliminate latent HIV reservoirs. To revisit HIV as a curable disease, this article reviews a body of literature that highlights type I IFNs as mediators in the control of HIV infection, with particular focus on the anti-HIV restriction factors induced and/or activated by IFN-α. In addition, we discuss the relevance of type I IFN treatment in the context of HIV latency reversal, novel therapeutic intervention strategies and the potential for full HIV clearance.

  3. Virus-Like-Vaccines against HIV.

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    Andersson, Anne-Marie C; Schwerdtfeger, Melanie; Holst, Peter J

    2018-02-11

    Protection against chronic infections has necessitated the development of ever-more potent vaccination tools. HIV seems to be the most challenging foe, with a remarkable, poorly immunogenic and fragile surface glycoprotein and the ability to overpower the cell immune system. Virus-like-particle (VLP) vaccines have emerged as potent inducers of antibody and helper T cell responses, while replication-deficient viral vectors have yielded potent cytotoxic T cell responses. Here, we review the emerging concept of merging these two technologies into virus-like-vaccines (VLVs) for the targeting of HIV. Such vaccines are immunologically perceived as viruses, as they infect cells and produce VLPs in situ, but they only resemble viruses, as the replication defective vectors and VLPs cannot propagate an infection. The inherent safety of such a platform, despite robust particle production, is a distinct advantage over live-attenuated vaccines that must balance safety and immunogenicity. Previous studies have delivered VLVs encoded in modified Vaccinia Ankara vectors and we have developed the concept into a single-reading adenovirus-based technology capable of eliciting robust CD8⁺ and CD4⁺ T cells responses and trimer binding antibody responses. Such vaccines offer the potential to display the naturally produced immunogen directly and induce an integrated humoral and cellular immune response.

  4. An anti-inflammatory principle from cactus.

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    Park, E H; Kahng, J H; Lee, S H; Shin, K H

    2001-03-01

    In previous studies, the ethanol extract of cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) showed potent anti-inflammatory action. In the present study, following fractionation of the methanol extract of cactus stems guided by adjuvant-induced chronic inflammation model in mice, an active anti-inflammatory principle has been isolated and identified as beta-sitosterol.

  5. Synthesis of novel 1,2,3-triazole based benzoxazolinones: their TNF-α based molecular docking with in-vivo anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive activities and ulcerogenic risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Saqlain; Alam, M Sarwar; Hamid, Hinna; Shafi, Syed; Nargotra, Amit; Mahajan, Priya; Nazreen, Syed; Kalle, Arunasree M; Kharbanda, Chetna; Ali, Yakub; Alam, Aftab; Panda, Amulya K

    2013-01-01

    A library of novel bis-heterocycles containing benzoxazolinone based 1,2,3-triazoles has been synthesized using click chemistry approach. The compound 3f exhibited potent selective COX-2 inhibition of 59.48% in comparison to standard drug celecoxib (66.36% inhibition). The compound 3i showed significant (p < 0.001, 50.95%), TNF-α inhibitory activity as compared to indomethacin (p < 0.001, 64.01%). The results of the carrageenan induced hind paw oedema showed that compounds 3a, 3f, 3i, 3o, and 3e exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity in comparison to Indomethacin. The molecular docking studies revealed that 3i exhibits strong inhibitory effect due to the extra stability of the complex because of an extra π-π bond. The histopathology report showed that none of the compounds caused gastric ulceration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Prokaryotic Selectivity, Anti-endotoxic Activity and Protease Stability of Diastereomeric and Enantiomeric Analogs of Human Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nan, Yong Hai; Lee, Bongju; Shin, Song Yub

    2012-01-01

    LL-37 is the only antimicrobial peptide (AMP) of the human cathelicidin family. In addition to potent antimicrobial activity, LL-37 is known to have the potential to inhibit lipolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxic effects. To provide the stability to proteolytic digestion and increase prokaryotic selectivity and/or anti-endotoxic activity of two Lys/Trp-substituted 19-meric anti-microbial peptides (a4-W1 and a4-W2) designed from IG-19 (residues 13-31 of LL-37), we synthesized the diastereomeric peptides (a4-W1-D and a4-W2-D) with D-amino acid substitution at positions 3, 7, 10, 13 and 17 of a4-W1 and a4-W2, respectively and the enantiomeric peptides (a4-W1-E and a4-W2-E) composed D-amino acids. The diastereomeric peptides exhibited the best prokaryotic selectivity and effective protease stability, but no or less anti-endotoxic activity. In contrast, the enantiomeric peptides had not only prokaryotic selectivity and anti-endotoxic activity but also protease stability. Our results suggest that the hydrophobicity and α-helicity of the peptide is important for anti-endotoxic activity. In particular, the enantiomeric peptides showed potent anti-endotoxic and LPS-neutralizing activities comparable to that of LL-37. Taken together, both a4-W1-E and a4-W2-E holds promise as a template for the development of peptide antibiotics for the treatment of endotoxic shock and sepsis

  7. Prokaryotic Selectivity, Anti-endotoxic Activity and Protease Stability of Diastereomeric and Enantiomeric Analogs of Human Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nan, Yong Hai; Lee, Bongju; Shin, Song Yub [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    LL-37 is the only antimicrobial peptide (AMP) of the human cathelicidin family. In addition to potent antimicrobial activity, LL-37 is known to have the potential to inhibit lipolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxic effects. To provide the stability to proteolytic digestion and increase prokaryotic selectivity and/or anti-endotoxic activity of two Lys/Trp-substituted 19-meric anti-microbial peptides (a4-W1 and a4-W2) designed from IG-19 (residues 13-31 of LL-37), we synthesized the diastereomeric peptides (a4-W1-D and a4-W2-D) with D-amino acid substitution at positions 3, 7, 10, 13 and 17 of a4-W1 and a4-W2, respectively and the enantiomeric peptides (a4-W1-E and a4-W2-E) composed D-amino acids. The diastereomeric peptides exhibited the best prokaryotic selectivity and effective protease stability, but no or less anti-endotoxic activity. In contrast, the enantiomeric peptides had not only prokaryotic selectivity and anti-endotoxic activity but also protease stability. Our results suggest that the hydrophobicity and α-helicity of the peptide is important for anti-endotoxic activity. In particular, the enantiomeric peptides showed potent anti-endotoxic and LPS-neutralizing activities comparable to that of LL-37. Taken together, both a4-W1-E and a4-W2-E holds promise as a template for the development of peptide antibiotics for the treatment of endotoxic shock and sepsis.

  8. ANN multiscale model of anti-HIV drugs activity vs AIDS prevalence in the US at county level based on information indices of molecular graphs and social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Díaz, Humberto; Herrera-Ibatá, Diana María; Duardo-Sánchez, Aliuska; Munteanu, Cristian R; Orbegozo-Medina, Ricardo Alfredo; Pazos, Alejandro

    2014-03-24

    This work is aimed at describing the workflow for a methodology that combines chemoinformatics and pharmacoepidemiology methods and at reporting the first predictive model developed with this methodology. The new model is able to predict complex networks of AIDS prevalence in the US counties, taking into consideration the social determinants and activity/structure of anti-HIV drugs in preclinical assays. We trained different Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) using as input information indices of social networks and molecular graphs. We used a Shannon information index based on the Gini coefficient to quantify the effect of income inequality in the social network. We obtained the data on AIDS prevalence and the Gini coefficient from the AIDSVu database of Emory University. We also used the Balaban information indices to quantify changes in the chemical structure of anti-HIV drugs. We obtained the data on anti-HIV drug activity and structure (SMILE codes) from the ChEMBL database. Last, we used Box-Jenkins moving average operators to quantify information about the deviations of drugs with respect to data subsets of reference (targets, organisms, experimental parameters, protocols). The best model found was a Linear Neural Network (LNN) with values of Accuracy, Specificity, and Sensitivity above 0.76 and AUROC > 0.80 in training and external validation series. This model generates a complex network of AIDS prevalence in the US at county level with respect to the preclinical activity of anti-HIV drugs in preclinical assays. To train/validate the model and predict the complex network we needed to analyze 43,249 data points including values of AIDS prevalence in 2,310 counties in the US vs ChEMBL results for 21,582 unique drugs, 9 viral or human protein targets, 4,856 protocols, and 10 possible experimental measures.

  9. Neutralization epitopes on HIV pseudotyped with HTLV-I: Conservation of carbohydrate Epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A M; Nielsen, C; Arendrup, M

    1994-01-01

    One mechanism for expanding the cellular tropism of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in vitro is through formation of phenotypically mixed particles (pseudotypes) with human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I). In this study we found that pseudotypes allow penetration of HIV particles into CD4......-negative cells, previously nonsusceptible to HIV infection. The infection of CD4-negative cells with pseudotypes could be blocked with anti-HTLV-I serum but failed to be significantly inhibited with anti-HIV serum or a V3-neutralizing anti-gp120 monoclonal antibody. This may represent a possibility...... by cell-free pseudotypes in CD4-negative cells. We suggest that although viral cofactors might expand the tropism of HIV in vivo, HIV and HTLV-I seem to induce common carbohydrate neutralization epitopes....

  10. Neutralization epitopes on HIV pseudotyped with HTLV-I: conservation of carbohydrate epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A M; Nielsen, C; Arendrup, M

    1994-01-01

    One mechanism for expanding the cellular tropism of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in vitro is through formation of phenotypically mixed particles (pseudotypes) with human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I). In this study we found that pseudotypes allow penetration of HIV particles into CD4......-negative cells, previously nonsusceptible to HIV infection. The infection of CD4-negative cells with pseudotypes could be blocked with anti-HTLV-I serum but failed to be significantly inhibited with anti-HIV serum or a V3-neutralizing anti-gp120 monoclonal antibody. This may represent a possibility...... by cell-free pseudotypes in CD4-negative cells. We suggest that although viral cofactors might expand the tropism of HIV in vivo, HIV and HTLV-I seem to induce common carbohydrate neutralization epitopes....

  11. Immunogenicity and effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in HIV infected and uninfected African children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhi, Shabir A; Kuwanda, Locadiah; Saarinen, Leena; Cutland, Clare; Mothupi, Rosalia; Käyhty, Helena; Klugman, Keith P

    2005-12-01

    The quantitative (anti-Hib capsular polysaccharide antibody concentrations; anti-HibPS) and qualitative (bactericidal activity and avidity) aspects in immune responses to Haemophilus influenzae type b polyribosyl ribitol phospshate-CRM(197) conjugate vaccine (HibCV; HibTiter) were evaluated in 66 HIV infected children not receiving anti-retroviral therapy and 127 HIV uninfected children. Surveillance was conducted for invasive Hib disease in a cohort of 39,865 (approximately 6.4% of whom were HIV infected) children from March 1998 to June 2004. HIV infected children had lower anti-HibPS geometric mean antibody concentrations 1 month post-immunisation than HIV uninfected children (Por=1.0 microg/ml (RR 0.54; 95% CI 0.43-0.69). A lower proportion of HIV infected children than HIV uninfected children (RR 0.78; 95% CI 0.66-0.93) had measurable anti-Hib serum bactericidal activity (SBA) and the HibPS antibody concentration required for 50% killing of Hib bacteria was greater among HIV infected than HIV uninfected children (P=0.001). The estimated risk of HibCV failure was 35.1-fold greater (95% CI 14.6-84.6) amongst HIV infected than HIV uninfected children.

  12. Screening of anti-HIV-1 inophyllums by HPLC-DAD of Calophyllum inophyllum leaf extracts from French Polynesia Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laure, Frédéric; Raharivelomanana, Phila; Butaud, Jean-François; Bianchini, Jean-Pierre; Gaydou, Emile M

    2008-08-22

    Various pyranocoumarins, calophyllolide, inophyllums B, C, G(1), G(2) and P, from Calophyllum inophyllum (Clusiaceae) leaves of French Polynesia (Austral, Marquesas, Society and Tuamotu archipelagos) have been determined in 136 leaf extracts using a high pressure liquid chromatography-UV-diode array detection (HPLC-UV-DAD) technique. Results show a wide range in chemical composition within trees growing on eighteen islands. The use of multivariate statistical analyses (PCA) shows geographical distribution of inophyllums and indicate those rich in HIV-1 active (+)-inophyllums. Inophyllum B and P contents (0.0-39.0 and 0.0-21.8 mg kg(-1), respectively) confirm the chemodiversity of this species within the large area of French Polynesia. The study suggests the presence of interesting chemotypes which could be used as plant source for anti-HIV-1 drugs.

  13. Anti-HIV Effect of Liposomes Bearing CXCR4 Receptor Antagonist ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Antagonist, CXCR4, Liposomes, Receptor, Inflammation, HIV. Tropical Journal of ... receptors and inhibits HIV-1 entry mediated through CCR3, CCR5, and ..... circulation, facilitating HIV-targeted drug delivery. By tissue distribution ...

  14. Synthesis and exploration of novel curcumin analogues as anti-malarial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Satyendra; Karmodiya, Krishanpal; Surolia, Namita; Surolia, Avadhesha

    2008-03-15

    Curcumin, a major yellow pigment and active component of turmeric, has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. Recent studies have indicated that curcumin inhibits chloroquine-sensitive (CQ-S) and chloroquine-resistant (CQ-R) Plasmodium falciparum growth in culture with an IC(50) of approximately 3.25 microM (MIC=13.2 microM) and IC(50) 4.21 microM (MIC=14.4 microM), respectively. In order to expand their potential as anti-malarials a series of novel curcumin derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit P. falciparum growth in culture. Several curcumin analogues examined show more effective inhibition of P. falciparum growth than curcumin. The most potent curcumin compounds 3, 6, and 11 were inhibitory for CQ-S P. falciparum at IC(50) of 0.48, 0.87, 0.92 microM and CQ-R P. falciparum at IC(50) of 0.45 microM, 0.89, 0.75 microM, respectively. Pyrazole analogue of curcumin (3) exhibited sevenfold higher anti-malarial potency against CQ-S and ninefold higher anti-malarial potency against CQ-R. Curcumin analogues described here represent a novel class of highly selective P. falciparum inhibitors and promising candidates for the design of novel anti-malarial agents.

  15. Aconselhamento em DST/Aids às gestantes que realizaram o teste anti-HIV na admissão para o parto: os sentidos de uma prática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Lima Fonseca

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas as práticas e os sentidos do aconselhamento para gestantes submetidas ao teste anti-HIV na admissão para o parto, e para profissionais de saúde que atuam na assistência à maternidade em Salvador, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo qualitativo em uma maternidade, com observação participante e entrevistas semiestruturadas com 13 puérperas sem diagnóstico prévio para o HIV e sete profissionais de saúde. Observou-se que o exame anti-HIV é realizado de forma compulsória, sem considerar a autonomia da gestante, e que o aconselhamento se limita a informar o diagnóstico e dar orientações no pós-teste somente àquelas cujos resultados foram positivos. Os sentidos que permeiam o exame, assim como o entendimento da experiência e os significados construídos pelas puérperas, sobretudo quando se descobrem positivas para o HIV, não são abordados pelos profissionais, que não se sentem capacitados para acolherem a subjetividade das pacientes.

  16. Aconselhamento em DST/Aids às gestantes que realizaram o teste anti-HIV na admissão para o parto: os sentidos de uma prática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Lima Fonseca

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas as práticas e os sentidos do aconselhamento para gestantes submetidas ao teste anti-HIV na admissão para o parto, e para profissionais de saúde que atuam na assistência à maternidade em Salvador, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo qualitativo em uma maternidade, com observação participante e entrevistas semiestruturadas com 13 puérperas sem diagnóstico prévio para o HIV e sete profissionais de saúde. Observou-se que o exame anti-HIV é realizado de forma compulsória, sem considerar a autonomia da gestante, e que o aconselhamento se limita a informar o diagnóstico e dar orientações no pós-teste somente àquelas cujos resultados foram positivos. Os sentidos que permeiam o exame, assim como o entendimento da experiência e os significados construídos pelas puérperas, sobretudo quando se descobrem positivas para o HIV, não são abordados pelos profissionais, que não se sentem capacitados para acolherem a subjetividade das pacientes.

  17. LL-37-derived membrane-active FK-13 analogs possessing cell selectivity, anti-biofilm activity and synergy with chloramphenicol and anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, Ganesan; Kim, Eun Young; Shin, Song Yub

    2017-05-01

    Although the human-derived antimicrobial peptide (AMP) LL-37 has potent antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities, its therapeutic application is limited by its low cell selectivity and high production cost due to its large size. To overcome these problems, we tried to develop novel LL-37-derived short α-helical AMPs with improved cell selectivity and without a significant loss of anti-inflammatory activity relative to that of parental LL-37. Using amino acid substitution, we designed and synthesized a series of FK13 analogs based on the sequence of the 13-meric short FK13 peptide (residues 17-29 of LL-37) that has been identified as the region responsible for the antimicrobial activity of LL-37. Among the designed FK13 analogs, FK-13-a1 and FK-13-a7 showed high cell selectivity and retained the anti-inflammatory activity. The therapeutic index (a measure of cell selectivity) of FK-13-a1 and FK-13-a7 was 6.3- and 2.3-fold that of parental LL-37, respectively. Furthermore, FK-13-a1 and FK-13-a7 displayed more potent antimicrobial activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria including MRSA, MDRPA, and VREF, than did LL-37. In addition, FK-13-a1 and FK-13-a7 exhibited greater synergistic effects with chloramphenicol against MRSA and MDRPA and were more effective anti-biofilm agents against MDRPA than LL-37 was. Moreover, FK-13-a1 and FK-13-a7 maintained their activities in the presence of physiological salts and human serum. SYTOX green uptake, membrane depolarization and killing kinetics revealed that FK13-a1 and FK13-a7 kills microbial cells by permeabilizing the cell membrane and damaging membrane integrity. Taken together, our results suggest that FK13-a1 and FK13-a7 can be developed as novel antimicrobial/anti-inflammatory agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Impacto da terapia anti-retroviral na magnitude da epidemia do HIV/AIDS no Brasil: diversos cenários Impact of antiretroviral therapy on the magnitude of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Brazil: various scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza S. Barbosa

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, utilizaram-se os algoritmos EM e EMS aplicados ao método do Cálculo Retroativo para estimar a magnitude da epidemia do HIV no Brasil. Fazendo-se suposições a respeito do comportamento dos infectados, em relação à utilização da terapia combinada das drogas anti-retrovirais, construíram-se cinco cenários para a epidemia brasileira. O objetivo foi o de ilustrar os impactos que a utilização da terapia combinada das drogas anti-retrovirais possam estar tendo ou possam vir a ter na incubação do vírus e, por conseguinte, nas avaliações da epidemia realizadas a partir dos casos de Aids notificados.We applied the back-calculation method to estimate the magnitude of the HIV epidemic in Brazil, using the EM and EMS algorithms. Under certain assumptions regarding the behavior of infected patients towards combined antiretroviral therapy, we discuss five different scenarios applied to the Brazilian epidemic. Our objective was to illustrate the impact of combined antiretroviral treatment on the incubation period and thus on estimates of the size of the HIV-infected population, based on reported AIDS cases.

  19. Some fungal endophytes from vegetable crops and their anti-oomycete activities against tomato late blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-Y; Choi, G J; Lee, H B; Lee, S-W; Lim, H K; Jang, K S; Son, S W; Lee, S O; Cho, K Y; Sung, N D; Kim, J-C

    2007-03-01

    To isolate endophytic fungi from vegetable plants and examine their in vivo anti-oomycete activity against Phytophthora infestans in tomato plants. Endophytic fungi were isolated from surface-sterilized plant tissues and anti-oomycete activity was measured by in vivo assay using tomato seedlings. Endophytic fungi showing potent anti-oomycete activity were identified by morphological characteristics and nuclear ribosomal ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequence analysis. A total of 152 isolates were obtained from 66 healthy tissue samples of cucumber, red pepper, tomato, pumpkin and Chinese cabbage and the fermentation broths of 23 isolates showed potent in vivo anti-oomycete activity against tomato late blight with control values over 90%. The Fusarium oxysporum strain EF119, which was isolated from roots of red pepper, showed the most potent disease control efficacy against tomato late blight. In dual-culture tests, it inhibited the growth of Pythium ultimum, P. infestans and Phytophthora capsici. Among endophytic fungi isolated from healthy tissues of vegetable plants, F. oxysporum EF119 showed the most potent in vivo anti-oomycete activity against tomato late blight and in vitro anti-oomycete activity against several oomycete pathogens. Endophytic fungi showing anti-oomycete activity in vitro and in vivo may be used as biocontrol agents particularly of tomato late blight.

  20. Polypeptide-based nanogels co-encapsulating a synergistic combination of doxorubicin with 17-AAG show potent anti-tumor activity in ErbB2-driven breast cancer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desale, Swapnil S; Raja, Srikumar M; Kim, Jong Oh; Mohapatra, Bhopal; Soni, Kruti S; Luan, Haitao; Williams, Stetson H; Bielecki, Timothy A; Feng, Dan; Storck, Matthew; Band, Vimla; Cohen, Samuel M; Band, Hamid; Bronich, Tatiana K

    2015-06-28

    ErbB2-driven breast cancers constitute 20-25% of the cases diagnosed within the USA. The humanized anti-ErbB2 monoclonal antibody, Trastuzumab (Herceptin™; Genentech), with chemotherapy is the current standard of treatment. Novel agents and strategies continue to be explored, given the challenges posed by Trastuzumab-resistance development in most patients. The HSP90 inhibitor, 17-allylaminodemethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), which induces ErbB2 degradation and attenuates downstream oncogenic signaling, is one such agent that showed significant promise in early phase I and II clinical trials. Its low water solubility, potential toxicities and undesirable side effects observed in patients, partly due to the Cremophor-based formulation, have been discouraging factors in the advancement of this promising drug into clinical use. Encapsulation of 17-AAG into polymeric nanoparticle formulations, particularly in synergistic combination with conventional chemotherapeutics, represents an alternative approach to overcome these problems. Herein, we report an efficient co-encapsulation of 17-AAG and doxorubicin, a clinically well-established and effective modality in breast cancer treatment, into biodegradable and biocompatible polypeptide-based nanogels. Dual drug-loaded nanogels displayed potent cytotoxicity in a breast cancer cell panel and exerted selective synergistic anticancer activity against ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancer cell lines. Analysis of ErbB2 degradation confirmed efficient 17-AAG release from nanogels with activity comparable to free 17-AAG. Furthermore, nanogels containing both 17-AAG and doxorubicin exhibited superior antitumor efficacy in vivo in an ErbB2-driven xenograft model compared to the combination of free drugs. These studies demonstrate that polypeptide-based nanogels can serve as novel nanocarriers for encapsulating 17-AAG along with other chemotherapeutics, providing an opportunity to overcome solubility issues and thereby exploit its full

  1. Acute HIV Infection in Pregnancy: The Case for Third Trimester Rescreening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Wertz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Combination testing with anti-HIV Elisa and Western blot is both sensitive and specific for diagnosis of established HIV-1 infection but could not detect acute HIV infection (AHI. AHI is a time of extremely high viral load, which may correlate to increased risk of horizontal or vertical transmission. Thus, early identification of AHI could allow for interventions to decrease transmission. However, recognition of AHI can be challenging as symptoms could be absent or nonspecific, therefore, AHI is often not detected, particularly in pregnancy. We present a case report of AHI in a pregnant woman who presented with headache and fever. She tested negative for HIV in the first trimester and at time of AHI at 26 3/7 weeks by anti-HIV Elisa, but was diagnosed with AHI based on an HIV RNA viral load of 434,000 copies/mL. This report presents a case for improved awareness of AHI in pregnancy, and the need for repeat HIV testing in late pregnancy, and highlighted that early detection of AHI might be possible with adding HIV RNA testing at time of standard anti-HIV Elisa screening test in pregnancy. Novel laboratory approaches including pooling of sera for HIV RNA could reduce the cost of HIV RNA testing.

  2. Risk factors for death in HIV-infected adult African patients receiving anti-retroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siika, A M; Wools-Kaloustian, K; Mwangi, A W; Kimaiyo, S N; Diero, L O; Ayuo, P O; Owino-Ong'or, W D; Sidle, J E; Einterz, R M; Yiannoutsos, C T; Musick, B; Tierney, W M

    2010-11-01

    To determine risk factors for death in HIV-infected African patients on anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Retrospective Case-control study. The MOH-USAID-AMPATH Partnership ambulatory HIV-care clinics in western Kenya. Between November 2001 and December 2005 demographic, clinical and laboratory data from 527 deceased and 1054 living patients receiving ART were compared to determine independent risk factors for death. Median age at ART initiation was 38 versus 36 years for the deceased and living patients respectively (p100/mm3 (HR=1.553. 95% CI (1.156, 2.087), p<0.003). Patients attending rural clinics had threefold higher risk of dying compared to patients attending clinic at a tertiary referral hospital (p<0.0001). Two years after initiating treatment fifty percent of non-adherent patients were alive compared to 75% of adherent patients. Male gender, WHO Stage and haemoglobin level <10 grams% were associated with time to death while age, marital status, educational level, employment status and weight were not. Profoundly immunosuppressed patients were more likely to die early in the course of treatment. Also, patients receiving care in rural clinics were at greater risk of dying than those receiving care in the tertiary referral hospital.

  3. Potent neutralizing serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) in human immunodeficiency virus type 2-exposed IgG-seronegative individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lizeng, Q; Nilsson, C; Sourial, S

    2004-01-01

    Links Potent neutralizing serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) in human immunodeficiency virus type 2-exposed IgG-seronegative individuals.Lizeng Q, Nilsson C, Sourial S, Andersson S, Larsen O, Aaby P, Ehnlund M, Bjorling E. Research Center, South Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. The mechanisms behind...... the resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infection are still not fully understood. In the present study, we explored the HIV-2-specific humoral serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) immune response in HIV-2-exposed IgG-seronegative (EGSN) individuals. Serum samples from heterosexual EGSN individuals...... and their known HIV-2-infected partners, as well as controls originating from Guinea-Bissau in Africa, were studied. Antibody reactivity to native and recombinant envelope glycoproteins was investigated, and the capacity of purified serum IgA to neutralize HIV-2(SBL6669) was tested. Our results showed that 16...

  4. Polyfunctional HIV-Specific Antibody Responses Are Associated with Spontaneous HIV Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E Ackerman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Elite controllers (ECs represent a unique model of a functional cure for HIV-1 infection as these individuals develop HIV-specific immunity able to persistently suppress viremia. Because accumulating evidence suggests that HIV controllers generate antibodies with enhanced capacity to drive antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC that may contribute to viral containment, we profiled an array of extra-neutralizing antibody effector functions across HIV-infected populations with varying degrees of viral control to define the characteristics of antibodies associated with spontaneous control. While neither the overall magnitude of antibody titer nor individual effector functions were increased in ECs, a more functionally coordinated innate immune-recruiting response was observed. Specifically, ECs demonstrated polyfunctional humoral immune responses able to coordinately recruit ADCC, other NK functions, monocyte and neutrophil phagocytosis, and complement. This functionally coordinated response was associated with qualitatively superior IgG3/IgG1 responses, whereas HIV-specific IgG2/IgG4 responses, prevalent among viremic subjects, were associated with poorer overall antibody activity. Rather than linking viral control to any single activity, this study highlights the critical nature of functionally coordinated antibodies in HIV control and associates this polyfunctionality with preferential induction of potent antibody subclasses, supporting coordinated antibody activity as a goal in strategies directed at an HIV-1 functional cure.

  5. Potent Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pyrenocine A Isolated from the Marine-Derived Fungus Penicillium paxilli Ma(G)K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Thaís Regina; Dejani, Naiara N.; Monnazzi, Luis Gustavo Silva; Kossuga, Miriam H.; Berlinck, Roberto G. S.; Sette, Lara D.; Medeiros, Alexandra I.

    2014-01-01

    Very little is known about the immunomodulatory potential of secondary metabolites isolated from marine microorganisms. In the present study, we characterized pyrenocine A, which is produced by the marine-derived fungus Penicillium paxilli Ma(G)K and possesses anti-inflammatory activity. Pyrenocine A was able to suppress, both pretreatment and posttreatment, the LPS-induced activation of macrophages via the inhibition of nitrite production and the synthesis of inflammatory cytokines and PGE2. Pyrenocine A also exhibited anti-inflammatory effects on the expression of receptors directly related to cell migration (Mac-1) as well as costimulatory molecules involved in lymphocyte activation (B7.1). Nitrite production was inhibited by pyrenocine A in macrophages stimulated with CpG but not Poly I:C, suggesting that pyrenocine A acts through the MyD88-dependent intracellular signaling pathway. Moreover, pyrenocine A is also able to inhibit the expression of genes related to NFκB-mediated signal transduction on macrophages stimulated by LPS. Our results indicate that pyrenocine A has promissory anti-inflammatory properties and additional experiments are necessary to confirm this finding in vivo model. PMID:24574582

  6. Entecavir Exhibits Inhibitory Activity against Human Immunodeficiency Virus under Conditions of Reduced Viral Challenge▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pin-Fang; Nowicka-Sans, Beata; Terry, Brian; Zhang, Sharon; Wang, Chunfu; Fan, Li; Dicker, Ira; Gali, Volodymyr; Higley, Helen; Parkin, Neil; Tenney, Daniel; Krystal, Mark; Colonno, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Entecavir (ETV) was developed for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and is globally approved for that indication. Initial preclinical studies indicated that ETV had no significant activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in cultured cell lines at physiologically relevant ETV concentrations, using traditional anti-HIV assays. In response to recent clinical observations of anti-HIV activity of ETV in HIV/HBV-coinfected patients not receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), additional investigative studies were conducted to expand upon earlier results. An extended panel of HIV-1 laboratory and clinical strains and cell types was tested against ETV, along with a comparison of assay methodologies and resistance profiling. These latest studies confirmed that ETV has only weak activity against HIV, using established assay systems. However, a >100-fold enhancement of antiviral activity (equivalent to the antiviral activity of lamivudine) could be obtained when assay conditions were modified to reduce the initial viral challenge. Also, the selection of a M184I virus variant during the passage of HIV-1 at high concentrations of ETV confirmed that ETV can exert inhibitory pressure on the virus. These findings may have a significant impact on how future assays are performed with compounds to be used in patients infected with HIV. These results support the recommendation that ETV therapy should be administered in concert with HAART for HIV/HBV-coinfected patients. PMID:18316521

  7. Seroprevalence of HBV, HCV & HIV co-infection and risk factors analysis in Tripoli-Libya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A Daw

    Full Text Available In 1998 Libya experienced a major outbreak of multiple blood borne viral hepatitis and HIV infections. Since then, no studies have been done on the epidemic features and risk factors of HBV, HCV, HIV and co-infection among the general population.A prospective study was carried out using a multi-centre clustering method to collect samples from the general population. The participants were interviewed, and relevant information was collected, including socio-demographic, ethnic, and geographic variables. This information was correlated with the risk factors involved in the transmission of HBV, HCV and HIV. Blood samples were collected and the sera were tested for HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV using enzyme immunoassay.A total of 9,170 participants from the nine districts of Tripoli were enrolled. The average prevalence of HBsAg was 3.7%, anti-HCV 0.9%, anti-HIV 0.15% and co-infection 0.02%. The prevalence varied from one district to another. HBV was more prevalent among those aged over 50 years and was associated with family history. Anti-HCV and anti-HIV were more prevalent among those aged 20-40 years. Intravenous drug use and blood transfusion were the main risk factors for HCV and HIV infection.HBV, HCV, HIV and co-infection are relatively common in Libya. High prevalence was associated with geographic, ethnic and socioeconomic variability within the community. HCV and HIV infections among the younger age groups are becoming an alarming issue. Regulations and health care education need to be implemented and longer term follow-up should be planned.

  8. HIV-1 subtypes and mutations associated to antiretroviral drug resistance in human isolates from Central Brazil Subtipos e mutações associadas à resistência aos anti-retrovirais em isolados de HIV-1 do Distrito Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Marreco Cerqueira

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The detection of polymorphisms associated to HIV-1 drug-resistance and genetic subtypes is important for the control and treatment of HIV-1 disease. Drug pressure selects resistant variants that carry mutations in the viral reverse transcriptase (RT and protease (PR genes. For a contribution to the public health authorities in planning the availability of therapeutic treatment, we therefore described the genetic variability, the prevalence of mutations associated to drug resistance and the antiretroviral resistance profile in HIV-1 isolates from infected individuals in Central Brazil. Nineteen HIV-1 RNA samples from a Public Health Laboratory of the Federal District were reversely transcribed and cDNAs were amplified by nested PCR. One fragment of 297 bp coding the entire protease gene, and another of 647 bp, corresponding to the partial RT gene (codons 19-234, were obtained. Automated sequencing and BLAST analysis revealed the presence of 17 B and 2 F1 HIV-1 subtypes. The amino acid sequences were analyzed for the presence of resistance-associated mutations. A total of 6 PR mutations, 2 major and 4 accessory, and 8 RT mutations related to drug resistance were found. Our data suggest a high prevalence of HIV-1 B subtype in the studied population of Federal District as well as the presence of genetically-resistant strains in individuals failing treatment.A detecção de polimorfismos do HIV-1 que estejam associados à resistência às drogas anti-retrovirais e aos subtipos genéticos é importante para o controle e tratamento da infecção pelo HIV-1. A pressão exercida pela terapia anti-retroviral seleciona variantes resistentes com mutações nos genes virais da transcriptase reversa (RT e da protease (PR. Assim, visando contribuir com as autoridades de saúde pública na perspectiva de planejar a disponibilidade de um tratamento terapêutico, nós descrevemos a variabilidade genética e a prevalência de mutações associadas à resist

  9. Identification of a CD4-Binding-Site Antibody to HIV that Evolved Near-Pan Neutralization Breadth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jinghe; Kang, Byong H.; Ishida, Elise; Zhou, Tongqing; Griesman, Trevor; Sheng, Zizhang; Wu, Fan; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Zhang, Baoshan; McKee, Krisha; O’Dell, Sijy; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Druz, Aliaksandr; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Schramm, Chaim A.; Zheng, Anqi; Joyce, M.  Gordon; Asokan, Mangaiarkarasi; Ransier, Amy; Darko, Sam; Migueles, Stephen A.; Bailer, Robert T.; Louder, Mark K.; Alam, S.  Munir; Parks, Robert; Kelsoe, Garnett; Von Holle, Tarra; Haynes, Barton F.; Douek, Daniel C.; Hirsch, Vanessa; Seaman, Michael S.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D.; Connors, Mark

    2016-11-01

    Detailed studies of the broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that underlie the best available examples of the humoral immune response to HIV are providing important information for the development of therapies and prophylaxis for HIV-1 infection. Here, we report a CD4-binding site (CD4bs) antibody, named N6, that potently neutralized 98% of HIV-1 isolates, including 16 of 20 that were resistant to other members of its class. N6 evolved a mode of recognition such that its binding was not impacted by the loss of individual contacts across the immunoglobulin heavy chain. In addition, structural analysis revealed that the orientation of N6 permitted it to avoid steric clashes with glycans, which is a common mechanism of resistance. Thus, an HIV-1-specific bNAb can achieve potent, near-pan neutralization of HIV-1, making it an attractive candidate for use in therapy and prophylaxis.

  10. Macrolide Hybrid Compounds: Drug Discovery Opportunities in Anti- Infective and Anti-inflammatory Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paljetak, Hana Cipcic; Tomaskovic, Linda; Matijasic, Mario; Bukvic, Mirjana; Fajdetic, Andrea; Verbanac, Donatella; Peric, Mihaela

    2017-01-01

    Macrolides, polyketide natural products, and their 15-membered semi-synthetic derivatives are composed of substituted macrocyclic lactone ring and used primarily as potent antibiotics. Recently their usefulness was extended to antimalarial and anti-inflammatory area. Hybrid macrolides presented in this article are the next generation semi-synthetic compounds that combine pharmacophores from antibacterial, antimalarial and anti-inflammatory area with 14- and 15-membered azalide scaffolds. Antibacterial azalide hybrids with sulphonamides showed improved activity against resistant streptococci while quinolone conjugates demonstrated full coverage of respiratory pathogens including macrolide resistant strains and their efficacy was confirmed in mouse pneumonia model. Antimalarial macrolide hybrids, mainly involving (chloro)quinoline pharmacophores, showed outstanding activity against chloroquine resistant strains, favourable pharmacokinetics, promising in vivo efficacy as well as encouraging developmental potential. Anti-inflammatory hybrids were obtained by combining macrolides with corticosteroid and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. They were found active in in vivo animal models of locally induced inflammation, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis and demonstrated improved safety over parent steroid drugs. Overall, macrolide hybrids possess significant potential to be developed as potent novel medicines in therapeutic areas of utmost pharmaceutical interest. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. A Cross Section Study to Determine the Prevalence of Antibodies against HIV Infection among Hepatitis B and C Infected Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geane L. Flores

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: There are limited data regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevalence among hepatitis B virus (HBV or hepatitis C virus (HCV infected individuals. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection among HIV individuals; (2 Methods: A total of 409 patients (126 HBV+ and 283 HCV+ referred to the Brazilian Reference Laboratory for Viral Hepatitis from 2010 to 2013 donated serum samples. Anti-HIV, HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-HBcIgM, anti-HBe, HBeAg, and anti-HCV antibodies were measured, and anti-HCV positive samples were tested for viral RNA and genotype; (3 Results: The anti-HIV antibody prevalence was 10.31% and 4.59% among HBV+ and HCV+ patients, respectively. The HCV mean (SD viral load was log 5.14 ± 1.64 IU/mL, and genotype I was most prevalent (163/283. Anti-HBs and anti-HBc were detected in 40% and 26% of HCV+ individuals, respectively. Among the HBV+ population, the presence of anti-HIV antibodies was associated with male gender, marital status (married, tattoo, sexual orientation, sexual practices (oral sex and anal sex, history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs, history of viral hepatitis treatment, and a sexual partner with hepatitis or HIV. For the HCV+ group, the presence of anti-HIV antibodies was associated with female gender, marital status (married, anal intercourse, previous history of STDs, and number of sexual partners; (4 Conclusion: A high prevalence of anti-HIV antibodies was found among individuals with HBV and HCV, showing the importance of education programmes towards HIV infection among HBV- and HCV-infected individuals.

  12. From undefined red smear cheese consortia to minimal model communities both exhibiting similar anti-listerial activity on a cheese-like matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, M; Desmasures, N; Vernoux, J-P

    2010-12-01

    Starting from one undefined cheese smear consortium exhibiting anti-listerial activity (signal) at 15 °C, 50 yeasts and 39 bacteria were identified by partial rDNA sequencing. Construction of microbial communities was done either by addition or by erosion approach with the aim to obtain minimal communities having similar signal to that of the initial smear. The signal of these microbial communities was monitored in cheese microcosm for 14 days under ripening conditions. In the addition scheme, strains having significant signals were mixed step by step. Five-member communities, obtained by addition of a Gram negative bacterium to two yeasts and two Gram positive bacteria, enhanced the signal dramatically contrary to six-member communities including two Gram negative bacteria. In the erosion approach, a progressive reduction of 89 initial strains was performed. While intermediate communities (89, 44 and 22 members) exhibited a lower signal than initial smear consortium, eleven- and six-member communities gave a signal almost as efficient. It was noteworthy that the final minimal model communities obtained by erosion and addition approaches both had anti-listerial activity while consisting of different strains. In conclusion, some minimal model communities can have higher anti-listerial effectiveness than individual strains or the initial 89 micro-organisms from smear. Thus, microbial interactions are involved in the production and modulation of anti-listerial signals in cheese surface communities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV, and HTLV among Pregnant Women in Southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele; Igboama, Magdalene C; Ojo, Johnson Adeyemi; Odewale, Gbolabo

    2016-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are major public health challenge especially in developing countries. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and Human T-cell lymphotropic Virus type I (HTLV-I) among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic, in Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, and South-Western Nigeria. One hundred and eighty two randomly selected pregnant women were screened for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and HTLV-1 IgM antibodies using commercially available ELISA kit. Of the 182 blood samples of pregnant women screened whose age ranged from 15-49 years, 13 (7.1%), 5 (2.7%), 9 (4.9%), and 44 (24.2%) were positive for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV, and HTLV-1 IgM antibodies, respectively. The co-infection rate of 0.5% was obtained for HBV/HCV, HBV/HIV, HIV/HTLV-1, and HCV/HTLV-1 while 1.1% and 0% was recorded for HBV/HTLV-1 and HCV/HIV co-infections, respectively. Expected risk factors such as history of surgery, circumcision, tattooing and incision showed no significant association with any of the viral STIs (P > 0.05). This study shows that there is the need for a comprehensive screening of all pregnant women for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and HTLV-1 to prevent mother to child transmission of these viral infections and its attending consequences.

  14. Study of antioxidant, anti-protease and anti-urease potential of schiff bases of acetophenone with different amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, D.; Mir, H.

    2014-01-01

    Seven acetophenone-derived Schiff bases were synthesized with different amines including 2-aminobenzoic acid (HL1), 4-aminobenzoic acid (HL2), 2-naphthylamine (HL3), phenylhydrazine (HL4), 1,2-ethanediamine (HL5), 1,2-diaminobenzene (HL6) and 1,4-diaminobenzene (HL7), and were subjected to various assays including FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power), DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), phosphomolybdate, reducing power, and lipid peroxidation inhibition. They were also evaluated for protease and urease inhibitory activities. Based on the results, structure-activity relationship (SAR) was determined. Only two bases, HL1 and HL4, exhibited antioxidant or free radical scavenging activity in DPPH assay. HL4 was most potent (IC50 15 micro g/mL), while HL1 was only slightly active. As HL4 was the only base with hydrogen bonded to nitrogen, most probably it involves hydrogen transfer (HT) mechanism. All the bases exhibited a range of antioxidant activity in assays involving electron transfer (ET). In the reducing power assay, HL5, HL6 and HL7 showed considerable potential while in FRAP assay, HL7 was most active followed by HL3. In phosphomolybdate assay, HL6 had the highest potency followed by HL7, while HL4 and HL3 also displayed good activity. All the bases showed moderate to high lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity. HL7 exhibited highest protease inhibitory activity (EC50 43.9 mu g/mL) followed by HL6 (EC/sub 50/ 52 mu g/mL). HL4 and HL5 did not show protease inhibitory activity at all. HL2 was most potent in inhibiting urease activity (EC50 29.91 mu g/mL). HL5 and HL6 showed moderate activity. The study showed how variation in structures of Schiff bases alters their antioxidant and anti-enzymatic activities. (author)

  15. Comparative toxicity and efficacy of engineered anthrax lethal toxin variants with broad anti-tumor activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Diane E.; Hoover, Benjamin; Cloud, Loretta Grey; Liu, Shihui; Molinolo, Alfredo A.; Leppla, Stephen H.; Bugge, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously designed and characterized versions of anthrax lethal toxin that are selectively cytotoxic in the tumor microenvironment and which display broad and potent anti-tumor activities in vivo. Here, we have performed the first direct comparison of the safety and efficacy of three engineered anthrax lethal toxin variants requiring activation by either matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs), urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) or co-localized MMP/uPA activities. C57BL/6J mice were challenged with six doses of engineered toxins via intraperitoneal (I.P.) or intravenous (I.V.) dose routes to determine the maximum tolerated dose for six administrations (MTD6) and dose-limiting toxicities. Efficacy was evaluated using the B16-BL6 syngraft model of melanoma; mice bearing established tumors were treated with six I.P. doses of toxin and tumor measurements and immunohistochemistry, paired with terminal blood work, were used to elaborate upon the anti-tumor mechanism and relative efficacy of each variant. We found that MMP-, uPA- and dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxins exhibited the same dose-limiting toxicity; dose-dependent GI toxicity. In terms of efficacy, all three toxins significantly reduced primary B16-BL6 tumor burden, ranging from 32% to 87% reduction, and they also delayed disease progression as evidenced by dose-dependent normalization of blood work values. While target organ toxicity and effective doses were similar amongst the variants, the dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxin exhibited the highest I.P. MTD6 and was 1.5–3-fold better tolerated than the single MMP- and uPA-activated toxins. Overall, we demonstrate that this dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxin can be administered safely and is highly effective in a preclinical model of melanoma. This modified bacterial cytotoxin is thus a promising candidate for further clinical development and evaluation for use in treating human cancers. - Highlights: • Toxicity and anti

  16. Comparative toxicity and efficacy of engineered anthrax lethal toxin variants with broad anti-tumor activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Diane E. [Proteases and Tissue Remodeling Section, Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Program of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Hoover, Benjamin [Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Cloud, Loretta Grey [Proteases and Tissue Remodeling Section, Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Liu, Shihui [Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Molinolo, Alfredo A. [Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Leppla, Stephen H. [Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Bugge, Thomas H., E-mail: thomas.bugge@nih.go [Proteases and Tissue Remodeling Section, Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We have previously designed and characterized versions of anthrax lethal toxin that are selectively cytotoxic in the tumor microenvironment and which display broad and potent anti-tumor activities in vivo. Here, we have performed the first direct comparison of the safety and efficacy of three engineered anthrax lethal toxin variants requiring activation by either matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs), urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) or co-localized MMP/uPA activities. C57BL/6J mice were challenged with six doses of engineered toxins via intraperitoneal (I.P.) or intravenous (I.V.) dose routes to determine the maximum tolerated dose for six administrations (MTD6) and dose-limiting toxicities. Efficacy was evaluated using the B16-BL6 syngraft model of melanoma; mice bearing established tumors were treated with six I.P. doses of toxin and tumor measurements and immunohistochemistry, paired with terminal blood work, were used to elaborate upon the anti-tumor mechanism and relative efficacy of each variant. We found that MMP-, uPA- and dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxins exhibited the same dose-limiting toxicity; dose-dependent GI toxicity. In terms of efficacy, all three toxins significantly reduced primary B16-BL6 tumor burden, ranging from 32% to 87% reduction, and they also delayed disease progression as evidenced by dose-dependent normalization of blood work values. While target organ toxicity and effective doses were similar amongst the variants, the dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxin exhibited the highest I.P. MTD6 and was 1.5–3-fold better tolerated than the single MMP- and uPA-activated toxins. Overall, we demonstrate that this dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxin can be administered safely and is highly effective in a preclinical model of melanoma. This modified bacterial cytotoxin is thus a promising candidate for further clinical development and evaluation for use in treating human cancers. - Highlights: • Toxicity and anti

  17. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Its Bioactive Constituents Exhibit Antiviral Activity against HSV-2 and Anti-enzymatic Properties against Urease by an ESI-MS Based Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sherif T S; Švajdlenka, Emil; Berchová-Bímová, Kateřina

    2017-04-30

    For decades, Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and its phytochemicals have been shown to possess a wide range of pharmacologic properties. In this study, aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (AEHS) and its bioactive constituent protocatechuic acid (PCA), have been evaluated in vitro for their antiviral activity against HSV-2 clinical isolates and anti-enzymatic activity against urease. Antiherpetic activity was evaluated by the titer reduction assay in infected Vero cells, and cytotoxicity was evaluated by the neutral red dye-uptake method. Anti-urease activity was determined by a developed Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS)-based assay. PCA showed potent anti-HSV-2 activity compared with that of acyclovir, with EC 50 values of 0.92 and 1.43 µg∙mL -1 , respectively, and selectivity indices > 217 and > 140, respectively. For the first time, AEHS was shown to exert anti-urease inhibition activity, with an IC 50 value of 82.4 µg∙mL -1 . This, combined with its safety, could facilitate its use in practical applications as a natural urease inhibitor. Our results present Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and its bioactive compound PCA as potential therapeutic agents in the treatment of HSV-2 infection and the treatment of diseases caused by urease-producing bacteria.

  18. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Its Bioactive Constituents Exhibit Antiviral Activity against HSV-2 and Anti-enzymatic Properties against Urease by an ESI-MS Based Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif T. S. Hassan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For decades, Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and its phytochemicals have been shown to possess a wide range of pharmacologic properties. In this study, aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (AEHS and its bioactive constituent protocatechuic acid (PCA, have been evaluated in vitro for their antiviral activity against HSV-2 clinical isolates and anti-enzymatic activity against urease. Antiherpetic activity was evaluated by the titer reduction assay in infected Vero cells, and cytotoxicity was evaluated by the neutral red dye-uptake method. Anti-urease activity was determined by a developed Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS-based assay. PCA showed potent anti-HSV-2 activity compared with that of acyclovir, with EC50 values of 0.92 and 1.43 µg∙mL−1, respectively, and selectivity indices > 217 and > 140, respectively. For the first time, AEHS was shown to exert anti-urease inhibition activity, with an IC50 value of 82.4 µg∙mL−1. This, combined with its safety, could facilitate its use in practical applications as a natural urease inhibitor. Our results present Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and its bioactive compound PCA as potential therapeutic agents in the treatment of HSV-2 infection and the treatment of diseases caused by urease-producing bacteria.

  19. Pharmaceutical industry's corporate social responsibility towards HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Arun Kumar

    2006-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry has a corporate social responsibility (CSR) towards HIV/AIDS. Measures taken to increase awareness of HIV/AIDS, availability and accessibility of potent and patient-friendly FDCs / Kits for adults and children will go a long way in increasing awareness and acceptance of this disease and its therapy. This will improve adherence, lower resistance and facilitate better disease management. This article discusses some of the CSR initiatives and their scope.

  20. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nuclear import via Vpr-Importin α interactions as a novel HIV-1 therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tatsunori; Yamamoto, Norio; Nonaka, Mizuho; Hashimoto, Yoshie; Matsuda, Go; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Matsuyama, Megumi; Igarashi, Tatsuhiko; Miura, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Rie; Kato, Shingo; Aida, Yoko

    2009-01-01

    The development of multidrug-resistant viruses compromises the efficacy of anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) therapy and limits treatment options. Therefore, new targets that can be used to develop novel antiviral agents need to be identified. One such target is the interaction between Vpr, one of the accessory gene products of HIV-1 and Importin α, which is crucial, not only for the nuclear import of Vpr, but also for HIV-1 replication in macrophages. We have identified a potential parent compound, hematoxylin, which suppresses Vpr-Importin α interaction, thereby inhibiting HIV-1 replication in a Vpr-dependent manner. Analysis by real-time PCR demonstrated that hematoxylin specifically inhibited nuclear import step of pre-integration complex. Thus, hematoxylin is a new anti-HIV-1 inhibitor that targets the nuclear import of HIV-1 via the Vpr-Importin α interaction, suggesting that a specific inhibitor of the interaction between viral protein and the cellular factor may provide a new strategy for HIV-1 therapy.