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Sample records for exhibit age-dependent hypokinetic

  1. Clinical and acoustical variability in hypokinetic dysarthria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metter, E.J.; Hanson, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    Ten male patients with parkinsonism secondary to Parkinson's disease or progressive supranuclear palsy had clinical neurological, speech, and acoustical speech evaluations. In addition, seven of the patients were evaluated by x-ray computed tomography (CT) and (F-18)-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Extensive variability of speech features, both clinical and acoustical, were found and seemed to be independent of the severity of any parkinsonian sign, CT, or FDG PET. In addition, little relationship existed between the variability across each measured speech feature. What appeared to be important for the appearance of abnormal acoustic measures was the degree of overall severity of the dysarthria. These observations suggest that a better understanding of hypokinetic dysarthria may result from more extensive examination of the variability between patients. Emphasizing a specific feature such as rapid speaking rate in characterizing hypokinetic dysarthria focuses on a single and inconstant finding in a complex speech pattern

  2. Cognitive-perceptual examination of remediation approaches to hypokinetic dysarthria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Megan J; Kerr, Sarah E; Gibson, Elizabeth M R; Anderson, Tim; LaShell, Patrick J

    2014-08-01

    To determine how increased vocal loudness and reduced speech rate affect listeners' cognitive-perceptual processing of hypokinetic dysarthric speech associated with Parkinson's disease. Fifty-one healthy listener participants completed a speech perception experiment. Listeners repeated phrases produced by 5 individuals with dysarthria across habitual, loud, and slow speaking modes. Listeners were allocated to habitual ( n = 17), loud ( n = 17), or slow ( n = 17) experimental conditions. Transcripts derived from the phrase repetition task were coded for overall accuracy (i.e., intelligibility), and perceptual error analyses examined how these conditions affected listeners' phonemic mapping (i.e., syllable resemblance) and lexical segmentation (i.e., lexical boundary error analysis). Both speech conditions provided obvious perceptual benefits to listeners. Overall, transcript accuracy was highest in the slow condition. In the loud condition, however, improvement was evidenced across the experiment. An error analysis suggested that listeners in the loud condition prioritized acoustic-phonetic cues in their attempts to resolve the degraded signal, whereas those in the slow condition appeared to preferentially weight lexical stress cues. Increased loudness and reduced rate exhibited differential effects on listeners' perceptual processing of dysarthric speech. The current study highlights the insights that may be gained from a cognitive-perceptual approach.

  3. Cognitive-Perceptual Examination of Remediation Approaches to Hypokinetic Dysarthria

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Megan J.; Kerr, Sarah E.; Gibson, Elizabeth M. R.; Anderson, Tim; LaShell, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine how increased vocal loudness and reduced speech rate affect listeners' cognitive-perceptual processing of hypokinetic dysarthric speech associated with Parkinson's disease. Method: Fifty-one healthy listener participants completed a speech perception experiment. Listeners repeated phrases produced by 5 individuals…

  4. Low back pain as a common hypokinetic problem | Masipa | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low back pain as a common hypokinetic problem. MDS Masipa. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajpherd.v9i1.46323 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  5. Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    A Look of Hope Islam Mahmoud Sweity From 19 to 30 June 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Islam Mahmoud Sweity Islam Mahmoud Sweity was born in 1997 at Beit Awwa, Palestine. She is currently following a course to get an Art diploma of Painting at the college of Fine Arts at An-Najah National University under the supervision of Esmat Al As'aad. Her portraits, landscapes and still life paintings are full of life and shining colours. Charged of emotional empathy they catch the attention of the viewer and are reminding us that life is beautiful and worth living in spite of all difficulties we have to go through. She participated in many exhibitions and has exposed her drawings in 2015 at CERN and in France in the framework of the exhibition "The Origin“, and in 2017 in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Palestina and Jordan. In this exhibition the oil paintings made in the past year will be presented. For more information : staff.association@cern.ch | T&eacu...

  6. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Encounters Hanne Blitz From February 1st to 12th 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building What is our reaction to a first encounter with a tourist attraction? Contemporary Dutch painter Hanne Blitz captures visitors' responses to art and architecture, sweeping vistas and symbolic memorials. Encounters, a series of oil paintings curated specially for this CERN exhibition, depicts tourists visiting cultural highlights around the world. A thought-provoking journey not to be missed, and a tip of the hat to CERN's large Hadron Collider.

  7. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Sintropie Flavio Pellegrini From 13 to 24 March 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Energia imprigionata - Flavio Pellegrini. The exhibition is composed by eleven wood artworks with the expression of movement as theme. The artworks are the result of harmonics math applied to sculpture. The powerful black colour is dominated by the light source, generating reflexes and modulations. The result is a continuous variation of perspective visions. The works generate, at a first approach, an emotion of mystery and incomprehension, only a deeper contemplation lets one discover entangling and mutative details, evidencing the elegance of the lines and letting the meaning emerge. For more information : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  8. Age dependence of tritium metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Jiro

    1983-01-01

    3 H metabolism in vivo was studied by HTO administration to rats of varying ages for examination of the age dependence of 3 H metabolism in humans. When 1 μCi/g body weight of HTO was administered, the time-course changes of urine 3 H showed definite age dependence; the younger the rat, more rapidly did the 3 H concentration decrease. The biological half-life of whole body residues was about 2 days in nursing offsprings and about 4 days in mature rats. Tissue-bound 3 H showed high and rapid distribution to the liver, whereas it was slow in the brain and muscle, and this tendency was more prominent in younger rats. Compared with 3 H in tissue water, the concentration of bound 3 H was relatively high, being prominent in younger rats. The time-course changes of 3 H concentration from both origins also showed age dependence. The in vivo exposure dose after administration of 1 μCi/g body weight of HTO- 3 H was generally smaller in younger rats, the exposure at ages 10 and 25 days being about a half of that of mature rats. Supposing that human metabolism is similar, the estimated dose in one-year-olds after ingestion of 1 μCi/kg body weight of 3 H in the form of HTO is about 3 times that in adults, and that after 1 μCi/kg body weight of 3 H in infants, about a half of that in adults. (Chiba, N.)

  9. Intonation Contrast in Cantonese Speakers with Hypokinetic Dysarthria Associated with Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Joan K.-Y.; Whitehill, Tara L.; So, Susanne Y.-S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Speech produced by individuals with hypokinetic dysarthria associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a number of features including impaired speech prosody. The purpose of this study was to investigate intonation contrasts produced by this group of speakers. Method: Speech materials with a question-statement contrast…

  10. A review of age dependent radioiodine dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Age dependent models of radioiodine metabolism in humans have been described. These models have been used to calculate age dependent committed doses to the thyroid from intakes of radioiodines. A model of fetal iodine metabolism is also described and used to calculate fetal thyroid doses from intakes of radioiodines by the mother. These doses are calculated using model parameter values thought to be representative of average for North American/European populations. Considerable variability from these results can be expected for individuals. In addition, population with significant differences in stable iodine intake, and in body parameters, will have model parameters somewhat different than the ones described in this paper. These different model parameters will result in different doses from intakes of radioiodines, but it is doubtful if the differences in population would be as large as the variation between individuals. 25 refs.; 11 figs.; 1 table

  11. Fluid electrolyte excretion during different hypokinetic body positions of trained subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Naexu, Konstantin A.; Federenko, Youri F.

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different body positions on renal excretion of fluid and electrolytes after exposure to 364 days of decreased number of steps per day (hypokinesia, HK). The studies were performed on 18 endurance trained male volunteers aged 19-24 years who had an average of VO 2max 67 ml/kg body/min. All volunteers were divided into three equal groups: the 1st group subjected to 12 h orthostatic position (OP) and 12 h clinostatic position (CP)/day, the 2nd group exposed to 8 h orthostatic position and 14 h clinostatic position/day, and the 3rd group submitted to 10 h orthostatic position and 16 h clinostatic position/day for 364 days. For the simulation of the hypokinetic effect all volunteers were kept under an average of 3000 steps/day for 364 days. Diuresis and the concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium and magnesium as well as excretion of creatine were determined in 24-h urine samples. By the end of the hypokinetic period all volunteers, regardless of their body position during HK, manifested a significant increase in renal excretion of fluid and electrolytes as compared to prehypokinetic period values. It was concluded that prolonged restriction of motor activity induced a significant increase in renal excretion of fluid and electrolytes in endurance trained subjects regardless to their body position and duration thereof per day.

  12. Age-dependent dosimetry and metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The release of radionuclides into the environment following the Chernobyl disaster in 1986 created an urgent need for internationally acceptable dose coefficients for calculating the doses delivered to all members of the public, from conception to old age. Organ masses and the kinetics of distribution and retention of elements in humans generally vary with age and often not in simple linear relationship to body weight. Unless variations are considered calculated radiation doses to children may be seriously underestimated. The International Commission on Radiological Protection created in 1987 a Task Group on Age-dependent Doses to Members of the Public from Intake of Radionuclides (AGDOS). The work of AGDOS and the general problems encountered in deriving age-dependent dose coefficients will be discussed in this paper. The first two AGDOS reports, ICRP Publication 56 Parts 1 and 2, provide dose coefficients for the ages 3 months, 1, 5, 10, 15 years and for adults for the 21 elements considered to be of most immediate importance for radiation protection. To develop these dose coefficients, the ICRP Publication 30 dosimetric and biokinetic models were reevaluated and extended. The basic dosimetric model is retained but equivalent dose is now integrated from age at intake to 70 years and the new ICRP Publication 60 tissue weighting factors are incorporated. The development of age-dependent biokinetic models is complicated by the lack of age-related human, or even animal data for the majority of the elements. Thus in formulating the models it has been necessary to use all the available information, biokinetic, physiological chemical and biochemical, and to adopt a number of new approaches including the development of generic biokinetic models for chemically related families of elements such as the actinides and the alkaline earth elements. (author)

  13. Age-dependent decay in the landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winitzki, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    The picture of the 'multiverse' arising in diverse cosmological scenarios involves transitions between metastable vacuum states. It was pointed out by Krauss and Dent that the transition rates decrease at very late times, leading to a dependence of the transition probability between vacua on the age of each vacuum region. I investigate the implications of this non-Markovian, age-dependent decay on the global structure of the spacetime in landscape scenarios. I show that the fractal dimension of the eternally inflating domain is precisely equal to 3, instead of being slightly below 3, which is the case in scenarios with purely Markovian, age-independent decay. I develop a complete description of a non-Markovian landscape in terms of a nonlocal master equation. Using this description I demonstrate by an explicit calculation that, under some technical assumptions about the landscape, the probabilistic predictions of our position in the landscape are essentially unchanged, regardless of the measure used to extract these predictions. I briefly discuss the physical plausibility of realizing non-Markovian vacuum decay in cosmology in view of the possible decoherence of the metastable quantum state.

  14. Glucose metabolism in different regions of the rat brain under hypokinetic stress influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konitzer, K.; Voigt, S.

    1980-01-01

    Glucose metabolism in rats kept under long term hypokinetic stress was studied in 7 brain regions. Determination was made of the regional levels of glucose, lactate, glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, gamma-aminobutyrate and the incorporation of C-14 from plasma glucose into these metabolites, in glycogen and protein. From the content and activity data the regional glucose flux was approximated quantitatively. Under normal conditions the activity gradient cortex and frontal pole cerebellum, thalamus and mesencephalon, hypothalamus and pons and medulla is identical with that of the regional blood supply (measured with I131 serum albumin as the blood marker). Within the first days of immobilization a functional hypoxia occurred in all brain regions and the utilization of cycle amino acids for protein synthesis was strongly diminished. After the first week of stress the capillary volumes of all regions increased, aerobic glucose metabolism was enhanced (factors 1.3 - 2.0) and the incorporation of glucose C-14 via cycle amino acids into protein was considerably potentiated. The metabolic parameters normalized between the 7th and 11th week of stress. Blood supply and metabolic rate increased most in the hypothalamus.

  15. Critical Age-Dependent Branching Markov Processes and their ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper studies: (i) the long-time behaviour of the empirical distribution of age and normalized position of an age-dependent critical branching Markov process conditioned on non-extinction; and (ii) the super-process limit of a sequence of age-dependent critical branching Brownian motions.

  16. A retrospective study of long-term treatment outcomes for reduced vocal intensity in hypokinetic dysarthria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Watts

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced vocal intensity is a core impairment of hypokinetic dysarthria in Parkinson’s disease (PD. Speech treatments have been developed to rehabilitate the vocal subsystems underlying this impairment. Intensive treatment programs requiring high-intensity voice and speech exercises with clinician-guided prompting and feedback have been established as effective for improving vocal function. Less is known, however, regarding long-term outcomes of clinical benefit in speakers with PD who receive these treatments. Methods A retrospective cohort design was utilized. Data from 78 patient files across a three year period were analyzed. All patients received a structured, intensive program of voice therapy focusing on speaking intent and loudness. The dependent variable for all analyses was vocal intensity in decibels (dBSPL. Vocal intensity during sustained vowel production, reading, and novel conversational speech was compared at pre-treatment, post-treatment, six month follow-up, and twelve month follow-up periods. Results Statistically significant increases in vocal intensity were found at post-treatment, 6 months, and 12 month follow-up periods with intensity gains ranging from 5 to 17 dB depending on speaking condition and measurement period. Significant treatment effects were found in all three speaking conditions. Effect sizes for all outcome measures were large, suggesting a strong degree of practical significance. Conclusions Significant increases in vocal intensity measured at 6 and 12 moth follow-up periods suggested that the sample of patients maintained treatment benefit for up to a year. These findings are supported by outcome studies reporting treatment outcomes within a few months post-treatment, in addition to prior studies that have reported long-term outcome results. The positive treatment outcomes experienced by the PD cohort in this study are consistent with treatment responses subsequent to other treatment

  17. Age-dependent increase in green autofluorescence of blood ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Protective enzymes against oxidative ... School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067, India ... provide evidence for an age dependent increase in the GAF of blood erythrocytes that is accentuated by depletion of.

  18. Age-Dependence and Aging-Dependence: Neuronal Loss and Lifespan in a C. elegans Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfeld, Javier; Fontana, Walter

    2017-12-23

    It is often assumed, but not established, that the major neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, are not just age-dependent (their incidence changes with time) but actually aging-dependent (their incidence is coupled to the process that determines lifespan). To determine a dependence on the aging process requires the joint probability distribution of disease onset and lifespan. For human Parkinson's disease, such a joint distribution is not available, because the disease cuts lifespan short. To acquire a joint distribution, we resorted to an established C. elegans model of Parkinson's disease in which the loss of dopaminergic neurons is not fatal. We find that lifespan is not correlated with the loss of individual neurons. Therefore, neuronal loss is age-dependent and aging-independent. We also find that a lifespan-extending intervention into insulin/IGF1 signaling accelerates the loss of specific dopaminergic neurons, while leaving death and neuronal loss times uncorrelated. This suggests that distinct and compartmentalized instances of the same genetically encoded insulin/IGF1 signaling machinery act independently to control neurodegeneration and lifespan in C. elegans . Although the human context might well be different, our study calls attention to the need to maintain a rigorous distinction between age-dependence and aging-dependence.

  19. The acoustical significance of age-dependent ear elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    , corresponding to what is reported in the literature. For female ears, virtually no acoustical effect was found. For male ears directional dependent effects in the range up to 5 dB on average was found for certain directions and frequencies. Implications on age dependent hearing loss (presbycusis...

  20. Stability analysis for a general age-dependent vaccination model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Doma, M.

    1995-05-01

    An SIR epidemic model of a general age-dependent vaccination model is investigated when the fertility, mortality and removal rates depends on age. We give threshold criteria of the existence of equilibriums and perform stability analysis. Furthermore a critical vaccination coverage that is sufficient to eradicate the disease is determined. (author). 12 refs

  1. Age-dependent Fourier model of the shape of the isolated ex vivo human crystalline lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs, Raksha; Ho, Arthur; Manns, Fabrice; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2010-06-01

    To develop an age-dependent mathematical model of the zero-order shape of the isolated ex vivo human crystalline lens, using one mathematical function, that can be subsequently used to facilitate the development of other models for specific purposes such as optical modeling and analytical and numerical modeling of the lens. Profiles of whole isolated human lenses (n=30) aged 20-69, were measured from shadow-photogrammetric images. The profiles were fit to a 10th-order Fourier series consisting of cosine functions in polar-co-ordinate system that included terms for tilt and decentration. The profiles were corrected using these terms and processed in two ways. In the first, each lens was fit to a 10th-order Fourier series to obtain thickness and diameter, while in the second, all lenses were simultaneously fit to a Fourier series equation that explicitly include linear terms for age to develop an age-dependent mathematical model for the whole lens shape. Thickness and diameter obtained from Fourier series fits exhibited high correlation with manual measurements made from shadow-photogrammetric images. The root-mean-squared-error of the age-dependent fit was 205 microm. The age-dependent equations provide a reliable lens model for ages 20-60 years. The contour of the whole human crystalline lens can be modeled with a Fourier series. Shape obtained from the age-dependent model described in this paper can be used to facilitate the development of other models for specific purposes such as optical modeling and analytical and numerical modeling of the lens. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An age dependent model for radium metabolism in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J R

    1983-01-01

    The model developed by a Task Group of Committee 2 of ICRP to describe Alkaline Earth Metabolism in Adult Man (ICRP Publication 20) has been modified so that recycling is handled explicitly, and retention in mineral bone is represented by second compartments rather than by the product of a power function and an exponential. This model has been extended to include all ages from birth to adult man, and has been coupled with modified "ICRP" lung and G.I. tract models so that activity in organs can be calculated as functions of time during or after exposures. These activities, and age dependent "specific effective energy" factors, are then used to calculate age dependent dose rates, and dose commitments. This presentation describes this work, with emphasis on the model parameters and results obtained for radium.

  3. Age-dependent complex noise fluctuations in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mareš, Jan; Vyšata, Oldřich; Procházka, Aleš; Vališ, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the parameters of colored noise in EEG data of 17 722 professional drivers aged 18–70. The whole study is based upon experiments showing that biological neural networks may operate in the vicinity of the critical point and that the balance between excitation and inhibition in the human brain is important for the transfer of information. This paper is devoted to the study of EEG power spectrum which can be described best by a power function with 1/f λ distribution and colored noise corresponding to the critical point in the EEG signal has the value of λ = 1 (purple noise). The slow accumulation of energy and its quick release is a universal property of the 1/f distribution. The physiological mechanism causing energy dissipation in the brain seems to depend on the number and strength of the connections between clusters of neurons. With ageing, the number of connections between the neurons decreases. Learning ability and intellectual performance also decrease. Therefore, age-related changes in the λ coefficient can be anticipated. We found that absolute values of λ coefficients decrease significantly with increasing age. Deviations from this rule are related to age-dependent slowing of the dominant frequency in the alpha band. Age-dependent change in the parameter and colored noise may be indicative of age-related changes in the self-organization of brain activity. Results obtained include (i) the age-dependent decrease of the absolute values of the average λ coefficient with the regression coefficient 0.005 1/year, (ii) distribution of λ value changes related to EEG frequency bands and to localization of electrodes on the scalp, and (iii) relation of age-dependent changes of colored noise and EEG energy in separate frequency bands. (paper)

  4. Age-dependent mixing of deep-sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.R.; Maggaard, L.; Pope, R.H.; DeMaster, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Rates of bioturbation measured in deep-sea sediments commonly are tracer dependent; in particular, shorter lived radiotracers (such as 234 Th) often yield markedly higher diffusive mixing coefficients than their longer-lived counterparts (e.g., 210 Pb). At a single station in the 1,240-m deep Santa Catalina Basin, the authors document a strong negative correlation between bioturbation rate and tracer half-life. Sediment profiles of 234 Th (half-life = 24 days) yield an average mixing coefficient (60 cm 2 y -1 ) two orders of magnitude greater than that for 210 Pb (half-life = 22 y, mean mixing coefficient = 0.4 cm 2 y -1 ). A similar negative relationship between mixing rate and tracer time scale is observed at thirteen other deep-sea sites in which multiple radiotracers have been used to assess diffusive mixing rates. This relationship holds across a variety of radiotracer types and time scales. The authors hypothesize that this negative relationship results from age-dependent mixing, a process in which recently sedimented, food-rich particles are ingested and mixed at higher rates by deposit feeders than are older, food-poor particles. Results from an age-dependent mixing model demonstrate that this process indeed can yield the bioturbation-rate vs. tracer-time-scale correlations observed in deep-sea sediments. Field data on mixing rates of recently sedimented particles, as well as the radiotracer activity of deep-sea deposit feeders, provide strong support for the age-dependent mixing model. The presence of age-dependent mixing in deep-sea sediments may have major implications for diagenetic modeling, requiring a match between the characteristic time scales of mixing tracers and modeled reactants. 102 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Age-dependent metabolic model of radionuclides in Human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Changqing

    1986-01-01

    Age-dependent metabolic model of radionuclides in human body was introduced briefly. These data are necessary in setting up the secondary dose limit of internal exposure of the general public. For the gastro-intestinal tract model, it was shown that the dose of various sections of GI tract caused by unsoluble radioactive materials were influenced by the mass of section and mean residence time, both of which are age-dependent, but the absorption fraction f 1 through gastro-intestinal tract should be corrected only for the infant less than 1 year of age. For the lung model, it was indicated that the fraction of deposition or clearance of particles in the different compartments of lung were related to age. The doses of tracheobronchial and pulmonary compartment of adult for 222 Rn or 220 Rn with their decay products were one third of that of 6-years old child who received the maximum dose in comparison with other ages. The age-dependent metabolic models in organ and/or body of Tritium, Iodine-131, Caesium-137, radioactive Strontium, Radium and Plutonium were reported. A generalized approach for estimating the effect of age on deposition fractions and retention half-time were presented. Calculated results indicated that younger ages were characterized by increased deposition fraction and decreased half-time for retention. Representative examples were provided for 21 elements of current interest in health physics

  6. Assessing age-dependent susceptibility to measles in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Ryo; Nishiura, Hiroshi

    2017-06-05

    Routine vaccination against measles in Japan started in 1978. Whereas measles elimination was verified in 2015, multiple chains of measles transmission were observed in 2016. We aimed to reconstruct the age-dependent susceptibility to measles in Japan so that future vaccination strategies can be elucidated. An epidemiological model was used to quantify the age-dependent immune fraction using datasets of vaccination coverage and seroepidemiological survey. The second dose was interpreted in two different scenarios, i.e., booster and random shots. The effective reproduction number, the average number of secondary cases generated by a single infected individual, and the age at infection were explored using the age-dependent transmission model and the next generation matrix. While the herd immunity threshold of measles likely ranges from 90% to 95%, assuming that the basic reproductive number ranges from 10 to 20, the estimated immune fraction in Japan was below those thresholds in 2016, despite the fact that the estimates were above 80% for all ages. If the second dose completely acted as the booster shot, a proportion immune above 90% was achieved only among those aged 5years or below in 2016. Alternatively, if the second dose was randomly distributed regardless of primary vaccination status, a proportion immune over 90% was achieved among those aged below 25years. The effective reproduction number was estimated to range from 1.50 to 3.01 and from 1.50 to 3.00, respectively, for scenarios 1 and 2 in 2016; if the current vaccination schedule were continued, the reproduction number is projected to range from 1.50 to 3.01 and 1.39 to 2.78, respectively, in 2025. Japan continues to be prone to imported cases of measles. Supplementary vaccination among adults aged 20-49years would be effective if the chains of transmission continue to be observed in that age group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Anomalous scaling in an age-dependent branching model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Schmidt, Stephanie; Tuğrul, Murat; Eguíluz, Víctor M; Hernández-García, Emilio; Klemm, Konstantin

    2015-02-01

    We introduce a one-parametric family of tree growth models, in which branching probabilities decrease with branch age τ as τ(-α). Depending on the exponent α, the scaling of tree depth with tree size n displays a transition between the logarithmic scaling of random trees and an algebraic growth. At the transition (α=1) tree depth grows as (logn)(2). This anomalous scaling is in good agreement with the trend observed in evolution of biological species, thus providing a theoretical support for age-dependent speciation and associating it to the occurrence of a critical point.

  8. Role of Mitochondrial Complex IV in Age-Dependent Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Soro-Arnaiz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with progressive white adipose tissue (WAT enlargement initiated early in life, but the molecular mechanisms involved remain unknown. Here we show that mitochondrial complex IV (CIV activity and assembly are already repressed in white adipocytes of middle-aged mice and involve a HIF1A-dependent decline of essential CIV components such as COX5B. At the molecular level, HIF1A binds to the Cox5b proximal promoter and represses its expression. Silencing of Cox5b decreased fatty acid oxidation and promoted intracellular lipid accumulation. Moreover, local in vivo Cox5b silencing in WAT of young mice increased the size of adipocytes, whereas restoration of COX5B expression in aging mice counteracted adipocyte enlargement. An age-dependent reduction in COX5B gene expression was also found in human visceral adipose tissue. Collectively, our findings establish a pivotal role for CIV dysfunction in progressive white adipocyte enlargement during aging, which can be restored to alleviate age-dependent WAT expansion.

  9. Complex-Spectrum Magnetic Environment enhances and/or modifies Bioeffects of Hypokinetic Stress Condition: an Animal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temuriantz, N. A.; Martinyuk, V. S.; Ptitsyna, N. G.; Villoresi, G.; Iucci, N.; Tyasto, M. I.; Dorman, L. I.

    During last decades it was shown by many authors that ultra-low and extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields ULF 0-10 Hz ELF 10-1000 Hz may produce biological effects and consequently may be a possible source for health problems Spaceflight electric and magnetic environments are characterized by complex combination of static and time-varying components in ULF-ELF range and by high variability The objective of this study was to investigate the possible influence of such magnetic fields on rats to understand the pathway regarding functional state of cardiovascular system Magnetic field MF pattern with variable complex spectra in 0-150 Hz frequency range was simulated using 3-axial Helmholtz coils and special computer-based equipment The effect of the real world MF exposure on rats was also tested in combination with hypokinetic stress condition which is typical for spaceflights It was revealed that variable complex-spectrum MF acts as a weak or moderate stress-like factor which amplifies and or modifies the functional shifts caused by other stress-factors The value and direction of the functional shifts caused by MF exposure significantly depend on gender individual-typological constitutional features and also on the physiological state norm stress of organism Our results support the idea that variable complex-spectrum MF action involves sympathetic activation overload in cholesterol transport in blood and also secretor activation of tissue basophyls mast cells that can influence the regional haemodynamics These

  10. Age dependencies in the modelling of radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellerer, A.M.; GSF, Neuherberg; Barclay, D.

    1992-01-01

    Models for the dose and age dependence of radiation induced cancer have been based primarily on the follow-up of the atomic bomb survivors. Two different concepts have been deduced for leukaemias and for other cancers. The excess leukaemias appear in a distinct temporal wave with a maximum 5 to 10 years after radiation exposure; the distribution is more narrow for younger ages, but there is little dependence of the total attributable risk on age at exposure. For other cancers the latent periods are longer and, according to the current interpretation, the excess rates are then proportional to the age specific spontaneous rates, so that most excess cases would arise at old age. The factors of proportionality, and thus the attributable risks, are assumed to be markedly higher for young ages at exposure. It is argued here, that there is no firm support for this interpretation. (author)

  11. Technology Exhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1979-09-15

    Linked to the 25th Anniversary celebrations, an exhibition of some of CERN's technological achievements was opened on 22 June. Set up in a new 600 m{sup 2} Exhibition Hall on the CERN site, the exhibition is divided into eight technology areas — magnets, vacuum, computers and data handling, survey and alignment, radiation protection, beam monitoring and handling, detectors, and workshop techniques.

  12. Age-dependent dose coefficients for tritium in Asian populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.

    1999-10-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 56 (1989) and 67 (1993) have prescribed the biokinetic models and age-dependent dose coefficients for tritiated water and organically bound tritium. The dose coefficients are computed from values selected to specify the anatomical, morphological and physiological characteristics of a three-month-old, one-year-old, five-year-old, 10-year-old, 15-year-old and adult (Reference Man) Caucasian living in North America and Western Europe. However, values for Reference Man and other age groups are not directly applicable to Asians, because of differences in race, custom, dietary habits and climatic conditions. An Asian Man model, including five age groups, has been proposed by Tanaka and Kawamura (1996, 1998) for use in internal dosimetry. The basic concept of the ICRP Reference Man and the system describing body composition in ICRP Publication 23 (1975) were used. Reference values for Asians were given for the body weight and height, the mass of soft tissue, the mass of body water and the daily fluid balance, and are used to compute the dose coefficients for tritium. The age-dependent dose coefficients for Asians for tritiated water intakes are smaller by 20 to 30% of the currently prescribed values (Trivedi, 1998). The reduction in the dose coefficient values is caused by the increased daily fluid balance among Asians. The dose coefficient for tritiated water is 1.4 x 10 -11 Sv Bq -1 for Asian Man compared to 2.0 x 10 -11 Sv Bq -1 for Reference Man. The dose coefficients for organically bound tritium are only marginally different from those of the ICRP values. The dose coefficient for organically bound tritium for Asian Man is 4.0 x 10 -11 Sv Bq -11 compared to 4.6 x 10 -11 Sv Bq -1 for Reference Man. (author)

  13. Age-dependent dose coefficients for tritium in Asian populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, A

    1999-10-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 56 (1989) and 67 (1993) have prescribed the biokinetic models and age-dependent dose coefficients for tritiated water and organically bound tritium. The dose coefficients are computed from values selected to specify the anatomical, morphological and physiological characteristics of a three-month-old, one-year-old, five-year-old, 10-year-old, 15-year-old and adult (Reference Man) Caucasian living in North America and Western Europe. However, values for Reference Man and other age groups are not directly applicable to Asians, because of differences in race, custom, dietary habits and climatic conditions. An Asian Man model, including five age groups, has been proposed by Tanaka and Kawamura (1996, 1998) for use in internal dosimetry. The basic concept of the ICRP Reference Man and the system describing body composition in ICRP Publication 23 (1975) were used. Reference values for Asians were given for the body weight and height, the mass of soft tissue, the mass of body water and the daily fluid balance, and are used to compute the dose coefficients for tritium. The age-dependent dose coefficients for Asians for tritiated water intakes are smaller by 20 to 30% of the currently prescribed values (Trivedi, 1998). The reduction in the dose coefficient values is caused by the increased daily fluid balance among Asians. The dose coefficient for tritiated water is 1.4 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} for Asian Man compared to 2.0 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} for Reference Man. The dose coefficients for organically bound tritium are only marginally different from those of the ICRP values. The dose coefficient for organically bound tritium for Asian Man is 4.0 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -11} compared to 4.6 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} for Reference Man. (author)

  14. Peripheral surgical wounding and age-dependent neuroinflammation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Xu

    Full Text Available Post-operative cognitive dysfunction is associated with morbidity and mortality. However, its neuropathogenesis remains largely to be determined. Neuroinflammation and accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ have been reported to contribute to cognitive dysfunction in humans and cognitive impairment in animals. Our recent studies have established a pre-clinical model in mice, and have found that the peripheral surgical wounding without the influence of general anesthesia induces an age-dependent Aβ accumulation and cognitive impairment in mice. We therefore set out to assess the effects of peripheral surgical wounding, in the absence of general anesthesia, on neuroinflammation in mice with different ages. Abdominal surgery under local anesthesia was established in 9 and 18 month-old mice. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, Iba1 positive cells (the marker of microglia activation, CD33, and cognitive function in mice were determined. The peripheral surgical wounding increased the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and Iba1 positive cells in the hippocampus of both 9 and 18 month-old mice, and age potentiated these effects. The peripheral surgical wounding increased the levels of CD33 in the hippocampus of 18, but not 9, month-old mice. Finally, anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen ameliorated the peripheral surgical wounding-induced cognitive impairment in 18 month-old mice. These data suggested that the peripheral surgical wounding could induce an age-dependent neuroinflammation and elevation of CD33 levels in the hippocampus of mice, which could lead to cognitive impairment in aged mice. Pending further studies, anti-inflammatory therapies may reduce the risk of postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients.

  15. Immersive Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The immersive exhibition is a specialized exhibition genre in museums, which creates the illusion of time and place by representing key characteristics of a reference world and by integrating the visitor in this three-dimensionally reconstructed world (Mortensen 2010). A successful representation...... of the reference world depends on three criteria: whether the exhibition is staged as a coherent whole with all the displayed objects supporting the representation, whether the visitor is integrated as a component of the exhibition, and whether the content and message of the exhibition become dramatized...

  16. Age dependent mortality in the pilocarpine model of status epilepticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Robert E.; Deshpande, Laxmikant S.; Holbert, William H.; Churn, Severn B.; DeLorenzo, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is an acute neurological emergency associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Age has been shown to be a critical factor in determining outcome after SE. Understanding the causes of this increased mortality with aging by developing an animal model to study this condition would play a major role in studying mechanisms to limit the mortality due to SE. Here we employed pilocarpine to induce SE in rats aged between 5 to 28 weeks. Similar to clinical studies in man, we observed that age was a significant predictor of mortality following SE. While no deaths were observed in 5-week old animals, mortality due to SE increased progressively with age and reached 90% in 28-week old animals. There was no correlation between the age of animals and severity of SE. With increasing age mortality occurred earlier after the onset of SE. These results indicate that pilocarpine-induced SE in the rat provides a useful model to study age-dependent SE-induced mortality and indicates the importance of using animal models to elucidate the mechanisms contributing to SE-induced mortality and the development of novel therapeutic interventions to prevent SE-induced death. PMID:19429042

  17. Targeted Local Support Vector Machine for Age-Dependent Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianle; Wang, Yuanjia; Chen, Huaihou; Marder, Karen; Zeng, Donglin

    2014-09-01

    We develop methods to accurately predict whether pre-symptomatic individuals are at risk of a disease based on their various marker profiles, which offers an opportunity for early intervention well before definitive clinical diagnosis. For many diseases, existing clinical literature may suggest the risk of disease varies with some markers of biological and etiological importance, for example age. To identify effective prediction rules using nonparametric decision functions, standard statistical learning approaches treat markers with clear biological importance (e.g., age) and other markers without prior knowledge on disease etiology interchangeably as input variables. Therefore, these approaches may be inadequate in singling out and preserving the effects from the biologically important variables, especially in the presence of potential noise markers. Using age as an example of a salient marker to receive special care in the analysis, we propose a local smoothing large margin classifier implemented with support vector machine (SVM) to construct effective age-dependent classification rules. The method adaptively adjusts age effect and separately tunes age and other markers to achieve optimal performance. We derive the asymptotic risk bound of the local smoothing SVM, and perform extensive simulation studies to compare with standard approaches. We apply the proposed method to two studies of premanifest Huntington's disease (HD) subjects and controls to construct age-sensitive predictive scores for the risk of HD and risk of receiving HD diagnosis during the study period.

  18. A comprehensive approach to age-dependent dosimetric modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, R.W.; Cristy, M.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1986-01-01

    In the absence of age-specific biokinetic models, current retention models of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) frequently are used as a point of departure for evaluation of exposures to the general population. These models were designed and intended for estimation of long-term integrated doses to the adult worker. Their format and empirical basis preclude incorporation of much valuable physiological information and physiologically reasonable assumptions that could be used in characterizing the age-specific behavior of radioelements in humans. In this paper we discuss a comprehensive approach to age-dependent dosimetric modeling in which consideration is given not only to changes with age in masses and relative geometries of body organs and tissues but also to best available physiological and radiobiological information relating to the age-specific biobehavior of radionuclides. This approach is useful in obtaining more accurate estimates of long-term dose commitments as a function of age at intake, but it may be particularly valuable in establishing more accurate estimates of dose rate as a function of age. Age-specific dose rates are needed for a proper analysis of the potential effects on estimates or risk of elevated dose rates per unit intake in certain stages of life, elevated response per unit dose received during some stages of life, and age-specific non-radiogenic competing risks

  19. A comprehensive approach to age-dependent dosimetric modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, R.W.; Cristy, M.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1987-01-01

    In the absence of age-specific biokinetic models, current retention models of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) frequently are used as a point of departure for evaluation of exposures to the general population. These models were designed and intended for estimation of long-term integrated doses to the adult worker. Their format and empirical basis preclude incorporation of much valuable physiological information and physiologically reasonable assumptions that could be used in characterizing the age-specific behavior of radioelements in humans. In this paper a comprehensive approach to age-dependent dosimetric modeling is discussed in which consideration is given not only to changes with age in masses and relative geometries of body organs and tissues but also to best available physiological and radiobiological information relating to the age-specific biobehavior of radionuclides. This approach is useful in obtaining more accurate estimates of long-term dose commitments as a function of age at intake, but it may be particularly valuable in establishing more accurate estimates of dose rate as a function of age. Age-specific dose rates are needed for a proper analysis of the potential effects on estimates of risk of elevated dose rates per unit intake in certain stages of life, elevated response per unit dose received during some stages of life, and age-specific non-radiogenic competing risks. 16 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 table

  20. AGE-DEPENDENT FEATURES OF EVOLVING HUMORAL IMMUNITY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Toptygina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Age dynamics of humoral immunity was studied in healthy children, i.e., 11 newborns, 33 infants of 4 to 8 months, 32 children of 1 to 2 years old,, 17 children of 4 to 5 years old, 25 children of 6 to 8 years old, 15 children of 9 to 11 years old, and 28 adolescents of 14 to 16 years old. Evaluation of membrane receptors on B cells was performed by means of three-colour fluorescent label and allowed of characterizing B1 subpopulations (CD19+CD5+CD27-, naпve B2 cells (CD19+CD5-CD27-, and B2 memory cells (CD19+CD5-CD27+. B1 cells have been shown to dominate in blood of newborns and younger children (up to 5 years old. By the contrary, B2 memory cells were nearly undetectable in newborns, and exceeded 20% in adolescents (by 15 years old. Meanwhile, it has been revealed that the amounts of IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses did progressively increase with age, whereas IgG2 remained decreased to 50% of adult values for a long time, and reached them by 11 years and later. We suggest that the age dynamics of IgG subclasses is connected with age-dependent changes in B cell subpopulations.

  1. Exhibit Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    Science museums define the objectives of their exhibitions in terms of visitor learning outcomes. Yet, exhibit designers lack theoretical and empirical research findings on which to base the creation of such educational environments. Here, this shortcoming is addressed through the development...... of tools and processes to guide the design of educational science exhibits. The guiding paradigm for this development is design-based research, which is characterised by an iterative cycle of design, enactment, and analysis. In the design phase, an educational intervention is planned and carried out based...... on the generation of theoretical ideas for exhibit design is offered in a fourth and parallel research undertaking, namely the application of the notion of cultural border-crossing to a hypothetical case of exhibit design....

  2. Age-dependent male mating investment in Drosophila pseudoobscura.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Dhole

    Full Text Available Male mating investment can strongly influence fitness gained from a mating. Yet, male mating investment often changes with age. Life history theory predicts that mating investment should increase with age, and males should become less discriminatory about their mate as they age. Understanding age-dependent changes in male behavior and their effects on fitness is important for understanding how selection acts in age-structured populations. Although the independent effects of male or female age have been studied in many species, how these interact to influence male mating investment and fitness is less well understood. We mated Drosophila pseudoobscura males of five different age classes (4-, 8-, 11-, 15-, 19-day old to either young (4-day or old (11-day females, and measured copulation duration and early post-mating fecundity. Along with their independent effects, we found a strong interaction between the effects of male and female ages on male mating investment and fitness from individual matings. Male mating investment increased with male age, but this increase was more prominent in matings with young females. Male D. pseudoobscura made smaller investments when mating with old females. The level of such discrimination based on female age, however, also changed with male age. Intermediate aged males were most discriminatory, while the youngest and the oldest males did not discriminate between females of different ages. We also found that larger male mating investments resulted in higher fitness payoffs. Our results show that male and female ages interact to form a complex pattern of age-specific male mating investment and fitness.

  3. Vasotrophic Regulation of Age-Dependent Hypoxic Cerebrovascular Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silpanisong, Jinjutha; Pearce, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia can induce functional and structural vascular remodeling by changing the expression of trophic factors to promote homeostasis. While most experimental approaches have been focused on functional remodeling, structural remodeling can reflect changes in the abundance and organization of vascular proteins that determine functional remodeling. Better understanding of age-dependent hypoxic macrovascular remodeling processes of the cerebral vasculature and its clinical implications require knowledge of the vasotrophic factors that influence arterial structure and function. Hypoxia can affect the expression of transcription factors, classical receptor tyrosine kinase factors, non-classical G-protein coupled factors, catecholamines, and purines. Hypoxia’s remodeling effects can be mediated by Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) upregulation in most vascular beds, but alterations in the expression of growth factors can also be independent of HIF. PPARγ is another transcription factor involved in hypoxic remodeling. Expression of classical receptor tyrosine kinase ligands, including vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factor and angiopoietins, can be altered by hypoxia which can act simultaneously to affect remodeling. Tyrosine kinase-independent factors, such as transforming growth factor, nitric oxide, endothelin, angiotensin II, catecholamines, and purines also participate in the remodeling process. This adaptation to hypoxic stress can fundamentally change with age, resulting in different responses between fetuses and adults. Overall, these mechanisms integrate to assure that blood flow and metabolic demand are closely matched in all vascular beds and emphasize the view that the vascular wall is a highly dynamic and heterogeneous tissue with multiple cell types undergoing regular phenotypic transformation. PMID:24063376

  4. Aging-dependent reduction in glyoxalase 1 delays wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Thomas H; Theilen, Till-Martin; Masania, Jinit; Wunderle, Marius; Karimi, Jamshid; Vittas, Spiros; Bernauer, Rainer; Bierhaus, Angelika; Rabbani, Naila; Thornalley, Paul J; Kroll, Jens; Tyedmers, Jens; Nawrotzki, Ralph; Herzig, Stephan; Brownlee, Michael; Nawroth, Peter P

    2013-01-01

    Methylglyoxal (MG), the major dicarbonyl substrate of the enzyme glyoxalase 1 (GLO1), is a reactive metabolite formed via glycolytic flux. Decreased GLO1 activity in situ has been shown to result in an accumulation of MG and increased formation of advanced glycation endproducts, both of which can accumulate during physiological aging and at an accelerated rate in diabetes and other chronic degenerative diseases. To determine the physiological consequences which result from elevated MG levels and the role of MG and GLO1 in aging, wound healing in young (≤12 weeks) and old (≥52 weeks) wild-type mice was studied. Old mice were found to have a significantly slower rate of wound healing compared to young mice (74.9 ± 2.2 vs. 55.4 ± 1.5% wound closure at day 6; 26% decrease; p wounds of young mice, decreased wound healing by 24% compared to untreated mice, whereas application of BSA modified minimally by MG had no effect. Treatment of either young or old mice with aminoguanidine, a scavenger of free MG, significantly increased wound closure by 16% (66.8 ± 1.6 vs. 77.2 ± 3.1%; p wound healing in the old mice was restored to the level observed in the young mice. These findings were confirmed in vitro, as MG reduced migration and proliferation of fibroblasts derived from young and old, wild-type mice. The data demonstrate that the balance between MG and age-dependent GLO1 downregulation contributes to delayed wound healing in old mice. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Human Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    light on the staging of exhibitions, the daily life of the exhibitees, the wider connections between shows across Europe and the thinking of the time on matters of race, science, gender and sexuality. A window onto contemporary racial understandings, the book presents interviews with the descendants...... of displayed people, connecting the attitudes and science of the past with both our (continued) modern fascination with ‘the exotic’, and contemporary language and popular culture. As such, it will be of interest to scholars of sociology, anthropology and history working in the areas of gender and sexuality...

  6. Age-Dependent Metabolic and Immunosuppressive Effects of Tacrolimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenzien, F; Quante, M; Heinbokel, T; Seyda, M; Minami, K; Uehara, H; Biefer, H R C; Schuitenmaker, J M; Gabardi, S; Splith, K; Schmelzle, M; Petrides, A K; Azuma, H; Pratschke, J; Li, X C; ElKhal, A; Tullius, S G

    2017-05-01

    Immunosuppression in elderly recipients has been underappreciated in clinical trials. Here, we assessed age-specific effects of the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus (TAC) in a murine transplant model and assessed its clinical relevance on human T cells. Old recipient mice exhibited prolonged skin graft survival compared with young animals after TAC administration. More important, half of the TAC dose was sufficient in old mice to achieve comparable systemic trough levels. TAC administration was able to reduce proinflammatory interferon-γ cytokine production and promote interleukin-10 production in old CD4 + T cells. In addition, TAC administration decreased interleukin-2 secretion in old CD4 + T cells more effectively while inhibiting the proliferation of CD4 + T cells in old mice. Both TAC-treated murine and human CD4 + T cells demonstrated an age-specific suppression of intracellular calcineurin levels and Ca 2+ influx, two critical pathways in T cell activation. Of note, depletion of CD8 + T cells did not alter allograft survival outcome in old TAC-treated mice, suggesting that TAC age-specific effects were mainly CD4 + T cell mediated. Collectively, our study demonstrates age-specific immunosuppressive capacities of TAC that are CD4 + T cell mediated. The suppression of calcineurin levels and Ca 2+ influx in both old murine and human T cells emphasizes the clinical relevance of age-specific effects when using TAC. © 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  7. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of the age-dependency of opioid analgesia and tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jing

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The age-dependency of opioid analgesia and tolerance has been noticed in both clinical observation and laboratory studies. Evidence shows that many molecular and cellular events that play essential roles in opioid analgesia and tolerance are actually age-dependent. For example, the expression and functions of endogenous opioid peptides, multiple types of opioid receptors, G protein subunits that couple to opioid receptors, and regulators of G protein signaling (RGS proteins change with development and age. Other signaling systems that are critical to opioid tolerance development, such as N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA receptors, also undergo age-related changes. It is plausible that the age-dependent expression and functions of molecules within and related to the opioid signaling pathways, as well as age-dependent cellular activity such as agonist-induced opioid receptor internalization and desensitization, eventually lead to significant age-dependent changes in opioid analgesia and tolerance development.

  8. Storytelling as an age-dependent skill: oral recall of orally presented stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergler, N L; Faust, M; Goldstein, M D

    During experiment 1, three taped prose passages read by college student, middle-aged, or old tellers were orally recalled by college students in an incidental memory paradigm. More story units were remembered as the age of the teller increased (r = +.642, p less than .05). Comparison of these results, with prior research using written, as opposed to oral, presentation and recall of these stories, showed no differences in specific story units remembered. Teller age predicted recall on the two "storied" passages. These passages elicited more favorable comments from listeners when read by older tellers. The third, descriptive passage was less favorably regarded by listeners hearing older tellers. During experiment 2, taped storied passages read by middle-aged tellers were falsely attributed to young, middle-aged, or old persons before the college students listened. Incidental recall did not show an age of teller effect in this case, but the listener's evaluation of the speaker exhibited age-dependent stereotypes. It was concluded that 1) physical qualities of older voices lead to more effective oral transmission; 2) that one expects to receive certain types of oral information from older persons; and 3) that a mismatch between physical vocal quality and age attribution effects evaluation of the speaker, not recall of the information.

  9. Age-Dependent Effects of Topiramate on the Acquisition and the Retention of Rapid Kindling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarati, Andréy; Shin, Don; Auvin, Stéphane; Sankar, Raman

    2008-01-01

    Summary Purpose To examine antiepileptogenic, disease-modifying, and anticonvulsant effects of topiramate under conditions of rapid kindling at different stages of development. Methods Afterdischarge threshold (ADT) and duration (ADD) were examined in two-, three-, and five-week old Wistar rats before and after administration of topiramate (200 mg/kg). Animals underwent a rapid kindling protocol (sixty 10 second trains, bipolar 20 Hz square wave pulses delivered every five minutes). The progression of behavioral and electrographic seizures, and responses to test stimulations 24 hours after the protocol were compared between topiramate and vehicle treated control rats. In addition, rats that were previously given vehicle only prior to kindling, were then given topiramate to examine the effect on established kindled seizures. Results In two-week old animals, topiramate affected neither the baseline afterdischarge, nor the progression of kindled seizures. In three-week old rats, topiramate did not modify the baseline afterdischarge, but significantly delayed the occurrence of full motor seizures in response to repeated stimulations. Topiramate treatment of five-week old rats increased baseline ADT, shortened ADD, and delayed the progression of kindled seizures. Twenty four hours after the last kindling stimulation, animals of all ages exhibited a decreased ADT, an increase ADD, and developed behavioral seizures in response to threshold stimulation. Vehicle treated kindled rats that were then given topiramate displayed significantly attenuated behavioral seizures induced by the threshold stimulation. Conclusions Topiramate exhibited age-dependent disease-modifying effects under conditions of rapid kindling, but failed to block epileptogenesis. Topiramate also inhibited kindled seizures with equal efficacy across the three ages. PMID:17319916

  10. Age-Dependent Pleiotropy Between General Cognitive Function and Major Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, W David; Davies, Gail; Liewald, David C; McIntosh, Andrew M; Deary, Ian J

    2016-08-15

    General cognitive function predicts psychiatric illness across the life course. This study examines the role of pleiotropy in explaining the link between cognitive function and psychiatric disorder. We used two large genome-wide association study data sets on cognitive function-one from older age, n = 53,949, and one from childhood, n = 12,441. We also used genome-wide association study data on educational attainment, n = 95,427, to examine the validity of its use as a proxy phenotype for cognitive function. Using a new method, linkage disequilibrium regression, we derived genetic correlations, free from the confounding of clinical state between psychiatric illness and cognitive function. We found a genetic correlation of .711 (p = 2.26e-12) across the life course for general cognitive function. We also showed a positive genetic correlation between autism spectrum disorder and cognitive function in childhood (rg = .360, p = .0009) and for educational attainment (rg = .322, p = 1.37e-5) but not in older age. In schizophrenia, we found a negative genetic correlation between older age cognitive function (rg = -.231, p = 3.81e-12) but not in childhood or for educational attainment. For Alzheimer's disease, we found negative genetic correlations with childhood cognitive function (rg = -.341, p = .001), educational attainment (rg = -.324, p = 1.15e-5), and with older age cognitive function (rg = -.324, p = 1.78e-5). The pleiotropy exhibited between cognitive function and psychiatric disorders changed across the life course. These age-dependent associations might explain why negative selection has not removed variants causally associated with autism spectrum disorder or schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Age-dependent changes of the antioxidant system in rat livers are accompanied by altered MAPK activation and a decline in motor signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Burkhardt, Britta; Fischer, Luise; Beirow, Maja; Bork, Nadja; Wönne, Eva C.; Wagner, Cornelia; Husen, Bettina; Zeilinger, Katrin; Liu, Liegang; Nussler, Andreas K.

    2015-01-01

    Aging is characterized by a progressive decrease of cellular functions, because cells gradually lose their capacity to respond to injury. Increased oxidative stress is considered to be one of the major contributors to age-related changes in all organs including the liver. Our study has focused on elucidating whether important antioxidative enzymes, the mTOR pathway, and MAPKs exhibit age-dependent changes in the liver of rats during aging. We found an age-dependent increase of GSH in the cytosol and mitochondria. The aged liver showed an increased SOD enzyme activity, while the CAT enzyme activity decreased. HO-1 and NOS-2 gene expression was lower in adult rats, but up-regulated in aged rats. Western blot analysis revealed that SOD1, SOD2, GPx, GR, γ-GCL, and GSS were age-dependent up-regulated, while CAT remained constant. We also demonstrated that the phosphorylation of Akt, JNK, p38, and TSC2Ser1254 decreased while ERK1/2 and TSC2Thr1462 increased age-dependently. Furthermore, our data show that the mTOR pathway seems to be activated in livers of aged rats, and hence stimulating cell proliferation/regeneration, as confirmed by an age-dependent increase of PCNA and p-eIF4ESer209 protein expression. Our data may help to explain the fact that liver cells only proliferate in cases of necessity, like injury and damage. In summary, we have demonstrated that, age-dependent changes of the antioxidant system and stress-related signaling pathways occur in the livers of rats, which may help to better understand organ aging. PMID:27004051

  12. Modelling Anopheles gambiae s.s. Population Dynamics with Temperature- and Age-Dependent Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Christiansen-Jucht

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and global warming are emerging as important threats to human health, particularly through the potential increase in vector- and water-borne diseases. Environmental variables are known to affect substantially the population dynamics and abundance of the poikilothermic vectors of disease, but the exact extent of this sensitivity is not well established. Focusing on malaria and its main vector in Africa, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, we present a set of novel mathematical models of climate-driven mosquito population dynamics motivated by experimental data suggesting that in An. gambiae, mortality is temperature and age dependent. We compared the performance of these models to that of a “standard” model ignoring age dependence. We used a longitudinal dataset of vector abundance over 36 months in sub-Saharan Africa for comparison between models that incorporate age dependence and one that does not, and observe that age-dependent models consistently fitted the data better than the reference model. This highlights that including age dependence in the vector component of mosquito-borne disease models may be important to predict more reliably disease transmission dynamics. Further data and studies are needed to enable improved fitting, leading to more accurate and informative model predictions for the An. gambiae malaria vector as well as for other disease vectors.

  13. State-age-dependent maintenance policies for deteriorating systems with Erlang sojourn time distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper investigates state-age-dependent maintenance policies for multistate deteriorating systems with Erlang sojourn time distributions. Since Erlang distributions are serial combinations of exponential phases, the deteriorating process can be modeled by a multi-phase Markovian model and hence easily analyzed. Based on the Markovian model, the optimal phase-dependent inspection and replacement policy can be obtained by using a policy improvement algorithm. However, since phases are fictitious and can not be identified by inspections, two procedures are developed to construct state-age-dependent policies based on the optimal phase-dependent policy. The properties of the constructed state-age-dependent policies are further investigated and the performance of the policy is evaluated through a numerical example

  14. Studies on the age-dependent proliferation kinetics of the epithelium of the rat small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranz, D.; Dietze, F.; Laue, R.; Fuhrmann, I.

    1980-01-01

    The small intestine of 244 Wistar rats, aged 6 days, 6 weeks, 6, 12, 23, and 28 months, respectively. were investigated autoradiographically as to their age-dependent cell proliferation kinetics of the mucosal epithelial cells. There were age-dependent differences concerning the hourly regeneration ratio of the crypt cells and the migration velocity of the enterocytes. Both parameters became greater while the existing non growth fraction became smaller with increasing age. The non growth fraction seems to be a reserve being involved into the proliferating pool if required

  15. Development and psychometric evaluation of a scale to measure impaired self-awareness of hyper- and hypokinetic movements in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Franziska; Ellereit, Anna L; Eggers, Carsten; Lewis, Catharine J; Pelzer, Esther A; Kalbe, Elke; Ernstmann, Nicole; Prigatano, George P; Fink, Gereon R; Timmermann, Lars

    2015-03-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) can show impaired self-awareness of motor deficits (ISAm). We developed a new scale that measures ISAm severity of hyper- and hypokinetic movements in PD during medication on state and defined its psychometric criteria. Included were 104 right-handed, non-depressed, non-demented patients. Concerning ISAm, 38 motor symptoms were assessed using seven tasks, which were performed and self-rated concerning presence of deficit (yes/no) by all patients. The whole procedure was videotaped. Motor symptoms were then evaluated by two independent experts, blinded for patient's ratings, concerning presence, awareness of deficit, and severity. Exploratory principal component analysis (promax rotation) was applied to reduce items. Principal axis factoring was conducted to extract factors. Reliability was examined regarding internal consistency, split-half reliability, and interrater reliability. Validity was verified by applying two additional measures of ISAm. Of the initial 38 symptoms, 15 remained, assessed in five motor tasks and merged to a total severity score. Factor analysis resulted in a four factor solution (dyskinesia, resting tremor right hand, resting tremor left hand, bradykinesia). For all subscales and the total score, measures of reliability (values 0.64-0.89) and validity (effect sizes>0.3) were satisfactory. Descriptive results showed that 66% of patients had signs of ISAm (median 2, range 0-15), with ISAm being most distinct for dyskinesia. We provide the first validation of a test for ISAm in PD. Using this instrument, future studies can further analyze the pathophysiology of ISAm, the psychosocial sequelae, therapeutic strategies and compliance with therapy.

  16. The influence of HIV infection on the age dependence of squamous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diminishes with ageing, which may contribute to the age-related increase in cancer incidence. In the present analysis, the age dependence of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (SCC) in the black African, coloured and white population groups of South. Africa (SA) was examined. The evidence that exposure to sunlight is ...

  17. Age-Dependent Cellular and Behavioral Deficits Induced by Molecularly Targeted Drugs Are Reversible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafidi, Joseph; Ritter, Jonathan; Talbot, Brooke M; Edwards, Jorge; Chew, Li-Jin; Gallo, Vittorio

    2018-04-15

    Newly developed targeted anticancer drugs inhibit signaling pathways commonly altered in adult and pediatric cancers. However, as these pathways are also essential for normal brain development, concerns have emerged of neurologic sequelae resulting specifically from their application in pediatric cancers. The neural substrates and age dependency of these drug-induced effects in vivo are unknown, and their long-term behavioral consequences have not been characterized. This study defines the age-dependent cellular and behavioral effects of these drugs on normally developing brains and determines their reversibility with post-drug intervention. Mice at different postnatal ages received short courses of molecularly targeted drugs in regimens analagous to clinical treatment. Analysis of rapidly developing brain structures important for sensorimotor and cognitive function showed that, while adult administration was without effect, earlier neonatal administration of targeted therapies attenuated white matter oligodendroglia and hippocampal neuronal development more profoundly than later administration, leading to long-lasting behavioral deficits. This functional impairment was reversed by rehabilitation with physical and cognitive enrichment. Our findings demonstrate age-dependent, reversible effects of these drugs on brain development, which are important considerations as treatment options expand for pediatric cancers. Significance: Targeted therapeutics elicit age-dependent long-term consequences on the developing brain that can be ameliorated with environmental enrichment. Cancer Res; 78(8); 2081-95. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Age-dependent attractivity of males’ sexual pheromones in Bombus terrestris (L.) [Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Coppée, Audrey; Mathy, T.; Cammaerts, M.; Verheggen, F. J.; Terzo, M.; Iserbyt, S.; Valterová, Irena; Rasmont, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2011), s. 75-82 ISSN 0937-7409 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1446 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Bombus terrestris * sexual pheromones * age-dependent variation * behavioural tests Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.556, year: 2011

  19. Stability analysis of a general age-dependent vaccination model of a vertically transmitted disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Doma, M.

    1995-07-01

    An SIR epidemic model of a general age-dependent vaccination of a vertically as well as horizontally transmitted disease is investigated when the population is in steady state and the fertility, mortality and removal rates depends on age. We determine the steady states and examine their stabilities. (author). 24 refs

  20. Age-dependent trends in postoperative mortality and preoperative comorbidity in isolated coronary artery bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristinn; Fonager, Kirsten; Mérie, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An increasing number of octogenarians are being subjected to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The purpose of this study was to examine age-dependent trends in postoperative mortality and preoperative comorbidity over time following CABG. METHODS: All patients who underwent isol...

  1. Parent perceived quality of life is age-dependent in children with food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenberg, Jacqueline; Cochard, Marie-Madeleine; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Ballabeni, Pierluigi; Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M. J.; Newman, Christopher J.; Hofer, Michael; Eigenmann, Philippe A.

    To cite this article: Wassenberg J, Cochard M-M, DunnGalvin A, Ballabeni P, Flokstra-de Blok BMJ, Newman CJ, Hofer M, Eigenmann PA. Parent perceived quality of life is age-dependent in children with food allergy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2012: 23: 412419. Abstract Background: Food allergy in children

  2. Sex differences in the effects of juvenile and adult diet on age-dependent reproductive effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houslay, T M; Hunt, J; Tinsley, M C; Bussière, L F

    2015-05-01

    Sexual selection should cause sex differences in patterns of resource allocation. When current and future reproductive effort trade off, variation in resource acquisition might further cause sex differences in age-dependent investment, or in sensitivity to changes in resource availability over time. However, the nature and prevalence of sex differences in age-dependent investment remain unclear. We manipulated resource acquisition at juvenile and adult stages in decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus, and assessed effects on sex-specific allocation to age-dependent reproductive effort (calling in males, fecundity in females) and longevity. We predicted that the resource and time demands of egg production would result in relatively consistent female strategies across treatments, whereas male investment should depend sharply on diet. Contrary to expectations, female age-dependent reproductive effort diverged substantially across treatments, with resource-limited females showing much lower and later investment in reproduction; the highest fecundity was associated with intermediate lifespans. In contrast, long-lived males always signalled more than short-lived males, and male age-dependent reproductive effort did not depend on diet. We found consistently positive covariance between male reproductive effort and lifespan, whereas diet altered this covariance in females, revealing sex differences in the benefits of allocation to longevity. Our results support sex-specific selection on allocation patterns, but also suggest a simpler alternative: males may use social feedback to make allocation decisions and preferentially store resources as energetic reserves in its absence. Increased calling effort with age therefore could be caused by gradual resource accumulation, heightened mortality risk over time, and a lack of feedback from available mates. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary

  3. Population Consequences of Age-Dependent Maternal Effects in Rockfish (Sebastes spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lucero, Yasmin

    2007-01-01

    I present a model of the early life history of a rockfish that includes an age-dependent maternal effect. The model is designed to accurately reflect the diverse uncertainties we have about early life history processes. The first portion of this thesis is devoted to an analytical treatment of the deterministic early life history model. I emphasize uncertainty about the functional form of density-dependent processes in the juvenile stage. The remainder of the thesis is devoted to demonstrating...

  4. [Occlusion treatment for amblyopia. Age dependence and dose-response relationship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronius, M

    2016-04-01

    Based on clinical experience and studies on animal models the age of 6-7 years was regarded as the limit for treatment of amblyopia, although functional improvement was also occasionally reported in older patients. New technical developments as well as insights from clinical studies and the neurosciences have attracted considerable attention to this topic. Various aspects of the age dependence of amblyopia treatment are discussed in this article, e. g. prescription, electronic monitoring of occlusion dosage, calculation of indicators for age-dependent plasticity of the visual system, and novel, alternative treatment approaches. Besides a discussion of the recent literature, results of studies by our "Child Vision Research Unit" in Frankfurt are presented: results of a questionnaire about prescription habits concerning age limits of patching, electronic recording of occlusion in patients beyond the conventional treatment age, calculation of dose-response function and efficiency of patching and their age dependence. The results of the questionnaire illustrate the uncertainty about age limits of prescription with significant deviations from the guideline of the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG). Electronic recording of occlusion allowed the quantification of declining dose-response function and treatment efficiency between 5 and 16 years of age. Reports about successful treatment with conventional and novel methods in adults are at variance with the notion of a rigid adult visual system lacking plasticity. Electronic recording of patching allowed new insights into the age-dependent susceptibility of the visual system and contributes to a more evidence-based treatment of amblyopia. Alternative approaches for adults challenge established notions about age limits of amblyopia therapy. Further studies comparing different treatment options are urgently needed.

  5. Analysis of a general age-dependent vaccination model for a vertically transmitted disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Doma, M.

    1995-05-01

    A SIR epidemic model of a general age-dependent vaccination for a vertically as well as horizontally transmitted disease is investigated when the total population is time dependent, and fertility, mortality and removal rates depend on age. We establish the existence and the uniqueness of the solution and obtain the asymptotic behaviour for the solution. For the steady state solution a critical vaccination coverage which will eventually eradicate the disease is determined. (author). 18 refs

  6. Gender- and age-dependent gamma-secretase activity in mouse brain and its implication in sporadic Alzheimer disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Placanica

    Full Text Available Alzheimer disease (AD is an age-related disorder. Aging and female gender are two important risk factors associated with sporadic AD. However, the mechanism by which aging and gender contribute to the pathogenesis of sporadic AD is unclear. It is well known that genetic mutations in gamma-secretase result in rare forms of early onset AD due to the aberrant production of Abeta42 peptides, which are the major constituents of senile plaques. However, the effect of age and gender on gamma-secretase has not been fully investigated. Here, using normal wild-type mice, we show mouse brain gamma-secretase exhibits gender- and age-dependent activity. Both male and female mice exhibit increased Abeta42ratioAbeta40 ratios in aged brain, which mimics the effect of familial mutations of Presenilin-1, Presenlin-2, and the amyloid precursor protein on Abeta production. Additionally, female mice exhibit much higher gamma-secretase activity in aged brain compared to male mice. Furthermore, both male and female mice exhibit a steady decline in Notch1 gamma-secretase activity with aging. Using a small molecule affinity probe we demonstrate that male mice have less active gamma-secretase complexes than female mice, which may account for the gender-associated differences in activity in aged brain. These findings demonstrate that aging can affect gamma-secretase activity and specificity, suggesting a role for gamma-secretase in sporadic AD. Furthermore, the increased APP gamma-secretase activity seen in aged females may contribute to the increased incidence of sporadic AD in women and the aggressive Abeta plaque pathology seen in female mouse models of AD. In addition, deceased Notch gamma-secretase activity may also contribute to neurodegeneration. Therefore, this study implicates altered gamma-secretase activity and specificity as a possible mechanism of sporadic AD during aging.

  7. Age-dependent tissue-specific exposure of cell phone users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christ, Andreas; Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Kuehn, Sven; Kuster, Niels; Christopoulou, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) assessed with the standardized specific anthropometric mannequin head phantom has been shown to yield a conservative exposure estimate for both adults and children using mobile phones. There are, however, questions remaining concerning the impact of age-dependent dielectric tissue properties and age-dependent proportions of the skull, face and ear on the global and local absorption, in particular in the brain tissues. In this study, we compare the absorption in various parts of the cortex for different magnetic resonance imaging-based head phantoms of adults and children exposed to different models of mobile phones. The results show that the locally induced fields in children can be significantly higher (>3 dB) in subregions of the brain (cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus) and the eye due to the closer proximity of the phone to these tissues. The increase is even larger for bone marrow (>10 dB) as a result of its significantly high conductivity. Tissues such as the pineal gland show no increase since their distances to the phone are not a function of age. This study, however, confirms previous findings saying that there are no age-dependent changes of the peak spatial SAR when averaged over the entire head.

  8. Maternal care, mother-offspring aggregation and age-dependent coadaptation in the European earwig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Y; Kölliker, M

    2013-09-01

    Benefits and costs of parental care are expected to change with offspring development and lead to age-dependent coadaptation expressed as phenotypic (behavioural) matches between offspring age and parental reproductive stage. Parents and offspring interact repeatedly over time for the provision of parental care. Their behaviours should be accordingly adjusted to each other dynamically and adaptively, and the phenotypic match between offspring age and parental stage should stabilize the repeated behavioural interactions. In the European earwig (Forficula auricularia), maternal care is beneficial for offspring survival, but not vital, allowing us to investigate the extent to which the stability of mother-offspring aggregation is shaped by age-dependent coadaptation. In this study, we experimentally cross-fostered nymphs of different age classes (younger or older) between females in early or late reproductive stage to disrupt age-dependent coadaptation, thereby generating female-nymph dyads that were phenotypically matched or mismatched. The results revealed a higher stability in aggregation during the first larval instar when care is most intense, a steeper decline in aggregation tendency over developmental time and a reduced developmental rate in matched compared with mismatched families. Furthermore, nymph survival was positively correlated with female-nymph aggregation stability during the early stages when maternal care is most prevalent. These results support the hypothesis that age-related phenotypically plastic coadaptation affects family dynamics and offspring developmental rate. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. Impact of radiobiological considerations on epidemiological inferences of age-dependent radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford-Brown, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Current epidemiological studies of the age-dependent risk of radiogenic carcinomas are based on populations still in the early stages of cancer expression. The result is a set of logical uncertainties concerning the manner in which inferences may be drawn from the existing data. These uncertainties may be formalized and examined through the application of various radiobiological principles developed from more fundamental experimental data. Chief amongst these considerations are the time course of tumor expression, the role of relative and absolute risk models, the distribution of effects between initiation and promotion, the age-dependent fraction of time a critical cell remains in radiosensitive stages and the combinatorics of the critical cellular subpopulations. Each of these and the combinatorics of the critical cellular subpopulations. Each of these principles are examined in light of their impact on the structuring of epidemiologic data and the drawing of inferences concerning age-dependent radiogenic risk. The data on atomic bomb survivors are employed as a relevant example

  10. Age-dependent tissue-specific exposure of cell phone users

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, Andreas; Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Kuehn, Sven; Kuster, Niels [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), Zeughausstr. 43, 8004 Zuerich (Switzerland); Christopoulou, Maria [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Str., 15780 Athens (Greece)], E-mail: christ@itis.ethz.ch

    2010-04-07

    The peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) assessed with the standardized specific anthropometric mannequin head phantom has been shown to yield a conservative exposure estimate for both adults and children using mobile phones. There are, however, questions remaining concerning the impact of age-dependent dielectric tissue properties and age-dependent proportions of the skull, face and ear on the global and local absorption, in particular in the brain tissues. In this study, we compare the absorption in various parts of the cortex for different magnetic resonance imaging-based head phantoms of adults and children exposed to different models of mobile phones. The results show that the locally induced fields in children can be significantly higher (>3 dB) in subregions of the brain (cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus) and the eye due to the closer proximity of the phone to these tissues. The increase is even larger for bone marrow (>10 dB) as a result of its significantly high conductivity. Tissues such as the pineal gland show no increase since their distances to the phone are not a function of age. This study, however, confirms previous findings saying that there are no age-dependent changes of the peak spatial SAR when averaged over the entire head.

  11. Synergistic Effect of Rapamycin and Metformin Against Age-Dependent Oxidative Stress in Rat Erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Garg, Geetika; Singh, Sandeep; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2017-10-01

    Erythrocytes are particularly vulnerable toward age-dependent oxidative stress-mediated damage. Caloric restriction mimetics (CRMs) may provide a novel strategy for the maintenance of redox balance as well as effective treatment of age-associated diseases. Herein, we have investigated the beneficial effect of cotreatment with CRM-candidate drugs, rapamycin (an immunosuppressant drug and inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin) and metformin (an antidiabetic biguanide and activator of adenosine monophosphate kinase), against aging-induced oxidative stress in erythrocytes and plasma of aging rats. Male Wistar rats of age 4 (young) and 24 months (old) were coexposed to rapamycin (0.5 mg/kg body weight [b.w.]) and metformin (300 mg/kg b.w.), and data were compared with the response of rats receiving an independent exposure to these chemicals at similar doses. The exposure of individual candidate drugs significantly reversed the age-dependent alterations in the endpoints associated with oxidative stress such as reactive oxygen species, ferric reducing ability of plasma, malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, plasma membrane redox system, plasma protein carbonyl, and acetyl cholinesterase in erythrocytes and plasma of aging rats. However, the cotreatment with rapamycin and metformin showed a significant augmented effect compared with individual drug interventions on reversal of these age-dependent biomarkers of oxidative stress, suggesting a synergistic response. Thus, the findings open up further possibilities for the design of new combinatorial therapies to prevent oxidative stress- and age-associated health problems.

  12. B16 melanoma tumor growth is delayed in mice in an age-dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Pettan-Brewer

    2012-08-01

    tumor volumes of 417.62 and 216.34 mm3 in the 16- and 24-month age groups, respectively (p≤0.005. Histologically, implanted tumors in young mice exhibited characteristics of aggressive, rapidly growing tumor cells including high vascularity, mitosis, and invasiveness compared to tumors in old mice. We contend that the decrease in B16 melanoma tumor growth seen with increasing age in B6 and CB6 F1 mice represents a biological process, which we are calling age-dependent cancer resistance (ADCR. Our data provide a detailed description of conditions necessary to use the model to investigate the mechanisms of ADCR and determine its biological and clinical relevance.

  13. Britain exhibition at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Bertin; CERN PhotoLab

    1969-01-01

    The United Kingdom inaugurated the Industrial Exhibitions in 1968, and it wasn't till 1971 that other countries staged exhibitions at CERN. This photo was taken in 1969, at the second British exhibition, where 16 companies were present.

  14. Age-dependent terminal declines in reproductive output in a wild bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Hammers

    Full Text Available In many iteroparous species individual fitness components, such as reproductive output, first increase with age and then decline during late-life. However, individuals differ greatly in reproductive lifespan, but reproductive declines may only occur in the period just before their death as a result of an age-independent decline in physiological condition. To fully understand reproductive senescence it is important to investigate to what extent declines in late-life reproduction can be explained by age, time until death, or both. However, the study of late-life fitness performance in natural populations is challenging as the exact birth and death dates of individuals are often not known, and most individuals succumb to extrinsic mortality before reaching old age. Here, we used an exceptional long-term longitudinal dataset of individuals from a natural, closed, and predator-free population of the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis to investigate reproductive output, both in relation to age and to the time until the death of an individual (reverse-age approach. We observed an initial age-dependent increase in reproductive output that was followed by a decline in old age. However, we found no significant decline in reproductive output in the years directly preceding death. Although post-peak reproductive output declined with age, this pattern differed between terminal and non-terminal reproductive attempts, and the age-dependence of the terminal breeding attempt explained much of the variation in age-specific reproductive output. In fact, terminal declines in reproductive output were steeper in very old individuals. These results indicate that not only age-dependent, but also age-independent factors, such as physiological condition, need to be considered to understand reproductive senescence in wild-living animals.

  15. Mutant alpha-synuclein causes age-dependent neuropathology in monkey brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weili; Wang, Guohao; Wang, Chuan-En; Guo, Xiangyu; Yin, Peng; Gao, Jinquan; Tu, Zhuchi; Wang, Zhengbo; Wu, Jing; Hu, Xintian; Li, Shihua; Li, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-05-27

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative disease that often occurs in those over age 60. Although rodents and small animals have been used widely to model PD and investigate its pathology, their short life span makes it difficult to assess the aging-related pathology that is likely to occur in PD patient brains. Here, we used brain tissues from rhesus monkeys at 2-3, 7-8, and >15 years of age to examine the expression of Parkin, PINK1, and α-synuclein, which are known to cause PD via loss- or gain-of-function mechanisms. We found that α-synuclein is increased in the older monkey brains, whereas Parkin and PINK1 are decreased or remain unchanged. Because of the gain of toxicity of α-synuclein, we performed stereotaxic injection of lentiviral vectors expressing mutant α-synuclein (A53T) into the substantia nigra of monkeys and found that aging also increases the accumulation of A53T in neurites and its associated neuropathology. A53T also causes more extensive reactive astrocytes and axonal degeneration in monkey brain than in mouse brain. Using monkey brain tissues, we found that A53T interacts with neurofascin, an adhesion molecule involved in axon subcellular targeting and neurite outgrowth. Aged monkey brain tissues show an increased interaction of neurofascin with A53T. Overexpression of A53T causes neuritic toxicity in cultured neuronal cells, which can be attenuated by transfected neurofascin. These findings from nonhuman primate brains reveal age-dependent pathological and molecular changes that could contribute to the age-dependent neuropathology in PD. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/358345-14$15.00/0.

  16. The role of HSP70 in mediating age-dependent mortality in sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Kevin W.; Fox, Amy C.; Clark, Andrew T.; Chang, Nai-Yuan Nicholas; Dominguez, Jessica A.; Farris, Alton B.; Buchman, Timothy G.; Hunt, Clayton R.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2011-01-01

    Sepsis is primarily a disease of the aged, with increased incidence and mortality occurring in aged hosts. Heat shock protein (HSP) 70 plays an important role in both healthy aging and the stress response to injury. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of HSP70 in mediating mortality and the host inflammatory response in aged septic hosts. Sepsis was induced in both young (6–12week old) and aged (16–17 month old) HSP70−/− and wild type (WT) mice to determine if HSP70 modulated outcome in an age-dependent fashion. Young HSP70−/− and WT mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia or Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia had no differences in mortality, suggesting HSP70 does not mediate survival in young septic hosts. In contrast, mortality was higher in aged HSP70−/− mice than aged WT mice subjected to CLP (p=0.01), suggesting HSP70 mediates mortality in sepsis in an age-dependent fashion. Compared to WT mice, aged septic HSP70−/− mice had increased gut epithelial apoptosis and pulmonary inflammation. In addition, HSP70−/−mice had increased systemic levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-1β compared to WT mice. These data demonstrate that HSP70 is a key determinant of mortality in aged but not young hosts in sepsis. HSP70 may play a protective role in an age-dependent response to sepsis by preventing excessive gut apoptosis and both pulmonary and systemic inflammation. PMID:21296977

  17. The role of heat shock protein 70 in mediating age-dependent mortality in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Kevin W; Fox, Amy C; Clark, Andrew T; Chang, Nai-Yuan Nicholas; Dominguez, Jessica A; Farris, Alton B; Buchman, Timothy G; Hunt, Clayton R; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2011-03-15

    Sepsis is primarily a disease of the aged, with increased incidence and mortality occurring in aged hosts. Heat shock protein (HSP) 70 plays an important role in both healthy aging and the stress response to injury. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of HSP70 in mediating mortality and the host inflammatory response in aged septic hosts. Sepsis was induced in both young (6- to 12-wk-old) and aged (16- to 17-mo-old) HSP70(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice to determine whether HSP70 modulated outcome in an age-dependent fashion. Young HSP70(-/-) and WT mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture, Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia, or Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia had no differences in mortality, suggesting HSP70 does not mediate survival in young septic hosts. In contrast, mortality was higher in aged HSP70(-/-) mice than aged WT mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (p = 0.01), suggesting HSP70 mediates mortality in sepsis in an age-dependent fashion. Compared with WT mice, aged septic HSP70(-/-) mice had increased gut epithelial apoptosis and pulmonary inflammation. In addition, HSP70(-/-) mice had increased systemic levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-1β compared with WT mice. These data demonstrate that HSP70 is a key determinant of mortality in aged, but not young hosts in sepsis. HSP70 may play a protective role in an age-dependent response to sepsis by preventing excessive gut apoptosis and both pulmonary and systemic inflammation.

  18. Fluctuation limit theorems for age-dependent critical binary branching systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murillo-Salas Antonio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider an age-dependent branching particle system in ℝd, where the particles are subject to α-stable migration (0 < α ≤ 2, critical binary branching, and general (non-arithmetic lifetimes distribution. The population starts off from a Poisson random field in ℝd with Lebesgue intensity. We prove functional central limit theorems and strong laws of large numbers under two rescalings: high particle density, and a space-time rescaling that preserves the migration distribution. Properties of the limit processes such as Markov property, almost sure continuity of paths and generalized Langevin equation, are also investigated.

  19. The work of the task group of committee 2 of ICRP on age-dependent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stather, J.W.; Kaul, A.; Metivier, H.

    1996-01-01

    With the accident at Chernobyl and developing concern in regard to the consequences of discharging radionuclides into the environment has come increasing awareness of the need to assess radiation doses to all age groups in the population. In 1987, ICRP set up a Task Group of Committee 2 on Age-dependent Dosimetry with the responsibility for calculating internationally agreed dose coefficients for members of the public. This covered the calculation and ingestion, as well as doses to the embryo and fetus from intakes of radionuclides by the mother. This paper reviews the programme of work.(authors). 17 refs., 6 tabs

  20. Age-dependent effective doses for radionuclides uniformly distributed in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Tran Van

    2014-01-01

    Age-dependent effective doses for external exposure to photons emitted by radionuclides uniformly distributed in air are reported. The calculations were performed for 160 radionuclides, which are important for safety assessment of nuclear facilities. The energies and intensities of photons emitted from radionuclides were taken from the decay data DECDC used for dose calculations. The results are tabulated in the form of effective dose per unit concentration and time (Sv per Bq s m -3 ) for 6 age groups: newborn, 1, 5, 10 and 15 years-old and adult. The effective doses for the adult are also compared to values given in the literature.

  1. Total deposition of inhaled particles related to age: comparison with age-dependent model calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becquemin, M.H.; Bouchikhi, A.; Yu, C.P.; Roy, M.

    1991-01-01

    To compare experimental data with age-dependent model calculations, total airway deposition of polystyrene aerosols (1, 2.05 and 2.8 μm aerodynamic diameter) was measured in ten adults, twenty children aged 12 to 15 years, ten children aged 8 to 12, and eleven under 8 years old. Ventilation was controlled, and breathing patterns were appropriate for each age, either at rest or at light exercise. Individually, deposition percentages increased with particle size and also from rest to exercise, except in children under 12 years, in whom they decreased from 20-21.5 to 14-14.5 for 1 μm particles and from 36.8-36.9 to 32.2-33.1 for 2.05 μm particles. Comparisons with the age-dependent model showed that, at rest, the observed data concerning children agreed with those predicted and were close to the adults' values, when the latter were higher than predicted. At exercise, child data were lower than predicted and lower than adult experimental data, when the latter agreed fairly well with the model. (author)

  2. Age-Dependent Fecal Bacterial Correlation to Inflammatory Bowel Disease for Newly Diagnosed Untreated Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Chinweije Nwosu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge about correlation patterns between the fecal microbiota and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD—comprising the two subforms Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC—for newly diagnosed untreated children is limited. To address this knowledge gap, a selection of faecal specimens (CD, n=27 and UC, n=16 and non-IBD controls (n=30 children (age < 18 years was analysed utilising bacterial small subunit (SSU rRNA. We found, surprising age dependence for the fecal microbiota correlating to IBD. The most pronounced patterns were that E. coli was positively (R2=0.16, P=0.05 and Bacteroidetes, negatively (R2=0.15, P=0.05 correlated to age for CD patients. For UC, we found an apparent opposite age-related disease correlation for both Bacteroides and Escherichia. In addition, there was an overrepresentation of Haemophilus for the UC children. From our, results we propose a model where the aetiology of IBD is related to an on-going immunological development in children requiring different age-dependent bacterial stimuli. The impact of our findings could be a better age stratification for understanding and treating IBD in children.

  3. Age-Dependent Differences in Systemic and Cell-Autonomous Immunity to L. monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley M. Sherrid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Host defense against infection can broadly be categorized into systemic immunity and cell-autonomous immunity. Systemic immunity is crucial for all multicellular organisms, increasing in importance with increasing cellular complexity of the host. The systemic immune response to Listeria monocytogenes has been studied extensively in murine models; however, the clinical applicability of these findings to the human newborn remains incompletely understood. Furthermore, the ability to control infection at the level of an individual cell, known as “cell-autonomous immunity,” appears most relevant following infection with L. monocytogenes; as the main target, the monocyte is centrally important to innate as well as adaptive systemic immunity to listeriosis. We thus suggest that the overall increased risk to suffer and die from L. monocytogenes infection in the newborn period is a direct consequence of age-dependent differences in cell-autonomous immunity of the monocyte to L. monocytogenes. We here review what is known about age-dependent differences in systemic innate and adaptive as well as cell-autonomous immunity to infection with Listeria monocytogenes.

  4. Age-Dependent and Lineage-Dependent Speciation and Extinction in the Imbalance of Phylogenetic Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Eric W

    2017-11-01

    It is known that phylogenetic trees are more imbalanced than expected from a birth-death model with constant rates of speciation and extinction, and also that imbalance can be better fit by allowing the rate of speciation to decrease as the age of the parent species increases. If imbalance is measured in more detail, at nodes within trees as a function of the number of species descended from the nodes, age-dependent models predict levels of imbalance comparable to real trees for small numbers of descendent species, but predicted imbalance approaches an asymptote not found in real trees as the number of descendent species becomes large. Age-dependence must therefore be complemented by another process such as inheritance of different rates along different lineages, which is known to predict insufficient imbalance at nodes with few descendent species, but can predict increasing imbalance with increasing numbers of descendent species. [Crump-Mode-Jagers process; diversification; macroevolution; taxon sampling; tree of life.]. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Games of age-dependent prevention of chronic infections by social distancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reluga, Timothy C; Li, Jing

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiological games combine epidemic modelling with game theory to assess strategic choices in response to risks from infectious diseases. In most epidemiological games studied thus-far, the strategies of an individual are represented with a single choice parameter. There are many natural situations where strategies can not be represented by a single dimension, including situations where individuals can change their behavior as they age. To better understand how age-dependent variations in behavior can help individuals deal with infection risks, we study an epidemiological game in an SI model with two life-history stages where social distancing behaviors that reduce exposure rates are age-dependent. When considering a special case of the general model, we show that there is a unique Nash equilibrium when the infection pressure is a monotone function of aggregate exposure rates, but non-monotone effects can appear even in our special case. The non-monotone effects sometimes result in three Nash equilibria, two of which have local invasion potential simultaneously. Returning to a general case, we also describe a game with continuous age-structure using partial-differential equations, numerically identify some Nash equilibria, and conjecture about uniqueness.

  6. The association between etanercept serum concentration and psoriasis severity is highly age-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detrez, Iris; Van Steen, Kristel; Segaert, Siegfried; Gils, Ann

    2017-06-01

    The association between etanercept serum concentration and psoriasis disease severity is poorly investigated, and currently etanercept serum concentration monitoring that is aiming to optimize the psoriasis treatment lacks evidence. In this prospective study, we investigated the relation between etanercept exposure and disease severity via measuring etanercept concentrations at five consecutive time points in 56 psoriasis patients. Disease severity assessments included the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI), body surface area (BSA) and Physician Global Assessment (PGA), and etanercept and anti-etanercept antibody concentrations were determined every 3 months for a period of 1 year. The present study demonstrated that the association between etanercept concentration and psoriasis severity is age-dependent: when patients were stratified into three groups, patients in the youngest age group (-50 years) showed a lower PASI at a higher etanercept concentration (β = -0.26), whereas patients in the oldest age group (+59 years) showed the opposite trend (β =0.22). Similar age effects were observed in the relation of etanercept concentration with BSA ( P =0.02) and PGA ( P =0.02). The influence of age and length of time in therapy on the etanercept concentration-disease severity relation was unaffected by body mass index (BMI) or any other possible confounder. Incidence of anti-etanercept antibodies was low (2%). The age-dependent relation between etanercept serum concentrations is both unexpected and intriguing and needs further investigation. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  7. Age-dependent reliability model considering effects of maintenance and working conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martorell, Sebastian; Sanchez, Ana; Serradell, Vicente

    1999-01-01

    Nowadays, there is some doubt about building new nuclear power plants (NPPs). Instead, there is a growing interest in analyzing the possibility to extend current NPP operation, where life management programs play an important role. The evolution of the NPP safety depends on the evolution of the reliability of its safety components, which, in turn, is a function of their age along the NPP operational life. In this paper, a new age-dependent reliability model is presented, which includes parameters related to surveillance and maintenance effectiveness and working conditions of the equipment, both environmental and operational. This model may be used to support NPP life management and life extension programs, by improving or optimizing surveillance and maintenance tasks using risk and cost models based on such an age-dependent reliability model. The results of the sensitivity study in the example application show that the selection of the most appropriate maintenance strategy would directly depend on the previous parameters. Then, very important differences are expected to appear under certain circumstances, particularly, in comparison with other models that do not consider maintenance effectiveness and working conditions simultaneously

  8. Digital collections and exhibits

    CERN Document Server

    Denzer, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Today's libraries are taking advantage of cutting-edge technologies such as flat panel displays using touch, sound, and hands-free motions to design amazing exhibits using everything from simple computer hardware to advanced technologies such as the Microsoft Kinect. Libraries of all types are striving to add new interactive experiences for their patrons through exciting digital exhibits, both online and off. Digital Collections and Exhibits takes away the mystery of designing stunning digital exhibits to spotlight library trea

  9. Exhibiting Epistemic Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybjerg, Karin

    2017-01-01

    of exhibiting epistemic objects that utilize their knowledge-generating potential and allow them to continue to stimulate curiosity and generate knowledge in the exhibition. The epistemic potential of the objects can then be made to work together with the function of the exhibition as a knowledge-generating set...

  10. Discrimination? - Exhibition of posters

    OpenAIRE

    Jakimovska, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Participation in the exhibition with the students form the Art Academy. The exhibition consisted of 15 posters tackling the subjects of hate speech and discrimination. The exhibition happened thanks to the invitation of the Faculty of Law at UGD, and it was a part of a larger event of launching books on the aforementioned subjects.

  11. Autoradiographic investigation of age-dependent proliferation kinetics in the mucosa of rat small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranz, D.; Laue, R.; Fuhrmann, I.

    1980-01-01

    Aging of cells depends on mitotic activity which is particularly evident in multicellular organisms. The cell kinetics of the mucosa of the small intestine in a total of 244 Wistar rats aged 6 days, 6 weeks, 6, 12, 23 and 28 months, resp., were studied histoautoradiographically. It could be demonstrated that the regeneration rate of cells per hour in the crypts of the small intestine and the migration velocity of the enterocytes differ in young and old individuals, and that the intermitotic cells have age-dependent properties as well. In addition, it could be proved that intermitotic cells have a non growth fraction, too, which, at an advanced age, decreases only slightly although significantly in terms of statistics. For the easily vulnerable crypt epithelium it is a reserve capacity and ban be included in the proliferating pool if necessary. (author)

  12. Seafloor age dependence of Rayleigh wave phase velocities in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Karen E.; Dalton, Colleen A.; Ritsema, Jeroen

    2017-05-01

    Variations in the phase velocity of fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves across the Indian Ocean are determined using two inversion approaches. First, variations in phase velocity as a function of seafloor age are estimated using a pure-path age-dependent inversion method. Second, a two-dimensional parameterization is used to solve for phase velocity within 1.25° × 1.25° grid cells. Rayleigh wave travel time delays have been measured between periods of 38 and 200 s. The number of measurements in the study area ranges between 4139 paths at a period of 200 s and 22,272 paths at a period of 40 s. At periods Rodriguez Triple Junction and the Australian-Antarctic Discordance and anomalously low velocities immediately to the west of the Central Indian Ridge.

  13. Assessment of 226Ra age-dependent dose from water intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porntepkasemsan, Boonsom; Srisuksawad, Kanitha

    2008-01-01

    The radioactivity in canal and ground waters collected in a 2-year long observation from the vicinity of the Rare Earth Research and Development Center (RRDC), Phathumthani Province, Thailand, was measured in order to determine the concentration of 226 Ra and to estimate the age-dependent effective dose to humans due to consumption. 226 Ra activities in both canal and ground waters were well below the WHO guidance level for drinking water quality of 1 Bq L -1 . The highest 226 Ra effective doses per year were found for infants and teens. However, the observed levels of calculated 226 Ra effective doses for all age groups in both canal and ground waters show satisfactory low values (less than 15 μSv yr -1 ). These values are acceptable in accordance with the WHO recommended reference dose level of 100 μSv yr -1 from water intake of 2 L day -1

  14. Calculation of age-dependent effective doses for external exposure using the MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Tran Van

    2013-01-01

    Age-dependent effective dose for external exposure to photons uniformly distributed in air were calculated. Firstly, organ doses were calculated with a series of age-specific MIRD-5 type phantoms using the Monte Carlo code MCNP. The calculations were performed for mono-energetic photon sources with source energies from 10 keV to 5 MeV and for phantoms of newborn, 1, 5, 10, and 15 years-old and adult. Then, the effective doses to the different age-phantoms from the mono-energetic photon sources were estimated based on the obtained organ doses. From the calculated results, it is shown that the effective doses depend on the body size; the effective doses in younger phantoms are higher than those in the older phantoms, especially below 100 keV. (orig.)

  15. Age-dependent branching processes for surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases with incubation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marusia N Bojkova

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review the recent results of the authors in the area of infectious disease modelling by means of branching stochastic processes. This is a new approach involving age-dependent branching models, which turned out to be more appropriate and flexible for describing the spread of an infection in a given population, than discrete time ones. Concretely, Bellman-Harris and Sevast’yanov’s branching processes are investigated. It is justified that the proposed models are proper candidates as models of infectious diseases with incubation period like measles, mumps, avian flu, etc. It is worth to notice that in general the developed methodology is applicable to the diseases that follow the so-called SIR (susceptible- infected-removed scheme in terms of epidemiological models. Two policies of extra-vaccination level are proposed and compared on the ground of simulation examples.

  16. Calculation of age-dependent effective doses for external exposure using the MCNP code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Tran Van [Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology, ThuDuc, HoChiMinh City (VT)

    2013-07-15

    Age-dependent effective dose for external exposure to photons uniformly distributed in air were calculated. Firstly, organ doses were calculated with a series of age-specific MIRD-5 type phantoms using the Monte Carlo code MCNP. The calculations were performed for mono-energetic photon sources with source energies from 10 keV to 5 MeV and for phantoms of newborn, 1, 5, 10, and 15 years-old and adult. Then, the effective doses to the different age-phantoms from the mono-energetic photon sources were estimated based on the obtained organ doses. From the calculated results, it is shown that the effective doses depend on the body size; the effective doses in younger phantoms are higher than those in the older phantoms, especially below 100 keV. (orig.)

  17. Fluoxetine Exerts Age-Dependent Effects on Behavior and Amygdala Neuroplasticity in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homberg, Judith R.; Olivier, Jocelien D. A.; Blom, Tom; Arentsen, Tim; van Brunschot, Chantal; Schipper, Pieter; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien; van Luijtelaar, Gilles; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2011-01-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Prozac® (fluoxetine) is the only registered antidepressant to treat depression in children and adolescents. Yet, while the safety of SSRIs has been well established in adults, serotonin exerts neurotrophic actions in the developing brain and thereby may have harmful effects in adolescents. Here we treated adolescent and adult rats chronically with fluoxetine (12 mg/kg) at postnatal day (PND) 25 to 46 and from PND 67 to 88, respectively, and tested the animals 7–14 days after the last injection when (nor)fluoxetine in blood plasma had been washed out, as determined by HPLC. Plasma (nor)fluoxetine levels were also measured 5 hrs after the last fluoxetine injection, and matched clinical levels. Adolescent rats displayed increased behavioral despair in the forced swim test, which was not seen in adult fluoxetine treated rats. In addition, beneficial effects of fluoxetine on wakefulness as measured by electroencephalography in adults was not seen in adolescent rats, and age-dependent effects on the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition were observed. On the other hand, adolescent rats showed resilience to the anorexic effects of fluoxetine. Exploratory behavior in the open field test was not affected by fluoxetine treatment, but anxiety levels in the elevated plus maze test were increased in both adolescent and adult fluoxetine treated rats. Finally, in the amygdala, but not the dorsal raphe nucleus and medial prefrontal cortex, the number of PSA-NCAM (marker for synaptic remodeling) immunoreactive neurons was increased in adolescent rats, and decreased in adult rats, as a consequence of chronic fluoxetine treatment. No fluoxetine-induced changes in 5-HT1A receptor immunoreactivity were observed. In conclusion, we show that fluoxetine exerts both harmful and beneficial age-dependent effects on depressive behavior, body weight and wakefulness, which may relate, in part, to differential fluoxetine

  18. Age dependent in vitro metabolism of bifenthrin in rat and human hepatic microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallani, Gopinath C; Chandrasekaran, Appavu; Kassahun, Kelem; Shen, Li; ElNaggar, Shaaban F; Liu, Zhiwei

    2018-01-01

    Bifenthrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, undergoes oxidative metabolism leading to the formation of 4'-hydroxy-bifenthrin (4'-OH-BIF) and hydrolysis leading to the formation of TFP acid in rat and human hepatic microsomes. In this study, age-dependent metabolism of bifenthrin in rats and humans were determined via the rates of formation of 4'-OH-BIF and TFP acid following incubation of bifenthrin in juvenile and adult rat (PND 15 and PND 90) and human (18years) liver microsomes. Furthermore, in vitro hepatic intrinsic clearance (CL int ) of bifenthrin was determined by substrate consumption method in a separate experiment. The mean V max (±SD) for the formation of 4'-OH-BIF in juvenile rat hepatic microsomes was 25.0±1.5pmol/min/mg which was significantly lower (pbifenthrin occurs primarily via oxidative pathway with relatively lesser contribution (~30%) from hydrolytic pathway in both rat and human liver microsomes. The CL int values for bifenthrin, determined by monitoring the consumption of substrate, in juvenile and adult rat liver microsomes fortified with NADPH were 42.0±7.2 and 166.7±20.5μl/min/mg, respectively, and the corresponding values for human liver microsomes were 76.0±4.0 and 21.3±1.2μl/min/mg, respectively. The data suggest a major species difference in the age dependent metabolism of bifenthrin. In human liver microsomes, bifenthrin is metabolized at a much higher rate in juveniles than in adults, while the opposite appears to be true in rat liver microsomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Age-dependent male mating tactics in a spider mite-A life-history perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yukie; Rühr, Peter T; Schmitz, Helmut; Egas, Martijn; Blanke, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    Males often fight with rival males for access to females. However, some males display nonfighting tactics such as sneaking, satellite behavior, or female mimicking. When these mating tactics comprise a conditional strategy, they are often thought to be explained by resource holding potential (RHP), that is, nonfighting tactics are displayed by less competitive males who are more likely to lose a fight. The alternative mating tactics, however, can also be explained by life-history theory, which predicts that young males avoid fighting, regardless of their RHP, if it pays off to wait for future reproduction. Here, we test whether the sneaking tactic displayed by young males of the two-spotted spider mite can be explained by life-history theory. We tested whether young sneaker males survive longer than young fighter males after a bout of mild or strong competition with old fighter males. We also investigated whether old males have a more protective outer skin-a possible proxy for RHP-by measuring cuticle hardness and elasticity using nanoindentation. We found that young sneaker males survived longer than young fighter males after mild male competition. This difference was not found after strong male competition, which suggests that induction of sneaking tactic is affected by male density. Hardness and elasticity of the skin did not vary with male age. Given that earlier work could also not detect morphometric differences between fighter and sneaker males, we conclude that there is no apparent increase in RHP with age in the mite and age-dependent male mating tactics in the mite can be explained only by life-history theory. Because it is likely that fighting incurs a survival cost, age-dependent alternative mating tactics may be explained by life-history theory in many species when reproduction of old males is a significant factor in fitness.

  20. A Prospective Study of Age-dependent Changes in Propofol-induced Electroencephalogram Oscillations in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Johanna M; Akeju, Oluwaseun; Terzakis, Kristina; Pavone, Kara J; Deng, Hao; Houle, Timothy T; Firth, Paul G; Shank, Erik S; Brown, Emery N; Purdon, Patrick L

    2017-08-01

    In adults, frontal electroencephalogram patterns observed during propofol-induced unconsciousness consist of slow oscillations (0.1 to 1 Hz) and coherent alpha oscillations (8 to 13 Hz). Given that the nervous system undergoes significant changes during development, anesthesia-induced electroencephalogram oscillations in children may differ from those observed in adults. Therefore, we investigated age-related changes in frontal electroencephalogram power spectra and coherence during propofol-induced unconsciousness. We analyzed electroencephalogram data recorded during propofol-induced unconsciousness in patients between 0 and 21 yr of age (n = 97), using multitaper spectral and coherence methods. We characterized power and coherence as a function of age using multiple linear regression analysis and within four age groups: 4 months to 1 yr old (n = 4), greater than 1 to 7 yr old (n = 16), greater than 7 to 14 yr old (n = 30), and greater than 14 to 21 yr old (n = 47). Total electroencephalogram power (0.1 to 40 Hz) peaked at approximately 8 yr old and subsequently declined with increasing age. For patients greater than 1 yr old, the propofol-induced electroencephalogram structure was qualitatively similar regardless of age, featuring slow and coherent alpha oscillations. For patients under 1 yr of age, frontal alpha oscillations were not coherent. Neurodevelopmental processes that occur throughout childhood, including thalamocortical development, may underlie age-dependent changes in electroencephalogram power and coherence during anesthesia. These age-dependent anesthesia-induced electroencephalogram oscillations suggest a more principled approach to monitoring brain states in pediatric patients.

  1. Fluoxetine exerts age-dependent effects on behavior and amygdala neuroplasticity in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith R Homberg

    Full Text Available The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI Prozac® (fluoxetine is the only registered antidepressant to treat depression in children and adolescents. Yet, while the safety of SSRIs has been well established in adults, serotonin exerts neurotrophic actions in the developing brain and thereby may have harmful effects in adolescents. Here we treated adolescent and adult rats chronically with fluoxetine (12 mg/kg at postnatal day (PND 25 to 46 and from PND 67 to 88, respectively, and tested the animals 7-14 days after the last injection when (norfluoxetine in blood plasma had been washed out, as determined by HPLC. Plasma (norfluoxetine levels were also measured 5 hrs after the last fluoxetine injection, and matched clinical levels. Adolescent rats displayed increased behavioral despair in the forced swim test, which was not seen in adult fluoxetine treated rats. In addition, beneficial effects of fluoxetine on wakefulness as measured by electroencephalography in adults was not seen in adolescent rats, and age-dependent effects on the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition were observed. On the other hand, adolescent rats showed resilience to the anorexic effects of fluoxetine. Exploratory behavior in the open field test was not affected by fluoxetine treatment, but anxiety levels in the elevated plus maze test were increased in both adolescent and adult fluoxetine treated rats. Finally, in the amygdala, but not the dorsal raphe nucleus and medial prefrontal cortex, the number of PSA-NCAM (marker for synaptic remodeling immunoreactive neurons was increased in adolescent rats, and decreased in adult rats, as a consequence of chronic fluoxetine treatment. No fluoxetine-induced changes in 5-HT(1A receptor immunoreactivity were observed. In conclusion, we show that fluoxetine exerts both harmful and beneficial age-dependent effects on depressive behavior, body weight and wakefulness, which may relate, in part, to differential

  2. Cerebellum-specific and age-dependent expression of an endogenous retrovirus with intact coding potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itoh Takayuki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs, including murine leukemia virus (MuLV type-ERVs (MuLV-ERVs, are presumed to occupy ~10% of the mouse genome. In this study, following the identification of a full-length MuLV-ERV by in silico survey of the C57BL/6J mouse genome, its distribution in different mouse strains and expression characteristics were investigated. Results Application of a set of ERV mining protocols identified a MuLV-ERV locus with full coding potential on chromosome 8 (named ERVmch8. It appears that ERVmch8 shares the same genomic locus with a replication-incompetent MuLV-ERV, called Emv2; however, it was not confirmed due to a lack of relevant annotation and Emv2 sequence information. The ERVmch8 sequence was more prevalent in laboratory strains compared to wild-derived strains. Among 16 different tissues of ~12 week-old female C57BL/6J mice, brain homogenate was the only tissue with evident expression of ERVmch8. Further ERVmch8 expression analysis in six different brain compartments and four peripheral neuronal tissues of C57BL/6J mice revealed no significant expression except for the cerebellum in which the ERVmch8 locus' low methylation status was unique compared to the other brain compartments. The ERVmch8 locus was found to be surrounded by genes associated with neuronal development and/or inflammation. Interestingly, cerebellum-specific ERVmch8 expression was age-dependent with almost no expression at 2 weeks and a plateau at 6 weeks. Conclusions The ecotropic ERVmch8 locus on the C57BL/6J mouse genome was relatively undermethylated in the cerebellum, and its expression was cerebellum-specific and age-dependent.

  3. Age-dependent susceptibility to phenobarbital-resistant neonatal seizures: role of chloride co-transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Kyu eKang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia in the immature brain is an important cause of neonatal seizures. Temporal evolution of acquired neonatal seizures and their response to anticonvulsants are of great interest, given the unreliability of the clinical correlates and poor efficacy of first-line anti-seizure drugs. The expression and function of the electroneutral chloride co-transporters KCC2 and NKCC1 influence the anti-seizure efficacy of GABAA-agonists. To investigate ischemia-induced seizure susceptibility and efficacy of the GABAA-agonist phenobarbital (PB, with NKCC1 antagonist bumetanide (BTN as an adjunct treatment, we utilized permanent unilateral carotid-ligation to produce acute ischemic-seizures in postnatal day 7, 10 and 12 CD1 mice. Immediate post-ligation video-electroencephalograms (EEGs quantitatively evaluated baseline and post-treatment seizure burdens. Brains were examined for stroke-injury and western blot analyses to evaluate the expression of KCC2 and NKCC1. Severity of acute ischemic seizures post-ligation was highest at P7. PB was an efficacious anti-seizure agent at P10 and P12, but not at P7. BTN failed as an adjunct, at all ages tested and significantly blunted PB-efficacy at P10. Significant acute post-ischemic downregulation of KCC2 was detected at all ages. At P7, males displayed higher age-dependent seizure susceptibility, associated with a significant developmental lag in their KCC2 expression. This study established a novel neonatal mouse model of PB-resistant seizures that demonstrates age/sex-dependent susceptibility. The age-dependent profile of KCC2 expression and its post-insult downregulation may underlie the PB-resistance reported in this model. Blocking NKCC1 with low-dose BTN following PB treatment failed to improve PB-efficacy.

  4. The Effects of Antioxidants and Experience on the Development of Age Dependent Cognitive Dysfunction and Neuropathology in Canines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muggenburg, Bruce

    2001-01-01

    Progression of individual rates of age-dependent cognitive dysfunction and the potential for antioxidants and environmental enrichment to slow the rate of decline are being evaluated over a 3-year span in beagle dogs...

  5. The Effects of Antioxidants and Experience on the Development of Age Dependent Cognitive Dysfunction and Neuropathology in Canines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muggenburg, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Progression of individual rates of age-dependent cognitive dysfunction and the potential for antioxidants and environmental enrichment to slow the rate of decline are being evaluated over a 3-year span in beagle dogs...

  6. The Effects of Antioxidants and Experience on the Development of Age Dependent Cognitive Dysfunction and Neuropathology in Canines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muggenburg, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Progression of individual rates of age-dependent cognitive dysfunction and the potential for antioxidants and environmental enrichment to slow the rate of decline are being evaluated over a 3-year span in beagle dogs...

  7. Complex degradation processes lead to non-exponential decay patterns and age-dependent decay rates of messenger RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlus Deneke

    Full Text Available Experimental studies on mRNA stability have established several, qualitatively distinct decay patterns for the amount of mRNA within the living cell. Furthermore, a variety of different and complex biochemical pathways for mRNA degradation have been identified. The central aim of this paper is to bring together both the experimental evidence about the decay patterns and the biochemical knowledge about the multi-step nature of mRNA degradation in a coherent mathematical theory. We first introduce a mathematical relationship between the mRNA decay pattern and the lifetime distribution of individual mRNA molecules. This relationship reveals that the mRNA decay patterns at steady state expression level must obey a general convexity condition, which applies to any degradation mechanism. Next, we develop a theory, formulated as a Markov chain model, that recapitulates some aspects of the multi-step nature of mRNA degradation. We apply our theory to experimental data for yeast and explicitly derive the lifetime distribution of the corresponding mRNAs. Thereby, we show how to extract single-molecule properties of an mRNA, such as the age-dependent decay rate and the residual lifetime. Finally, we analyze the decay patterns of the whole translatome of yeast cells and show that yeast mRNAs can be grouped into three broad classes that exhibit three distinct decay patterns. This paper provides both a method to accurately analyze non-exponential mRNA decay patterns and a tool to validate different models of degradation using decay data.

  8. Exhibition; Image display agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normazlin Ismail

    2008-01-01

    This article touches on the role of Malaysian Nuclear Agency as nuclear research institutions to promote, develop and encourage the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in its agricultural, medical, manufacturing, industrial, health and environment for the development of the country running successfully. Maturity of Malaysian Nuclear Agency in dealing with nuclear technology that are very competitive and globalization cannot be denied. On this basis Malaysian Nuclear Agency was given the responsibility to strengthen the nuclear technology in Malaysia. One way is through an exhibition featuring the research, discoveries and new technology products of the nuclear technology. Through this exhibition is to promote the nuclear technology and introduce the image of the agency in the public eye. This article also states a number of exhibits entered by the Malaysian Nuclear Agency and achievements during the last exhibition. Authors hope that the exhibition can be intensified further in the future.

  9. Calculation of age-dependent dose conversion coefficients for radionuclides uniformly distributed in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Tran Van; Satoh, Daiki; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Tsuda, Shuichi; Endo, Akira; Saito, Kimiaki; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro

    2005-02-01

    Age-dependent dose conversion coefficients for external exposure to photons emitted by radionuclides uniformly distributed in air were calculated. The size of the source region in the calculation was assumed to be effectively semi-infinite in extent. Firstly, organ doses were calculated with a series of age-specific MIRD-5 type phantoms using MCNP code, a Monte Carlo transport code. The calculations were performed for mono-energetic photon sources of twelve energies from 10 keV to 5 MeV and for phantoms of newborn, 1, 5, 10 and 15 years, and adult. Then, the effective doses to the different age-phantoms from the mono-energetic photon sources were estimated based on the obtained organ doses. The calculated effective doses were used to interpolate the conversion coefficients of the effective doses for 160 radionuclides, which are important for dose assessment of nuclear facilities. In the calculation, energies and intensities of emitted photons from radionuclides were taken from DECDC, a recent compilation of decay data for radiation dosimetry developed at JAERI. The results are tabulated in the form of effective dose per unit concentration and time (Sv per Bq s m -3 ). (author)

  10. Age-dependent regulation of ERF-VII transcription factor activity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntoli, Beatrice; Shukla, Vinay; Maggiorelli, Federica; Giorgi, Federico M; Lombardi, Lara; Perata, Pierdomenico; Licausi, Francesco

    2017-10-01

    The Group VII Ethylene Responsive Factors (ERFs-VII) RAP2.2 and RAP2.12 have been mainly characterized with regard to their contribution as activators of fermentation in plants. However, transcriptional changes measured in conditions that stabilize these transcription factors exceed the mere activation of this biochemical pathway, implying additional roles performed by the ERF-VIIs in other processes. We evaluated gene expression in transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing a stabilized form of RAP2.12, or hampered in ERF-VII activity, and identified genes affected by this transcriptional regulator and its homologs, including some involved in oxidative stress response, which are not universally induced under anaerobic conditions. The contribution of the ERF-VIIs in regulating this set of genes in response to chemically induced or submergence-stimulated mitochondria malfunctioning was found to depend on the plant developmental stage. A similar age-dependent mechanism also restrained ERF-VII activity upon the core-hypoxic genes, independently of the N-end rule pathway, which is accounted for the control of the anaerobic response. To conclude, this study shed new light on a dual role of ERF-VII proteins under submergence: as positive regulators of the hypoxic response and as repressors of oxidative-stress related genes, depending on the developmental stage at which plants are challenged by stress conditions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Self-motivated and stress-response performance assays in mice are age-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xuan; Ciol, Marcia A; Pettan-Brewer, Christina; Goh, Jorming; Rabinovitch, Peter; Ladiges, Warren

    2017-05-01

    Chronic health conditions of the elderly lead to limitations in physical activity with disability, anxiety, and increased need for medical care and assisted living conditions. Physical performance tests are used to screen for pending loss of mobility and can serve as endpoints to monitor the effectiveness of intervention measures. Since limited mobility is associated with the physical and mental health of a person, evaluation of this in preclinical aging studies in mice will provide a translational approach for testing new intervention strategies. We assessed physiological parameters in 4, 12, 20 and 28month old C57BL/6 and CB6F1 male mice using a rotating rod, a free running wheel, and a photo beam activity field, designed to determine changes in coordinated walking ability, self-motivated running distance, and anxiety response to a novel environment, respectively. Older mice showed decreased coordinated walking times and decreased running distances, predictive of physical performance ability and motivation in the elderly. Changes in both lateral and vertical movements were observed in a novel cage environment suggesting different levels of anxiety. Because the genetic background of the two mouse strains influenced test results in an age-dependent manner, it is imperative to recognize that diverse genetic backgrounds in mice may yield different data in preclinical studies and would need to be interpreted individually for translational applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Age-dependent mortality in the pilocarpine model of status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Robert E; Deshpande, Laxmikant S; Holbert, William H; Churn, Severn B; DeLorenzo, Robert J

    2009-04-10

    Status epilepticus (SE) is an acute neurological emergency associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Age has been shown to be a critical factor in determining outcome after SE. Understanding the causes of this increased mortality with aging by developing an animal model to study this condition would play a major role in studying mechanisms to limit the mortality due to SE. Here we employed pilocarpine to induce SE in rats aged between 5 and 28 weeks. Similar to clinical studies in man, we observed that age was a significant predictor of mortality following SE. While no deaths were observed in 5-week-old animals, mortality due to SE increased progressively with age and reached 90% in 28-week-old animals. There was no correlation between the age of animals and severity of SE. With increasing age mortality occurred earlier after the onset of SE. These results indicate that pilocarpine-induced SE in the rat provides a useful model to study age-dependent SE-induced mortality and indicates the importance of using animal models to elucidate the mechanisms contributing to SE-induced mortality and the development of novel therapeutic interventions to prevent SE-induced death.

  13. Consideration of age-dependent radium retention in people on the basis of the beagle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, N.J.; Keane, A.T.

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines in humans the proposition emanating from studies in beagles that long-term retention of radium varies in proportion to the calcium addition rate at the time of intake. Because data on the calcium addition rate in younger humans were fragmentary, human calcium-addition rates were scaled from those in beagles, the relative calcium accretion rates in the two species at equivalent stages of skeletal growth providing the scaling factor. The variation of radium retention with age was determined by fitting a modified power function to data on the retention of radium from about 30 to 15,000 days following a series of therapeutic injections of 226 Ra in humans ranging in age from 18 to 63 yr. The fractional retention R at t days following a single injection of 226 Ra was described by R = (1 + t/d) - 0 44 . The age-dependent time constant d in the retention function was found to be proportional to the calcium addition rate at the time of injection in subjects receiving 226 Ra

  14. Age-dependent difference in the computed tomography numbers of the normal parotid gland of Koreans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ho Gul; Lee, Eun Sook; Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Chang Seo

    1999-01-01

    To determine normal CT number range of parotid gland by analyzing the change by age increase and the difference among individuals and between both sexes in CT number of normal parotid gland. 134 subjects who took the CT scan between the period of Jan. 1996 and Dec. 1997 at Yonsei University, Dental Hospital were selected. Criteria for selection were that the patients must be within the normal range clinically and radiologically, and the entire parotid gland on the axial view must be shown. Among the axial views, the one showing the greatest parotid gland size was selected and its CT number was recorded. Also, CT numbers from both masseter muscle were recorded as its control. There was statistically significant correlation between CT number of right and left of parotid glands and masseter muscles. With the increase of age, there is a significant decrease in the CT number of parotid gland (p 0.05). As age increases, CT number of parotid gland has a tendency to decrease, and there is no significant difference in the CT numbers between left and right parotid gland. Therefore in the CT scan of patients suspected of having an salivary gland disease of the parotid gland, to consider normal range of the age-dependent CT numbers of parotid gland and compare the CT numbers of the right and left parotid gland might be useful in diagnosing the disease.

  15. Determination of Age-Dependent Reference Ranges for Coagulation Tests Performed Using Destiny Plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Fatma Demet; Serdar, Muhittin; Merve Ari, Elif; Onur Oztan, Mustafa; Hikmet Kozcu, Sureyya; Tarhan, Huseyin; Cakmak, Ozgur; Zeytinli, Merve; Yasar Ellidag, Hamit

    2016-06-01

    In order to apply the right treatment for hemostatic disorders in pediatric patients, laboratory data should be interpreted with age-appropriate reference ranges. The purpose of this study was to determining age-dependent reference range values for prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen tests, and D-dimer tests. A total of 320 volunteers were included in the study with the following ages: 1 month - 1 year (n = 52), 2 - 5 years (n = 50), 6 - 10 years (n = 48), 11 - 17 years (n = 38), and 18 - 65 years (n = 132). Each volunteer completed a survey to exclude hemostatic system disorder. Using a nonparametric method, the lower and upper limits, including 95% distribution and 90% confidence intervals, were calculated. No statistically significant differences were found between PT and aPTT values in the groups consisting of children. Thus, the reference ranges were separated into child and adult age groups. PT and aPTT values were significantly higher in the children than in the adults. Fibrinogen values in the 6 - 10 age group and the adult age group were significantly higher than in the other groups. D-dimer levels were significantly lower in those aged 2 - 17; thus, a separate reference range was established. These results support other findings related to developmental hemostasis, confirming that adult and pediatric age groups should be evaluated using different reference ranges.

  16. The aPKC-CBP Pathway Regulates Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in an Age-Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayden Gouveia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available While epigenetic modifications have emerged as attractive substrates to integrate environmental changes into the determination of cell identity and function, specific signals that directly activate these epigenetic modifications remain unknown. Here, we examine the role of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC-mediated Ser436 phosphorylation of CBP, a histone acetyltransferase, in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and memory. Using a knockin mouse strain (CbpS436A in which the aPKC-CBP pathway is deficient, we observe impaired hippocampal neuronal differentiation, maturation, and memory and diminished binding of CBP to CREB in 6-month-old CbpS436A mice, but not at 3 months of age. Importantly, elevation of CREB activity rescues these deficits, and CREB activity is reduced whereas aPKC activity is increased in the murine hippocampus as they age from 3 to 6 months regardless of genotype. Thus, the aPKC-CBP pathway is a homeostatic compensatory mechanism that modulates hippocampal neurogenesis and memory in an age-dependent manner in response to reduced CREB activity.

  17. Resting-state Functional Connectivity is an Age-dependent Predictor of Motor Learning Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Alison; Wens, Vincent; Op de Beeck, Marc; Leproult, Rachel; De Tiège, Xavier; Peigneux, Philippe

    2017-10-01

    This magnetoencephalography study investigates how ageing modulates the relationship between pre-learning resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) and subsequent learning. Neuromagnetic resting-state activity was recorded 5 min before motor sequence learning in 14 young (19-30 years) and 14 old (66-70 years) participants. We used a seed-based beta-band power envelope correlation approach to estimate rsFC maps, with the seed located in the right primary sensorimotor cortex. In each age group, the relation between individual rsFC and learning performance was investigated using Pearson's correlation analyses. Our results show that rsFC is predictive of subsequent motor sequence learning but involves different cross-network interactions in the two age groups. In young adults, decreased coupling between the sensorimotor network and the cortico-striato-cerebellar network is associated with better motor learning, whereas a similar relation is found in old adults between the sensorimotor, the dorsal-attentional and the DMNs. Additionally, age-related correlational differences were found in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, known to subtend attentional and controlled processes. These findings suggest that motor skill learning depends-in an age-dependent manner-on subtle interactions between resting-state networks subtending motor activity on the one hand, and controlled and attentional processes on the other hand. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Age dependence of spleen- and muscle-corrected hepatic signal enhancement on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetate MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matoori, Simon [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Hirslanden Clinic St. Anna, Clinical Research Group, Lucerne (Switzerland); Froehlich, Johannes M. [Hirslanden Clinic St. Anna, Clinical Research Group, Lucerne (Switzerland); ETH Zurich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zurich (Switzerland); Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Breitenstein, Stefan [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Surgery, Clinic for Visceral and Thoracic Surgery, Winterthur (Switzerland); Doert, Aleksis [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Pozdniakova, Viktoria [Stavanger University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stavanger (Norway); Koh, Dow-Mu [Royal Marsden Hospital, Department of Radiology, Surrey, England (United Kingdom); Gutzeit, Andreas [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Hirslanden Clinic St. Anna, Clinical Research Group, Lucerne (Switzerland); Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2016-06-15

    To identify correlations of signal enhancements (SE) and SE normalized to reference tissues of the spleen, kidney, liver, musculus erector spinae (MES) and ductus hepatocholedochus (DHC) on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetate-enhanced MRI with patient age in non-cirrhotic patients. A heterogeneous cohort of 131 patients with different clinical backgrounds underwent a standardized 3.0-T gadoxetate-enhanced liver MRI between November 2008 and June 2013. After exclusion of cirrhotic patients, a cohort of 75 patients with no diagnosed diffuse liver disease was selected. The ratio of signal intensity 20 min post- to pre-contrast administration (SE) in the spleen, kidney, liver, MES and DHC, and the SE of the kidney, liver and DHC normalized to the reference tissues spleen or MES were compared to patient age. Patient age was inversely correlated with the liver SE normalized to the spleen and MES SE (both p < 0.001) and proportionally with the SE of the spleen (p = 0.043), the MES (p = 0.030) and the kidney (p = 0.022). No significant correlations were observed for the DHC (p = 0.347) and liver SE (p = 0.606). The age dependence of hepatic SE normalized to the enhancement in the spleen and MES calls for a cautious interpretation of these quantification methods. (orig.)

  19. Collagene order of articular cartilage by clinical magnetic resonance images and its age dependency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, P.; Gruender, W. [Inst. of Medical Physics and Biophysics, Univ. of Leipzig (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The present papers describes a novel method to obtain information on the degree of order of the collagen network of the knee meniscal cartilage by means of a single clinical MRI. Images were obtained from 34 healthy volunteers aged between 6 and 76 years as well as from one patient with clinically-diagnosed arthrosis at the age of 32 and 37 years. A siemens vision (1.5 T) MRT with TR = 750 ms, TE = 50 ms, FoV = 160 mm, and Matrix 512 x 512 was used for this purpose. The MR signal intensities of the cartilage were read out along slices with constant height above the subchondral bone and plotted versus the actual angle to the external magnetic field. The obtained intensity curves were fitted by a model distribution, and the degree of order of the collagen fibers was calculated. For the knee meniscal cartilage, there was an age-dependency of the degree of order and a significant deviation of the volunteer with arthrosis from the normal curve. The results are discussed in view of the arcade model and of a possible use of non-invasive clinical MRT for the detection of early arthrotic changes of cartilage. (orig.)

  20. Penetration of radionuclides across the skin. Rat age dependent promethium permeation through skin in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassai, Z.; Kassai, A.; Bauerova, K.; Koprda, V.; Harangozo, M.; Bendova, P.; Bujnova, A.

    2003-01-01

    The composition and the permeation properties of the skin are dependent on age. In the animal models for permation studies, age affects the mechanical as well as the permeation properties significantly. The time dependence of permeation of 147 Pm 3+ from aqueous solution was established by the animal skin model and the age dependence of promethium permeation through the skin was examined. The aim was to find the optimum rat skin age model for radionuclide permeation studies and to assess the relative importance of the main permeation pathways: transepidermal and transfollicular permeation. The skin from 5-day-old rats (5DR) was found to represent the optimum animal model to study transepidermal permeation of ions. The skin from 9-day-old rats (9DR) was selected to study transfollicular permeation of ions. Comparison of the permeated amounts of promethium through the skin without hairs (3 DR to 6 DR) and with hairs (7DR to 12DR) showed that the additional permation mode via follicles significantly contributed to the permeation rate and extent. (author)

  1. ‘Developmental Delay’ Reconsidered: The Critical Role of Age-Dependent, Co-variant Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonata Levy

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In memory of Annette Karmiloff-Smith.This paper reviews recent neurobiological research reporting structural co-variance and temporal dependencies in age-dependent gene expression, parameters of cortical maturation, long range connectivity and interaction of the biological network with the environment. This research suggests that age by size trajectories of brain structures relate to functional properties more than absolute sizes. In line with these findings, recent behavioral studies of typically developing children whose language development was delayed reported long term consequences of such delays. As for neurodevelopmental disorders, disrupted developmental timing and slow acquisitional pace are hallmarks of these populations. It is argued that these behavioral and neuro-biological results highlight the need to commit to a developmental model which will reflect the fact that temporal dependencies overseeing structural co-variance among developmental components are major regulatory factors of typical development of the brain/mind network. Consequently, the concept of ‘developmental delay’ in developmental theorizing needs to be reconsidered.

  2. Accelerated Age-Dependent Hippocampal Volume Loss in Parkinson Disease With Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christine B; Donix, Markus; Linse, Katharina; Werner, Annett; Fauser, Mareike; Klingelhoefer, Lisa; Löhle, Matthias; von Kummer, Rüdiger; Reichmann, Heinz; Storch, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    Patients with Parkinson disease are at high risk of developing dementia. During the course of the disease, a substantial number of patients will experience a cognitive decline, indicating the dynamics of the underlying neuropathology. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become increasingly useful for identifying structural characteristics in radiological brain anatomy existing prior to clinical symptoms. Whether these changes reflect pathology, whether they are aging related, or both often remains unclear. We hypothesized that aging-associated brain structural changes would be more pronounced in the hippocampal region among patients with Parkinson disease having mild cognitive deficits relative to cognitively unimpaired patients. Using MRI, we investigated 30 cognitively healthy patients with Parkinson disease and 33 patients with nondemented Parkinson disease having mild cognitive impairment. All participants underwent structural MRI scanning and extensive clinical and neuropsychological assessments. Irrespective of the study participants' cognitive status, older age was associated with reduced cortical thickness in various neocortical regions. Having mild cognitive impairment was not associated with an increased rate of cortical thinning or volume loss in these regions, except in the hippocampus bilaterally. Patients with Parkinson disease having mild cognitive impairment show an accelerated age-dependent hippocampal volume loss when compared with cognitively healthy patients with Parkinson disease. This may indicate pathological processes in a key region for memory functioning in patients with Parkinson disease at risk of developing dementia. Structural MRI of the hippocampal region could potentially contribute to identifying patients who should receive early treatment aimed at delaying the clinical onset of dementia.

  3. Bistable Epigenetic States Explain Age-Dependent Decline in Mesenchymal Stem Cell Heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidouche, Zahia; Rother, Karen; Przybilla, Jens; Krinner, Axel; Clay, Denis; Hopp, Lydia; Fabian, Claire; Stolzing, Alexandra; Binder, Hans; Charbord, Pierre; Galle, Joerg

    2017-03-01

    The molecular mechanisms by which heterogeneity, a major characteristic of stem cells, is achieved are yet unclear. We here study the expression of the membrane stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) in mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) clones. We show that subpopulations with varying Sca-1 expression profiles regenerate the Sca-1 profile of the mother population within a few days. However, after extensive replication in vitro, the expression profiles shift to lower values and the regeneration time increases. Study of the promoter of Ly6a unravels that the expression level of Sca-1 is related to the promoter occupancy by the activating histone mark H3K4me3. We demonstrate that these findings can be consistently explained by a computational model that considers positive feedback between promoter H3K4me3 modification and gene transcription. This feedback implicates bistable epigenetic states which the cells occupy with an age-dependent frequency due to persistent histone (de-)modification. Our results provide evidence that MSC heterogeneity, and presumably that of other stem cells, is associated with bistable epigenetic states and suggest that MSCs are subject to permanent state fluctuations. Stem Cells 2017;35:694-704. © The Authors Stem Cells published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  4. Practical applications of age-dependent reliability models and analysis of operational data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lannoy, A.; Nitoi, M.; Backstrom, O.; Burgazzi, L.; Couallier, V.; Nikulin, M.; Derode, A.; Rodionov, A.; Atwood, C.; Fradet, F.; Antonov, A.; Berezhnoy, A.; Choi, S.Y.; Starr, F.; Dawson, J.; Palmen, H.; Clerjaud, L

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to present the experience of practical application of time-dependent reliability models. The program of the workshop comprises the following sessions: -) aging management and aging PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment), -) modeling, -) operation experience, and -) accelerating aging tests. In order to introduce time aging effect of particular component to the PSA model, it has been proposed to use the constant unavailability values on the short period of time (one year for example) calculated on the basis of age-dependent reliability models. As for modeling, it appears that the problem of too detailed statistical models for application is the lack of data for required parameters. As for operating experience, several methods of operating experience analysis have been presented (algorithms for reliability data elaboration and statistical identification of aging trend). As for accelerated aging tests, it is demonstrated that a combination of operating experience analysis with the results of accelerated aging tests of naturally aged equipment could provide a good basis for continuous operation of instrumentation and control systems.

  5. Age dependence of spleen- and muscle-corrected hepatic signal enhancement on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetate MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoori, Simon; Froehlich, Johannes M.; Breitenstein, Stefan; Doert, Aleksis; Pozdniakova, Viktoria; Koh, Dow-Mu; Gutzeit, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    To identify correlations of signal enhancements (SE) and SE normalized to reference tissues of the spleen, kidney, liver, musculus erector spinae (MES) and ductus hepatocholedochus (DHC) on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetate-enhanced MRI with patient age in non-cirrhotic patients. A heterogeneous cohort of 131 patients with different clinical backgrounds underwent a standardized 3.0-T gadoxetate-enhanced liver MRI between November 2008 and June 2013. After exclusion of cirrhotic patients, a cohort of 75 patients with no diagnosed diffuse liver disease was selected. The ratio of signal intensity 20 min post- to pre-contrast administration (SE) in the spleen, kidney, liver, MES and DHC, and the SE of the kidney, liver and DHC normalized to the reference tissues spleen or MES were compared to patient age. Patient age was inversely correlated with the liver SE normalized to the spleen and MES SE (both p < 0.001) and proportionally with the SE of the spleen (p = 0.043), the MES (p = 0.030) and the kidney (p = 0.022). No significant correlations were observed for the DHC (p = 0.347) and liver SE (p = 0.606). The age dependence of hepatic SE normalized to the enhancement in the spleen and MES calls for a cautious interpretation of these quantification methods. (orig.)

  6. Age-dependent variations of zinc-65 metabolism in LACA mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Liusheng; Yan Xiaoshan; Wu Dechang

    1991-01-01

    Mice were gavaged with zinc-65 solution, 8.6-19.3 kBq per mouse, and the whole-body retention and organ content of zinc-65 measured at diffe-rent times afterwards. The age-dependence of the fractional absorption of zinc-65 from the gastrointestinal tract (f 1 ) endogenous faecal excretion fraction of zinc-65 (EFEF), tissue distribution and whole-body retention were determined. f 1 values obtained were 0.86 ±0.15, 0.64±0.11, 0.52±0.07 and 0.39±0.02 in suckling, adolescent, young adult and older mice, respectively. The EFEF values determined were 0.083±0.008, 0.099±0.004, 0.122±0.018 and 0.144±0.005 of intraperitoneally injected zinc-65 was in suckling, adolescent, young adult and older mice at administration. Zinc-65 mainly distributed in the liver, muscle, lung, kidney and bone. In some tissues, there was an inverse relationship between relative content of gavaged zinc-65 and animal's age at administration. The whole-body biological half-lives of zinc-65 increased with animal age. (author)

  7. Practical applications of age-dependent reliability models and analysis of operational data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lannoy, A.; Nitoi, M.; Backstrom, O.; Burgazzi, L.; Couallier, V.; Nikulin, M.; Derode, A.; Rodionov, A.; Atwood, C.; Fradet, F.; Antonov, A.; Berezhnoy, A.; Choi, S.Y.; Starr, F.; Dawson, J.; Palmen, H.; Clerjaud, L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to present the experience of practical application of time-dependent reliability models. The program of the workshop comprises the following sessions: -) aging management and aging PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment), -) modeling, -) operation experience, and -) accelerating aging tests. In order to introduce time aging effect of particular component to the PSA model, it has been proposed to use the constant unavailability values on the short period of time (one year for example) calculated on the basis of age-dependent reliability models. As for modeling, it appears that the problem of too detailed statistical models for application is the lack of data for required parameters. As for operating experience, several methods of operating experience analysis have been presented (algorithms for reliability data elaboration and statistical identification of aging trend). As for accelerated aging tests, it is demonstrated that a combination of operating experience analysis with the results of accelerated aging tests of naturally aged equipment could provide a good basis for continuous operation of instrumentation and control systems

  8. Multidendritic sensory neurons in the adult Drosophila abdomen: origins, dendritic morphology, and segment- and age-dependent programmed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugimura Kaoru

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the establishment of functional neural circuits that support a wide range of animal behaviors, initial circuits formed in early development have to be reorganized. One way to achieve this is local remodeling of the circuitry hardwiring. To genetically investigate the underlying mechanisms of this remodeling, one model system employs a major group of Drosophila multidendritic sensory neurons - the dendritic arborization (da neurons - which exhibit dramatic dendritic pruning and subsequent growth during metamorphosis. The 15 da neurons are identified in each larval abdominal hemisegment and are classified into four categories - classes I to IV - in order of increasing size of their receptive fields and/or arbor complexity at the mature larval stage. Our knowledge regarding the anatomy and developmental basis of adult da neurons is still fragmentary. Results We identified multidendritic neurons in the adult Drosophila abdomen, visualized the dendritic arbors of the individual neurons, and traced the origins of those cells back to the larval stage. There were six da neurons in abdominal hemisegment 3 or 4 (A3/4 of the pharate adult and the adult just after eclosion, five of which were persistent larval da neurons. We quantitatively analyzed dendritic arbors of three of the six adult neurons and examined expression in the pharate adult of key transcription factors that result in the larval class-selective dendritic morphologies. The 'baseline design' of A3/4 in the adult was further modified in a segment-dependent and age-dependent manner. One of our notable findings is that a larval class I neuron, ddaE, completed dendritic remodeling in A2 to A4 and then underwent caspase-dependent cell death within 1 week after eclosion, while homologous neurons in A5 and in more posterior segments degenerated at pupal stages. Another finding is that the dendritic arbor of a class IV neuron, v'ada, was immediately reshaped during post

  9. Risk evaluations of aging: Procedures guide for an age-dependent PSA with emphasis on prioritization and sensitivity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    Based on the previous work which has been performed in the project, a procedures guide is being developed for carrying out an age-dependent probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for evaluating the core damage frequency with aging effects explicitly treated. A PSA is basically a Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). The emphasis of the guide is on prioritization and sensitivity studies. Focus is also on active components although consideration of aging effects in passive components is also treated. The guide is intended to become a NUREG/CR and is the first of three volumes which are being developed. The following topics with demonstrations and applications are described in the presentation: (1) the age-dependent PSA versus the standard PSA; (2) component reliability models used in an age-dependent PSA; (3) approaches for transforming a PSA into an age-dependent PSA; (4) application of an age-dependent PSA; (5) using a PSA to evaluate the risk effects from aging passive components; (6) evaluation of the risk importance of passive components; (7) prioritizations of aging contributors; (8) evaluations of test and maintenance effectiveness; and (9) sensitivity studies and uncertainty analyses of aging effects

  10. Aging-dependent changes in rat heart mitochondrial glutaredoxins—Implications for redox regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Huang Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and animal studies have documented that hearts of the elderly are more susceptible to ischemia/reperfusion damage compared to young adults. Recently we found that aging-dependent increase in susceptibility of cardiomyocytes to apoptosis was attributable to decrease in cytosolic glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1 and concomitant decrease in NF-κB-mediated expression of anti-apoptotic proteins. Besides primary localization in the cytosol, Grx1 also exists in the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS. In contrast, Grx2 is confined to the mitochondrial matrix. Here we report that Grx1 is decreased by 50–60% in the IMS, but Grx2 is increased by 1.4–2.6 fold in the matrix of heart mitochondria from elderly rats. Determination of in situ activities of the Grx isozymes from both subsarcolemmal (SSM and interfibrillar (IFM mitochondria revealed that Grx1 was fully active in the IMS. However, Grx2 was mostly in an inactive form in the matrix, consistent with reversible sequestration of the active-site cysteines of two Grx2 molecules in complex with an iron–sulfur cluster. Our quantitative evaluations of the active/inactive ratio for Grx2 suggest that levels of dimeric Grx2 complex with iron–sulfur clusters are increased in SSM and IFM in the hearts of elderly rats. We found that the inactive Grx2 can be fully reactivated by sodium dithionite or exogenous superoxide production mediated by xanthine oxidase. However, treatment with rotenone, which generates intramitochondrial superoxide through inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain Complex I, did not lead to Grx2 activation. These findings suggest that insufficient ROS accumulates in the vicinity of dimeric Grx2 to activate it in situ.

  11. Categorizing experience-based foraging plasticity in mites: age dependency, primacy effects and memory persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schausberger, Peter; Davaasambuu, Undarmaa; Saussure, Stéphanie; Christiansen, Inga C

    2018-04-01

    Behavioural plasticity can be categorized into activational (also termed contextual) and developmental plasticity. Activational plasticity allows immediate contextual behavioural changes, whereas developmental plasticity is characterized by time-lagged changes based on memory of previous experiences (learning). Behavioural plasticity tends to decline with age but whether this holds true for both plasticity categories and the effects of first-in-life experiences is poorly understood. We tackled this issue by assessing the foraging plasticity of plant-inhabiting predatory mites, Amblyseius swirskii , on thrips and spider mites following age-dependent prey experience, i.e. after hatching or after reaching maturity. Juvenile and young adult predator females were alternately presented thrips and spider mites, for establishing 1st and 2nd prey-in-life experiences, and tested, as gravid females, for their foraging plasticity when offered both prey species. Prey experience by juvenile predators resulted in clear learning effects, which were evident in likelier and earlier attacks on familiar prey, and higher proportional inclusion of familiar prey in total diet. First prey-in-life experience by juvenile but not adult predators resulted in primacy effects regarding attack latency. Prey experience by adult predators resulted mainly in prey-unspecific physiological changes, with easy-to-grasp spider mites providing higher net energy gains than difficult-to-grasp thrips. Prey experience by juvenile, but not adult, predators was adaptive, which was evident in a negative correlation between attack latencies and egg production. Overall, our study provides key evidence that similar experiences by juvenile and adult predators, including first-in-life experiences, may be associated with different types of behavioural plasticity, i.e. developmental and activational plasticity.

  12. Age-dependent salt hypertension in Dahl rats: fifty years of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicha, J; Dobešová, Z; Vokurková, M; Rauchová, H; Hojná, S; Kadlecová, M; Behuliak, M; Vaněčková, I; Kuneš, J

    2012-01-01

    Fifty years ago, Lewis K. Dahl has presented a new model of salt hypertension - salt-sensitive and salt-resistant Dahl rats. Twenty years later, John P. Rapp has published the first and so far the only comprehensive review on this rat model covering numerous aspects of pathophysiology and genetics of salt hypertension. When we summarized 25 years of our own research on Dahl/Rapp rats, we have realized the need to outline principal abnormalities of this model, to show their interactions at different levels of the organism and to highlight the ontogenetic aspects of salt hypertension development. Our attention was focused on some cellular aspects (cell membrane function, ion transport, cell calcium handling), intra- and extrarenal factors affecting renal function and/or renal injury, local and systemic effects of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, endothelial and smooth muscle changes responsible for abnormal vascular contraction or relaxation, altered balance between various vasoconstrictor and vasodilator systems in blood pressure maintenance as well as on the central nervous and peripheral mechanisms involved in the regulation of circulatory homeostasis. We also searched for the age-dependent impact of environmental and pharmacological interventions, which modify the development of high blood pressure and/or organ damage, if they influence the salt-sensitive organism in particular critical periods of development (developmental windows). Thus, severe self-sustaining salt hypertension in young Dahl rats is characterized by pronounced dysbalance between augmented sympathetic hyperactivity and relative nitric oxide deficiency, attenuated baroreflex as well as by a major increase of residual blood pressure indicating profound remodeling of resistance vessels. Salt hypertension development in young but not in adult Dahl rats can be attenuated by preventive increase of potassium or calcium intake. On the contrary, moderate salt hypertension in adult Dahl rats is

  13. Suppressing an anti-inflammatory cytokine reveals a strong age-dependent survival cost in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Belloni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The central paradigm of ecological immunology postulates that selection acts on immunity as to minimize its cost/benefit ratio. Costs of immunity may arise because the energetic requirements of the immune response divert resources that are no longer available for other vital functions. In addition to these resource-based costs, mis-directed or over-reacting immune responses can be particularly harmful for the host. In spite of the potential importance of immunopathology, most studies dealing with the evolution of the immune response have neglected such non resource-based costs. To keep the immune response under control, hosts have evolved regulatory pathways that should be considered when studying the target of the selection pressures acting on immunity. Indeed, variation in regulation may strongly modulate the negative outcome of immune activation, with potentially important fitness consequences. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we experimentally assessed the survival costs of reduced immune regulation by inhibiting an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10 with anti-IL-10 receptor antibodies (anti-IL-10R in mice that were either exposed to a mild inflammation or kept as control. The experiment was performed on young (3 months and old (15 months individuals, as to further assess the age-dependent cost of suppressing immune regulation. IL-10 inhibition induced high mortality in old mice exposed to the mild inflammatory insult, whereas no mortality was observed in young mice. However, young mice experienced a transitory lost in body mass when injected with the anti-IL-10R antibodies, showing that the treatment was to a lesser extent also costly for young individuals. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a major role of immune regulation that deserves attention when investigating the evolution of immunity, and indicate that the capacity to down-regulate the inflammatory response is crucial for late survival and longevity.

  14. Amyloid-beta transporter expression at the blood-CSF barrier is age-dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Crissey L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age is the major risk factor for many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD. There is an accumulation of amyloid-beta peptides (Aβ in both the AD brain and the normal aging brain. Clearance of Aβ from the brain occurs via active transport at the blood-brain barrier (BBB and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB. With increasing age, the expression of the Aβ efflux transporters is decreased and the Aβ influx transporter expression is increased at the BBB, adding to the amyloid burden in the brain. Expression of the Aβ transporters at the choroid plexus (CP epithelium as a function of aging was the subject of this study. Methods This project investigated the changes in expression of the Aβ transporters, the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1, P-glycoprotein (P-gp, LRP-2 (megalin and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE at the BCSFB in Brown-Norway/Fischer rats at ages 3, 6, 9, 12, 20, 30 and 36 months, using real time RT-PCR to measure transporter mRNA expression, and immunohistochemistry (IHC to measure transporter protein in isolated rat CP. Results There was an increase in the transcription of the Aβ efflux transporters, LRP-1 and P-gp, no change in RAGE expression and a decrease in LRP-2, the CP epithelium influx transporter, at the BCSFB with aging. Decreased Aβ42 concentration in the CP, as measured by quantitative IHC, was associated with these Aβ transporter alterations. Conclusions Age-dependent alterations in the CP Aβ transporters are associated with a decrease in Aβ42 accumulation in the CP, and are reciprocal to the changes seen in these transporters at the BBB, suggesting a possible compensatory role for the BCSFB in Aβ clearance in aging.

  15. Age-dependent trade-offs between immunity and male, but not female, reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Kathryn B; van Lieshout, Emile; Jones, Therésa M; Simmons, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Immune function is costly and must be traded off against other life-history traits, such as gamete production. Studies of immune trade-offs typically focus on adult individuals, yet the juvenile stage can be a highly protracted period when reproductive resources are acquired and immune challenges are ubiquitous. Trade-offs during development are likely to be important, yet no studies have considered changes in adult responses to immune challenges imposed at different stages of juvenile development. By manipulating the timing of a bacterial immune challenge to the larvae of the cotton bollworm moth, we examined potential trade-offs between investment into immunity at different stages of juvenile development (early or late) and subsequent adult reproductive investment into sperm or egg production. Our data reveal an age-dependent trade-off between juvenile immune function and adult male reproductive investment. Activation of the immune response during late development resulted in a reduced allocation of resources to eupyrene (fertilizing) sperm production. Immune activation from the injection procedure itself (irrespective of whether individuals were injected with an immune elicitor or a control solution) also caused reproductive trade-offs; males injected early in development produced fewer apyrene (nonfertilizing) sperm. Contrary to many other studies, our study demonstrates these immune trade-offs under ad libitum nutritional conditions. No trade-offs were observed between female immune activation and adult reproductive investment. We suggest the differences in trade-offs observed between male sperm types and the absence of reproductive trade-offs in females may be the result of ontogenetic differences in gamete production in this species. Our data reveal developmental windows when trade-offs between immune function and gametic investment are made, and highlight the importance of considering multiple developmental periods when making inferences regarding the

  16. Age-Dependent Schwann Cell Phenotype Regulation Following Peripheral Nerve Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wayne A; Luo, T David; Barnwell, Jonathan C; Smith, Thomas L; Li, Zhongyu

    2017-12-01

    Schwann cells are integral to the regenerative capacity of the peripheral nervous system, which declines after adolescence. The mechanisms underlying this decline are poorly understood. This study sought to compare the protein expression of Notch, c-Jun, and Krox-20 after nerve crush injury in adolescent and young adult rats. We hypothesized that these Schwann cell myelinating regulatory factors are down-regulated after nerve injury in an age-dependent fashion. Adolescent (2 months old) and young adult (12 months old) rats (n = 48) underwent sciatic nerve crush injury. Protein expression of Notch, c-Jun, and Krox-20 was quantified by Western blot analysis at 1, 3, and 7 days post-injury. Functional recovery was assessed in a separate group of animals (n = 8) by gait analysis (sciatic functional index) and electromyography (compound motor action potential) over an 8-week post-injury period. Young adult rats demonstrated a trend of delayed onset of the dedifferentiating regulatory factors, Notch and c-Jun, corresponding to the delayed functional recovery observed in young adult rats compared to adolescent rats. Compound motor action potential area was significantly greater in adolescent rats relative to young adult rats, while amplitude and velocity trended toward statistical significance. The process of Schwann cell dedifferentiation following peripheral nerve injury shows different trends with age. These trends of delayed onset of key regulatory factors responsible for Schwann cell myelination may be one of many possible factors mediating the significant differences in functional recovery between adolescent and young adult rats following peripheral nerve injury.

  17. Categorizing experience-based foraging plasticity in mites: age dependency, primacy effects and memory persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davaasambuu, Undarmaa; Saussure, Stéphanie; Christiansen, Inga C.

    2018-01-01

    Behavioural plasticity can be categorized into activational (also termed contextual) and developmental plasticity. Activational plasticity allows immediate contextual behavioural changes, whereas developmental plasticity is characterized by time-lagged changes based on memory of previous experiences (learning). Behavioural plasticity tends to decline with age but whether this holds true for both plasticity categories and the effects of first-in-life experiences is poorly understood. We tackled this issue by assessing the foraging plasticity of plant-inhabiting predatory mites, Amblyseius swirskii, on thrips and spider mites following age-dependent prey experience, i.e. after hatching or after reaching maturity. Juvenile and young adult predator females were alternately presented thrips and spider mites, for establishing 1st and 2nd prey-in-life experiences, and tested, as gravid females, for their foraging plasticity when offered both prey species. Prey experience by juvenile predators resulted in clear learning effects, which were evident in likelier and earlier attacks on familiar prey, and higher proportional inclusion of familiar prey in total diet. First prey-in-life experience by juvenile but not adult predators resulted in primacy effects regarding attack latency. Prey experience by adult predators resulted mainly in prey-unspecific physiological changes, with easy-to-grasp spider mites providing higher net energy gains than difficult-to-grasp thrips. Prey experience by juvenile, but not adult, predators was adaptive, which was evident in a negative correlation between attack latencies and egg production. Overall, our study provides key evidence that similar experiences by juvenile and adult predators, including first-in-life experiences, may be associated with different types of behavioural plasticity, i.e. developmental and activational plasticity. PMID:29765663

  18. [Investigation of the age-dependent development of brachygnathia inferior in the East Friesian milk sheep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielmeier, Ricarda; Kerkmann, Andrea; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    Shortness of the lower jaw (brachygnathia inferior, underbite) is a common anomaly in sheep. In order to study the age-dependent development of brachygnathia inferior, data of 73 East Friesian milk sheep from a breeding experiment over six generations were analysed. Data were recorded in regular intervals of four weeks from birth up to an age of at least 25 weeks. Brachygnathia inferior was determined by the distance between the edge of the central incisor of the lower jaw and the anterior surrounding of the upper jaw (DIFF-UK) using a measuring tape. Four main types of brachygnathia inferior were distinguished using means, standard deviations and maximum values of the individual animals.The thresholds were a maximum and mean DIFF-UK of 0.5 cm and a standard deviation of 0.266 cm. A total of 14 sheep (main types 3 and 4) showed an obvious brachygnathia inferior with mean DIFF-UK larger than 0.5 cm whereof ten animals showed a large variation of DIFF-UK values (standard deviation > 0.226 cm). Mean DIFF-UK values of 59 sheep were smaller than 0.5 cm (main types 1 and 2). One of these 59 animals had during the first four weeks of life DIFF-UK values of 1 cm and than decreasing values reaching zero within the next nine months (main type 2). Five of the 58 animals with main type 1 had a perfect occlusion of jaws, all with DIFF-UK values at zero during the whole recording period. Parents with severe or mild brachygnathia inferior had severely affected progeny. Selection of sheep for breeding with a perfect occlusion of jaws decreases the risk to pass on the hereditary disposition for brachygnathia inferior. An early inspection of potential breeding animals is advisable to detect all cases of brachygnathia inferior even if the underbite decreases in the first year of life.

  19. Age-dependent changes in innate immune phenotype and function in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Asquith

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aged individuals are more susceptible to infections due to a general decline in immune function broadly referred to as immune senescence. While age-related changes in the adaptive immune system are well documented, aging of the innate immune system remains less well understood, particularly in nonhuman primates. A more robust understanding of age-related changes in innate immune function would provide mechanistic insight into the increased susceptibility of the elderly to infection. Rhesus macaques have proved a critical translational model for aging research, and present a unique opportunity to dissect age-dependent modulation of the innate immune system. We examined age-related changes in: (i innate immune cell frequencies; (ii expression of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs and innate signaling molecules; (iii cytokine responses of monocytes and dendritic cells (DC following stimulation with PRR agonists; and (iv plasma cytokine levels in this model. We found marked changes in both the phenotype and function of innate immune cells. This included an age-associated increased frequency of myeloid DC (mDC. Moreover, we found toll-like receptor (TLR agonists lipopolysaccharide (TLR4, fibroblast stimulating ligand-1 (TLR2/6, and ODN2006 (TLR7/9 induced reduced cytokine responses in aged mDC. Interestingly, with the exception of the monocyte-derived TNFα response to LPS, which increased with age, TNFα, IL-6, and IFNα responses declined with age. We also found that TLR4, TLR5, and innate negative regulator, sterile alpha and TIR motif containing protein (SARM, were all expressed at lower levels in young animals. By contrast, absent in melanoma 2 and retinoic acid-inducible gene I expression was lowest in aged animals. Together, these observations indicate that several parameters of innate immunity are significantly modulated by age and contribute to differential immune function in aged macaques.

  20. Accommodation and age-dependent eye model based on in vivo measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Díaz, Juan F; Radhakrishnan, Hema; Charman, W Neil; López-Gil, Norberto

    2018-03-21

    To develop a flexible model of the average eye that incorporates changes with age and accommodation in all optical parameters, including entrance pupil diameter, under photopic, natural, environmental conditions. We collated retrospective in vivo measurements of all optical parameters, including entrance pupil diameter. Ray-tracing was used to calculate the wavefront aberrations of the eye model as a function of age, stimulus vergence and pupil diameter. These aberrations were used to calculate objective refraction using paraxial curvature matching. This was also done for several stimulus positions to calculate the accommodation response/stimulus curve. The model predicts a hyperopic change in distance refraction as the eye ages (+0.22D every 10 years) between 20 and 65 years. The slope of the accommodation response/stimulus curve was 0.72 for a 25 years-old subject, with little change between 20 and 45 years. A trend to a more negative value of primary spherical aberration as the eye accommodates is predicted for all ages (20-50 years). When accommodation is relaxed, a slight increase in primary spherical aberration (0.008μm every 10 years) between 20 and 65 years is predicted, for an age-dependent entrance pupil diameter ranging between 3.58mm (20 years) and 3.05mm (65 years). Results match reasonably well with studies performed in real eyes, except that spherical aberration is systematically slightly negative as compared with the practical data. The proposed eye model is able to predict changes in objective refraction and accommodation response. It has the potential to be a useful design and testing tool for devices (e.g. intraocular lenses or contact lenses) designed to correct the eye's optical errors. Copyright © 2018 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Age dependence of organophosphate and carbamate neurotoxicity in the postnatal rat: extrapolation to the human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidair, Charles A.

    2004-01-01

    One important aspect of risk assessment for the organophosphate and carbamate pesticides is to determine whether their neurotoxicity occurs at lower dose levels in human infants compared to adults. Because these compounds probably exert their neurotoxic effects through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the above question can be narrowed to whether the cholinesterase inhibition and neurotoxicity they produce is age-dependent, both in terms of the effects produced and potency. The rat is the animal model system most commonly used to address these issues. This paper first discusses the adequacy of the postnatal rat to serve as a model for neurodevelopment in the postnatal human, concluding that the two species share numerous pathways of postnatal neurodevelopment, and that the rat in the third postnatal week is the neurodevelopmental equivalent of the newborn human. Then, studies are discussed in which young and adult rats were dosed by identical routes with organophosphates or carbamates. Four pesticides were tested in rat pups in their third postnatal week: aldicarb, chlorpyrifos, malathion, and methamidophos. The first three, but not methamidophos, caused neurotoxicity at dose levels that ranged from 1.8- to 5.1-fold lower (mean 2.6-fold lower) in the 2- to 3-week-old rat compared to the adult. This estimate in the rat, based on a limited data set of three organophosphates and a single carbamate, probably represents the minimum difference in the neurotoxicity of an untested cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticide that should be expected between the human neonate and adult. For the organophosphates, the greater sensitivity of postnatal rats, and, by analogy, that expected for human neonates, is correlated with generally lower levels of the enzymes involved in organophosphate deactivation

  2. Age-dependent Hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase Gene Expression and Activity in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Neumann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTUDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs are important phase II drug metabolism enzymes. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between age and changes in mRNA expression and activity of major human hepatic UGTs, as well as to understand the potential regulatory mechanism underlying this relationship. Using previously generated data, we investigated age-dependent mRNA expression levels of 11 hepatic UGTs (UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A5, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, UGT2B4, UGT2B7, UGT2B10, UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 and 16 transcription factors (AHR, AR, CAR, ESR2, FXR, GCCR, HNF1a, HNF3a, HNF3b, HNF4a, PPARA, PPARG, PPARGC, PXR, SP1, and STAT3 in liver tissue of donors (n = 38 ranging from 0 to 25 years of age. We also examined the correlation between age and microsomal activities using 14 known UGT drug substrates in the liver samples (n = 19 of children donors. We found a statistically significant increase (nominal p < 0.05 in the expression of UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A5, UGT1A6, UGT2B7 and UGT2B17, as well as glucuronidation activities of serotonin, testosterone, and vorinostat during the first 25 years of life. Expression of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1 and pregnane X receptor (PXR, two strong UGT transcriptional regulators, were significantly correlated with both age and UGT mRNA expression (p ≤ 0.05. These results suggest that both UGT expression and activity increase during childhood and adolescence, possibly driven in part by hormonal signaling. Our findings may help explain inter-patient variability in response to medications among children.

  3. Is Growth Differentiation Factor 11 a Realistic Therapeutic for Aging-Dependent Muscle Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Shavonn C; Brack, Andrew; MacDonnell, Scott; Franti, Michael; Olwin, Bradley B; Bailey, Beth A; Rudnicki, Michael A; Houser, Steven R

    2016-04-01

    This "Controversies in Cardiovascular Research" article evaluates the evidence for and against the hypothesis that the circulating blood level of growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) decreases in old age and that restoring normal GDF11 levels in old animals rejuvenates their skeletal muscle and reverses pathological cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction. Studies supporting the original GDF11 hypothesis in skeletal and cardiac muscle have not been validated by several independent groups. These new studies have either found no effects of restoring normal GDF11 levels on cardiac structure and function or have shown that increasing GDF11 or its closely related family member growth differentiation factor 8 actually impairs skeletal muscle repair in old animals. One possible explanation for what seems to be mutually exclusive findings is that the original reagent used to measure GDF11 levels also detected many other molecules so that age-dependent changes in GDF11 are still not well known. The more important issue is whether increasing blood [GDF11] repairs old skeletal muscle and reverses age-related cardiac pathologies. There are substantial new and existing data showing that GDF8/11 can exacerbate rather than rejuvenate skeletal muscle injury in old animals. There is also new evidence disputing the idea that there is pathological hypertrophy in old C57bl6 mice and that GDF11 therapy can reverse cardiac pathologies. Finally, high [GDF11] causes reductions in body and heart weight in both young and old animals, suggestive of a cachexia effect. Our conclusion is that elevating blood levels of GDF11 in the aged might cause more harm than good. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Council Chamber exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    To complete the revamp of CERN’s Council Chamber, a new exhibition is being installed just in time for the June Council meetings.   Panels will showcase highlights of CERN’s history, using some of the content prepared for the exhibitions marking 50 years of the PS, which were displayed in the main building last November. The previous photo exhibition in the Council Chamber stopped at the 1970s. To avoid the new panels becoming quickly out of date, photos are grouped together around specific infrastructures, rather than following a classic time-line. “We have put the focus on the accelerators – the world-class facilities that CERN has been offering researchers over the years, from the well-known large colliders to the lesser-known smaller facilities,” says Emma Sanders, who worked on the content. The new exhibition will be featured in a future issue of the Bulletin with photos and an interview with Fabienne Marcastel, designer of the exhibit...

  5. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations. Fifty candles for CERN, an international laboratory renowned for fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting exhibitions of plastic arts and performances entitled: Accelerated Particles. Several works will be exhibited and performed in two 'salons'. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts From Tues 12 October to Wed 3 November 2004 Tuesdays to Fridays: 16:00 to 19:00 Saturdays: 14:00 to 18:00 Exhibition open late on performance nights, entrance free Salon des particules: Musical and visual performances Tues 12 and Mon 25 October from 20:00 to 23:00 Preview evening for both events: Tues 12 October from 18:...

  6. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses for age-dependent unavailability model integrating test and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kančev, Duško; Čepin, Marko

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Application of analytical unavailability model integrating T and M, ageing, and test strategy. ► Ageing data uncertainty propagation on system level assessed via Monte Carlo simulation. ► Uncertainty impact is growing with the extension of the surveillance test interval. ► Calculated system unavailability dependence on two different sensitivity study ageing databases. ► System unavailability sensitivity insights regarding specific groups of BEs as test intervals extend. - Abstract: The interest in operational lifetime extension of the existing nuclear power plants is growing. Consequently, plants life management programs, considering safety components ageing, are being developed and employed. Ageing represents a gradual degradation of the physical properties and functional performance of different components consequently implying their reduced availability. Analyses, which are being made in the direction of nuclear power plants lifetime extension are based upon components ageing management programs. On the other side, the large uncertainties of the ageing parameters as well as the uncertainties associated with most of the reliability data collections are widely acknowledged. This paper addresses the uncertainty and sensitivity analyses conducted utilizing a previously developed age-dependent unavailability model, integrating effects of test and maintenance activities, for a selected stand-by safety system in a nuclear power plant. The most important problem is the lack of data concerning the effects of ageing as well as the relatively high uncertainty associated to these data, which would correspond to more detailed modelling of ageing. A standard Monte Carlo simulation was coded for the purpose of this paper and utilized in the process of assessment of the component ageing parameters uncertainty propagation on system level. The obtained results from the uncertainty analysis indicate the extent to which the uncertainty of the selected

  7. Estimating Age-Dependent Extinction: Contrasting Evidence from Fossils and Phylogenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Oskar; Andermann, Tobias; Quental, Tiago B; Antonelli, Alexandre; Silvestro, Daniele

    2018-05-01

    The estimation of diversification rates is one of the most vividly debated topics in modern systematics, with considerable controversy surrounding the power of phylogenetic and fossil-based approaches in estimating extinction. Van Valen's seminal work from 1973 proposed the "Law of constant extinction," which states that the probability of extinction of taxa is not dependent on their age. This assumption of age-independent extinction has prevailed for decades with its assessment based on survivorship curves, which, however, do not directly account for the incompleteness of the fossil record, and have rarely been applied at the species level. Here, we present a Bayesian framework to estimate extinction rates from the fossil record accounting for age-dependent extinction (ADE). Our approach, unlike previous implementations, explicitly models unobserved species and accounts for the effects of fossil preservation on the observed longevity of sampled lineages. We assess the performance and robustness of our method through extensive simulations and apply it to a fossil data set of terrestrial Carnivora spanning the past 40 myr. We find strong evidence of ADE, as we detect the extinction rate to be highest in young species and declining with increasing species age. For comparison, we apply a recently developed analogous ADE model to a dated phylogeny of extant Carnivora. Although the phylogeny-based analysis also infers ADE, it indicates that the extinction rate, instead, increases with increasing taxon age. The estimated mean species longevity also differs substantially, with the fossil-based analyses estimating 2.0 myr, in contrast to 9.8 myr derived from the phylogeny-based inference. Scrutinizing these discrepancies, we find that both fossil and phylogeny-based ADE models are prone to high error rates when speciation and extinction rates increase or decrease through time. However, analyses of simulated and empirical data show that fossil-based inferences are more

  8. Meniscus matrix morphological composition: age-dependent evaluation in a swine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Polito

    2017-06-01

    observed the correlation between biochemical and phenotype properties of swine menisci follow age-dependent changes during growth: starting with an immature cellular and fiber pattern to the mature organised and differentiated adult menisci. Acknowledgments: This work was funded by the “Finanziamento Piano Sviluppo Ateneo - Linea 2A”

  9. Age-dependent risk factors for malnutrition in traumatology and orthopedic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Christine; Nüssler, Andreas; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Freude, Thomas; Bahrs, Christian; Ochs, Gunnar; Flesch, Ingo; Stöckle, Ulrich; Ihle, Christoph

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of risk of malnutrition (RoM) in an orthopedic and traumatology patient cohort with a broad range of ages. In addition to the classical indicators for risk assessment (low body mass index, weight loss, and comorbidity), this study aimed to analyze the effects of lifestyle factors (eating pattern, smoking, physical activity) on RoM. The prospective cohort study included 1053 patients in a level 1 trauma center in Germany. RoM was assessed by Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS) 2002 and for the elderly additionally by Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Age-dependent risk factors identified in univariate statistical analysis were used for multivariate logistic regression models. The prevalence of patients at RoM (NRS ≥3) was 22%. In the three age categories (<50 y, 50-69 y, and ≥70 y), loss of appetite, weight loss, number of comorbidities, drugs and gastrointestinal symptoms significantly increased RoM in univariate statistical analysis. In patients ages ≥70 y, several disease- and lifestyle-related factors (not living at home, less frequent consumption of vegetables and whole meal bread, low physical activity, and smoking) were associated with RoM. Multivariate logistic regression model for the total study population identified weight loss (odds ratio [OR], 6.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.14-8.83), loss of appetite (OR, 3.81; 95% CI, 2.52-5.78), age-specific low BMI (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.18-2.97), number of drugs taken (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.12-1.26), age (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02-1.04), and days per week with vegetable consumption (OR, 0.938; 95% CI, 0.89-0.99) as risk factors. Malnutrition in trauma and orthopedic patients is not only a problem related to age. Lifestyle-related factors also contribute significantly to malnutrition in geriatric patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Age-dependent change in biological characteristics of stem cells in radiation-induced mammary carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yoshiya; Nishimura, Mayumi; Kakinuma, Shizuko; Imaoka, Tatsuhiko; Yasukawa-Barnes, Jane; Gould, Michael N.; Clifton, Kelly H.

    2003-01-01

    If you ask what types of cells are the targets for carcinogenesis, a popular answer would be that cancer arises from stem cells. Stem cells are cells that are capable of both self-renewal and generation of differentiated progenies. If the hypothesis of 'cancer as stem cell disease' is correct, the risk of carcinogenesis should be a function of the number of stem cells and their responsiveness of carcinogen-induced damage. In the present study, we addressed the feasibility of this hypothesis using the rat mammary carcinogenesis model. One of the important conclusions emerging from studies on atomic bomb survivors concerns age-related changes in the susceptibility to breast cancer. The relative risk of breast cancer is very high among women exposed to ionizing radiation before or during puberty, and it decreases thereafter. Little information is available, however, on age-related changes in the radiobiological nature of mammary stem cells. We examined age-associated changes in the number of mammary stem-like cells (clonogens) and their susceptibility to radiation in terms of cell death and carcinogenic initiation frequency. The results were as follows. (1) During the prepubertal period, the total number of mammary clonogens per rat increased exponentially with a population doubling time of ∼4 days. After puberty, the doubling time lengthened to ∼30 days. The total number of clonogens in abdominal and inguinal mammary glands was ∼200 in 2-week-old rats, while it was ∼5600 in 8-week-old rats. (2) The survival curves of clonogenic cells after irradiation indicated that radiation sensitivity of the cells before and during puberty was much higher than after puberty. (3) The initiation frequency of the clonogens from prepubertal rats after 5 Gy irradiation was four times higher than that of the clonogens from post-pubertal rats. These results suggest that changes in the number of stem cells and their radiobiological characteristics underlie the age-dependent

  11. Age-dependent change in biological characteristics of stem cells in radiation-induced mammary carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Yoshiya; Nishimura, Mayumi; Kakinuma, Shizuko; Imaoka, Tatsuhiko [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa, Chiba (Japan); Yasukawa-Barnes, Jane; Gould, Michael N.; Clifton, Kelly H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Department of Human Oncology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2003-07-01

    underlie the age-dependent susceptibility to radiation-induced breast cancer. (author)

  12. Age Dependent Hypothalamic and Pituitary Responses to Novel Environment Stress or Lipopolysaccharide in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Koenig

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we have shown that the transcription factor nuclear factor interleukin (NF-IL6 can be used as an activation marker for inflammatory lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced and psychological novel environment stress (NES in the rat brain. Here, we aimed to investigate age dependent changes of hypothalamic and pituitary responses to NES (cage switch or LPS (100 μg/kg in 2 and 24 months old rats. Animals were sacrificed at specific time points, blood and brains withdrawn and analyzed using immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and bioassays. In the old rats, telemetric recording revealed that NES-induced hyperthermia was enhanced and prolonged compared to the young group. Plasma IL-6 levels remained unchanged and hypothalamic IL-6 mRNA expression was increased in the old rats. Interestingly, this response was accompanied by a significant upregulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA expression only in young rats after NES and overall higher plasma corticosterone levels in all aged animals. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a significant upregulation of NF-IL6-positive cells in the pituitary after NES or LPS-injection. In another important brain structure implicated in immune-to-brain communication, namely, in the median eminence (ME, NF-IL6-immunoreactivity was increased in aged animals, while the young group showed just minor activation after LPS-stimulation. Interestingly, we found a higher amount of NF-IL6-CD68-positive cells in the posterior pituitary of old rats compared to the young counterparts. Moreover, aging affected the regulation of cytokine interaction in the anterior pituitary lobe. LPS-treatment significantly enhanced the secretion of the cytokines IL-6 and TNFα into supernatants of primary cell cultures of the anterior pituitary. Furthermore, in the young rats, incubation with IL-6 and IL-10 antibodies before LPS-stimulation led to a robust decrease of IL-6 production and an increase of TNFα production by the pituitary

  13. Age dependent T2 changes of bone marrow in pediatric wrist MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabshin, Nogah; Schweitzer, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperintensity of the bone marrow on fluid-sensitive sequences can be seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during childhood, even in the absence of bone pathology. They can be related to hematopoietic marrow, normal and abnormal bone remodeling. We sought to investigate whether hyper intensity of the bone marrow on MRI of the wrist is age-dependent and to evaluate if this signal follows a consistent age-related pattern. Thirty-one wrist 1.5 T MR images of children (7-18 years) without suspected bone pathology were evaluated for foci of hyperintense bone marrow seen on fluid-sensitive coronal sequences using a scale of 1-3. Correlation of frequency, location and intensity of these foci with age was obtained. Results were analyzed for distribution in single bones and in the following regions: distal forearm, first/second carpal rows, and metacarpal bases. A total of 448 bones were evaluated. Eighty-eight out of 448 (21 out of 31 wrists) showed hyperintense bone marrow seen on fluid-sensitive sequences. The distribution was: radius in 19, ulna in 19, first metacarpal base in 11, scaphoid in 9, lunate in 6, pisiform in 6, and fifth metacarpal base in 1. The involvement of the first and second carpal rows and the metacarpal bases was almost similar (13, 12, and 12 respectively). In the distal forearm, the intensity was similar to or higher than that in the wrist (2.2 vs. 2.0). Frequency decreased with age (100% at 7-9 and 25% at 16-18 years). Foci of hyperintense bone marrow seen on fluid-sensitive sequences can be seen on MRI of the wrist during childhood even without apparent symptoms. It shows a consistent pattern with maturation: frequency and intensity decrease and there is distal-to-proximal resolution. This may be a normal finding that may represent normal bone remodeling or decreasing hematopoietic marrow and should not be confused with pathological bone marrow edema. (orig.)

  14. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's fiftieth anniversary celebrations. The fiftieth anniversary of a world famous organization like CERN, an international laboratory specializing in fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting two "salons" consisting of an exhibition of plastic arts and evenings of music and visual arts performances with the collective title of "Accelerated Particles". Several works will be exhibited and performed. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts Until Wednesday 3 November 2004. Tuesdays to Fridays: 4.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. Saturdays: 2.00 p.m. to 6.00 p.m. Doors open late on the evening of the performances. Salon des ...

  15. Age-dependent alterations of glucose clearance and homeostasis are temporally separated and modulated by dietary fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Mads Thue Fejerskov; Pærregaard, Simone I.; Søgaard, Ida

    2018-01-01

    Diet- and age-dependent changes in glucose regulation in mice occur, but the temporal development, mechanisms and influence of dietary fat source remain to be defined. We followed metabolic changes in three groups of mice including a low-fat diet (LFD) reference group and two high-fat, high-sucro...

  16. IGF-1 receptor haploinsufficiency leads to age-dependent development of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Sachin; Garg, Neha; Zhang, Ning; Hussey, Sophie E; Musi, Nicolas; Adamo, Martin L

    2017-05-13

    Individuals born small for gestational age (SGA) are at a higher risk of developing the metabolic syndrome later in life. IGF-1 resistance has been reported in placentae from SGA births and mutations in the Igf1 receptor gene have been reported in several cohorts of SGA subjects. We have used the Igf1r heterozygous (Igf1r +/- ) male mouse as a model to investigate the mechanisms by which Igf1r haploinsufficiency leads to insulin resistance. Despite exhibiting IGF-1 resistance, insulin signaling is enhanced in young Igf1r +/- mice but is attenuated in the muscle of old Igf1r +/- mice. Although smaller than WT (wild type) mice, old-aged Igf1r +/- had increased adiposity and exhibit increased lipogenesis. We hypothesize that IGF-1 resistance initially causes a transient increase in insulin signaling thereby promoting a lipogenic phenotype, which subsequently leads to insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. International Space Station exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) exhibit in StenniSphere at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., gives visitors an up-close look at the largest international peacetime project in history. Step inside a module of the ISS and glimpse how astronauts will live and work in space. Currently, 16 countries contribute resources and hardware to the ISS. When complete, the orbiting research facility will be larger than a football field.

  18. Upcycling CERN Exhibitions

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Summer is coming - and with it, a new Microcosm exhibition showcasing CERN (see here). But while the new exhibit is preparing to enchant visitors, many have been asking about the site's former content. Will it simply be out with the old and in with the new? Not as such!   The plasma ball from Microcosm is now on display at the LHCb site. As Microcosm's new content is moving in, its old content is moving up. From LHCb to IdeaSquare, former Microcosm displays and objects are being installed across the CERN site. "Microcosm featured many elements that were well suited to life outside of the exhibition," says Emma Sanders, Microcosm project leader in the EDU group. "We didn't want this popular content to go to waste, and so set out to find them new homes across CERN." The LHCb experiment has received a number of Microcosm favourites, including the Rutherford experiment, the cosmic ray display and the Thomson experiment. "We&...

  19. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, M.

    2009-12-01

    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum (www.webexhibits.org) and SpicyNodes information visualization tool (www.spicynodes.org) as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors

  20. Mobile exhibition in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-04-15

    Since January this year, a mobile atomic energy exhibition has been touring the principal cities of Mexico. In organizing this exhibition, the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Mexico was assisted by the International Atomic Energy Agency which has placed its second mobile radioisotope laboratory at the disposal of the Mexican authorities. In many States of the Republic, the visit of the mobile laboratory has given a powerful impetus to atomic training and research. Universities have made use of the laboratory for the training of young scientists in the basic isotope techniques. As a sequel to the work initiated with its aid, some universities are planning to start regular training courses in this field. The laboratory, which is a gift to the Agency from the United States, has been put to its first assignment in Mexico. It will shortly be sent to Argentina for a period of six months for use in training courses. IAEA's first mobile radioisotope unit, also donated by the United States, has been used for training purposes in Austria, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece and Yugoslavia, and has now been sent to the Far East

  1. Mobile exhibition in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    Since January this year, a mobile atomic energy exhibition has been touring the principal cities of Mexico. In organizing this exhibition, the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Mexico was assisted by the International Atomic Energy Agency which has placed its second mobile radioisotope laboratory at the disposal of the Mexican authorities. In many States of the Republic, the visit of the mobile laboratory has given a powerful impetus to atomic training and research. Universities have made use of the laboratory for the training of young scientists in the basic isotope techniques. As a sequel to the work initiated with its aid, some universities are planning to start regular training courses in this field. The laboratory, which is a gift to the Agency from the United States, has been put to its first assignment in Mexico. It will shortly be sent to Argentina for a period of six months for use in training courses. IAEA's first mobile radioisotope unit, also donated by the United States, has been used for training purposes in Austria, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece and Yugoslavia, and has now been sent to the Far East

  2. The age-dependent epigenetic and physiological changes in an Arabidopsis T87 cell suspension culture during long-term cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatkowska, Aleksandra; Zebrowski, Jacek; Oklejewicz, Bernadetta; Czarnik, Justyna; Halibart-Puzio, Joanna; Wnuk, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A decrease in proliferation rate during long-term cultivation of Arabidopsis cells. • Age-dependent increase in senescence-associated gene expression in Arabidopsis cells. • Age-related increase in DNA methylation, H3K9me2, and H3K27me3 in Arabidopsis cells. • High potential of photosynthetic efficiency of long-term cultured Arabidopsis cells. - Abstract: Plant cell suspension cultures represent good model systems applicable for both basic research and biotechnological purposes. Nevertheless, it is widely known that a prolonged in vitro cultivation of plant cells is associated with genetic and epigenetic instabilities, which may limit the usefulness of plant lines. In this study, the age-dependent epigenetic and physiological changes in an asynchronous Arabidopsis T87 cell culture were examined. A prolonged cultivation period was found to be correlated with a decrease in the proliferation rate and a simultaneous increase in the expression of senescence-associated genes, indicating that the aging process started at the late growth phase of the culture. In addition, increases in the heterochromatin-specific epigenetic markers, i.e., global DNA methylation, H3K9 dimethylation, and H3K27 trimethylation, were observed, suggesting the onset of chromatin condensation, a hallmark of the early stages of plant senescence. Although the number of live cells decreased with an increase in the age of the culture, the remaining viable cells retained a high potential to efficiently perform photosynthesis and did not exhibit any symptoms of photosystem II damage

  3. The age-dependent epigenetic and physiological changes in an Arabidopsis T87 cell suspension culture during long-term cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiatkowska, Aleksandra, E-mail: A.Kwiatkows@gmail.com [Department of Botany, University of Rzeszow, Kolbuszowa (Poland); Zebrowski, Jacek [Department of Plant Physiology, University of Rzeszow, Kolbuszowa (Poland); Oklejewicz, Bernadetta [Department of Genetics, University of Rzeszow, Kolbuszowa (Poland); Czarnik, Justyna [Department of Botany, University of Rzeszow, Kolbuszowa (Poland); Halibart-Puzio, Joanna [Department of Plant Physiology, University of Rzeszow, Kolbuszowa (Poland); Wnuk, Maciej [Department of Genetics, University of Rzeszow, Kolbuszowa (Poland)

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • A decrease in proliferation rate during long-term cultivation of Arabidopsis cells. • Age-dependent increase in senescence-associated gene expression in Arabidopsis cells. • Age-related increase in DNA methylation, H3K9me2, and H3K27me3 in Arabidopsis cells. • High potential of photosynthetic efficiency of long-term cultured Arabidopsis cells. - Abstract: Plant cell suspension cultures represent good model systems applicable for both basic research and biotechnological purposes. Nevertheless, it is widely known that a prolonged in vitro cultivation of plant cells is associated with genetic and epigenetic instabilities, which may limit the usefulness of plant lines. In this study, the age-dependent epigenetic and physiological changes in an asynchronous Arabidopsis T87 cell culture were examined. A prolonged cultivation period was found to be correlated with a decrease in the proliferation rate and a simultaneous increase in the expression of senescence-associated genes, indicating that the aging process started at the late growth phase of the culture. In addition, increases in the heterochromatin-specific epigenetic markers, i.e., global DNA methylation, H3K9 dimethylation, and H3K27 trimethylation, were observed, suggesting the onset of chromatin condensation, a hallmark of the early stages of plant senescence. Although the number of live cells decreased with an increase in the age of the culture, the remaining viable cells retained a high potential to efficiently perform photosynthesis and did not exhibit any symptoms of photosystem II damage.

  4. Guanosine 5'-triphosphate binding protein (G/sub i/) and two additional pertussis toxin substrates associated with muscarinic receptors in rat heart myocytes: characterization and age dependency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscona-Amir, E.; Henis, Y.I.; Sokolovsky, M.

    1988-01-01

    The coupling of muscarinic receptors with G-proteins was investigated in cultured myocytes prepared from the hearts of newborn rats. The coupling was investigated in both young (5 days after plating) and aged (14 days after plating) cultures, in view of the completely different effects of 5'-guanylyl imidodiphosphate [Gpp(NH)p] on muscarinic agonist binding to homogenates from young vs aged cultures. Pretreatment of cultures from both ages by Bordetella pertussis toxin (IAP) was found to eliminate any Gpp(NH)p effect on carbamylcholine binding. IAP by itself induced a rightward shift in the carbamylcholine competition curve in homogenates from aged cultures, but no such effect was observed in homogenates from young cultures. IAP-catalyzed [ 32 P]ADP-ribosylation of membrane preparations from young and aged cultures revealed major differences between them. Young cultures exhibited a major IAP substrate at 40 kDa, which was also recognized by anti-α/sub i/ antibodies, and two novel IAP substrates at 28 and 42 kDa, which were weakly ADP-ribosylated by the toxin and were not recognized with either anti-α/sub i/ or anti-α 0 antibodies. In aged cultures, only the 40-kDa band (ribosylated to a lower degree) was detected. The parallel age-dependent changes in the three IAP substrates (28, 40, and 42 kDa) and in the interactions of the G-protein(s) with the muscarinic receptors strongly suggest close association between the two phenomena. All of these age-dependent changes in the G-protein related parameters were prevented by phosphatidylcholine-liposome treatment of the aged cultures. The role of the membrane lipid composition in these phenomena is discussed

  5. Unique sex- and age-dependent effects in protective pathways in acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddu, Ravindra; Fan, Chunlan; Rangarajan, Sunil; Sunil, Bhuvana; Bolisetty, Subhashini; Curtis, Lisa M

    2017-09-01

    Sex and age influence susceptibility to acute kidney injury (AKI), with young females exhibiting lowest incidence. In these studies, we investigated mechanisms which may underlie the sex/age-based dissimilarities. Cisplatin (Cp)-induced AKI resulted in morphological evidence of injury in all groups. A minimal rise in plasma creatinine (PCr) was seen in Young Females, whereas in Aged Females, PCr rose precipitously. Relative to Young Males, Aged Males showed significantly, but temporally, comparably elevated PCr. Notably, Aged Females showed significantly greater mortality, whereas Young Females exhibited none. Tissue KIM-1 and plasma NGAL were significantly lower in Young Females than all others. IGFBP7 levels were modestly increased in both Young groups. IGFBP7 levels in Aged Females were significantly elevated at baseline relative to Aged Males, and increased linearly through day 3 , when these levels were comparable in both Aged groups. Plasma cytokine levels similarly showed a pattern of protective effects preferentially in Young Females. Expression of the drug transporter MATE2 did not explain the sex/age distinctions. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) levels (~28-kDa species) showed elevation at day 1 in all groups with highest levels seen in Young Males. Exclusively in Young Females, these levels returned to baseline on day 3 , suggestive of a more efficient recovery. In aggregate, we demonstrate, for the first time, a distinctive pattern of response to AKI in Young Females relative to males which appears to be significantly altered in aging. These distinctions may offer novel targets to exploit therapeutically in both females and males in the treatment of AKI.

  6. Anniversary Exhibition. Nechvolodov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - -

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available On the 10th of August, 2005 in Tartu (the second biggest educational and cultural city in Estonia Stanislav Nechvolodov's exhibition was opened to show the 5-year cycle of his work, traditional for the author and his admirers. At the opening ceremony Nechvolodov said that the exhibition was the last one and appointed on his 70th anniversary.The architectural and building society in Irkutsk remembers Stanislav Nechvolodov as an architect working on dwelling and civil buildings in 1960-70s. Below are some extracts from the Estonian press.«Postimees» newspaper, December 1993. The interview «Expressionistic naturalist, conservative Nechvolodov» by journalist Eric Linnumyagi. He asks about all the details and describes the troubles experienced by Nechvolodov during the perestroika period in Estonia, for example: the Tartu University refused to install the sculpture of Socrat, the art school refused to engage him as an instructor, the sculpture of Socrat moved to Vrotzlav, Poland, and Nechvolodov moved to Poland to read lectures there.«Tartu» newspaper, November 2000. Mats Oun, artist, says in the article «Nechvolodov: a man of Renaissance»: «Nechvolodov works in Estonia, his works are placed in many local and foreign museums. Regardless some insignificant faults, he deserves a high estimation, and his manysided open exhibition can be an example for other artists. He is a man of Renaissance».

  7. Growth activity in human septal cartilage: age-dependent incorporation of labeled sulfate in different anatomic locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, U.; Pirsig, W.; Heinze, E.

    1983-01-01

    Growth activity in different areas of human septal cartilage was measured by the in vitro incorporation of 35 S-labeled NaSO 4 into chondroitin sulfate. Septal cartilage without perichondrium was obtained during rhinoplasty from 36 patients aged 6 to 35 years. It could be shown that the anterior free end of the septum displays high growth activity in all age groups. The supra-premaxillary area displayed its highest growth activity during prepuberty, showing thereafter a continuous decline during puberty and adulthood. A similar age-dependent pattern in growth activity was found in the caudal prolongation of the septal cartilage. No age-dependent variations could be detected in the posterior area of the septal cartilage

  8. Tracer kinetics: Modelling by partial differential equations of inhomogeneous compartments with age-dependent elimination rates. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, E.

    1991-01-01

    The general theory of inhomogeneous compartments with age-dependent elimination rates is illustrated by examples. Mathematically, it turns out that models consisting of partial differential equations include ordinary, delayed and integro-differential equations, a general fact which is treated here in the context of linear tracer kinetics. The examples include standard compartments as a degenerate case, systems of standard compartments (compartment blocks), models resulting in special residence time distributions, models with pipes, and systems with heterogeneous particles. (orig./BBR) [de

  9. Age dependent food consumption data provided for the computation of the radiological impact via the ingestion pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalckbrenner, R.; Bayer, A.

    1979-08-01

    Averaged age dependent food consumption data are compiled and evaluated to provide input data for the computation of the radiological impact via the ingestion pathway. For special population groups (self-suppliers e.g.) factors are provided, by which the consumption for special foods may be exceeded. The evaluated data are compared with those of the 'USNRC-Regulatory Guide 1.109 (revised 1977)' and those of the 'Recommendation of the German Commission on Radiological Protection (Draft 1977)'. (orig.) [de

  10. A recalculation of the age dependent dose-effect-relationship of the life span study of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottbauer, M.M.; Fleck, C.M.; Schoellnberger, H.

    1996-01-01

    The basis of the presented model is the multistage process of carcinogenesis as a biological effect. It provides simultaneously the age-dependent mortality of spontaneous and radiation induced solid tumors and dose-effect relationships at any age after exposure. The model has been used to describe the solid cancer mortality rates of the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It has characteristics of both relative and absolute risk projections depending on the age of exposure. (author)

  11. Age-Dependent Cancer Risk Is not Different in between MSH2 and MLH1 Mutation Carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olschwang, S.; Olschwang, S.; Yu, K.

    2009-01-01

    Lynch syndrome is mostly characterized by early-onset colorectal and endometrial adenocarcinomas. Over 90% of the causal mutations occur in two mismatch repair genes, MSH2 and MLH1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the age-dependent cancer risk in MSH2 or MLH1 mutation carriers from data of DNA diagnostic laboratories. To avoid overestimation, evaluation was based on the age-dependent proportion of mutation carriers in asymptomatic first-degree relatives of identified mutation carriers. Data from 859 such eligible relatives were collected from 8 centers; 387 were found to have inherited the mutation from their relatives. Age-dependent risks were calculated either using a nonparametric approach for four discrete age groups or assuming a modified Weibull distribution for the dependence of risk on age. Cancer risk was estimated starting at 28 (25-32 0.68 confidence interval) and to reach near 0.70 at 70 years. The risks were very similar for MSH2 and MLH1 mutation carriers. Although not statistically significant, the risk in males appeared to precede that for females by ten years. This difference needs to be investigated on a larger dataset. If confirmed, this would indicate that the onset of the colonoscopic surveillance may be different in male and female mutation carriers.

  12. A search for the age-dependency of Ap star parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruediger, G.; Scholz, G.

    1988-01-01

    Some observational data of the sample of the magnetic chemically peculiar stars (MCP stars) are investigated statistically. For the MCP stars of spectral types later than A2 both the frequency distribution and the R · sin i-values suggest the existence of a linear relation between stellar diameter and rotation period. The MCP stars of spectral types earlier than B9 show an overpopulation of small R · sin i which may indicate the existence of a second group with smaller radius in this sample. The equatorially symmetric rotator is used as the magnetic model. With respect to its temporal behaviour the effective magnetic field is separated into dipolar and quadrupolar contribution. Both signs of the axisymmetric quadrupole moment appear with equal frequency. The dipole moment which produces the amplitude of the B eff (t) curve forms for longer periods two groups which are separated by a distinct gap. Both of the groups exhibit magnetic fields which are the stronger the greater the stellar radius is, contrary to what is expected for frozen-in fields. The dominance of magnetic curves without polarity reversal for longer-period stars is in accordance with predictions of the dynamo theory. (author)

  13. Mammary tumorigenesis in APCmin/+ mice is enhanced by X-irradiation with a characteristic age dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsuhiko, Imaoka; Mayumi, Nishimura; Shizuko, Kakinuma; Yoshiya, Shimada; Mieko, Okamoto

    2006-01-01

    The ApcM min/+ (Min) mouse is a genetically predisposed model of both intestinal and mammary tumorigenesis. We investigated age-related changes in the susceptibility of mice (before, during and after puberty) to radiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis using this model. Female Min and wild-type mice having the C57BL/6J background were irradiated with 2 Gy of X-rays at 2, 5, 7 and 10 weeks and sacrificed at 18 weeks of age. Min mice irradiated at 7 to 10 weeks of age (after puberty) developed mammary tumors with squamous metaplasia, whereas their wild-type litter-mates did not. Interestingly, irradiation of Min mice at 2 to 5 weeks (before and during puberty, respectively) did not induce mammary tumors but rather cystic nodules with metaplasia. The mammary tumors exhibited increased nuclear beta-catenin protein and loss of the wild-type Apc allele. Our results show that susceptibility to radiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis increases after puberty in Min mice, suggesting that the tumorigenic effect of ionizing radiation targets the lobular-alveolar progenitor cells, which increase in number with age and are controlled by beta-catenin signaling. (author)

  14. Morphometric study on age-dependent pulmonary lesions in rats exposed to nitrogen dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyono, H.; Kawai, K.

    1982-01-01

    Electronmicroscopic morphometry was performed on lung of 1, 3, 12 and 21 months-old rats exposed to 0.1, 0.5, 3 and 10 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) continuously for one month. The rats used in this experiment were all supplied at one time from one colony and kept under a barrier system until exposure. Effects of aging on the responses of lungs to NO/sub 2/ were studied by comparing the dose-effect reaction patterns among the age groups. A trend of dose-dependent increase of arithmetic mean thickness of air-blood barrier was found in all age groups examined. The response of lung to NO/sub 2/ exposure showed age-related differences. Based on the morphometric index, the response declines from 1 to 12 months, but increases again in 21-months-old rats. The compartmental components of alveolar wall tissue such as type I epithelial cells, type II epithelial cells, interstitial cells, interstitial matrix and capillary endothelium appeared to have various degrees of response due to both age at onset of exposure and NO/sub 2/ concentration, resulting in the appearance of varying stages in impairment or repair. Accordingly, the response of each compartmental component of lung to the concentrations of NO/sub 2/ did not always exhibit a simple dose-dependent increase or decrease but sometimes indicated a multiphasic reaction pattern.

  15. Age-dependent Characteristics in Women with Breast Cancer: Mastectomy and Reconstructive Trends at an Urban Academic Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodby, Katherine A; Robinson, Emilie; Danielson, Kirstie K; Quinn, Karina P; Antony, Anuja K

    2016-03-01

    Breast reconstruction is an important aspect of treatment after breast cancer. Postmastectomy reconstruction bears a significant impact on a woman's postsurgical confidence, sexuality, and overall well-being. Previous studies have inferred that women under age 40 years have unique characteristics that distinguish them from an older cohort. Identifying age-dependent trends will assist with counseling women on mastectomy and reconstruction. To identify age-dependent trends, 100 consecutive women were sampled from a prospectively maintained breast reconstruction database at an urban academic institution from June 2010 through June 2013. Women were placed into two cohorts mastectomy, reconstructive and symmetry procedures were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS software. In 100 patients of the sample study cohort, 151 reconstructions were performed. Increasing age was associated with one or more comorbidities [odds ratio (OR) = 1.07, P = 0.005], whereas younger age was associated with metastatic disease (OR = 0.88, P = 0.006), chemotherapy (OR = 0.94, P = 0.01), and radiation (OR = 0.94, P = 0.006); split cohorts demonstrated similar trends (P Mastectomy and reconstructive characteristics associated with younger age included bilateral mastectomy (OR = 0.94, P = 0.004), tissue expander (versus autologous flap) (OR = 0.94, P = 0.009), extra high implant type (OR = 0.94, P = 0.049), whereas increasing use of autologous flaps and contralateral mastopexy symmetry procedures (OR = 1.09, P = 0.02) were associated with an aging cohort. Increasing age was not associated with an increasing likelihood of complications (P = 0.75). Age-related factors play a role in the treatment of patients with breast cancer. Younger women typically present with more aggressive features requiring oncologic treatment including chemotherapy and radiation. Mastectomy and reconstructive choices also demonstrate age-dependent characteristics. Women in younger age groups are more

  16. Aged dominant negative p38α MAPK mice are resistant to age-dependent decline in adult-neurogenesis and context discrimination fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, IbDanelo; Bulavin, Dmitry V; Wu, Ping; McGrath, Erica L; Cunningham, Kathryn A; Wakamiya, Maki; Papaconstantinou, John; Dineley, Kelly T

    2017-03-30

    A major aspect of mammalian aging is the decline in functional competence of many self-renewing cell types, including adult-born neuronal precursors. Since age-related senescence of self-renewal occurs simultaneously with chronic up-regulation of the p38MAPKalpha (p38α) signaling pathway, we used the dominant negative mouse model for attenuated p38α activity (DN-p38α AF/+ ) in which Thr180 and Tyr182 are mutated (T→A/Y→F) to prevent phosphorylation activation (DN-p38α AF/+ ) and kinase activity. As a result, aged DN-p38α AF/+ mice are resistant to age-dependent decline in proliferation and regeneration of several peripheral tissue progenitors when compared to wild-type littermates. Aging is the major risk factor for non-inherited forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD); environmental and genetic risk factors that accelerate the senescence phenotype are thought to contribute to an individual's relative risk. In the present study, we evaluated aged DN-p38α AF/+ and wildtype littermates in a series of behavioral paradigms to test if p38α mutant mice exhibit altered baseline abnormalities in neurological reflexes, locomotion, anxiety-like behavior, and age-dependent cognitive decline. While aged DN-p38α AF/+ and wildtype littermates appear equal in all tested baseline neurological and behavioral parameters, DN-p38α AF/+ exhibit superior context discrimination fear conditioning. Context discrimination is a cognitive task that is supported by proliferation and differentiation of adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Consistent with enhanced context discrimination in aged DN-p38α AF/+ , we discovered enhanced production of adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus of DN-p38α AF/+ mice compared to wildtype littermates. Our findings support the notion that p38α inhibition has therapeutic utility in aging diseases that affect cognition, such as AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cell cycle age dependence for radiation-induced G2 arrest: evidence for time-dependent repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, R.

    1985-01-01

    Exponentially growing eucaryotic cells, irradiated in interphase, are delayed in progression to mitosis chiefly by arrest in G 2 . The sensitivity of Chinese hamster ovary cells to G 2 arrest induction by X rays increases through the cell cycle, up to the X-ray transition point (TP) in G 2 . This age response can be explained by cell cycle age-dependent changes in susceptibility of the target(s) for G 2 arrest and/or by changes in capability for postirradiation recovery from G 2 arrest damage. Discrimination between sensitivity changes and repair phenomena is possible only if the level of G 2 arrest-causing damage sustained by a cell at the time of irradiation and the level ultimately expressed as arrest can be determined. The ability of caffeine to ameliorate radiation-induced G 2 arrest, while inhibiting repair of G 2 arrest-causing damage makes such an analysis possible. In the presence of caffeine, progression of irradiated cells was relatively unperturbed, but on caffeine removal, G 2 arrest was expressed. The duration of G 2 arrest was independent of the length of the prior caffeine exposure. This finding indicates that the target for G 2 arrest induction is present throughout the cell cycle and that the level of G 2 arrest damage incurred is initially constant for all cell cycle phases. The data are consistent with the existence of a time-dependent recovery mechanism to explain the age dependence for radiation induction of G 2 arrest

  18. In vivo NAD assay reveals the intracellular NAD contents and redox state in healthy human brain and their age dependences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Hong; Lu, Ming; Lee, Byeong-Yeul; Ugurbil, Kamil; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    NAD is an essential metabolite that exists in NAD+ or NADH form in all living cells. Despite its critical roles in regulating mitochondrial energy production through the NAD+/NADH redox state and modulating cellular signaling processes through the activity of the NAD+-dependent enzymes, the method for quantifying intracellular NAD contents and redox state is limited to a few in vitro or ex vivo assays, which are not suitable for studying a living brain or organ. Here, we present a magnetic resonance (MR) -based in vivo NAD assay that uses the high-field MR scanner and is capable of noninvasively assessing NAD+ and NADH contents and the NAD+/NADH redox state in intact human brain. The results of this study provide the first insight, to our knowledge, into the cellular NAD concentrations and redox state in the brains of healthy volunteers. Furthermore, an age-dependent increase of intracellular NADH and age-dependent reductions in NAD+, total NAD contents, and NAD+/NADH redox potential of the healthy human brain were revealed in this study. The overall findings not only provide direct evidence of declined mitochondrial functions and altered NAD homeostasis that accompany the normal aging process but also, elucidate the merits and potentials of this new NAD assay for noninvasively studying the intracellular NAD metabolism and redox state in normal and diseased human brain or other organs in situ. PMID:25730862

  19. A simple microfluidic platform to study age-dependent protein abundance and localization changes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Cabrera

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae divides asymmetrically, with a smaller daughter cell emerging from its larger mother cell. While the daughter lineage is immortal, mother cells age with each cell division and have a finite lifespan. The replicative ageing of the yeast mother cell has been used as a model to study the ageing of mitotically active human cells. Several microfluidic platforms, which use fluid flow to selectively remove daughter cells, have recently been developed that can monitor cell physiology as mother cells age. However, these platforms are not trivial to set up and users often require many hours of training. In this study, we have developed a simple system, which combines a commercially available microfluidic platform (the CellASIC ONIX Microfluidic Platform and a genetic tool to prevent the proliferation of daughter cells (the Mother Enrichment Program, to monitor protein abundance and localization changes during approximately the first half of the yeast replicative lifespan. We validated our system by observing known age-dependent changes, such as decreased Sir2 abundance, and have identified a protein with a previously unknown age-dependent change in localization.

  20. Age-dependent changes in mean and variance of gene expression across tissues in a twin cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñuela, Ana; Brown, Andrew A; Buil, Alfonso; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Davies, Matthew N; Bell, Jordana T; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Spector, Timothy D; Small, Kerrin S

    2018-02-15

    Changes in the mean and variance of gene expression with age have consequences for healthy aging and disease development. Age-dependent changes in phenotypic variance have been associated with a decline in regulatory functions leading to increase in disease risk. Here, we investigate age-related mean and variance changes in gene expression measured by RNA-seq of fat, skin, whole blood and derived lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) expression from 855 adult female twins. We see evidence of up to 60% of age effects on transcription levels shared across tissues, and 47% of those on splicing. Using gene expression variance and discordance between genetically identical MZ twin pairs, we identify 137 genes with age-related changes in variance and 42 genes with age-related discordance between co-twins; implying the latter are driven by environmental effects. We identify four eQTLs whose effect on expression is age-dependent (FDR 5%). Combined, these results show a complicated mix of environmental and genetically driven changes in expression with age. Using the twin structure in our data, we show that additive genetic effects explain considerably more of the variance in gene expression than aging, but less that other environmental factors, potentially explaining why reliable expression-derived biomarkers for healthy-aging have proved elusive compared with those derived from methylation. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. Age-dependent effects on social interaction of NMDA GluN2A receptor subtype-selective antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Torrian L; Burket, Jessica A; Deutsch, Stephen I

    2016-07-01

    NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission is implicated in the regulation of normal sociability in mice. The heterotetrameric NMDA receptor is composed of two obligatory GluN1 and either two "modulatory" GluN2A or GluN2B receptor subunits. GluN2A and GluN2B-containing receptors differ in terms of their developmental expression, distribution between synaptic and extrasynaptic locations, and channel kinetic properties, among other differences. Because age-dependent differences in disruptive effects of GluN2A and GluN2B subtype-selective antagonists on sociability and locomotor activity have been reported in rats, the current investigation explored age-dependent effects of PEAQX, a GluN2A subtype-selective antagonist, on sociability, stereotypic behaviors emerging during social interaction, and spatial working memory in 4- and 8-week old male Swiss Webster mice. The data implicate an age-dependent contribution of GluN2A-containing NMDA receptors to the regulation of normal social interaction in mice. Specifically, at a dose of PEAQX devoid of any effect on locomotor activity and mouse rotarod performance, the social interaction of 8-week old mice was disrupted without any effect on the social salience of a stimulus mouse. Moreover, PEAQX attenuated stereotypic behavior emerging during social interaction in 4- and 8-week old mice. However, PEAQX had no effect on spontaneous alternations, a measure of spatial working memory, suggesting that neural circuits mediating sociability and spatial working memory may be discrete and dissociable from each other. Also, the data suggest that the regulation of stereotypic behaviors and sociability may occur independently of each other. Because expression of GluN2A-containing NMDA receptors occurs at a later developmental stage, they may be more involved in mediating the pathogenesis of ASDs in patients with histories of "regression" after a period of normal development than GluN2B receptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  2. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Energie sombre, matière noire J.-J. Dalmais - J. Maréchal Du 11 au 27 novembre 2014, CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal A l’image des particules atomiques qui ont tissé des liens pour créer la matière, deux artistes haut bugistes croisent leurs regards et conjuguent leurs expressions singulières pour faire naître une vision commune de l’univers, produit des forces primordiales. Les sculptures de Jean-Jacques Dalmais et les peintures de Jacki Maréchal se rencontrent pour la première fois et se racontent par un enrichissement mutuel la belle histoire de la Vie. Dialogue magique des œuvres en mouvement qui questionnent en écho l’énergie sombre et la matière noire. Cette harmonieuse confluence de jeux de miroir et de résonnance illumine de poésie et de sobriété l’espace expos&...

  3. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Gaïa Manuella Cany Du 10 au 28 avril 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Oiseau - Manuella Cany. Tableaux abstraits inspirés de vues satellites ou photos prises du ciel. Certains sont à la frontière du figuratif alors que d'autres permettent de laisser libre cours à son imagination. Aux détails infinis, ces tableaux sont faits pour être vus de loin et de près grâce à une attention toute particulière apportée aux effets de matières et aux couleurs le long de volutes tantôt nuancées tantôt contrastées.   Pour plus d’informations : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  4. Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    En dehors des frontières Maxence Piquet Du 2 au 11 mai 2018 | CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Exposition de peinture d'un artiste autodidacte Maxence Piquet (signature artiste M-P), avec différentes techniques (acrylique, huile, fusain, collage...) et sur différents supports. Un art souvent brut et parfois provoquant, avec des touches expressionnistes et cubistes principale origine de son art. Des œuvres souvent vivent et colorées... Cette exposition est la première en dehors d ses frontières Lorraine et a pour but de faire voyager son art au regard du plus grand nombre . Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  5. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    The Elementary Particles of Painting Alfonso Fratteggiani Bianchi and Ermanno Imbergamo From September 26 to October 7, 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building With intentions similar to those of CERN physicists, the artist Alfonso Fratteggiani Bianchi investigates the color pigment, studying its interaction with light and with the support on which it is deposited. He creates monochrome paintings by spreading the color pigment in the pure state on stones, without using glue or any other type of adhesive. With intentions similar to artists, the physicist Ermanno Imbergamo investigates the use of luminescent wavelength shifters, materials commonly used in Particle Physics, for art. He creates other monochrome artworks, which disclose further aspects of interaction among light, color pigments and support. For more information: staff.association@cern.ch | Tel: 022 767 28 19

  6. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    COLORATION Sandra Duchêne From September 5 to 16, 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building La recherche de l’Universel. Après tout ! C’est de l’Amour ! What else to say ? …La couleur, l’ENERGIE de la vie…

  7. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      Parallels vision Astronomical subjects which evoke extrasensory kinetic visions Alberto Di Fabio From 8 to 10 October, CERN Meyrin, Main Building In the framework of Italy@cern, the Staff Association presents Alberto Di Fabio. Di Fabio’s work is inspired by the fundamental laws of the physical world, as well as organic elements and their interrelation. His paintings and works on paper merge the worlds of art and science, depicting natural forms and biological structures in vivid colour and imaginative detail. For all additional information: staff.association@cern.ch | Tel: 022 767 28 19

  8. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Le Point Isabelle Gailland Du 20 février au 3 mars 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal La Diagonale - Isabelle Gailland. Au départ, un toujours même point minuscule posé au centre de ce que la toile est un espace. Une réplique d'autres points, condensés, alignés, isolés, disséminés construiront dans leur extension, la ligne. Ces lignes, croisées, courbées, déviées, prolongées, seront la structure contenant et séparant la matière des couleurs. La rotation de chaque toile en cours d'exécution va offrir un accès illimité à la non-forme et à la forme. Le point final sera l'ouverture sur différents points de vue de ce que le point et la ligne sont devenus une représentation pour l'œil et l'im...

  9. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    La danse mécanique Daria Grigoryeva Du 22 mai au 1er juin 2018 | CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal La danse mécanique est une métaphore large. La mécanique établit les règles et les limites, les frontières dans lesquelles la vie et la créativité peuvent se développer. La musique est « mathématique », une poupée mécanique se tourne toujours dans la même direction, selon les règles prescrites par la nature les fleurs fleurissent au printemps. Même s'ils ne le voulaient pas. La participation à la "danse mécanique" est prédéterminée et inévitable. Il ne reste plus qu'à comprendre comment le faire "magnifiquement". En tout, il y a une signification cachée et un...

  10. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Still Life Jérémy Bajulaz Du 25 septembre au 6 octobre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building (Aubergine - Jérémy Bajulaz) Né en 1991 en Haute-Savoie, France. Diplômé de l'Ecole Emile Cohl à Lyon, Jérémy Bajulaz intègre en 2014 le programme d'artiste en résidence au Centre Genevois de Gravure Contemporaine. C'est là que son travail prendra corps, autour de la lumière et de ses vibrations aux travers de sujets comme le portrait et la nature morte, dans le souci de l'observation; le regard prenant une place importante dans le processus créatif. Lauréat 2017 du VII Premio AAAC, son travail a été présenté dans de nombreuses expositions collectives, en 2015 au Bâtiment d’Art Contemporain de Genève, en 2016 au 89e Salon de Lyon et du ...

  11. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Œuvres recentes Fabienne Wyler Du 6 au 17 février 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal L'escalier du diable B - aquarelle, encre de Chine XLV - Fabienne Wyler. En relation avec certains procédés d’écriture contemporaine (par ex. Webern ou certaines musiques conçues par ordinateur), les compositions picturales de Fabienne Wyler s’élaborent à partir de « modules » (groupes de quadrangles) qu’elle reproduit en leur faisant subir toutes sortes de transformations et de déplacements : étirements, renversements, rotations, effet miroir, transpositions, déphasages, superpositions, etc., et ceci à toutes les échelles. Au fil des œuvres sont apparues des séries intitulées, Bifurcations, Intermittences, Attracteurs étranges, Polyrythmies. Ces titres ont un lien &e...

  12. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Les vibrantes Patrick Robbe-Grillet Du 30 octobre au 10 novembre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Patrick Robbe-Grillet - Feux d'artifices Qui est Patrick Robbe-Grillet ? Artiste Franco-Suisse, né en 1968 à Genève. En recherche du sentiment de paix, autodidacte, après un séjour en Chine en 2000, puis au Japon en 2002, suivi d’un long questionnement, il trouve sa voie dans la peinture, élément libérateur de sa créativité et expression de sa sensibilité à fleur de peau. « La Chine m’a enseigné les courbes, les nuances. Le Japon, la ligne droite, la rigueur. » Vous avez su rendre visible l'invisible ! - commentaire de Monsieur Fawaz Gruosi Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél : 022 766 37 38

  13. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    La couleur des jours oriSio Du 2 au 12 mai 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal oriSio - Motus Suite à un fort intérêt pour la Chine et une curiosité pour un médium très ancien, la laque ! Je réinterprète cet art à travers un style abstrait. Je présente ici des laques sur aluminium, travaillés au plasma et ensuite colorés à l’aide de pigments pour l’essentiel. Mes œuvres je les veux brutes, déchirées, évanescentes, gondolées, voire trouées mais avec une belle approche de profondeur de la couleur.   Pour plus d’informations : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  14. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Jan Hladky, physicien de l'Institut de Physique de l'Académie des Sciences de la République tchèque, et membre de la collaboration Alice, expose ses œuvres au Bâtiment principal du 20 avril au 6 mai. Son exposition est dédiée aux victimes du séisme de Sendai. Des copies de ses œuvres seront mises en vente et les sommes récoltées seront versées au profit des victimes.

  15. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    La mosaïque ou quand détruire permet de construire Lauren Decamps Du 28 novembre au 9 décembre 2016 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Paysage d'Amsterdam - Lauren Decamps On ne doit jamais rien détruire qu'on ne soit sûr de pouvoir remplacer aussi avantageusement " écrivait Plutarque dans ses Œuvres morales du 1er siècle après JC. L'artiste mosaïste Lauren Decamps adhère à cette idée et tente à sa manière de donner une nouvelle vie à ses matériaux en les taillant puis les réassemblant, créant ainsi des œuvres abstraites et figuratives.

  16. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Firmament des toiles Joëlle Lalagüe Du 6 au 16 juin 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Phylaë Voyage - Joëlle Lalagüe. Each picture is an invitation for a cosmic trip. This is a whispering of soul, which comes from origins. A symphony of the world, some notes of love, a harmony for us to fly to infinity. Pour plus d’informations et demandes d'accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  17. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    Univers Du 9 au 20 avril 2018 | CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Stéphanie Cousin Obsédée par les rêves, les mondes surréalistes et insolites, je m’empare de formes provenant des mes propres travaux photographiques ou d’images que je modifie et mixe. Je fais évoluer mes univers oniriques de femmes-animaux ainsi que mes espaces et natures imaginaires. Avec ma démarche artistique, je cherche à mettre en images nos rêves et nos cauchemars, l’irréel et le surréel, le mystique et les affres de notre inconscient. Je cherche à représenter tout ce qui sommeille au plus profond de nous-même à l’aide de symboles, parfois en utilisant des images de cultures ancestrales. Photographie-collage, je cherche à ajouter quelques notes à la définition de la photographie du 21iè...

  18. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Harmonie Nathalie Lenoir Du 4 au 15 septembre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Peindre est un langage. Le tracé du pinceau sur le lin en est l'expression. A qui appartient un tableau en définitive ? A celui qui l'a peint ? A celui qui le regarde ? A celui qui l'emporte ? La peinture est une émotion partagée... Laissez-vous projeter de l'autre côté de la toile, prenez un moment pour rêver, en harmonie avec les éléments, parce-que la peinture parle à votre âme… Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél : 022 766 37 38

  19. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    Cosmos KOLI Du 15 au 26 janvier 2018 CERN Meyrin, Main Building (Nébuleuse d'Orion- KOLI) KOLI, Artiste confirmé, diplômé de l’Académie de Beaux Arts de Tirana, depuis 26 ans en Suisse, où il a participé à maintes expositions collectives et organisé 10 expositions privées avec  beaucoup de succès, s’exprime actuellement dans un bonheur de couleur et de matières qui côtoient des hautes sphères… le cosmos ! Gagnant d’un premier prix lors d’une exposition collective organisée par le consulat Italien, il s’est installé au bord du lac dans le canton de Vaud où il vit depuis maintenant déjà 13 ans. www.kolicreation.com Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | T&eacut...

  20. Exhibition at the AAA library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Sonnesgade 11 The exhibition at the AAA library presents selected work produced by students prior to the exhibition of installations in project and praxis constructing an archive at Sonnesgade 11. The exhibition at Sonnesgade 11 was the culmination of collaboration with SLETH architects and studio...

  1. Tracer kinetics: Modelling by partial differential equations of inhomogeneous compartments with age-dependent elimination rates. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, E.

    1991-01-01

    Mathematical models in tracer kinetics are usually based on ordinary differential equations which correspond to a system of kinetically homogeneous compartments (standard compartments). A generalization is possible by the admission of inhomogeneities in the behaviour of the elements belonging to a compartment. The important special case of the age-dependence of elimination rates is treated in its deterministic version. It leads to partial different equations (i.e., systems with distributed coefficients) with the 'age' or the 'residence time' of an element of the compartment as a variable additional to 'time'. The basic equations for one generalized compartment and for systems of such compartments are given together with their general solutions. (orig.) [de

  2. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of a novel phenotype in pigs characterized by juvenile hairlessness and age dependent emphysema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Camilla S.; Jørgensen, Claus B.; Bay, Lene

    2008-01-01

    Background: A pig phenotype characterized by juvenile hairlessness, thin skin and age dependent lung emphysema has been discovered in a Danish pig herd. The trait shows autosomal co-dominant inheritance with all three genotypes distinguishable. Since the phenotype shows resemblance to the integrin...... of musculi arrectores pili, and at puberty or later localized areas of emphysema are seen in the lungs. Comparative mapping predicted that the porcine ITGB6 and ITGAV orthologs map to SSC15. In an experimentall family (n=113), showing segregation of the trait, the candidate region was confirmed by linkage...... splicing of the ITGB6 pre-mRNA was detected. For both ITGB6 and ITGAV quantitative PCR revealed no significant difference in the expression levels in normal and affected animals. In a western blot, ITGB6 was detected in lung protein samples of all three genotypes. This result was supported by flow...

  3. TIEG1-null tenocytes display age-dependent differences in their gene expression, adhesion, spreading and proliferation properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Oualid; Gumez, Laurie [Laboratoire de Biomecanique et Bioingenierie UMR CNRS 6600, Universite de Technologie de Compiegne, Compiegne (France); Hawse, John R.; Subramaniam, Malayannan; Spelsberg, Thomas C. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN (United States); Bensamoun, Sabine F., E-mail: sabine.bensamoun@utc.fr [Laboratoire de Biomecanique et Bioingenierie UMR CNRS 6600, Universite de Technologie de Compiegne, Compiegne (France)

    2011-07-15

    The remodeling of extracellular matrix is a crucial mechanism in tendon development and the proliferation of fibroblasts is a key factor in this process. The purpose of this study was to further elucidate the role of TIEG1 in mediating important tenocyte properties throughout the aging process. Wildtype and TIEG1 knockout tenocytes adhesion, spreading and proliferation were characterized on different substrates (fibronectin, collagen type I, gelatin and laminin) and the expression levels of various genes known to be involved with tendon development were analyzed by RT-PCR. The experiments revealed age-dependent and substrate-dependent properties for both wildtype and TIEG1 knockout tenocytes. Taken together, our results indicate an important role for TIEG1 in regulating tenocytes adhesion, spreading, and proliferation throughout the aging process. Understanding the basic mechanisms of TIEG1 in tenocytes may provide valuable information for treating multiple tendon disorders.

  4. Age-dependent dose factors and dose limits of annual radioactivity uptake with unsealed radioactive substances by occupationally exposed persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, A.; Nosske, D; Elsasser, U; Roedler, H.D.; Henrichs, K.

    1986-01-01

    The dose factors have been calculated on the basis of the ICRP models for dosimetric and metabolistic assessment, and are laid open in accordance with Annex XI ( to sec. 45 sub-section (2)) of the amended version of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. The contribution in hand explains the scientific fundamentals and results of the calculations of dose factors relating to inhalation and ingestion of unsealed radioactive substances by adult reference man, and age-dependent factors calculated for children and adolescents. Further, annual limits of uptake by occupationally exposed persons, as calculated on the basis of primary dose limits pursunant to the draft amendment presented by the Federal Interior Minister, are compared with relevant data given by the ICRP and EC institutions. (orig./DG) [de

  5. Stage-specific and age-dependent profiles of zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium in rat seminiferous tubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma-Takeda, S.; Nishimura, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Imaseki, H.; Yukawa, M.

    2004-01-01

    Stage-specific and age-dependent profiles of zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium in testis were examined in Wistar rats by both inductively coupled argon plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with a microdissection technique and in situ elemental imaging of micro-PIXE analysis. The young adult animals (10 weeks old) contained higher levels of zinc and manganese in the seminiferous tubules at stages VII-VIII than stages XI through VI and IX-X and the levels were higher than those of the immature and old animals. Copper and selenium levels at stages VII-VIII of the young adult animals were also higher than those of the immature and old animals. In stages VII and VIII, zinc was higher in the central area of the seminiferous epithelium, where spermatozoa were localized, demonstrating a cell-specific property. (author)

  6. An approach to calculating childhood body burdens of dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans which accounts for age-dependent biological half lives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paustenbach, D. [ChemRisk, San Francisco, CA (United States); Leung, H.W. [Leung, H.W. Private Consultant, Danbury, CT (United States); Scott, P. [ChemRisk, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kerger, B. [HSRI, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to apply an age-dependent half life model to examine the range of child (ages 0-7) body burdens that correspond to selected exposure scenarios involving background dietary and environmental doses of dioxins. The scenarios examined include breast-fed and nonbreast- fed infants feeding for 6 months, other dioxin uptake from foods through age 7, and exposures to urban residential soils at 1 ppb TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ). These body burden estimates in children are then compared to the adult body burden estimates corresponding to the range of tolerable daily intakes (1 to 4 pg TEQ/kg-day) proposed by some U.S. and international regulatory/advisory groups.

  7. Enterprise stenting for intracranial aneurysm treatment induces dynamic and reversible age-dependent stenosis in cerebral arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bulang; Safain, Mina G; Malek, Adel M

    2015-04-01

    Although intracranial stenting has been associated with in-stent stenosis, the vascular response of cerebral vessels to the deployment of the Enterprise vascular reconstruction device is poorly defined. To evaluate the change in parent vessel caliber that ensues after Enterprise stent placement. Seventy-seven patients with 88 aneurysms were treated using Enterprise stent-assisted coil embolization and underwent high-resolution three-dimensional rotational angiography followed by three-dimensional edge-detection filtering to remove windowing-dependence measurement artifact. Orthogonal diameters and cross-sectional areas (CSAs) were measured proximal and distal on either side of the leading stent edge (points A, B), trailing stent edge (points D, E), and at mid-stent (point C). Enterprise stent deployment caused an instant increase in the parent artery CSA by 8.98% at D, which was followed 4-6 months later by significant in-stent stenosis (15.78% at A, 27.24% at B, 10.68% at C, 32.12% at D, and 28.28% at E) in the stented artery. This time-dependent phenomenon showed resolution which was complete by 12-24 months after treatment. This target vessel stenosis showed significant age dependence with greater response in the young. No flow-limiting stenosis requiring treatment was observed in this series. Use of the Enterprise stent is associated with a significant dynamic and spontaneously resolvable age-dependent in-stent stenosis. Further study is warranted on the clinical impact, if any, of this occurrence. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. An Age-Dependent Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model for the Organophosphorus Insecticide Chlorpyrifos in the Preweanling Rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timchalk, Chuck; Kousba, Ahmed A.; Poet, Torka S.

    2007-08-01

    Juvenile rats are more susceptible than adults to the acute toxicity of organophosphorus insecticides like chlorpyrifos (CPF). Age- and dose-dependent differences in metabolism may be responsible. Of importance is CYP450 activation and detoxification of CPF to chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPF-oxon) and trichloropyridinol (TCP), as well as B-esterase (cholinesterase; ChE) and A-esterase (PON-1) detoxification of CPF-oxon to TCP. In the current study, a modified physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model incorporating age-dependent changes in CYP450, PON-1, and tissue ChE levels for rats was developed. In this model, age was used as a dependent function to estimate body weight which was then used to allometrically scale both metabolism and tissue ChE levels. Model simulations suggest that preweanling rats are particularly sensitive to CPF toxicity, with levels of CPF-oxon in blood and brain disproportionately increasing, relative to the response in adult rats. This age-dependent non-linear increase in CPF-oxon concentration may potentially result from the depletion of non-target B-esterases, and a lower PON-1 metabolic capacity in younger animals. These results indicate that the PBPK/PD model behaves consistently with the general understanding of CPF toxicity, pharmacokinetics and tissue ChE inhibition in neonatal and adult rats. Hence, this model represents an important starting point for developing a computational model to assess the neurotoxic potential of environmentally relevant organophosphate exposures in infants and children.

  9. Age-Dependent Effects of Methylphenidate on the Human Dopaminergic System in Young vs Adult Patients With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Clincal Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrantee, A.; Tamminga, H.G.H.; Bouziane, C.; Bottelier, M.A.; Bron, E.E.; Mutsaerts, H.-J.M.M.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Groote, I.R.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; Lindauer, R.J.L.; Klein, S.; Niessen, W.J.; Opmeer, B.C.; Boer, F.; Lucassen, P.J.; Andersen, S.L.; Geurts, H.M.; Reneman, L.

    2016-01-01

    Importance: Although numerous children receive methylphenidate hydrochloride for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about age-dependent and possibly lasting effects of methylphenidate on the human dopaminergic system. Objectives: To determine whether

  10. Age-dependent effects of methylphenidate on the human dopaminergic system in young vs adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrantee, A. (Anouk); Tamminga, H.G.H. (Hyke G. H.); C. Bouziane (Cheima); Bottelier, M.A. (Marco A.); E.E. Bron (Esther); H.J.M.M. Mutsaerts (Henri J. M.); A.H. Zwinderman (Ailko); Groote, I.R. (Inge R.); S.A.R.B. Rombouts (Serge); Lindauer, R.J.L. (Ramon J. L.); S. Klein (Stefan); W.J. Niessen (Wiro); B.C. Opmeer (Brent); Boer, F. (Frits); P.J. Lucassen; Andersen, S.L. (Susan L.); H.M. Geurts (Hilde ); L. Reneman (Liesbeth)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIMPORTANCE Although numerous children receivemethylphenidate hydrochloride for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about age-dependent and possibly lasting effects of methylphenidate on the human dopaminergic system. OBJECTIVES To determine

  11. Age-Dependent Effects of Methylphenidate on the Human Dopaminergic System in Young vs Adult Patients With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrantee, Anouk; Tamminga, Hyke G. H.; Bouziane, Cheima; Bottelier, Marco A.; Bron, Esther E.; Mutsaerts, Henk-Jan M. M.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Groote, Inge R.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Lindauer, Ramon J. L.; Klein, Stefan; Niessen, Wiro J.; Opmeer, Brent C.; Boer, Frits; Lucassen, Paul J.; Andersen, Susan L.; Geurts, Hilde M.; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous children receive methylphenidate hydrochloride for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about age-dependent and possibly lasting effects of methylphenidate on the human dopaminergic system. To determine whether the effects of

  12. The importance of age dependent mortality and the extrinsic incubation period in models of mosquito-borne disease transmission and control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve E Bellan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nearly all mathematical models of vector-borne diseases have assumed that vectors die at constant rates. However, recent empirical research suggests that mosquito mortality rates are frequently age dependent. This work develops a simple mathematical model to assess how relaxing the classical assumption of constant mortality affects the predicted effectiveness of anti-vectorial interventions. The effectiveness of mosquito control when mosquitoes die at age dependent rates was also compared across different extrinsic incubation periods. Compared to a more realistic age dependent model, constant mortality models overestimated the sensitivity of disease transmission to interventions that reduce mosquito survival. Interventions that reduce mosquito survival were also found to be slightly less effective when implemented in systems with shorter EIPs. Future transmission models that examine anti-vectorial interventions should incorporate realistic age dependent mortality rates.

  13. Skeletal muscle metabolism in hypokinetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Marc E.

    1993-01-01

    This grant focused on the mechanisms of metabolic changes associated with unweighting atrophy and reduced growth of hind limb muscles of juvenile rats. Metabolic studies included a number of different areas. Amino acid metabolic studies placed particular emphasis on glutamine and branched-chain amino acid metabolism. These studies were an outgrowth of understanding stress effects and the role of glucocorticoids in these animals. Investigations on protein metabolism were largely concerned with selective loss of myofibrillar proteins and the role of muscle proteolysis. These investigations lead to finding important differences from denervation and atrophy and to define the roles of cytosolic versus lysosomal proteolysis in these atrophy models. A major outgrowth of these studies was demonstrating an ability to prevent atrophy of the unweighted muscle for at least 24 hours. A large amount of work concentrated on carbohydrate metabolism and its regulation by insulin and catecholamines. Measurements focused on glucose transport, glycogen metabolism, and glucose oxidation. The grant was used to develop an important new in situ approach for studying protein metabolism, glucose transport, and hormonal effects which involves intramuscular injection of various agents for up to 24 hours. Another important consequence of this project was the development and flight of Physiological-Anatomical Rodent Experiment-1 (PARE-1), which was launched aboard Space Shuttle Discovery in September 1991. Detailed descriptions of these studies can be found in the 30 peer-reviewed publications, 15 non-reviewed publications, 4 reviews and 33 abstracts (total 82 publications) which were or are scheduled to be published as a result of this project. A listing of these publications grouped by area (i.e. amino acid metabolism, protein metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and space flight studies) are included.

  14. Age-dependent brain gene expression and copy number anomalies in autism suggest distinct pathological processes at young versus mature ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Maggie L; Pramparo, Tiziano; Winn, Mary E; Barnes, Cynthia Carter; Li, Hai-Ri; Weiss, Lauren; Fan, Jian-Bing; Murray, Sarah; April, Craig; Belinson, Haim; Fu, Xiang-Dong; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony; Schork, Nicholas J; Courchesne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder, yet the genetic underpinnings of the disorder are largely unknown. Aberrant brain overgrowth is a well-replicated observation in the autism literature; but association, linkage, and expression studies have not identified genetic factors that explain this trajectory. Few studies have had sufficient statistical power to investigate whole-genome gene expression and genotypic variation in the autistic brain, especially in regions that display the greatest growth abnormality. Previous functional genomic studies have identified possible alterations in transcript levels of genes related to neurodevelopment and immune function. Thus, there is a need for genetic studies involving key brain regions to replicate these findings and solidify the role of particular functional pathways in autism pathogenesis. We therefore sought to identify abnormal brain gene expression patterns via whole-genome analysis of mRNA levels and copy number variations (CNVs) in autistic and control postmortem brain samples. We focused on prefrontal cortex tissue where excess neuron numbers and cortical overgrowth are pronounced in the majority of autism cases. We found evidence for dysregulation in pathways governing cell number, cortical patterning, and differentiation in young autistic prefrontal cortex. In contrast, adult autistic prefrontal cortex showed dysregulation of signaling and repair pathways. Genes regulating cell cycle also exhibited autism-specific CNVs in DNA derived from prefrontal cortex, and these genes were significantly associated with autism in genome-wide association study datasets. Our results suggest that CNVs and age-dependent gene expression changes in autism may reflect distinct pathological processes in the developing versus the mature autistic prefrontal cortex. Our results raise the hypothesis that genetic dysregulation in the developing brain leads to abnormal regional patterning, excess prefrontal neurons

  15. Age-dependent brain gene expression and copy number anomalies in autism suggest distinct pathological processes at young versus mature ages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie L Chow

    Full Text Available Autism is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder, yet the genetic underpinnings of the disorder are largely unknown. Aberrant brain overgrowth is a well-replicated observation in the autism literature; but association, linkage, and expression studies have not identified genetic factors that explain this trajectory. Few studies have had sufficient statistical power to investigate whole-genome gene expression and genotypic variation in the autistic brain, especially in regions that display the greatest growth abnormality. Previous functional genomic studies have identified possible alterations in transcript levels of genes related to neurodevelopment and immune function. Thus, there is a need for genetic studies involving key brain regions to replicate these findings and solidify the role of particular functional pathways in autism pathogenesis. We therefore sought to identify abnormal brain gene expression patterns via whole-genome analysis of mRNA levels and copy number variations (CNVs in autistic and control postmortem brain samples. We focused on prefrontal cortex tissue where excess neuron numbers and cortical overgrowth are pronounced in the majority of autism cases. We found evidence for dysregulation in pathways governing cell number, cortical patterning, and differentiation in young autistic prefrontal cortex. In contrast, adult autistic prefrontal cortex showed dysregulation of signaling and repair pathways. Genes regulating cell cycle also exhibited autism-specific CNVs in DNA derived from prefrontal cortex, and these genes were significantly associated with autism in genome-wide association study datasets. Our results suggest that CNVs and age-dependent gene expression changes in autism may reflect distinct pathological processes in the developing versus the mature autistic prefrontal cortex. Our results raise the hypothesis that genetic dysregulation in the developing brain leads to abnormal regional patterning, excess

  16. Age-Dependent Brain Gene Expression and Copy Number Anomalies in Autism Suggest Distinct Pathological Processes at Young Versus Mature Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Mary E.; Barnes, Cynthia Carter; Li, Hai-Ri; Weiss, Lauren; Fan, Jian-Bing; Murray, Sarah; April, Craig; Belinson, Haim; Fu, Xiang-Dong; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony; Schork, Nicholas J.; Courchesne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder, yet the genetic underpinnings of the disorder are largely unknown. Aberrant brain overgrowth is a well-replicated observation in the autism literature; but association, linkage, and expression studies have not identified genetic factors that explain this trajectory. Few studies have had sufficient statistical power to investigate whole-genome gene expression and genotypic variation in the autistic brain, especially in regions that display the greatest growth abnormality. Previous functional genomic studies have identified possible alterations in transcript levels of genes related to neurodevelopment and immune function. Thus, there is a need for genetic studies involving key brain regions to replicate these findings and solidify the role of particular functional pathways in autism pathogenesis. We therefore sought to identify abnormal brain gene expression patterns via whole-genome analysis of mRNA levels and copy number variations (CNVs) in autistic and control postmortem brain samples. We focused on prefrontal cortex tissue where excess neuron numbers and cortical overgrowth are pronounced in the majority of autism cases. We found evidence for dysregulation in pathways governing cell number, cortical patterning, and differentiation in young autistic prefrontal cortex. In contrast, adult autistic prefrontal cortex showed dysregulation of signaling and repair pathways. Genes regulating cell cycle also exhibited autism-specific CNVs in DNA derived from prefrontal cortex, and these genes were significantly associated with autism in genome-wide association study datasets. Our results suggest that CNVs and age-dependent gene expression changes in autism may reflect distinct pathological processes in the developing versus the mature autistic prefrontal cortex. Our results raise the hypothesis that genetic dysregulation in the developing brain leads to abnormal regional patterning, excess prefrontal neurons

  17. Tendon Contraction After Cyclic Elongation Is an Age-Dependent Phenomenon: In Vitro and In Vivo Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavagnino, Michael; Bedi, Asheesh; Walsh, Christopher P; Sibilsky Enselman, Elizabeth R; Sheibani-Rad, Shahin; Arnoczky, Steven P

    2014-06-01

    Tendons are viscoelastic tissues that deform (elongate) in response to cyclic loading. However, the ability of a tendon to recover this elongation is unknown. Tendon length significantly increases after in vivo or in vitro cyclic loading, and the ability to return to its original length through a cell-mediated contraction mechanism is an age-dependent phenomenon. Controlled laboratory study. In vitro, rat tail tendon fascicles (RTTfs) from Sprague-Dawley rats of 3 age groups (1, 3, and 12 months) underwent 2% cyclic strain at 0.17 Hz for 2 hours, and the percentages of elongation were determined. After loading, the RTTfs were suspended for 3 days under tissue culture conditions and photographed daily to determine the amount of length contraction. In vivo, healthy male participants (n = 29; age, 19-49 years) had lateral, single-legged weightbearing radiographs taken of the knee at 60° of flexion immediately before, immediately after, and 24 hours after completing eccentric quadriceps loading exercises on the dominant leg to fatigue. Measurements of patellar tendon length were taken from the radiographs, and the percentages of tendon elongation and subsequent contraction were calculated. In vitro, cyclic loading increased the length of all RTTfs, with specimens from younger (1 and 3 months) rats demonstrating significantly greater elongation than those from older (12 months) rats (P = .009). The RTTfs contracted to their original length significantly faster (P fashion, with younger animals contracting faster. In vivo, repetitive eccentric loading exercises significantly increased patellar tendon length (P 30 years). Cyclic tendon loading results in a significant increase in tendon elongation under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Tendons in both conditions demonstrated an incomplete return to their original length after 24 hours, and the extent of this return was age dependent. The age- and time-dependent contraction of tendons, elongated after repetitive

  18. The World of Virtual Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Eiselt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACTSpecial collections of the National and University Library (NUK hide a lot of items of precious value. The Slovenian cultural heritage is stored on paper or on other media as a part of the library’s Manuscripts, Incunabula and Rare Books Collection, Old Prints Collection, Maps and Pictorial Collection, Music Collection, Ephemera Collection, Serials Collection, and Slovenian Diaspora Publications Collection. Only a small part of the treasures is temporary revealed to the public on special exhibitions. The idea of virtual exhibitions of library treasures was born in 2005. The library aimed to exhibit precious items of special collections of high historical or artistic value. In 2008 the first two virtual exhibitions were created in-house offering access to the rich collections of old postcards of Ljubljana at the beginning of 20th century kept in the Maps and Pictorial Collection of NUK. They were soon followed by other virtual exhibitions. At the beginning they were organised in the same way as physical exhibitions, afterwards different programs were used for creation of special effects (for ex. 3D wall. About two years ago it was decided that the creation of virtual exhibitions will be simplified. Files of digitised and borndigital library materials in jpg format are imported to MS PowerPoint 2010. Each jpg file is now formatted by adding a frame, a description … to the slides which are saved as jpg files. The last step is the import of jpg files into Cooliris application used for NUK web exhibitions. In the paper the virtual exhibition design and creation, the technical point of view and criteria for the selection of exhibition content are explained following the example of the virtual exhibitions the Old Postcards of Ljubljana, Photo Ateliers in Slovenia, a collection of photographs Four Seasons by Fran Krašovec and photos of Post-Earthquake Ljubljana in 1895.

  19. Age-dependent effect of high cholesterol diets on anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xu; Wang, Tao; Luo, Jia; Liang, Shan; Li, Wei; Wu, Xiaoli; Jin, Feng; Wang, Li

    2014-09-01

    Cholesterol is an essential component of brain and nerve cells and is essential for maintaining the function of the nervous system. Epidemiological studies showed that patients suffering from anxiety disorders have higher serum cholesterol levels. In this study, we investigated the influence of high cholesterol diet on anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze in animal model and explored the relationship between cholesterol and anxiety-like behavior from the aspect of central neurochemical changes. Young (3 weeks old) and adult (20 weeks old) rats were given a high cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. The anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze test and changes of central neurochemical implicated in anxiety were measured. In young rats, high cholesterol diet induced anxiolytic-like behavior, decreased serum corticosterone (CORT), increased hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), increased hippocampal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and decreased glucocorticoid receptor (GR). In adult rats, high cholesterol diet induced anxiety-like behavior and increase of serum CORT and decrease of hippocampal BDNF comparing with their respective control group that fed the regular diet. High cholesterol diet induced age-dependent effects on anxiety-like behavior and central neurochemical changes. High cholesterol diet might affect the central nervous system (CNS) function differently, and resulting in different behavior performance of anxiety in different age period.

  20. Age-dependent effects of milrinone and levosimendan on ventricular function and haemodynamics in newborn and mature pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyldebrandt, Janus A; Larsen, Signe H; Schmidt, Michael R; Hjortdal, Vibeke E; Ravn, Hanne B

    2011-10-01

    Inodilators are used in the treatment of low cardiac output, mainly after cardiac surgery. At present, there is little knowledge of the effect of inodilators in the newborn heart. Immediately after birth and in the neonatal period, the metabolism and physiology of the heart undergo major changes. We hypothesised that effects of the inodilators milrinone and levosimendan on myocardial contractility and haemodynamics under normal physiological conditions were age dependent. Animal studies were conducted on 48 pigs using a closed-chest biventricular conductance catheter method. Pigs in two age groups, that is, 5-6 days and 5-6 weeks, were assigned to milrinone, levosimendan, or a control group. We observed that both milrinone - 19.2% with a p value of 0.05 - and levosimendan - 25.7% with a p value of 0.03 compared with the control group increased cardiac output, as well as myocardial contractility with a maximum pressure development over time: milrinone 28.2%, p = 0.01 and levosimendan 19.4%, p = 0.05. Milrinone improved diastolic performance (p milrinone 34.6%, p milrinone nor levosimendan was able to increase cardiac output in the newborn heart.

  1. AfAP2-1, An Age-Dependent Gene of Aechmea fasciata, Responds to Exogenous Ethylene Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Lei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Bromeliaceae family is one of the most morphologically diverse families with a pantropical distribution. To schedule an appropriate flowering time for bromeliads, ethylene is commonly used to initiate flower development in adult plants. However, the mechanism by which ethylene induces flowering in adult bromeliads remains unknown. Here, we identified an APETALA2 (AP2-like gene, AfAP2-1, in Aechmea fasciata. AfAP2-1 contains two AP2 domains and is a nuclear-localized protein. It functions as a transcriptional activator, and the activation domain is located in the C-terminal region. The expression level of AfAP2-1 is higher in juvenile plants than in adult plants, and the AfAP2-1 transcript level was rapidly and transiently reduced in plants treated with exogenous ethylene. Overexpression of AfAP2-1 in Arabidopsis thaliana results in an extremely delayed flowering phenotype. These results suggested that AfAP2-1 responds to ethylene and is a putative age-dependent flowering regulator in A. fasciata.

  2. Age-dependent change of HMGB1 and DNA double-strand break accumulation in mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enokido, Yasushi; Yoshitake, Ayaka; Ito, Hikaru; Okazawa, Hitoshi

    2008-01-01

    HMGB1 is an evolutionarily conserved non-histone chromatin-associated protein with key roles in maintenance of nuclear homeostasis; however, the function of HMGB1 in the brain remains largely unknown. Recently, we found that the reduction of nuclear HMGB1 protein level in the nucleus associates with DNA double-strand break (DDSB)-mediated neuronal damage in Huntington's disease [M.L. Qi, K. Tagawa, Y. Enokido, N. Yoshimura, Y. Wada, K. Watase, S. Ishiura, I. Kanazawa, J. Botas, M. Saitoe, E.E. Wanker, H. Okazawa, Proteome analysis of soluble nuclear proteins reveals that HMGB1/2 suppress genotoxic stress in polyglutamine diseases, Nat. Cell Biol. 9 (2007) 402-414]. In this study, we analyze the region- and cell type-specific changes of HMGB1 and DDSB accumulation during the aging of mouse brain. HMGB1 is localized in the nuclei of neurons and astrocytes, and the protein level changes in various brain regions age-dependently. HMGB1 reduces in neurons, whereas it increases in astrocytes during aging. In contrast, DDSB remarkably accumulates in neurons, but it does not change significantly in astrocytes during aging. These results indicate that HMGB1 expression during aging is differentially regulated between neurons and astrocytes, and suggest that the reduction of nuclear HMGB1 might be causative for DDSB in neurons of the aged brain

  3. Age-dependent effect of high cholesterol diets on anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze test in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholesterol is an essential component of brain and nerve cells and is essential for maintaining the function of the nervous system. Epidemiological studies showed that patients suffering from anxiety disorders have higher serum cholesterol levels. In this study, we investigated the influence of high cholesterol diet on anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze in animal model and explored the relationship between cholesterol and anxiety-like behavior from the aspect of central neurochemical changes. Methods Young (3 weeks old) and adult (20 weeks old) rats were given a high cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. The anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze test and changes of central neurochemical implicated in anxiety were measured. Results In young rats, high cholesterol diet induced anxiolytic-like behavior, decreased serum corticosterone (CORT), increased hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), increased hippocampal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and decreased glucocorticoid receptor (GR). In adult rats, high cholesterol diet induced anxiety-like behavior and increase of serum CORT and decrease of hippocampal BDNF comparing with their respective control group that fed the regular diet. Discussion High cholesterol diet induced age-dependent effects on anxiety-like behavior and central neurochemical changes. High cholesterol diet might affect the central nervous system (CNS) function differently, and resulting in different behavior performance of anxiety in different age period. PMID:25179125

  4. Revised age-dependent doses to members of the public from intake of radionuclides using the new tissue weighting factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, S.C.; Gupta, M.M.; Nagaratnam, A.; Reddy, A.R.; Mehta, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    ICRP 56 gave age-dependent dose coefficients to members of the public from intake of most radiologically significant radionuclides that might be released to the environment due to various human activities. It has computed effective dose equivalent (now called effective dose) from these dose coefficients utilising the tissue weighting factors as given by ICRP 26. The recent ICRP 1990 recommendations have revised the tissue weighting factors based on new information on risk estimates of fatal cancer and hereditary disorders. This change in the tissue weighting factors will subsequently affect the computation of effective dose due to intake of various radio-nuclides considered by ICRP 56. The revised effective doses for ingested as well as inhaled radionuclides have been worked out and compared from corresponding earlier values. No change was found in the case of tritiated water, organically bound tritium and 14 C. For the majority of the radionuclides, the revised effective dose was within ± 20% of the earlier values. Larger variations in effective dose were noted for radionuclides which deposit preferentially in one or two organs. (author)

  5. Age-dependent effect of apolipoprotein E4 on functional outcome after controlled cortical impact in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannix, Rebekah C; Zhang, Jimmy; Park, Juyeon; Zhang, Xuan; Bilal, Kiran; Walker, Kendall; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Tesco, Giuseppina; Whalen, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) gene leads to increased brain amyloid beta (Aβ) and poor outcome in adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, its role in childhood TBI is controversial. We hypothesized that the transgenic expression of human APOE4 worsens the outcome after controlled cortical impact (CCI) in adult but not immature mice. Adult and immature APOE4 mice had worse motor outcome after CCI (P<0.001 versus wild type (WT)), but the Morris water maze performance was worse only in adult APOE4 mice (P=0.028 at 2 weeks, P=0.019 at 6 months versus WT), because immature APOE4 mice had performance similar to WT for up to 1 year after injury. Brain lesion size was similar in adult APOE4 mice but was decreased (P=0.029 versus WT) in injured immature APOE4 mice. Microgliosis was similar in all groups. Soluble brain Aβ(40) was increased at 48 hours after CCI in adult and immature APOE4 mice and in adult WT (P<0.05), and was dynamically regulated during the chronic period by APOE4 in adults but not immature mice. The data suggest age-dependent effects of APOE4 on cognitive outcome after TBI, and that therapies targeting APOE4 may be more effective in adults versus children with TBI.

  6. Is the repair of articular cartilage lesion by costal chondrocyte transplantation donor age-dependent? An experimental study in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Popko

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The repair of chondral injuries is a very important problem and a subject of many experimental and clinical studies. Different techniques to induce articular cartilage repair are under investigation. In the present study, we have investigated whether the repair of articular cartilage folowing costal chondrocyte transplantation is donor age-dependent. Transplantation of costal chondrocytes from 4- and 24-week old donors, with artificially induced femoral cartilage lesion, was performed on fourteen 20-week-old New Zealand White male rabbits. In the control group, the lesion was left without chondrocyte transplantation. The evaluation of the cartilage repair was performed after 12 weeks of transplantation. We analyzed the macroscopic and histological appearance of the newly formed tissue. Immunohistochemistry was also performed using monoclonal antibodies against rabbit collagen type II. The newly formed tissue had a hyaline-like appearance in most of the lesions after chondrocyte transplantation. Positive immunohistochemical reaction for collagen II was also observed in both groups with transplanted chondrocytes. Cartilage from adult donors required longer isolation time and induced slightly poorer repair. However, hyaline-like cartilage was observed in most specimens from this group, in contrast to the control group, where fibrous connective tissue filled the lesions. Rabbit costal chondrocytes seem to be a potentially useful material for inducing articular cartilage repair and, even more important, they can also be derived from adult, sexually mature animals.

  7. Contribution to the penetration of radionuclides across the skin. Age dependence of promethium through rat skin in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassai, Z.; Koprda, V.; Harangozo, M.; Bendova, P.; Bauerova, K.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper: - the time dependence of permeation of 147 Pm 3+ from aqueous solution through animal skin model was studied; - the age dependence of promethium through the skin was proved; - the optimum biological model of human skin was selected, and - the relative importance of the main diffusion pathways for 147 Pm 3+ the diffusion across the intact skin and the diffusion through the hair channels was assessed. Concluding it can be said, that: -it was proved, that the 5-day-old rats (5DR) represents the optimum animal model to the human skin; - in the case of 8DR to 11DR the dominant route of 147 Pm 3+ penetration is along the follicles; - the permeation resistance of the skin depends on the thickness and mechanical properties of the skin. Comparing amounts of penetrated ions of promethium through the skin without hairs (3DR to 6DR) and through the skin with hairs, it was showed that the additional diffusion along hair's follicles pronounced with animal skin can be important also in case of human skin where hair density is many times lower than in used animal models. (authors)

  8. Photowalk Exhibition opens at Microcosm

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The winning photographs from the 2010 Global Particle Physics Photowalk competition will go on display at Microcosm from 11 February to 2 April. The exhibition is part of a global photography event taking place over three continents, with Photowalk exhibitions opening simultaneously at Fermilab in the US, KEK in Japan and here at CERN.   DESY wire chamber - First place people's choice; second place global jury competition. Photographer: Hans-Peter Hildebrandt  If you were one of the 1,300 photography lovers who voted in last year’s Photowalk competition, this exhibition is your chance to see the winning entries in print. The exhibition will take place in the downstairs gallery of Microcosm, overlooking the garden. 15 photographs will be on display, with each of the laboratories that participated in Photowalk represented by their 3 winning entries. Among them will be the “people’s choice” sunburst photo of a particle detector at DESY (Photo 1), and...

  9. Globe exhibit wins international acclaim

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The Globe’s “Universe of Particles” exhibition has recently received four prestigious awards for its avant-garde design. This external praise is great encouragement for the CERN exhibitions currently on the drawing board.   The Universe of Particles exhibition has won 4 awards for its avant-garde design. Back in 2008, the design company Atelier Brückner was presented with a challenge: to design the layout of a new permanent exhibition for CERN, one that would epitomize both the Organization and its research. The brief was concise but complex: the exhibit had to be symbolic of the Organization, use modern technology, engage and immerse visitors, and, preferably, use touch-screen technology. With the help of IArt, an interactive technology firm, and based on the content provided by CERN’s Education Group, Atelier Brückner developed the “Universe of Particles” exhibit as it is today. Its principal concept centred on the s...

  10. Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, W.H.; Caesar, S.

    1992-09-01

    The Franklin Institute Science Museum provided an exhibit entitled the Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. This 3500 square-foot exhibit on global climate change was developed in collaboration with the Association of Science-Technology Centers. The exhibit opened at The Franklin Institute on February 14, 1992, welcoming 291,000 visitors over its three-month stay. During its three-year tour, Greenhouse Earth will travel to ten US cities, reaching two million visitors. Greenhouse Earth aims to deepen public understanding of the scientific issues of global warming and the conservation measures that can be taken to slow its effects. The exhibit features hands-on exhibitry, interactive computer programs and videos, a theater production, a ''demonstration cart,'' guided tours, and lectures. supplemental educational programs at the Institute included a teachers preview, a symposium on climate change, and a ''satellite field trip.'' The development of Greenhouse Earth included front-end and formative evaluation procedures. Evaluation includes interviews with visitors, prototypes, and summative surveys for participating museums. During its stay in Philadelphia, Greenhouse Earth was covered by the local and national press, with reviews in print and broadcast media. Greenhouse Earth is the first large-scale museum exhibit to address global climate change

  11. Sex- and Age-dependent Effects of Orexin 1 Receptor Blockade on Open-Field Behavior and Neuronal Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Shannon R; Nam, Hannah; Luz, Sandra; Bangasser, Debra A; Bhatnagar, Seema

    2018-06-15

    Adolescence is a sensitive and critical period in brain development where psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder are more likely to emerge following a stressful life event. Females are two times more likely to suffer from psychiatric disorders than males. Patients with these disorders show alterations in orexins (also called hypocretins), important neuropeptides that regulate arousal, wakefulness and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Little is known on the role of orexins in mediating arousal behaviors in male and female rats during adolescence or adulthood. Here, we examine the influence of orexin 1 receptor blockade by SB334867 in open-field behavior in male and female rats during early adolescence (PND 31-33) or adulthood (PND 75-77). Animals were injected with 0 (vehicle), 1, 10, or 30 mg/kg SB334867 (i.p.). Thirty minutes later, they were placed in an open field, and behavior and neuronal activity (c-Fos) were assessed. In adolescent males, SB334867 significantly increased immobility in the 10 mg/kg group compared to vehicle. However, this increase in immobility in adolescent males was not observed in adolescent females. In contrast to adolescent males, adult males in the 10 mg/kg dose group showed the opposite effect on immobility compared to vehicle. These results indicate that 10 mg/kg dose of SB334867 has opposing effects in adolescent and adult males, but few effects in adolescent and adult females. Differences in functional networks between limbic regions may underlie these effects of orexin receptor blockade that are sex- and age-dependent in rats. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Age-dependent changes in metabolites of the normal brain in childhood. Observation by proton MR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanouchi, Miki; Harada, Masafumi; Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Nishitani, Hiromu

    1996-01-01

    We investigated aging-dependent changes in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) of the normal brain in childhood, and observed differences in the four portions of the brain. Measurement by 1 H-MRS was carried out on the frontal lobe, parietotemporal lobe, temporal lobe and cerebellum. The NAA/Cho ratio increased rapidly in the period from 0 to 2 years of age in all portions except for the cerebellum, and gradually increased after three years of age. The number of measurements of the cerebellum was not sufficient to reach a conclusion, but no clear aging-related change was found. The Cho/Cr ratio decreased according to the neural development in all portions except the cerebellum. Because the T2 relaxation time of water after four years of age was almost the same as that of young adults, we used the relaxation times specified in the literature to quantify the metabolites observed by 1 H-MRS. The subjects used for quantification were aged from 4 to 12 years. The concentration of NAA in the temporal lobe was the lowest of the four portions, and that of Cho and Cr in the cerebellum was the highest in four portions. These results could not be obtained by signal ratios alone, and we considered that the quantification of metabolites is necessary for a better understanding of 1 H-MRS. This study showed that the results of 1 H-MRS vary depending on age and the portion in the brain. Our results may serve as a normal basis for the detection of pathological changes by 1 H-MRS. (author)

  13. Cerebellar cortex development in the weaver condition presents regional and age-dependent abnormalities without differences in Purkinje cells neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Joaquín; Santa-Cruz, María C; Hervás, José P; Bayer, Shirley A; Villegas, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Ataxias are neurological disorders associated with the degeneration of Purkinje cells (PCs). Homozygous weaver mice (wv/wv) have been proposed as a model for hereditary cerebellar ataxia because they present motor abnormalities and PC loss. To ascertain the physiopathology of the weaver condition, the development of the cerebellar cortex lobes was examined at postnatal day (P): P8, P20 and P90. Three approaches were used: 1) quantitative determination of several cerebellar features; 2) qualitative evaluation of the developmental changes occurring in the cortical lobes; and 3) autoradiographic analyses of PC generation and placement. Our results revealed a reduction in the size of the wv/wv cerebellum as a whole, confirming previous results. However, as distinguished from these reports, we observed that quantified parameters contribute differently to the abnormal growth of the wv/wv cerebellar lobes. Qualitative analysis showed anomalies in wv/wv cerebellar cytoarchitecture, depending on the age and lobe analyzed. Such abnormalities included the presence of the external granular layer after P20 and, at P90, ectopic cells located in the molecular layer following several placement patterns. Finally, we obtained autoradiographic evidence that wild-type and wv/wv PCs presented similar neurogenetic timetables, as reported. However, the innovative character of this current work lies in the fact that the neurogenetic gradients of wv/wv PCs were not modified from P8 to P90. A tendency for the accumulation of late-formed PCs in the anterior and posterior lobes was found, whereas early-generated PCs were concentrated in the central and inferior lobes. These data suggested that wv/wv PCs may migrate properly to their final destinations. The extrapolation of our results to patients affected with cerebellar ataxias suggests that all cerebellar cortex lobes are affected with several age-dependent alterations in cytoarchitectonics. We also propose that PC loss may be regionally

  14. Age- dependent effect of Alzheimer’s risk variant of CLU on EEG alpha rhythm in non-demented adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya ePonomareva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphism in the genomic region harboring the CLU gene (rs11136000 has been associated with the risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD. CLU C allele is assumed to confer risk for AD and the allele T may have a protective effect.We investigated the influence of the AD-associated CLU genotype on a common neurophysiological trait of brain activity (resting-state alpha-rhythm activity in non-demented adults and elucidated whether this influence is modified over the course of aging. We examined quantitative EEG (qEEG in cohort of non-demented individuals (age range 20-80 divided into young (age range 20-50 and old (age range 51-80 cohorts and stratified by CLU polymorphism. To rule out the effect of the ApoE genotype on EEG characteristics, only subjects without the ApoE epsilon4 allele were included in the study.The homozygous presence of the AD risk variant CLU CC in non-demented subjects was associated with an increase of alpha3 absolute power. Moreover, the influence of CLU genotype on alpha3 was found to be higher in the subjects older than 50 years of age. The study also showed age-dependent alterations of alpha topographic distribution that occur independently of the CLU genotype.The increase of upper alpha power has been associated with hippocampal atrophy in patients with mild cognitive impairment (Moretti et al., 2012a. In our study, the CLU CC- dependent increase in upper alpha rhythm, particularly enhanced in elderly non-demented individuals, may imply that the genotype is related to preclinical dysregulation of hippocampal neurophysiology in aging and that this factor may contribute to pathogenesis of AD.

  15. Exhibition - Mathematics, A Beautiful Elsewhere

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    From 21 October 2011 to 18 March 2012, the Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain will present the exhibition Mathematics: A Beautiful Elsewhere, an exhibition developed in association with the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques (IHÉS) and under the patronage of UNESCO. For this unprecedented event, the foundation invited mathematicians to work with artists with whom it has previously worked to create an exhibition that allows visitors to see, hear, do, interpret and think about mathematics. By bringing mathematics into its premises, the Fondation Cartier is itself undergoing the “sudden change of scenery” described by mathematician Alexandre Grothendieck. More information is available here. Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain 261, boulevard Raspail 75014 Paris http://fondation.cartier.com Private Visit For professors, researchers and all the staff of Mathematics departments...

  16. Age dependency of myocardial triglyceride content. A 3T high-field {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petritsch, B.; Gassenmaier, T.; Kunz, A.S.; Donhauser, J.; Bley, T.A.; Horn, M. [University Hospital of Wuerzburg (Germany). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Goltz, J.P. [University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany). Clinic for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

    2015-11-15

    The role of myocardial triglyceride (mTG) content in the aging human heart is not entirely understood. The aim of this study was to measure concentrations of mTG content from healthy volunteers and to determine the association between age, mTG content and systolic heart function. Furthermore, the technical stability of the {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS) and the reliability of peak evaluation at 3 T were evaluated. The total study population of 47 healthy volunteers was divided into 4 age classes, according to the age of the subjects (1{sup st} cohort 20-29 years (yrs.), n=20; 2{sup nd} cohort 30-39 yrs., n=10; 3{sup rd} cohort 40-49 yrs., n=9; 4{sup th} cohort 50-60 yrs., n=8). Cardiac MRI and double triggered {sup 1}H-MRS of the myocardium were consecutively performed using a 3 T scanner. Each participant underwent spectroscopic measurements twice in the same investigation. mTG content increases with age. The correlation of age and mTG is minimal (r=0.48; p<0.001). The following age-averaged mTG content values expressed as % of mTG signal compared to the water signal were determined for each cohort: 1{sup st} cohort 0.25 % (± 0.17); 2{sup nd} cohort 0.48 % (± 0.30); 3{sup rd} cohort 0.48 % (± 0.18); 4{sup th} cohort 0.77 % (± 0.70). There was no significant correlation (r=0.04; p=n.s.) between LV mass and mTG content in healthy volunteers. Within our cohorts, no effects of age or mTG content on systolic heart function were seen (r=-0.01; p=n.s.). The intraclass correlation coefficient of spectroscopic measurements was high (r=0.965; p<0.001). Myocardial TG content increases with age. The normal age-dependent concentration ranges of myocardial lipid metabolites reported in this study may be helpful for the correction of acquired {sup 1}H-MRS data in patients when evaluating metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in future magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies.

  17. Age dependency of myocardial triglyceride content. A 3T high-field 1H-MR spectroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petritsch, B.; Gassenmaier, T.; Kunz, A.S.; Donhauser, J.; Bley, T.A.; Horn, M.; Goltz, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    The role of myocardial triglyceride (mTG) content in the aging human heart is not entirely understood. The aim of this study was to measure concentrations of mTG content from healthy volunteers and to determine the association between age, mTG content and systolic heart function. Furthermore, the technical stability of the 1 H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) and the reliability of peak evaluation at 3 T were evaluated. The total study population of 47 healthy volunteers was divided into 4 age classes, according to the age of the subjects (1 st cohort 20-29 years (yrs.), n=20; 2 nd cohort 30-39 yrs., n=10; 3 rd cohort 40-49 yrs., n=9; 4 th cohort 50-60 yrs., n=8). Cardiac MRI and double triggered 1 H-MRS of the myocardium were consecutively performed using a 3 T scanner. Each participant underwent spectroscopic measurements twice in the same investigation. mTG content increases with age. The correlation of age and mTG is minimal (r=0.48; p<0.001). The following age-averaged mTG content values expressed as % of mTG signal compared to the water signal were determined for each cohort: 1 st cohort 0.25 % (± 0.17); 2 nd cohort 0.48 % (± 0.30); 3 rd cohort 0.48 % (± 0.18); 4 th cohort 0.77 % (± 0.70). There was no significant correlation (r=0.04; p=n.s.) between LV mass and mTG content in healthy volunteers. Within our cohorts, no effects of age or mTG content on systolic heart function were seen (r=-0.01; p=n.s.). The intraclass correlation coefficient of spectroscopic measurements was high (r=0.965; p<0.001). Myocardial TG content increases with age. The normal age-dependent concentration ranges of myocardial lipid metabolites reported in this study may be helpful for the correction of acquired 1 H-MRS data in patients when evaluating metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in future magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies.

  18. Age-dependent role for Ras-GRF1 in the late stages of adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Michael J; Trouche, Stéphanie; Jin, Shan-Xue; Feig, Larry A

    2014-03-01

    The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus plays a pivotal role in pattern separation, a process required for the behavioral task of contextual discrimination. One unique feature of the dentate gyrus that contributes to pattern separation is adult neurogenesis, where newly born neurons play a distinct role in neuronal circuitry. Moreover,the function of neurogenesis in this brain region differs in adolescent and adult mice. The signaling mechanisms that differentially regulate the distinct steps of adult neurogenesis in adolescence and adulthood remain poorly understood. We used mice lacking RASGRF1(GRF1), a calcium-dependent exchange factor that regulates synaptic plasticity and participates in contextual discrimination performed by mice, to test whether GRF1 plays a role in adult neurogenesis.We show Grf1 knockout mice begin to display a defect in neurogenesis at the onset of adulthood (~2 months of age), when wild-type mice first acquire the ability to distinguish between closely related contexts. At this age, young hippocampal neurons in Grf1 knockout mice display severely reduced dendritic arborization. By 3 months of age, new neuron survival is also impaired. BrdU labeling of new neurons in 2-month-old Grf1 knockout mice shows they begin to display reduced survival between 2 and 3 weeks after birth, just as new neurons begin to develop complex dendritic morphology and transition into using glutamatergic excitatory input. Interestingly, GRF1 expression appears in new neurons at the developmental stage when GRF1 loss begins to effect neuronal function. In addition, we induced a similar loss of new hippocampal neurons by knocking down expression of GRF1 solely in new neurons by injecting retrovirus that express shRNA against GRF1 into the dentate gyrus. Together, these findings show that GRF1 expressed in new neurons promotes late stages of adult neurogenesis. Overall our findings show GRF1 to be an age-dependent regulator of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, which

  19. Evidence for an age-dependent influence of environmental variations on a long-lived seabird's life-history traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Deborah; Barbraud, Christophe; Authier, Matthieu; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical studies have highlighted the effects of age on several life-history traits in wild populations. There is also increasing evidence for environmental effects on their demographic traits. However, quantifying how individuals differentially respond to environmental variations according to their age remains a challenge in ecology. In a population of Black-browed Albatrosses monitored during 43 years, we analyzed how life-history traits varied according to age, and whether individuals of different ages responded in different ways to environmental conditions. To do so, we: (1) examined how age affected seven life-history traits, (2) investigated differences in temporal variance of demographic traits between age classes, and (3) tested for age-dependent effects of climate and fisheries covariates on demographic traits. Overall, there was a tendency for traits to improve during the first years of life (5-10 years), to peak and remain stable at middle age (10-30 years), and decline at old ages. At young ages, survival and reproductive parameters increased, except offspring body condition at fledging, suggesting that younger parents had already acquired good foraging capacities. However, they suffered from inexperience in breeding as suggested by their higher breeding failures during incubation. There was evidence for reproductive and actuarial senescence. In particular, breeding success and offspring body condition declined abruptly, suggesting altered foraging capacities of old individuals. Middle-aged individuals had the lowest temporal variance of demographic traits. Although this is predicted by the theory of environmental canalization, it could also results from a higher susceptibility of young and old birds due to their respective inexperience and senescence. The highest temporal variances were found in old individuals. Survival was significantly influenced by sea surface temperatures in the foraging zone of this albatross population during

  20. Temporal profiles of age-dependent changes in cytokine mRNA expression and glial cell activation after status epilepticus in postnatal rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvelä, Juha T; Lopez-Picon, Francisco R; Plysjuk, Anna; Ruohonen, Saku; Holopainen, Irma E

    2011-04-08

    Status epilepticus (SE) is proposed to lead to an age-dependent acute activation of a repertoire of inflammatory processes, which may contribute to neuronal damage in the hippocampus. The extent and temporal profiles of activation of these processes are well known in the adult brain, but less so in the developing brain. We have now further elucidated to what extent inflammation is activated by SE by investigating the acute expression of several cytokines and subacute glial reactivity in the postnatal rat hippocampus. SE was induced by an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of kainic acid (KA) in 9- and 21-day-old (P9 and P21) rats. The mRNA expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-10 (IL-10), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) were measured from 4 h up to 3 days after KA injection with real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). IL-1β protein expression was studied with ELISA, GFAP expression with western blotting, and microglial and astrocyte morphology with immunohistochemistry 3 days after SE. SE increased mRNA expression of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-10 mRNA in hippocampus of both P9 and P21 rats, their induction being more rapid and pronounced in P21 than in P9 rats. MMP-9 expression was augmented similarly in both age groups and GDNF expression augmented only in P21 rats, whereas neither IFN-γ nor TGF-β1 expression was induced in either age group. Microglia and astrocytes exhibited activated morphology in the hippocampus of P21 rats, but not in P9 rats 3 d after SE. Microglial activation was most pronounced in the CA1 region and also detected in the basomedial amygdala. Our results suggest that SE provokes an age-specific cytokine expression in the acute phase, and age-specific glial cell activation in the subacute phase as verified now in the postnatal rat hippocampus. In the juvenile hippocampus

  1. Learning from Exhibitions: Chuck Close.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark M.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the artwork of Chuck Close, who is well known for his over-sized portraits of fellow artists and anonymous sitters, and the exhibition of his work that premiered at New York's Museum of Modern Art before traveling to other cities in the United States. (CMK)

  2. Convergence Analysis of Semi-Implicit Euler Methods for Solving Stochastic Age-Dependent Capital System with Variable Delays and Random Jump Magnitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghui Du

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider semi-implicit Euler methods for stochastic age-dependent capital system with variable delays and random jump magnitudes, and investigate the convergence of the numerical approximation. It is proved that the numerical approximate solutions converge to the analytical solutions in the mean-square sense under given conditions.

  3. Happy Birthday, you're Fired! : The Effects of an Age-Dependent Minimum Wage on Youth Employment Flows in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabátek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of the age-dependent minimum wage on youth employment flow in the Netherlands. The Dutch minimum wage for workers aged 15-23 is defined as a step-wise increasing function of a worker's calendar age. At the aged of 23, workers become eligible for the "adult"

  4. Age-Dependent Developmental Response to Temperature: An Examination of the Rarely Tested Phenomenon in Two Species (Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar and Winter Moth (Operophtera brumata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Gray

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The pervading paradigm in insect phenology models is that the response to a given temperature does not vary within a life stage. The developmental rate functions that have been developed for general use, or for specific insects, have for the most part been temperature-dependent but not age-dependent, except where age is an ordinal variable designating the larval instar. Age dependence, where age is a continuous variable, is not often reported (or investigated, and is rarely included in phenology models. I provide a short review of the seldom-investigated phenomenon of age dependence in developmental response to temperature, and compare the derivation of the winter moth egg phenology model by Salis et al. to the derivation of another egg phenology model with age-dependent responses to temperature I discuss some probable reasons for the discrepancies (acknowledged by Salis et al. between modelled and observed developmental rates of the winter moth, and discuss the contribution that geographically robust phenology models can make to estimates of species distributions.

  5. The age dependence of T2 relaxation times of N-acetyl aspartate, creatine and choline in the human brain at 3 and 4T

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirů, F.; Škoch, A.; Wágnerová, D.; Dezortová, M.; Visková, J.; Profant, Oliver; Syka, Josef; Hájek, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 3 (2016), s. 284-292 ISSN 0952-3480 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : MRS * T2 relaxation times of metabolites * age dependence of T2 Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.872, year: 2016

  6. Mobile Technologies in Museum Exhibitions

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Medić; Nataša Pavlović

    2014-01-01

    In order to be up–to–date and give visitors a memorable and unique experience, museums are including usage of digital technologies in their exhibitions. Even though museums in Serbia are very important part of tourism offer, they still have traditional settings that are poorly interpreted. The majority of them have a scientific and historical review which is unattractive for various target groups of visitors and for museums it’s important to continually try out new ways in interpretation of t...

  7. A New Exhibition in Microcosm

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    Sebastien Pelletier explains states of matter to an enthusiastic group of youngsters during the opening of a new exhibition in Microcosm last week. The Fun with Physics workshop will be offered to all 13-14 year olds in school groups visiting CERN this year. The new Microcosm contents have been developed in collaboration with the local teaching community, and cover particles and the forces that act between them.

  8. "Big Science" exhibition at Balexert

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN is going out to meet those members of the general public who were unable to attend the recent Open Day. The Laboratory will be taking its "Big Science" exhibition from the Globe of Science and Innovation to the Balexert shopping centre from 19 to 31 May 2008. The exhibition, which shows the LHC and its experiments through the eyes of a photographer, features around thirty spectacular photographs measuring 4.5 metres high and 2.5 metres wide. Welcomed and guided around the exhibition by CERN volunteers, shoppers at Balexert will also have the opportunity to discover LHC components on display and watch films. "Fun with Physics" workshops will be held at certain times of the day. Main hall of the Balexert shopping centre, ground floor, from 9.00 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. Monday to Friday and from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. on the two Saturdays. Call for volunteers All members of the CERN personnel are invited to enrol as volunteers to help welcom...

  9. Mobile Technologies in Museum Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Medić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to be up–to–date and give visitors a memorable and unique experience, museums are including usage of digital technologies in their exhibitions. Even though museums in Serbia are very important part of tourism offer, they still have traditional settings that are poorly interpreted. The majority of them have a scientific and historical review which is unattractive for various target groups of visitors and for museums it’s important to continually try out new ways in interpretation of their settings. Because technology continues to rapidly change the way we communicate, cultural institutions should adapt to new ways of communication with their visitors. This paper examines mobile technologies that can be used in museums to give visitors a different experience and transfer the knowledge innovatively. In that way it will be presented the modern concept of presentation of museum exhibitions, focusing on usage of mobile devices through mobile applications and QR codes. The paper provides the broad understanding of usage mobile technologies in museum exhibitions with its advantages and limitations. The research results can help the museums management to improve interpretation and communication with visitors and enrich the visitor experience.

  10. ß-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA Toxicity Is Gender and Exposure-Age Dependent in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Louise Scott

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacterial β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA has been suggested as a causative or contributory factor in the development of several neurodegenerative diseases. However, no BMAA animal model has adequately shown clinical or behavioral symptoms that correspond to those seen in either Alzheimer’s Disease (AD, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS or Parkinson’s Disease (PD. We present here the first data that show that when neonatal rats were exposed to BMAA on postnatal days 3, 4 and 5, but not on gestational day 14 or postnatally on days 7 or 10, several AD and/or PD-related behavioral, locomotor and cognitive deficits developed. Male rats exhibited severe unilateral hindlimb splay while whole body tremors could be observed in exposed female rats. BMAA-exposed rats failed to identify and discriminate a learned odor, an early non-motor symptom of PD, and exhibited decreased locomotor activity, decreased exploration and increased anxiety in the open field test. Alterations were also observed in the rats’ natural passive defense mechanism, and potential memory deficits and changes to the rat’s natural height avoidance behavior could be observed as early as PND 30. Spatial learning, short-term working, reference and long-term memory were also impaired in 90-day-old rats that had been exposed to a single dose of BMAA on PND 3–7. These data suggest that BMAA is a developmental neurotoxin, with specific target areas in the brain and spinal cord.

  11. Contemporary Developments in Cinema Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    he work offered for this PhD by Published Works charts the history of cinema exhibition in Britain from the late 1950s to the present. At the start of this period, cinemagoing as a form of public entertainment entered a long period of decline that was only arrested with the development and growth of multiplex cinemas in the 1980s and 1990s. Despite these changes, the feature film itself remained a culturally and commercially valuable artefact, though increasingly this meant the Hollywood fil...

  12. Collaborative virtual environments art exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinsky, Margaret; Anstey, Josephine; Pape, Dave E.; Aguilera, Julieta C.; Kostis, Helen-Nicole; Tsoupikova, Daria

    2005-03-01

    This panel presentation will exhibit artwork developed in CAVEs and discuss how art methodologies enhance the science of VR through collaboration, interaction and aesthetics. Artists and scientists work alongside one another to expand scientific research and artistic expression and are motivated by exhibiting collaborative virtual environments. Looking towards the arts, such as painting and sculpture, computer graphics captures a visual tradition. Virtual reality expands this tradition to not only what we face, but to what surrounds us and even what responds to our body and its gestures. Art making that once was isolated to the static frame and an optimal point of view is now out and about, in fully immersive mode within CAVEs. Art knowledge is a guide to how the aesthetics of 2D and 3D worlds affect, transform, and influence the social, intellectual and physical condition of the human body through attention to psychology, spiritual thinking, education, and cognition. The psychological interacts with the physical in the virtual in such a way that each facilitates, enhances and extends the other, culminating in a "go together" world. Attention to sharing art experience across high-speed networks introduces a dimension of liveliness and aliveness when we "become virtual" in real time with others.

  13. The Relationship of Cognitive Performance and the Theta-Alpha Power Ratio Is Age-Dependent: An EEG Study of Short Term Memory and Reasoning during Task and Resting-State in Healthy Young and Old Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet P. Trammell

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Theta-Alpha ratio (TAR is known to differ based upon age and cognitive ability, with pathological electroencephalography (EEG patterns routinely found within neurodegenerative disorders of older adults. We hypothesized that cognitive ability would predict EEG metrics differently within healthy young and old adults, and that healthy old adults not showing age-expected EEG activity may be more likely to demonstrate cognitive deficits relative to old adults showing these expected changes.Methods: In 216 EEG blocks collected in 16 young and 20 old adults during rest (eyes open, eyes closed and cognitive tasks (short-term memory [STM]; matrix reasoning [RM; Raven's matrices], models assessed the contributing roles of cognitive ability, age, and task in predicting the TAR. A general linear mixed-effects regression model was used to model this relationship, including interaction effects to test whether increased cognitive ability predicted TAR differently for young and old adults at rest and during cognitive tasks.Results: The relationship between cognitive ability and the TAR across all blocks showed age-dependency, and cognitive performance at the CZ midline location predicted the TAR measure when accounting for the effect of age (p < 0.05, chi-square test of nested models. Age significantly interacted with STM performance in predicting the TAR (p < 0.05; increases in STM were associated with increased TAR in young adults, but not in old adults. RM showed similar interaction effects with aging and TAR (p < 0.10.Conclusion: EEG correlates of cognitive ability are age-dependent. Adults who did not show age-related EEG changes were more likely to exhibit cognitive deficits than those who showed age-related changes. This suggests that healthy aging should produce moderate changes in Alpha and TAR measures, and the absence of such changes signals impaired cognitive functioning.

  14. Effects of x rays on histogenesis of abnormal epidermis and age dependency of radiosensitivity during metamorphosis of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga peregrina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, S.; Sakka, M.

    1978-01-01

    Effects of x rays on metamorphosis of the abdominal epidermis in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga peregrina, and age dependence of radiosensitivity were studied. The imaginal epidermis of abdomen is formed from the histoblast nests, which are composed of undifferentiated tiny cells lying between large larval epidermal cells. There were two types of effects of x rays: (1) the arrest of metamorphosis including degeneration of larval epidermal cells and histogenesis of imaginal epidermis; (2) partial deficit of imaginal epidermis at the final stage of development. It was suggested that the second type of effect was brought about by a decrease in the number of abdominal histoblasts caused by x rays. Age dependency of radiosensitivity on the second type of effect was examined in detail, and it was shown that the most sensitive stage occurred just before transition to a highly radiation-resistant period

  15. Enrico Fermi exhibition at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A touring exhibition celebrating the centenary of Enrico Fermi's birth in 1901 will be on display at CERN (Main Building, Mezzanine) from 12-27 September. You are cordially invited to the opening celebration on Thursday 12 September at 16:00 (Main Building, Council Chamber), which will include speechs from: Luciano Maiani Welcome and Introduction Arnaldo Stefanini Celebrating Fermi's Centenary in Documents and Pictures Antonino Zichichi The New 'Centro Enrico Fermi' at Via Panisperna Ugo Amaldi Fermi at Via Panisperna and the birth of Nuclear Medicine Jack Steinberger Fermi in Chicago Valentin Telegdi A Close-up of Fermi and the screening of a documentary video about Fermi: Scienziati a Pisa: Enrico Fermi (Scientists at Pisa: Enrico Fermi) created by Francesco Andreotti for La Limonaia from early film, photographs and sound recordings (In Italian, with English subtitles - c. 30 mins). This will be followed by an aperitif on the Mezz...

  16. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Age-dependent doses to members of the public from intake of radionuclides: Pt. 5. Compilation of ingestion and inhalation dose coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The present report is a compilation of age-dependent committed effective dose coefficients for ingestion and inhalation of radionuclides of the 31 elements covered in previous CRP Publications. The biokinetic models for adults given in ICRP Publication 30 are applied to calculate these dose coefficients, except that age-specific excretion rates are used and increased gastrointestinal absorption in infants is assurred. Changes in body mass, and tissue geometry in children are also taken into account. (UK)

  18. Melatonin membrane receptor (MT1R) expression and nitro-oxidative stress in testis of golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus: An age-dependent study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana

    2015-09-01

    Age-dependent decline in melatonin level induces nitro-oxidative stress that compromises physiological homeostasis including reproduction. However, less information exist regarding the age-dependent variation in local melatonin (lMel) concentration and MT1R expression in testis and its interaction with testicular steroidogenesis and nitro-oxidative stress in golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Therefore, we evaluated lMel level along with MT1R expression and its possible interaction with steroidogenesis and nitro-oxidative stress in testes of young (6weeks), adult (15weeks) and old (2years) aged hamsters. Further, we injected the old hamsters with melatonin to address whether age-related decline in lMel and MT1R is responsible for the reduction in testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant status. Increased expression of steroidogenic markers suggests increased testicular steroidogenesis in adult hamsters that declined in old hamsters. An age-dependent elevation in the level of NOX, TBARS, corticosterone and the expression of iNOS and GR with a concomitant decrease in enzyme activities for SOD, CAT, GSH-PX indicate increased nitro-oxidative stress in testes. Data suggest that reproductive senescence in male hamsters might be a consequence of declined lMel concentration with MT1R expression inducing nitro-oxidative stress resulting in diminished testicular steroidogenesis. However, administration of Mel in old-aged hamsters significantly increased steroidogenesis and antioxidant status without a significant variation in lMel concentration and MT1R expression in testes. Therefore, decreased lMel and MT1R might not be the causative factor underlying the age-associated decrease in antioxidant defence and steroidogenesis in testes. In conclusion, Mel induced amelioration of testicular oxidative insult and elevation of steroidogenic activity suggests a potential role of increased nitro-oxidative stress underlying the age-dependent decrease in steroidogenesis. Copyright

  19. Age-dependent risk-based methodology and its application to prioritization of nuclear power plant components and to maintenance for managing aging using PRAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, I.S.; Vesely, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is based on a study to demonstrate several important ways that the age-dependent risk-based methodology developed by the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program may be applied to resolving important issues related to the aging of nuclear power plant systems, structures, and components (SSCs). The study was sponsored by the NPAR Program of the Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Initiated on the basis of a Users Need Request, the age-dependent risk-based methodology has been under development by the NPAR Program for several years. In this methodology, the time-dependent change in a component's risk contribution is the product of two factors: (1) the risk importance of the component (e.g., the change in its risk contribution when it is assumed to be totally unavailable to perform its intended safety function) and (2) the change in its unavailability with time. This change in the component's unavailability with time is a function of the component's aging rate and plant inspection and maintenance practices. The methodology permits evaluations of the age-dependent risk contributions from both single- and multiple-components. Principal results and conclusions generated by the methodology demonstrations are discussed

  20. Age dependence of the accumulation of organochlorine pollutants in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a remote high mountain lake (Redo, Pyrenees)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives, I.; Grimalt, J.O.; Ventura, M.; Catalan, J.; Rosseland, B.O.

    2005-01-01

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and DDT were examined in the muscle of brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a high mountain lake located in the Pyrenees (Catalonia, Spain) that was used as a model of these lacustrine environments. Results indicate that fish age is the main factor of variability among specimens in this population that is subjected to atmospheric inputs of the organochlorine compounds (OC). Increases of 2- and 20-fold between fish aged 1 year and 15 years old are found. The observed pattern cannot be explained in terms of fish size, condition factor, or muscle lipid content. Higher molecular weight compounds (higher lipophilicity) are better correlated with fish age than low molecular weight compounds. A transformation from 4,4'-DDT to 4,4'-DDE occurs in fish after ingestion; this results in amplified age-dependent signals, especially in male specimens. In contrast, PCB congener no. 180 has lower age dependence than the general OC group, which could be due to its high hydrophobicity (log K ow > 7). In any case, selective accumulation of hydrophobic compounds is already observed among younger fish (age, 1 year). Due to this effect, the relative OC composition does not reflect the main OC pollutants in the lake waters. - Trout in high mountain lakes display age-dependent accumulation of certain organochlorine pollutants

  1. Age dependence of the accumulation of organochlorine pollutants in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a remote high mountain lake (Redo, Pyrenees)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives, I. [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemical and Environmental Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034-Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Grimalt, J.O. [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemical and Environmental Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034-Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)]. E-mail: jgoqam@cid.csic.es; Ventura, M. [Limnology Group (CSIC-UB), Centre for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), Acces Cala St. Francesc, 14, Blanes 17300, Catalonia (Spain); Catalan, J. [Limnology Group (CSIC-UB), Centre for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), Acces Cala St. Francesc, 14, Blanes 17300, Catalonia (Spain); Rosseland, B.O. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), P.O.B. 173 Kjelsaas, N-0411 Oslo (Norway); Institute for Biology and Nature Conservation, The Agricultural University of Norway (NLH) (Norway)

    2005-01-01

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and DDT were examined in the muscle of brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a high mountain lake located in the Pyrenees (Catalonia, Spain) that was used as a model of these lacustrine environments. Results indicate that fish age is the main factor of variability among specimens in this population that is subjected to atmospheric inputs of the organochlorine compounds (OC). Increases of 2- and 20-fold between fish aged 1 year and 15 years old are found. The observed pattern cannot be explained in terms of fish size, condition factor, or muscle lipid content. Higher molecular weight compounds (higher lipophilicity) are better correlated with fish age than low molecular weight compounds. A transformation from 4,4'-DDT to 4,4'-DDE occurs in fish after ingestion; this results in amplified age-dependent signals, especially in male specimens. In contrast, PCB congener no. 180 has lower age dependence than the general OC group, which could be due to its high hydrophobicity (log K{sub ow} > 7). In any case, selective accumulation of hydrophobic compounds is already observed among younger fish (age, 1 year). Due to this effect, the relative OC composition does not reflect the main OC pollutants in the lake waters. - Trout in high mountain lakes display age-dependent accumulation of certain organochlorine pollutants.

  2. Mammary tumorigenesis in APC{sup min/+} mice is enhanced by X-irradiation with a characteristic age dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuhiko, Imaoka; Mayumi, Nishimura; Shizuko, Kakinuma; Yoshiya, Shimada [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Experimental Radiobiology for Children' s Health Research Group, Research, Center for Radiation Protection (Japan); Mieko, Okamoto [Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    The ApcM{sup min/+} (Min) mouse is a genetically predisposed model of both intestinal and mammary tumorigenesis. We investigated age-related changes in the susceptibility of mice (before, during and after puberty) to radiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis using this model. Female Min and wild-type mice having the C57BL/6J background were irradiated with 2 Gy of X-rays at 2, 5, 7 and 10 weeks and sacrificed at 18 weeks of age. Min mice irradiated at 7 to 10 weeks of age (after puberty) developed mammary tumors with squamous metaplasia, whereas their wild-type litter-mates did not. Interestingly, irradiation of Min mice at 2 to 5 weeks (before and during puberty, respectively) did not induce mammary tumors but rather cystic nodules with metaplasia. The mammary tumors exhibited increased nuclear beta-catenin protein and loss of the wild-type Apc allele. Our results show that susceptibility to radiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis increases after puberty in Min mice, suggesting that the tumorigenic effect of ionizing radiation targets the lobular-alveolar progenitor cells, which increase in number with age and are controlled by beta-catenin signaling. (author)

  3. EU Climate Change Exhibition Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On April 25, the CPAFFC, the China-EU Association (CEUA) and the Delegation of the European Commission to China jointly held the opening ceremony for the EU Exhibition on Climate Change in the CPAFFC. He Luli, former vice chairperson of the NPC Standing Committee and honorary president of the CEUA, Jose Manuel Barroso, president of the European Commission, and Li Jianping, vice president of the CPAFFC, attended the opening ceremony and made speeches. Honorary President He Luli highly praised the achievements made by China and the EU in their longtime cooperation of mutual benefits in various fields including environmental protection. She said, for many years China and EU have both committed to the development of all-round strategic partnership and establishment of a multi-level mechanism of political dialogue. She expressed, with increasing enthusiasm the CEUA would continue to actively carry out nongovernmental exchanges between China and the EU, and promote cooperation between the two sides in the fields of economy, society, environmental protection, science and technology, culture, etc.

  4. Age-dependent changes of cerebral copper metabolism in Atp7b -/- knockout mouse model of Wilson's disease by [64Cu]CuCl2-PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fang; Xi, Yin; Pascual, Juan M; Muzik, Otto; Peng, Fangyu

    2017-06-01

    Copper is a nutritional metal required for brain development and function. Wilson's disease (WD), or hepatolenticular degeneration, is an inherited human copper metabolism disorder caused by a mutation of the ATP7B gene. Many WD patients present with variable neurological and psychiatric symptoms, which may be related to neurodegeneration secondary to copper metabolism imbalance. The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility and use of copper-64 chloride ([ 64 C]CuCl 2 ) as a tracer for noninvasive assessment of age-dependent changes of cerebral copper metabolism in WD using an Atp7b -/- knockout mouse model of WD and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging. Continuing from our recent study of biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of [ 64 C]CuCl 2 in Atp7b -/- knockout mice, PET quantitative analysis revealed low 64 Cu radioactivity in the brains of Atp7b -/- knockout mice at 7th weeks of age, compared with 64 Cu radioactivity in the brains of age- and gender-matched wild type C57BL/6 mice, at 24 h (h) post intravenous injection of [ 64 C]CuCl 2 as a tracer. Furthermore, age-dependent increase of 64 Cu radioactivity was detected in the brains of Atp7b -/- knockout mice from the 13th to 21th weeks of age, based on the data derived from a longitudinal [ 64 C]CuCl 2 -PET/CT study of Atp7b -/- knockout mice with orally administered [ 64 Cu]CuCl 2 as a tracer. The findings of this study support clinical use of [ 64 Cu]CuCl 2 -PET/CT imaging as a tool for noninvasive assessment of age-dependent changes of cerebral copper metabolism in WD patients presenting with variable neurological and psychiatric symptoms.

  5. Age-dependent changes in diastolic Ca2+ and Na+ concentrations in dystrophic cardiomyopathy: Role of Ca2+ entry and IP3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mijares, Alfredo; Altamirano, Francisco; Kolster, Juan; Adams, José A.; López, José R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Age-dependent increase in [Ca 2+ ] d and [Na + ] d in mdx cardiomyocytes. • Gadolinium significantly reduced both [Ca 2+ ] d and [Na + ] d at all ages. • IP 3 -pathway inhibition reduced cations concentrations in dystrophic cardiomyocytes. - Abstract: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal X-inherited disease caused by dystrophin deficiency. Besides the relatively well characterized skeletal muscle degenerative processes, DMD is also associated with a dilated cardiomyopathy that leads to progressive heart failure at the end of the second decade. The aim of the present study was to characterize the diastolic Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] d ) and diastolic Na + concentration ([Na + ] d ) abnormalities in cardiomyocytes isolated from 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month old mdx mice using ion-selective microelectrodes. In addition, the contributions of gadolinium (Gd 3+ )-sensitive Ca 2+ entry and inositol triphosphate (IP 3 ) signaling pathways in abnormal [Ca 2+ ] d and [Na + ] d were investigated. Our results showed an age-dependent increase in both [Ca 2+ ] d and [Na + ] d in dystrophic cardiomyocytes compared to those isolated from age-matched wt mice. Gd 3+ treatment significantly reduced both [Ca 2+ ] d and [Na + ] d at all ages. In addition, blockade of the IP 3 -pathway with either U-73122 or xestospongin C significantly reduced ion concentrations in dystrophic cardiomyocytes. Co-treatment with U-73122 and Gd 3+ normalized both [Ca 2+ ] d and [Na + ] d at all ages in dystrophic cardiomyocytes. These data showed that loss of dystrophin in mdx cardiomyocytes produced an age-dependent intracellular Ca 2+ and Na + overload mediated at least in part by enhanced Ca 2+ entry through Gd 3+ sensitive transient receptor potential channels (TRPC), and by IP 3 receptors

  6. Age-dependent leaf physiology and consequences for crown-scale carbon uptake during the dry season in an Amazon evergreen forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Loren P; Wu, Jin; Prohaska, Neill; de Camargo, Plinio Barbosa; Huxman, Travis E; Tribuzy, Edgard S; Ivanov, Valeriy Y; Oliveira, Rafael S; Garcia, Sabrina; Smith, Marielle N; Oliveira Junior, Raimundo Cosme; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; da Silva, Rodrigo; Stark, Scott C; Martins, Giordane A; Penha, Deliane V; Saleska, Scott R

    2018-03-04

    Satellite and tower-based metrics of forest-scale photosynthesis generally increase with dry season progression across central Amazônia, but the underlying mechanisms lack consensus. We conducted demographic surveys of leaf age composition, and measured the age dependence of leaf physiology in broadleaf canopy trees of abundant species at a central eastern Amazon site. Using a novel leaf-to-branch scaling approach, we used these data to independently test the much-debated hypothesis - arising from satellite and tower-based observations - that leaf phenology could explain the forest-scale pattern of dry season photosynthesis. Stomatal conductance and biochemical parameters of photosynthesis were higher for recently mature leaves than for old leaves. Most branches had multiple leaf age categories simultaneously present, and the number of recently mature leaves increased as the dry season progressed because old leaves were exchanged for new leaves. These findings provide the first direct field evidence that branch-scale photosynthetic capacity increases during the dry season, with a magnitude consistent with increases in ecosystem-scale photosynthetic capacity derived from flux towers. Interactions between leaf age-dependent physiology and shifting leaf age-demographic composition are sufficient to explain the dry season photosynthetic capacity pattern at this site, and should be considered in vegetation models of tropical evergreen forests. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Healthy brain ageing assessed with 18F-FDG PET and age-dependent recovery factors after partial volume effect correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonte, Stijn [IBiTech, Ghent, (Belgium); Ghent University, iMinds - Medical Image and Signal Processing (MEDISIP), Department of Electronics and Information Systems, Ghent (Belgium); University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Vandemaele, Pieter; Deblaere, Karel; Goethals, Ingeborg [University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Verleden, Stijn; Audenaert, Kurt [University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Ghent (Belgium); Holen, Roel van [Ghent University, iMinds - Medical Image and Signal Processing (MEDISIP), Department of Electronics and Information Systems, Ghent (Belgium)

    2017-05-15

    The mechanisms of ageing of the healthy brain are not entirely clarified to date. In recent years several authors have tried to elucidate this topic by using {sup 18}F-FDG positron emission tomography. However, when correcting for partial volume effects (PVE), divergent results were reported. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate these methods in the presence of atrophy due to ageing. In this paper we first evaluate the performance of two PVE correction techniques with a phantom study: the Rousset method and iterative deconvolution. We show that the ability of the latter method to recover the true activity in a small region decreases with increasing age due to brain atrophy. Next, we have calculated age-dependent recovery factors to correct for this incomplete recovery. These factors were applied to PVE-corrected {sup 18}F-FDG PET scans of healthy subjects for mapping the agedependent metabolism in the brain. Many regions in the brain show a reduced metabolism with ageing, especially in grey matter in the frontal and temporal lobe. An increased metabolism is found in grey matter of the cerebellum and thalamus. Our study resulted in age-dependent recovery factors which can be applied following standard PVE correction methods. Cancelling the effect of atrophy, we found regional changes in {sup 18}F-FDG metabolism with ageing. A decreasing trend is found in the frontal and temporal lobe, whereas an increasing metabolism with ageing is observed in the thalamus and cerebellum.

  8. Artefacts and the performance of an exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2008-01-01

    The article explores the role of mediating artefacts in children's encounters with a museum of natural history. Using actor network theory it explores how a specific artefact shapes the way users relate to exhibited objects and how the artefact guides users' movements in the exhibition....... The mediated performance of an exhibition is explored through an empirical case....

  9. TGF-β1 induces an age-dependent inflammation of nerve ganglia and fibroplasia in the prostate gland stroma of a novel transgenic mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Barron

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available TGF-β1 is overexpressed in wound repair and in most proliferative disorders including benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. The stromal microenvironment at these sites is reactive and typified by altered phenotype, matrix deposition, inflammatory responses, and alterations in nerve density and biology. TGF-β1 is known to modulate several stromal responses; however there are few transgenic models to study its integrated biology. To address the actions of TGF-β1 in prostate disorders, we targeted expression of an epitope tagged and constitutively active TGF-β1 via the enhanced probasin promoter to the murine prostate gland epithelium. Transgenic mice developed age-dependent lesions leading to severe, yet focal attenuation of epithelium, and a discontinuous basal lamina. These changes were associated with elevated fibroplasia and frequency of collagenous micronodules in collapsed acini, along with an induced inflammation in nerve ganglia and small vessels. Elevated recruitment of CD115+ myeloid cells but not mature macrophages was observed in nerve ganglia, also in an age-dependent manner. Similar phenotypic changes were observed using a human prostate epithelium tissue recombination xenograft model, where epithelial cells engineered to overexpress TGF-β1 induced fibrosis and altered matrix deposition concurrent with inflammation in the stromal compartment. Together, these data suggest that elevated TGF-β1 expression induces a fibroplasia stromal response associated with breach of epithelial wall structure and inflammatory involvement of nerve ganglia and vessels. The novel findings of ganglia and vessel inflammation associated with formation of collagenous micronodules in collapsed acini is important as each of these are observed in human prostate carcinoma and may play a role in disease progression.

  10. Affordances and distributed cognition in museum exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne; May, Michael; Marandino, Martha

    2014-01-01

    consistent framework. Here, we invoke the notions of affordance and distributed cognition to explain in a coherent way how visitors interact with exhibits and exhibit spaces and make meaning from those interactions, and we exemplify our points using observations of twelve visitors to exhibits at a natural...... history museum. We show how differences in exhibit characteristics give rise to differences in the interpretive strategies used by visitors in their meaning-making process, and conclude by discussing how the notions of affordance and distributed cognition can be used in an exhibit design perspective....

  11. Investigating Design Research Landscapes through Exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Li; Hansen, Flemming Tvede; Mäkelä, Maarit

    2013-01-01

    What characterizes a design research exhibition compared to a traditional design and art exhibition? How do you show the very materialities of the design experiments as a means for communicating knowledge of research and of practice? How do you present, review and utilize such an exhibition......? With those questions in mind, the intention and challenge for the Nordes 2013 Design Research Exhibition was to expand on current notions of staging research enquires in design research conference contexts. Artefacts, installations, performances, and other materialities that relate to the theme...... of the conference - Experiments in Design Research – were displayed as tools to express and communicate different design research enquires. Through this paper we will describe the Nordes exhibition as a specific case that renders questions visible in relation to how to utilize a design research exhibition...

  12. Superconductive microstrip exhibiting negative differential resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebener, R.P.; Gallus, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    A device capable of exhibiting negative differential electrical resistivity over a range of values of current and voltage is formed by vapor-depositing a thin layer of a material capable of exhibiting superconductivity on an insulating substrate, establishing electrical connections at opposite ends of the deposited strip, and cooling the alloy into its superconducting range. The device will exhibit negative differential resistivity when biased in the current-induced resistive state

  13. Age-dependent decline in acyl-ghrelin concentrations and reduced association of acyl-ghrelin and growth hormone in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nass, Ralf; Farhy, Leon S; Liu, Jianhua; Pezzoli, Suzan S; Johnson, Michael L; Gaylinn, Bruce D; Thorner, Michael O

    2014-02-01

    Acyl-ghrelin is thought to have both orexigenic effects and to stimulate GH release. A possible cause of the anorexia of aging is an age-dependent decrease in circulating acyl-ghrelin levels. The purpose of the study was to compare acyl-ghrelin and GH concentrations between healthy old and young adults and to examine the relationship of acyl-ghrelin and GH secretion in both age groups. Six healthy older adults (age 62-74 y, body mass index range 20.9-29 kg/m(2)) and eight healthy young men (aged 18-28 y, body mass index range 20.6-26.2 kg/m(2)) had frequent blood samples drawn for hormone measurements every 10 minutes for 24 hours. Ghrelin was measured in an in-house, two-site sandwich ELISA specific for full-length acyl-ghrelin. GH was measured in a sensitive assay (Immulite 2000), and GH peaks were determined by deconvolution analysis. The acyl-ghrelin/GH association was estimated from correlations between amplitudes of individual GH secretory events and the average acyl-ghrelin concentration in the 60-minute interval preceding each GH burst. Twenty-four-hour mean (±SEM) GH (0.48 ± 0.14 vs 2.2 ± 0.3 μg/L, P adults compared with young adults. Twenty-four-hour cortisol concentrations were higher in the old than the young adults (15.1 ± 1.0 vs 10.6 ± 0.9 μg/dL, respectively, P young adults (0.16 ± 0.12 vs 0.69 ± 0.04, P age-dependent decline in circulating acyl-ghrelin levels, which might play a role both in the decline of GH and in the anorexia of aging. Our data also suggest that with normal aging, endogenous acyl-ghrelin levels are less tightly linked to GH regulation.

  14. A Heuristic for Improving Transmedia Exhibition Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selvadurai, Vashanth; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss

    2017-01-01

    in the scientific field of designing transmedia experience in an exhibition context that links the pre- and post-activities to the actual visit (during-activities). The result of this study is a preliminary heuristic for establishing a relation between the platform and content complexity in transmedia exhibitions....

  15. Memory and Mourning: An Exhibit History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Scott G.

    2005-01-01

    Mounted by the Strong Museum in Rochester, New York, in 1993, and traveling nationally thereafter, the exhibit Memory and Mourning provided historical and contemporary perspectives to help museum guests explore their own reactions to loss and grief. In the process the exhibit's development team encountered a range of philosophical, historical,…

  16. Let's play game exhibitions : A curator's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Jesse; Glas, M.A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330981447; van Vught, J.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413532682

    2017-01-01

    The Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision is home to The Experience, a museum exhibiting the history of media in the Netherlands. For ten months in 2016 and 2017, The Experience hosted a temporary exhibition entitled Let’s YouTube . During the Let’s YouTube game month, we programmed a ten-day

  17. Science Fiction Exhibits as STEM Gateways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robie, Samantha

    Women continue to hold less than a quarter of all STEM jobs in the United States, prompting many museums to develop programs and exhibits with the express goal of interesting young girls in scientific fields. At the same time, a number of recent museum exhibits have harnessed the popularity of pop culture and science fiction in order to interest general audiences in STEM subject matter, as well as using the exhibits as springboards to expand or shift mission goals and focus. Because science fiction appears to be successful at raising interest in STEM fields, it may be an effective way to garner the interest of young girls in STEM in particular. This research seeks to describe the ways in which museums are currently using science fiction exhibits to interest young girls in STEM fields and careers. Research focused on four institutions across the country hosting three separate exhibits, and included staff interviews and content analysis of exhibit descriptions, promotional materials, a summative evaluation and supplementary exhibit productions. In some ways, science fiction exhibits do serve young girls, primarily through the inclusion of female role models, staff awareness, and prototype testing to ensure interactives are attractive to girls as well as to boys. However, STEM appears to be underutilized, which may be partly due to a concern within the field that the outcome of targeting a specific gender could be construed as "stereotyping".

  18. The Culture of Exhibitions and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Doumas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects on temporary exhibitions from a theoretical as well as practical perspective. Regarded as a particularly effective mass-communication medium, exhibitions have a dual nature: they are scholarly undertakings, bringing off a curator’s vision and, simultaneously, they are projects with economic implications that need to be well managed and administered. The role of conservation in the making of temporary exhibitions, either in-house or touring, is here discussed in relation to how work is planned and prioritized as well as how time is managed and staff is allocated. Reference to weaknesses that lessen the crucial input of conservation in the decision-making process is also made. Much of the debate, which focuses on art exhibitions, concerns practicalities encountered in a private museum that extend from the very early stages of selecting objects for display to the mounting of an exhibition.

  19. Holland at CERN – Industrial exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Sponsored by EVD, an agency of the Dutch Ministry of the Economy From 8 to 11 November 2010 Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg. 61 9-00 - 17-30 Twenty seven companies will present their latest technology at the industrial exhibition "Holland at CERN". Dutch industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. Individual interviews will take place directly at the stands in the Main Building. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each departmental secretariat or at the following URL: http://gs-dep.web.cern.ch/gs-dep/groups/sem/ls/Industrial_Exhibitions.htm#Industrial_exhibitions You will find the list of exhibitors below. LIST OF EXHIBITORS: Schelde Exotech Vernooy BV Triumph Group INCAA Computers DeMaCo Holland bv TNO Science & Industry Janssen Precision Engi...

  20. Infection of inbred rat strains with Rift Valley fever virus: development of a congenic resistant strain and observations on age-dependence of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G W; Rosebrock, J A; Johnson, A J; Jennings, G B; Peters, C J

    1991-05-01

    A congenic rat strain (WF.LEW) was derived from the susceptible Wistar-Furth (WF) (background strain) and the resistant LEW (donor strain) inbred strains and was used to evaluate the phenotypic expression of a dominant Mendelian gene that confers resistance to fatal hepatic disease caused by the ZH501 strain of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Resistance to hepatic disease developed gradually with age, with full expression at approximately 10 weeks in the WF.LEW and LEW rat strains. The ZH501 strain caused fatal hepatitis in WF rats regardless of age. However, resistance to the SA75 RVFV strain (relatively non-pathogenic for adult rats), was age- and dose-dependent in both WF and LEW rats. The resistance gene transferred to the newly derived WF.LEW congenic rat strain appears to amplify age-dependent resistance of adult rats, resulting in protection against fatal hepatic disease caused by the virulent ZH501 strain. The congenic rat strain will be a valuable asset in elucidating the mechanism of resistance to Rift Valley fever virus governed by the dominant Mendelian gene.

  1. AGE-DEPENDENT INHALATION DOSE DUE TO EXPOSURE OF SHORT LIVED PROGENY OF RADON AND THORON FOR DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS IN JAMMU & KASHMIR, HIMALAYAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sumit; Kumar, Ajay; Mehra, Rohit

    2018-05-16

    Dosimetric approach is used in this study for the assessment of doses due to inhalation of short lived radon/thoron progeny to the inhabitants of Udhampur district of Jammu & Kashmir. This paper also presents the activity concentrations and unattached fraction of radon and thoron progeny. The observed annual concentration of attached and unattached 222Rn and 220Rn progeny has been found to vary from 8 to 32 and 0.09 to 14 Bq/m3, 0.75 to 3.16 and 0.01 to 1.13 Bq/m3, respectively. The inhalation doses from radon progeny to different body organs of different age groups have been calculated by using the age dependent biokinetic model. The attachment rate of 222Rn and indoor aerosol concentration of 222Rn and 220Rn have been estimated and their relation between them has also been studied. The dose conversion factor for mouth and nasal breathing to different exposure conditions has been obtained from Porstendorfer model.

  2. Development and application of a set of mesh-based and age-dependent Chinese family phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: Preliminary Data for external photon beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Yifei; Zhang, Lian; Huo, Wanli; Feng, Mang; Chen, Zhi; Xu, X. George

    2017-09-01

    A group of mesh-based and age-dependent family phantoms for Chinese populations were developed in this study. We implemented a method for deforming original RPI-AM and RPI-AF models into phantoms of different ages: 5, 10 ,15 and adult. More than 120 organs for each model were processed to match with the values of the Chinese reference parameters within 0.5%. All of these phantoms were then converted to voxel format for Monte Carlo simulations. Dose coefficients for adult models were counted to compare with those of RPI-AM and RPI-AF. The results show that there are significant differences between absorbed doses of RPI phantoms and these of our adult phantoms at low energies. Comparisons for the dose coefficients among different ages and genders were also made. it was found that teenagers receive more radiation doses than adults under the same irradiation condition. This set of phantoms can be utilized to estimate dosimetry for Chinese population for radiation protection, medical imaging, and radiotherapy.

  3. Skin Aging-Dependent Activation of the PI3K Signaling Pathway via Downregulation of PTEN Increases Intracellular ROS in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Mi Noh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS play a major role in both chronological aging and photoaging. ROS induce skin aging through their damaging effect on cellular constituents. However, the origins of ROS have not been fully elucidated. We investigated that ROS generation of replicative senescent fibroblasts is generated by the modulation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3 metabolism. Reduction of the PTEN protein, which dephosphorylates PIP3, was responsible for maintaining a high level of PIP3 in replicative cells and consequently mediated the activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K/Akt pathway. Increased ROS production was blocked by inhibition of PI3K or protein kinase C (PKC or by NADPH oxidase activating in replicative senescent cells. These data indicate that the signal pathway to ROS generation in replicative aged skin cells can be stimulated by reduced PTEN level. Our results provide new insights into skin aging-associated modification of the PI3K/NADPH oxidase signaling pathway and its relationship with a skin aging-dependent increase of ROS in human dermal fibroblasts.

  4. Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Decrease Interferon Gamma Production through an Age-Dependent Histone Modification in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Ren; Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Hung, Pi-Lien; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-01-01

    Overexposure to prenatal glucocorticoid (GC) disturbs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolism and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. A high-fat (HF) diet is a major environmental factor that can cause metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate whether prenatal GC plus a postnatal HF diet could alter immune programming in rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of dexamethasone or saline at 14–21 days of gestation. Male offspring were then divided into four groups: vehicle, prenatal dexamethasone exposure, postnatal HF diet (VHF), and prenatal dexamethasone exposure plus a postnatal HF diet (DHF). The rats were sacrificed and adaptive immune function was evaluated. Compared to the vehicle, the DHF group had lower interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production by splenocytes at postnatal day 120. Decreases in H3K9 acetylation and H3K36me3 levels at the IFN-γ promoter correlated with decreased IFN-γ production. The impaired IFN-γ production and aberrant site-specific histone modification at the IFN-γ promoter by prenatal dexamethasone treatment plus a postnatal HF diet resulted in resilience at postnatal day 180. Prenatal dexamethasone and a postnatal HF diet decreased IFN-γ production through a site-specific and an age-dependent histone modification. These findings suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to GC and a postnatal environment exert effects on fetal immunity programming. PMID:27669212

  5. Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Decrease Interferon Gamma Production through an Age-Dependent Histone Modification in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ren Yu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Overexposure to prenatal glucocorticoid (GC disturbs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolism and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. A high-fat (HF diet is a major environmental factor that can cause metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate whether prenatal GC plus a postnatal HF diet could alter immune programming in rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of dexamethasone or saline at 14–21 days of gestation. Male offspring were then divided into four groups: vehicle, prenatal dexamethasone exposure, postnatal HF diet (VHF, and prenatal dexamethasone exposure plus a postnatal HF diet (DHF. The rats were sacrificed and adaptive immune function was evaluated. Compared to the vehicle, the DHF group had lower interferon gamma (IFN-γ production by splenocytes at postnatal day 120. Decreases in H3K9 acetylation and H3K36me3 levels at the IFN-γ promoter correlated with decreased IFN-γ production. The impaired IFN-γ production and aberrant site-specific histone modification at the IFN-γ promoter by prenatal dexamethasone treatment plus a postnatal HF diet resulted in resilience at postnatal day 180. Prenatal dexamethasone and a postnatal HF diet decreased IFN-γ production through a site-specific and an age-dependent histone modification. These findings suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to GC and a postnatal environment exert effects on fetal immunity programming.

  6. The evaluation of role of NMDA receptor and spinal microglia on age dependent differences of neuropathic pain in SNL model in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain zeinali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Induced neuropathic pain following nerve injury has behavioral signs such as allodynia and hyperalgesia. There are reports about the age dependent differences in severity and incidence and even therapeutic response of this pain. In this study, we have tried to evaluate behavioral differences of this pain in an induced neuropathic model in different ages, according to important role of N-methyl, D-aspartate (NMDA receptor and spinal microglia on induction and maintenance of pain. Material and methods: Male rats were grouped in young (5-6 week and mature (10-11 week. Under general anesthesia, the spinal nerve ligation (SNL surgery was operated on right leg. The effect of different doses of dextromethorphan (NMDA blocker and minocycline (microglia inhibitor on 5th day after surgery was evaluated and compared in two age-groups. Results: In this study, both Minocycline and dextromethorphan diminished neuropathic pain in a dose dependent manner in these two ages. Minocycline in contrast to dextromethorphan was more effective in young rats. The co-administration of ineffective doses of minocycline and dextromethorphan could be effective. Conclusion: Microglia and NMDA receptor function in neuropathic pain is different in different ages and the role of microglia is more evident. On the other hand the inhibition of both microglia and NMDA receptor can be considered for lowering neuropathic pain.

  7. Depletion of the Third Complement Component Ameliorates Age-Dependent Oxidative Stress and Positively Modulates Autophagic Activity in Aged Retinas in a Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Rogińska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of complement component C3 global depletion on the biological structure and function of the aged retina. In vivo morphology (OCT, electrophysiological function (ERG, and the expression of selected oxidative stress-, apoptosis-, and autophagy-related proteins were assessed in retinas of 12-month-old C3-deficient and WT mice. Moreover, global gene expression in retinas was analyzed by RNA arrays. We found that the absence of active C3 was associated with (1 alleviation of the age-dependent decrease in retinal thickness and gradual deterioration of retinal bioelectrical function, (2 significantly higher levels of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and glutathione reductase and the antiapoptotic survivin and Mcl-1/Bak dimer, (3 lower expression of the cellular oxidative stress marker—4HNE—and decreased activity of proapoptotic caspase-3, (4 ameliorated retinal autophagic activity with localization of ubiquitinated protein conjugates commonly along the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE layer, and (5 significantly increased expression of several gene sets associated with maintenance of the physiological functions of the neural retina. Our findings shed light on mechanisms of age-related retinal alterations by identifying C3 as a potential therapeutic target for retinal aging.

  8. Age dependence of dielectric properties of bovine brain and ocular tissues in the frequency range of 400 MHz to 18 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, Gernot; Ueberbacher, Richard

    2005-01-01

    In order to identify possible age-dependent dielectric properties of brain and eye tissues in the frequency range of 400 MHz to 18 GHz, measurements on bovine grey and white matter as well as on cornea, lens (cortical) and the vitreous body were performed using a commercially available open-ended coaxial probe and a computer-controlled vector network analyser. Freshly excised tissues of 52 animals of two age groups (42 adult animals, i.e. 16-24 month old and 10 young animals, i.e. 4-6 month old calves) were examined within 8 min (brain tissue) and 15 min (eye tissue), respectively, of the animals' death. Tissue temperatures for the measurements were 32 ± 1 0 C and 25 ± 1 0 C for brain and eye tissues, respectively. Statistical analysis of the measured data revealed significant differences in the dielectric properties of white matter and cortical lens tissue between the adult and the young group. In the case of white matter the mean values of conductivity and permittivity of young tissue were 15%-22% and 12%-15%, respectively, higher compared to the adult tissue in the considered frequency range. Similarly, young cortical lens tissue was 25%-76% higher in conductivity and 27%-39% higher in permittivity than adult cortical lens tissue

  9. Age-Dependent Long-Term Potentiation Deficits in the Prefrontal Cortex of the Fmr1 Knockout Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Henry G S; Lassalle, Olivier; Brown, Jonathan T; Manzoni, Olivier J

    2016-05-01

    The most common inherited monogenetic cause of intellectual disability is Fragile X syndrome (FXS). The clinical symptoms of FXS evolve with age during adulthood; however, neurophysiological data exploring this phenomenon are limited. The Fmr1 knockout (Fmr1KO) mouse models FXS, but studies in these mice of prefrontal cortex (PFC) function are underrepresented, and aging linked data are absent. We studied synaptic physiology and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in the medial PFC of Fmr1KO mice from 2 to 12 months. In young adult Fmr1KO mice, NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated long-term potentiation (LTP) is intact; however, in 12-month-old mice this LTP is impaired. In parallel, there was an increase in the AMPAR/NMDAR ratio and a concomitant decrease of synaptic NMDAR currents in 12-month-old Fmr1KO mice. We found that acute pharmacological blockade of mGlu5 receptor in 12-month-old Fmr1KO mice restored a normal AMPAR/NMDAR ratio and LTP. Taken together, the data reveal an age-dependent deficit in LTP in Fmr1KO mice, which may correlate to some of the complex age-related deficits in FXS. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. A mini-exhibition with maximum content

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    The University of Budapest has been hosting a CERN mini-exhibition since 8 May. While smaller than the main travelling exhibition it has a number of major advantages: its compact design alleviates transport difficulties and makes it easier to find suitable venues in the Member States. Its content can be updated almost instantaneously and it will become even more interactive and high-tech as time goes by.   The exhibition on display in Budapest. The purpose of CERN's new mini-exhibition is to be more interactive and easier to install. Due to its size, the main travelling exhibition cannot be moved around quickly, which is why it stays in the same country for 4 to 6 months. But this means a long waiting list for the other Member States. To solve this problem, the Education Group has designed a new exhibition, which is smaller and thus easier to install. Smaller maybe, but no less rich in content, as the new exhibition conveys exactly the same messages as its larger counterpart. However, in the slimm...

  11. France at CERN – Industrial exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department

    2012-01-01

    Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg 61 – 1st Floor Tuesday 27 March: 9 a.m. – 5.30 p.m. Wednesday 28 March: 9 a.m. – 2 p.m.   About thirty French companies are presenting their latest technological advances during the industrial exhibition "France at CERN", featuring products and technologies specifically related to CERN activities. Individual B2B meetings can be organized with the sales and technical representatives of participating firms and will take place at either the companies’ exhibition stands or in conference rooms in the Main Building. Individuals wishing to make contact with one or more companies must use the contact details available from each secretariat of department or by using this link. B2B meetings will be coordinated by UBIFRANCE. You will also find the list of exhibiting and participating companies online here. This event is sponsored by the French subsidiary of RS Components, the most important distri...

  12. High Quality Virtual Reality for Architectural Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzberg, Anette

    2016-01-01

    This paper will summarise the findings from creating and implementing a visually high quality Virtual Reality (VR) experiment as part of an international architecture exhibition. It was the aim to represent the architectural spatial qualities as well as the atmosphere created from combining natural...... and artificial lighting in a prominent not yet built project. The outcome is twofold: Findings concerning the integration of VR in an exhibition space and findings concerning the experience of the virtual space itself. In the exhibition, an important aspect was the unmanned exhibition space, requiring the VR...... experience to be self-explanatory. Observations of different visitor reactions to the unmanned VR experience compared with visitor reactions at guided tours with personal instructions are evaluated. Data on perception of realism, spatial quality and light in the VR model were collected with qualitative...

  13. Medan Convention & Exhibition Center (Arsitektur Ekspresionisme)

    OpenAIRE

    Iskandar, Nurul Auni

    2015-01-01

    Medan is one of the third largest city in Indonesia, which is currently being developed, and a city with lots of activities. In the city of Medan has a high investment opportunities for a convention, because of its strategic position in Southeast Asia and also supported by the facility and the potential for tourism in North Sumatra, Medan city has the potential for industrial MICE (Meeting, Incentive, Conference, Exhibition). The construction of Medan Convention & Exhibition Cente...

  14. The presentation of energy topics at exhibitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moergeli, H.P.

    1984-01-01

    The author examines the problems confronting an electricity supply company when trying to communicate its energy policy to the general public at exhibitions and fairs. The company has to convey a message of reliable power supplies, increasing demand, the advantages of nuclear energy, the safe storage of radioactive waste and the need for new generating plants. The author describes some of the displays being used to attract the public to the Bern Power Stations stand at the Bern Exhibition 1984. (R.S.)

  15. An Astrobiology Microbes Exhibit and Education Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Allen, Jaclyn S.; Stocco, Karen; Tobola, Kay; Olendzenski, Lorraine

    2001-01-01

    Telling the story of NASA-sponsored scientific research to the public in exhibits is best done by partnerships of scientists and museum professionals. Likewise, preparing classroom activities and training teachers to use them should be done by teams of teachers and scientists. Here we describe how we used such partnerships to develop a new astrobiology augmentation to the Microbes! traveling exhibit and a companion education module. "Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract."

  16. C/EBPα is dispensable for the ontogeny of PD-1+ CD4+ memory T cells but restricts their expansion in an age-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Christine Norrie

    Full Text Available Ageing and cancer is often associated with altered T cell distributions and this phenomenon has been suggested to be the main driver in the development of immunosenescence. Memory phenotype PD-1+ CD4+ T cells accumulate with age and during leukemic development, and they might account for the attenuated T cell response in elderly or diseased individuals. The transcription factor C/EBPα has been suggested to be responsible for the accumulation as well as for the senescent features of these cells including impaired TCR signaling and decreased proliferation. Thus modulating the activity of C/EBPα could potentially target PD-1+ CD4+ T cells and consequently, impede the development of immunosenescence. To exploit this possibility we tested the importance of C/EBPα for the development of age-dependent PD-1+ CD4+ T cells as well as its role in the accumulation of PD-1+ CD4+ T cells during leukemic progression. In contrast to earlier suggestions, we find that loss of C/EBPα expression in the lymphoid compartment led to an increase of PD-1+ CD4+ T cells specifically in old mice, suggesting that C/EBPα repress the accumulation of these cells in elderly by inhibiting their proliferation. Furthermore, C/EBPα-deficiency in the lymphoid compartment had no effect on leukemic development and did not affect the accumulation of PD-1+ CD4+ T cells. Thus, in addition to contradict earlier suggestions of a role for C/EBPα in immunosenescence, these findings efficiently discard the potential of using C/EBPα as a target for the alleviation of ageing/cancer-associated immunosenescence.

  17. Stress Marker Signatures in Lesion Mimic Single and Double Mutants Identify a Crucial Leaf Age-Dependent Salicylic Acid Related Defense Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaurilind, Eve; Brosché, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Plants are exposed to abiotic and biotic stress conditions throughout their lifespans that activates various defense programs. Programmed cell death (PCD) is an extreme defense strategy the plant uses to manage unfavorable environments as well as during developmentally induced senescence. Here we investigated the role of leaf age on the regulation of defense gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Two lesion mimic mutants with misregulated cell death, catalase2 (cat2) and defense no death1 (dnd1) were used together with several double mutants to dissect signaling pathways regulating defense gene expression associated with cell death and leaf age. PCD marker genes showed leaf age dependent expression, with the highest expression in old leaves. The salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis mutant salicylic acid induction deficient2 (sid2) had reduced expression of PCD marker genes in the cat2 sid2 double mutant demonstrating the importance of SA biosynthesis in regulation of defense gene expression. While the auxin- and jasmonic acid (JA)- insensitive auxin resistant1 (axr1) double mutant cat2 axr1 also led to decreased expression of PCD markers; the expression of several marker genes for SA signaling (ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE 1, PR1 and PR2) were additionally decreased in cat2 axr1 compared to cat2. The reduced expression of these SA markers genes in cat2 axr1 implicates AXR1 as a regulator of SA signaling in addition to its known role in auxin and JA signaling. Overall, the current study reinforces the important role of SA signaling in regulation of leaf age-related transcript signatures.

  18. Extrastriatal binding of [123I]FP-CIT in the thalamus and pons: gender and age dependencies assessed in a European multicentre database of healthy controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Walter; Unterrainer, Marcus; Xiong, Guoming; Bartenstein, Peter; Diemling, Markus; Varrone, Andrea; Dickson, John C.; Tossici-Bolt, Livia; Sera, Terez; Asenbaum, Susanne; Booij, Jan; Kapucu, Ozlem L.; Kluge, Andreas; Ziebell, Morten; Darcourt, Jacques; Nobili, Flavio; Pagani, Marco; Hesse, Swen; Borght, Thierry Vander; Laere, Koen van; Tatsch, Klaus; La Fougere, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Apart from binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT), [ 123 I]FP-CIT shows moderate affinity for the serotonin transporter (SERT), allowing imaging of both monoamine transporters in a single imaging session in different brain areas. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate extrastriatal binding (predominantly due to SERT) and its age and gender dependencies in a large cohort of healthy controls. SPECT data from 103 healthy controls with well-defined criteria of normality acquired at 13 different imaging centres were analysed for extrastriatal binding using volumes of interest analysis for the thalamus and the pons. Data were examined for gender and age effects as well as for potential influence of striatal DAT radiotracer binding. Thalamic binding was significantly higher than pons binding. Partial correlations showed an influence of putaminal DAT binding on measured binding in the thalamus but not on the pons. Data showed high interindividual variation in extrastriatal binding. Significant gender effects with 31 % higher binding in women than in men were observed in the thalamus, but not in the pons. An age dependency with a decline per decade (±standard error) of 8.2 ± 1.3 % for the thalamus and 6.8 ± 2.9 % for the pons was shown. The potential to evaluate extrastriatal predominant SERT binding in addition to the striatal DAT in a single imaging session was shown using a large database of [ 123 I]FP-CIT scans in healthy controls. For both the thalamus and the pons, an age-related decline in radiotracer binding was observed. Gender effects were demonstrated for binding in the thalamus only. As a potential clinical application, the data could be used as a reference to estimate SERT occupancy in addition to nigrostriatal integrity when using [ 123 I]FP-CIT for DAT imaging in patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. (orig.)

  19. Age-dependent effects of oral infection with dengue virus on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) feeding behavior, survival, oviposition success and fecundity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvestre, Gabriel; Gandini, Mariana; Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue, a disease that is increasing its geographical range as well as incidence rates. Despite its public health importance, the effect of dengue virus (DENV) on some mosquito traits remains unknown. Here, we investigated the impact of DENV-2 infection on the feeding behavior, survival, oviposition success and fecundity of Ae. aegypti females. After orally-challenging Ae. aegypti females with a DENV-2 strain using a membrane feeder, we monitored the feeding behavior, survival, oviposition success and fecundity throughout the mosquito lifespan. We observed an age-dependent cost of DENV infection on mosquito feeding behavior and fecundity. Infected individuals took more time to ingest blood from anesthetized mice in the 2(nd) and 3(rd) weeks post-infection, and also longer overall blood-feeding times in the 3(rd) week post-infection, when females were around 20 days old. Often, infected Ae. aegypti females did not lay eggs and when they were laid, smaller number of eggs were laid compared to uninfected controls. A reduction in the number of eggs laid per female was evident starting on the 3(rd) week post-infection. DENV-2 negatively affected mosquito lifespan, since overall the longevity of infected females was halved compared to that of the uninfected control group. The DENV-2 strain tested significantly affected Ae. aegypti traits directly correlated with vectorial capacity or mosquito population density, such as feeding behavior, survival, fecundity and oviposition success. Infected mosquitoes spent more time ingesting blood, had reduced lifespan, laid eggs less frequently, and when they did lay eggs, the clutches were smaller than uninfected mosquitoes.

  20. Extrastriatal binding of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT in the thalamus and pons: gender and age dependencies assessed in a European multicentre database of healthy controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Walter; Unterrainer, Marcus; Xiong, Guoming; Bartenstein, Peter [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Diemling, Markus [Hermes Medical Solutions, Stockholm (Sweden); Varrone, Andrea [Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm (Sweden); Dickson, John C. [UCLH NHS Foundation Trust and University College, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Tossici-Bolt, Livia [University Hospitals Southampton NHS Trust, Department of Medical Physics, Southampton (United Kingdom); Sera, Terez [University of Szeged, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Euromedic Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Asenbaum, Susanne [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Neurology, Vienna (Austria); Booij, Jan [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kapucu, Ozlem L. [Gazi University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Kluge, Andreas [ABX-CRO, Dresden (Germany); Ziebell, Morten [Rigshospitalet and University of Copenhagen, Neurobiology Research Unit, Copenhagen (Denmark); Darcourt, Jacques [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nuclear Medicine Department, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurology Unit, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI), Genoa (Italy); Pagani, Marco [CNR, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Rome (Italy); Karolinska Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Hesse, Swen [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Leipzig University Medical Centre, Molecular Neuroimaging IFB Adiposity Diseases, Leipzig (Germany); Borght, Thierry Vander [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Nuclear Medicine Division, CHU Dinant Godinne, Yvoir (Belgium); Laere, Koen van [University Hospital and K.U. Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Tatsch, Klaus [Staedtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karlsruhe (Germany); La Fougere, Christian [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); University of Tuebingen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Apart from binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT), [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT shows moderate affinity for the serotonin transporter (SERT), allowing imaging of both monoamine transporters in a single imaging session in different brain areas. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate extrastriatal binding (predominantly due to SERT) and its age and gender dependencies in a large cohort of healthy controls. SPECT data from 103 healthy controls with well-defined criteria of normality acquired at 13 different imaging centres were analysed for extrastriatal binding using volumes of interest analysis for the thalamus and the pons. Data were examined for gender and age effects as well as for potential influence of striatal DAT radiotracer binding. Thalamic binding was significantly higher than pons binding. Partial correlations showed an influence of putaminal DAT binding on measured binding in the thalamus but not on the pons. Data showed high interindividual variation in extrastriatal binding. Significant gender effects with 31 % higher binding in women than in men were observed in the thalamus, but not in the pons. An age dependency with a decline per decade (±standard error) of 8.2 ± 1.3 % for the thalamus and 6.8 ± 2.9 % for the pons was shown. The potential to evaluate extrastriatal predominant SERT binding in addition to the striatal DAT in a single imaging session was shown using a large database of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT scans in healthy controls. For both the thalamus and the pons, an age-related decline in radiotracer binding was observed. Gender effects were demonstrated for binding in the thalamus only. As a potential clinical application, the data could be used as a reference to estimate SERT occupancy in addition to nigrostriatal integrity when using [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT for DAT imaging in patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. (orig.)

  1. Intermittent Theta-Burst Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Alters Electrical Properties of Fast-Spiking Neocortical Interneurons in an Age-Dependent Fashion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin eHoppenrath

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Modulation of human cortical excitability by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS appears to be in part related to changed activity of inhibitory systems. Our own studies showed that intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS applied via rTMS to rat cortex primarily affects the parvalbumin-expressing (PV fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs, evident via a strongly reduced PV expression. We further found the iTBS effect on PV to be age-dependent since no reduction in PV could be induced before the perineuronal nets (PNNs of FSIs start to grow around postnatal day 30. To elucidate possible iTBS-induced changes in the electrical properties of FSIs and cortical network activity during cortical critical period, we performed ex vivo – in vitro whole-cell patch clamp recordings from pre-labelled FSIs in the current study. FSIs of verum iTBS-treated rats displayed a higher excitability than sham-treated controls at PD29-38, evident as higher rates of induced action potential firing at low current injections (100-200 pA and a more depolarized resting membrane potential. This effect was absent in younger (PD26-28 and older animals (PD40-62. Slices of verum iTBS-treated rats further showed higher rates of spontaneous EPSCs. Based on these and previous findings we conclude that FSIs are particularly sensitive to theta-burst stimulation during early cortical development, when FSIs show an activity-driven step of maturation which is paralleled by intense growth of the PNNs and subsequent closure of the cortical critical period. Although to be proven further, rTMS may be a possible early intervention to compensate for hypo-activity related mal-development of cortical neuronal circuits.

  2. Intermittent Theta-Burst Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Alters Electrical Properties of Fast-Spiking Neocortical Interneurons in an Age-Dependent Fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppenrath, Kathrin; Härtig, Wolfgang; Funke, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of human cortical excitability by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) appears to be in part related to changed activity of inhibitory systems. Our own studies showed that intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) applied via rTMS to rat cortex primarily affects the parvalbumin-expressing (PV) fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs), evident via a strongly reduced PV expression. We further found the iTBS effect on PV to be age-dependent since no reduction in PV could be induced before the perineuronal nets (PNNs) of FSIs start to grow around postnatal day (PD) 30. To elucidate possible iTBS-induced changes in the electrical properties of FSIs and cortical network activity during cortical critical period, we performed ex vivo-in vitro whole-cell patch clamp recordings from pre-labeled FSIs in the current study. FSIs of verum iTBS-treated rats displayed a higher excitability than sham-treated controls at PD29-38, evident as higher rates of induced action potential firing at low current injections (100-200 pA) and a more depolarized resting membrane potential. This effect was absent in younger (PD26-28) and older animals (PD40-62). Slices of verum iTBS-treated rats further showed higher rates of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs). Based on these and previous findings we conclude that FSIs are particularly sensitive to TBS during early cortical development, when FSIs show an activity-driven step of maturation which is paralleled by intense growth of the PNNs and subsequent closure of the cortical critical period. Although to be proven further, rTMS may be a possible early intervention to compensate for hypo-activity related mal-development of cortical neuronal circuits.

  3. T2* Mapping of the Hip in Asymptomatic Volunteers with Normal Cartilage Morphology: An Analysis of Regional and Age-Dependent Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesper, Tobias; Schleich, Christoph; Buchwald, Alexander; Hosalkar, Harish S; Antoch, Gerald; Krauspe, Rüdiger; Zilkens, Christoph; Bittersohl, Bernd

    2018-01-01

    Objective To assess age-dependent and regional differences in T2* relaxation measurements in hip joint cartilage of asymptomatic volunteers at 3 T. Design Three age cohorts (cohort 1: age 20-30 years, 15 individuals; cohort 2: age 30-40 years, 17 individuals; cohort 3: age 40-50 years, 15 individuals) were enrolled. T2* values were obtained in the central and peripheral cartilage of the acetabulum and the femoral head in 7 regions (anterior to superior and posterior). Results T2* did not differ among age cohorts in acetabular cartilage (cohort 1: 24.65 ± 6.56 ms, cohort 2: 24.70 ± 4.83 ms, cohort 3: 25.81 ± 5.10 ms, P = 0.10) and femoral head cartilage (cohort 1: 27.08 ± 8.24 ms, cohort 2: 25.90 ± 7.82 ms, cohort 3: 26.50 ± 5.61 ms, P = 0.34). Analysis of the regional T2* distribution pattern indicates increased T2* values in the anterior, anterior-superior, superior-anterior, and the posterior-superior aspects of acetabular and femoral head cartilage. For acetabular cartilage, higher values were observed in the central region (25.90 ± 4.80 ms vs. 24.21 ± 4.05 ms, P cartilage did not reveal such differences (26.62 ± 5.74 ms vs. 26.37 ± 5.89 ms, P = 0.44). Conclusions The T2* analysis of presumably healthy hip joint cartilage does not seem to be stratified according to age in this population. Regional T2* variation throughout hip joint cartilage is apparent in this modality.

  4. Age-dependent effects of oral infection with dengue virus on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae feeding behavior, survival, oviposition success and fecundity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Sylvestre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue, a disease that is increasing its geographical range as well as incidence rates. Despite its public health importance, the effect of dengue virus (DENV on some mosquito traits remains unknown. Here, we investigated the impact of DENV-2 infection on the feeding behavior, survival, oviposition success and fecundity of Ae. aegypti females. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After orally-challenging Ae. aegypti females with a DENV-2 strain using a membrane feeder, we monitored the feeding behavior, survival, oviposition success and fecundity throughout the mosquito lifespan. We observed an age-dependent cost of DENV infection on mosquito feeding behavior and fecundity. Infected individuals took more time to ingest blood from anesthetized mice in the 2(nd and 3(rd weeks post-infection, and also longer overall blood-feeding times in the 3(rd week post-infection, when females were around 20 days old. Often, infected Ae. aegypti females did not lay eggs and when they were laid, smaller number of eggs were laid compared to uninfected controls. A reduction in the number of eggs laid per female was evident starting on the 3(rd week post-infection. DENV-2 negatively affected mosquito lifespan, since overall the longevity of infected females was halved compared to that of the uninfected control group. CONCLUSIONS: The DENV-2 strain tested significantly affected Ae. aegypti traits directly correlated with vectorial capacity or mosquito population density, such as feeding behavior, survival, fecundity and oviposition success. Infected mosquitoes spent more time ingesting blood, had reduced lifespan, laid eggs less frequently, and when they did lay eggs, the clutches were smaller than uninfected mosquitoes.

  5. [The mechanism of phenoptosis: I. Age-dependent decrease of the overall rate of protein synthesis is caused by the programmed attenuation of bio-energetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubitsyn, A G

    2009-01-01

    The age-dependent degradation of all vital processes of an organism can be result of influences of destructive factors (the stochastic mechanism of aging), or effect of realizations of the genetic program (phenoptosis). The stochastic free-radical theory of aging dominating now contradicts the set of empirical data, and the semicentenial attempts to create the means to slow down aging did not give any practical results. It makes obvious that the stochastic mechanism of aging is incorrect. At the same time, the alternative mechanism of the programmed aging is not developed yet but preconditions for it development have already been created. It is shown that the genes controlling process of aging exist (contrary to the customary opinion) and the increase in the level of damaged macromolecules (basic postulate of the free-radical theory) can be explained by programmed attenuation of bio-energetics. As the bio-energetics is a driving force of all vital processes, decrease of its level is capable to cause degradation of all functions of an organism. However to transform this postulate into a basis of the theory of phenoptosis it is necessary to show, that attenuation of bio-energetics predetermines such fundamental processes accompanying aging as decrease of the overall rate of protein biosynthesis, restriction of cellular proliferations (Hayflick limit), loss of telomeres etc. This article is the first step in this direction: the natural mechanism of interaction of overall rate of protein synthesis with a level of cellular bio-energetics is shown. This is built-in into the translation machine and based on dependence of recirculation rate of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (elF2) from ATP/ADP value that is created by mitochondrial bio-energetic machine.

  6. C/EBPα is dispensable for the ontogeny of PD-1+ CD4+ memory T cells but restricts their expansion in an age-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrie, Ida Christine; Ohlsson, Ewa; Nielsen, Olaf; Hasemann, Marie Sigurd; Porse, Bo T

    2014-01-01

    Ageing and cancer is often associated with altered T cell distributions and this phenomenon has been suggested to be the main driver in the development of immunosenescence. Memory phenotype PD-1+ CD4+ T cells accumulate with age and during leukemic development, and they might account for the attenuated T cell response in elderly or diseased individuals. The transcription factor C/EBPα has been suggested to be responsible for the accumulation as well as for the senescent features of these cells including impaired TCR signaling and decreased proliferation. Thus modulating the activity of C/EBPα could potentially target PD-1+ CD4+ T cells and consequently, impede the development of immunosenescence. To exploit this possibility we tested the importance of C/EBPα for the development of age-dependent PD-1+ CD4+ T cells as well as its role in the accumulation of PD-1+ CD4+ T cells during leukemic progression. In contrast to earlier suggestions, we find that loss of C/EBPα expression in the lymphoid compartment led to an increase of PD-1+ CD4+ T cells specifically in old mice, suggesting that C/EBPα repress the accumulation of these cells in elderly by inhibiting their proliferation. Furthermore, C/EBPα-deficiency in the lymphoid compartment had no effect on leukemic development and did not affect the accumulation of PD-1+ CD4+ T cells. Thus, in addition to contradict earlier suggestions of a role for C/EBPα in immunosenescence, these findings efficiently discard the potential of using C/EBPα as a target for the alleviation of ageing/cancer-associated immunosenescence.

  7. Turning energy around: an interactive exhibition experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kellberg

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A transition from the fossil-fuel driven to a sustainable energy system is an enormous global challenge: climate change and finite resources require countries all over the world to change their way of producing, transporting and using energy. The Energiewende (energy transition will require major changes in the current energy supply system in Germany – but also worldwide. These changes will not only affect the technical sector but will also include ecological questions, social issues and political matters. Whether any transition is going to favour large scale solutions or decentralised technologies depends on local situations and global interconnections, and above all on a democratic process. Hence energy transition succeeds or fails with the acceptance and participation of society. To deal with this overwhelmingly complex topic and its multi-layered dependencies, the Deutsches Museum has designed an exhibition providing visitors with background knowledge about the necessities and challenges of energy transition, unpicking the links between the different technical, economic and social challenges. The exhibition accomplishes the task with an engaging and facilitating approach while taking into account the highly emotive aspects of energy transition as a societal issue. This paper presents the concept of the travelling exhibition energie.wenden, relating it to the Deutsches Museum´s tradition of exhibitions as well as to the challenge of how to deal with socio-scientific topics in scientific exhibitions.

  8. CERN exhibition a big hit in Bulgaria

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The first CERN exhibition in Bulgaria attracted many visitors. In the first ever CERN exhibition to be held in Bulgaria, over 1,400 visitors, many of them students and young physicists, visited the 10-day event in Sofia. The CERN mini-exhibition took place at the National Earth and Mankind Museum between 8 and 17 November. Permanently staffed by young physicists from Sofia University, there were exhibits on display about research activities at CERN, as well as four additional posters describing Bulgaria's participation. The inauguration took place on the morning of 8 November in the presence of the Vice-Minister for Science and Education, Mrs. Vanya Dobreva, and some 200 guests. A series of short speeches were followed by a visit to the exhibition. CERN's representative at the event, Ray Lewis, was then asked by Professor Matey Mateev, President of the Union of Physicists in Bulgaria, to say a few words on behalf of the Organization. Numerous journalists were also present at the inauguration. A painting enti...

  9. Education or business? - exhibition of human corpses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Wróbel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Exhibition "BODY WORLDS" which are presented exhibits of human remains are presented all over the world and are a major problem for the modern man, as presented on the preparations of the human not only serve scientific research, are not transferred to the medical schools to educate future doctors, but they were made available to the general public in the form of commercial and ambiguous. The aim of this study was to assess the ethical commercialization of human corpses "BODY WORLDS" exhibitions. Individual approach to the problems presented the dignity and value of human remains after death, of course, strongly related to the professed worldview. In the exhibits can be seen in both the scientific interest anatomical structures, as well as desecrated human remains or beautiful by its functional perfection of the body, understood also in terms of art. The question of ethics determines the right to decide for themselves, on the other hand, allows you to protect bodily integrity even after death. "BODY WORLDS" exhibition goes for the moral and ethical boundaries. In terms of people Gunther von Hagens for plastination of human remains which became a very profitable business, and its current activities defined as "plastination business" should be firmly said about the lack of moral principles.

  10. The exploration of the exhibition informatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiankang

    2017-06-01

    The construction and management of exhibition informatization is the main task and choke point during the process of Chinese exhibition industry’s transformation and promotion. There are three key points expected to realize a breakthrough during the construction of Chinese exhibition informatization, and the three aspects respectively are adopting service outsourcing to construct and maintain the database, adopting advanced chest card technology to collect various kinds of information, developing statistics analysis to maintain good cutomer relations. The success of Chinese exhibition informatization mainly calls for mature suppliers who can provide construction and maintenance of database, the proven technology, a sense of data security, advanced chest card technology, the ability of data mining and analysis and the ability to improve the exhibition service basing on the commercial information got from the data analysis. Several data security measures are expected to apply during the process of system developing, including the measures of the terminal data security, the internet data security, the media data security, the storage data security and the application data security. The informatization of this process is based on the chest card designing. At present, there are several types of chest card technology: bar code chest card; two-dimension code card; magnetic stripe chest card; smart-chip chest card. The information got from the exhibition data will help the organizers to make relevant service strategies, quantify the accumulated indexes of the customers, and improve the level of the customer’s satisfaction and loyalty, what’s more, the information can also provide more additional services like the commercial trips, VIP ceremonial reception.

  11. Exhibits in libraries a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Mary E

    2005-01-01

    "Ccomprehensive...detailed"--Booklist; "thoroughly reseached...highly recommended"--Journal of Access Services. Library exhibits are more than entertainment for patrons. They can inspire and educate, stimulate an interest that can be explored in a book, or attract visitors who otherwise wouldn't stop by. Displays are also an opportunity for a library to put its creative foot forward or help patrons navigate the facility itself. This comprehensive "how-to" includes everything a librarian or staff member needs to know to put on an exhibit, from hatching ideas to evaluating the end result. Illustrations and photographs show practical methods of planning, labeling and displaying.

  12. Early age-dependent impairments of context-dependent extinction learning, object recognition, and object-place learning occur in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiescholleck, Valentina; Emma André, Marion Agnès; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2014-03-01

    The hippocampus is vulnerable to age-dependent memory decline. Multiple forms of memory depend on adequate hippocampal function. Extinction learning comprises active inhibition of no longer relevant learned information concurrent with suppression of a previously learned reaction. It is highly dependent on context, and evidence exists that it requires hippocampal activation. In this study, we addressed whether context-based extinction as well as hippocampus-dependent tasks, such as object recognition and object-place recognition, are equally affected by moderate aging. Young (7-8 week old) and older (7-8 month old) Wistar rats were used. For the extinction study, animals learned that a particular floor context indicated that they should turn into one specific arm (e.g., left) to receive a food reward. On the day after reaching the learning criterion of 80% correct choices, the floor context was changed, no reward was given and animals were expected to extinguish the learned response. Both, young and older rats managed this first extinction trial in the new context with older rats showing a faster extinction performance. One day later, animals were returned to the T-maze with the original floor context and renewal effects were assessed. In this case, only young but not older rats showed the expected renewal effect (lower extinction ratio as compared to the day before). To assess general memory abilities, animals were tested in the standard object recognition and object-place memory tasks. Evaluations were made at 5 min, 1 h and 7 day intervals. Object recognition memory was poor at short-term and intermediate time-points in older but not young rats. Object-place memory performance was unaffected at 5 min, but impaired at 1 h in older but not young rats. Both groups were impaired at 7 days. These findings support that not only aspects of general memory, but also context-dependent extinction learning, are affected by moderate aging. This may reflect less flexibility in

  13. Age-dependent modifications of AMPA receptor subunit expression levels and related cognitive effects in 3xTg-AD mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eCantanelli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available GluA1, GluA2, GluA3, and GluA4 are the constitutive subunits of AMPA receptors (AMPARs, the major mediators of fast excitatory transmission in the mammalian central nervous system. Most AMPARs are Ca2+-impermeable because of the presence of the GluA2 subunit. GluA2 mRNA undergoes an editing process that results in a Q to R substitution, a key factor in the regulation of AMPAR Ca2+-permeability. AMPARs lacking GluA2 or containing the unedited subunit are permeable to Ca2+ and Zn2+. The phenomenon physiologically modulates synaptic plasticity while, in pathologic conditions, leads to increased vulnerability to excitotoxic neuronal death. Given the importance of these subunits, we have therefore evaluated possible associations between changes in expression levels of AMPAR subunits and development of cognitive deficits in 3xTg-AD mice, a widely investigated transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. With qRT-PCR, we assayed hippocampal mRNA expression levels of GluA1-4 subunits occurring in young [3 months of age (m.o.a.] and old (12 m.o.a Tg-AD mice and made comparisons with levels found in age-matched wild type (WT mice. Efficiency of GluA2 RNA editing was also analyzed. All animals were cognitively tested for short- and long-term spatial memory with the Morris Water Maze (MWM navigation task. 3xTg-AD mice showed age-dependent decreases of mRNA levels for all the AMPAR subunits, with the exception of GluA2. Editing remained fully efficient with aging in 3xTg-AD and WT mice. A one-to-one correlation analysis between MWM performances and GluA1-4 mRNA expression profiles showed negative correlations between GluA2 levels and MWM performances in young 3xTg-AD mice. On the contrary, positive correlations between GluA2 mRNA and MWM performances were found in young WT mice. Our data suggest that increases of AMPARs that contain GluA1, GluA3, and GluA4 subunits may help in maintaining cognition in pre-symptomatic 3xTg-AD mice.

  14. Conflicting relationship between age-dependent disorders, valvular heart disease and coronary artery disease by covariance structure analysis: Possible contribution of natriuretic peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Jun; Inoue, Yasunori; Morimoto, Satoshi; Tanaka, Toshikazu; Ogawa, Takayuki

    2017-01-01

    Background It is conceivable that contemporary valvular heart disease (VHD) is affected largely by an age-dependent atherosclerotic process, which is similar to that observed in coronary artery disease (CAD). However, a comorbid condition of VHD and CAD has not been precisely examined. The first objective of this study was to examine a possible comorbid condition. Provided that there is no comorbidity, the second objective was to search for the possible reasons by using conventional risk factors and plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) because BNP has a potentiality to suppress atherosclerotic development. Methods The study population consisted of 3,457 patients consecutively admitted to our institution. The possible comorbid condition of VHD and CAD and the factors that influence the comorbidity were examined by covariance structure analysis and multivariate analysis. Results The distribution of the patients with VHD and those with CAD in the histograms showed that the incidence of VHD and the severity of CAD rose with seniority in appearance. The real statistical analysis was planned by covariance structure analysis. The current path model revealed that aging was associated with VHD and CAD severity (P < 0.001 for each); however, as a notable result, there was an inverse association regarding the comorbid condition between VHD and CAD (Correlation coefficient [β]: -0.121, P < 0.001). As the second objective, to clarify the factors leading to this inverse association, the contribution of conventional risk factors, such as age, gender, hypertension, smoking, diabetes, obesity and dyslipidemia, to VHD and CAD were examined by multivariate analysis. However, these factors did not exert an opposing effect on VHD and CAD, and the inverse association defied explanation. Since different pathological mechanisms may contribute to the formation of VHD and CAD, a differentially proposed path model using plasma BNP revealed that an increase in plasma BNP being drawn by

  15. Age-Dependent Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure (REE): Insights from Detailed Body Composition Analysis in Normal and Overweight Healthy Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Corinna; Braun, Wiebke; Pourhassan, Maryam; Schweitzer, Lisa; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Müller, Manfred J

    2016-06-01

    Age-related changes in organ and tissue masses may add to changes in the relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE) and fat free mass (FFM) in normal and overweight healthy Caucasians. Secondary analysis using cross-sectional data of 714 healthy normal and overweight Caucasian subjects (age 18-83 years) with comprehensive information on FFM, organ and tissue masses (as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), body density (as assessed by Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP)) and hydration (as assessed by deuterium dilution (D₂O)) and REE (as assessed by indirect calorimetry). High metabolic rate organs (HMR) summarized brain, heart, liver and kidney masses. Ratios of HMR organs and muscle mass (MM) in relation to FFM were considered. REE was calculated (REEc) using organ and tissue masses times their specific metabolic rates. REE, FFM, specific metabolic rates, the REE-FFM relationship, HOMA, CRP, and thyroid hormone levels change with age. The age-related decrease in FFM explained 59.7% of decreases in REE. Mean residuals of the REE-FFM association were positive in young adults but became negative in older subjects. When compared to young adults, proportions of MM to FFM decreased with age, whereas contributions of liver and heart did not differ between age groups. HOMA, TSH and inflammation (plasma CRP-levels) explained 4.2%, 2.0% and 1.4% of the variance in the REE-FFM residuals, but age and plasma T3-levels had no effects. HMR to FFM and MM to FFM ratios together added 11.8% on to the variance of REE-FFM residuals. Differences between REE and REEc increased with age, suggesting age-related changes in specific metabolic rates of organs and tissues. This bias was partly explained by plasmaT3-levels. Age-related changes in REE are explained by (i) decreases in fat free mass; (ii) a decrease in the contributions of organ and muscle masses to FFM; and (iii) decreases in specific organ and tissue metabolic rates. Age-dependent changes in the REE

  16. Conflicting relationship between age-dependent disorders, valvular heart disease and coronary artery disease by covariance structure analysis: Possible contribution of natriuretic peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Risa; Kawai, Makoto; Minai, Kosuke; Ogawa, Kazuo; Yoshida, Jun; Inoue, Yasunori; Morimoto, Satoshi; Tanaka, Toshikazu; Nagoshi, Tomohisa; Ogawa, Takayuki; Yoshimura, Michihiro

    2017-01-01

    It is conceivable that contemporary valvular heart disease (VHD) is affected largely by an age-dependent atherosclerotic process, which is similar to that observed in coronary artery disease (CAD). However, a comorbid condition of VHD and CAD has not been precisely examined. The first objective of this study was to examine a possible comorbid condition. Provided that there is no comorbidity, the second objective was to search for the possible reasons by using conventional risk factors and plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) because BNP has a potentiality to suppress atherosclerotic development. The study population consisted of 3,457 patients consecutively admitted to our institution. The possible comorbid condition of VHD and CAD and the factors that influence the comorbidity were examined by covariance structure analysis and multivariate analysis. The distribution of the patients with VHD and those with CAD in the histograms showed that the incidence of VHD and the severity of CAD rose with seniority in appearance. The real statistical analysis was planned by covariance structure analysis. The current path model revealed that aging was associated with VHD and CAD severity (P < 0.001 for each); however, as a notable result, there was an inverse association regarding the comorbid condition between VHD and CAD (Correlation coefficient [β]: -0.121, P < 0.001). As the second objective, to clarify the factors leading to this inverse association, the contribution of conventional risk factors, such as age, gender, hypertension, smoking, diabetes, obesity and dyslipidemia, to VHD and CAD were examined by multivariate analysis. However, these factors did not exert an opposing effect on VHD and CAD, and the inverse association defied explanation. Since different pathological mechanisms may contribute to the formation of VHD and CAD, a differentially proposed path model using plasma BNP revealed that an increase in plasma BNP being drawn by VHD suppressed the

  17. How do exhibition visitors describe aesthetic qualities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    In this investigation, visitors to an art and design exhibition have used an interactive computer program to express the qualities they consider important for an art or design object (artefact). They have then used the program with their individually selected qualities to assess the artefacts. In...

  18. CERN exhibition wins yet another design prize

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    The “Universe of Particles” exhibition in CERN’s Globe wins the silver design prize from the German direct business communications association FAMAB.   Not only do tens of thousands of people visit the “Universe of Particles” exhibition each year, but juries for design prizes are crossing its threshold more and more frequently too. In 2011 alone it claimed 8 awards, including winning outright the 2011 Annual Multimedia award, the iF Communication Design for Corporate Architecture award and the Modern Decoration Media award (the Bulletin already reported on some of these in July 2011). The FAMAB award is the latest to join the prestigious list. The jury of FAMAB’s “ADAM 2011” award was particularly impressed by the hands-on nature of the exhibition, which encourages visitors to get interested in science. They also appreciated the way that the space in the Globe is not just a container for the exhibits, but itself ...

  19. 49 CFR 250.2 - Required exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... carried; and identification of the ten most important industries served. (6) As Exhibit 6, statement as to... application for the financing has been made, evidencing that they have declined the financing unless guaranteed by the Secretary or specifying the terms upon which they will undertake the financing without such...

  20. CCPIT Machinery Exhibition Succeeded in Kuala Lumpur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ From August 18 to 20, 2005, China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT) held China Machinery and Electronics Trade Exhibition, CME 2005 in Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia on behalf of China, a good job has been done.

  1. CCPIT Machinery Exhibition Succeeded in Kuala Lumpur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      From August 18 to 20, 2005, China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT) held China Machinery and Electronics Trade Exhibition, CME 2005 in Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia on behalf of China, a good job has been done.……

  2. Comic Strips to Accompany Science Museum Exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Beom Sun; Park, Eun-mi; Kim, Sang-Hee; Cho, Sook-kyoung; Chung, Min Suk

    2016-01-01

    Science museums make the effort to create exhibits with amusing explanations. However, existing explanation signs with lengthy text are not appealing, and as such, visitors do not pay attention to them. In contrast, conspicuous comic strips composed of simple drawings and humors can attract science museum visitors. This study attempted to reveal…

  3. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... systems, including the special protective systems' automatic switching or load shedding system; and (ii... transfer capability (NITC); system protection; and system stability. (3) A stability analysis including... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applications: exhibits...

  4. Travelling CERN Exhibition ''When Energy Becomes Matter''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The European Laboratory for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics together with the Institute of Physics of the Jagiellonian University and the University of Mining and Metallurgy, and under the auspices of the Polish National Atomic Energy Agency organized in the Museum of Nature in Cracow from October 16 till December 16, 2000 the exhibition ''When Energy Becomes Matter''. The Office of the ''Festival Cracow 2000'' was the main sponsor of that event. The exhibition was a part of the F estival Cracow 2000'' called ''Festival of Youngsters Cracow 2000''. Invitations, posters and information leaflets were sent to more than 3000 schools in southern Poland. The exhibition was divided into four specially designed quadrants. In the first the visitor was informed what kind of scales are in use to describe the Universe and the atom. The second introduced elementary particles via the cosmic ray demonstrations. Particle acceleration was demonstrated with the help of a TV set. The third segment was devoted to the Large Hadron Collider and its experiments: CMS, ATLAS, ALICE and LHCb. The last segment was an attempt to explain what are quarks, leptons and intermediate bosons. In addition it was also explained what is antimatter and why symmetry is broken in Nature. In one of the rooms we arranged the cinema where five movies was continuously presented. Thanks to the Cracow TV it was possible to prepare Polish translations of the films: B ack to creation , P owers of ten , L HC - time machine , S tars underground , and G eneva event . Another attraction of the exhibition was the Internet room equipped with the help of Polish Telecommunication. The exhibition was open seven days per week from 10 to 17 h. During the working days every 20 minutes a new group of about 25-30 people was visiting the exhibition. Each group was guided by students and PhD students from our Institute, Jagiellonian University and University of Mining

  5. Age-Dependent Effects of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Gene Val158Met Polymorphism on Language Function in Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Lisa; Toyota, Tomoko; Matsuba-Kurita, Hiroko; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Mazuka, Reiko; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2017-01-01

    The genetic basis controlling language development remains elusive. Previous studies of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met genotype and cognition have focused on prefrontally guided executive functions involving dopamine. However, COMT may further influence posterior cortical regions implicated in language perception. We investigated whether COMT influences language ability and cortical language processing involving the posterior language regions in 246 children aged 6-10 years. We assessed language ability using a language test and cortical responses recorded during language processing using a word repetition task and functional near-infrared spectroscopy. The COMT genotype had significant effects on language performance and processing. Importantly, Met carriers outperformed Val homozygotes in language ability during the early elementary school years (6-8 years), whereas Val homozygotes exhibited significant language development during the later elementary school years. Both genotype groups exhibited equal language performance at approximately 10 years of age. Val homozygotes exhibited significantly less cortical activation compared with Met carriers during word processing, particularly at older ages. These findings regarding dopamine transmission efficacy may be explained by a hypothetical inverted U-shaped curve. Our findings indicate that the effects of the COMT genotype on language ability and cortical language processing may change in a narrow age window of 6-10 years. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. LHC INAUGURATION, LHC Fest highlights: exhibition time!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    David Gross, one of the twenty-one Nobel Laureates who have participated in the project.Tuesday 21 October 2008 Accelerating Nobels Colliding Charm, Atomic Cuisine, The Good Anomaly, A Quark Somewhere on the White Paper, Wire Proliferation, A Tale of Two Liquids … these are just some of the titles given to artworks by Physics Nobel Laureates who agreed to make drawings of their prize-winning discoveries (more or less reluctantly) during a special photo session. Science photographer Volker Steger made portraits of Physics Nobel Laureates and before the photo sessions he asked them to make a drawing of their most important discovery. The result is "Accelerating Nobels", an exhibition that combines unusual portraits of and original drawings by twenty-one Nobel laureates in physics whose work is closely related to CERN and the LHC. This exhibition will be one of the highlights of the LHC celebrations on 21 October in the SM18 hall b...

  7. Exhibition: Women and Sciences by Fiami

    CERN Multimedia

    Globe Info

    2011-01-01

    The 19-panel exhibition is on display at CERN's Microcosm from Monday to Saturday from 10.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m.   Marie Curie won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry one hundred years ago. She is the only woman ever to win two Nobel Prizes, which is a testament to her remarkable work. But throughout history, women have played a role in science either in their own right or alongside other scientists. In this special exhibition, the comic-strip artist Fiami takes a look back at the relationship between women and science through his portraits of Mileva Einstein, Marie-Anne Lavoisier and, of course, Marie Curie. Fiami has recently published an entire album devoted to Marie Curie. Texts in French All ages - Entrance free Femmes et Sciences is on display at Microcosm: From Wednesday 21 September 2011 to Tuesday 20 December 2011.

  8. Kuala Namu Convention And Exhibition Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Gustriana, Trisna

    2017-01-01

    Aerotropolis area development that is expected to accommodate the development of business and commercial appeal and this is the chance for the designer to be able to take advantage of the situation and condition of land as well as possible. So that the revolutionary changes but is able to embrace all stakeholders is the solution needed to development Aerotropolis. Kuala Namu's Convention and Exhibition Center is expected to be a solution for regional development of Kuala Namu a...

  9. 22nd Annual Logistics Conference and Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-20

    Bill” Kenwell, Vice President, Sales and Marketing, Maersk 5:30pm-7:30pm Reception in Exhibit Hall Wednesday, April 19, 2006 7:00am-5:30pm...some commercial sales of our products, services and platforms. We provide surface, air, and undersea applications on more than 460 programs for US...diagnostic system & process • Seamless B2B integration with maintenance systems Enabled By… EOATM Overview Sensor Data Maintenance Logs Repair Data Expert

  10. The Factory of the Future, Group Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Lionel T.

    2016-01-01

    3D Printing, The factory of the future, Lieu du Design (centre for Design), Paris This exhibition dedicated entirely to 3D printing technology was billed as “the first in France wholly devoted to exploring the interdisciplinary and multifaceted topic of 3D printing technology and its undeniable influence on everything from industry, to economics, to creative and social issues, demonstrated to the public through achievements in the fields of 3D design, 3D printed architecture, 3D printed fa...

  11. Brazilian air traffic controllers exhibit excessive sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Valdenilson Ribeiro; de Almeida, Cláudia Ângela Vilela; Martins, Hugo André de Lima; Alves, Carlos Frederico de Oliveira; Alves, Marcos José Pinheiro Cândido; Carneiro, Severino Marcos de Oliveira; Ribas, Valéria Ribeiro; de Vasconcelos, Carlos Augusto Carvalho; Sougey, Everton Botelho; de Castro, Raul Manhães

    2011-01-01

    Excessive sleepiness (ES) is an increased tendency to initiate involuntary sleep for naps at inappropriate times. The objective of this study was to assess ES in air traffic controllers (ATCo). 45 flight protection professionals were evaluated, comprising 30 ATCo, subdivided into ATCo with ten or more years in the profession (ATCo≥10, n=15) and ATCo with less than ten years in the profession (ATCoair traffic controllers exhibit excessive sleepiness.

  12. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit entrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    StenniSphere at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., invites visitors to discover why America comes to Stennis Space Center before going into space. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center.

  13. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  14. The Age-Dependent Relationship between Blood Pressure and Cognitive Impairment: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Rural Area of Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Suhang; Li, Pei; Deng, Meiying; Jiang, Yu; Chen, Chen; Qu, Qiumin

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a modifiable risk factor for cognitive impairment, although the relationship between hypertension and cognitive impairment is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of age on the relationship between blood pressure and cognitive impairment. Blood pressure and global cognitive function information was collected from 1799 participants (age 40-85) who lived in a village in the suburbs of Xi'an, China, during in-person interviews. Cognitive impairment was defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score lower than the cutoff value. The effect of age on the relationship between blood pressure parameters [systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), and high blood pressure (HBP, SBP≥140 mm Hg and/or DBP≥90 mm Hg)] and cognitive impairment was analyzed by logistic regression models using interaction and stratified analysis. Blood pressure and age were regarded as both continuous and categorical data. A total of 231 participants were diagnosed as having cognitive impairment based on our criteria. Interaction analysis for the total population showed that SBP (when regarded as continuous data) was positively correlated with cognitive impairment (OR = 1.130 [95% CI, 1.028-1.242] per 10mmHg, P = 0.011); however, the age by SBP interaction term was negatively correlated with cognitive impairment (OR = 0.989 [95% CI, 0.982-0.997] per 10mmHg×year, P = 0.006), indicating that the relationship between SBP and cognitive impairment was age-dependent (OR = 1.130×0.989(age-55.5) per 10mmHg,40 ≤age≤85). When the blood pressure and age were considered as binary data, the results were similar to those obtained when they were considered as continuous variables. Stratified multivariate analysis revealed that the relationship between SBP (when regarded as continuous data) and cognitive impairment was positive for patients aged 40-49 years (OR = 1.349 [95% CI: 1

  15. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opened at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for audience of all ages, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one...

  16. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opens at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for all ages' audiences, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one m...

  17. Bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Nicholas R. T.; Song, Jeremy; Nieh, James C.

    2009-10-01

    Associative learning is key to how bees recognize and return to rewarding floral resources. It thus plays a major role in pollinator floral constancy and plant gene flow. Honeybees are the primary model for pollinator associative learning, but bumblebees play an important ecological role in a wider range of habitats, and their associative learning abilities are less well understood. We assayed learning with the proboscis extension reflex (PER), using a novel method for restraining bees (capsules) designed to improve bumblebee learning. We present the first results demonstrating that bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect. They improve their associative learning of odor and nectar reward by exhibiting increased memory acquisition, a component of long-term memory formation, when the time interval between rewarding trials is increased. Bombus impatiens forager memory acquisition (average discrimination index values) improved by 129% and 65% at inter-trial intervals (ITI) of 5 and 3 min, respectively, as compared to an ITI of 1 min. Memory acquisition rate also increased with increasing ITI. Encapsulation significantly increases olfactory memory acquisition. Ten times more foragers exhibited at least one PER response during training in capsules as compared to traditional PER harnesses. Thus, a novel conditioning assay, encapsulation, enabled us to improve bumblebee-learning acquisition and demonstrate that spaced learning results in better memory consolidation. Such spaced learning likely plays a role in forming long-term memories of rewarding floral resources.

  18. Exhibition: Dialogue between Science and religion

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Can the theory of the Big Bang reached by physicists and the concept of creation beloved of religion ever be reconciled? The two approaches have at least one point in common: they do not provide a final answer to the mysteries of the birth of the Universe. And this means that dialogue is alays possible between the two. It is to show the potential of such an exchange that Geneva's Société Evangélique organization is opening an exhibition under the title 'Big Bang and Creation', at the Planète Charmilles shopping centre, to run from 19 to 30 March. View of the 'Big Bang and Creation' exhibition. The exhibition is divided into three sections, showing the views of the scientist and those of the believer without setting them up in opposition to one another. In the first section, under a representation of the vault of heaven, the visitor will discover the different ideas explaining the birth of the Universe: Genesis and the Big Bang, and the different dominant theories ...

  19. Art exhibit focuses on African astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-07-01

    Connections between Africans and astronomy are the focus of a new exhibition in the National Museum of African Art in Washington, D. C. "African Cosmos: Stellar Arts," which includes artwork, cultural items, and scientific displays from ancient to contemporary times, is the first major exhibit "that brings together arts and science focused on Africa's contribution to keen observations of the heavens over time," curator Christine Mullen Kreamer said at a 20 June news briefing. Among the exhibit's nearly 100 objects are an ancient Egyptian mummy board that includes a representation of the sky goddess Nut, sculptures by the Dogon people of Mali depicting figures in relation to the cosmos, a video that uses data from two square degrees of the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Evolution Survey, and a nearly floor-to-ceiling "Rainbow Serpent" constructed of plastic containers by Benin artist Hazoume. An untitled acrylic painting (Figure 1) by South African Gavin Jantjes evokes a myth of the Khoi San people of southern Africa, as it portrays a girl throwing evening fire embers into the night sky, where they remained as the Milky Way.

  20. Library exhibits and programs boost science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, Paul B.; Curtis, Lisa

    2012-05-01

    Science museums let visitors explore and discover, but for many families there are barriers—such as cost or distance—that prevent them from visiting museums and experiencing hands-on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning. Now educators are reaching underserved audiences by developing STEM exhibits and programs for public libraries. With more than 16,000 outlets in the United States, public libraries serve almost every community in the country. Nationwide, they receive about 1.5 billion visits per year, and they offer their services for free.

  1. Triiodothyronine regulates angiogenic growth factor and cytokine secretion by isolated human decidual cells in a cell-type specific and gestational age-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilopoulou, E; Loubière, L S; Lash, G E; Ohizua, O; McCabe, C J; Franklyn, J A; Kilby, M D; Chan, S Y

    2014-06-01

    cell isolates were unaffected by T3 so changes in cell numbers could not account for any observed effects. In the first trimester, T3 decreased VEGF-A secretion by total decidual cells (P < 0.05) and increased angiopoietin-2 secretion by stromal-depleted cells (P < 0.05) but in the second trimester total decidual cells showed only increased angiogenin secretion (P < 0.05). In the first trimester, T3 reduced IL-10 secretion by total decidual cells (P < 0.05), and reduced granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (P < 0.01), IL-8 (P < 0.05), IL-10 (P < 0.01), IL-1β (P < 0.05) and monocyte chemotactic protein -1 (P < 0.001) secretion by macrophages, but increased tumour necrosis factor-α secretion by stromal-depleted cells (P < 0.05) and increased IL-6 by uNK cells (P < 0.05). In contrast, in the second trimester T3 increased IL-10 secretion by total decidual cells (P < 0.01) but did not affect cytokine secretion by uNK cells and macrophages. Conditioned media from first trimester T3-treated total decidual cells and macrophages did not alter EVT invasion compared with untreated controls. Thus, treatment of decidual cells with T3 resulted in changes in both angiogenic growth factor and cytokine secretion in a cell type-specific and gestational age-dependent manner, with first trimester decidual macrophages being the most responsive to T3 treatment, but these changes in decidual cell secretome did not affect EVT invasion in vitro. Our results are based on in vitro findings and we cannot be certain if a similar response occurs in human pregnancy in vivo. Optimal maternal thyroid hormone concentrations could play a critical role in maintaining a balanced inflammatory response in early pregnancy to prevent fetal immune rejection and promote normal placental development through the regulation of the secretion of critical cytokines and angiogenic growth factors by human decidual cells. Our data suggest that there is an ontogenically determined regulatory 'switch' in T3

  2. Radiation-related information at science exhibitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannai, Tadaaki [Inst. for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    The aim of the present report was to promote an efficient utilization of science museums providing with educational information concerning radiations. Investigations were made on radiation-related materials exhibited at 38 museums including PR event sites between April 1996 and July 1998 mainly located on Kanto and Tohoku area in Japan. The investigation concerned as to whether the displays on radiation-related material (cosmic rays, X-rays, etc) existed or not, and as to the background of the display as well. As the result, 14 locations had no relevant displays, 10 of them not having things about atomic energy at all. The locations belonging to electricity company mostly had displays related to radiations and atomic energy power generation. A spark chamber was exhibited at 9 locations and a cloud chamber at 3 locations, but only one location among them displayed both. Displays on the actual use of X-radiation were found at 4 locations. Needs to prepare further improved displays exist at the sites visited. (S. Ohno)

  3. CERN Inspires Art in Major New Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Signatures of the Invisible, an exhibition inspired by CERN, opened at the Atlantis Gallery in London on Thursday, 1 March before going on a world tour. The fruit of a close collaboration between CERN and the London Institute, the exhibition brings together works from many leading European contemporary artists. White wooden boxes on a grey floor... the lids opened, unveiling brilliant white light from a bunch of optical fibres carefully stuck together in the shape of a square. Another holds a treasure of lead glass surrounded by enigmatic black mirrors. What's it all about? Signatures of the Invisible, that's what, a joint project organised by the London Institute, one of the world's largest college of art, and our Laboratory. Damien Foresy from the EST workshop putting finishing touches to the spinning tops of French artist Jérôme Basserode. Monica Sand's boxes are just one of the many works based around materials used in particle detection at CERN that was admired at the opening o...

  4. Children's drawings exhibited in the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    Elizabeth Roe

    2010-01-01

    "Draw Me A Physicist" has been a success. Members of the public visiting the exhibition in the Globe of Science and Innovation have praised the scientific and creative balance the children of neighbouring France and the Canton of Geneva have obtained through their visit to CERN.   The Draw Me a Physicist exhibition in the Globe For a six-month period 9 to 11-year olds from the Pays de Gex, Meyrin, Satigny and Vernier have been able to enjoy a balance between science and art, through drawing and defining their interpretations of a physicist. In May, eight pairs of drawings from each participating class were selected by the schools to be displayed on the second floor of the Globe. Since the images have been put up, the viewers have enjoyed the contrast between the "before" pictures of vibrant Albert Einsteins to the "after" pictures of casual people sitting in an office. The large room in the Globe has been transformed from a hollow shell int...

  5. Exhibiting the Human/Exhibiting the Cyborg: “Who Am I?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia C. Vackimes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of the museum in shaping our relationship to science and technology, particularly cyborgization, is illuminated by a close examination of the Who Am I permanent exhibition in the Wellcome Wing of the Science Museum of London. This innovative exhibition raises real questions both about the human-technology-science relationship but also about museography. In the context of the history and current practices of museums engaging contemporary technological developments the evidence suggest that even as the Who am I? exhibit did break somewhat from previous approaches, especially the didactic presentation of the socially useful, it has not changed the feld as a whole.

  6. Shape-Memory PVDF Exhibiting Switchable Piezoelectricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeher, Robin; Raidt, Thomas; Novak, Nikola; Katzenberg, Frank; Tiller, Joerg C

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a material is designed which combines the properties of shape-memory and electroactive polymers. This is achieved by covalent cross-linking of polyvinylidene fluoride. The resulting polymer network exhibits excellent shape-memory properties with a storable strain of 200%, and fixity as well as recovery values of 100%. Programming upon rolling induces the transformation from the nonelectroactive α-phase to the piezoelectric β-phase. The highest β-phase content is found to be 83% for a programming strain of 200% affording a d33 value of -30 pm V(-1). This is in good accordance with literature known values for piezoelectric properties. Thermal triggering this material does not only result in a shape change but also renders the material nonelectroactive. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Applied Gamification in Self-guided Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Selvadurai, Vashanth; Krishnasamy, Rameshnath Kala

    2018-01-01

    This paper contributes to the current understanding of applied digital gamification by providing insights from two design cases from the Danish aqua zoo, the North Sea Oceanarium, concerned with self-facilitated exhibitions. Grounded in a short review of the current state of art, we provide two...... empirical case examples, concerning a mobile augmented reality design and an Instagram service. Analyzing the design process behind these cases, we identify some of the challenges arising from applying gamification in practice, and whether these insights verify, extents or contradicts current examples...... of applied gamification research. Specifically, the cases provide insights to the challenge of on-boarding visitors into participating and using the designed products during their visit. In both cases, providing certain incentives for using the app or participating in the Instagram challenge, seemed...

  8. Exhibiting health and medicine as culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiteley, Louise; Tybjerg, Karin; Pedersen, Bente Vinge

    2017-01-01

    -being of their visitors, we instead focus on how museums should communicate about health and medicine. Methods: The paper describes three examples of exhibitions at Medical Museion that attempt to display medicine as culture, and draws out three of the key strategies they employ. Results: The three key strategies are: (1......Introduction: This paper discusses the potential role of medical museums in public engagement with health and medicine, based on the work of Medical Museion at the University of Copenhagen. Rather than asking whether cultural venues such as museums can directly improve the well......: There is increasing emphasis on the need for health communication to recognize people’s multiple, lived cultures. We argue that we should also recognize that medical research and practice is itself a form of culture, and as such is multiple and historically shifting. This paper demonstrates that museums are an ideal...

  9. The coordination office at SIREME 2008 exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotz, Claudia; Cassin, Fabrice; Evrard, Aurelien; Froeding, Veronique; Galaup, Serge; Kaelble, Laure; Persem, Melanie; Regnier, Yannick; )

    2008-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised several presentations at the occasion of the SIREME International exhibition of renewable energies and energy management. This document brings together these presentations (slides) dealing with: 1 - The new German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) and its impact on wind energy (Claudia Grotz); 2 - Consequences of the July 10, 2006 wind energy tariff bylaw cancelling (Fabrice Cassin); 3 - Wind energy trajectory in France and Germany: a political perspective (Aurelien Evrard); 4 - The wind energy development areas (Veronique Froeding); 5 - A commitment at the heart of our business: renewable energy sources (Serge Galaup); 6 - The wind energy coordination office (Laure Kaelble); 7 - New challenges of the German wind energy market (Melanie Persem); 8 - An industry - a qualification standard (Yannick Regnier)

  10. The Road Transport world exhibition in Paris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Following the agreement between French and German professionals of automobile and industrial vehicle, the Road Transport world exhibition will take place alternatively in Paris and Hanover. The 1995 meeting has taken place in Paris (September 15-21) and about 20 countries were represented. Road transport is the principal way of goods transportation in France and represent 88% of the traffic explained in tons gross and 70% in tons km. The petroleum dependence of the transportation sector is becoming a worrying problem as the gasoline and diesel fuels taxes will be discussed in the 1996 financial laws project. According to the last ''Worldwide energetic perspectives'' report published by the IEA, in 2010 the transportation sector could absorb more than 60% of the worldwide petroleum consumption. This increase represents a challenge to the petroleum industry to increase the energetic efficiency of the vehicle fuels and the production of diesel fuels, and conversely to reduce the pollution effluents. (J.S.). 4 tabs

  11. Application of an imaging system to a museum exhibition for developing interactive exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Kimiyoshi; Inoue, Yuka; Takiguchi, Takahiro; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Miyake, Yoichi

    2009-10-01

    In the National Museum of Japanese History, 215,759 artifacts are stored and used for research and exhibitions. In museums, due to the limitation of space in the galleries, a guidance system is required to satisfy visitors' needs and to enhance their understanding of the artifacts. We introduce one exhibition using imaging technology to improve visitors' understanding of a kimono (traditional Japanese clothing) exhibition. In the imaging technology introduced, one data projector, one display with touch panel interface, and magnifiers were used as exhibition tools together with a real kimono. The validity of this exhibition method was confirmed by results from a visitors' interview survey. Second, to further develop the interactive guidance system, an augmented reality system that consisted of cooperation between the projector and a digital video camera was also examined. A white paper board in the observer's hand was used as a projection screen and also as an interface to control the images projected on the board. The basic performance of the proposed system was confirmed; however continuous development was necessary for applying the system to actual exhibitions.

  12. Age-dependence of the x-ray-induced deficiency in DNA synthesis in HeLa S3 cells during generation 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, T.D.; Tolmach, L.J.

    1975-01-01

    The radiation-induced deficiency in DNA synthesis in Generation 1 was studied as a function of the age of HeLa S3 cells at the time of exposure to 220 kV x rays in the previous generation (Generation 0). The amount of DNA synthesized is dependent on the stage in the generation cycle at which cells are irradiated. The smallest deficiency (20 to 35 percent after a dose of 500 rad) is observed in cells irradiated in early G1 or early G2, while the greatest deficiency (55 to 70 percent after 500 rad) is found in cells irradiated at mitosis or at the G1/S transition. The high sensitivity of cells at G1/S is also manifested by a steeper dose-response curve. Cells irradiated in late G2, past the point where their progression is temporarily blocked by x rays, synthesize a normal amount of DNA in Generation 1, while cells that are held up in the G2 block exhibit deficient synthesis in the next generation. The extent of the deficiency in early G1 cells can be enhanced by treatment with 1 mM hydroxyurea for several hours immediately following irradiation. The possibility that deficient DNA synthesis is related to cell killing, and the relation between the G2 block and deficient synthesis, are discussed

  13. Conditional Loss of Pten in Myogenic Progenitors Leads to Postnatal Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy but Age-Dependent Exhaustion of Satellite Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Feng; Bi, Pengpeng; Wang, Chao; Li, Jie; Liu, Xiaoqi; Kuang, Shihuan

    2016-11-22

    Skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells [SCs]) are normally maintained in a quiescent (G 0 ) state. Muscle injury not only activates SCs locally, but also alerts SCs in distant uninjured muscles via circulating factors. The resulting G Alert SCs are adapted to regenerative cues and regenerate injured muscles more efficiently, but whether they provide any long-term benefits to SCs is unknown. Here, we report that embryonic myogenic progenitors lacking the phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) exhibit enhanced proliferation and differentiation, resulting in muscle hypertrophy but fewer SCs in adult muscles. Interestingly, Pten null SCs are predominantly in the G Alert state, even in the absence of an injury. The G Alert SCs are deficient in self-renewal and subjected to accelerated depletion during regeneration and aging and fail to repair muscle injury in old mice. Our findings demonstrate a key requirement of Pten in G 0 entry of SCs and provide functional evidence that prolonged G Alert leads to stem cell depletion and regenerative failure. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bioaccumulation of lead, mercury, and cadmium in the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula, from the Ebro Delta (NE Spain); Sex- and age-dependent variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Chardi, Alejandro [Departament de Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: a.sanchez.chardi@ub.edu; Lopez-Fuster, Maria Jose [Departament de Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Nadal, Jacint [Departament de Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-01-15

    We quantified bioaccumulation of lead, mercury, and cadmium in bones from 105 greater white-toothed shrews (Crocidura russula) collected at the Ebro Delta, a polluted area, and the Medas Islands, a control site. Lead and mercury levels varied with site, age, and sex, although statistical significances depended on each factor. Globally, shrews from the polluted area exhibited significantly higher concentrations of Pb and Hg. Increment of Pb with age was particularly remarkable in wetland animals and was interpreted in relation to human activities, namely hunting. Unlike males, females from the Ebro Delta maintained low Hg levels, which were associated with gestation and lactation. Cadmium levels did not differ between sites, sexes, or ages. This study provides the first data on heavy metals in mammals from this wetland and suggests that C. russula is a good bioindicator of metal pollution. We concluded that sex and age may represent an important source of variation in the bioaccumulation of these metals in wild populations. - Bioaccumulation patterns of Pb and Hg reveal sex and age-related differences in the large bones of the greater white-toothed shrew from a polluted Mediterranean wetland.

  15. Exhibition of Stochastic Resonance in Vestibular Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan-Garza, R. C.; Clark, T. K.; Merfeld, D. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Oman, C. M.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor changes during spaceflight, particularly during G-transitions. Post flight sensorimotor changes include spatial disorientation, along with postural and gait instability that may degrade operational capabilities of the astronauts and endanger the crew. A sensorimotor countermeasure that mitigates these effects would improve crewmember safety and decrease risk. The goal of this research is to investigate the potential use of stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) as a technology to improve sensorimotor function. We hypothesize that low levels of SVS will improve sensorimotor perception through the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR), when the response of a nonlinear system to a weak input signal is enhanced by the application of a particular nonzero level of noise. This study aims to advance the development of SVS as a potential countermeasure by 1) demonstrating the exhibition of stochastic resonance in vestibular perception, a vital component of sensorimotor function, 2) investigating the repeatability of SR exhibition, and 3) determining the relative contribution of the semicircular canals (SCC) and otolith (OTO) organs to vestibular perceptual SR. A constant current stimulator was used to deliver bilateral bipolar SVS via electrodes placed on each of the mastoid processes, as previously done. Vestibular perceptual motion recognition thresholds were measured using a 6-degree of freedom MOOG platform and a 150 trial 3-down/1-up staircase procedure. In the first test session, we measured vestibular perceptual thresholds in upright roll-tilt at 0.2 Hz (SCC+OTO) with SVS ranging from 0-700 µA. In a second test session a week later, we re-measured roll-tilt thresholds with 0, optimal (from test session 1), and 1500 µA SVS levels. A subset of these subjects, plus naive subjects, participated in two additional test sessions in which we measured thresholds in supine roll-rotation at 0.2 Hz (SCC) and upright y-translation at 1 Hz

  16. VIRTUAL EXHIBITION AND FRUITION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL FINDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Manferdini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, since digital technologies have become more sophisticated in acquiring real data and building faithful copies of them, their improvements have suggested interesting applications in the field of valorisation of Historical, Cultural and Artistic Heritage, with significant consequences in the share and widespread of knowledge. But although several technologies and methodologies for 3d digitization have recently been developed and improved, the lack of a standard procedure and the costs connected to their use still doesn't encourage the systematic digital acquisition of wide collections and heritage. The aim of this paper is to show the state of the art of a project whose aim is to provide a methodology and a procedure to create digital reproductions of artefacts for Institutions called to preserve, manage and enhance the fruition of archaeological finds inside museums or through digital exhibitions. Our project’s aim is to find the most suitable procedure to digitally acquire archaeo logical artefacts that usually have small dimensions and have very complex and detailed surfaces. Within our methodology, particular attention has been paid to the use of widely shared and open-source visualization systems that enhance the involvement of the user by emphasizing three-dimensional characteristics of artefacts through virtual reality.

  17. A method of evaluating facial pores using optical 2D images and analysis of age-dependent changes in facial pores in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, S I; Kim, E J; Lee, H K

    2018-05-01

    Enlarged facial pores and changes in pore area are of concern for cosmetic reasons. To evaluate pores, measuring tools based on 3D methodology are used. Yet, these methods are limited by their measuring ranges. In this study, we performed pore analysis by measuring the whole face using 2D optical images. We further sought to understand how the pores of Korean women change with age. One hundred sixteen Korean female subjects aged 20-60 years were recruited for this study. Facial images were taken using the VISIA-CR ® adjusted light source. Images were processed using Image-Pro Plus 9.2. Statistical significance was assumed when P pore area, as indicated by pixel count, gradually increased in patients through their 40s, but decreased through their 50s and 60s. Facial pores generally exhibited directionality through the patients' 30s, but this isotropic feature was more prominent in their 50s. Pore elongation increased stepwise. The first increase occurred during the transition from patients' 30s to their 40s and the second increase occurred during the transition from patients' 50s to their 60s. This indicated that the pores deformed from a circular shape to a long elliptic shape over time. A new evaluation method using 2D optical images facilitates the analysis of pore distribution and elongation throughout the entire cheek. This is an improvement over an analysis of pores over a narrow region of interest. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Age-dependent changes in autophosphorylation of alpha calcium/calmodulin dependent kinase II in hippocampus and amygdala after contextual fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ton; Kasbi, Kamillia; Rothe, Stephanie; Aziz, Wajeeha; Giese, K Peter

    2017-09-01

    The hippocampus and amygdala are essential brain regions responsible for contextual fear conditioning (CFC). The autophosphorylation of alpha calcium-calmodulin kinase II (αCaMKII) at threonine-286 (T286) is a critical step implicated in long-term potentiation (LTP), learning and memory. However, the changes in αCaMKII levels with aging and training in associated brain regions are not fully understood. Here, we studied how aging and training affect the levels of phosphorylated (T286) and proportion of phosphorylated:total αCaMKII in the hippocampus and amygdala. Young and aged mice, naïve (untrained) and trained in CFC, were analysed by immunohistochemistry for the levels of total and phosphorylated αCaMKII in the hippocampus and amygdala. We found that two hours after CFC training, young mice exhibited a higher level of phosphorylated and increased ratio of phosphorylated:total αCaMKII in hippocampal CA3 stratum radiatum. Furthermore, aged untrained mice showed a higher ratio of phosphorylated:total αCaMKII in the CA3 region of the hippocampus when compared to the young untrained group. No effect of training or aging were seen in the central, lateral and basolateral amygdala regions, for both phosphorylated and ratio of phosphorylated:total αCaMKII. These results show that aging impairs the training-induced upregulation of autophosphorylated (T286) αCaMKII in the CA3 stratum radiatum of the hippocampus. This indicates that distinct age-related mechanisms underlie CFC that may rely more heavily on NMDA receptor-dependent plasticity in young age. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 77 FR 31420 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... also determine that the exhibition or display of the exhibit objects at The Museum of Modern Art, New...: Game Plan'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural...

  20. 77 FR 31909 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... exhibition ``50th Anniversary Remembrance of the Tragedy at Orly,'' imported from abroad by the High Museum of Art for temporary exhibition within the United States, is of cultural significance. The object is... exhibition or display of the exhibit object at the High Museum of Art in Atlanta, Georgia from on or about...

  1. Temporary and Travelling Exhibitions. Museums and Monuments, X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daifuku, Hiroshi; And Others

    The permanent exhibition, the most typical form of museum exhibition, has failed to attract repeated visitation, since visitors quickly become familiar with the objects shown. The temporary exhibition evolved as a result for the need of repeated visitation. The temporary exhibition, set up for a period of one to six months, introduces fresh…

  2. Designing immersion exhibits as border-crossing environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    2010-01-01

    be applied to achieve an understanding of the immersion exhibit form. The argument proceeds by demonstrating how the characteristics of immersion exhibits, and visitors to them, classify them as microcultures, and examining the implications of this for exhibit design using a hypothetical immersion exhibit...

  3. Creating Virtual Exhibitions for Educational and Cultural Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DUMITRESCU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents different tools and mechanisms to implement a virtual exhibition in different cultural areas, such as museums and libraries. Quality characteristics of virtual exhibitions are identified and described. The possibility to create native mobile applications for virtual exhibitions presentation is analyzed. The functional flow of creating a virtual exhibition is presented and discussed. The Seals - History Treasure exhibition is presented and significant historical documents are revealed.

  4. Age-dependent interaction of apolipoprotein E gene with eastern birthplace in Finland affects severity of coronary atherosclerosis and risk of fatal myocardial infarction--Helsinki Sudden Death Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyynelä, Petri; Goebeler, Sirkka; Ilveskoski, Erkki; Mikkelsson, Jussi; Perola, Markus; Lehtimäki, Terho; Karhunen, Pekka J

    2013-05-01

    Mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) has been constantly higher in eastern late settlement regions compared to western early settlements in Finland, unrelated to classical risk factors. In line with this, eastern birthplace was an age-dependent predictor of severe coronary atherosclerosis and pre-hospital sudden coronary death among male residents of Helsinki. We investigated a possible interaction of apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene with birthplace on the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary atherosclerosis. APOE genotypes were analyzed in the Helsinki Sudden Death Study series comprising out-of-hospital deaths among males aged 33-70 years (n = 577), who were born in high (east, n = 273) or low (west, n = 304) CHD mortality area. Eastern-born men ≤ 55 years carried 30% more often (P = 0.017) and older men 40% less often (P = 0.022) the APOE ϵ4 allele compared to western-born men (P = 0.003 for birthplace-by-age interaction). In multivariate analysis, the ϵ4 allele associated with the risk of out-of-hospital MI (odds ratio 2.58; 95% CI 1.20-5.55; P = 0.016) only in eastern-born men and with advanced atherosclerosis in both regions of origin, respectively. Birthplace-bound risk of CHD was age-dependently modified by APOE ϵ4 allele, suggesting genetic differences in CHD susceptibility between early and late settlement regions in Finland and providing one explanation for the eastern high mortality.

  5. A content-oriented model for science exhibit engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Recently, science museums have begun to review their educational purposes and redesign their pedagogies. At the most basic level, this entails accounting for the performance of individual exhibits, and indeed, in some cases, research indicates shortcomings in exhibit design: While often successful......: as a means to operationalize the link between exhibit features and visitor activities; and as a template to transform scientists’ practices in the research context into visitors’ activities in the exhibit context. The resulting model of science exhibit engineering is presented and exemplified, and its...... implications for science exhibit design are discussed at three levels: the design product, the design process, and the design methodology....

  6. Age dependant somatometric and cephalometric variables among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The process of growth passes through stages of developmental processes. This stage is the age. Age is known to affect many parameters in the body and this includes somatometric and cephalometric variables. Methods: The study was conducted with a total number of 409 students of university of Jos, ...

  7. Age-dependent radiosensitivity of mouse oocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, C.

    1976-01-01

    It has been shown that there are three distinct phases of radiosensitivity in oocytes of prepubertal mice: a period of rapidly increasing sensitivity between 0 and 4 days of age; a period of consistent, high sensitivity between 5 and 18 days of age; and a period of decreasing sensitivity from 19 to at least 21 days of age. Two distinct phases have been demonstrated for the rate of population decline of the oocytes of primary follicles: an initial period of rapid loss from 0 to 4 days of age; and a period of much slower loss from 5 through 23 days of age. Correlations have been drawn between the first two phases of radiosensitivity and morphological changes in the oocyte, and between the third phase of radiosensitivity and endocrinological changes in the maturing animal. The reaction of oocytes to radiation has been separated into two categories: immediate death (within 24 hours); and delayed death (over the entire lifespan of the animal)

  8. Age dependence of rat liver function measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer-Nielsen, A; Poulsen, H E; Hansen, B A

    1989-01-01

    Changes in the galactose elimination capacity, the capacity of urea-N synthesis and antipyrine clearance were studied in male Wistar rats at the age of 8, 20 and 44 weeks. Further, liver tissue concentrations of microsomal cytochrome P-450, microsomal protein and glutathione were measured. All...... liver function measurements increased from the age of 8 to 44 weeks when expressed in absolute values. In relation to body weight, these function measurements were unchanged or reduced from week 8 to week 20. At week 44, galactose elimination capacity and capacity of urea-N synthesis related to body...... weight were increased by 10% and 36%, respectively, and antipyrine plasma clearance was reduced to 50%. Liver tissue concentrations of microsomal cytochrome P-450 and microsomal protein increased with age when expressed in absolute values, but were unchanged per g liver, i.e., closely related to liver...

  9. The evolution of age-dependent plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Barbara; van Doorn, G. Sander; Dieckmann, Ulf; Taborsky, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    When organisms encounter environments that are heterogeneous in time, phenotypic plasticity is often favored by selection. The degree of such plasticity can vary during an organism''s lifetime, but the factors promoting differential plastic responses at different ages or life stages remain poorly

  10. Age dependent systemic exposure to inhaled salbutamol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus; Jespersen, Jakob Jessing; Bisgaard, Hans

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the effect of age on systemic exposure to inhaled salbutamol in children. METHODS: Fifty-eight asthmatic children, aged 3-16 years, inhaled 400 microg of salbutamol from a pressurized metered dose inhaler with spacer. The 20 min serum profile was analyzed. RESULTS: Prescribing...

  11. Age-dependent changes in diastolic Ca{sup 2+} and Na{sup +} concentrations in dystrophic cardiomyopathy: Role of Ca{sup 2+} entry and IP{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mijares, Alfredo [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Centro de Biofísica y Bioquímica, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Altamirano, Francisco [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Kolster, Juan [Centro de Investigaciones Biomédicas, México D.F. (Mexico); Adams, José A. [Division of Neonatology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, Miami, FL 33140 (United States); López, José R., E-mail: jrlopez@ucdavis.edu [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Centro de Biofísica y Bioquímica, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Age-dependent increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub d} and [Na{sup +}]{sub d} in mdx cardiomyocytes. • Gadolinium significantly reduced both [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub d} and [Na{sup +}]{sub d} at all ages. • IP{sub 3}-pathway inhibition reduced cations concentrations in dystrophic cardiomyocytes. - Abstract: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal X-inherited disease caused by dystrophin deficiency. Besides the relatively well characterized skeletal muscle degenerative processes, DMD is also associated with a dilated cardiomyopathy that leads to progressive heart failure at the end of the second decade. The aim of the present study was to characterize the diastolic Ca{sup 2+} concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub d}) and diastolic Na{sup +} concentration ([Na{sup +}]{sub d}) abnormalities in cardiomyocytes isolated from 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month old mdx mice using ion-selective microelectrodes. In addition, the contributions of gadolinium (Gd{sup 3+})-sensitive Ca{sup 2+} entry and inositol triphosphate (IP{sub 3}) signaling pathways in abnormal [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub d} and [Na{sup +}]{sub d} were investigated. Our results showed an age-dependent increase in both [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub d} and [Na{sup +}]{sub d} in dystrophic cardiomyocytes compared to those isolated from age-matched wt mice. Gd{sup 3+} treatment significantly reduced both [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub d} and [Na{sup +}]{sub d} at all ages. In addition, blockade of the IP{sub 3}-pathway with either U-73122 or xestospongin C significantly reduced ion concentrations in dystrophic cardiomyocytes. Co-treatment with U-73122 and Gd{sup 3+} normalized both [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub d} and [Na{sup +}]{sub d} at all ages in dystrophic cardiomyocytes. These data showed that loss of dystrophin in mdx cardiomyocytes produced an age-dependent intracellular Ca{sup 2+} and Na{sup +} overload mediated at least in part by enhanced Ca{sup 2+} entry through Gd{sup 3+} sensitive transient receptor potential channels (TRPC), and by IP{sub 3} receptors.

  12. 76 FR 68808 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... also determine that the exhibition or display of the exhibit objects at the Onassis Cultural Center... Century AD,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural... Cultural Affairs, Department of State. [FR Doc. 2011-28805 Filed 11-4-11; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4710-05-P ...

  13. 78 FR 7849 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... Century,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural... also determine that the exhibition or display of the exhibit objects at The Yale Center for British Art..., Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Department of State. [FR Doc. 2013-02401 Filed 2-1-13; 8:45...

  14. A Salamander Tale: Effective Exhibits and Attitude Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Jeffrey; Watson, Sunnie Lee

    2017-01-01

    Little information exists regarding intention behind the design and development of Extension outreach and educational exhibits. An evaluation of response to the exhibit "A Salamander Tale" indicates that the methods used to develop the exhibit resulted in an effective way to present information to an adult audience. Survey questions were…

  15. Digital Natives: Creating Emergent Exhibitions through Digital Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

    2011-01-01

    . In this way, digital technology can contribute to the creation of emergent exhibitions in which the exhibition is created in dialogue between audiences and the museum. We present experiences from a current research project, the Digital Natives exhibition, in which digital technology was designed......Digital Technology can support the creation of dialogical spaces in the museum, both playful and reflective, that allow audiences to engage in the ongoing construction and reproduction of cultural heritage creating novel connections between self and others and between past, present and future...... as an integral part of the exhibition to encourage dialogue between audiences and the exhibition materials and thereby investigate how the exhibition emerge as a result of this dialogic co-construction inside the exhibition space. In short, the opportunities offered by digital technologies prompts us to consider...

  16. CERN exhibition attracts over 100,000 visitors in Belgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    “This must be an 'all-time record',” says Ray Lewis, CERN travelling exhibition manager. “In all my time with the various permanent and travelling exhibitions that have taken place locally and within our Member States I have never experienced such figures.”   Zarko Obradovic (left), Serbian Minister of Education, Science and Technology, and Rolf Heuer (right), CERN Director-General, at the CERN travelling exhibition in Belgrade. Indeed, in approximately 20 days of exhibition time about 120,000 people, mainly school visiters and the general public, visited the 100 m2 CERN mini-exhibition. It was set up in the centre of Belgrade in October, in association with the meeting of the Restricted European Committee for Future Accelerators (RECFA). After attending the RECFA meeting, CERN's Director-General Rofl Heuer opened the CERN exhibition on the evening of 19 October. Lectures about CERN were held every afternoon, and two public de...

  17. Maintaining students’ Speaking Fluency through Exhibition Examination in Sociolinguistic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khusnul Qhotimah Yuliatuty

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Using exhibition for the final project in Sociolinguistic study is really interesting for Universitas Siswa Bangsa Internasional students, especially for 2011 English Department students. Exhibition becomes interesting because this is the new thing to conduct the final project for English Department students’ cohort 2011 at Universitas Siswa Bangsa Internasional. The lecturer divides the students into pairs and each pairs should master one content or topic in Sociolinguistic study.  The students will do the exhibition about the topic that they get in a pairs. The lecturer also gives the students rubric sheet to fill by the visitors. The exhibition will make the students prepare themselves well because they will face many questions about the content which will be delivered by them. Beside, this exhibition also maintains students’ fluency in speaking English because they will explain and answer the questions from visitors with English. This paper tries to focus on how exhibition examination can maintain students’ fluency in speaking English.

  18. The Eugenides Foundation Interactive Exhibition of Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontogiannis, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    The Interactive Exhibition of Science and Technology is installed in an area of 1200 m2 at the Eugenides Foundation. 65 interactive exhibits, designed by the "Cites des Science et de l' Industrie" are organised in themes, stimulate the visitors' mind and provoke scientific thinking. Parallel activities take place inside the exhibition, such as live science demonstrations, performed by young scientists. Extra material such as news bulletins (short news, science comics and portraits), educational paths and treasure-hunting based games, all available online as well, are prepared on a monthly basis and provided along with the visit to the exhibition. Through these exhibits and activities, scientific facts are made simple and easy to comprehend using modern presentation tools. We present details on how this exhibition acts complementary to the science education provided by schools, making it a highly sophisticated educational tool.

  19. Students-exhibits interaction at a science center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Agostinho; Morais, Ana M.

    2006-12-01

    In this study we investigate students' learning during their interaction with two exhibits at a science center. Specifically, we analyze both students' procedures when interacting with exhibits and their understanding of the scientific concepts presented therein. Bernstein's theory of pedagogic discourse (1990, 2000) provided the sociological foundation to assess the exhibit-student interaction and allowed analysis of the influence of the characteristics of students, exhibits, and interactions on students' learning. Eight students (ages 12ndash;13 years of age) with distinct sociological characteristics participated in the study. Several findings emerged from the results. First, the characteristics of the students, exhibits, and interactions appeared to influence student learning. Second, to most students, what they did interactively (procedures) seems not to have had any direct consequence on what they learned (concept understanding). Third, the data analysis suggest an important role for designers and teachers in overcoming the limitations of exhibit-student interaction.

  20. Creating National Narrative: The Red Guard Art Exhibitions and the National Exhibitions in the Chinese Cultural Revolution 1966 - 1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie Tsang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The artistic development in China experienced drastic changes during the Cultural Revolution from 1966 to 1976. Traditional Chinese art was denounced, whereas propaganda art became predominant in shaping the public’s loyalty towards the Communist Party and the country. Two major groups of art exhibitions emerged during the Revolution—the unofficial Red Guard art exhibitions organized by student activists in collaboration with local communes and art schools between 1966 and 1968, and the state-run national exhibitions from 1972 to 1975. These exhibitions were significant to this period because they were held frequently in the capital city Beijing and occasionally elsewhere, and through art they presented unique revolutionary beliefs to the Chinese people in a public setting. While the Red Guard art exhibitions and the national exhibitions certainly created different national narratives, I argue that the national exhibitions were in fact an attempt to revise the national narrative created by the Red Guard art exhibitions in order to re-establish a more utopian, consistent, and official national narrative. This paper unravels the intricate relationship between the two groups of exhibitions by comparing their exhibition venues, ideological focuses, work selection and quality editing. 

  1. Exhibition at CERN's Globe of Science and Innovation

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2006-01-01

    Here we see pictures of displays at one of the exhibitions held at the Globe of Science and Innovation taken in September 2006. Located opposite the main CERN site, the Globe houses many public exhibitions throughout the year covering many topics from astronomy to particle physics.

  2. Designing Art Exhibitions in an Educational Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, June; Crooks, Julian

    2011-01-01

    Demonstrating the multiple features of the Cerulean Gallery in Second Life, this research report showcases several exemplar exhibits created by students, artists, and museums. Located in The Educational Media Center, a Second Life teaching and social space, the Cerulean Gallery exhibits functioned as case studies that tested its effectiveness as…

  3. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart Jj of... - Agreement Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agreement Form A Exhibit A to Subpart JJ of Part 2045...) ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS GENERAL Rural Development-Utilization of Gratuitous Services Pt. 2045, Subpt. JJ, Exh. A Exhibit A to Subpart JJ of Part 2045—Agreement Form for utilization of employees of (official...

  4. Perspectives on ... Multiculturalism and Library Exhibits: Sites of Contested Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Gwendolyn J.

    2005-01-01

    This article analyzes a multicultural library exhibit presenting the Palestinian/Israeli conflict as a site of contested representation. Qualitative methodology is used to interrogate the exhibit and its audience reception. Drawing on insights from critical pedagogy, implications for libraries arising from this case study are given and suggestions…

  5. Informing the Development of Science Exhibitions through Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laherto, Antti

    2013-01-01

    This paper calls for greater use of educational research in the development of science exhibitions. During the past few decades, museums and science centres throughout the world have placed increasing emphasis on their educational function. Although exhibitions are the primary means of promoting visitors' learning, educational research is not…

  6. 75 FR 6079 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... cultural significance. The objects are imported pursuant to loan agreements with the foreign owners or custodians. I also determine that the exhibition or display of the exhibit objects at the Yale Center for... Professional and Cultural Exchanges, Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Department of State. [FR Doc...

  7. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart B of... - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] A Exhibit A to Subpart B of Part 1900 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... REGULATIONS GENERAL Adverse Decisions and Administrative Appeals Exhibit A to Subpart B of Part 1900 [Reserved] ...

  8. 19 CFR 212.11 - Net worth exhibit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net worth exhibit. 212.11 Section 212.11 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Information Required From Applicants § 212.11 Net worth exhibit...

  9. Outreach to Science Faculty and Students through Research Exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tina; Hebblethwaite, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Penfield Library at the State University of New York at Oswego (SUNY Oswego) has a gallery exhibit space near the front entrance that is used to showcase student-faculty research and art class projects. This article features the library's outreach efforts to science faculty and students through research exhibitions. The library held an exhibition…

  10. Modelling the Future: Exhibitions and the Materiality of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Martin, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The role of World Exhibitions in the 19th and early 20th centuries was to confirm a relation between the nation state and modernity. As a display about industries, inventions and identities, the Exhibition, in a sense, put entire nations into an elevated, viewable space. It is a significant element in modernity as comparisons can be made, progress…

  11. CERN Industrials Exhibitions - Over 30 Years of Tradition

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Industrial exhibitions have been part of the CERN landscape for 33 years. At least once each year several companies from the same country come to CERN to present their products and services. Now, a new scheme of one-day visits is giving potential exhibitors at CERN a lighter option. The United Kingdom inaugurated the Industrial Exhibitions in 1968, and it wasn't till 1971 that other countries staged exhibitions at CERN. This photo was taken in 1969, at the second British exhibition, where 16 companies were present. Four years after joining CERN, Poland inaugurated its first exhibition at CERN in 1995 in the presence of the former Director-General Chris Llewellyn-Smith. Almost all the Member States have held industrial exhibitions at the Organization. May '68 wasn't only revolutionary in Paris. For the very first time, an industrial exhibition took place at CERN. Great Britain was first to come with eight companies and remains until this day the most devoted country to the programme with 17 exhibitions and ...

  12. Presentation and exhibition activities for promoting theexportof transport services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya Vladimirovna Nesterova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of presentation and exhibition activities is considered as an important factor in providing new competitive advantages at the strategic markets for exporting of transportation services. A specific role for exhibition activities as a factor to overcome market failures arose from imperfect information and incomplete markets is displayed. Exhibitions are considered as a true reflection of most market parameters, as a means to get correct information concerning market capacity and its borders, as an instrument to access to new markets. At the firm level presentation and branding activities should be considered as a modern technology (especially it concerns Russian companies which provide to hold up already existed markets and to conquer new ones. Presentation and branding activities are an effective technology to promote company trade-mark, competitive advantages for market demand increasing. Comparative analysis of the main exhibitions on transport and logistics issues is fulfilled on the data basecollected by authors. Data observes geographical distribution of transport exhibition and exhibition facilities development at several regions for the last years. The analyses allow to revealing a geographical structure of the exhibitions and its distribution by type of transport. The most promising and economically favorable exhibition areas for the promotion of Russian transport services are shown.

  13. The AAAI 2006 Mobile Robot Competition and Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Rybski, Paul E.; Forbes, Jeffrey; Burhans, Debra; Dodds, Zach; Oh, Paul; Scheutz, Matthias; Avanzato, Bob

    2007-01-01

    The Fifteenth Annual AAAI Robot Competition and Exhibition was held at the Twenty-First National Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Boston, Massachusetts, in July 2006. This article describes the events that were held at the conference, including the Scavenger Hunt, Human Robot Interaction, and Robot Exhibition.

  14. Sponsorship and exhibitions at Nordic science centres and museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsson, Eva; Sørensen, Helene

    2010-01-01

    Science and technology centres (STC) and science museums tend increasingly to rely on external economic support in order to create new exhibitions. But in what ways may the economic situation affect what is presented in their exhibitions? This article aims to explore how staff members consider...

  15. The Signatures of the Invisible exhibition in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The artist Paola Pivi with her work at the Signatures of the Invisible exhibition in Geneva during February 2002. This piece with needles suspended on nylon thread 'detects' people as they approach. The exhibition was for art inspired by research carried out at CERN.

  16. Displaying lives: the narrative of objects in biographical exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Albano

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Biographical exhibitions are a museum practice that asks for critical consideration. Grounding the argument in critical theory, social studies and museum theory, the article explores the narrative function of objects in biographical exhibitions by addressing the social significance of objects in relation to biography and their relevance when presented into an exhibition display. Central is the concept of objects as ‘biographical relics’ that are culturally fetishized in biographical narratives. This raises questions about biographical reliability and the cultural role that such objects plays in exhibition narratives as bearers of reality and as metonymical icons of the biographical subject. The article considers examples of biographical exhibitions of diverse figures such as Gregor Mendel, Madame de Pompadour and Roland Barthes, and the role that personal items, but also portraits and photographs, play in them.

  17. CERN’s travelling exhibition goes to Austria

    CERN Multimedia

    Mélissa Lanaro

    2011-01-01

    Since April 2009 CERN’s travelling exhibition has been touring through some of the Organization's Member States. After Italy and Denmark it has been on show since February at Austria’s Hartberg Ökopark, a very popular science museum situated some one hundred kilometres from Vienna. To coincide with the CERN exhibition, Austria’s scientific community has organised a series of events for the general public which have had marked success. The exhibition's next destination will be Portugal and preparations are already underway to ensure that it is another resounding success   The travelling exhibition was designed in collaboration with the University of Geneva, as part of the celebrations for its 450th anniversary, and has already notched up a good number of kilometres as it travels from country to country. “In 2010 the exhibition already had around 55,000 visitors,” explains Rolf Landua, who heads the Education Group. Since its inauguration ...

  18. A dimensionless ordered pull-through model of the mammalian lens epithelium evidences scaling across species and explains the age-dependent changes in cell density in the human lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun Jie; Wu, Weiju; Tholozan, Frederique M.; Saunter, Christopher D.; Girkin, John M.; Quinlan, Roy A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a mathematical (ordered pull-through; OPT) model of the cell-density profile for the mammalian lens epithelium together with new experimental data. The model is based upon dimensionless parameters, an important criterion for inter-species comparisons where lens sizes can vary greatly (e.g. bovine (approx. 18 mm); mouse (approx. 2 mm)) and confirms that mammalian lenses scale with size. The validated model includes two parameters: β/α, which is the ratio of the proliferation rate in the peripheral and in the central region of the lens; and γGZ, a dimensionless pull-through parameter that accounts for the cell transition and exit from the epithelium into the lens body. Best-fit values were determined for mouse, rat, rabbit, bovine and human lens epithelia. The OPT model accounts for the peak in cell density at the periphery of the lens epithelium, a region where cell proliferation is concentrated and reaches a maximum coincident with the germinative zone. The β/α ratio correlates with the measured FGF-2 gradient, a morphogen critical to lens cell survival, proliferation and differentiation. As proliferation declines with age, the OPT model predicted age-dependent changes in cell-density profiles, which we observed in mouse and human lenses. PMID:26236824

  19. Application of Glass Fiber Reinforced Cement in Exhibition Decoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao

    2018-02-01

    Through the study of GRC material and its application field, the aesthetic characteristics and functional characteristics of GRC materials are demonstrated. The decorative application and technology of GRC material in an art exhibition center are highlighted. The design, application and construction technology of GRC curtain wall and ceiling board in the interior and exterior decoration of art exhibition hall are discussed in detail. The unique advantages of GRC materials in exhibition engineering decoration are fully reflected. In practical design application, the application principle and method are summarized, and an application procedure is formed. The research proves that GRC materials in the art of building decoration engineering has an underrated advantage.

  20. Statistical properties of chaotic dynamical systems which exhibit strange attractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.V.; Oberman, C.R.

    1981-07-01

    A path integral method is developed for the calculation of the statistical properties of turbulent dynamical systems. The method is applicable to conservative systems which exhibit a transition to stochasticity as well as dissipative systems which exhibit strange attractors. A specific dissipative mapping is considered in detail which models the dynamics of a Brownian particle in a wave field with a broad frequency spectrum. Results are presented for the low order statistical moments for three turbulent regimes which exhibit strange attractors corresponding to strong, intermediate, and weak collisional damping

  1. Knowledge Generation in Technology-Enhanced Health Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Kharlamov, Nikita; Zachariasssen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results from eye-tracking studies of audience interaction and knowledge generation in the technology-enhanced health promotion exhibition PULSE at a science centre in Copenhagen, Denmark. The main purpose of the study was to understand what types of knowledge audiences build...... in health promotion exhibitions designed to include direct physical interaction. The current study is part of the larger PULSE project, which aims to develop innovative health promotion activities that include a science museum exhibition as a key setting. The primary target group is families with children...

  2. Postmodern Exhibition Discourse: Anthropological Study of an Art Display Case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Wieczorek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article studies tendencies in contemporary museum exhibitions and art display trends. While analysing current status quo of art in the museum context, it discusses the limitations of curatorial impact on the audience perception of the displayed objects. The paper presents a case study of a permanent museum exhibition with an added performance element. As argued in the article, such approach allows a stratified narrative and provokes a dialogue between the audience, performers, and curators, fully reflecting postmodern polyphonic tendency. The aim of the article is to comment on postmodern trends in museology, the status of the displayed art (object, and contemporary exhibition identity.

  3. Unimode metamaterials exhibiting negative linear compressibility and negative thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek, Krzysztof K; Attard, Daphne; Caruana-Gauci, Roberto; Grima, Joseph N; Wojciechowski, Krzysztof W

    2016-01-01

    Unimode metamaterials made from rotating rigid triangles are analysed mathematically for their mechanical and thermal expansion properties. It is shown that these unimode systems exhibit positive Poisson’s ratios irrespective of size, shape and angle of aperture, with the Poisson’s ratio exhibiting giant values for certain conformations. When the Poisson’s ratio in one loading direction is larger than +1, the systems were found to exhibit the anomalous property of negative linear compressibility along this direction, that is, the systems expand in this direction when hydrostatically compressed. Also discussed are the thermal expansion properties of these systems under the assumption that the units exhibit increased rotational agitation once subjected to an increase in temperature. The effect of the geometric parameters on the aforementioned thermo-mechanical properties of the system, are discussed, with the aim of identifying negative behaviour. (paper)

  4. TrayGen: Arranging objects for exhibition and packaging

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang; Huang, Qixing

    2013-01-01

    We present a framework, called TrayGen, to generate tray designs for the exhibition and packaging of a collection of objects. Based on principles from shape perception and visual merchandising, we abstract a number of design guidelines on how

  5. "Britain at CERN" exhibition, from 14 to 17 November 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2000-01-01

    H.E. Mr. Christopher Hulse, Ambassador of United Kingdom in Switzerland, CERN Director General Luciano Maiani, Sir David Wright, Chief Executive of British Trade International and Roger Cashmore, CERN Director of research visit the Britain at CERN exhibition

  6. Asian Martial Art Exhibitions at the Swiss Castle of Morges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Gothard Bialokur

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on two unique cultural exhibitions (2005 and 2007 held in Morges, Switzerland. The main theme for these exhibitions was Asian martial arts with a focus on those from Japan, including presentations by notable masters in aikido, karate, judo, kyudo, iaido, kenjutsu, jodo, juttejutsu, kusarigamajutsu, naginatajutsu, tameshigiri, and kendo. On exhibit were artifacts from Morges Castle museum collections as well as numerous ancient objects borrowed specifically for these exhibitions from other Swiss museums and private collections. There was also a lecture on Japanese sword collecting and care, and presentations of Japanese dance, flower arranging (ikebana, the art of tea (châ no yu, châdo, paper folding (origami, traditional kimono dress, and detailed demonstrations on the manufacture of bladed weapons. Text and photography were arranged to record these events for this article, showing how excellent organization and cooperation can introduce high-quality martial traditions to the public.

  7. Editorial Notes: Exhibition Complex: Displaying People, Identity, and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Cymbala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Editorial Notes on section relating to submissions from the symposium Exhibition Complex: Displaying People, Identity, and Culture held October 18-20, 2012 at the Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

  8. British Museum Exhibition Review: The Jericho Skull, Creating an Ancestor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Hirst

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The temporary exhibit at the British Museum, open 15th December-19th February, and located to the right of the main entrance in the Raymond and Beverly Sackler Gallery (Room 59; is dedicated to a single Neolithic crania from Jericho, known as the Jericho Skull. This exhibit demonstrates the value of relatively recent technologies in archaeological research, highlighting the previously hidden information made possible through CT scanning and the value of these methods in both archaeological research but also in communicating archaeology in a visually stimulating manner which allows an exhibit to take a single item, and create an in depth exhibit featuring both the original material and two cranial 3D prints along with a facial reconstruction.

  9. Dutch hi-tech companies exhibit at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-seven Dutch companies will present the state of the art of their technological developments at the industrial exhibition Holland @ CERN from 8 to 11 November. The exhibition is designed to help strengthen the ties between fundamental science and Dutch industry.   The exhibition, supported by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs and organised by the Netherlands National Institute for Subatomic Physics (Nikhef), in cooperation with the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), the FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, and Dutch Scientific, an association of manufacturers of scientific equipment, will be held in the Main Building from 8 to11 November. “The last Holland @ CERN exhibition took place fifteen years ago”, says Robert Klöpping from Nikhef, Dutch Industrial Liaison Officer for CERN and Purchasing Advisor for Grenoble ESRF. “This kind of event is very important for Dutch industry as it allows us to show what Dutch companies c...

  10. Exhibit celebrates five decades of women in engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Karen

    2007-01-01

    "Petticoats and Slide Rules," a historical exhibit on women in engineering from the Society of Women Engineers (SWE), is currently on display in the lobby of Hancock 100 and will remain at Virginia Tech through March of 2007.

  11. The Lynden Pindling Exhibit: the Man, the Dream, the Moment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shananda Miller Hinsey

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Sir Lynden O. Pindling Room at the Harry C. Moore Library and Information Centre of The College of The Bahamas contains an exhibit of over 260 items, including personal effects, gifts, gowns, photographs, speeches and publications. The items included in this special exhibit space are resources that scholars, students and the public may use to research the legacy of the former prime minister and, by extension, the history of The Bahamas.

  12. The 1997 AAAI Mobile Robot Competition and Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Arkin, Ronald C.

    1998-01-01

    In July 1997, the Sixth Annual Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) Mobile Robot Competition and Exhibition was held. The competition consisted of four new events: (1) Find Life on Mars; (2) Find the Remote; (3) Home Vacuum; and (4) Hors d'Oeuvres, Anyone? The robot exhibition was the largest in AAAI history. This article presents the history, motivation, and contributions for the event.

  13. Foreign Investors Able to Establish Foreign- exclusively Exhibition Corporations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Foreign Investors Able to Establish Foreign-exclusively Exhibition Corporations In Feb, Ministry of Commerce issued its 1st decree on temporary regulation for foreign-investing corporations; the regulation allows foreign investors to set up foreign-investing convention & exhibition corporations exclusively or through cooperation with other Chinese corporations, enterprises or organizations. With legal protection on their regulatory management and legal rights, these foreign-investing corporations are in the charge of Department of Foreign Investment Administration, Ministry of Commerce.

  14. Exhibition of Monogamy Relations between Entropic Non-contextuality Inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Feng; Zhang Wei; Huang Yi-Dong

    2017-01-01

    We exhibit the monogamy relation between two entropic non-contextuality inequalities in the scenario where compatible projectors are orthogonal. We show the monogamy relation can be exhibited by decomposing the orthogonality graph into perfect induced subgraphs. Then we find two entropic non-contextuality inequalities are monogamous while the KCBS-type non-contextuality inequalities are not if the orthogonality graphs of the observable sets are two odd cycles with two shared vertices. (paper)

  15. Evaluating Education and Science in the KSC Visitor Complex Exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Lance K.

    2000-01-01

    The continuing development of exhibits at the Kennedy Space Center's Visitor Complex is an excellent opportunity for NASA personnel to promote science and provide insight into NASA programs and projects for the approximately 3 million visitors that come to KSC annually. Stated goals for the Visitor Complex, in fact, emphasize science awareness and recommend broadening the appeal of the displays and exhibits for all age groups. To this end, this summer project seeks to evaluate the science content of planned exhibits/displays in relation to these developing opportunities and identify specific areas for enhancement of existing or planned exhibits and displays. To help expand the educational and science content within the developing exhibits at the Visitor Complex, this project was structured to implement the goals of the Visitor Center Director. To accomplish this, the exhibits and displays planned for completion within the year underwent review and evaluation for science content and educational direction. Planning emphasis for the individual displays was directed at combining the elements of effective education with fundamental scientific integrity, within an appealing format.

  16. Exhibits Recognition System for Combining Online Services and Offline Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, He; Liu, Jianbo; Zhang, Yuan; Wu, Xiaoyu

    2017-10-01

    In order to achieve a more convenient and accurate digital museum navigation, we have developed a real-time and online-to-offline museum exhibits recognition system using image recognition method based on deep learning. In this paper, the client and server of the system are separated and connected through the HTTP. Firstly, by using the client app in the Android mobile phone, the user can take pictures and upload them to the server. Secondly, the features of the picture are extracted using the deep learning network in the server. With the help of the features, the pictures user uploaded are classified with a well-trained SVM. Finally, the classification results are sent to the client and the detailed exhibition’s introduction corresponding to the classification results are shown in the client app. Experimental results demonstrate that the recognition accuracy is close to 100% and the computing time from the image uploading to the exhibit information show is less than 1S. By means of exhibition image recognition algorithm, our implemented exhibits recognition system can combine online detailed exhibition information to the user in the offline exhibition hall so as to achieve better digital navigation.

  17. Designing museum exhibits that facilitate visitor reflection and discussion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skydsgaard, Morten Arnika; Andersen, Hanne Møller; King, Heather

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores how four design principles (curiosity, challenge, narratives and participation) facilitate reflection and discussion among young visitors in the issues-based exhibition Dear, Difficult Body. The investigation is based on a mixed-method approach combining questionnaire and inte......This paper explores how four design principles (curiosity, challenge, narratives and participation) facilitate reflection and discussion among young visitors in the issues-based exhibition Dear, Difficult Body. The investigation is based on a mixed-method approach combining questionnaire...... and interview data. The implementation of design principles resulted in a variety of exhibits which variously prompted reflection and discussion on the part of visitors. Exhibits with narratives, for example, here defined as both personal and expert narratives, were found to be effective in facilitating...... personal reflection but also prompted discussion. Participation, defined as including both physical interaction with exhibits, and dialogic interaction between visitors, facilitated the sharing of ideas and feelings between visitors. Exhibits with elements of curiosity and challenge were found to attract...

  18. Age-dependent effects of systemic administration of oxytetracycline on the viscoelastic properties of rat tail tendons as a mechanistic basis for pharmacological treatment of flexural limb deformities in foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintz, Leslie R; Lavagnino, Michael; Gardner, Keri L; Sedlak, Aleksa M; Arnoczky, Steven P

    2012-12-01

    To describe the effect of systemically administered oxytetracycline on the viscoelastic properties of rat tail tendon fascicles (TTfs) to provide a mechanistic rationale for pharmacological treatment of flexural limb deformities in foals. TTfs from ten 1-month-old and ten 6-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. 5 rats in each age group were administered oxytetracycline (50 mg/kg, IP, q 24 h) for 4 days. The remaining 5 rats in each age group served as untreated controls. Five days after initiation of oxytetracycline treatment, TTfs were collected and their viscoelastic properties were evaluated via a stress-relaxation protocol. Maximum modulus and equilibrium modulus were compared via a 2-way ANOVA. Collagen fibril size, density, and orientation in TTfs were compared between treated and control rats. Viscoelastic properties were significantly decreased in TTfs from 1-month-old oxytetracycline-treated rats, compared with those in TTfs from 1-month-old control rats. Oxytetracycline had no effect on the viscoelastic properties of TTfs from 6-month-old rats. Collagen fibril size, density, and orientation in TTfs from 1-month-old rats did not differ between oxytetracycline-treated and control rats. Results confirmed that systemically administered oxytetracycline decreased the viscoelastic properties of TTfs from 1-month-old rats but not those of TTfs from 6-month-old rats. The decrease in viscoelastic properties associated with oxytetracycline treatment does not appear to be caused by altered collagen fibril diameter or organization. The age-dependent effect of oxytetracycline on the viscoelastic properties of tendons may be related to its effect on the maturation of the extracellular matrix of developing tendons.

  19. Age-dependence of power spectral density and fractal dimension of bone mineralized matrix in atomic force microscope topography images: potential correlates of bone tissue age and bone fragility in female femoral neck trabeculae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanovic, Petar; Djuric, Marija; Rakocevic, Zlatko

    2012-11-01

    There is an increasing interest in bone nano-structure, the ultimate goal being to reveal the basis of age-related bone fragility. In this study, power spectral density (PSD) data and fractal dimensions of the mineralized bone matrix were extracted from atomic force microscope topography images of the femoral neck trabeculae. The aim was to evaluate age-dependent differences in the mineralized matrix of human bone and to consider whether these advanced nano-descriptors might be linked to decreased bone remodeling observed by some authors and age-related decline in bone mechanical competence. The investigated bone specimens belonged to a group of young adult women (n = 5, age: 20-40 years) and a group of elderly women (n = 5, age: 70-95 years) without bone diseases. PSD graphs showed the roughness density distribution in relation to spatial frequency. In all cases, there was a fairly linear decrease in magnitude of the power spectra with increasing spatial frequencies. The PSD slope was steeper in elderly individuals (-2.374 vs. -2.066), suggesting the dominance of larger surface morphological features. Fractal dimension of the mineralized bone matrix showed a significant negative trend with advanced age, declining from 2.467 in young individuals to 2.313 in the elderly (r = 0.65, P = 0.04). Higher fractal dimension in young women reflects domination of smaller mineral grains, which is compatible with the more freshly remodeled structure. In contrast, the surface patterns in elderly individuals were indicative of older tissue age. Lower roughness and reduced structural complexity (decreased fractal dimension) of the interfibrillar bone matrix in the elderly suggest a decline in bone toughness, which explains why aged bone is more brittle and prone to fractures. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Anatomy © 2012 Anatomical Society.

  20. A phenomenological investigation of science center exhibition developers' expertise development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Denise L.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the exhibition developer role in the context of United States (U.S.) science centers, and more specifically, to investigate the way science center exhibition developers build their professional expertise. This research investigated how successfully practicing exhibition developers described their current practices, how they learned to be exhibition developers, and what factors were the most important to the developers in building their professional expertise. Qualitative data was gathered from 10 currently practicing exhibition developers from three science centers: the Exploratorium, San Francisco, California; the Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois; and the Science Museum of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota. In-depth, semistructured interviews were used to collect the data. The study embraced aspects of the phenomenological tradition and sought to derive a holistic understanding of the position and how expertise was built for it. The data were methodically coded and organized into themes prior to analysis. The data analysis found that the position consisted of numerous and varied activities, but the developers' primary roles were advocating for the visitor, storytelling, and mediating information and ideas. They conducted these activities in the context of a team and relied on an established exhibition planning process to guide their work. Developers described a process of learning exhibition development that was experiential in nature. Learning through daily practice was key, though they also consulted with mentors and relied on visitor studies to gauge the effectiveness of their work. They were adept at integrating prior knowledge gained from many aspects of their lives into their practice. The developers described several internal factors that contributed to their expertise development including the desire to help others, a natural curiosity about the world, a commitment to learning, and the ability to accept critique. They

  1. “Accelerating Science” exhibition zooms to Turkey

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    'Accelerating Science', CERN’s travelling science outreach exhibition, has just arrived at the Middle East Technical University (METU) in Ankara, Turkey for a four-month stay there. This is the first time it has moved outside the circle of the Member States. The Turkish venue will inaugurate some new exhibits that have recently been developed by CERN’s software developers.   “It’s been a very busy day,” says Bilge Demirkoz, an associate professor of physics at METU and a member of AMS-02, who had been overseeing the unloading of the lorries when we spoke to her. “As the University doesn’t have a specific exhibition space, the CERN exhibits are going to be housed in the covered tennis courts just behind the cultural and congress centre. It’s a beautiful venue, and there are plenty of parking spaces.” The University has sent invitations to the exhibition to high schools and to about 100 ...

  2. The exhibition Lumiere d'Atomes (Atoms light)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, Jacques

    1995-01-01

    Full text: This exhibition has been conceived in order to show for everybody, whatever his scientific level, the peaceful uses of transformations (natural or made by Man) and energetic possibilities of the atomic nucleus. The key-ideas of this exhibition were-: - nuclear applications a world of high technology; - nuclear industry men as the others; - nuclear energy an energetic independence. 6 themes were proposed: 1- Atoms and radioactivity; 2- The nuclear power stations; 3- The nuclear fuel cycle; 4- Surety and environment; 5- The other uses of radioactivity; 6- The French choice: The world nuclear data. This exhibition that comprises information posters, paintings, demonstration models, films and video games, was shown for the first time in Paris in april 1991. From this time, it was shown in many regional cities, with the help of SFEN members. 'Lumiere d'Atomes' received in 1991 the SFEN prize for its information on nuclear energy. (author)

  3. Exhibition of Masayuki Miyata's Works of Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    To commemorate the 25th anniversary of the signing of the Sino-Japanese Peace and Friendship Treaty, the CPAFFC held the exhibition of Masayuki Miyata's works of art in the Painting Exhibition Hall of the Palace Museum from October 23 to 27, 2003. Miyata's 124 best works were selected for the exhibition, among which works on the subjects about China and those about Japan were half and half. They drew their materials mainly from Chinese classic literary works such as Records of the Historian, Water Margin, Legend of Heroes in the Tang Dynasty, Romance of the Three Kingdoms and Japanese classic The Story of Genji, etc. Also on display were works of the Japa-nese scenery such as Japan's Four Seasons, Snow, Moon and Flowers, etc. and The Red Fujiyama, a work acknowledged by the United Nations.

  4. 75 FR 3862 - Photography in Public Exhibit Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ...NARA has revised its regulations on the use of film, photographic and videotape equipment inside the National Archives Building in Washington, DC. Filming, photographing, and videotaping for personal use will be prohibited in exhibits of the National Archives Experience (NAE) in Washington, DC, including the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution and the Bill of Rights (known as the Charters of Freedom) in the Rotunda of the National Archives Building. In 2003 NARA installed exhibit cases for displaying the Charters and other NAE documents to provide better clarity for viewing the exhibits. NARA seeks to ensure the necessary protection for the documents from the cumulative effects of photographic flash and to enhance the overall visitor experience.

  5. A Managerial Approach To A Controversial Exhibition: The Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Aura Păuş

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will analyse the reception of the Human Body exhibition of 2013 in Romania, from a managerial point of view. The research is based on the exhibition visitors’ book, to which a content analysis was applied. The main aim of the paper is to investigate how the ‘Grigore Antipa’ Museum (Romania constructed the cultural context in which the scientific arguments prevailed over the religious ones, turning the exhibition of plastinated human bodies into an accepted public event, with a strong emphasis on education and science (medicine. At the same time, ethical concerns and religious criticism were downplayed by maintaining the focus on the ‘education for health’ frame.

  6. TrayGen: Arranging objects for exhibition and packaging

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang

    2013-10-01

    We present a framework, called TrayGen, to generate tray designs for the exhibition and packaging of a collection of objects. Based on principles from shape perception and visual merchandising, we abstract a number of design guidelines on how to organize the objects on the tray for the exhibition of their individual features and mutual relationships. Our framework realizes these guidelines by analyzing geometric shapes of the objects and optimizing their arrangement. We demonstrate that the resultant tray designs not only save space, but also highlight the characteristic of each object and the inter-relations between objects. © 2013 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Implementing Mobile Virtual Exhibition to Increase Cultural Heritage Visibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian CIUREA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an implementation of iOS mobile application designed as a virtual exhibition, which aims to increase the accessibility and visibility of physical objects that composite cultural heritage elements. Mobile technologies have seen a huge evolution in the last years and people are very attracted by smartphones, tablets and other mobile devices. Taking into consideration the impact of mobile technologies in all the activity fields, an important research objective is to analyze the influence of mobile applications designed as virtual exhibitions on cultural heritage promotion and on people cultural needs.

  8. American Telemedicine Association: First China (Tianjin International Telemedicine Technology Exhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordana Bernard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the support of Tianjin Municipal People’s Government and the People’s Government of Binhai New Area, the “First China (Tianjin International Telemedicine Technology Exhibition” hosted by the American Telemedicine Association (ATA, will be held October 28- 30, 2014 at the Tianjin Binhai International Convention and Exhibition Center. The three day event will feature keynote sessions, concurrent discussion forums, exhibits (e.g., telemedicine, information technology, mHealth, a venture summit, meet-and-greet sessions for international and domestic companies for potential business collaboration, and policy discussions on China healthcare. For registration information: http://www.atacn.org/en/

  9. Performative exhibition and its different modes of experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzbart, Judith

    The avant-gardes of the late 60s and 70s challenged many conventions associated with the (classical) modernist art exhibition such as: a static timeless display of autonomous objects, the spectator as a disembodied visual receptor, and the personal experience emphasizing the individual and never...... the social. The avant-gardes have not, however, let to the disappearance of a modernist exhibition format but to a proliferation of formats including some that are more performative in its character, which means: more dynamic, developing over time, with a higher degree of bodily and discursive exchange, and...

  10. One exhibition, many goals. Combining scientific research and risk communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrière, Marie; Bogaard, Thom; Junier, Sandra; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Mostert, Erik

    2015-04-01

    How effective is visual communication to increase awareness of natural hazards and risks? To answer this research question, we developed a research design that was at the same time an experimental setting and an actual communication effort. Throughout the full length of the 2-years project held in the Ubaye valley (southeastern France), we collaborated with local and regional stakeholders (politicians and technicians). During a consultation phase, the communication context was determined, the audience of the project was defined and finally the testing activity-communication effort was determined. We were offered the opportunity to design an exhibition for the local public library. In a consultation phase that corresponded to the design of the exhibition, the stakeholders contributed to its content as well as helping with the funding of the exhibition. Finally, during the experimentation phase, the stakeholders participated in advertising the activity, gathering of participants and designing the scientific survey. In order to assess the effects of the exhibition on risk awareness, several groups of children, teenagers and adults were submitted to a research design, consisting of 1) a pre-test, 2) the visit of the exhibition and 3) a post-test similar to the pre-test. In addition, the children answered a second post-test 3 months after the visit. Close ended questions addressed the awareness indicators mentioned in the literature, i.e. worry level, previous experiences with natural hazards events, exposure to awareness raising, ability to mitigate/respond/prepare, attitude to risk, and demographics. In addition, the post-test included several satisfaction questions concerning the visual tools displayed in the exhibition. A statistical analysis of the changes between the pre- and post- tests (paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test and bootstrapping) allowed to verify whether the exhibition had an impact on risk awareness or not. In order to deduce which variable

  11. Age-dependent oxidation of extracellular cysteine/cystine redox state (Eh(Cys/CySS)) in mouse lung fibroblasts is mediated by a decline in Slc7a11 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuxuan; Ritzenthaler, Jeffrey D; Burke, Tom J; Otero, Javier; Roman, Jesse; Watson, Walter H

    2018-04-01

    reveals Slc7a11 is the key regulator of age-dependent changes in extracellular E h (Cys/CySS) in primary mouse lung fibroblasts, and its effects are not dependent on GSH synthesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The "Gravity-Powered Calculator," a Galilean Exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerreta, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    The Gravity-Powered Calculator is an exhibit of the Exploratorium in San Francisco. It is presented by its American creators as an amazing device that extracts the square roots of numbers, using only the force of gravity. But if you analyze his concept construction one can not help but recall the research of Galileo on falling bodies, the inclined…

  13. Exhibition contribution: AN EXPERIMENT WITH THE VOICE TO DESIGN CERAMICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The artefacts show how experiential knowledge that the craftsmen gains in a direct physical interaction with a responding material can be transformed and utilized in the use of digital technologies. The exhibition presents an experiment with a 3D interactive and dynamic system to create ceramics ...

  14. Highlights of the inauguration ceremony for the new permanent exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The new “Universe of Particles" permanent exhibition in the Globe was unveiled this week to its first visitors. On Monday, 28 June, in the presence of representatives of the local authorities, CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer cut the ribbon; on Tuesday, 29 and Wednesday 30 June the Globe's doors remained open for visits by the CERN personnel.   Cutting the ribbon at the inauguration of the Globe's new permanent exhibition At the conclusion of the inauguration ceremony, the Head of the Education Group, Rolf Landua, expressed his satisfaction: “It's wonderful. We are very happy that it has all turned out so well. Now we look forward to lots of visitors.” The exhibition represents a major addition to the tourist destinations in the region and an important tool for the public awareness of science, which could also be useful for schools. “The purpose of the exhibition is to inspire visitors, to arouse their curiosity about science and to motivate them t...

  15. A simple coordination complex exhibiting colour change on slight ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    structure analysis. In 1979, Grenthe and co-worker. reported thermochromism of bis(NN-diethylethane-. 1,2-diamine) copper(II) perchlorate on the basis of ... ture was allowed to cool when white solid KCl sepa- rated out and it was .... A simple coordination complex exhibits colour change on slight structural modification. 733.

  16. Integrating Smart Objects into Self-Guided Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krishnasamy, Rameshnath Kala

    2018-01-01

    is to present work-in-progress of implementing two app prototypes: 1) a mixed reality game for smartphones and 2) a digital guide, that uses Bluetooth beacons at a fully automated exhibition in Northern Denmark. Two of key challenges that this research projects revolves around is how to on-board new users...

  17. 7 CFR 28.126 - Loaning of forms and exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER... Fees and Costs § 28.126 Loaning of forms and exhibits. In the discretion of the Director, limited...

  18. 6th international solid wastes congress and exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ategrus

    1992-01-01

    Proceedings of the sixth International Solid Wastes Congress and exhibition held in Madrid the dates June 14-19, 1992, and organized by ISWA. It sumps up 3 volumes dealing with Environmental Aspects, Administrative Aspects, Waste treatment Technologies, Waste Minimization, Land disposal and Hazardous Wastes

  19. 17 CFR 229.1016 - (Item 1016) Exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 1016) Exhibits. 229.1016 Section 229.1016 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS FOR FILING FORMS UNDER SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-...

  20. Exhibition: Fibre optics, the future is at hand

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    Until 20 June, the Pont de la Machine in Geneva will host an exhibition on fibre optics, sponsored by SIG. CERN, a major user of this technology, was invited to take part with a presentation of some of its scintillating fibre detectors.   The CERN module, designed for the SIG's fibre optics exhibition. Visitors can discover a cosmic ray detector (on the right) and its oscilloscope (on the left), as well as one of the ALFA detector modules (at the back). The Services industriels genevois (SIG), who are in the process of deploying an optical fibre network in Geneva, have decided to showcase this technology with an exhibition entitled “Fibre optique – Le futur à portée de main.” The exhibition, which will be open to the public from 26 April to 20 June, is being held at the Espace ExpoSIG, at the Pont de la Machine in the centre of Geneva. “CERN’s Physics Department was approached by SIG at the start of this year to ...

  1. 27 CFR 4.51 - Exhibiting certificates to Government officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exhibiting certificates to Government officials. 4.51 Section 4.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Requirements for...

  2. Assessing the User Resistance to Recommender Systems in Exhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulmo Koo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Under the paradigm shift toward smart tourism, the exhibition industry is making efforts to introduce innovative technologies that can provide more diverse and valuable experiences to attendees. However, various new information technologies have failed in a market in practice due to the user’s resistance against it. Since innovative technology, such as booth recommender systems (BRS, is changing, creating uncertainty among consumers, consumer’s resistance to innovative technology can be considered a normal reaction. Therefore, it is important for a company to understand the psychological aspect of the consumer’s resistance and make measures to overcome the resistance. Accordingly, based on the model of Kim and Kankanhalli (2009, by applying the perceived value, the technology acceptance model, and the status quo bias theory, this study focused on the importance of self-efficacy and technical support in the context of using BRS. To do this purpose, a total of 455 survey data that was collected from “Korea franchise exhibition” attendees were used to analyze the proposed model. Structural equation modeling was applied for data analysis. The result shows that perceived value was affected by relative advantage and switching cost, also switching cost reduced the perceived value. However, self-efficacy reduced the switching cost, thereby decreasing the resistance of exhibition attendees. In addition, technical support increased the relative advantage switching cost and the perceived value. Exhibition attendee’s resistance was significantly negatively affected by perceived value, and positively affected by switching cost. The results will provide balanced viewpoints between the relative advantage and switching cost for exhibition marketers, helping to strengthen the competitiveness in terms of sustainable tourism of exhibition.

  3. Poster exhibitions at conferences: are we doing it properly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamish, Andrew J; Ansell, James; Foster, Jessica J; Foster, Kathryn A; Egan, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Literature exploring the educational value and quality of conference poster presentation is scarce. The aim of this study was to identify and describe the variation in poster exhibitions across a spectrum of conferences attended by trainees. Prospective observational assessment of conference posters was carried out across 7 variables at 4 conferences attended by surgical trainees in 2012. Posters were compared by individual variables and according to overall poster score combining all 7 variables examined. The number of authors listed was also compared. Random samples of consecutively numbered posters were examined at the exhibitions of 4 conferences, which included a UK national medical education conference (Association for the Study of Medical Education), a UK international surgical conference (Association of Surgeons of Great Britain and Ireland), a European oncology conference (European Society of Surgical Oncology), and a North American joint medical and surgical conference (Digestive Diseases Week). Significant variation existed between conferences in posters and their presentation. The proportion of presenters failing to display their posters ranged from 3% to 26% (p posters that were formatted using aims, methods, results, and conclusion sections (81%-93%; p = 0.513) or in the proportion of posters that were identified as difficult to read (24%-28%; p = 0.919). Association for the Study of Medical Education outperformed each of the other exhibitions overall (p Posters with greater than the median of 4 authors performed significantly better across all areas (p Poster exhibitions varied widely, with room for improvement at all 4 conferences. Lessons can be learned by all conferences from each other to improve presenter engagement with and the educational value of poster exhibitions. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Motor neurons and glia exhibit specific individualized responses to TDP-43 expression in a Drosophila model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Patricia S; Daniel, Scott G; McCallum, Abigail P; Boehringer, Ashley V; Sukhina, Alona S; Zwick, Rebecca A; Zarnescu, Daniela C

    2013-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disease characterized by complex neuronal and glial phenotypes. Recently, RNA-based mechanisms have been linked to ALS via RNA-binding proteins such as TDP-43, which has been studied in vivo using models ranging from yeast to rodents. We have developed a Drosophila model of ALS based on TDP-43 that recapitulates several aspects of pathology, including motor neuron loss, locomotor dysfunction and reduced survival. Here we report the phenotypic consequences of expressing wild-type and four different ALS-linked TDP-43 mutations in neurons and glia. We show that TDP-43-driven neurodegeneration phenotypes are dose- and age-dependent. In motor neurons, TDP-43 appears restricted to nuclei, which are significantly misshapen due to mutant but not wild-type protein expression. In glia and in the developing neuroepithelium, TDP-43 associates with cytoplasmic puncta. TDP-43-containing RNA granules are motile in cultured motor neurons, although wild-type and mutant variants exhibit different kinetic properties. At the neuromuscular junction, the expression of TDP-43 in motor neurons versus glia leads to seemingly opposite synaptic phenotypes that, surprisingly, translate into comparable locomotor defects. Finally, we explore sleep as a behavioral readout of TDP-43 expression and find evidence of sleep fragmentation consistent with hyperexcitability, a suggested mechanism in ALS. These findings support the notion that although motor neurons and glia are both involved in ALS pathology, at the cellular level they can exhibit different responses to TDP-43. In addition, our data suggest that individual TDP-43 alleles utilize distinct molecular mechanisms, which will be important for developing therapeutic strategies.

  5. Motor neurons and glia exhibit specific individualized responses to TDP-43 expression in a Drosophila model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia S. Estes

    2013-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal disease characterized by complex neuronal and glial phenotypes. Recently, RNA-based mechanisms have been linked to ALS via RNA-binding proteins such as TDP-43, which has been studied in vivo using models ranging from yeast to rodents. We have developed a Drosophila model of ALS based on TDP-43 that recapitulates several aspects of pathology, including motor neuron loss, locomotor dysfunction and reduced survival. Here we report the phenotypic consequences of expressing wild-type and four different ALS-linked TDP-43 mutations in neurons and glia. We show that TDP-43-driven neurodegeneration phenotypes are dose- and age-dependent. In motor neurons, TDP-43 appears restricted to nuclei, which are significantly misshapen due to mutant but not wild-type protein expression. In glia and in the developing neuroepithelium, TDP-43 associates with cytoplasmic puncta. TDP-43-containing RNA granules are motile in cultured motor neurons, although wild-type and mutant variants exhibit different kinetic properties. At the neuromuscular junction, the expression of TDP-43 in motor neurons versus glia leads to seemingly opposite synaptic phenotypes that, surprisingly, translate into comparable locomotor defects. Finally, we explore sleep as a behavioral readout of TDP-43 expression and find evidence of sleep fragmentation consistent with hyperexcitability, a suggested mechanism in ALS. These findings support the notion that although motor neurons and glia are both involved in ALS pathology, at the cellular level they can exhibit different responses to TDP-43. In addition, our data suggest that individual TDP-43 alleles utilize distinct molecular mechanisms, which will be important for developing therapeutic strategies.

  6. 'Exhibitions and experiments', in celebration of nobel prize in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masahito; Nakanishi, Akira; Nakano, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    The Nobel Prize in Physics for 2008 was awarded to Professors Yoichiro Nambu, Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide Maskawa. At this opportunity, we held an exhibition to introduce the achievements of the laureates for 10 days at the Omiya campus in May 2009. With the explanations of elementary particle physics, we prepared several experimental instruments with which visitors could play and learn the spontaneous symmetry breaking, cosmic rays, a circle path of an electron in a magnetic field and so on. Our main purpose of the exhibition was, however, not just to explain the contents of the Nobel Prize in Physics, but also to attract students' interests to physics. More than 800 individual students attended during the period, and the survey of questionnaires shows positive contributions to raise the students' awareness of the excitement of physics. (author)

  7. Uranium mining wastes, garden exhibition and health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Gerhard; Schmidt, Peter; Hinz, Wilko

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: For more than 40 years the Soviet-German stockholding company SDAG WISMUT mined and milled Uranium in the East of Germany and became up to 1990 the world's third largest Uranium producer. After reunification of Germany, the new found state own company Wismut GmbH was faced with the task of decommissioning and rehabilitation of the mining and milling sites. One of the largest mining areas in the world, that had to be cleaned up, was located close to the municipality of Ronneburg near the City of Gera in Thuringia. After closing the operations of the Ronneburg underground mine and at the 160 m deep open pit mine with a free volume of 84 Mio.m 3 , the open pit and 7 large piles of mine waste, together 112 Mio.m 3 of material, had to be cleaned up. As a result of an optimisation procedure it was chosen to relocate the waste rock piles back into the open pit. After taking this decision and approval of the plan the disposal operation was started. Even though the transport task was done by large trucks, this took 16 years. The work will be finished in 2007, a cover consisting of 40 cm of uncontaminated material will be placed on top of the material, and the re-vegetation of the former open pit area will be established. When in 2002 the City of Gera applied to host the largest garden exhibition in Germany, Bundesgartenschau (BUGA), in 2007, Wismut GmbH supported this plan by offering parts of the territory of the former mining site as an exhibition ground. Finally, it was decided by the BUGA organizers to arrange its 2007 exhibition on grounds in Gera and in the valley adjacent to the former open pit mine, with parts of the remediated area within the fence of the exhibition. (authors)

  8. Environmental enrichment for a mixed-species nocturnal mammal exhibit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Fay E; Melfi, Vicky A

    2012-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is an integral aspect of modern zoo animal management but, empirical evaluation of it is biased toward species housed in single-species groups. Nocturnal houses, where several nocturnal species are housed together, are particularly overlooked. This study investigated whether three species (nine-banded armadillos, Dasypus novemcinctus; Senegal bush babies, Galago senegalensis; two-toed sloths, Choloepus didactylus) in the nocturnal house at Paignton Zoo Environmental Park, UK could be enriched using food-based and sensory EE. Subjects were an adult male and female of each species. EE was deemed effective if it promoted target species-typical behaviors, behavioral diversity, and increased use of enriched exhibit zones. Results from generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that food-based EE elicited the most positive behavioral effects across species. One set of food-based EEs (Kong®, termite mound and hanging food) presented together was associated with a significant increase in species-typical behaviors, increased behavioral diversity, and increased use of enriched exhibit zones in armadillos and bush babies. Although one type of sensory EE (scented pine cones) increased overall exhibit use in all species, the other (rainforest sounds) was linked to a significant decrease in species-typical behavior in bush babies and sloths. There were no intra or interspecies conflicts over EE, and commensalism occurred between armadillos and bush babies. Our data demonstrate that simple food-based and sensory EE can promote positive behavioral changes in a mixed-species nocturnal mammal exhibit. We suggest that both food and sensory EE presented concurrently will maximize opportunities for naturalistic activity in all species. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Inuit Perspectives on Arctic Environmental Change': A Traveling Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, E. M.; Hakala, J. S.; Gearheard, S.

    2006-12-01

    The Inuit of Nunavut, Canada, have an intimate relationship with their surroundings. As a culture that relies on knowledge of sea ice, snow, and weather conditions for success in hunting, fishing, and healthy wellbeing, Inuit have observed and studied environmental patterns for generations. An ongoing study into their traditional knowledge and their observations of environmental change is being conducted by researcher Dr. Shari Gearheard, who has worked with Inuit communities in Nunavut for over a decade. The results of the research have been published in scientific journals, and to communicate the results to a broader audience, Dr. Gearheard designed an interactive CD-ROM displaying photographs, maps, and interview videos of Inuit Elders' perspectives on the changes they have witnessed. Receiving immediate popularity since its release in 2004, copies of `When the Weather is Uggianaqtuq: Inuit Observations of Environmental Change' have been distributed worldwide, to indigenous peoples, social science and climate change researchers, teachers, students, and the general public. To further disseminate the information contained on the CD-ROM, the National Snow and Ice Data Center and the Museum of Natural History, both of the University of Colorado, are partnering to create an exhibition which will open at the Museum during the International Polar Year in April 2008. The exhibit, tentatively titled `Inuit Perspectives on Arctic Environmental Change,' will feature photographs, graphics, and text in both English and Inuktitut describing environmental change in the North. The goals are to make the information and interpretation contained on the CD-ROM available and more accessible to a broad audience and to raise awareness about Arctic climate change and the important contribution of Inuit knowledge. Following exhibition at the Museum, the exhibit will travel throughout the United States, Alaska, and Nunavut, through a network of museums, schools, libraries, tribal

  10. Assessing the User Resistance to Recommender Systems in Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Chulmo Koo; Namho Chung; Juyeon Ham

    2017-01-01

    Under the paradigm shift toward smart tourism, the exhibition industry is making efforts to introduce innovative technologies that can provide more diverse and valuable experiences to attendees. However, various new information technologies have failed in a market in practice due to the user’s resistance against it. Since innovative technology, such as booth recommender systems (BRS), is changing, creating uncertainty among consumers, consumer’s resistance to innovative technology can be cons...

  11. System for automatic detection of lung nodules exhibiting growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Carol L.; Shen, Hong; Odry, Benjamin L.; Ko, Jane P.; Naidich, David P.

    2004-05-01

    Lung nodules that exhibit growth over time are considered highly suspicious for malignancy. We present a completely automated system for detection of growing lung nodules, using initial and follow-up multi-slice CT studies. The system begins with automatic detection of lung nodules in the later CT study, generating a preliminary list of candidate nodules. Next an automatic system for registering locations in two studies matches each candidate in the later study to its corresponding position in the earlier study. Then a method for automatic segmentation of lung nodules is applied to each candidate and its matching location, and the computed volumes are compared. The output of the system is a list of nodule candidates that are new or have exhibited volumetric growth since the previous scan. In a preliminary test of 10 patients examined by two radiologists, the automatic system identified 18 candidates as growing nodules. 7 (39%) of these corresponded to validated nodules or other focal abnormalities that exhibited growth. 4 of the 7 true detections had not been identified by either of the radiologists during their initial examinations of the studies. This technique represents a powerful method of surveillance that may reduce the probability of missing subtle or early malignant disease.

  12. “Draw me a physicist” exhibition opens

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    From 12 to 23 June, the Globe of Science and Innovation will be hosting the “Draw me a physicist” exhibition: over 160 drawings and definitions that illustrate how children see the world of research.   In a child’s imagination, scientists are colourful, slightly eccentric figures with unusual powers. This is what emerges from the exhibition on the second floor of the Globe of Science and Innovation, opening on 12 June. “Draw me a physicist” brings together 160 drawings and definitions by children about the profession of research scientist. The exhibition is the result of a six-month project by CERN and 20 primary school classes from the Pays de Gex and the communes of Meyrin, Satigny and Vernier. Some 400 schoolchildren aged 9 to 11 were asked in class to make drawings and come up with definitions of a physicist. Subsequently they came to CERN, visited one of the Laboratory’s sites, and met and interviewed some physicists. They used t...

  13. Exhibition: Life and Achievements of Maria Sklodowska-Curie

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The exhibition "Life and Achievements of Maria Sklodowska-Curie” will be held at CERN (Pas Perdus Corridor, 1st floor, building 61) from the 8 to 24 March.   It is organised under the auspices of the Ambassador R. Henczel, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Poland to the UN Office at Geneva to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry given to Maria Sklodowska-Curie. The exhibition is also one of the events celebrating the 20th anniversary of Poland joining CERN as a Member State. Maria Sklodowska-Curie, Nobel Prize winner both in physics and chemistry, is one of the greatest scientists of Polish origin. The exhibition, consisting of 20 posters, presents her not only as a brilliant scientist, but also an exceptional woman of great heart, character and organizational talents, sensitive to contemporary problems. The authors are Mrs M. Sobieszczak-Marciniak, the director of the Maria Sklodowska-Curie Museum in Warsaw and Mrs H. Krajewska, the direct...

  14. NIC (Nuclear Industry in China) exhibition. Press file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Framatome participated to the NIC exhibition which took place in Beijing (China) on March 1998. This press dossier was distributed to visitors. It presents in a first part the activities of the Framatome group in people's republic of China (new constructions (Daya Bay, Ling Ao project), technological cooperation and contracts in the nuclear domain, technology transfers in the domain of nuclear fuels, activities and daughter companies in the domain of industrial equipments, Framatome Connectors International (FCI) daughter company in the domain of connectors engineering). Then, the general activities of Framatome in the nuclear, industrial equipment, and connectors engineering domains are summarized in the next 3 parts. (J.S.)

  15. Inauguration of the Exhibition of the VolMeur collection

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Meur, Jean-Yves

    2018-01-01

    Several hundred slide photos of CERN, created in the 1980s for the Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP) have not survived the ravages of time. They have deteriorated so badly that it is often impossible to tell what they are supposed to show. But, in doing so, they have become abstract canvases, true works of art. A dozen of these amazing images have been revealed in CERN Main Building on the 29th of January 2018 and are exhibited up to 9th of February.

  16. Exchange rate policy when the labour market exhibits hysteresis

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Frank

    1994-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of exchange rate shocks in a small open economy whose labor market exhibits hysteresis. The model is used to highlight deficiencies in the response of the Irish authorities to exchange rate crisis of 1992/93. A secondary purpose of the paper, though, is to induce those who accept that the Irish labour market is characterised by hysteresis but who reject the argument made here that a more aggressive devaluation should have been pursued, to spell out the labour-m...

  17. Chimpanzees and bonobos exhibit emotional responses to decision outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra G Rosati

    Full Text Available The interface between cognition, emotion, and motivation is thought to be of central importance in understanding complex cognitive functions such as decision-making and executive control in humans. Although nonhuman apes have complex repertoires of emotional expression, little is known about the role of affective processes in ape decision-making. To illuminate the evolutionary origins of human-like patterns of choice, we investigated decision-making in humans' closest phylogenetic relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and bonobos (Pan paniscus. In two studies, we examined these species' temporal and risk preferences, and assessed whether apes show emotional and motivational responses in decision-making contexts. We find that (1 chimpanzees are more patient and more risk-prone than are bonobos, (2 both species exhibit affective and motivational responses following the outcomes of their decisions, and (3 some emotional and motivational responses map onto species-level and individual-differences in decision-making. These results indicate that apes do exhibit emotional responses to decision-making, like humans. We explore the hypothesis that affective and motivational biases may underlie the psychological mechanisms supporting value-based preferences in these species.

  18. Exhibition | CERN Micro Club | 1-30 September

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The CERN Micro Club (CMC) is organising an exhibition looking back on the origins of the personal computer, also known as the micro-computer, to mark the 60th anniversary of CERN and the club’s own 30th anniversary.   CERN, Building 567, R-021 and R-029 01.09.2014 - 30.09.2014 from 4.00 to 6.00 p.m. The exhibition will be held in the club’s premises (Building 567, rooms R-0121 and R-029) and will be open Mondays to Thursdays from 1 to 30 September 2014. Come and admire, touch and use makes and models that disappeared from the market many years ago, such as Atari, Commodore, Olivetti, DEC, IBM and Apple II and III, all in good working order and installed with applications and games from the period. Club members will be on hand to tell you about these early computers, which had memories of just of a few kilobytes, whereas those of modern computers can reach several gigabytes or even terabytes.

  19. Industrial Exhibition “11th Germany at CERN“

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department

    2010-01-01

    Administration Building (Bldg. 60/61) Tuesday 25 January: 11a.m. - 5.30 p.m. Wednesday 26 January: 9 a.m. - 5 p.m. The Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), together with CERN, will hold the Industrial Exhibition “11th Germany at CERN”. Some 30 German companies will present their latest products/technologies related to the field of particle physics and their services to the scientists and buyers of CERN, establish contacts and find out about future purchasing opportunities. On 25 January, Dr. B. Vierkorn-Rudolph of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research and CERN Director-General, Prof. R. D. Heuer, will open the exhibition, followed by a tour of the stands. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, informatics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies, instrumentation and safety. CERN staff wishing to obtain information concerning the programme, the exhibitors and their profiles or to get in contact with exhibitors are r...

  20. Industrial Exhibition “11th Germany at CERN“

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department

    2011-01-01

    Administration Building (Bldg. 60/61) Tuesday 25 January: 11a.m. - 5.30 p.m. Wednesday 26 January: 9 a.m. - 5 p.m. The Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), together with CERN, will hold the Industrial Exhibition “11th Germany at CERN”. Some 30 German companies will present their latest products/technologies related to the field of particle physics and their services to the scientists and buyers of CERN, establish contacts and find out about future purchasing opportunities. On 25 January, Dr. B. Vierkorn-Rudolph of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research and CERN Director-General, Prof. R. D. Heuer, will open the exhibition, followed by a tour of the stands. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, informatics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies, instrumentation and safety. CERN staff wishing to obtain information concerning the programme, the exhibitors and their profiles or to get in contact with exhibitors are ...

  1. A more modern look for the Council Chamber exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    When the Council Chamber was renovated, the old photographs displayed on the walls were taken down... they've now been replaced by new panels printed on Plexiglas. The theme of the exhibition is still the history of CERN, but it now features the very latest from graphic design. Fabienne Marcastel, who designed it, tells us more. Two of the new panels recently installed in the Council Chamber. The presentation is simple and elegant. The content is based essentially on the accelerators and the aim of the graphic design is not to attract the public's attention to the panels but rather to provide a pleasant décor for the Chamber's users. "The old photographs stopped at the LEP. The new panels show the history of CERN but also what the Laboratory is like today. Visually, the plan is the starting point, the key to understanding how CERN has changed. It shows how CERN occupies the land it is built on," explains Fabienne Marcastel, the exhibition's graphic designer. The four panels a...

  2. Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Coleus amboinicus Lour Exhibited Antimicrobial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Puji; Sudarsono, Sudarsono; Nisak, Khoirun; Nugroho, Giri Wisnu

    2014-12-01

    Coleus amboinicus is a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat various diseases such as throat infection, cough and fever, diarrhea, nasal congestion and digestive problems. The plant was explored for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents. Screening for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents was conducted using agar plug method and antimicrobial activity of promising ethyl acetate extracts was determined by disc diffusion assay. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) - bioautography was performed to localize the bioactive components within the extract. TLC visualization detection reagents were used to preliminary analyze phytochemical groups of the bioactive compounds. Three endophytic fungi were obtained, two of them showed promising potential. Agar diffusion method showed that endophytic fungi CAL-2 exhibited antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, S. aureus and S. thypi, whilst CAS-1 inhibited the growth of B. subtilis. TLC bioautography of ethyl acetate extract of CAL-2 revealed at least three bands exhibited antimicrobial activity and at least two bands showed inhibition of B. subtilis growth. Preliminary analysis of the crude extracts suggests that bioactive compounds within CAL-2 extract are terpenoids, phenolics and phenyl propanoid compounds whilst the antimicrobial agents within CAS-1 extract are terpenoids, propylpropanoids, alkaloids or heterocyclic nitrogen compounds. These data suggest the potential of endophytic fungi of C. amboinicus as source for antimicrobial agents.

  3. Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Coleus amboinicus Lour Exhibited Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puji Astuti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Coleus amboinicus is a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat various diseases such as throat infection, cough and fever, diarrhea, nasal congestion and digestive problems. The plant was explored for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents. Methods: Screening for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents was conducted using agar plug method and antimicrobial activity of promising ethyl acetate extracts was determined by disc diffusion assay. Thin layer chromatography (TLC - bioautography was performed to localize the bioactive components within the extract. TLC visualization detection reagents were used to preliminary analyze phytochemical groups of the bioactive compounds. Results: Three endophytic fungi were obtained, two of them showed promising potential. Agar diffusion method showed that endophytic fungi CAL-2 exhibited antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, S. aureus and S. thypi, whilst CAS-1 inhibited the growth of B. subtilis. TLC bioautography of ethyl acetate extract of CAL-2 revealed at least three bands exhibited antimicrobial activity and at least two bands showed inhibition of B. subtilis growth. Preliminary analysis of the crude extracts suggests that bioactive compounds within CAL-2 extract are terpenoids, phenolics and phenyl propanoid compounds whilst the antimicrobial agents within CAS-1 extract are terpenoids, propylpropanoids, alkaloids or heterocyclic nitrogen compounds. Conclusion: These data suggest the potential of endophytic fungi of C. amboinicus as source for antimicrobial agents.

  4. Peer review and competition in the Art Exhibition Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balietti, Stefano; Goldstone, Robert L; Helbing, Dirk

    2016-07-26

    To investigate the effect of competitive incentives under peer review, we designed a novel experimental setup called the Art Exhibition Game. We present experimental evidence of how competition introduces both positive and negative effects when creative artifacts are evaluated and selected by peer review. Competition proved to be a double-edged sword: on the one hand, it fosters innovation and product diversity, but on the other hand, it also leads to more unfair reviews and to a lower level of agreement between reviewers. Moreover, an external validation of the quality of peer reviews during the laboratory experiment, based on 23,627 online evaluations on Amazon Mechanical Turk, shows that competition does not significantly increase the level of creativity. Furthermore, the higher rejection rate under competitive conditions does not improve the average quality of published contributions, because more high-quality work is also rejected. Overall, our results could explain why many ground-breaking studies in science end up in lower-tier journals. Differences and similarities between the Art Exhibition Game and scholarly peer review are discussed and the implications for the design of new incentive systems for scientists are explained.

  5. Smokers exhibit biased neural processing of smoking and affective images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jason A; Jentink, Kade G; Drobes, David J; Evans, David E

    2016-08-01

    There has been growing interest in the role that implicit processing of drug cues can play in motivating drug use behavior. However, the extent to which drug cue processing biases relate to the processing biases exhibited to other types of evocative stimuli is largely unknown. The goal of the present study was to determine how the implicit cognitive processing of smoking cues relates to the processing of affective cues using a novel paradigm. Smokers (n = 50) and nonsmokers (n = 38) completed a picture-viewing task, in which participants were presented with a series of smoking, pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral images while engaging in a distractor task designed to direct controlled resources away from conscious processing of image content. Electroencephalogram recordings were obtained throughout the task for extraction of event-related potentials (ERPs). Smokers exhibited differential processing of smoking cues across 3 different ERP indices compared with nonsmokers. Comparable effects were found for pleasant cues on 2 of these indices. Late cognitive processing of smoking and pleasant cues was associated with nicotine dependence and cigarette use. Results suggest that cognitive biases may extend across classes of stimuli among smokers. This raises important questions about the fundamental meaning of cognitive biases, and suggests the need to consider generalized cognitive biases in theories of drug use behavior and interventions based on cognitive bias modification. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Chimpanzees and bonobos exhibit divergent spatial memory development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Hare, Brian

    2012-11-01

    Spatial cognition and memory are critical cognitive skills underlying foraging behaviors for all primates. While the emergence of these skills has been the focus of much research on human children, little is known about ontogenetic patterns shaping spatial cognition in other species. Comparative developmental studies of nonhuman apes can illuminate which aspects of human spatial development are shared with other primates, versus which aspects are unique to our lineage. Here we present three studies examining spatial memory development in our closest living relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (P. paniscus). We first compared memory in a naturalistic foraging task where apes had to recall the location of resources hidden in a large outdoor enclosure with a variety of landmarks (Studies 1 and 2). We then compared older apes using a matched memory choice paradigm (Study 3). We found that chimpanzees exhibited more accurate spatial memory than bonobos across contexts, supporting predictions from these species' different feeding ecologies. Furthermore, chimpanzees - but not bonobos - showed developmental improvements in spatial memory, indicating that bonobos exhibit cognitive paedomorphism (delays in developmental timing) in their spatial abilities relative to chimpanzees. Together, these results indicate that the development of spatial memory may differ even between closely related species. Moreover, changes in the spatial domain can emerge during nonhuman ape ontogeny, much like some changes seen in human children. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Engagement In Climate Change Awareness Through Art Exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burko, D.

    2016-12-01

    Artists such as myself can influence the public discourse on climate change through compelling imagery transcending data and language. I will speak specifically to how I communicate scientific research to diverse populations by making those issues personal, visceral, and actionable.I began integrating scientific visual data into my aesthetic practice ten years ago by first utilizing archival evidence in the form of repeats, geological charts of recessional lines, graphs, symbols and Landsat maps. I continue to develop visual strategies delivering information on an emotional/non-verbal level. In the past 4 years, I have added the most dramatic layer to my creative process: bearing witness. I've been to the three largest ice fields in the world: Greenland, Antarctica and Argentina's Patagonia, observing the unprecedented pace of glacial melt. The emotional significance of actually being there as an artist is immense. Those expeditions impact my practice, leading to exhibitions that open a dialog with an audience not initially interested in science. In the past 5 years my work has appeared in 6 solo and 19 group exhibits all devoted to the environment. I make myself present in universities, museums and galleries to explain what the images are about. I require universities to include a public component: an all-college lecture or panel where the geography/environmental/sociology/geology departments participate with broad student involvement. I believe that such endeavors are worthwhile and can be models for further efforts to educate an unsuspecting audience. Artists can bridge the gap communicating to a public of art appreciators, nonscientists - how easy it is to understand geology and global warming. This social engagement can even inspire and result in attitudinal changes. A viewer's initial emotional response to my large paintings and photographs evolves into comprehension as a dialog about their content is revealed. By sharing my personal story about my

  8. Case study of virtual reality in CNC machine tool exhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao Yung-Chou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhibition and demonstration are generally used in the promotion and sale-assistance of manufactured products. However, the transportation cost of the real goods from the vender factory to the exposition venue is generally expensive for huge and heavy commodity. With the advancement of computing, graphics, mobile apps, and mobile hardware the 3D visibility technology is getting more and more popular to be adopted in visual-assisted communication such as amusement games. Virtual reality (VR technology has therefore being paid great attention in emulating expensive small and/or huge and heavy equipment. Virtual reality can be characterized as 3D extension with Immersion, Interaction and Imagination. This paper was then be focused on the study of virtual reality in the assistance of CNC machine tool demonstration and exhibition. A commercial CNC machine tool was used in this study to illustrate the effectiveness and usability of using virtual reality for an exhibition. The adopted CNC machine tool is a large and heavy mill-turn machine with the width up to eleven meters and weighted about 35 tons. A head-mounted display (HMD was attached to the developed VR CNC machine tool for the immersion viewing. A user can see around the 3D scene of the large mill-turn machine and the operation of the virtual CNC machine can be actuated by bare hand. Coolant was added to demonstrate more realistic operation while collision detection function was also added to remind the operator. The developed VR demonstration system has been presented in the 2017 Taipei International Machine Tool Show (TIMTOS 2017. This case study has shown that young engineers and/or students are very impressed by the VR-based demonstration while elder persons could not adapt themselves easily to the VR-based scene because of eyesight issues. However, virtual reality has successfully being adopted and integrated with the CNC machine tool in an international show. Another machine tool on

  9. Development of constitutive model for composites exhibiting time dependent properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupure, L; Joffe, R; Varna, J; Nyström, B

    2013-01-01

    Regenerated cellulose fibres and their composites exhibit highly nonlinear behaviour. The mechanical response of these materials can be successfully described by the model developed by Schapery for time-dependent materials. However, this model requires input parameters that are experimentally determined via large number of time-consuming tests on the studied composite material. If, for example, the volume fraction of fibres is changed we have a different material and new series of experiments on this new material are required. Therefore the ultimate objective of our studies is to develop model which determines the composite behaviour based on behaviour of constituents of the composite. This paper gives an overview of problems and difficulties, associated with development, implementation and verification of such model

  10. Two-dimensional colloidal fluids exhibiting pattern formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Blesson; Chalmers, Christopher; Archer, Andrew J

    2015-12-28

    Fluids with competing short range attraction and long range repulsive interactions between the particles can exhibit a variety of microphase separated structures. We develop a lattice-gas (generalised Ising) model and analyse the phase diagram using Monte Carlo computer simulations and also with density functional theory (DFT). The DFT predictions for the structures formed are in good agreement with the results from the simulations, which occur in the portion of the phase diagram where the theory predicts the uniform fluid to be linearly unstable. However, the mean-field DFT does not correctly describe the transitions between the different morphologies, which the simulations show to be analogous to micelle formation. We determine how the heat capacity varies as the model parameters are changed. There are peaks in the heat capacity at state points where the morphology changes occur. We also map the lattice model onto a continuum DFT that facilitates a simplification of the stability analysis of the uniform fluid.

  11. Liposomal nanoparticles encapsulating iloprost exhibit enhanced vasodilation in pulmonary arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain PP

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pritesh P Jain,1 Regina Leber,1,2 Chandran Nagaraj,1 Gerd Leitinger,3 Bernhard Lehofer,4 Horst Olschewski,1,5 Andrea Olschewski,1,6 Ruth Prassl,1,4 Leigh M Marsh11Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Lung Vascular Research, 2Biophysics Division, Institute of Molecular Biosciences, University of Graz, 3Research Unit Electron Microscopic Techniques, Institute of Cell Biology, Histology, and Embryology, 4Institute of Biophysics, 5Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, 6Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, AustriaAbstract: Prostacyclin analogues are standard therapeutic options for vasoconstrictive diseases, including pulmonary hypertension and Raynaud’s phenomenon. Although effective, these treatment strategies are expensive and have several side effects. To improve drug efficiency, we tested liposomal nanoparticles as carrier systems. In this study, we synthesized liposomal nanoparticles tailored for the prostacyclin analogue iloprost and evaluated their pharmacologic efficacy on mouse intrapulmonary arteries, using a wire myograph. The use of cationic lipids, stearylamine, or 1,2-di-(9Z-octadecenoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP in liposomes promoted iloprost encapsulation to at least 50%. The addition of cholesterol modestly reduced iloprost encapsulation. The liposomal nanoparticle formulations were tested for toxicity and pharmacologic efficacy in vivo and ex vivo, respectively. The liposomes did not affect the viability of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Compared with an equivalent concentration of free iloprost, four out of the six polymer-coated liposomal formulations exhibited significantly enhanced vasodilation of mouse pulmonary arteries. Iloprost that was encapsulated in liposomes containing the polymer polyethylene glycol exhibited concentration-dependent relaxation of arteries. Strikingly, half the concentration of iloprost in liposomes elicited

  12. How Can Museum Exhibits Enhance Earthquake and Tsunami Hazard Resiliency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Creating a natural disaster-ready community requires interoperating scientific, technical, and social systems. In addition to the technical elements that need to be in place, communities and individuals need to be prepared to react when a natural hazard event occurs. Natural hazard awareness and preparedness training and education often takes place through informal learning at science centers and formal k-12 education programs as well as through awareness raising via strategically placed informational tsunami warning signs and placards. Museums and science centers are influential in raising science literacy within a community, however can science centers enhance earthquake and tsunami resiliency by providing hazard science content and preparedness exhibits? Museum docents and informal educators are uniquely situated within the community. They are transmitters and translators of science information to broad audiences. Through interaction with the public, docents are well positioned to be informants of the knowledge beliefs, and feelings of science center visitors. They themselves are life-long learners, both constantly learning from the museum content around them and sharing this content with visitors. They are also members of a community where they live. In-depth interviews with museum informal educators and docents were conducted at a science center in coastal Pacific Northwest. This region has a potential to be struck by a great 9+ Mw earthquake and subsequent tsunami. During the interviews, docents described how they applied learning from natural hazard exhibits at a science visitor center to their daily lives. During the individual interviews, the museum docents described their awareness (knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors) of natural hazards where they live and work, the feelings evoked as they learned about their hazard vulnerability, the extent to which they applied this learning and awareness to their lives, such as creating an evacuation plan, whether

  13. Green light for a permanent exhibition in the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    A donation to the Foundation for the Globe of Science and Innovation by ROLEX S.A. marks the first step towards the planned expansion of the Globe’s infrastructure. The Globe: a CERN emblem.Visible from miles away by day and by night, the Globe, the wooden sphere offered to CERN by the Swiss Confederation in 2004, has become one of the symbols of the Organization. Since being opened to the public in September 2005, the Globe has served as a venue for lectures, exhibitions, press and VIP events and workshops for schoolchildren and as a stage for theatre performances on scientific themes. With a view to turning the Globe into a flagship venue for events for the general public, and for interactions between CERN and its public and private partners, two projects are planned for the near future. CERN is receiving support for these ventures from the Foundation for the Globe. Established at the end of 2007, the Foundation’s mission is to ...

  14. Piper betle extracts exhibit antitumor activity by augmenting antioxidant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Badrul; Majumder, Rajib; Akter, Shahina; Lee, Sang-Han

    2015-02-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves (MPBL) and its organic fractions with regard to antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice and to confirm their antioxidant activities. At 24 h post-intraperitoneal inoculation of tumor cells into mice, extracts were administered at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight for nine consecutive days. The antitumor effects of the extracts were then assessed according to tumor volume, packed cell count, viable and non-viable tumor cell count, median survival time and increase in life span of EAC-bearing mice. Next, hematological profiles and serum biochemical parameters were calculated, and antioxidant properties were assessed by estimating lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels. MPBL and the ethylacetate fraction (EPBL) at a dose of 100 mg/kg induced a significant decrease in tumor volume, packed cell volume and viable cell count and increased the life span of the EAC-bearing mice (PPiper betle extracts exhibit significant antitumor activity, which may be attributed to the augmentation of endogenous antioxidant potential.

  15. Bonobos and chimpanzees exhibit human-like framing effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupenye, Christopher; Rosati, Alexandra G.; Hare, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Humans exhibit framing effects when making choices, appraising decisions involving losses differently from those involving gains. To directly test for the evolutionary origin of this bias, we examined decision-making in humans' closest living relatives: bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We presented the largest sample of non-humans to date (n = 40) with a simple task requiring minimal experience. Apes made choices between a ‘framed’ option that provided preferred food, and an alternative option that provided a constant amount of intermediately preferred food. In the gain condition, apes experienced a positive ‘gain’ event in which the framed option was initially presented as one piece of food but sometimes was augmented to two. In the loss condition, apes experienced a negative ‘loss' event in which they initially saw two pieces but sometimes received only one. Both conditions provided equal pay-offs, but apes chose the framed option more often in the positive ‘gain’ frame. Moreover, male apes were more susceptible to framing than were females. These results suggest that some human economic biases are shared through common descent with other apes and highlight the importance of comparative work in understanding the origins of individual differences in human choice. PMID:25672997

  16. Metformin exhibits preventive and therapeutic efficacy against experimental cystic echinococcosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Julia A.; Dávila, Valeria A.; Rodrígues, Christian R.; Petrigh, Romina; Zoppi, Jorge A.; Crocenzi, Fernando A.; Cumino, Andrea C.

    2017-01-01

    Metformin (Met) is an anti-hyperglycemic and potential anti-cancer agent which may exert its anti-proliferative effects via the induction of energetic stress. In this study we investigated the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of Met against the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. Metformin showed significant dose- and time-dependent killing effects on in vitro cultured protoscoleces and metacestodes. Notably, the combination of Met together with the minimum effective concentration of ABZSO had a synergistic effect after days 3 and 12 on metacestodes and protoscoleces, respectively. Oral administration of Met (50 mg/kg/day) in E. granulosus-infected mice was highly effective in reducing the weight and number of parasite cysts, yet its combination with the lowest recommended dose of ABZ (5 mg/kg/day) was even more effective. Coincidentally, intracystic Met accumulation was higher in animals treated with both drugs compared to those administered Met alone. Furthermore, the safe plant-derived drug Met exhibited remarkable chemopreventive properties against secondary hydatidosis in mice. In conclusion, based on our experimental data, Met emerges as a promising anti-echinococcal drug as it has proven to efficiently inhibit the development and growth of the E. granulosus larval stage and its combination with ABZ may improve the current anti-parasitic therapy. PMID:28182659

  17. Metformin exhibits preventive and therapeutic efficacy against experimental cystic echinococcosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A Loos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Metformin (Met is an anti-hyperglycemic and potential anti-cancer agent which may exert its anti-proliferative effects via the induction of energetic stress. In this study we investigated the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of Met against the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. Metformin showed significant dose- and time-dependent killing effects on in vitro cultured protoscoleces and metacestodes. Notably, the combination of Met together with the minimum effective concentration of ABZSO had a synergistic effect after days 3 and 12 on metacestodes and protoscoleces, respectively. Oral administration of Met (50 mg/kg/day in E. granulosus-infected mice was highly effective in reducing the weight and number of parasite cysts, yet its combination with the lowest recommended dose of ABZ (5 mg/kg/day was even more effective. Coincidentally, intracystic Met accumulation was higher in animals treated with both drugs compared to those administered Met alone. Furthermore, the safe plant-derived drug Met exhibited remarkable chemopreventive properties against secondary hydatidosis in mice. In conclusion, based on our experimental data, Met emerges as a promising anti-echinococcal drug as it has proven to efficiently inhibit the development and growth of the E. granulosus larval stage and its combination with ABZ may improve the current anti-parasitic therapy.

  18. Pigeons Exhibit Contextual Cueing to Both Simple and Complex Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Edward A.; Teng, Yuejia; Castro, Leyre

    2014-01-01

    Repeated pairings of a particular visual context with a specific location of a target stimulus facilitate target search in humans. We explored an animal model of this contextual cueing effect using a novel Cueing-Miscueing design. Pigeons had to peck a target which could appear in one of four possible locations on four possible color backgrounds or four possible color photographs of real-world scenes. On 80% of the trials, each of the contexts was uniquely paired with one of the target locations; on the other 20% of the trials, each of the contexts was randomly paired with the remaining target locations. Pigeons came to exhibit robust contextual cueing when the context preceded the target by 2 s, with reaction times to the target being shorter on correctly-cued trials than on incorrectly-cued trials. Contextual cueing proved to be more robust with photographic backgrounds than with uniformly colored backgrounds. In addition, during the context-target delay, pigeons predominately pecked toward the location of the upcoming target, suggesting that attentional guidance contributes to contextual cueing. These findings confirm the effectiveness of animal models of contextual cueing and underscore the important part played by associative learning in producing the effect. PMID:24491468

  19. Porcine CD38 exhibits prominent secondary NAD(+) cyclase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Kai Yiu; Leung, Christina F P; Graeff, Richard M; Lee, Hon Cheung; Hao, Quan; Kotaka, Masayo

    2016-03-01

    Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) mobilizes intracellular Ca(2+) stores and activates Ca(2+) influx to regulate a wide range of physiological processes. It is one of the products produced from the catalysis of NAD(+) by the multifunctional CD38/ADP-ribosyl cyclase superfamily. After elimination of the nicotinamide ring by the enzyme, the reaction intermediate of NAD(+) can either be hydrolyzed to form linear ADPR or cyclized to form cADPR. We have previously shown that human CD38 exhibits a higher preference towards the hydrolysis of NAD(+) to form linear ADPR while Aplysia ADP-ribosyl cyclase prefers cyclizing NAD(+) to form cADPR. In this study, we characterized the enzymatic properties of porcine CD38 and revealed that it has a prominent secondary NAD(+) cyclase activity producing cADPR. We also determined the X-ray crystallographic structures of porcine CD38 and were able to observe conformational flexibility at the base of the active site of the enzyme which allow the NAD(+) reaction intermediate to adopt conformations resulting in both hydrolysis and cyclization forming linear ADPR and cADPR respectively. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  20. Clinical Trichophyton rubrum Strain Exhibiting Primary Resistance to Terbinafine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Pranab K.; Leidich, Steven D.; Isham, Nancy; Leitner, Ingrid; Ryder, Neil S.; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.

    2003-01-01

    The in vitro antifungal susceptibilities of six clinical Trichophyton rubrum isolates obtained sequentially from a single onychomycosis patient who failed oral terbinafine therapy (250 mg/day for 24 weeks) were determined by broth microdilution and macrodilution methodologies. Strain relatedness was examined by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses. Data obtained from both broth micro- and macrodilution assays were in agreement and revealed that the six clinical isolates had greatly reduced susceptibilities to terbinafine. The MICs of terbinafine for these strains were >4 μg/ml, whereas they were terbinafine for all six strains were >128 μg/ml, whereas they were 0.0002 μg/ml for the reference strain. The MIC of terbinafine for the baseline strain (cultured at the initial screening visit and before therapy was started) was already 4,000-fold higher than normal, suggesting that this is a case of primary resistance to terbinafine. The results obtained by the broth macrodilution procedure revealed that the terbinafine MICs and MFCs for sequential isolates apparently increased during the course of therapy. RAPD analyses did not reveal any differences between the isolates. The terbinafine-resistant isolates exhibited normal susceptibilities to clinically available antimycotics including itraconazole, fluconazole, and griseofulvin. However, these isolates were fully cross resistant to several other known squalene epoxidase inhibitors, including naftifine, butenafine, tolnaftate, and tolciclate, suggesting a target-specific mechanism of resistance. This is the first confirmed report of terbinafine resistance in dermatophytes. PMID:12499173

  1. Senescent intervertebral disc cells exhibit perturbed matrix homeostasis phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Kevin; Patil, Prashanti; McGowan, Sara J; Niedernhofer, Laura J; Robbins, Paul D; Kang, James; Sowa, Gwendolyn; Vo, Nam

    2017-09-01

    Aging greatly increases the risk for intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) as a result of proteoglycan loss due to reduced synthesis and enhanced degradation of the disc matrix proteoglycan (PG). How disc matrix PG homeostasis becomes perturbed with age is not known. The goal of this study is to determine whether cellular senescence is a source of this perturbation. We demonstrated that disc cellular senescence is dramatically increased in the DNA repair-deficient Ercc1 -/Δ mouse model of human progeria. In these accelerated aging mice, increased disc cellular senescence is closely associated with the rapid loss of disc PG. We also directly examine PG homeostasis in oxidative damage-induced senescent human cells using an in vitro cell culture model system. Senescence of human disc cells treated with hydrogen peroxide was confirmed by growth arrest, senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, γH2AX foci, and acquisition of senescence-associated secretory phenotype. Senescent human disc cells also exhibited perturbed matrix PG homeostasis as evidenced by their decreased capacity to synthesize new matrix PG and enhanced degradation of aggrecan, a major matrix PG. of the disc. Our in vivo and in vitro findings altogether suggest that disc cellular senescence is an important driver of PG matrix homeostatic perturbation and PG loss. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Metallic Zinc Exhibits Optimal Biocompatibility for Bioabsorbable Endovascular Stents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Patrick K.; Guillory, Roger J.; Shearier, Emily R.; Seitz, Jan-Marten; Drelich, Jaroslaw; Bocks, Martin; Zhao, Feng; Goldman, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Although corrosion resistant bare metal stents are considered generally effective, their permanent presence in a diseased artery is an increasingly recognized limitation due to the potential for long-term complications. We previously reported that metallic zinc exhibited an ideal biocorrosion rate within murine aortas, thus raising the possibility of zinc as a candidate base material for endovascular stenting applications. This study was undertaken to further assess the arterial biocompatibility of metallic zinc. Metallic zinc wires were punctured and advanced into the rat abdominal aorta lumen for up to 6.5 months. This study demonstrated that metallic zinc did not provoke responses that often contribute to restenosis. Low cell densities and neointimal tissue thickness, along with tissue regeneration within the corroding implant, point to optimal biocompatibility of corroding zinc. Furthermore, the lack of progression in neointimal tissue thickness over 6.5 months or the presence of smooth muscle cells near the zinc implant suggest that the products of zinc corrosion may suppress the activities of inflammatory and smooth muscle cells. PMID:26249616

  3. The avian egg exhibits general allometric invariances in mechanical design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Jia-Yang; Chen, Pin-Yi; Yang, Da-Chang; Wu, Shang-Ping; Yen, An; Hsieh, Hsin-I

    2017-10-27

    The avian egg exhibits extraordinary diversity in size, shape and color, and has a key role in avian adaptive radiations. Despite extensive work, our understanding of the underlying principles that guide the "design" of the egg as a load-bearing structure remains incomplete, especially over broad taxonomic scales. Here we define a dimensionless number C, a function of egg weight, stiffness and dimensions, to quantify how stiff an egg is with respect to its weight after removing geometry-induced rigidity. We analyze eggs of 463 bird species in 36 orders across five orders of magnitude in body mass, and find that C number is nearly invariant for most species, including tiny hummingbirds and giant elephant birds. This invariance or "design guideline" dictates that evolutionary changes in shell thickness and Young's modulus, both contributing to shell stiffness, are constrained by changes in egg weight. Our analysis illuminates unique reproductive strategies of brood parasites, kiwis, and megapodes, and quantifies the loss of safety margin for contact incubation due to artificial selection and environmental toxins. Our approach provides a mechanistic framework for a better understanding of the mechanical design of the avian egg, and may provide clues to the evolutionary origin of contact incubation of amniote eggs.

  4. Exhibition Session of the exp.at’11 International Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cardoso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Man has been the humanity’s engineer for ages - human knowledge has been continuously built on conceptualization based on constant learning by doing activities. The observation and understanding of concepts and principles in action are the bases of the experimental activity leading to the correlation between reality and theory. Experimental activities are really important, contributing to prepare the future engineers for solving practical problems and for consolidating theoretical understanding and volatile knowledge based on abstract concepts. Therefore, experimental activity has been an essential part of education and training for engineers and engineering scientists. exp.at’11 (the 1st Experiment@ International Conference has been the first event of a new International Conference Experiment@ series devoted to online experimentation, enlarging the world capabilities in this particular area and contributing to collaborative work in emergent technologies, bringing together engineers, researchers and professionals from different areas. In its Exhibition Session, participants demonstrated their systems within developments of educational, medical and industrial applications.

  5. Bonobos and chimpanzees exhibit human-like framing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupenye, Christopher; Rosati, Alexandra G; Hare, Brian

    2015-02-01

    Humans exhibit framing effects when making choices, appraising decisions involving losses differently from those involving gains. To directly test for the evolutionary origin of this bias, we examined decision-making in humans' closest living relatives: bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We presented the largest sample of non-humans to date (n = 40) with a simple task requiring minimal experience. Apes made choices between a 'framed' option that provided preferred food, and an alternative option that provided a constant amount of intermediately preferred food. In the gain condition, apes experienced a positive 'gain' event in which the framed option was initially presented as one piece of food but sometimes was augmented to two. In the loss condition, apes experienced a negative 'loss' event in which they initially saw two pieces but sometimes received only one. Both conditions provided equal pay-offs, but apes chose the framed option more often in the positive 'gain' frame. Moreover, male apes were more susceptible to framing than were females. These results suggest that some human economic biases are shared through common descent with other apes and highlight the importance of comparative work in understanding the origins of individual differences in human choice. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. 77 FR 4614 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Children of the Plumed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... Ancient Mexico,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural... also determine that the exhibition or display of the exhibit objects at the Los Angeles County Museum... exhibition or display of the exhibit at the Dallas Museum of Art, Dallas, TX from on or about July 29, 2012...

  7. 7th IGRSM International Remote Sensing & GIS Conference and Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Abdul Rashid Mohamed

    2014-06-01

    IGRSM This proceedings consists of the peer-reviewed papers from the 7th IGRSM International Conference and Exhibition on Remote Sensing & GIS (IGRSM 2014), which was held on 21-22 April 2014 at Berjaya Times Square Hotel, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The conference, with the theme Geospatial Innovation for Nation Building was aimed at disseminating knowledge, and sharing expertise and experiences in geospatial sciences in all aspects of applications. It also aimed to build linkages between local and international professionals in this field with industries. Highlights of the conference included: Officiation by Y B Datuk Dr Abu Bakar bin Mohamad Diah, Deputy Minister of Minister of Science, Technology & Innovation Keynote presentations by: Associate Professor Dr Francis Harvey, Chair of the Geographic Information Science Commission at the International Geographical Union (IGU) and Director of U-Spatial, University of Minnesota, US: The Next Age of Discovery and a Future in a Post-GIS World. Professor Dr Naoshi Kondo, Bio-Sensing Engineering, University of Kyoto, Japan: Mobile Fruit Grading Machine for Precision Agriculture. Datuk Ir Hj Ahmad Jamalluddin bin Shaaban, Director-General, National Hydraulic Research Institute of Malaysia (NAHRIM), Malaysia: Remote Sensing & GIS in Climate Change Analyses. Oral and poster presentations from 69 speakers, from both Malaysia (35) and abroad (34), covering areas of water resources management, urban sprawl & social mobility, agriculture, land use/cover mapping, infrastructure planning, disaster management, technology trends, environmental monitoring, atmospheric/temperature monitoring, and space applications for the environment. Post-conference workshops on: Space Applications for Environment (SAFE), which was be organised by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Global Positioning System (GPS) Receiver Evaluation Using GPS Simulation, which was be organised by the Science & Technology Research Institute for Defence

  8. Belongings: Oral History, Objects and an Online Exhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis Wilton

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The New South Wales Migration Heritage Centre was established in 1998. Since 2003 its physical presence has been located within Sydney’s Powerhouse Museum and it has had the strategic brief to record the memories of ageing migrants before their stories are lost. The Centre is, however, a museum without a collection; a heritage authority without heritage sites; a cultural institution whose main presence is in cyberspace. Among its high profile projects is one entitled Objects through time and another Belongings. Both focus on the ways in which objects can convey aspects of the migration experience. Belongings, the focus of this article, presents the remembered experiences of people who migrated to Australia after World War II, and seeks to highlight significant features of their experiences through asking them to share their memories and to nominate and talk about significant objects. As a project it grew out of movable heritage policy work within state government agencies, and its initiators – John Petersen, Kylie Winkworth and Meredith Walker – were central players in this development. It was also inspired by the National Quilt Register of the Pioneer Women’s Hut at Tumbarumba. With its object-centred approach and accompanying edited interview transcripts, Belongings provides a focus for exploring the messages and emphases that emerge when oral history interviews concerned with migration have the specific brief to ask about material culture and its significance. Belongings also enables an exploration of the layering of those messages that emerges when object captions are located back in the context of the oral history interviews from which they were extracted. As a virtual exhibition, Belongings also provides the opportunity to consider the challenges for museums (virtual and real when they need to condense the richness of migrant oral histories and life stories to captioned objects that can be put on display.

  9. Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola exhibit metabolic symbioses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheng H Tan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola are strongly associated with chronic periodontitis. These bacteria have been co-localized in subgingival plaque and demonstrated to exhibit symbiosis in growth in vitro and synergistic virulence upon co-infection in animal models of disease. Here we show that during continuous co-culture a P. gingivalis:T. denticola cell ratio of 6∶1 was maintained with a respective increase of 54% and 30% in cell numbers when compared with mono-culture. Co-culture caused significant changes in global gene expression in both species with altered expression of 184 T. denticola and 134 P. gingivalis genes. P. gingivalis genes encoding a predicted thiamine biosynthesis pathway were up-regulated whilst genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis were down-regulated. T. denticola genes encoding virulence factors including dentilisin and glycine catabolic pathways were significantly up-regulated during co-culture. Metabolic labeling using 13C-glycine showed that T. denticola rapidly metabolized this amino acid resulting in the production of acetate and lactate. P. gingivalis may be an important source of free glycine for T. denticola as mono-cultures of P. gingivalis and T. denticola were found to produce and consume free glycine, respectively; free glycine production by P. gingivalis was stimulated by T. denticola conditioned medium and glycine supplementation of T. denticola medium increased final cell density 1.7-fold. Collectively these data show P. gingivalis and T. denticola respond metabolically to the presence of each other with T. denticola displaying responses that help explain enhanced virulence of co-infections.

  10. Health-promoting properties exhibited by Lactobacillus helveticus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypczak, Katarzyna; Gustaw, Waldemar; Waśko, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Many strains belonging to lactobacilli exert a variety of beneficial health effects in humans and some of the bacteria are regarded as probiotic microorganisms. Adherence and capabilities of colonization by Lactobacillus strains of the intestinal tract is a prerequisite for probiotic strains to exhibit desired functional properties. The analysis conducted here aimed at screening strains of Lactobacillus helveticus possessing a health-promoting potential. The molecular analysis performed, revealed the presence of a slpA gene encoding the surface S-layer protein SlpA (contributing to the immunostimulatory activity of L. helveticus M 92 probiotic strain) in all B734, DSM, T80, and T105 strains. The product of gene amplification was also identified in a Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB12 probiotic strain. SDS-PAGE of a surface protein extract demonstrated the presence of a protein with a mass of about 50 kDa in all strains, which refers to the mass of the S-layer proteins. These results are confirmed by observations carried with transmission electron microscopy, where a clearly visible S-layer was registered in all the strains analyzed. The in vitro study results obtained indicate that the strongest adhesion capacity to epithelial cells (HT-29) was demonstrated by L. helveticus B734, while coaggregation with pathogens was highly diverse among the tested strains. The percentage degree of coaggregation was increasing with the incubation time. After 5 h of incubation, the strongest ability to coaggregate with Escherichia coli was expressed by T104. The T80 strain demonstrated a significant ability to co-aggregate with Staphylococcus aureus, while DSM with Bacillus subtilis. For B734, the highest values of co-aggregation coefficient was noted in samples with Salmonella. The capability of autoaggregation, antibiotic susceptibility, resistance to increasing salt concentrations, and strain survival in simulated small intestinal juice were also analyzed.

  11. Role of vitamin D3 active metabolites in the regulation of calcium metabolism in hypokinetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeev, I.N.; Afonin, B.V.; Blazhevich, N.V.

    1985-01-01

    The rats exposed to prolonged hypokinesia showed hypocalciemia, lower PTH and higher calcitonin concentrations in the serum, decreased calcium absorption in the small intestine, and a trend toward nephro- and arteriocalcinosis. Prophylactic administration of 24, 25-hydroxy D 3 , 1, 25-hydroxy D 3 and their combinations enhanced calcium absorption and alleviated hypocalciemia. The changes in the hormonal regulation of calcium homeostasis can be viewed as a factor responsible for calcium metabolic disorders associated with hypokinesia

  12. Gastric Antiulcerogenic and Hypokinetic Activities of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Humberto M. Nunes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxicity, the antioxidant activity, and the pharmacological activity on the gastrointestinal tract of rodents of the ethanolic extract (TFEE from the bark of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae and of its aqueous (TFAqF, hydroalcoholic (TFHAF, and hexanic (TFHEXF partition fractions have been evaluated. TFEE presented low acute toxicity, antioxidant, and antiulcerogenic activity against ethanol-induced ulcers, which was partially blocked by pretreatment with L-NAME and indomethacin. It reduced the total acidity and raised the pH of gastric secretion. Additionally, TFEE delayed gastric emptying and slightly inhibited the small intestinal transit and also presented a weakly antidiarrheal activity. The antiulcerogenic and antioxidant activity were also detected in TFAqF and TFHAF but not in TFHEXF. The antisecretory and gastroprotective activity of TFEE partially involve the nitric oxide and prostaglandin participation. Nevertheless, TFEE, TFAqF, and TFHAF drastically reduced the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall of rats treated with ethanol or indomethacin. Complementary studies are required in order to clarify the paradox of the presence of a gastroprotector activity in this plant that, at the same time, reduces the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall.

  13. An Interactive Exhibition about Animal Skeletons: Did the Visitors Learn Any Zoology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Laterveer-de Beer, Manon

    2002-01-01

    Explores museum visitors' understanding of skeleton exhibits and whether such exhibits increase their understanding of the zoology displayed. The exhibition under study focused on the diversity of vertebrae skeletons which were arranged according to the mode of locomotion. (DDR)

  14. 78 FR 5556 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Frida & Diego: Passion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8160] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Frida & Diego: Passion, Politics and Painting'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the... exhibition ``Frida & Diego: Passion, Politics and Painting,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition...

  15. 76 FR 23642 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Projects 95: Runa Islam”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7433] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Projects 95: Runa Islam'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations... the exhibition ``Projects 95: Runa Islam'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the...

  16. 76 FR 29286 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Pissarro's People”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7462] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Pissarro's People'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations: Pursuant... the exhibition ``Pissarro's People,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United...

  17. 78 FR 32000 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Before and After the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... Lakes,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural... also determine that the exhibition or display of the exhibit objects at the National Museum of the...

  18. 78 FR 51802 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Silla: Korea's Golden...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... Golden Kingdom,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural... determine that the exhibition or display of the exhibit objects at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York...

  19. 75 FR 38589 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Venice: Canaletto and His...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7072] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Venice: Canaletto and His Rivals'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following... exhibition ``Venice: Canaletto and His Rivals,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the...

  20. 78 FR 8682 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Henri Labrouste...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... exhibition or display of the exhibit objects at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York, from on or... abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural significance. The objects are...