Sample records for exhaust system components

  1. Response of selected plant and insect species to simulated SRM exhaust mixtures and to exhaust components from SRM fuels (United States)

    Heck, W. W.


    The possible biologic effects of exhaust products from solid rocket motor (SRM) burns associated with the space shuttle are examined. The major components of the exhaust that might have an adverse effect on vegetation, HCl and Al2O3 are studied. Dose response curves for native and cultivated plants and selected insects exposed to simulated exhaust and component chemicals from SRM exhaust are presented. A system for dispensing and monitoring component chemicals of SRM exhaust (HCl and Al2O3) and a system for exposing test plants to simulated SRM exhaust (controlled fuel burns) are described. The effects of HCl, Al2O3, and mixtures of the two on the honeybee, the corn earworm, and the common lacewing and the effects of simulated exhaust on the honeybee are discussed.

  2. EHMS: Exhaust Heat Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, T.; Schmidt, M.; Weinbrenner, M.; Geskes, P. [Behr GmbH und Co. KG, Stuttgart (Germany)


    Pollutant concentrations in diesel engines are reduced by cooling of the recirculated exhaust. This reduces emissions and particulate matter. The cooler technology can also be used for heating the passenger compartment faster and more economically. The authors present a model ready for seral production, including an exhaust flap for bypass control for use as auxiliary heating system. Further applications in gasoline engines are pointed out. (orig.)

  3. 49 CFR 325.91 - Exhaust systems. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 325.91 Section 325.91... EMISSION STANDARDS Exhaust Systems and Tires § 325.91 Exhaust systems. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 57193, Sept. 20, 2010. A motor vehicle does not conform to the visual exhaust system inspection...

  4. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 169.609 Section 169.609 Shipping COAST... Electrical Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 169.609 Exhaust systems. Engine exhaust installations... Yacht Council, Inc. Standard P-1, “Safe Installation of Exhaust Systems for Propulsion and Auxiliary...

  5. Exhaust System Reinforced by Jet Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Germann; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Since 1985 the University of Aalborg and Nordfab A/S have been working on an exhaust principle which is quite different from traditional exhaust systems. The REEXS principle (Reinforced Exhaust System), which originally was designed for the agricultural sector, is particularly well......-suited for industrial ventilation purposes. With the REEXS principle it is possible to create a flow pattern in front of the exhaust opening which will have a considerable influence on the general flow in a given room....

  6. 49 CFR 393.83 - Exhaust systems. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 393.83 Section 393.83... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.83 Exhaust systems. (a) Every motor... shall have a system to direct the discharge of such fumes. No part shall be located where its location...

  7. 40 CFR 90.407 - Engine inlet and exhaust systems. (United States)


    ... exhaust emission compliance over the full range of air inlet filter systems and exhaust muffler systems. (b) The air inlet filter system and exhaust muffler system combination used on the test engine must...

  8. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine (United States)

    Wu, Ko-Jen


    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  9. Air flow quality analysis of modenas engine exhaust system (United States)

    Shahriman A., B.; Mohamad Syafiq A., K.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Khairunizam W. A., N.; Hazry, D.; Afendi, Mohd; Daud, R.; Rahman, M. D. Tasyrif Abdul; Cheng, E. M.; Zaaba, S. K.


    The simulation process being conducted to determine the air flow effect between the original exhaust system and modified exhaust system. The simulations are conducted to investigate the flow distribution of exhaust gases that will affect the performance of the engine. The back flow pressure in the original exhaust system is predicted toward this simulation. The design modification to the exhaust port, exhaust pipe, and exhaust muffler has been done during this simulation to reduce the back flow effect. The new designs are introduced by enlarging the diameter of the exhaust port, enlarge the diameter of the exhaust pipe and created new design for the exhaust muffler. Based on the result obtained, there the pulsating flow form at the original exhaust port that will increase the velocity and resulting the back pressure occur. The result for new design of exhaust port, the velocity is lower at the valve guide in the exhaust port. New design muffler shows that the streamline of the exhaust flow move smoothly compare to the original muffler. It is proved by using the modification exhaust system, the back pressure are reduced and the engine performance can be improve.

  10. Engine with exhaust gas recirculation system and variable geometry turbocharger (United States)

    Keating, Edward J.


    An engine assembly includes an intake assembly, an internal combustion engine defining a plurality of cylinders and configured to combust a fuel and produce exhaust gas, and an exhaust assembly in fluid communication with a first subset of the plurality of cylinders. Each of the plurality of cylinders are provided in fluid communication with the intake assembly. The exhaust assembly is provided in fluid communication with a first subset of the plurality of cylinders, and a dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system in fluid communication with both a second subset of the plurality of cylinders and with the intake assembly. The dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system is configured to route all of the exhaust gas from the second subset of the plurality of cylinders to the intake assembly. Finally, the engine assembly includes a turbocharger having a variable geometry turbine in fluid communication with the exhaust assembly.

  11. The exhaust heat management system; Das Abgaswaerme-Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geskes, P.; Strauss, T. [Behr GmbH und Co., Stuttgart (Germany)


    Behr uses EGR coolers in its Exhaust Heat Management System (EHMS) to obtain exhaust enthalpy, helping to heat up the vehicle cabin faster, or to reduce the power train warm-up phase. In today's DI diesel and DI gasoline engines, auxiliary heating is essential to ensure thermal comfort, since fuel-efficient vehicles no longer transmit sufficient heat to the coolant. By modifying the internal engine combustion, which produces much higher exhaust temperatures, auxiliary heating by th exhaust heat can provide extremely high thermal output in conjunction with just a slight increase in fuel consumption. (orig.)

  12. 40 CFR 86.211-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.211-94 Section 86.211-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.211-94 Exhaust gas...

  13. The role of psychosocial working conditions on burnout and its core component emotional exhaustion - a systematic review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seidler, Andreas; Thinschmidt, Marleen; Deckert, Stefanie; Then, Francisca; Hegewald, Janice; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G


    To analyze the association between psychosocial working conditions and burnout and its core component emotional exhaustion, a systematic literature review was undertaken including cohort studies, case...

  14. Subscale Design of an NTP Engine Exhaust Containment System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A total containment NTP exhaust system has been conceptually engineered, however, since this a completely novel approach to address the numerous issues associated...

  15. On-line dynamic monitoring automotive exhausts: using BP-ANN for distinguishing multi-components (United States)

    Zhao, Yudi; Wei, Ruyi; Liu, Xuebin


    Remote sensing-Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (RS-FTIR) is one of the most important technologies in atmospheric pollutant monitoring. It is very appropriate for on-line dynamic remote sensing monitoring of air pollutants, especially for the automotive exhausts. However, their absorption spectra are often seriously overlapped in the atmospheric infrared window bands, i.e. MWIR (3 5μm). Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is an algorithm based on the theory of the biological neural network, which simplifies the partial differential equation with complex construction. For its preferable performance in nonlinear mapping and fitting, in this paper we utilize Back Propagation-Artificial Neural Network (BP-ANN) to quantitatively analyze the concentrations of four typical industrial automotive exhausts, including CO, NO, NO2 and SO2. We extracted the original data of these automotive exhausts from the HITRAN database, most of which virtually overlapped, and established a mixed multi-component simulation environment. Based on Beer-Lambert Law, concentrations can be retrieved from the absorbance of spectra. Parameters including learning rate, momentum factor, the number of hidden nodes and iterations were obtained when the BP network was trained with 80 groups of input data. By improving these parameters, the network can be optimized to produce necessarily higher precision for the retrieved concentrations. This BP-ANN method proves to be an effective and promising algorithm on dealing with multi-components analysis of automotive exhausts.

  16. Simulation enables complex exhaust system production processes; Simulation ermoeglicht komplexe Fertigungsprozesse von Abgasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzinger, L. [Tecnomatix GmbH, Neu-Isenburg (Germany)


    Arvon-Meritor, a global supplier of car systems and components based in Augsburg, use the eM-Workplace software for exhaust system development. The software was developed by Tecnomatix, a leading provider of solutions for manufacturing process management. (orig.)

  17. Response of selected plant and insect species to simulated solid rocket exhaust mixtures and to exhaust components from solid rocket fuels (United States)

    Heck, W. W.; Knott, W. M.; Stahel, E. P.; Ambrose, J. T.; Mccrimmon, J. N.; Engle, M.; Romanow, L. A.; Sawyer, A. G.; Tyson, J. D.


    The effects of solid rocket fuel (SRF) exhaust on selected plant and and insect species in the Merritt Island, Florida area was investigated in order to determine if the exhaust clouds generated by shuttle launches would adversely affect the native, plants of the Merritt Island Wildlife Refuge, the citrus production, or the beekeeping industry of the island. Conditions were simulated in greenhouse exposure chambers and field chambers constructed to model the ideal continuous stirred tank reactor. A plant exposure system was developed for dispensing and monitoring the two major chemicals in SRF exhaust, HCl and Al203, and for dispensing and monitoring SRF exhaust (controlled fuel burns). Plants native to Merritt Island, Florida were grown and used as test species. Dose-response relationships were determined for short term exposure of selected plant species to HCl, Al203, and mixtures of the two to SRF exhaust.

  18. Diesel engine management systems and components

    CERN Document Server


    This reference book provides a comprehensive insight into todays diesel injection systems and electronic control. It focusses on minimizing emissions and exhaust-gas treatment. Innovations by Bosch in the field of diesel-injection technology have made a significant contribution to the diesel boom. Calls for lower fuel consumption, reduced exhaust-gas emissions and quiet engines are making greater demands on the engine and fuel-injection systems. Contents History of the diesel engine.- Areas of use for diesel engines.- Basic principles of the diesel engine.- Fuels: Diesel fuel.- Fuels: Alternative fuels.- Cylinder-charge control systems.- Basic principles of diesel fuel-injection.- Overview of diesel fuel-injection systems.- Fuel supply to the low pressure stage.- Overview of discrete cylinder systems.- Unit injector system.- Unit pump system.- Overview of common-rail systems.- High pressure components of the common-rail system.- Injection nozzles.- Nozzle holders.- High pressure lines.- Start assist systems.-...

  19. A Low-Cost, Effective, Fumes Exhaust System. (United States)

    Jacobs, C. O.


    Discusses the importance of avoiding welding fumes. The sources of these fumes are presented in a table. Criticizes currently used ventilation systems and reviews the Occupational Safety and Health Act requirements. Describes a low-cost exhaust system developed for agricultural mechanics laboratories. (LRA)

  20. Low exhaust temperature electrically heated particulate matter filter system (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN


    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, a sensor, a heating element, and a control module. The PM filter includes with an upstream end that receives exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. The sensor detects a temperature of the exhaust gas. The control module controls current to the heating element to convection heat one of the zones and initiate a regeneration process. The control module selectively increases current to the heating element relative to a reference regeneration current level when the temperature is less than a predetermined temperature.

  1. Capture efficiency measurement of pollutants over a workbench with the reinforced slot exhaust system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavelek M.


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the measurement of the capture efficiency of pollutants by the slot reinforced exhaust system situated in two positions over the workbench. The slot reinforced exhaust system, which is known as REEXS, is the traditional slot exhaust hood equipped with an air supply inlet that intensifies exhausting along the axis of the exhaust hood. It can operate in traditional or reinforced exhaust modes. Measurements were made for the same air velocity in the suction slot and with the different momentum flux ratio of supplied and exhausted air flow. The tracer gas method was used for the capture efficiency measurement of the system. As the tracer gas the carbon dioxide was chosen. The knowledge of the shape and range of the effective exhaust area for various configurations in front of the exhaust hood is important for the exhaust hood setting according to a source of pollutants.

  2. Electronic components and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, W H


    Electronic Components and Systems focuses on the principles and processes in the field of electronics and the integrated circuit. Covered in the book are basic aspects and physical fundamentals; different types of materials involved in the field; and passive and active electronic components such as capacitors, inductors, diodes, and transistors. Also covered in the book are topics such as the fabrication of semiconductors and integrated circuits; analog circuitry; digital logic technology; and microprocessors. The monograph is recommended for beginning electrical engineers who would like to kn

  3. Exhaust system for use with a turbine and method of assembling same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalsania, Prakash Bavanjibhai; Sadhu, Antanu


    An exhaust system for use with a steam turbine is provided. An exhaust hood includes an input and an output, the input receiving fluid from the steam turbine. The exhaust hood includes a first side wall that extends between the input and the output. The first side wall includes an aperture. An ejector is coupled to the exhaust hood. The ejector includes inlets and an outlet. At least one of the inlets receives fluid from the exhaust hood via the aperture.

  4. 40 CFR 90.413 - Exhaust sample procedure-gaseous components. (United States)


    ... percent of the final reading for the dilute exhaust sample. The ADC must store a single value representing... dictates that exhaust emission sample bag analyzer readings below 15 percent of full scale should generally... dilute exhaust sampling only) by the grab (“bag”) technique outlined in paragraph (c) of this section. (e...

  5. 30 CFR 36.46 - Explosion tests of intake and exhaust systems. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosion tests of intake and exhaust systems...-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.46 Explosion tests of intake and exhaust systems. (a) Explosion tests to determine the strength of the intake and exhaust systems to withstand internal...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Matulić


    Full Text Available This paper presents a new hybrid concept that increases the overall efficiency of the propulsion system on ships. The hybrid concept of the marine propulsion system was examined in 1D CFD internal combustion engine model where the turbine and compressor are not mechanically connected. Such a configuration makes possible different turbine designs than needed in the conventional turbocharger. The advantage is an increased recuperation of energy from exhaust gases. By means of computer simulation and optimization, this study proves that the hybrid concept significantly increases the propulsion system efficiency and lower emissions in maritime environment.

  7. Non-Thermal Plasma System Development for CIDI Exhaust Aftertreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balmer, M. Lou (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)); Tonkyn, Russell (Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BPNL)); Maupin, Gary; Yoon, Steven; Kolwaite, Ana (PNNL); Barlow, Stephen (BPNL); Domingo, Norberto; Storey, John M. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory); Hoard, John Wm. (Ford Research Laboratory); Howden, Ken (U.S. Dept. of Energy)


    There is a need for an efficient, durable technology to reduce NOx emissions from oxidative exhaust streams such as those produced by compression-ignition, direct injection (CIDI) diesel or lean-burn gasoline engines. A partnership formed between the DOE Office of Advanced Automotive Technology, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the USCAR Low Emission Technologies Research and Development Partnership is evaluating the effectiveness of a non-thermal plasma in conjunction with catalytic materials to mediate NOx and particulate emissions from diesel fueled light duty (CIDI) engines. Preliminary studies showed that plasma-catalyst systems could reduce up to 70% of NOx emissions at an equivalent cost of 3.5% of the input fuel in simulated diesel exhaust. These studies also showed that the type and concentration of hydrocarbon play a key role in both the plasma gas phase chemistry and the catalyst surface chemistry. More recently, plasma/catalyst systems have been evaluated for NOx reduction and particulate removal on a CIDI engine. Performance results for select plasma-catalyst systems for both simulated and actual CIDI exhaust will be presented. The effect of NOx and hydrocarbon concentration on plasma-catalyst performance will also be shown. SAE Paper SAE-2000-01-1601 {copyright} 2000 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.

  8. Aircraft Fuel, Fuel Metering, Induction and Exhaust Systems (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics (Power Plant): 9057.02. (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help the trainee gain the skills and knowledge necessary to become an aviation powerplant mechanic. The course outlines the theory of operation of various fuel systems, fuel metering, induction, and exhaust system components with an emphasis on troubleshooting, maintenance, and…

  9. Verifying Embedded Systems using Component-based Runtime Observers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Wei; Marian, Nicolae; Angelov, Christo K.

    Formal verification methods, such as exhaustive model checking, are often infeasible because of high computational complexity. Runtime observers (monitors) provide an alternative, light-weight verification method, which offers a non-exhaustive yet feasible approach to monitoring system behavior...... specified properties via simulation. The presented method has been experimentally validated in an industrial case study---a control system for a safety-critical medical ventilator unit....... against formally specified properties. This paper presents a component-based design method for runtime observers, which are configured from instances of prefabricated reusable components---Predicate Evaluator (PE) and Temporal Evaluator (TE). The PE computes atomic propositions for the TE; the latter...

  10. The role of psychosocial working conditions on burnout and its core component emotional exhaustion – a systematic review (United States)


    Aims To analyze the association between psychosocial working conditions and burnout and its core component emotional exhaustion, a systematic literature review was undertaken including cohort studies, case–control studies, and randomized controlled trials. Methods The literature search in Medline and PsycInfo was based on a defined search string and strict exclusion and inclusion criteria. Evaluation of the 5,599 initially identified search hits by two independent reviewers and a detailed quality assessment resulted in six methodologically adequate cohort studies considering the relationship between psychosocial working conditions and burnout (one study) as well as the burnout core component emotional exhaustion (five studies). Results The results of our systematic review point to a relationship between psychosocial working conditions and the development of emotional exhaustion/burnout. Particularly high job demands seem to play a role in the development of emotional exhaustion. However, strong intercorrelations between workplace factors, as a matter of principle, make the identification of a single psychosocial workplace factor (being associated with an especially high or low risk of burnout) difficult. Conclusions Multidimensional approaches including reduction of work demands, enhancement of decision latitude and improving the social climate might be promising for preventing burnout and emotional exhaustion. However, methodologically adequate intervention studies are urgently needed to prove the effectiveness of workplace interventions. PMID:24628839

  11. Noise Measurements of High Aspect Ratio Distributed Exhaust Systems (United States)

    Bridges, James E.


    This paper covers far-field acoustic measurements of a family of rectangular nozzles with aspect ratio 8, in the high subsonic flow regime. Several variations of nozzle geometry, commonly found in embedded exhaust systems, are explored, including bevels, slants, single broad chevrons and notches, and internal septae. Far-field acoustic results, presented previously for the simple rectangular nozzle, showed that increasing aspect ratio increases the high frequency noise, especially directed in the plane containing the minor axis of the nozzle. Detailed changes to the nozzle geometry generally made little difference in the noise, and the differences were greatest at low speed. Having an extended lip on one broad side (bevel) did produce up to 3 decibels more noise in all directions, while extending the lip on the narrow side (slant) produced up to 2 decibels more noise, primarily on the side with the extension. Adding a single, non-intrusive chevron, made no significant change to the noise, while inverting the chevron (notch) produced up to 2decibels increase in the noise. Having internal walls (septae) within the nozzle, such as would be required for structural support or when multiple fan ducts are aggregated, reduced the noise of the rectangular jet, but could produce a highly directional shedding tone from the septae trailing edges. Finally, a nozzle with both septae and a beveled nozzle, representative of the exhaust system envisioned for a distributed electric propulsion aircraft with a common rectangular duct, produced almost as much noise as the beveled nozzle, with the septae not contributing much reduction in noise.

  12. Component restraint system (United States)

    Blake, John C.


    An object restraint system is provided with a collar for gripping the object and a plurality of struts attached to the collar and to anchor means by universal-type joints, the struts being arranged in tangential relation about the collar.

  13. 40 CFR 91.413 - Exhaust sample procedure-gaseous components. (United States)


    ...”) analysis, the analyzer response must be stable at greater than 99 percent of the final reading for the... only) by the grab (“bag”) technique outlined in paragraph (c) of this section. (e) Hydrocarbon hang-up... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust sample procedure-gaseous...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines. (United States)


    ... system; diesel engines. 86.1310-90 Section 86.1310-90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1310-90 Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines...

  15. Component reliability for electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bajenescu, Titu-Marius I


    The main reason for the premature breakdown of today's electronic products (computers, cars, tools, appliances, etc.) is the failure of the components used to build these products. Today professionals are looking for effective ways to minimize the degradation of electronic components to help ensure longer-lasting, more technically sound products and systems. This practical book offers engineers specific guidance on how to design more reliable components and build more reliable electronic systems. Professionals learn how to optimize a virtual component prototype, accurately monitor product reliability during the entire production process, and add the burn-in and selection procedures that are the most appropriate for the intended applications. Moreover, the book helps system designers ensure that all components are correctly applied, margins are adequate, wear-out failure modes are prevented during the expected duration of life, and system interfaces cannot lead to failure.

  16. Design and Experimental Study of an Over-Under TBCC Exhaust System. (United States)

    Mo, Jianwei; Xu, Jinglei; Zhang, Liuhuan


    Turbine-based combined-cycle (TBCC) propulsion systems have been a topic of research as a means for more efficient flight at supersonic and hypersonic speeds. The present study focuses on the fundamental physics of the complex flow in the TBCC exhaust system during the transition mode as the turbine exhaust is shut off and the ramjet exhaust is increased. A TBCC exhaust system was designed using methods of characteristics (MOC) and subjected to experimental and computational study. The main objectives of the study were: (1) to identify the interactions between the two exhaust jet streams during the transition mode phase and their effects on the whole flow-field structure; (2) to determine and verify the aerodynamic performance of the over-under TBCC exhaust nozzle; and (3) to validate the simulation ability of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software according to the experimental conditions. Static pressure taps and Schlieren apparatus were employed to obtain the wall pressure distributions and flow-field structures. Steady-state tests were performed with the ramjet nozzle cowl at six different positions at which the turbine flow path were half closed and fully opened, respectively. Methods of CFD were used to simulate the exhaust flow and they complemented the experimental study by providing greater insight into the details of the flow field and a means of verifying the experimental results. Results indicated that the flow structure was complicated because the two exhaust jet streams interacted with each other during the exhaust system mode transition. The exhaust system thrust coefficient varied from 0.9288 to 0.9657 during the process. The CFD simulation results agree well with the experimental data, which demonstrated that the CFD methods were effective in evaluating the aerodynamic performance of the TBCC exhaust system during the mode transition.

  17. Modeling Systems of Dependent Components (United States)


    Marked Shocks generated by a Poisson, a Renewal , or a Hawkes Point Process , ( ) . A Generalized Coupon Collecting Model as a Parsimonious Optimal...estimators of the mean, variance, and tail probabilities of the system life when the shock process is a Poisson process , a renewal process , or a...Modeling Systems of Dependent Components New classes of stochastic models for network systems having stochastically dependent components are studied by

  18. 40 CFR 85.2224 - Exhaust analysis system-EPA 81. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust analysis system-EPA 81. 85... Tests § 85.2224 Exhaust analysis system—EPA 81. (a) Applicability. The requirements of this subsection... analyzers shall be 15 seconds to 95% of the final reading. (3) Drift. Analyzer drift (up-scale and down...

  19. The Application of the Exhaustive Polling Theory in Intelligent Traffic System


    Wang Meng Yao; Ding Hong Wei; Zhao Yi Fan; Liang Zhu Guan; Zhu Long Zheng


    This paper presents a new use of exhaustive service polling system in the intelligent traffic light control system.Vehicles arrival rate is measured in the system. Through the relationship between arrival rate and mean waiting time ,mean queue length in exhaustive service polling system, achieved an technology that intelligent adjust the length of traffic light time according to the arrive rate.The more arrive rate the longer green light time. With the intelligent control, the road capacity i...

  20. Exhaust system having a gold-platinum group metal catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragle, Christie Susan [Havana, IL; Silver, Ronald G [Peoria, IL; Zemskova, Svetlana Mikhailovna [Edelstein, IL; Eckstein, Colleen J [Metamora, IL


    A method of providing an exhaust treatment device is disclosed. The method includes applying a catalyst including gold and a platinum group metal to a particulate filter. The concentration of the gold and the platinum group metal is sufficient to enable oxidation of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide.

  1. Systems for eliminating pathogens from exhaust air of animal houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnink, A.J.A.; Landman, W.J.M.; Melse, R.W.; Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy,


    Recent outbreaks of highly infectious viral diseases like swine fever and avian influenza in The Netherlands have shown that despite extensive bio-security measures aiming at minimizing physical contacts between farms, disease spread could not be halted. Dust in exhaust air from swine and chicken

  2. The Effect of Fuel Dose Division on The Emission of Toxic Components in The Car Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietras Dariusz


    Full Text Available The article discusses the effect of fuel dose division in the Diesel engine on smoke opacity and composition of the emitted exhaust gas. The research activities reported in the article include experimental examination of a small Diesel engine with Common Rail type supply system. The tests were performed on the engine test bed equipped with an automatic data acquisition system which recorded all basic operating and control parameters of the engine, and smoke opacity and composition of the exhaust gas. The parameters measured during the engine tests also included the indicated pressure and the acoustic pressure. The tests were performed following the pre-established procedure in which 9 engine operation points were defined for three rotational speeds: 1500, 2500 and 3500 rpm, and three load levels: 25, 40 and 75 Nm. At each point, the measurements were performed for 7 different forms of fuel dose injection, which were: the undivided dose, the dose divided into two or three parts, and three different injection advance angles for the undivided dose and that divided into two parts. The discussion of the obtained results includes graphical presentation of contests of hydrocarbons, carbon oxide, and nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas, and its smoke opacity. The presented analyses referred to two selected cases, out of nine examined engine operation points. In these cases the fuel dose was divided into three parts and injected at the factory set control parameters. The examination has revealed a significant effect of fuel dose division on the engine efficiency, and on the smoke opacity and composition of the exhaust gas, in particular the content of nitrogen oxides. Within the range of low loads and rotational speeds, dividing the fuel dose into three parts clearly improves the overall engine efficiency and significantly decreases the concentration of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas. Moreover, it slightly decreases the contents of hydrocarbons and

  3. Modelling and Operation of Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åberg, Andreas

    Diesel engine exhaust gases contain several harmful substances. The main pollutants are carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), particulate matter (PM), and nitrous gases such as nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (together NOx). Reducing the emission of these pollutants is of great...... outperformed the other control structures. The results were experimentally verified by implementing the tested controllers on a full-scale engine setup, and the results showed that coupling feedback with ANR based feedforward was yielding better performance. The PD controller showed good performance...... importance due to their effect on urban air quality, and because of new legislation. In modern heavy-duty applications, the exhaust gases are typically treated with four different catalysts: a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) which oxidises HC and CO into H2O and CO2, and NO into NO2, a Diesel Particulate...

  4. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David


    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  5. Regulated and unregulated exhaust gas components from LD vehicles on petrol, diesel, LPG and CNG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, P.; Rijkeboer, R.C.


    Four fuels (petrol, LPG, CNG and diesel) are compared on passenger cars and lighter vans. The comparisons are made for the usual regulated components, but also for a number of unregulated components. The project was financed by the Dutch government, the association of gas suppliers, a number of

  6. Development of Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment System for Tier II Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, R. C.; Cole, A. S., Stroia, B. J.; Huang, S. C. (Cummins, Inc.); Howden, Kenneth C.; Chalk, Steven (U.S. Dept. of Energy)


    system design and analysis, critical lab/engine experiments, and ranking then selection of NOX control technologies against reliability, up-front cost, fuel economy, service interval/serviceability, and size/weight. The results of the investigations indicate that the best NOX control approach for LDV and LDT applications is a NOX adsorber system. A greater than 83% NOX reduction efficiency is required to achieve 0.07g/mile NOX Tier II vehicle-out emissions. Both active lean NOX and PACR technology are currently not capable of achieving the high conversion efficiency required for Tier II, Bin 5 emissions standards. In this paper, the NOX technology assessment and selection is first reviewed and discussed. Development of the selected NOX technology (NOX adsorber) and PM control are then discussed in more detail. Discussion includes exhaust sulfur management, further adsorber formulation development, reductant screening, diesel particulate filter development & active regeneration, and preliminary test results on the selected integrated SOX trap, NOX adsorber, and diesel particulate filter system over an FTP-75 emissions cycle, and its impact on fuel economy. Finally, the direction of future work for continued advanced aftertreatment technology development is discussed. (SAE Paper SAE-2002-01-1867 © 2002 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

  7. Components of solar thermal systems


    Mendes, J. Farinha; Carvalho, M.J.; Schossig, Peter


    The heat production sub-system is the part of the overall system which provides heat to a thermally driven air-conditioning system. With regards to the solar-driven equipment, the solar collector is the main component of the sub-system. A brief review on the present state-of-the-art with respect to performance characteristics and available certification schemes of solar collectors is given in the following chapter. Besides the solar collector field, the storage unit and the back-up heat sourc...

  8. Prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust particles and effect on the male reproductive system in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Jette Gjerke; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Talsness, Chris


    In utero exposure to diesel exhaust particles may reduce sperm production in adulthood. We investigated the effect of prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust particles on the male reproductive system and assessed endocrine disruption and regulation of aquaporin expression as possible mechanisms...... of action. Dams inhaled 20 mg/m(3) of diesel exhaust particle standard reference material 2975 (SRM2975) or clean air for 1h/day on day 7-19 during pregnancy. Male offspring were killed on day 170 after birth. The dams that had inhaled SRM2975 delivered offspring, which in adulthood had reduced daily sperm...

  9. Utilization of sodium bicarbonate for the neutralization of acid components in exhaust gases; Verwendung von Natriumbicarbonat zur Neutralisation saurer Bestandteile in Abgasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Thomas [Solvay Chemicals GmbH, Rheinberg (Germany). Technisches Marketing


    The SOLVAIR dry process using sodium bicarbonate as absorbent facilitates an uncomplicated and efficient purification of exhaust gases from different processes. The products from exhaust gas purification can be used either directly in a producing process or subsequently to a treatment process in the chemical process. The author of this contribution reports on the utilization of sodium bicarbonate in the neutralisation of pour components in exhaust gases such as hydrochloric acid, sulphur dioxide and nitrous dioxides. Further aspects of this contribution are the energy efficiency and the recycling of reaction products.

  10. System Testing of Ground Cooling System Components (United States)

    Ensey, Tyler Steven


    This internship focused primarily upon software unit testing of Ground Cooling System (GCS) components, one of the three types of tests (unit, integrated, and COTS/regression) utilized in software verification. Unit tests are used to test the software of necessary components before it is implemented into the hardware. A unit test determines that the control data, usage procedures, and operating procedures of a particular component are tested to determine if the program is fit for use. Three different files are used to make and complete an efficient unit test. These files include the following: Model Test file (.mdl), Simulink SystemTest (.test), and autotest (.m). The Model Test file includes the component that is being tested with the appropriate Discrete Physical Interface (DPI) for testing. The Simulink SystemTest is a program used to test all of the requirements of the component. The autotest tests that the component passes Model Advisor and System Testing, and puts the results into proper files. Once unit testing is completed on the GCS components they can then be implemented into the GCS Schematic and the software of the GCS model as a whole can be tested using integrated testing. Unit testing is a critical part of software verification; it allows for the testing of more basic components before a model of higher fidelity is tested, making the process of testing flow in an orderly manner.

  11. Real-time exhaust gas modular flowmeter and emissions reporting system for mobile apparatus (United States)

    Breton, Leo Alphonse Gerard (Inventor)


    A real-time emissions reporting system includes an instrument module adapted to be detachably connected to the exhaust pipe of a combustion engine to provide for flow of exhaust gas therethrough. The instrument module includes a differential pressure probe which allows for determination of flow rate of the exhaust gas and a gas sampling tube for continuously feeding a sample of the exhaust gas to a gas analyzer or a mounting location for a non-sampling gas analyzer. In addition to the module, the emissions reporting system also includes an elastomeric boot for detachably connecting the module to the exhaust pipe of the combustion engine, a gas analyzer for receiving and analyzing gases sampled within the module and a computer for calculating pollutant mass flow rates based on concentrations detected by the gas analyzer and the detected flowrate of the exhaust gas. The system may also include a particulate matter detector with a second gas sampling tube feeding same mounted within the instrument module.

  12. Reduced Noise Gas Turbine Engine System and Supersonic Exhaust Nozzle System Using Elector to Entrain Ambient Air (United States)

    Sokhey, Jagdish S. (Inventor); Pierluissi, Anthony F. (Inventor)


    One embodiment of the present invention is a unique gas turbine engine system. Another embodiment is a unique exhaust nozzle system for a gas turbine engine. Other embodiments include apparatuses, systems, devices, hardware, methods, and combinations for gas turbine engine systems and exhaust nozzle systems for gas turbine engines. Further embodiments, forms, features, aspects, benefits, and advantages of the present application will become apparent from the description and figures provided herewith.

  13. 40 CFR 91.414 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description. (United States)


    ... exhaust gas probe must be located in a position which yields a well mixed, homogeneous sample of the... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES... components that are wetted by the sample or corrosive calibration gases shall be either chemically cleaned...

  14. Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system (United States)

    Tomlinson, Leroy Omar; Smith, Raub Warfield


    In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

  15. The Application of the Exhaustive Polling Theory in Intelligent Traffic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Meng Yao


    Full Text Available This paper presents a new use of exhaustive service polling system in the intelligent traffic light control system.Vehicles arrival rate is measured in the system. Through the relationship between arrival rate and mean waiting time ,mean queue length in exhaustive service polling system, achieved an technology that intelligent adjust the length of traffic light time according to the arrive rate.The more arrive rate the longer green light time. With the intelligent control, the road capacity is more.

  16. Component Control System for a Vehicle (United States)

    Fraser-Chanpong, Nathan (Inventor); Spain, Ivan (Inventor); Dawson, Andrew D. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Waligora, Thomas M. (Inventor); Akinyode, Akinjide Akinniyi (Inventor); Reed, Ryan M. (Inventor)


    A vehicle includes a chassis, a modular component, and a central operating system. The modular component is supported by the chassis. The central operating system includes a component control system, a primary master controller, and a secondary master controller. The component control system is configured for controlling the modular component. The primary and secondary master controllers are in operative communication with the component control system. The primary and secondary master controllers are configured to simultaneously transmit commands to the component control system. The component control system is configured to accept commands from the secondary master controller only when a fault occurs in the primary master controller.

  17. Micro- and Nanostructural Characteristics of Particles Before and After an Exhaust Gas Recirculation System Scrubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieke, Kirsten Inga; Rosenørn, Thomas; Pedersen, Jannik


    This work provides insight into the morphology and mixing state of submicron particles in diesel exhaust from a ship engine with an exhaust gas recirculation scrubber. Particles from this low-speed ship engine on test bed were collected using a microiner-tial impactor with transmission electron...... microscopy (TEM) grids on two stages. Micro- and nanostructural characteristics of sin-gle particles were studied by TEM. Image analysis was carried out on overview and high-resolution images, revealing influence of the exhaust gas treatment (scrubber) on the particle morphology and mixing state. Soot...... agglomerates were found to be collapsed after scrubber, reflected by their change in fractal dimension (fly) from 1.88 to 2.13. Soot was predominantly found internally mixed with other components, with a higher degree of internal mix-ing observed after scrubber. Soot nanostructural characteristics on the near...

  18. Systems and methods to reduce reductant consumption in exhaust aftertreament systems (United States)

    Gupta, Aniket; Cunningham, Michael J.


    Systems, apparatus and methods are provided for reducing reductant consumption in an exhaust aftertreatment system that includes a first SCR device and a downstream second SCR device, a first reductant injector upstream of the first SCR device, and a second reductant injector between the first and second SCR devices. NOx conversion occurs with reductant injection by the first reductant injector to the first SCR device in a first temperature range and with reductant injection by the second reductant injector to the second SCR device when the temperature of the first SCR device is above a reductant oxidation conversion threshold.

  19. A Framework for Modular Modeling of the Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas Cleaning System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åberg, Andreas; Hansen, Thomas Klint; Linde, Kasper


    Pollutants from diesel engines have a negative effect on urban air quality. Because of this and new legislation restricting the emission level, it is necessary to develop exhaust gas treatment systems for diesel engines that can reduce the amount of pollutants. A modular model capable of simulating...... model. Four different models in the automotive diesel exhaust gas cleaning system are presented briefly. Based on the presented methodology, it is discussed which changes are needed to the models to create a modular model of the whole catalytic system....

  20. Experiments on Exhaust Noise of Tightly Integrated Propulsion Systems (United States)

    Bridges, James E.; Brown, Clifford A.; Bozak, Richard F.


    A wide-ranging series of tests have been completed that seek to map the effects of installation, including jet by jet interaction effects, on exhaust noise from various nozzles in forward flight. The primary data was far-field acoustic spectral directivity. The goals of the test series were (i) to generate enough data for empirical models of the different effects, and (ii) to provide data for advanced computational noise predictions methods applied to simplified yet realistic configurations. Data is presented that demonstrate several checks on data quality and that provide an overview of trends observed to date. Among the findings presented here: (i) Data was repeatable between jet rigs for single nozzles with and without surfaces to within +/- 0.5 dB. (ii) The presence of a second jet caused a strong reduction of the summed noise in the plane of the two plumes and an increase over the expected source doubling in most other azimuthal planes. (iii) The impact of the second jet was reduced when the jets were unheated. (iv) The impact of adding a second isolated rectangular jet was relatively independent of the nozzle aspect ratio up to aspect ratio 8:1. (v) Forward flight had similar impact on a high aspect ratio (8:1) jet as on an axisymmetric jet, except at the peak noise angle where the impact was less. (vi) The effect of adding a second round jet to a tightly integrated nozzle where the nozzle lip was less than a diameter from the surface was very dependent upon the length of the surface downstream of the nozzle. (vii) When the nozzles were rectangular and tightly integrated with the airframe surface the impact of a second jet was very dependent upon how close together the two jets were. This paper serves as an overview of the test; other papers presented in the same conference will give more detailed analysis of the results.

  1. Method and system for the purification of exhaust gas with an electrochemical cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a method for electrochemical reduction of nitrogen oxides and concomitant oxidation of soot, as well as systems useful therefor. Such methods and systems in particular are useful in the context of exhaust gas purification, in particular for diesel engines....

  2. 40 CFR 90.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description. (United States)


    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT... analytical system description. (a) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in this section is... downstream of the mixing area to ensure a uniform sample distribution across the CVS duct at the sampling...

  3. The magnet components database system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baggett, M.J. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Leedy, R.; Saltmarsh, C.; Tompkins, J.C. (Superconducting Supercollider Lab., Dallas, TX (USA))


    The philosophy, structure, and usage MagCom, the SSC magnet components database, are described. The database has been implemented in Sybase (a powerful relational database management system) on a UNIX-based workstation at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL); magnet project collaborators can access the database via network connections. The database was designed to contain the specifications and measured values of important properties for major materials, plus configuration information (specifying which individual items were used in each cable, coil, and magnet) and the test results on completed magnets. These data will facilitate the tracking and control of the production process as well as the correlation of magnet performance with the properties of its constituents. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Field-effect gas sensors and their application in exhaust treatment systems; Feldeffekt-Gassensoren und ihre Anwendung in Abgasnachbehandlungssystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalwig, Jan


    Tightening environmental constraints on exhaust gas emissions of gasoline and Diesel engines led to a growing interest in new and highly sophisticated gas sensors. Such sensors will be required in future exhaust gas aftertreatment systems for the selective real time detection of pollutants such as nitric oxides, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. Restrictions on cost and device dimensions imposed by the automobile industry make semiconductor gas sensors promising candidates for the realization of cheap and small-size sensor devices. This work deals with semiconductor field effect devices with catalytically active platinum (Pt) electrodes and potential applications of such devices in automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. To allow for continuous operation at high temperatures, silicon carbide (SiC) and group III-nitrides such as GaN and AlGaN were used as semiconductor materials. Different devices have been realized with such materials: SiC based MOS capacitors (MOSiC), GaN Schottky diodes and GaN/AlGaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT). The principle feasibility of SiC and GaN based field effect gas sensors for automotive applications was tested under laboratory conditions using synthetic gas mixtures. Exhaust gas components such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxides (NO and NO{sub 2}), various saturated and unsaturated hydro-carbons as well as water vapor, oxygen (O{sub 2}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) were used as test gases in appropriate concentrations with the sensor devices being operated in a range of temperatures extending from room temperature up to 600{sup o}C. (orig.)

  5. Effects of eicosane, a component of nanoparticles in diesel exhaust, on surface activity of pulmonary surfactant monolayers. (United States)

    Kanno, Sanae; Furuyama, Akiko; Hirano, Seishiro


    Recently, it has been reported that n-alkanes are principal components of diesel exhaust nanoparticles. We investigated the effects of n-alkanes on the surface activity of a pulmonary surfactant monolayer using both fresh surfactant isolated from mouse lungs, and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC), a major component of lung surfactant. To examine the effect of n-alkanes on the surfactant, we compared surface pressure/trough area isotherm features and topographic images of DPPC in the presence and absence of a specific n-alkane (eicosane, C(20)H(42)) by Langmuir-Wilhelmy methods. The pure DPPC isotherm shows a typical plateau feature at a monolayer collapse pressure of 70 mN/m. The collapse pressure diminishes with increasing concentration of eicosane in DPPC. DPPC monolayers containing eicosane exhibit isotherms with one phase transition, but not the coexistence plateau of a liquid-expanded (LE) and liquid-condensed (LC) phase observed with a pure DPPC monolayer. Atomic force microscopy studies suggest that a DPPC monolayer containing eicosane has the phase transition from LE phase to LC phase and the protrusions are squeezed out from the monolayer, below the phase transition. On the other hand, eicosane changes the isotherm from mouse lung surfactant less dramatically than that of DPPC. The addition of increasing amounts of eicosane to mouse surfactant increases surface compressibility at 30 mN/m during the second compression, suggesting that the deposition of alkane-rich nanoparticles onto pulmonary surfactants may be related to dysfunction of surfactant activity during breathing.

  6. Study on heat pipe assisted thermoelectric power generation system from exhaust gas (United States)

    Chi, Ri-Guang; Park, Jong-Chan; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Lee, Kye-Bock


    Currently, most fuel consumed by vehicles is released to the environment as thermal energy through the exhaust pipe. Environmentally friendly vehicle technology needs new methods to increase the recycling efficiency of waste exhaust thermal energy. The present study investigated how to improve the maximum power output of a TEG (Thermoelectric generator) system assisted with a heat pipe. Conventionally, the driving energy efficiency of an internal combustion engine is approximately less than 35%. TEG with Seebeck elements is a new idea for recycling waste exhaust heat energy. The TEG system can efficiently utilize low temperature waste heat, such as industrial waste heat and solar energy. In addition, the heat pipe can transfer heat from the automobile's exhaust gas to a TEG. To improve the efficiency of the thermal power generation system with a heat pipe, effects of various parameters, such as inclination angle, charged amount of the heat pipe, condenser temperature, and size of the TEM (thermoelectric element), were investigated. Experimental studies, CFD simulation, and the theoretical approach to thermoelectric modules were carried out, and the TEG system with heat pipe (15-20% charged, 20°-30° inclined configuration) showed the best performance.

  7. Study on heat pipe assisted thermoelectric power generation system from exhaust gas (United States)

    Chi, Ri-Guang; Park, Jong-Chan; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Lee, Kye-Bock


    Currently, most fuel consumed by vehicles is released to the environment as thermal energy through the exhaust pipe. Environmentally friendly vehicle technology needs new methods to increase the recycling efficiency of waste exhaust thermal energy. The present study investigated how to improve the maximum power output of a TEG (Thermoelectric generator) system assisted with a heat pipe. Conventionally, the driving energy efficiency of an internal combustion engine is approximately less than 35%. TEG with Seebeck elements is a new idea for recycling waste exhaust heat energy. The TEG system can efficiently utilize low temperature waste heat, such as industrial waste heat and solar energy. In addition, the heat pipe can transfer heat from the automobile's exhaust gas to a TEG. To improve the efficiency of the thermal power generation system with a heat pipe, effects of various parameters, such as inclination angle, charged amount of the heat pipe, condenser temperature, and size of the TEM (thermoelectric element), were investigated. Experimental studies, CFD simulation, and the theoretical approach to thermoelectric modules were carried out, and the TEG system with heat pipe (15-20% charged, 20°-30° inclined configuration) showed the best performance.

  8. 40 CFR 91.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description. (United States)


    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES.... (a) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in this section is designed to measure the... the mixing area to ensure a uniform sample distribution across the CVS duct at the sampling zone. (3...

  9. High gliding fluid power generation system with fluid component separation and multiple condensers (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ahmad M; Lee, Jaeseon; Radcliff, Thomas D


    An example power generation system includes a vapor generator, a turbine, a separator and a pump. In the separator, the multiple components of the working fluid are separated from each other and sent to separate condensers. Each of the separate condensers is configured for condensing a single component of the working fluid. Once each of the components condense back into a liquid form they are recombined and exhausted to a pump that in turn drives the working fluid back to the vapor generator.

  10. A new online exhaust gas monitoring system in hydrochloric acid regeneration of cold rolling mills. (United States)

    Tuo, Long; Zheng, Xiang; Chen, Xiong


    Measuring the content of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in exhaust gas used to take time and energy. In this paper, we introduce a new online monitoring system which can output real-time data to the monitoring center. The system samples and cools exhaust gas, and after a series of processing, it will be analyzed by a specific instrument. The core part of this system is remote terminal unit (RTU) which is designed on Cortex-A8 embedded architecture. RTU runs a scaled-down version of Linux which is a good choice of OS for embedded applications. It controls the whole processes, does data acquisition and data analysis, and communicates with monitoring center through Ethernet. In addition, through a software developed for windows, the monitoring process can be remotely controlled. The new system is quite beneficial for steel industry to do environment monitoring.

  11. Local and Systemic CD4+ T Cell Exhaustion Reverses with Clinical Resolution of Pulmonary Sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene Hawkins


    Full Text Available Investigation of the Th1 immune response in sarcoidosis CD4+ T cells has revealed reduced proliferative capacity and cytokine expression upon TCR stimulation. In other disease models, such cellular dysfunction has been associated with a step-wise, progressive loss of T cell function that results from chronic antigenic stimulation. T cell exhaustion is defined by decreased cytokine production upon TCR activation, decreased proliferation, increased expression of inhibitory cell surface receptors, and increased susceptibility to apoptosis. We characterized sarcoidosis CD4+ T cell immune function in systemic and local environments among subjects undergoing disease progression compared to those experiencing disease resolution. Spontaneous and TCR-stimulated Th1 cytokine expression and proliferation assays were performed in 53 sarcoidosis subjects and 30 healthy controls. PD-1 expression and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry. Compared to healthy controls, sarcoidosis CD4+ T cells demonstrated reductions in Th1 cytokine expression, proliferative capacity (p<0.05, enhanced apoptosis (p<0.01, and increased PD-1 expression (p<0.001. BAL-derived CD4+ T cells also demonstrated multiple facets of T cell exhaustion (p<0.05. Reversal of CD4+ T cell exhaustion was observed in subjects undergoing spontaneous resolution (p<0.05. Sarcoidosis CD4+ T cells exhibit loss of cellular function during progressive disease that follows the archetype of T cell exhaustion.

  12. 24 CFR 3280.708 - Exhaust duct system and provisions for the future installation of a clothes dryer. (United States)


    ... for the future installation of a clothes dryer. 3280.708 Section 3280.708 Housing and Urban... duct system and provisions for the future installation of a clothes dryer. (a) Clothes dryers. (1) All gas and electric clothes dryers shall be exhausted to the outside by a moisture-lint exhaust duct and...

  13. Understanding symmetrical components for power system modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Das, J C


    This book utilizes symmetrical components for analyzing unbalanced three-phase electrical systems, by applying single-phase analysis tools. The author covers two approaches for studying symmetrical components; the physical approach, avoiding many mathematical matrix algebra equations, and a mathematical approach, using matrix theory. Divided into seven sections, topics include: symmetrical components using matrix methods, fundamental concepts of symmetrical components, symmetrical components –transmission lines and cables, sequence components of rotating equipment and static load, three-phase models of transformers and conductors, unsymmetrical fault calculations, and some limitations of symmetrical components.

  14. 30 CFR 36.48 - Tests of surface temperature of engine and components of the cooling system. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests of surface temperature of engine and... temperature of engine and components of the cooling system. (a) The surface temperatures of the engine... components shall have reached their respective equilibrium temperatures. The exhaust cooling system shall be...

  15. Investigations on burning efficiency and exhaust emission of in-line type emulsified fuel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Y.K. [National Chinyi University of Technology (Taiwan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Cheng, H.C. [Point Environmental Protection Technology Company Limited (Taiwan)


    In this research, the burning efficiency as well as exhaust emission of a new water-in-oil emulsified fuel system was studied. This emulsified system contains two core processes, the first one is to mix 97% water with 3% emulsifier by volume, and get the milk-like emulsified liquid, while the second one is to compound the milk-like emulsified liquid with heavy oil then obtain the emulsified fuel. In order to overcome the used demulsification problem during in reserve or in transport, this system was designed as a made and use in-line type. From the results of a series of burning tests, the fuel saving can be 8--15%. Also, from the comparison of decline for the heat value and total energy output of emulsified fuel, one can find that the water as the dispersed phase in the combustion process will lead to a micro-explosion as well as the water gas effect, both can raise the combustion temperature and burning efficiency. By comparing the waste gas emission of different types of emulsified fuel, one can know that, the CO2 emission reduces approximately 14%, and NOx emission reduces above 46%, meaning the reduction of the exhaust gas is truly effective. From the exhaust temperature of tail pipe, the waste heat discharge also may reduce 27%, it is quite advantageous to the global warming as well as earth environmental protection.

  16. Two component systems: physiological effect of a third component.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldiri Salvado

    Full Text Available Signal transduction systems mediate the response and adaptation of organisms to environmental changes. In prokaryotes, this signal transduction is often done through Two Component Systems (TCS. These TCS are phosphotransfer protein cascades, and in their prototypical form they are composed by a kinase that senses the environmental signals (SK and by a response regulator (RR that regulates the cellular response. This basic motif can be modified by the addition of a third protein that interacts either with the SK or the RR in a way that could change the dynamic response of the TCS module. In this work we aim at understanding the effect of such an additional protein (which we call "third component" on the functional properties of a prototypical TCS. To do so we build mathematical models of TCS with alternative designs for their interaction with that third component. These mathematical models are analyzed in order to identify the differences in dynamic behavior inherent to each design, with respect to functionally relevant properties such as sensitivity to changes in either the parameter values or the molecular concentrations, temporal responsiveness, possibility of multiple steady states, or stochastic fluctuations in the system. The differences are then correlated to the physiological requirements that impinge on the functioning of the TCS. This analysis sheds light on both, the dynamic behavior of synthetically designed TCS, and the conditions under which natural selection might favor each of the designs. We find that a third component that modulates SK activity increases the parameter space where a bistable response of the TCS module to signals is possible, if SK is monofunctional, but decreases it when the SK is bifunctional. The presence of a third component that modulates RR activity decreases the parameter space where a bistable response of the TCS module to signals is possible.

  17. Reduction of Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Pollutant Using Intelligent Transport Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostofa Kamal Nasir


    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas emitted by the transport sector around the world is a serious issue of concern. To minimize such emission the automobile engineers have been working relentlessly. Researchers have been trying hard to switch fossil fuel to alternative fuels and attempting to various driving strategies to make traffic flow smooth and to reduce traffic congestion and emission of greenhouse gas. Automobile emits a massive amount of pollutants such as Carbon Monoxide (CO, hydrocarbons (HC, carbon dioxide (CO2, particulate matter (PM, and oxides of nitrogen (NOx. Intelligent transport system (ITS technologies can be implemented to lower pollutant emissions and reduction of fuel consumption. This paper investigates the ITS techniques and technologies for the reduction of fuel consumption and minimization of the exhaust pollutant. It highlights the environmental impact of the ITS application to provide the state-of-art green solution. A case study also advocates that ITS technology reduces fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant in the urban environment.

  18. Reduction of fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant using intelligent transport systems. (United States)

    Nasir, Mostofa Kamal; Md Noor, Rafidah; Kalam, M A; Masum, B M


    Greenhouse gas emitted by the transport sector around the world is a serious issue of concern. To minimize such emission the automobile engineers have been working relentlessly. Researchers have been trying hard to switch fossil fuel to alternative fuels and attempting to various driving strategies to make traffic flow smooth and to reduce traffic congestion and emission of greenhouse gas. Automobile emits a massive amount of pollutants such as Carbon Monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), carbon dioxide (CO2), particulate matter (PM), and oxides of nitrogen (NO x ). Intelligent transport system (ITS) technologies can be implemented to lower pollutant emissions and reduction of fuel consumption. This paper investigates the ITS techniques and technologies for the reduction of fuel consumption and minimization of the exhaust pollutant. It highlights the environmental impact of the ITS application to provide the state-of-art green solution. A case study also advocates that ITS technology reduces fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant in the urban environment.

  19. The exhaust system of the Mercedes SL 500; Die Abgasanlage des Mercedes SL 500

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heil, B. [DaimlerChrysler AG, Stuttgart (Germany). Entwicklung Ottomotoren; Enderle, C.; Herwig, H.; Strohmer, E. [DaimlerChrysler AG, Stuttgart (Germany). Entwicklung Abgasanlagen Ottomotoren; Margadant, A.; Ruth, W. [Zeuna Staerker GmbH und Co. KG, Augsburg (Germany)


    More than its predecessor, the Mercedes SL 500 is designed for agility and a sports car character. This involved extensive sound engineering for the exhaust system as the legal and technical limits are quite narrow in this field. The result is a compromise between a sports car sound and a high-grade car sound, depending on the user's choice. The exhaust noise is ever-present, providing feedback on the state of operation, without being too loud or becoming a nuisance. Fluid mechanical optimisation of the exhaust system was supported by CAE in order to optimise the engine performance and driving comfort. [German] Der Mercedes SL 500 ist bereits in seiner Grundkonzeption staerker als sein Vorgaenger auf Sportlichkeit und Agilitaet ausgelegt. Die Abgasanlage liefert hierzu durch einen entsprechenden Sound und durch einen geringen Gegendruck einen nicht unerheblichen Beitrag. Der Aufwand fuer das Sound-Engineering der Abgasanlage ist gross, weil hier enge gesetzliche und technische Grenzen einzuhalten sind. Das Ergebnis ist ein Kompromiss zwischen sportlich-kraftvollem und komfortbetontem Klang - je nach Wunsch des Fahrers. Das Muendungsgeraeusch der Abgasanlage ist stets praesent und gibt jederzeit Rueckmeldung ueber den Fahrzustand, ohne dabei aufdringlich oder stoerend zu wirken. Die stroemungsmechanische Optimierung des Abgassystems durch umfangreichen CAE-Einsatz unterstuetzt die Leistungsentfaltung des Motors, was dem Fahrspass zu Gute kommt. (orig.)

  20. Development of an Organic Rankine Cycle system for exhaust energy recovery in internal combustion engines (United States)

    Cipollone, Roberto; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Gualtieri, Angelo; Di Battista, Davide; Mauriello, Marco; Fatigati, Fabio


    Road transportation is currently one of the most influencing sectors for global energy consumptions and CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, more than one third of the fuel energy supplied to internal combustion engines is still rejected to the environment as thermal waste at the exhaust. Therefore, a greater fuel economy might be achieved recovering the energy from exhaust gases and converting it into useful power on board. In the current research activity, an ORC-based energy recovery system was developed and coupled with a diesel engine. The innovative feature of the recovery power unit relies upon the usage of sliding vane rotary machines as pump and expander. After a preliminary exhaust gas mapping, which allowed to assess the magnitude of the thermal power to be recovered, a thermodynamic analysis was carried out to design the ORC system and the sliding vane machines using R236fa as working fluid. An experimental campaign was eventually performed at different operating regimes according to the ESC procedure and investigated the recovery potential of the power unit at design and off-design conditions. Mechanical power recovered ranged from 0.7 kW up to 1.9 kW, with an overall cycle efficiency from 3.8% up to 4.8% respectively. These results candidate sliding vane machines as efficient and reliable devices for waste heat recovery applications.

  1. Bioregenerative system components for microgravity (United States)

    Nevill, Gale E., Jr.; Hessel, Michael I., Jr.


    The goal of the class was to design, fabricate, and test prototype designs that were independent, yet applicable to a Closed Loop Life Support System. The three prototypes chosen were in the areas of agar plant growth, regnerative filtration, and microgravity food preparation. The plant growth group designed a prototype agar medium growth system that incorporates nutrient solution replenishment and post-harvest refurbishment. In addition, the unit emphasizes material containment and minimization of open interfaces. The second project was a filter used in microgravity that has the capability to clean itself. The filters are perforated plates which slide through a duct and are cleaned outside of the flow with a vacuum system. The air in the duct is prevented from flowing outside of the duct by a network of sliding seals. The food preparation group developed a device which dispenses and mixes ingredients and then cooks the mixture in microgravity. The dry ingredients are dispensed from a canister by a ratchet-operated piston. The wet ingredients are dispensed from plastic bags through tubing attached to a syringe. Once inside the mixing chamber, the ingredients are mixed using a collapsible whisk and then pushed into the cooking device.

  2. Configuring systems from components: the EMS approach (United States)

    Nogiec, J. M.; Desavouret, E.; Kotelnikov, S.; Trombly-Freytag, K.; Walbridge, D.


    EMS is an exercise in component technology. It offers rapid development of specialized data acquisition, visualization and analysis systems via assembly from vertical and horizontal components. The EMS architecture allows for agile development of systems and promotes reuse of software. The framework supports a visual builder that shows connections between components and lists component properties. The system offers both off-line setup of properties and run-time modifications. Multi-bus architecture allows for independent routing of data, controls, debugs, and exceptions. The architecture, configuration process, and control of applications through scripting are presented.

  3. Optimized Design of Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting Systems for Waste Heat Recovery from Exhaust Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Nesarajah


    Full Text Available With the increasing interest in energy efficiency and resource protection, waste heat recovery processes have gained importance. Thereby, one possibility is the conversion of the heat energy into electrical energy by thermoelectric generators. Here, a thermoelectric energy harvesting system is developed to convert the waste heat from exhaust pipes, which are very often used to transport the heat, e.g., in automobiles, in industrial facilities or in heating systems. That is why a mockup of a heating is built-up, and the developed energy harvesting system is attached. To build-up this system, a model-based development process is used. The setup of the developed energy harvesting system is very flexible to test different variants and an optimized system can be found in order to increase the energy yield for concrete application examples. A corresponding simulation model is also presented, based on previously developed libraries in Modelica®/Dymola®. In the end, it can be shown—with measurement and simulation results—that a thermoelectric energy harvesting system on the exhaust pipe of a heating system delivers extra energy and thus delivers a contribution for a more efficient usage of the inserted primary energy carrier.

  4. Thermochemical nanolithography components, systems, and methods (United States)

    Riedo, Elisa; Marder, Seth R.; de Heer, Walt A.; Szoskiewicz, Robert J.; Kodali, Vamsi K.; Jones, Simon C.; Okada, Takashi; Wang, Debin; Curtis, Jennifer E.; Henderson, Clifford L.; Hua, Yueming


    Improved nanolithography components, systems, and methods are described herein. The systems and methods generally employ a resistively heated atomic force microscope tip to thermally induce a chemical change in a surface. In addition, certain polymeric compositions are also disclosed.

  5. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D [Lenoir City, TN; Earl, Dennis D [Knoxville, TN; Beshears, David L [Knoxville, TN; Maxey, Lonnie C [Powell, TN; Jordan, John K [Oak Ridge, TN; Lind, Randall F [Lenoir City, TN


    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  6. Experimental investigation of an improved exhaust recovery system for liquid petroleum gas fueled spark ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürbüz Habib


    Full Text Available In this study, we have investigated the recovery of energy lost as waste heat from exhaust gas and engine coolant, using an improved thermoelectric generator (TEG in a LPG fueled SI engine. For this purpose, we have designed and manufactured a 5-layer heat exchanger from aluminum sheet. Electrical energy generated by the TEG was then used to produce hydrogen in a PEM water electrolyzer. The experiment was conducted at a stoichiometric mixture ratio, 1/2 throttle position and six different engine speeds at 1800-4000 rpm. The results of this study show that the configuration of 5-layer counterflow produce a higher TEG output power than 5-layer parallel flow and 3-layer counterflow. The TEG produced a maximum power of 63.18 W when used in a 5-layer counter flow configuration. This resulted in an improved engine performance, reduced exhaust emission as well as an increased engine speed when LPG fueled SI engine is enriched with hydrogen produced by the PEM electrolyser supported by TEG. Also, the need to use an extra evaporator for the LPG fueled SI engine is eliminated as LPG heat exchangers are added to the fuel line. It can be concluded that an improved exhaust recovery system for automobiles can be developed by incorporating a PEM electrolyser, however at the expense of increasing costs.

  7. Exploring the relationships between high involvement work system practices, work demands and emotional exhaustion : A multi-level study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppenauer, V.; van de Voorde, F.C.


    This study explores the impact of enacted high involvement work systems (HIWS) practices on employee emotional exhaustion. This study hypothesized that work overload and job responsibility mediate the relationship between HIWS practices (ability, motivation, opportunity and work design HIWS

  8. Exploring the relationships between high involvement work system practices, work demands and emotional exhaustion : A multi-level study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppenauer, V.; van de Voorde, F.C.


    This study explores the impact of enacted high involvement work systems (HIWS) practices on employee emotional exhaustion. This study hypothesized that work overload and job responsibility mediate the relationship between HIWS practices (ability, motivation, opportunity and work design HIWS

  9. Heat Transfer Analysis of an Engine Exhaust-Based Thermoelectric Evaporation System (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Tan, Gangfeng; Guo, Xuexun; Deng, Yadong; Zhang, Hongguang; Yang, Kai


    Engine exhaust can be used by thermoelectric generators for improving thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines. In his paper, the performance of a thermoelectric evaporation system is investigated. First, the thermal characteristics of diesel engines are obtained according to the experiment data. Then, mathematical models are created based on the specified conditions of the coolant cycle and the evaporator geometric parameters. Finally, the heat transfer characteristics and power performance of the thermoelectric evaporation system are estimated, and a comparison with the system in which the heat exchanger operates with all-liquid coolant is investigated. The results show that the overall heat transfer rate of the thermoelectric evaporator system increases with engine power. At the rated condition, the two-phase zone with an area of 0.8689 m2 dominates the evaporator's heat transfer area compared with the preheated zone area of 0.0055 m2, and for the thermoelectric module, the cold-side temperature is stable at 74°C while the hot-side temperature drops from 341.8°C to 304.9°C along the exhaust direction. For certain thermoelectric cells, the temperature difference between the cold side and hot side rises with the engine load, and the temperature difference drops from 266.9°C to 230.6°C along the exhaust direction. For two cold-side systems with the same heat transfer, coolant mass flow rate in the evaporator with two-phase state is much less, and the temperature difference along with equivalent heat transfer length L is significantly larger than in the all-liquid one. At rated power point, power generated by thermoelectric cells in the two-phase evaporation system is 508.4 W, while the other is only 328.8 W.

  10. Software for computer-aided study of intake and exhaust systems for engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payri, F.; Benajes, J.; Chust, M.D. (Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (ES))


    In this work are described the main characteristics of a software designed to globally analyze the behavior of intake and exhaust systems of alternating engines with multiple cylinders and the effect produced by each element on the engine performances and the emitted noise. The software consists in a model of waves action, which computes the fluid behavior through the collectors using particular boundary conditions for each singular element of the system: filter, compressor, carburettor, valves, pipes, mufflers, junctions, etc. Moreover, the software contains interactive modules to introduce the data and to graphically output the results. Finally we present results showing the model accuracy and examples of input and outputs. 29 refs..

  11. Designing, Constructing and Installing a Local Exhaust Ventilation System to Minimize Welders\\' Exposure to Welding Fumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Zare


    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Welder’s exposure to welding fumes can cause occupational diseases. The current study sought to examine exposure to welding fumes among welders who work in the repair shop of Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex and design a local exhaust ventilation system to control exposure to welding fumes. Materials & Methods: This applied analytical study was conducted in the summer of 2016 among welders working in the repair shop of Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex. The study comprised three phases; in the first one, welders’ exposure to welding fumes was assessed at the beginning of the study. After that, a local exhaust ventilation system was designed and installed in the aforementioned repair shop. In the final stage, welders’ exposure to welding fumes was assessed again after installation of the ventilation system. The procedure recommended by NIOSH (method number 7300 was used for individual sampling of welders. Results: Based on the obtained findings, before installing the ventilation system, welding technicians were exposed to 0.3 mg/m3 of copper fumes and 0.04 mg/m3 of chromium fumes. Journeyman welders were also exposed to 2.16 mg/m3 of manganese fumes, while stellar welders were exposed to 6.9 mg/m3 of iron fumes. In the light of these measurements, a local exhaust ventilation system was designed and installed. Subsequently, measurement of exposure to welding fumes showed a significant reduction. That is, welding technicians were exposed to 0.17 mg/m3 and 0.015 mg/m3 of copper and chromium fumes respectively. Additionally, journeyman welders were exposed to 0.86 mg/m3 of manganese fumes, whereas stellar welders were exposed to 4.3 mg/m3 of iron fumes. Conclusions: A comparison of standard limits of exposure to welding fumes and the results obtained from measurements in sampling stations before and after the installation of the local exhaust ventilation system reveals that this controlling measure was very effective in the

  12. Systems with randomly failing repairable components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Kiureghian, Armen; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Song, Junho


    Closed-form expressions are derived for the steady-state availability, mean rate of failure, mean duration of downtime and reliability of a general system with randomly and independently failing repairable components. Component failures are assumed to be homogeneous Poisson events in time and rep......, or reducing the mean duration of system downtime. Example applications to an electrical substation system demonstrate the use of the formulas developed in the paper....

  13. Design and components of photovoltaic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van


    This chapter provides an overview of the various aspects of photovoltaic (PV) system components and design. The basic performance of cells, modules, and inverters and how this is used in PV system design is described. Two case studies illustrating PV system design are presented: a hybrid system on

  14. Comparison of acoustic performance of five muffler configurations on a small helicopter. [acoustic properties of modified helicopter exhaust system (United States)

    Pegg, R. J.; Hilton, D. A.


    A field noise measurement program has been conducted on a standard Bell 47 series helicopter and on one that had been modified with specially designed, airframe-mounted mufflers to reduce the engine exhaust noise. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the acoustic performance of five experimental exhaust muffler configurations for a helicopter reciprocating engine in an operational environment. All muffler configurations produced beneficial engine exhaust noise reductions but some configurations were markedly better than others. Flyover noise results indicated that maximum overall noise reductions of approximately 8 db were obtained with the various mufflers. The rotor noise was judged to be the dominant noise component for the muffler-equipped helicopters whereas the engine noise was the dominant component for the basic configuration.

  15. Developing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD Models to Evaluate Available Energy in Exhaust Systems of Diesel Light-Duty Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Fernández-Yáñez


    Full Text Available Around a third of the energy input in an automotive engine is wasted through the exhaust system. Since numerous technologies to harvest energy from exhaust gases are accessible, it is of great interest to find time- and cost-efficient methods to evaluate available thermal energy under different engine conditions. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD is becoming a very valuable tool for numerical predictions of exhaust flows. In this work, a methodology to build a simple three-dimensional (3D model of the exhaust system of automotive internal combustion engines (ICE was developed. Experimental data of exhaust gas in the most used part of the engine map in passenger diesel vehicles were employed as input for calculations. Sensitivity analyses of different numeric schemes have been conducted in order to attain accurate results. The model built allows for obtaining details on temperature and pressure fields along the exhaust system, and for complementing the experimental results for a better understanding of the flow phenomena and heat transfer through the system for further energy recovery devices.

  16. Energy Optimization for a Weak Hybrid Power System of an Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Quan, Shuhai; Xie, Changjun; Tang, Xinfeng; Ran, Bin; Jiao, Yatian


    An integrated starter generator (ISG)-type hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) scheme is proposed based on the automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator (AETEG). An eddy current dynamometer is used to simulate the vehicle's dynamic cycle. A weak ISG hybrid bench test system is constructed to test the 48 V output from the power supply system, which is based on engine exhaust-based heat power generation. The thermoelectric power generation-based system must ultimately be tested when integrated into the ISG weak hybrid mixed power system. The test process is divided into two steps: comprehensive simulation and vehicle-based testing. The system's dynamic process is simulated for both conventional and thermoelectric powers, and the dynamic running process comprises four stages: starting, acceleration, cruising and braking. The quantity of fuel available and battery pack energy, which are used as target vehicle energy functions for comparison with conventional systems, are simplified into a single energy target function, and the battery pack's output current is used as the control variable in the thermoelectric hybrid energy optimization model. The system's optimal battery pack output current function is resolved when its dynamic operating process is considered as part of the hybrid thermoelectric power generation system. In the experiments, the system bench is tested using conventional power and hybrid thermoelectric power for the four dynamic operation stages. The optimal battery pack curve is calculated by functional analysis. In the vehicle, a power control unit is used to control the battery pack's output current and minimize energy consumption. Data analysis shows that the fuel economy of the hybrid power system under European Driving Cycle conditions is improved by 14.7% when compared with conventional systems.

  17. HT-PEM Fuel Cell System with Integrated Thermoelectric Exhaust Heat Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Xin

    This thesis presents two case studies on improving the efficiency and the loadfollowing capability of a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (HTPEM) fuel cell system by the application of thermoelectric (TE) devices. TE generators (TEGs) are harnessed to recover the system exhaust gas...... power output on the subsystem design and performance were also systematically analyzed. The TEG subsystem configuration is optimized. The usefulness and convenience of the model are proved. TE coolers (TECs) are integrated into the methanol evaporator of the HT-PEM system for improving the whole system...... developed three-dimensional numerical model in ANSYS Fluent®. This thesis introduces the progress of this project in a cognitive order. The first chapter initially prepares the theory and characteristics of the fuel cell system and TE devices. Project motivations are conceived. Then similar studies existing...

  18. Diesel exhaust particulate induces pulmonary and systemic inflammation in rats without impairing endothelial function ex vivo or in vivo


    Robertson Sarah; Gray Gillian A; Duffin Rodger; McLean Steven G; Shaw Catherine A; Hadoke Patrick WF; Newby David E; Miller Mark R


    Abstract Background Inhalation of diesel exhaust impairs vascular function in man, by a mechanism that has yet to be fully established. We hypothesised that pulmonary exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) would cause endothelial dysfunction in rats as a consequence of pulmonary and systemic inflammation. Methods Wistar rats were exposed to DEP (0.5 mg) or saline vehicle by intratracheal instillation and hind-limb blood flow, blood pressure and heart rate were monitored in situ 6 or 24 h ...

  19. Solid State Lighting Reliability Components to Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, XJ


    Solid State Lighting Reliability: Components to Systems begins with an explanation of the major benefits of solid state lighting (SSL) when compared to conventional lighting systems including but not limited to long useful lifetimes of 50,000 (or more) hours and high efficacy. When designing effective devices that take advantage of SSL capabilities the reliability of internal components (optics, drive electronics, controls, thermal design) take on critical importance. As such a detailed discussion of reliability from performance at the device level to sub components is included as well as the integrated systems of SSL modules, lamps and luminaires including various failure modes, reliability testing and reliability performance. This book also: Covers the essential reliability theories and practices for current and future development of Solid State Lighting components and systems Provides a systematic overview for not only the state-of-the-art, but also future roadmap and perspectives of Solid State Lighting r...

  20. Mobile Application Development: Component Retrieval System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed technology development concept is a software application tool developed for use on a mobile device at SSC for use in the component retrieval system...

  1. Evaluation of High Pressure Components of Fuel Injection Systems Using Speckle Interferometry


    Basara, Adis


    The modern high pressure fuel injection systems installed in engines provide a highly efficient combustion process accompanied by low emissions of exhaust gases and an impressive level of dynamic response. The design and development of mechanical components for such systems pose a great challenge, since they have to operate under extremely high fluctuating pressures (e.g. up to 2000 bar) for a long lifetime (more than 1000 injections per minute). The permanent change between a higher and a lo...

  2. Automated reuseable components system study results (United States)

    Gilroy, Kathy


    The Automated Reusable Components System (ARCS) was developed under a Phase 1 Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract for the U.S. Army CECOM. The objectives of the ARCS program were: (1) to investigate issues associated with automated reuse of software components, identify alternative approaches, and select promising technologies, and (2) to develop tools that support component classification and retrieval. The approach followed was to research emerging techniques and experimental applications associated with reusable software libraries, to investigate the more mature information retrieval technologies for applicability, and to investigate the applicability of specialized technologies to improve the effectiveness of a reusable component library. Various classification schemes and retrieval techniques were identified and evaluated for potential application in an automated library system for reusable components. Strategies for library organization and management, component submittal and storage, and component search and retrieval were developed. A prototype ARCS was built to demonstrate the feasibility of automating the reuse process. The prototype was created using a subset of the classification and retrieval techniques that were investigated. The demonstration system was exercised and evaluated using reusable Ada components selected from the public domain. A requirements specification for a production-quality ARCS was also developed.

  3. Design, Implementation & Assessment of Local Exhaust Ventilation System and dust collectors for crushing unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Ghorbani shahna


    Full Text Available Background & objective: Industrial ventilation systems and dust collectors are effective solutions to reduce particulate emissions in the workplace and environmental in mineral processes. In this study, Local Exhaust Ventilation System and dust collectors for control of emitted silica, coke, silicon carbide dusts from crushing unit was designed and evaluated. Methods: : Local Exhaust ventilation system based on standards and guides was designed and implemented after field study of the processes and sources of air pollutants. A set comprised of the four parallel cyclones (Stairmand model and a new design of the scrubber had been used for dust control. After set-up of systems, its effectiveness in reducing the exposure of workers in the workshops and dust collecting were assessed. Results: Test results were significant differences between the concentration of particles in both on and off the ventilation system revealed (P <0.05. The system has been implemented as means of personal exposure to pollutants and environmental emissions were reduced 93.01% and 64.64%, respectively. Also, alone and integrated collection efficiency of cyclone and scrubber, were 94.2%, 59.05% and 97.4%, respectively. The results show good agreement with the values of the parameters ventilation system was designed. Conclusion: Implementation of integrated dust collectors is a good option in industries that have the financial and technical constraints to improve change processes and devices. This method with attainment to health and environmental standards not only can be resolve of the pollution problems, but also will be economically justified of such projects with reduction of depreciation expense and dust recycling.

  4. Thermally activated, single component epoxy systems

    KAUST Repository

    Unruh, David A.


    A single component epoxy system in which the resin and hardener components found in many two-component epoxies are combined onto the same molecule is described. The single molecule precursor to the epoxy resin contains both multiple epoxide moieties and a diamine held latent by thermally degradable carbamate linkages. These bis-carbamate "single molecule epoxies" have an essentially infinite shelf life and access a significant range in curing temperatures related to the structure of the carbamate linkages used. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  5. Design and Integrate Improved Systems for Nuclear Facility Ventilation and Exhaust Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Objective: The objective of this R&D project would complete the development of three new systems and integrate them into a single experimental effort. However, each of the three systems has stand-alone applicability across the DOE complex. At US DOE nuclear facilities, indoor air is filtered and ventilated for human occupancy, and exhaust air to the outdoor environment must be regulated and monitored. At least three technical standards address these functions, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory would complete an experimental facility to answer at least three questions: (1) Can the drag coefficient of a new Los Alamos air mixer be reduced for better operation in nuclear facility exhaust stacks? (2) Is it possible to verify the accuracy of a new dilution method for HEPA filter test facilities? (3) Is there a performance-based air flow metric (volumetric flow or mass flow) for operating HEPA filters? In summary, the three new systems are: a mixer, a diluter and a performance-based metric, respectively. The results of this project would be applicable to at least four technical standards: ANSI N13.1 Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities; ASTM F1471 Standard Test Method for Air Cleaning Performance of a High-Efficiency Particulate Air Filter System, ASME N511: In-Service Testing of Nuclear Air Treatment, Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems, and ASME AG-1: Code On Nuclear Air And Gas Treatment. All of the three proposed new systems must be combined into a single experimental device (i.e. to develop a new function of the Los Alamos aerosol wind tunnel). Technical Approach: The Radiation Protection RP-SVS group at Los Alamos has an aerosol wind tunnel that was originally (2006) designed to evaluate small air samplers (cf. US EPA 40 CFR 53.42). In 2009, the tunnel was modified for exhaust stack verifications per the ANSI N13.1 standard. In 2010, modifications were started on the

  6. A Language Support for Exhaustive Fault-Injection in Message-Passing System Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya Suzuki


    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach towards specifying and verifying adaptive distributed systems. We here take fault-handling as an example of adaptive behavior and propose a modeling language Sandal for describing fault-prone message-passing systems. One of the unique mechanisms of the language is a linguistic support for abstracting typical faults such as unexpected termination of processes and random loss of messages. The Sandal compiler translates a model into a set of NuSMV modules. During the compilation process, faults specified in the model will be woven into the output. One can thus enjoy full-automatic exhaustive fault-injection without writing faulty behaviors explicitly. We demonstrate the advantage of the language by verifying a model of the two-phase commit protocol under faulty environment.

  7. Dynamic Test Bed Analysis of Gas Energy Balance for a Diesel Exhaust System Fit with a Thermoelectric Generator (United States)

    Fuc, Pawel; Lijewski, Piotr; Ziolkowski, Andrzej; Dobrzyński, Michal


    Analysis of the energy balance for an exhaust system of a diesel engine fit with an automotive thermoelectric generator (ATEG) of our own design has been carried out. A special measurement system and dedicated software were developed to measure the power generated by the modules. The research object was a 1.3-l small diesel engine with power output of 66 kW. The tests were carried out on a dynamic engine test bed that allows reproduction of an actual driving cycle expressed as a function V = f( t), simulating drivetrain (clutch, transmission) operating characteristics, vehicle geometrical parameters, and driver behavior. Measurements of exhaust gas thermodynamic parameters (temperature, pressure, and mass flow) as well as the voltage and current generated by the thermoelectric modules were performed during tests of our own design. Based on the results obtained, the flow of exhaust gas energy in the entire exhaust system was determined along with the ATEG power output. The ideal area of the exhaust system for location of the ATEG was defined to ensure the highest thermal energy recovery efficiency.

  8. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: III. Interrelations between Respirable Elemental Carbon and Gaseous and Particulate Components of Diesel Exhaust derived from Area Sampling in Underground Non-metal Mining Facilities (United States)

    Vermeulen, Roel; Coble, Joseph B.; Yereb, Daniel; Lubin, Jay H.; Blair, Aaron; Portengen, Lützen; Stewart, Patricia A.; Attfield, Michael; Silverman, Debra T.


    Diesel exhaust (DE) has been implicated as a potential lung carcinogen. However, the exact components of DE that might be involved have not been clearly identified. In the past, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon oxides (COx) were measured most frequently to estimate DE, but since the 1990s, the most commonly accepted surrogate for DE has been elemental carbon (EC). We developed quantitative estimates of historical exposure levels of respirable elemental carbon (REC) for an epidemiologic study of mortality, particularly lung cancer, among diesel-exposed miners by back-extrapolating 1998–2001 REC exposure levels using historical measurements of carbon monoxide (CO). The choice of CO was based on the availability of historical measurement data. Here, we evaluated the relationship of REC with CO and other current and historical components of DE from side-by-side area measurements taken in underground operations of seven non-metal mining facilities. The Pearson correlation coefficient of the natural log-transformed (Ln)REC measurements with the Ln(CO) measurements was 0.4. The correlation of REC with the other gaseous, organic carbon (OC), and particulate measurements ranged from 0.3 to 0.8. Factor analyses indicated that the gaseous components, including CO, together with REC, loaded most strongly on a presumed ‘Diesel exhaust’ factor, while the OC and particulate agents loaded predominantly on other factors. In addition, the relationship between Ln(REC) and Ln(CO) was approximately linear over a wide range of REC concentrations. The fact that CO correlated with REC, loaded on the same factor, and increased linearly in log–log space supported the use of CO in estimating historical exposure levels to DE. PMID:20876234

  9. Local Exhaust Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ulla; Breum, N. O.; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Capture efficiency of a local exhaust system, e.g. a kitchen hood, should include only contaminants being direct captured. In this study basic concepts of local exhaust capture efficiency are given, based on the idea of a control box. A validated numerical model is used for estimation...

  10. Study on jet aeration oxidation of magnesium sulfite from magnesium-based exhaust gas cleaning system. (United States)

    Guo, Lin; Tang, Xiaojia; Wang, Hui; Li, Tie; Liu, Weifeng; Liu, Quan; Zhu, Yimin


    Oxidation of magnesium sulfite in washing water is essential for the treatment of by-product of shipboard magnesium-based exhaust gas cleaning systems. The purpose of this study is to obtain a highly efficient magnesium sulfite oxidation technology by using the jet aeration process. Response surface methodology and central composite design were used to investigate the effects of major variables on oxidation of magnesium sulfite and optimize the oxidation conditions. The predictions of the two response functions agree well with the experimental data. The optimum oxidation conditions for ship are temperature 318 K, liquid flow rate 4.04 m3/h, and pH 7.70. Under optimal conditions, 12 moles of magnesium sulfite were oxidized by 90% over 15 minutes at an energy consumption of 0.220 kw h.

  11. Systemic immunotoxicity in AJ mice following 6-month whole body inhalation exposure to diesel exhaust. (United States)

    Burchiel, Scott W; Lauer, Fredine T; McDonald, Jacob D; Reed, Matthew D


    The purpose of these studies was to determine the effects of subchronic diesel exposure on indicators of systemic immunity in mice. AJ mice were exposed daily for 6 months (6 h/day) to atmospheres containing one of four concentrations (30, 100, 300, and 1000 microg/m(3)) of diluted diesel exhaust (DE) in whole body exposure chambers. The effects of DE were compared to chamber exposure controls receiving fresh air. DE was assessed for effects on systemic immunity by measuring the proliferative response of spleen cells following stimulation with T cell (phytohemagglutinin, or PHA) or B cell (lipopolysaccharide, or LPS) mitogens. The results showed that DE at all exposure levels suppressed the proliferative response of T cells. B cell proliferation was increased at 30 microg/m(3) and was unaffected at the 100, 300, and 1000 microg/m(3) exposures. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known to suppress spleen cell mitogenic responses, and it has been hypothesized by several groups that PAHs and perhaps benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)-quinones (BPQs) may be responsible for the effects of DE or diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Therefore, a second purpose of these studies was to determine the effects of in vitro BPQs on AJ mouse spleen cell mitogenic responses and compare to DE in preliminary studies. Unlike DE, BPQs were found to increase T cell proliferation. In addition, analysis of chamber atmospheres showed that there was little if any PAH and BPQs in DE. Therefore, these results demonstrate that because of the absence of BPQs in DE, they are likely not responsible for the immunosuppressive effect of DE on murine spleen cell responses.

  12. Model Tests of Multiple Nozzle Exhaust Gas Eductor Systems for Gas Turbine Powered Ships (United States)


    of Mechanical Engineering Dean of Science and Engineering 2 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California Rear Admiral Isham Linder J. R. Borsting...impingement on mast-mounted equipment within the exhaust gas plume and the infra-red signature of the hot exhaust gas. An effective means of reducing

  13. 30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system. (United States)


    ... at the final temperature. Water in excess of that required for adiabatic saturation shall be... before the exhaust gas is diluted with air, shall not exceed 170 °F. or the temperature of adiabatic saturation, if this temperature is lower. (d) Water consumed in cooling the exhaust gas under the test...

  14. In utero exposure to a low concentration of diesel exhaust affects spontaneous locomotor activity and monoaminergic system in male mice (United States)


    Background Epidemiological studies have suggested that suspended particulate matter (SPM) causes detrimental health effects such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and that diesel exhaust particles from automobiles is a major contributor to SPM. It has been reported that neonatal and adult exposure to diesel exhaust damages the central nervous system (CNS) and induces behavioral alteration. Recently, we have focused on the effects of prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust on the CNS. In this study, we examined the effects of prenatal exposure to low concentration of diesel exhaust on behaviour and the monoaminergic neuron system. Spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) and monoamine levels in the CNS were assessed. Methods Mice were exposed prenatally to a low concentration of diesel exhaust (171 μg DEP/m3) for 8 hours/day on gestational days 2-16. SLA was assessed for 3 days in 4-week-old mice by analysis of the release of temperature-associated infrared rays. At 5 weeks of age, the mice were sacrificed and the brains were used for analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results and Discussion Mice exposed to a low concentration of diesel exhaust showed decreased SLA in the first 60 minutes of exposure. Over the entire test period, the mice exposed prenatally to diesel exhaust showed decreased daily SLA compared to that in control mice, and the SLA in each 3 hour period was decreased when the lights were turned on. Neurotransmitter levels, including dopamine and noradrenaline, were increased in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the exposure group compared to the control group. The metabolites of dopamine and noradrenaline also increased in the PFC. Neurotransmitter turnover, an index of neuronal activity, of dopamine and noradrenaline was decreased in various regions of the CNS, including the striatum, in the exposure group. The serum corticosterone level was not different between groups. The data suggest that decreased SLA in mice exposed

  15. Bed-integrated local exhaust ventilation system combined with local air cleaning for improved IAQ in hospital patient rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Mizutani, Chiyomi


    micro-environment was exhausted. Two modes of operation were studied: 1) the exhausted polluted air was discharged out of the room and 2) the polluted air was cleaned by the ACF material installed inside the mattress and recirculated back into the room. Both modes of operation efficiently reduced......The performance of a ventilated mattress (VM) used as a bed-integrated local exhaust ventilation system combined with air cleaning fabric (acid-treated activated carbon fibre (ACF) fabric) was developed and studied. The separate and combined effect of the VM and the local air cleaning for reducing....... The patient's body was covered with either a cotton sheet or with the ACF material used as a blanket. Ammonia gas released from the patient's groins simulated the body generated bio-effluents. At the location of the groins the surface area of the VM was perforated through which the contaminated air of the bed...

  16. The mesolimbic system participates in the naltrexone-induced reversal of sexual exhaustion: opposite effects of intra-VTA naltrexone administration on copulation of sexually experienced and sexually exhausted male rats. (United States)

    Garduño-Gutiérrez, René; León-Olea, Martha; Rodríguez-Manzo, Gabriela


    Male rats allowed to copulate until reaching sexual exhaustion exhibit a long-lasting sexual behavior inhibition (around 72 h) that can be reversed by systemic opioid receptor antagonist administration. Copulation activates the mesolimbic dopaminergic system (MLS) and promotes endogenous opioid release. In addition, endogenous opioids, acting at the ventral tegmental area (VTA), modulate the activity of the MLS. We hypothesized that endogenous opioids participate in the sexual exhaustion phenomenon by interacting with VTA opioid receptors and consequently, its reversal by opioid antagonists could be exerted at those receptors. In this study we determined the effects of intra-VTA infusion of different doses of the non-specific opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (0.1-1.0 μg/rat) on the already established sexual behavior inhibition of sexually exhausted male rats. To elucidate the possible involvement of VTA δ-opioid receptors in the naltrexone-mediated reversal of sexual exhaustion, the effects of different doses of the selective δ-opioid receptor antagonist, naltrindole (0.03-1.0 μg/rat) were also tested. Results showed that intra-VTA injection of 0.3 μg naltrexone reversed the sexual inhibition of sexually exhausted rats, evidenced by an increased percentage of animals capable of showing two successive ejaculations. Intra-VTA infused naltrindole did not reverse sexual exhaustion at any dose. It is concluded that the MLS is involved in the reversal of sexual exhaustion induced by systemic naltrexone, and that μ-, but not δ-opioid receptors participate in this effect. Intra-VTA naltrexone infusion to sexually experienced male rats had an inhibitory effect on sexual activity. The opposite effects of intra-VTA naltrexone on male rat sexual behavior expression of sexually experienced and sexually exhausted rats is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of Diesel Engine Performance with Intake and Exhaust System Throttling : Volume 1. Text and Appendixes A through H. (United States)


    The diesel engine itself is an important source of diesel powered vehicle noise, and becomes dominant after proper treatment of intake/exhaust and cooling system noise at vehicle speeds below fifty miles per hour. An investigation is reported, in two...

  18. Exhaust bypass flow control for exhaust heat recovery (United States)

    Reynolds, Michael G.


    An exhaust system for an engine comprises an exhaust heat recovery apparatus configured to receive exhaust gas from the engine and comprises a first flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas and a second flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas. A heat exchanger/energy recovery unit is disposed in the second flow passage and has a working fluid circulating therethrough for exchange of heat from the exhaust gas to the working fluid. A control valve is disposed downstream of the first and the second flow passages in a low temperature region of the exhaust heat recovery apparatus to direct exhaust gas through the first flow passage or the second flow passage.

  19. Interactions of benzo[a]pyrene and diesel exhaust particulate matter with the lung surfactant system. (United States)

    Sosnowski, Tomasz R; Koliński, Michal; Gradón, Leon


    One of the reasons for cellular changes in the lung tissue exposed to the diesel exhaust composed of soot particles with adsorbed volatile organic molecules is the reduction of the clearance rate in the pulmonary region of the respiratory system. The interaction of the fractal-like particles and organic substances with a surfactant monolayer limits its dynamic activity. The surface properties of Survanta, a purified extract of bovine lung surfactant (LS), which interacted with carbon particles (200 nm aggregates) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), molecules were measured with the oscillating bubble technique. The results showed a significant lowering of the dynamics of the surfactant monolayer compared to the control case (no exposure). Additional measurements of surface pressure during the monotonic compression of the air-water interface containing the major LS phospholipid, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), showed that the presence of BaP molecules in the system influenced its stability. The experimental results were supplemented with a theoretical molecular dynamics model of the interaction between BaP and DPPC molecules. The simulation results indicated the insertion of BaP molecules into the lipid layer, which explained the measured effects.

  20. Evaluation of Diesel Engine Performance with Intake and Exhaust System Throttling : Volume 2. Appendix 1. (United States)


    The appendix to the preceding volume presents the data for the subject diesel engine noise study, including an engine sound power level analysis and sound spectrums showing the effect of intake and exhaust restrictions.

  1. The Identification of Incentive Effects of Benefit Exhaustion in Unemployment Insurance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pico Geerdsen, Lars

    The paper examines the different assumptions which have been applied in the literature in order to identify the motivation effect of benefits exhaustion. The different assumptions are tested on a common data set.......The paper examines the different assumptions which have been applied in the literature in order to identify the motivation effect of benefits exhaustion. The different assumptions are tested on a common data set....

  2. Improvement of the thermal and mechanical flow characteristics in the exhaust system of piston engine through the use of ejection effect (United States)

    Plotnikov, L. V.; Zhilkin, B. P.; Brodov, Yu M.


    The results of experimental research of gas dynamics and heat transfer in the exhaust process in piston internal combustion engines are presented. Studies were conducted on full-scale models of piston engine in the conditions of unsteady gas-dynamic (pulsating flows). Dependences of the instantaneous flow speed and the local heat transfer coefficient from the crankshaft rotation angle in the exhaust pipe are presented in the article. Also, the flow characteristics of the exhaust gases through the exhaust systems of various configurations are analyzed. It is shown that installation of the ejector in the exhaust system lead to a stabilization of the flow and allows to improve cleaning of the cylinder from exhaust gases and to optimize the thermal state of the exhaust pipes. Experimental studies were complemented by numerical simulation of the working process of the DM-21 diesel engine (production of “Ural diesel-motor plant”). The object of modeling was the eight-cylinder diesel with turbocharger. The simulation was performed taking into account the processes nonstationarity in the intake and exhaust pipes for the various configurations of exhaust systems (with and without ejector). Numerical simulation of the working process of diesel was performed in ACTUS software (ABB Turbo Systems). The simulation results confirmed the stabilization of the flow due to the use of the ejection effect in the exhaust system of a diesel engine. The use of ejection in the exhaust system of the DM-21 diesel leads to improvement of cleaning cylinders up to 10 %, reduces the specific fuel consumption on average by 1 %.

  3. Investigation of Deposit Formation Mechanisms for Engine In-cylinder Combustion and Exhaust Systems Using Quantitative Analysis and Sustainability Study (United States)

    Ye, Z.; Meng, Q.; Mohamadian, H. P.; Wang, J. T.; Chen, L.; Zhu, L.


    The formation of SI engine combustion deposits is a complex phenomenon which depends on various factors of fuel, oil, additives, and engine. The goal of this study is to examine the effects of operating conditions, gasoline, lubricating oil, and additives on deposit formation. Both an experimental investigation and theoretical analysis are conducted on a single cylinder engine. As a result, the impact of deposits on engine performance and exhaust emissions (HC, NO x ) has been indicated. Using samples from a cylinder head and exhaust pipe as well as switching gases via the dual-gas method (N2, O2), the deposit formation mechanism is thoroughly investigated via the thermogravity analysis approach, where the roles of organic, inorganic, and volatile components of fuel, additives, and oil on deposit formation are identified from thermogravity curves. Sustainable feedback control design is then proposed for potential emission control and performance optimization

  4. Detailed and exhaustive study of the authentication of European virgin olive oils by SEXIA expert system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparicio, R.


    Full Text Available The authentication of extra virgin olive oils from different regions of Spain, Italy and Portugal, by means of their fatty acids, alcohols, sterols, methyl sterols and hydrocarbons content, has been investigated. Multivariate statistical methods and Evidence's Theory were applied. The comparative study shows greater predictive ability using this theory than the traditional statistical methods or expert systems that do not implement the possibility theory. A detailed and exhaustive study of Italian (Tuscany and Basilicata, Portuguese and Spanish virgin olive oils has been made. Geographically coloured maps of the studied regions are shown to strengthen the numerical results.

    Se ha estudiado la autentificación de aceites de oliva virgen de diferentes regiones de España, Italia y Portugal, por su contenido en ácidos grasos, alcoholes, esteroles, metil esteroles e hidrocarburos. Se aplicaron métodos estadísticos multivariantes junto a la Teoría de la Evidencia. El estudio mostró una mejora en la capacidad predictiva utilizando esta teoría frente a otros métodos o sistemas expertos que no implementan la teoría de la posibilidad. Se ha realizado un estudio detallado y exhaustivo con aceites de oliva virgen italianos (Toscana y Basilicata, portugueses y españoles. Los resultados numéricos se muestran sobre mapas geográficos de las diferentes regiones estudiadas.

  5. Influence of an Optimized Thermoelectric Generator on the Back Pressure of the Subsequent Exhaust Gas System of a Vehicle (United States)

    Kühn, Roland; Koeppen, Olaf; Kitte, Jens


    Numerous research projects in automotive engineering focus on the industrialization of the thermoelectric generator (TEG). The development and the implementation of thermoelectric systems into the vehicle environment are commonly supported by virtual design activities. In this paper a customized simulation architecture is presented that includes almost all vehicle parts which are influenced by the TEG (overall system simulation) but is nevertheless capable of real-time use. Moreover, an optimized planar TEG with minimum nominal power output of about 580 W and pressure loss at nominal conditions of 10 mbar, synthesized using the overall system simulation, and the overall system simulation itself are used to answer a generally neglected question: What influence does the position of a TEG have on the back pressure of the subsequent exhaust gas system of the vehicle? It is found that the influence of the TEG on the muffler is low, but the catalytic converter is strongly influenced. It is shown that the TEG can reduce the back pressure of an exhaust gas system so much that its overall back pressure is less than the back pressure of a standard exhaust gas system.

  6. Marketing information system - concept and components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domazet Ivana S.


    Full Text Available Current conditions for the carrying out of business activities are being characterized by an intensive changing of the business surrounding, as well as by a need for a flexible adapting to the newly-created conditions. Dynamisation of economic ambience, based on the principles of a propulsive marketing economy is affirming a business philosophy which will be based on requests of the strategic marketing. Vital component of every successful company is information system, which helps data acquisition and analysis, and its transfer into information, which is then forwarded to users and management. Bearing that in mind, we have created marketing information system, which collects relevant data, analyses it and then produces information, which can be used in planning, implementation and control, those making your company more efficient.

  7. Thermal Components Boost Performance of HVAC Systems (United States)


    As the International Space Station (ISS) travels 17,500 miles per hour, normal is having a constant sensation of free-falling. Normal is no rain, but an extreme amount of shine.with temperatures reaching 250 F when facing the Sun. Thanks to a number of advanced control systems onboard the ISS, however, the interior of the station remains a cool, comfortable, normal environment where astronauts can live and work for extended periods of time. There are two main control systems on the ISS that make it possible for humans to survive in space: the Thermal Control System (TCS) and the Environmental Control and Life Support system. These intricate assemblies work together to supply water and oxygen, regulate temperature and pressure, maintain air quality, and manage waste. Through artificial means, these systems create a habitable environment for the space station s crew. The TCS constantly works to regulate the temperature not only for astronauts, but for the critical instruments and machines inside the spacecraft as well. To do its job, the TCS encompasses several components and systems both inside and outside of the ISS. Inside the spacecraft, a liquid heat-exchange process mechanically pumps fluids in closed-loop circuits to collect, transport, and reject heat. Outside the ISS, an external system circulates anhydrous ammonia to transport heat and cool equipment, and radiators release the heat into space. Over the years, NASA has worked with a variety of partners.public and private, national and international. to develop and refine the most complex thermal control systems ever built for spacecraft, including the one on the ISS.

  8. Modeling the Air Flow in the 3410 Building Filtered Exhaust Stack System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Suffield, Sarah R.


    Additional ventilation capacity has been designed for the 3410 Building filtered exhaust stack system. The updated system will increase the number of fans from two to three and will include ductwork to incorporate the new fan into the existing stack. Stack operations will involve running various two-fan combinations at any given time. The air monitoring system of the existing two-fan stack was previously found to be in compliance with the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 standard, however it is not known if the modified (three-fan) system will comply. Subsequently, a full-scale three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the modified stack system has been created to examine the sampling location for compliance with the standard. The CFD modeling results show good agreement with testing data collected from the existing 3410 Building stack and suggest that velocity uniformity and flow angles will remain well within acceptance criteria when the third fan and associated ductwork is installed. This includes two-fan flow rates up to 31,840 cfm for any of the two-fan combinations. For simulation cases in which tracer gas and particles are introduced in the main duct, the model predicts that both particle and tracer gas coefficients of variance (COVs) may be larger than the acceptable 20 percent criterion of the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 standard for each of the two-fan, 31,840 cfm combinations. Simulations in which the tracers are introduced near the fans result in improved, though marginally acceptable, COV values for the tracers. Due to the remaining uncertainty that the stack will qualify with the addition of the third fan and high flow rates, a stationary air blender from Blender Products, Inc. is considered for inclusion in the stack system. A model of the air blender has been developed and incorporated into the CFD model. Simulation results from the CFD model that includes the air blender show striking improvements in tracer gas mixing and tracer particle

  9. Marine diesel engines exhaust noise. Pt. VII: Calculation of the acoustical performance of diesel engine exhaust systems / Uitlaatgeluid van scheepsdieselmotoren. Dl. VII: Berekening van de akoestische eigenschappen van uitlaatsystemen van dieselmotoren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiten, J.; Gerretsen, E.; Vellekoop, J.C.


    A method is given lor the calculation of the transfer damping of diesel engine exhaust systems. Also the complete computer program in FORTRAN IV, based on this calculation method is given. The method includes such system elements as chamber resonators, 1,5-pipes, absorbing siìencers and shunts to

  10. Effects of a Dual-Loop Exhaust Gas Recirculation System and Variable Nozzle Turbine Control on the Operating Parameters of an Automotive Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Zamboni


    Full Text Available Reduction of NOX emissions and fuel consumption are the main topics in engine development, forcing the adoption of complex techniques and components, whose interactions have to be clearly understood for proper and reliable operations and management of the whole system. The investigation presented in this paper aimed at the development of integrated control strategies of turbocharging, high pressure (HP and low pressure (LP exhaust gas recirculation (EGR systems for better NOX emissions and fuel consumption, while analyzing their reciprocal influence and the resulting variations of engine quantities. The study was based on an extended experimental program in three part load engine operating conditions. In the paper a comparison of the behavior of the main engine sub-systems (intake and exhaust circuits, turbocharger turbine and compressor, HP and LP EGR loops in a wide range of operating modes is presented and discussed, considering open and closed loop approaches for variable nozzle turbine (VNT control, and showing how these affect engine performance and emissions. The potential of significant decrease in NOX emissions through the integration of HP and LP EGR was confirmed, while a proper VNT management allowed for improved fuel consumption level, if an open loop control scheme is followed. At higher engine speed and load, further actions have to be applied to compensate for observed soot emissions increase.

  11. Analysis of tractor particulate emissions in a modified NRSC test after implementing a particulate filter in the exhaust system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siedlecki Maciej


    Full Text Available Retrofitting, which means retrofitting old generation engine systems with modern exhaust after treatment systems, is becoming increasingly popular, which allow vehicles to adhere to the newer and more stringent emission norms. This can save the operators of such vehicles money using older engineered designs without the need to design a new unit or buy an expensive new machine or vehicle. At present, there is a growing interest in emissions from off-road vehicles and the introduction of minimum limits for older vehicles that must be met in order to be able to allow for their operation. For the purposes of this article, the Stage IIIA farm tractor has been fitted with a particulate filter in the exhaust system. The study investigated the impact of the use of exhaust after treatment systems on particle emissions in terms of mass, size distribution and number using PEMS analyzers in the modified NRSC stationary test by engine loading, using a mobile engine dynamometer and comparison of test results.

  12. NK Cell Exhaustion (United States)

    Bi, Jiacheng; Tian, Zhigang


    Natural killer cells are important effector lymphocytes of the innate immune system, playing critical roles in antitumor and anti-infection host defense. Tumor progression or chronic infections, however, usually leads to exhaustion of NK cells, thus limiting the antitumor/infection potential of NK cells. In many tumors or chronic infections, multiple mechanisms might contribute to the exhaustion of NK cells, such as dysregulated NK cell receptors signaling, as well as suppressive effects by regulatory cells or soluble factors within the microenvironment. Better understanding of the characteristics, as well as the underlying mechanisms of NK cell exhaustion, not only should increase our understanding of the basic biology of NK cells but also could reveal novel NK cell-based antitumor/infection targets. Here, we provide an overview of our current knowledge on NK cell exhaustion in tumors, and in chronic infections. PMID:28702032

  13. Effect of lower and higher alcohol fuel synergies in biofuel blends and exhaust treatment system on emissions from CI engine. (United States)

    Subramanian, Thiyagarajan; Varuvel, Edwin Geo; Martin, Leenus Jesu; Beddhannan, Nagalingam


    The present study deals with performance, emission and combustion studies in a single cylinder CI engine with lower and higher alcohol fuel synergies with biofuel blends and exhaust treatment system. Karanja oil methyl ester (KOME), widely available biofuel in India, and orange oil (ORG), a low carbon biofuel, were taken for this study, and equal volume blend was prepared for testing. Methanol (M) and n-pentanol (P) was taken as lower and higher alcohol and blended 20% by volume with KOME-ORG blend. Activated carbon-based exhaust treatment indigenous system was designed and tested with KOME-ORG + M20 and KOME-ORG + P20 blend. The tests were carried out at various load conditions at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The study revealed that considering performance, emission and combustion studies, KOME-ORG + M20 + activated carbon are found optimum in reducing NO, smoke and CO2 emission. Compared to KOME, for KOME-ORG + M20 + activated carbon, NO emission is reduced from 10.25 to 7.85 g/kWh, the smoke emission is reduced from 49.4 to 28.9%, and CO2 emission is reduced from 1098.84 to 580.68 g/kWh. However, with exhaust treatment system, an increase in HC and CO emissions and reduced thermal efficiency is observed due to backpressure effects.

  14. Evaluation and development of measurement components for a catalytic converter test system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, A.K.


    The purpose of this research and development project was to evaluate and configure the components of a test system designed for the analysis of full-scale vehicle-aged automobile catalytic converters. The components tested included an exhaust gas analyzer for measuring hydrocarbon, CO, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} contents and a chemiluminescence detector (CLD) for measuring NO{sub x}, as well as thermocouples and pressure meters. A software package (TestPoint vers.2.Ob, Capital Equipment) was used to develop a computer-based data sampling and acquisition interface with the components and sensors connected to the test system. Tests of the Sun MGA-1200, a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer, with CO, CO{sub 2} and various hydrocarbons (propane and octane) revealed sensitivity to large pressure changes (greater than 500 mbar). There was no significant cross-sensitivity between the gases except for the slight response of the hydrocarbon (HC) register to water vapor and CO. However, the low range of HC(5-30 vppm) expected in car exhaust after the converter means any cross-sensitivity could have an effect on the measurement, depending on measurement conditions. Tests of the EcoPhysics CLD 700 NO{sub x} meter also indicated sensitivity to pressure. An executable TestPoint run-time application was created to allow near real-time monitoring of the test system using a desktop computer. Nine channels of analog data are fed to a desktop computer via an A/D board and seven exhaust gas parameters through an RS-232C interface with the MGA-1200 23 refs, 32 figs, 10 tabs. Examination paper

  15. Macroscopic Interpretability of Quantum Component Systems (United States)

    Ascoli, R.


    Preliminary accounts on three subjects are produced in Secs. 1, 2, 3. The guiding idea is Universality of Physics, by which we mean that the boundary between the system {S} that is selected, and which is described by Quantum Theory, and the macroscopic environment {A} where the single physical events as well as the events of ordinary life occur, which is described within a Boolean structure, may always be shifted by constructing a Quantum Model also of the environment {A} (to be selected from the "further environment"), as it is set forth in Sec. 1. This introduces the subject of Sec. 2, which examines what should be understood when saying that the quantum component system {A} may be macroscopically or at least "semimacroscopically" interpreted. In its turn this introduces Sec. 3, reporting two still unpublished theorems produced at Camerino 1988, which very closely connect the above requirements on the Quantum Model of {A} with some properties of the operations that the "instrument" {A} performs on {S}, with the result that the macroscopicity conditions of Sec. 2 turn out to be widely model-independent ("environmental").

  16. Semiconductor industry wafer fab exhaust management

    CERN Document Server

    Sherer, Michael J


    Given the myriad exhaust compounds and the corresponding problems that they can pose in an exhaust management system, the proper choice of such systems is a complex task. Presenting the fundamentals, technical details, and general solutions to real-world problems, Semiconductor Industry: Wafer Fab Exhaust Management offers practical guidance on selecting an appropriate system for a given application. Using examples that provide a clear understanding of the concepts discussed, Sherer covers facility layout, support facilities operations, and semiconductor process equipment, followed by exhaust types and challenges. He reviews exhaust point-of-use devices and exhaust line requirements needed between process equipment and the centralized exhaust system. The book includes information on wet scrubbers for a centralized acid exhaust system and a centralized ammonia exhaust system and on centralized equipment to control volatile organic compounds. It concludes with a chapter devoted to emergency releases and a separ...

  17. System design description for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster Skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, O.D.


    The primary purpose of the two 1,000 CFM Exhauster Skids, POR-007-SKID E and POR-008-SKID F, is to provide backup to the waste tank primary ventilation systems for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102, and the AY-102 annulus in the event of a failure during the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 and subsequent transfer of sluiced waste to 241-AY-102. This redundancy is required since both of the tank ventilation systems have been declared as Safety Class systems.

  18. A new grading system for plant-available potassium using exhaustive cropping techniques combined with chemical analyses of soils (United States)

    Li, Ting; Wang, Huoyan; Zhou, Zijun; Chen, Xiaoqin; Zhou, Jianmin


    A new grading system for plant-available potassium (K) in soils based on K release rate from soils and plant growth indices was established. In the study, fourteen different agricultural soils from the southern subtropical to the northern temperate zones in China were analyzed by both chemical extraction methods and exhaustive cropping techniques. Based on the change trends in plant growth indices, relative biomass yields of 70% and 50%, K-deficient coefficients of 35 and 22 under conventional exhaustive experiments, and tissue K concentrations of 40 g kg-1 and 15 g kg-1 under intensive exhaustive experiments were obtained as critical values that represent different change trends. In addition, the extraction method using 0.2 mol L-1 sodium tetraphenylboron (NaTPB) suggested soil K release rates of 12 mg kg-1 min-1 and 0.4 mg kg-1 min-1 as turning points that illustrated three different release trends. Thus, plant-available K in soils was classified into three categories: high available K, medium available K and low available K, and grading criteria and measurement methods were also proposed. This work has increased our understanding of soil K bioavailability and has direct application in terms of routine assessment of agriculture soils.

  19. High Temperature Resistant Exhaust Valve Spindle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bihlet, Uffe Ditlev

    of the engine, new high temperature alloys are required for a specific engine component, the exhaust valve spindle. Two alloys are used for an exhaust valve spindle; one for the bottom of the spindle, and one for the spindle seat. Being placed in the exhaust gas stream, combustion products such as V2O5 and Na2...

  20. 21 CFR 866.5240 - Complement components immunological test system. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Complement components immunological test system... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5240 Complement components immunological test system. (a) Identification. A complement components...

  1. Method and system for the combination of non-thermal plasma and metal/metal oxide doped .gamma.-alumina catalysts for diesel engine exhaust aftertreatment system (United States)

    Aardahl, Christopher L [Richland, WA; Balmer-Miller, Mari Lou [West Richland, WA; Chanda, Ashok [Peoria, IL; Habeger, Craig F [West Richland, WA; Koshkarian, Kent A [Peoria, IL; Park, Paul W [Peoria, IL


    The present disclosure pertains to a system and method for treatment of oxygen rich exhaust and more specifically to a method and system that combines non-thermal plasma with a metal doped .gamma.-alumina catalyst. Current catalyst systems for the treatment of oxygen rich exhaust are capable of achieving only approximately 7 to 12% NO.sub.x reduction as a passive system and only 25 40% reduction when a supplemental hydrocarbon reductant is injected into the exhaust stream. It has been found that treatment of an oxygen rich exhaust initially with a non-thermal plasma and followed by subsequent treatment with a metal doped .gamma.-alumina prepared by the sol gel method is capable of increasing the NO.sub.x reduction to a level of approximately 90% in the absence of SO.sub.2 and 80% in the presence of 20 ppm of SO.sub.2. Especially useful metals have been found to be indium, gallium, and tin.

  2. Building 65 Hydraulic Systems Handbook: Components, Systems, and Applications (United States)


    on this subject. It is recommended that the untrained reader receive some formal training to get the most out of this manual. This document can...components and their symbols used in the circuits in this manual. It is assumed that the reader has had some type of training on the fundamentals to give better hydraulic system performance and a more aesthetic test setup. The primary flow output is a 1¼” port and auxiliary ports are

  3. Implementation of an experimental pilot reproducing the fouling of the exhaust gas recirculation system in diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crepeau Gérald


    Full Text Available The European emission standards EURO 5 and EURO 6 define more stringent acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of new vehicles. The Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR system is a partial but essential solution for lowering the emission of nitrogen oxides and soot particulates. Yet, due to a more intensive use than in the past, the fouling of the EGR system is increased. Ensuring the reliability of the EGR system becomes a main challenge. In partnership with PSA Peugeot Citroën, we designed an experimental setup that mimics an operating EGR system. Its distinctive features are (1 its ability to reproduce precisely the operating conditions and (2 its ability to measure the temperature field on the heat exchanger surface with an Infra Red camera for detecting in real time the evolution of the fooling deposit based on its thermal resistance. Numerical codes are used in conjunction with this experimental setup to determine the evolution of the fouling thickness from its thermal resistance.

  4. 9,10-phenanthrenequinone, a component of diesel exhaust particles, inhibits the reduction of 4-benzoylpyridine and all-trans-retinal and mediates superoxide formation through its redox cycling in pig heart. (United States)

    Shimada, Hideaki; Oginuma, Michiko; Hara, Akira; Imamura, Yorishige


    We have recently purified a tetrameric carbonyl reductase from the cytosolic fraction of pig heart (pig heart carbonyl reductase, PHCR), using 4-benzoylpyridine (4-BP) as the substrate. PHCR has the ability to catalyze efficiently the reduction of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (PQ) contained in diesel exhaust particles (DEPs). Thus, the present study was attempted to characterize the inhibitory effect of PQ on the reduction of 4-BP and all-trans-retinal in pig heart cytosol. Of the DEP components examined, PQ was the most potent inhibitor for the reduction of 4-BP and all-trans-retinal in pig heart cytosol. PQ also inhibited competitively the 4-BP reduction. These results indicate that PQ inhibits the reduction of 4-BP and all-trans-retinal by acting PHCR present in pig heart cytosol. Furthermore, whether PQ induces the formation of superoxide anion radical was examined in pig heart cytosol. The absorbance of cytochrome c at 550 nm was increased with the time by adding PQ, and the increased absorbance was decreased in the presence of superoxide dismutase. A similar result was observed in the reaction system of recombinant PHCR. On the basis of these results, it is concluded that PQ not only inhibits the reduction of 4-BP and all-trans-retinal catalyzed by PHCR but also mediates superoxide formation through its redox cycling involved in PHCR. We propose the possibility that PQ disturbs the homeostasis of retinoid metabolism and induces oxidative stress in pig heart.

  5. Applications of Advanced Electromagnetics Components and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kouzaev, Guennadi A


    This text, directed to the microwave engineers and Master and PhD students, is on the use of electromagnetics to the development and design of advanced integrated components distinguished by their extended field of applications. The results of hundreds of authors scattered in numerous journals and conference proceedings are carefully reviewed and classed.  Several chapters are to refresh the knowledge of readers in advanced electromagnetics. New techniques are represented by compact electromagnetic–quantum equations which can be used in modeling of microwave-quantum integrated circuits of future In addition, a topological method to the boundary value problem analysis is considered with the results and examples.  One extended chapter is for the development and design of integrated components for extended bandwidth applications, and the technology and electromagnetic issues of silicon integrated transmission lines, transitions, filters, power dividers, directional couplers, etc are considered. Novel prospec...

  6. Gasoline engine management systems and components

    CERN Document Server


    The call for environmentally compatible and economical vehicles necessitates immense efforts to develop innovative engine concepts. Technical concepts such as gasoline direct injection helped to save fuel up to 20 % and reduce CO2-emissions. Descriptions of the cylinder-charge control, fuel injection, ignition and catalytic emission-control systems provides comprehensive overview of today´s gasoline engines. This book also describes emission-control systems and explains the diagnostic systems. The publication provides information on engine-management-systems and emission-control regulations. Contents History of the automobile.- Basics of the gasoline engine.- Fuels.- Cylinder-charge control systems.- Gasoline injection systems over the years.- Fuel supply.- Manifold fuel injection.- Gasoline direct injection.- Operation of gasoline engines on natural gas.- Ignition systems over the years.- Inductive ignition systems.- Ignition coils.- Spark plugs.- Electronic control.- Sensors.- Electronic control unit.- Exh...

  7. The development of component-based information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cesare, Sergio de; Macredie, Robert


    This work provides a comprehensive overview of research and practical issues relating to component-based development information systems (CBIS). Spanning the organizational, developmental, and technical aspects of the subject, the original research included here provides fresh insights into successful CBIS technology and application. Part I covers component-based development methodologies and system architectures. Part II analyzes different aspects of managing component-based development. Part III investigates component-based development versus commercial off-the-shelf products (COTS), includi

  8. Research on the Compatibility of the Cooling Unit in an Automotive Exhaust-based Thermoelectric Generator and Engine Cooling System (United States)

    Deng, Y. D.; Liu, X.; Chen, S.; Xing, H. B.; Su, C. Q.


    The temperature difference between the hot and cold sides of thermoelectric modules is a key factor affecting the conversion efficiency of an automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generator (TEG). In the work discussed in this paper the compatibility of TEG cooling unit and engine cooling system was studied on the basis of the heat transfer characteristics of the TEG. A new engine-cooling system in which a TEG cooling unit was inserted was simulated at high power and high vehicle speed, and at high power and low vehicle speed, to obtain temperatures and flow rates of critical inlets and outlets. The results show that coolant temperature exceeds its boiling point at high power and low vehicle speed, so the new system cannot meet cooling requirements under these conditions. Measures for improvement to optimize the cooling system are proposed, and provide a basis for future research.

  9. 40 CFR 90.414 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description. (United States)


    ... between the muffler and the sample probe. The mixing chamber is an optional component of the raw gas... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT... components or parts of components that are wetted by the sample or corrosive calibration gases must be either...

  10. Aerodynamic Control of Exhaust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgård, Carl-Erik

    In the autumn of 1985 the Unive!Sity of Aalborg was approached by the manufacturer C. P. Aaberg, who had obtained aerodynilmic control of the exhaust by means of injection. The remaining investigations comprising optimizations of the system with regard to effect, consumption, requirements...

  11. A novel 1D approach for the simulation of unsteady reacting flows in diesel exhaust after-treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piscaglia, F.; Ferrari, G. [Dipartimento di Energia, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy)


    A new one-dimensional approach, based on the solution of the governing equations for unsteady, reacting and compressible flows has been developed for the simulation of the hydrodynamics, the transient filtration/loading and the catalytic/NO{sub 2}-assisted regeneration occurring in diesel particulate filters (DPF). The model is able to keep track of the chemical compounds, of the amount of soot transported by the flow, and it can estimate the increasing of back-pressure occurring in the exhaust system, due to the permeability variation of the porous wall and to the soot cake building up on the DPF porous surface. Further, a prediction of the oxidation of the deposited particulate induced by the Oxygen (collected in the exhaust gas), by the nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), by the carbon oxide (CO) and by the hydrocarbons (HC) converted along the diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) is given. A first validation of the code has been performed by the comparison with the results coming from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and with experimental measurements published in literature. The proposed model has been included in an engine simulation code, in order to perform a simulation of a complete engine; results coming from an optimization work recently carried out on a 1.9 L JTD turbocharged diesel engine, equipped with a complex after-treatment system, are presented. (author)

  12. Power system protection 1 principles and components

    CERN Document Server

    Association, Electricity Training


    The worldwide growth in demand for electricity has forced the pace of developments in electrical power system design to meet consumer needs for reliable, secure and cheap supplies. Power system protection, as a technology essential to high quality supply, is widely recognised as a specialism of growing and often critical importance, in which power system needs and technological progress have combined to result in rapid developments in policy and practice in recent years. In the United Kingdom, the need for appropriate training in power system protection was recognised in the early 1960s with t


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Vasilchenko


    Full Text Available New production technologies of modern control systems have moved from the stage of research and experimentation into the stage of practical use. Modern communication standards for the exchange of information are developed and introduced. Digital devices, protectors and automation are widely used. There has been substantial development of hardware and software of control systems.

  14. Decontamination and demolition of a former plutonium processing facility`s process exhaust system, firescreen, and filter plenum buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFrate, P.J. Jr.; Stout, D.S.; Elliott, J.W.


    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Decommissioning Project has decontaminated, demolished, and decommissioned a process exhaust system, two filter plenum buildings, and a firescreen plenum structure at Technical Area 21 (TA-2 1). The project began in August 1995 and was completed in January 1996. These high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter plenums and associated ventilation ductwork provided process exhaust to fume hoods and glove boxes in TA-21 Buildings 2 through 5 when these buildings were active plutonium and uranium processing and research facilities. This paper summarizes the history of TA-21 plutonium and uranium processing and research activities and provides a detailed discussion of integrated work process controls, characterize-as-you-go methodology, unique engineering controls, decontamination techniques, demolition methodology, waste minimization, and volume reduction. Also presented in detail are the challenges facing the LANL Decommissioning Project to safely and economically decontaminate and demolish surplus facilities and the unique solutions to tough problems. This paper also shows the effectiveness of the integrated work package concept to control work through all phases.

  15. Decontamination and demolition of a former plutonium processing facility`s process exhaust system, firescreen, and filter plenum buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFrate, P.J. Jr.; Stout, D.S.; Elliott, J.W.


    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Decommissioning Project has decontaminated, demolished, and decommissioned a process exhaust system, two filter plenum buildings, and a firescreen plenum structure at Technical Area 21 (TA-21). The project began in August 1995 and was completed in January 1996. These high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter plenums and associated ventilation ductwork provided process exhaust to fume hoods and glove boxes in TA-21 Buildings 2 through 5 when these buildings were active plutonium and uranium processing and research facilities. This paper summarizes the history of TA-21 plutonium and uranium processing and research activities and provides a detailed discussion of integrated work process controls, characterize-as-you-go methodology, unique engineering controls, decontamination techniques, demolition methodology, waste minimization, and volume reduction. Also presented in detail are the challenges facing the LANL Decommissioning Project to safely and economically decontaminate and demolish surplus facilities and the unique solutions to tough problems. This paper also shows the effectiveness of the integrated work package concept to control work through all phases.

  16. B-cell exhaustion in HIV infection: the role of immune activation. (United States)

    Moir, Susan; Fauci, Anthony S


    To discuss a component of the pathogenic mechanisms of HIV infection in the context of phenotypic and functional alterations in B cells that are due to persistent viral replication leading to aberrant immune activation and cellular exhaustion. We explore how B-cell exhaustion arises during persistent viremia and how it compares with T-cell exhaustion and similar B-cell alterations in other diseases. HIV-associated B-cell exhaustion was first described in 2008, soon after the demonstration of persistent virus-induced T-cell exhaustion, as well as the identification of a subset B cells in tonsil tissues with immunoregulatory features similar to those observed in T-cell exhaustion. Our understanding of B-cell exhaustion has since expanded in two important areas: the role of inhibitory receptors in the unresponsiveness of exhausted B cells and the increasing evidence that similar B cells are found in other diseases that are associated with aberrant immune activation and inflammation. The phenomenon of B-cell exhaustion is now well established in HIV infection and other diseases characterized by immune activation. Over the coming years, it will be important to understand how cellular exhaustion affects the capacity of the immune system to respond to persisting primary pathogens, as well as to other microbial antigens, whether encountered as secondary infections or following immunization.

  17. Diesel exhaust pollution: chemical monitoring and cytotoxicity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucky Joeng


    Full Text Available Diesel engines are a significant source of nitrogen oxides (NOx and particulate matter (PM which may cause adverse health effects on the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems. There is little consistency between many studies to establish which engine parameter is a key factor to determine the toxicity of diesel exhaust. The aim of this study was to correlate engine operating systems with cytotoxicity using human cells. A dynamic direct exposure system containing human cells grown at the air liquid interface (ALI was employed to expose human derived cells to diesel exhaust emitted under a range of engine loads. To determine correlation between engine load and cytotoxicity, concentrations of NOx and carbon (organic and elemental were measured. Comparison between filtered and unfiltered exhaust was also made. To assess cytotoxicity and determine mechanisms responsible for toxic effects, various bioassays measuring a range of endpoints were used including: cell metabolism (MTS, cell energy production (ATP and cell lysosome integrity (NRU. The human cells selected in this study were lung (A549 and liver (HepG2 derived cells to detect if observed cytotoxicity was basal (i.e. affect all cell types or organ-specific. Results showed that NOx gas concentrations increased as engine load increased which resulted in significant cytotoxicity to both A549 and HepG2 cells. In contrast carbon measurements remained relatively constant across loads with no observable significant difference in cytotoxicity by filtering diesel exhaust. This result suggests that the gaseous component of diesel exhaust may contribute higher cytotoxicity than the particulate component. Post exposure incubation was an important factor to consider as only gaseous components of diesel exhaust exhibited observable immediate effects. Our findings suggest engine torque as a reliable indicator of cytotoxicity on human cells. The advantages of the dynamic direct exposure method include a more

  18. Catalog of components for electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems (United States)

    Eissler, H. C.


    This catalog of commercially available electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion system components is intended for designers and builders of these vehicles and contains 50 categories of components. These categories include those components used between the battery terminals and the output axle hub, as well as some auxiliary equipment. An index of the components and a listing of the suppliers and their addresses and phone numbers are included.

  19. Port Protocols for Deadlock-Freedom of Component Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lambertz


    Full Text Available In component-based development, approaches for property verification exist that avoid building the global system behavior of the component model. Typically, these approaches rely on the analysis of the local behavior of fixed sized subsystems of components. In our approach, we want to avoid not only the analysis of the global behavior but also of the local behaviors of the components. Instead, we consider very small parts of the local behaviors called port protocols that suffice to verify properties.

  20. Evaluation of Energy Saving Characteristics of a High-Efficient Cogeneration System Utilizing Gas Engine Exhaust Heat (United States)

    Pak, Pyong Sik

    A high efficiency cogeneration system (CGS) utilizing high temperature exhaust gas from a gas engine is proposed. In the proposed CGS, saturated steam produced in the gas engine is superheated with a super heater utilizing regenerative burner and used to drive a steam turbine generator. The heat energy is supplied by extracting steam from the steam turbine and turbine outlet low-temperature steam. Both of the energy saving characteristics of the proposed CGS and a CGS constructed by using the original gas engine (GE-CGS) were investigated and compared, by taking a case where energy for office buildings was supplied by the conventional energy systems. It was shown that the proposed CGS has energy saving rate of 24.5%, higher than 1.83 times, compared with that of the original GE-CGS.

  1. Chrysotile asbestos exposure associated with removal of automobile exhaust systems (ca. 1945-1975) by mechanics: results of a simulation study. (United States)

    Paustenbach, Dennis J; Madl, Amy K; Donovan, Ellen; Clark, Katherine; Fehling, Kurt; Lee, Terry C


    For decades, asbestos-containing gaskets were used in virtually every system that involved the transport of fluids or gases. Prior to the mid-1970s, some automobile exhaust systems contained asbestos gaskets either at flanges along the exhaust pipes or at the exhaust manifolds of the engine. A limited number of automobile mufflers were lined with asbestos paper. This paper describes a simulation study that characterized personal and bystander exposures to asbestos during the removal of automobile exhaust systems (ca. 1945-1975) containing asbestos gaskets. A total of 16 pre-1974 vehicles with old or original exhaust systems were studied. Of the 16 vehicles, 12 contained asbestos gaskets in the exhaust system and two vehicles had asbestos lining inside the muffler. A total of 82 samples (23 personal, 38 bystander, and 21 indoor background) were analyzed by Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and 88 samples (25 personal, 41 bystander, and 22 indoor background) by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Only seven of 25 worker samples analyzed by TEM detected asbestos fibers and 18 were below the analytical sensitivity limit (mean 0.013 f/cc, range 0.001-0.074 f/cc). Applying the ratio of asbestos fibers:total fibers (including non-asbestos) as determined by TEM to the PCM results showed an average (1 h) adjusted PCM worker exposure of 0.018 f/cc (0.002-0.04 f/cc). The average (1 h) adjusted PCM airborne concentration for bystanders was 0.008 f/cc (range 0.0008-0.015 f/cc). Assuming a mechanic can replace four automobile single exhaust systems in 1 workday, the estimated 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) for a mechanic performing this work was 0.01 f/cc. Under a scenario where a mechanic might repeatedly conduct exhaust work, these results suggest that exposures to asbestos from work with automobile exhaust systems during the 1950s through the 1970s containing asbestos gaskets were substantially below 0.1 f/cc, the current PEL for chrysotile asbestos, and quite often were

  2. Test System for Standard ALICE DCS Components

    CERN Document Server



    Currently, the ALICE DCS project is supervising equipment installed in the ALICE experiment site at CERN. Hence, the aim of this project was to provide a test bench in the DCS lab, where a real equipment and software tools will be deployed. Using this test bench, test procedures which exercise the devices under the test in a configurable way and provide logging and trending of the acquired data were implemented. The setup was devised using the ALICE software framework and Siemens SCADA system WINCC OA, providing the same functionality as the systems installed in ALICE, and will be used for the commissioning of the new software and hardware, burn-in tests of new modules and log-term stability tests of ALICE hardware.

  3. Toward Common Components for Open Workflow Systems


    Billings, Jay Jay; Jha, Shantenu


    The role of scalable high-performance workflows and flexible workflow management systems that can support multiple simulations will continue to increase in importance. For example, with the end of Dennard scaling, there is a need to substitute a single long running simulation with multiple repeats of shorter simulations, or concurrent replicas. Further, many scientific problems involve ensembles of simulations in order to solve a higher-level problem or produce statistically meaningful result...

  4. Electronic music effects on neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems and psychophysiological parameters during exhaustive incremental test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P.C. Smirmaul


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the music effects on physiological and psychophysiological responses, as well as on the maximum power output attained during an incremental test. A sample of 10 healthy individuals (20.8 ± 1.4 years, 77.0 ± 12.0 kg, 179.2 ± 6.3 cm participated in this study. It was recorded the electromyographic activity (muscles Rectus Femoris − RF and Vastus Lateralis − VL, heart rate (HR, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, ratings of perceived time (RPT and the maximum power output attained (PMax during music (WM and without music (WTM conditions. The individuals completed four maximal incremental tests (MIT ramp-like on a cycle simulator with initial load of 100 W and increments of 10 W•min-1. The mean values of PMax between conditions WTM (260.5 ± 27.7 W and WM (263.2 ± 17.2 W were not statistically different. The comparison between the rates of increase of the values expressed in root-mean-square (RMS and median frequency (MF for both muscles (RF and VL also showed no statistical difference, as well as HR, RPE and RPT. It is concluded that the use of the electronic music during an incremental test to exhaustion showed no effect on the analyzed variables for the investigated group.

  5. System and method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides in combustion exhaust gases (United States)

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A


    A multi-stage selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit (32) provides efficient reduction of NOx and other pollutants from about C. in a power plant (19). Hydrogen (24) and ammonia (29) are variably supplied to the SCR unit depending on temperature. An upstream portion (34) of the SCR unit catalyzes NOx+NH.sub.3 reactions above about C. A downstream portion (36) catalyzes NOx+H.sub.2 reactions below about C., and catalyzes oxidation of NH.sub.3, CO, and VOCs with oxygen in the exhaust above about C., efficiently removing NOx and other pollutants over a range of conditions with low slippage of NH.sub.3. An ammonia synthesis unit (28) may be connected to the SCR unit to provide NH.sub.3 as needed, avoiding transport and storage of ammonia or urea at the site. A carbonaceous gasification plant (18) on site may supply hydrogen and nitrogen to the ammonia synthesis unit, and hydrogen to the SCR unit.

  6. Electronic music effects on neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems and psychophysiological parameters during exhaustive incremental test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno de Paula Caraça Smirmaul


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the music effects on physiological and psychophysiological responses, as well as on the maximum power output attained during an incremental test. A sample of 10 healthy individuals (20.8 ± 1.4 years, 77.0 ± 12.0 kg, 179.2 ± 6.3 cm participated in this study. It was recorded the electromyographic activity (muscles Rectus Femoris − RF and Vastus Lateralis − VL, heart rate (HR, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, ratings of perceived time (RPT and the maximum power output attained (PMax during music (WM and without music (WTM conditions. The individuals completed four maximal incremental tests (MIT ramp-like on a cycle simulator with initial load of 100 W and increments of 10 W·min-1. The mean values of PMax between conditions WTM (260.5 ± 27.7 W and WM (263.2 ± 17.2 W were not statistically different. The comparison between the rates of increase of the values expressed in root-mean-square (RMS and median frequency (MF for both muscles (RF and VL also showed no statistical difference, as well as HR, RPE and RPT. It is concluded that the use of the electronic music during an incremental test to exhaustion showed no effect on the analyzed variables for the investigated group.

  7. Multilayer electronic component systems and methods of manufacture (United States)

    Thompson, Dane (Inventor); Wang, Guoan (Inventor); Kingsley, Nickolas D. (Inventor); Papapolymerou, Ioannis (Inventor); Tentzeris, Emmanouil M. (Inventor); Bairavasubramanian, Ramanan (Inventor); DeJean, Gerald (Inventor); Li, RongLin (Inventor)


    Multilayer electronic component systems and methods of manufacture are provided. In this regard, an exemplary system comprises a first layer of liquid crystal polymer (LCP), first electronic components supported by the first layer, and a second layer of LCP. The first layer is attached to the second layer by thermal bonds. Additionally, at least a portion of the first electronic components are located between the first layer and the second layer.

  8. Advanced Reconnaissance System Component Reliability Study (United States)


    or chemical interaction of the air atoms and molecules.on the vehicle skin or lens and window materials. The quantity of molecules present is very low...I Mill -• •ri... ": :’s t:.... 111 . . . orIII. i...1 MINI . • ; . . .1...!.... : . •..1 • . , , BIM El MIMIIMO= .. insma’ • • . wart...Reliability were discussed. "Some Reliability Aspects of Systems Design", Moskowitz, Fred and * Lean , John’, RADC Technical Note 55-4 "Reliability is

  9. Oil migration in 2-component confectionery systems. (United States)

    Lee, Winston L; McCarthy, Michael J; McCarthy, Kathryn L


    Oil migration from high oil content centers into chocolate coatings results in product quality changes. The objective of this study was to monitor and model peanut oil migration in 2-layer systems of increasing phase complexity. Three 2-layer systems were prepared: peanut oil/cocoa butter; peanut butter paste/cocoa butter; and peanut butter paste/chocolate. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure liquid oil signal as a function of position over a storage time of 193 days at 25 degrees C. The 3 types of samples exhibited appreciably different patterns of oil migration. The peanut oil/cocoa butter samples had mass transfer typical of oil being absorbed into a liquid/solid region. The peanut butter paste/cocoa butter magnetic resonance profiles were characterized by mass transfer with a partition coefficient greater than unity. The peanut butter paste/chocolate samples exhibited a time-dependent peanut oil concentration at the interface between the chocolate and peanut butter paste. The spatial and temporal experimental data of the peanut butter paste/chocolate samples were modeled using a Fickian diffusion model, fitting for the effective diffusivity. Values of the diffusivity for the 6 chocolate formulations ranged from 1.10 to 2.01 x 10(-13) m(2)/s, with no statistically significant differences.

  10. A two-component system for seedless fruit development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovy, A.G.; Vos, de C.H.; Schijlen, E.G.W.M.; Angenent, G.C.


    The application relates to the field of plant biotechnology. A two component system for making hybrid plants capable of producing seedless fruits is provided. Using the two component system, for example seedless tomatoes, peppers, aubergines and melons can 5 be made. Also provided is a method for

  11. Diesel exhaust particulate induces pulmonary and systemic inflammation in rats without impairing endothelial function ex vivo or in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson Sarah


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhalation of diesel exhaust impairs vascular function in man, by a mechanism that has yet to be fully established. We hypothesised that pulmonary exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP would cause endothelial dysfunction in rats as a consequence of pulmonary and systemic inflammation. Methods Wistar rats were exposed to DEP (0.5 mg or saline vehicle by intratracheal instillation and hind-limb blood flow, blood pressure and heart rate were monitored in situ 6 or 24 h after exposure. Vascular function was tested by administration of the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine (ACh and the endothelium-independent vasodilator sodium nitroprusside (SNP in vivo and ex vivo in isolated rings of thoracic aorta, femoral and mesenteric artery from DEP exposed rats. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and blood plasma were collected to assess pulmonary (cell differentials, protein levels & interleukin-6 (IL-6 and systemic (IL-6, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα and C-reactive protein (CRP inflammation, respectively. Results DEP instillation increased cell counts, total protein and IL-6 in BALF 6 h after exposure, while levels of IL-6 and TNFα were only raised in blood 24 h after DEP exposure. DEP had no effect on the increased hind-limb blood flow induced by ACh in vivo at 6 or 24 h. However, responses to SNP were impaired at both time points. In contrast, ex vivo responses to ACh and SNP were unaltered in arteries isolated from rats exposed to DEP. Conclusions Exposure of rats to DEP induces both pulmonary and systemic inflammation, but does not modify endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Other mechanisms in vivo limit dilator responses to SNP and these require further investigation.

  12. Systemic effects of controlled exposure to diesel exhaust: a meta-analysis from randomized controlled trials. (United States)

    Vieira, Jefferson Luis; Macedo, Francisco Yuri; Benjo, Alexandre Miguel; Guimarães, Guilherme V; Contreras, Johanna Paola; Bocchi, Edimar A


    Ambient air pollution is associated with adverse cardiovascular events. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the short-term association between air pollution and cardiovascular effects on healthy volunteers. We searched databases to identify randomized trials with controlled human exposures to either of two models for studying ambient particulate matter: diesel-exhaust or concentrated ambient particles. Estimates of size effect were performed using standardized mean difference (SMD). Heterogeneity was assessed with I2 statistics. Outcomes were vascular function estimated by forearm blood flow (FBF), blood pressure, heart rate, and blood analysis. Database searches yielded 17 articles (n = 342) with sufficient information for meta-analyses. High levels of heterogeneity for the some outcomes were analyzed using random-effects model. The pooled effect estimate showed that short-term exposure to air pollution impaired FBF response from 2.7 to 2.5 mL/100 mL tissue/min (SMD 0.404; p = .006). There was an increase in 5000 platelet/mm3 following pollution exposure (SMD 0.390; p = .050) but no significant differences for other outcomes. Controlled human exposures to air pollution are associated with the surrogates of vascular dysfunction and increase in platelet count, which might be related to adverse cardiovascular events. Given the worldwide prevalence of exposure to air pollution, these findings are relevant for public health. KEY MESSAGES Controlled exposure to air pollution impairs vasomotor response, which is a surrogate for adverse cardiovascular events. This is the first meta-analysis from randomized clinical trials showing short-term association between air pollution and cardiovascular effects on healthy volunteers. Given the worldwide prevalence of exposure to air pollution, this finding is important for public health.

  13. Method for simultaneously removing SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.X pollutants from exhaust of a combustion system (United States)

    Levendis, Yiannis A.; Wise, Donald L.


    A method is disclosed for removing pollutants from the exhaust of combustion systems burning fuels containing substantial amounts of sulfur and nitrogen. An exemplary method of the invention involves the formation and reaction of a sorbent comprising calcium magnesium acetate (CMA). The CMA is either dry-sprayed (in the form of a fine powder) or wet-sprayed in an aqueous solution in a high temperature environment such as a combustion chamber. The latter technique is feasible since CMA is a uniquely water-soluble form of calcium and magnesium. When the dispersed particles of CMA are heated to a high temperature, fine calcium and magnesium oxide particles, which are hollow with thin and highly porous walls are formed, affording optimum external and internal accessibility for reacting with toxic gaseous emissions such as SO.sub.2. Further, the combustion of the organic acetate portion of the sorbent results in the conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2.

  14. Availability, reliability and downtime of systems with repairable components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiureghian, Armen Der; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Song, J.


    Closed-form expressions are derived for the steady-state availability, mean rate of failure, mean duration of downtime and lower bound reliability of a general system with randomly and independently failing repairable components. Component failures are assumed to be homogeneous Poisson events in ......, or reducing the mean duration of system downtime. Example applications to an electrical substation system demonstrate the use of the formulas developed in the paper....

  15. Global specification and validation of embedded systems integrating heterogeneous components

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolescu, G


    Offers a deep understanding of concepts and practices behind the composition of heterogeneous componentsIntroduces a systematic approach to build an execution model for systems composed of heterogeneous componentsMixed continuous/discrete and hardware/software systems will be used to illustrate these concepts.Gives a clear vision on the theory and practice of specification and validation of complex modern systemsExamples give the designers solutions applicable in their daily practice.

  16. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. (United States)


    ... collected for analysis. Mass emissions are determined from the sample concentration and total flow over the test period. (2) Engine exhaust to CVS duct. For methanol-fueled engines, reactions of the exhaust...), as applicable are achieved by sampling at a constant flow rate. For methanol-fueled engines, the...

  17. Psychological Empowerment: A systemic model with individual and community components


    Banda Castro, Ana Lilia; Morales Zamorano, Miguel Arturo


    This study aimed to confirm that social participation may influence empowerment as one ofthe four components explained by the theory. The hypothesis proposes systemic interaction of two components of empowerment: intrapersonal and behavioral. 113 urban residents participated in the study. The hypotheses were tested through the use of structural modeling. An intrapersonal component of empowerment, composed of positive empowerment, negative empowerment and socio-political control was identified...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarin Oleg Dmitrievich


    Full Text Available This article is devoted to assessment of the influence of variation of daily hot water consumption on the predicted energy effect by using heat recovery of exhaust air in typical exhaust ventilation systems of the most commonly used flat buildings during their switch to the mechanical induction for the pre-heating of water for hot water supply. It outlines the general principle of the organization of this method of energy saving and presents the basic equations of heat transfer in the heat exchanger. The article proposes a simplified method of accounting for changes in the heat transfer coefficient of air-to-water heat exchanger with fluctuations of water demand using existing dependencies for this coefficient from the rate flow of heating and heated fluid through the device. It presents observations to identify the parameters of the real changes of water consumption during the day with the main quantitative characteristics of normally distributed random variables. Calculation of thermal efficiency of the heat exchange equipment using dimensionless parameters through the number of heat transfer under the optimal opposing scheme of fluid motion is completed under conditions of variable water flow rate for the type residential building of the П3-1/16 series using the Monte Carlo method for numerical modeling of stochastic processes. The estimation of the influence of fluctuation of the current water consumption on the instantaneous thermal efficiency factor of the heat exchanger and the total energy consumption of the building is given, and it is shown that the error of said calculation using average daily parameters is within the margin of usual engineering calculation.

  19. The Location GNSS Modules for the Components of Proteus System (United States)

    Brzostowski, K.; Darakchiev, R.; Foks-Ryznar, A.; Sitek, P.


    The Proteus system - the Integrated Mobile System for Counterterrorism and Rescue Operations is a complex innovative project. To assure the best possible localization of mobile components of the system, many different Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) modules were taken into account. In order to chose the best solution many types of tests were done. Full results and conclusions are presented in this paper. The idea of measurements was to test modules in GPS Standard Positioning Service (SPS) with EGNOS system specification according to certain algorithms. The tests had to answer the question: what type of GNSS modules should be used on different components with respect to specific usage of Proteus system. The second goal of tests was to check the solution quality of integrated GNSS/INS (Inertial Navigation System) and its possible usage in some Proteus system components.

  20. Solubility of multi-component biodiesel fuel systems. (United States)

    Makareviciene, Violeta; Sendzikiene, Egle; Janulis, Prutenis


    Solubility of biodiesel fuel components in fossil diesel fuel-methanol-rapeseed oil methyl ester, fossil diesel fuel-ethanol-rapeseed oil methyl ester and fossil diesel fuel-ethanol-rapeseed oil ethyl ester systems was investigated. The solubility of components in the fossil diesel fuel-ethanol-rapeseed oil methyl ester system at 20 degrees C was substantially higher than in the fossil diesel fuel-methanol-rapeseed oil methyl ester system. The solubility of components in the fossil diesel fuel-ethanol-rapeseed oil ethyl ester system was slightly lower than in the fossil diesel fuel-ethanol-rapeseed oil methyl ester mixture. The moisture content of ethanol had a great influence on mixture solubility. With decrease of temperature, the solubility of components in the fossil diesel fuel-ethanol-rapeseed oil methyl ester system decreased.

  1. 40 CFR 89.419 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description. (United States)


    ... sample distribution across the CVS duct at the point of sampling. (3) The CO and CO2 analytical system... measurement of hydrocarbon emissions noted in the following paragraph and to prevent condensation of water at... temperature measuring system (sensors and readout) shall have an accuracy and precision of ±2 °C. For systems...

  2. Maximum flow-based resilience analysis: From component to system (United States)

    Jin, Chong; Li, Ruiying; Kang, Rui


    Resilience, the ability to withstand disruptions and recover quickly, must be considered during system design because any disruption of the system may cause considerable loss, including economic and societal. This work develops analytic maximum flow-based resilience models for series and parallel systems using Zobel’s resilience measure. The two analytic models can be used to evaluate quantitatively and compare the resilience of the systems with the corresponding performance structures. For systems with identical components, the resilience of the parallel system increases with increasing number of components, while the resilience remains constant in the series system. A Monte Carlo-based simulation method is also provided to verify the correctness of our analytic resilience models and to analyze the resilience of networked systems based on that of components. A road network example is used to illustrate the analysis process, and the resilience comparison among networks with different topologies but the same components indicates that a system with redundant performance is usually more resilient than one without redundant performance. However, not all redundant capacities of components can improve the system resilience, the effectiveness of the capacity redundancy depends on where the redundant capacity is located. PMID:28545135

  3. Determination of radiation resistant of electronic components in robot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hee Dong [Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea); Kim, Do Sung [Taegu University, Taegu (Korea); Woo, Hong [Kyungsan University, Kyungsan (Korea)


    We investigated the characteristic change for the electronic components of the systems which were used in radiation area, when those were exposured by gamma rays. Bipolar transistor, FET, TTL, CMOS, operational amplifier, some capacitors, and several electronic components were selected for experiment. We applied irradiated gamma ray to the electronic components in the range of 10{sup 6} rad, by {sup 6}0Co(KAERI). We made up appropriate assessment circuit for each electronic component during the performance test, and assessed the reliability and radiation-resistance of them for the each radiation irradiation. (author). 59 refs., 35 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Tot


    Full Text Available A unique case of metaplastic breast carcinoma with an epithelial component showing tumoral necrosis and neuroectodermal stromal component is described. The tumor grew rapidly and measured 9 cm at the time of diagnosis. No lymph node metastases were present. The disease progressed rapidly and the patient died two years after the diagnosis from a hemorrhage caused by brain metastases. The morphology and phenotype of the tumor are described in detail and the differential diagnostic options are discussed.

  5. Optical Computing-Optical Components and Storage Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 6. Optical Computing - Optical Components and Storage Systems ... Keywords. Advanced materials. optical switching. pulse shaping. optical storage device. high-performance computing. imaging; nanotechnology. photonics. telecommunications ...

  6. Evaluation of local exhaust ventilation system performance for control of Fe2O3 dust at an iron making unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Jamshidi Rastani


    Full Text Available Introduction: Adherence to the design values and ventilation standards (VS after installing and also maintaining continuous work of ventilation system with maximum performance throughout its life are amongst the reasons of ventilation systems monitoring. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate performance of local exhaust ventilation system for control of dust by measuring the operating parameters and also to compare it with ventilation standards (VS and design values. Material and Method: The present research is a descriptive and cross-sectional study, conducted in three sections of measuring, monitoring and evaluating the operating parameters on hoods, channels and fan of ventilation system based on the current status of the system, documentation (design, and recommended standards (VS. Static pressure, velocity pressure, surface area, and flow rate were measured based on the recommendations of various sources and ACGIH industrial ventilation manual, and the data were compared with the design and recommended values, using the SPSS software version 16.   Result: The results of paired sample t-test between flow rate and velocities of design and current status, showed significant differences in various parts. Accordingly, the results revealed a reduction of more than 50% in the design duct velocity compared to the current duct velocity, while design duct velocity is 1.3 more than the standard duct velocity of current status, and current duct velocity is about 65% of standard duct velocity. Conclusion: The reduction and nonconformity of the results of measurements of operating parameters (after a minimum of two decades with design and standard values are corroborant and sufficient reason for obstructions, abrasions, leaks, imbalance of system ducts and their inefficiency in some branches. Since there is no base line measurements for system (supposing that the system worked with maximum amounts of setup time, one of the reasons for these

  7. Applying of component system development in object methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mišovič


    Full Text Available In the last three decades, the concept and implementation of component-based architectures have been promoted in software systems creation. Increasingly complex demands are placed on the software component systems, in particular relating to the dynamic properties. The emergence of such requirements has been gradually enforced by the practice of development and implementation of these systems, especially for information systems software.Just the information systems (robust IS of different types require that target software meets their requirements. Among other things, we mean primarily the adaptive processes of different domains, high distributives due to the possibilities of the Internet 2.0, acceptance of high integrity of life domains (process, data and communications integrity, scalability, and flexible adaptation to process changes, a good context for external devices and transparent structure of the sub-process modules and architectural units.Of course, the target software of required qualities and the type robust cannot be a monolith. As commonly known, development of design toward information systems software has clearly come to the need for the software composition of completely autonomous, but cooperating architectural units that communicate with each other using messages of prescribed formats.Although for such units there were often used the so called subsystems and modules, see (Jac, Boo, Rumbo, 1998 and (Arlo, Neus, 2007, their abstraction being gradually enacted as the term component. In other words, the subsystems and modules are specific types of components.In (Král, Žeml, 2000 and (Král, Žeml, 2003 there are considered two types of target software of information systems. The first type – there are SWC (Software Components, composed of permanently available components, which are thought as services – Confederate software. The second type – SWA (Software Alliance, called semi Confederate, formed during the run-time of the

  8. Automatic shearography inspection systems for aircraft components in production (United States)

    Erne, Oliver; Waltz, T.; Ettemeyer, Andreas


    Shearography has been validated as fast and reliable inspection technique for composite materials in aerospace components. Following a several years phase of evaluation of the technique to show the principal applicability and prove the required sensitivity, now the first production lines for aerospace components have been equipped with automatic shearography inspection systems. In this paper, recent installations of automatic inspection systems in aerospace industries are presented.

  9. Computers as components principles of embedded computing system design

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Marilyn


    Computers as Components: Principles of Embedded Computing System Design, 3e, presents essential knowledge on embedded systems technology and techniques. Updated for today's embedded systems design methods, this edition features new examples including digital signal processing, multimedia, and cyber-physical systems. Author Marilyn Wolf covers the latest processors from Texas Instruments, ARM, and Microchip Technology plus software, operating systems, networks, consumer devices, and more. Like the previous editions, this textbook: Uses real processors to demonstrate both technology and tec

  10. Highly selective NOx reduction for diesel engine exhaust via an electrochemical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shao, Jing; Tao, Youkun; Kammer Hansen, Kent


    in current diesel after-treatment techniques. The electrochemical system consisted of an electrochemical cell modified with NOx adsorbents and a diesel oxidation catalyst placed upstream of the cell. The system offers highly selective NOx reduction and a strong resistance to oxygen interference with almost...... zero emission of secondary pollutants....

  11. Material and system for catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide in an exhaust stream of a combustion process (United States)

    Gardner, Timothy J.; Lott, Stephen E.; Lockwood, Steven J.; McLaughlin, Linda I.


    A catalytic material of activated hydrous metal oxide doped with platinum, palladium, or a combination of these, and optionally containing an alkali or alkaline earth metal, that is effective for NO.sub.X reduction in an oxidizing exhaust stream from a combustion process is disclosed. A device for reduction of nitrogen oxides in an exhaust stream, particularly an automotive exhaust stream, the device having a substrate coated with the activated noble-metal doped hydrous metal oxide of the invention is also provided.

  12. SSME component assembly and life management expert system (United States)

    Ali, M.; Dietz, W. E.; Ferber, H. J.


    The space shuttle utilizes several rocket engine systems, all of which must function with a high degree of reliability for successful mission completion. The space shuttle main engine (SSME) is by far the most complex of the rocket engine systems and is designed to be reusable. The reusability of spacecraft systems introduces many problems related to testing, reliability, and logistics. Components must be assembled from parts inventories in a manner which will most effectively utilize the available parts. Assembly must be scheduled to efficiently utilize available assembly benches while still maintaining flight schedules. Assembled components must be assigned to as many contiguous flights as possible, to minimize component changes. Each component must undergo a rigorous testing program prior to flight. In addition, testing and assembly of flight engines and components must be done in conjunction with the assembly and testing of developmental engines and components. The development, testing, manufacture, and flight assignments of the engine fleet involves the satisfaction of many logistical and operational requirements, subject to many constraints. The purpose of the SSME Component Assembly and Life Management Expert System (CALMES) is to assist the engine assembly and scheduling process, and to insure that these activities utilize available resources as efficiently as possible.

  13. Modelling safety of multistate systems with ageing components (United States)

    Kołowrocki, Krzysztof; Soszyńska-Budny, Joanna


    An innovative approach to safety analysis of multistate ageing systems is presented. Basic notions of the ageing multistate systems safety analysis are introduced. The system components and the system multistate safety functions are defined. The mean values and variances of the multistate systems lifetimes in the safety state subsets and the mean values of their lifetimes in the particular safety states are defined. The multi-state system risk function and the moment of exceeding by the system the critical safety state are introduced. Applications of the proposed multistate system safety models to the evaluation and prediction of the safty characteristics of the consecutive "m out of n: F" is presented as well.

  14. Design of a diesel exhaust-gas purification system for inert-gas drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, B.C.


    To combat the serious oxygen corrosion of drill pipe when a low density drilling fluid (air or mist) is used in geothermal drilling, a system has been designed that produces an inert gas (essentially nitrogen) to be substituted for air. The system fits on three flatbed trailers, is roadable and produces 2000 scfm of gas. The projected cost for gas is slightly less than $2.00 per thousand standard cubic feet.

  15. Exhaust Gas Scrubber Washwater Effluent (United States)


    10 Sulfur Content of Certain Liquid Fuels Exhaust Gas Scrubber Washwater Effluent...diesel and gasoline components DIN Dissolved inorganic nitrogen THC Total hydrocarbon TKN Total Kjeldahl nitrogen HEM Hexane extractable...Benefit Analysis to support the impact assessment accompanying the revision of Directive 1999/32/EC on the sulfur content of certain liquid fuels

  16. Vehicle cabin cooling system for capturing and exhausting heated boundary layer air from inner surfaces of solar heated windows (United States)

    Farrington, Robert B.; Anderson, Ren


    The cabin cooling system includes a cooling duct positioned proximate and above upper edges of one or more windows of a vehicle to exhaust hot air as the air is heated by inner surfaces of the windows and forms thin boundary layers of heated air adjacent the heated windows. The cabin cooling system includes at least one fan to draw the hot air into the cooling duct at a flow rate that captures the hot air in the boundary layer without capturing a significant portion of the cooler cabin interior air and to discharge the hot air at a point outside the vehicle cabin, such as the vehicle trunk. In a preferred embodiment, the cooling duct has a cross-sectional area that gradually increases from a distal point to a proximal point to the fan inlet to develop a substantially uniform pressure drop along the length of the cooling duct. Correspondingly, this cross-sectional configuration develops a uniform suction pressure and uniform flow rate at the upper edge of the window to capture the hot air in the boundary layer adjacent each window.

  17. Effects of N/C Ratio on Solidification Behaviors of Novel Nb-Bearing Austenitic Heat-Resistant Cast Steels for Exhaust Components of Gasoline Engines (United States)

    Zhang, Yinhui; Li, Mei; Godlewski, Larry A.; Zindel, Jacob W.; Feng, Qiang


    In order to comply with more stringent environmental and fuel consumption regulations, novel Nb-bearing austenitic heat-resistant cast steels that withstand exhaust temperatures as high as 1,323 K (1,050 °C) is urgently demanded from automotive industries. In the current research, the solidification behavior of these alloys with variations of N/C ratio is investigated. Directional solidification methods were carried out to examine the microstructural development in mushy zones. Computational thermodynamic calculations under partial equilibrium conditions were performed to predict the solidification sequence of different phases. Microstructural characterization of the mushy zones indicates that N/C ratio significantly influenced the stability of γ-austenite and the precipitation temperature of NbC/Nb(C,N), thereby altering the solidification path, as well as the morphology and distribution of NbC/Nb(C,N) and γ-ferrite. The solidification sequence of different phases predicted by thermodynamic software agreed well with the experimental results, except the specific precipitation temperatures. The generated data and fundamental understanding will be helpful for the application of computational thermodynamic methods to predict the as-cast microstructure of Nb-bearing austenitic heat-resistant steels.

  18. Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) Components and Enterprise Component Information System (eCIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Minihan; Ed Schmidt; Greg Enserro; Melissa Thompson


    The purpose of the project was to develop the processes for using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts for WR production and to put in place a system for implementing the data management tools required to disseminate, store, track procurement, and qualify vendors. Much of the effort was devoted to determining if the use of COTS parts was possible. A basic question: How does the Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) begin to use COTS in the weapon Stockpile Life Extension Programs with high reliability, affordability, while managing risk at acceptable levels? In FY00, it was determined that a certain weapon refurbishment program could not be accomplished without the use of COTS components. The elements driving the use of COTS components included decreased cost, greater availability, and shorter delivery time. Key factors that required implementation included identifying the best suppliers and components, defining life cycles and predictions of obsolescence, testing the feasibility of using COTS components with a test contractor to ensure capability, as well as quality and reliability, and implementing the data management tools required to disseminate, store, track procurement, and qualify vendors. The primary effort of this project then was to concentrate on the risks involved in the use of COTS and address the issues of part and vendor selection, procurement and acceptance processes, and qualification of the parts via part and sample testing. The Enterprise Component Information System (eCIS) was used to manage the information generated by the COTS process. eCIS is a common interface for both the design and production of NWC components and systems integrating information between SNL National Laboratory (SNL) and the Kansas City Plant (KCP). The implementation of COTS components utilizes eCIS from part selection through qualification release. All part related data is linked across an unclassified network for access by both SNL and KCP personnel. The system includes not

  19. Component configuration control system development at EBR-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monson, L.R.; Stratton, R.C.


    One ofthe major programs being pursued by the EBR-II Division of Argonne National Laboratory is to improve the reliability of plant control and protection systems. This effort involves looking closely at the present state of the art and needs associated with plant diagnostic, control and protection systems. One of the areas of development at EBR-II involves a component configuration control system (CCCS). This system is a computerized control and planning aid for the nuclear power operator.

  20. Laboratory study of subjective perceptions to low temperature heating systems with exhaust ventilation in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Quan; Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.


    Given the global trends of rising energy demand and the increasing utilization of low-grade renewable energy, low-temperature heating systems can play key roles in improving building energy efficiency while providing a comfortable indoor environment. To meet the need to retrofit existing buildings...

  1. 40 CFR 85.2225 - Steady state test exhaust analysis system-EPA 91. (United States)


    ...) Electromagnetic isolation and interference. Electromagnetic signals found in an automotive service environment may not cause malfunctions or changes in the accuracy in the electronics of the analyzer system. The... induction devices normally found in the automotive service environment, including high energy vehicle...

  2. Laboratory study of subjective perceptions to low temperature heating systems with exhaust ventilation in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Quan; Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.


    Given the global trends of rising energy demand and the increasing utilization of low-grade renewable energy, low-temperature heating systems can play key roles in improving building energy efficiency while providing a comfortable indoor environment. To meet the need to retrofit existing building...

  3. Implementation of Exhaust Gas Recirculation for Double Stage Waste Heat Recovery System on Large Container Vessel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Morten; Marissal, Matthieu; Sørensen, Kim


    Concerned to push ships to have a lower impact on the environment, the International Maritime Organization are implementing stricter regulation of NOx and SOx emissions, called Tier III, within emission control areas (ECAs). Waste Heat Recovery Systems (WHRS) on container ships consist...

  4. A Framework for Integrated Component and System Analyses of Instabilities (United States)

    Ahuja, Vineet; Erwin, James; Arunajatesan, Srinivasan; Cattafesta, Lou; Liu, Fei


    Instabilities associated with fluid handling and operation in liquid rocket propulsion systems and test facilities usually manifest themselves as structural vibrations or some form of structural damage. While the source of the instability is directly related to the performance of a component such as a turbopump, valve or a flow control element, the associated pressure fluctuations as they propagate through the system have the potential to amplify and resonate with natural modes of the structural elements and components of the system. In this paper, the authors have developed an innovative multi-level approach that involves analysis at the component and systems level. The primary source of the unsteadiness is modeled with a high-fidelity hybrid RANS/LES based CFD methodology that has been previously used to study instabilities in feed systems. This high fidelity approach is used to quantify the instability and understand the physics associated with the instability. System response to the driving instability is determined through a transfer matrix approach wherein the incoming and outgoing pressure and velocity fluctuations are related through a transfer (or transmission) matrix. The coefficients of the transfer matrix for each component (i.e. valve, pipe, orifice etc.) are individually derived from the flow physics associated with the component. A demonstration case representing a test loop/test facility comprised of a network of elements is constructed with the transfer matrix approach and the amplification of modes analyzed as the instability propagates through the test loop.

  5. Applying of component system development in object methodology, case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mišovič


    Full Text Available To create computarization target software as a component system has been a very strong requirement for the last 20 years of software developing. Finally, the architectural components are self-contained units, presenting not only partial and overall system behavior, but also cooperating with each other on the basis of their interfaces. Among others, components have allowed flexible modification of processes the behavior of which is the foundation of components behavior without changing the life of the component system. On the other hand, the component system makes it possible, at design time, to create numerous new connections between components and thus creating modified system behaviors. This all enables the company management to perform, at design time, required behavioral changes of processes in accordance with the requirements of changing production and market.The development of software which is generally referred to as SDP (Software Development Process contains two directions. The first one, called CBD (Component–Based Development, is dedicated to the development of component–based systems CBS (Component–based System, the second target is the development of software under the influence of SOA (Service–Oriented Architecture. Both directions are equipped with their different development methodologies. The subject of this paper is only the first direction and application of development of component–based systems in its object–oriented methodologies. The requirement of today is to carry out the development of component-based systems in the framework of developed object–oriented methodologies precisely in the way of a dominant style. In some of the known methodologies, however, this development is not completely transparent and is not even recognized as dominant. In some cases, it is corrected by the special meta–integration models of component system development into an object methodology.This paper presents a case study

  6. In silico dissection of Type VII Secretion System components across ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Feb 12, 2016 ... [Das C, Ghosh TS and Mande SS 2016 In silico dissection of Type VII Secretion System components across bacteria: New directions towards functional characterization. J. Biosci. 41 133–143] DOI 10.1007/s12038-016-9599-8. 1. Introduction. Type VII Secretion System (T7SS) was first identified in.

  7. Components of Maternal Healthcare Delivery System Contributing to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Triangulated data from the respective medical charts and interview transcripts were analyzed using a directed approach to content analysis. Excerpts were categorized according to three main components of the maternal healthcare delivery system: skill birth attendant (SBA), enabling environment (EE) and referral system ...

  8. In silico dissection of Type VII Secretion System components across ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Type VII Secretion System (T7SS) is one of the factors involved in virulence of Mycobacteriun tuberculosis H37Rv. Numerous research efforts have been made in the last decade towards characterizing the components of this secretion system. An extensive genome-wide analysis through compilation of isolated information ...

  9. Universal distribution of component frequencies in biological and technological systems. (United States)

    Pang, Tin Yau; Maslov, Sergei


    Bacterial genomes and large-scale computer software projects both consist of a large number of components (genes or software packages) connected via a network of mutual dependencies. Components can be easily added or removed from individual systems, and their use frequencies vary over many orders of magnitude. We study this frequency distribution in genomes of ∼500 bacterial species and in over 2 million Linux computers and find that in both cases it is described by the same scale-free power-law distribution with an additional peak near the tail of the distribution corresponding to nearly universal components. We argue that the existence of a power law distribution of frequencies of components is a general property of any modular system with a multilayered dependency network. We demonstrate that the frequency of a component is positively correlated with its dependency degree given by the total number of upstream components whose operation directly or indirectly depends on the selected component. The observed frequency/dependency degree distributions are reproduced in a simple mathematically tractable model introduced and analyzed in this study.

  10. Integrated Analysis of Piezoelectric Resonators as Components of Electronic Systems (United States)


    2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Integrated Analysis of Piezoelectric Resonators as Components of Electronic...31-Aug-2014 ABSTRACT Final Report: Integrated Analysis of Piezoelectric Resonators as Components of Electronic Systems Report Title The goal of this...52, 1461-1467 (2005)., (04 2012): 811. doi: N Liu, J S Yang, F Jin. Transient thickness-shear vibration of a piezoelectric plate of monoclinic

  11. Simulation of data safety components for corporative systems (United States)

    Yaremko, Svetlana A.; Kuzmina, Elena M.; Savchuk, Tamara O.; Krivonosov, Valeriy E.; Smolarz, Andrzej; Arman, Abenov; Smailova, Saule; Kalizhanova, Aliya


    The article deals with research of designing data safety components for corporations by means of mathematical simulations and modern information technologies. Simulation of threats ranks has been done which is based on definite values of data components. The rules of safety policy for corporative information systems have been presented. The ways of realization of safety policy rules have been proposed on the basis of taken conditions and appropriate class of valuable data protection.

  12. The determination of regulated and some unregulated exhaust gas components from ethanol blended diesel fuels in comparison with neat diesel and ethanol fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haupt, D.; Nordstroem, F.; Niva, M.; Bergenudd, L.; Hellberg, S. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)


    Investigations that have been carried out at Luleaa University of Technology (LTU) show how exhaust gas emissions and engine performance are affected by the composition of the fuels. The fuels that have been tested and compared are two different ethanol blended diesel fuels, `neat` diesel fuels and neat ethanol fuels. Two different, heavy-duty engines were used for the investigations; one for the neat ethanol fuels and the other for the ethanol blended diesel fuels and neat diesel fuels. The investigation also includes some tests with two oxidizing catalysts. Results from the investigation show that none of the fuels produce emissions exceeding the values of the 13-mode test (ECE R-49, 1997). Lowest HC-emission levels were found for the two `neat` ethanol fuels although the difference between the HC-emissions can be considered negligible for the studied fuels. An effective reduction in the hydrocarbon emissions was achieved by using a catalyst. The investigation also shows that the NO{sub x} emissions were much lower for the neat ethanol fuels than for the other fuels. Even if the CO emissions from the two ethanol fuels were approximately three times higher than for the other investigated fuels the use of a catalyst equalize the CO emissions from the studied fuels. The formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions were clearly higher for the neat ethanol fuels than for the other investigated fuels. However, by using a catalyst the formaldehyde emission from the ethanol fuels could be decreased. Unfortunately, the use of a catalyst also resulted in an increase in the emission of acetaldehyde from the ethanol fuelled engine 10 refs, 11 figs, 5 tabs, 6 appendixes

  13. The Node Monitoring Component of a Scalable Systems Software Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Samuel James [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    This research describes Fountain, a suite of programs used to monitor the resources of a cluster. A cluster is a collection of individual computers that are connected via a high speed communication network. They are traditionally used by users who desire more resources, such as processing power and memory, than any single computer can provide. A common drawback to effectively utilizing such a large-scale system is the management infrastructure, which often does not often scale well as the system grows. Large-scale parallel systems provide new research challenges in the area of systems software, the programs or tools that manage the system from boot-up to running a parallel job. The approach presented in this thesis utilizes a collection of separate components that communicate with each other to achieve a common goal. While systems software comprises a broad array of components, this thesis focuses on the design choices for a node monitoring component. We will describe Fountain, an implementation of the Scalable Systems Software (SSS) node monitor specification. It is targeted at aggregate node monitoring for clusters, focusing on both scalability and fault tolerance as its design goals. It leverages widely used technologies such as XML and HTTP to present an interface to other components in the SSS environment.

  14. Towards a Component Based Model for Database Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Paul ROTARU


    Full Text Available Due to their effectiveness in the design and development of software applications and due to their recognized advantages in terms of reusability, Component-Based Software Engineering (CBSE concepts have been arousing a great deal of interest in recent years. This paper presents and extends a component-based approach to object-oriented database systems (OODB introduced by us in [1] and [2]. Components are proposed as a new abstraction level for database system, logical partitions of the schema. In this context, the scope is introduced as an escalated property for transactions. Components are studied from the integrity, consistency, and concurrency control perspective. The main benefits of our proposed component model for OODB are the reusability of the database design, including the access statistics required for a proper query optimization, and a smooth information exchange. The integration of crosscutting concerns into the component database model using aspect-oriented techniques is also discussed. One of the main goals is to define a method for the assessment of component composition capabilities. These capabilities are restricted by the component’s interface and measured in terms of adaptability, degree of compose-ability and acceptability level. The above-mentioned metrics are extended from database components to generic software components. This paper extends and consolidates into one common view the ideas previously presented by us in [1, 2, 3].[1] Octavian Paul Rotaru, Marian Dobre, Component Aspects in Object Oriented Databases, Proceedings of the International Conference on Software Engineering Research and Practice (SERP’04, Volume II, ISBN 1-932415-29-7, pages 719-725, Las Vegas, NV, USA, June 2004.[2] Octavian Paul Rotaru, Marian Dobre, Mircea Petrescu, Integrity and Consistency Aspects in Component-Oriented Databases, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Innovation in Information and Communication Technology (ISIICT

  15. System and method for detecting cells or components thereof (United States)

    Porter, Marc D [Ames, IA; Lipert, Robert J [Ames, IA; Doyle, Robert T [Ames, IA; Grubisha, Desiree S [Corona, CA; Rahman, Salma [Ames, IA


    A system and method for detecting a detectably labeled cell or component thereof in a sample comprising one or more cells or components thereof, at least one cell or component thereof of which is detectably labeled with at least two detectable labels. In one embodiment, the method comprises: (i) introducing the sample into one or more flow cells of a flow cytometer, (ii) irradiating the sample with one or more light sources that are absorbed by the at least two detectable labels, the absorption of which is to be detected, and (iii) detecting simultaneously the absorption of light by the at least two detectable labels on the detectably labeled cell or component thereof with an array of photomultiplier tubes, which are operably linked to two or more filters that selectively transmit detectable emissions from the at least two detectable labels.

  16. An automatic chip structure optical inspection system for electronic components (United States)

    Song, Zhichao; Xue, Bindang; Liang, Jiyuan; Wang, Ke; Chen, Junzhang; Liu, Yunhe


    An automatic chip structure inspection system based on machine vision is presented to ensure the reliability of electronic components. It consists of four major modules, including a metallographic microscope, a Gigabit Ethernet high-resolution camera, a control system and a high performance computer. An auto-focusing technique is presented to solve the problem that the chip surface is not on the same focusing surface under the high magnification of the microscope. A panoramic high-resolution image stitching algorithm is adopted to deal with the contradiction between resolution and field of view, caused by different sizes of electronic components. In addition, we establish a database to storage and callback appropriate parameters to ensure the consistency of chip images of electronic components with the same model. We use image change detection technology to realize the detection of chip images of electronic components. The system can achieve high-resolution imaging for chips of electronic components with various sizes, and clearly imaging for the surface of chip with different horizontal and standardized imaging for ones with the same model, and can recognize chip defects.

  17. Secure Wireless Embedded Systems Via Component-based Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Theis S.; Torbensen, R.


    This paper introduces the method secure-by-design as a way of constructing wireless embedded systems using component-based modeling frameworks. This facilitates design of secure applications through verified, reusable software. Following this method we propose a security framework with a secure...... communication component for distributed wireless embedded devices. The components communicate using the Secure Embedded Exchange Protocol (SEEP), which has been designed for flexible trust establishment so that small, resource-constrained, wireless embedded systems are able to communicate short command messages......, with full support for confidentiality, authentication, and integrity using keypairs. The approach has been demonstrated in a multi-platform home automation prototype that can remotely unlock a door using a PDA over the Internet....

  18. Secure wireless embedded systems via component-based design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, T.; Torbensen, R.


    This paper introduces the method secure-by-design as a way of constructing wireless embedded systems using component-based modeling frameworks. This facilitates design of secure applications through verified, reusable software. Following this method we propose a security framework with a secure...... communication component for distributed wireless embedded devices. The components communicate using the Secure Embedded Exchange Protocol (SEEP), which has been designed for flexible trust establishment so that small, resource-constrained, wireless embedded systems are able to communicate short command messages......, with full support for confidentiality, authentication, and integrity using keypairs. The approach has been demonstrated in a multi-platform home automation prototype that can remotely unlock a door using a PDA over the Internet....

  19. Evaluation of systems and components for hybrid optical firing sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landry, M.J.; Rupert, J.W.; Mittas, A.


    High-energy density light appears to be a unique energy form that may be used to enhance the nuclear safety of weapon systems. Hybrid optical firing sets (HOFS) utilize the weak-link/strong-link exclusion region concept for nuclear safety; this method is similar to present systems, but uses light to transmit power across the exclusion region barrier. This report describes the assembling, operating, and testing of fourteen HOFS. These firing sets were required to charge a capacitor-discharge unit to 2.0 and 2.5 kV (100 mJ) in less than 1 s. First, we describe the components, the measurement techniques used to evaluate the components, and the different characteristics of the measured components. Second, we describe the HOFS studied, the setups used for evaluating them, and the resulting characteristics. Third, we make recommendations for improving the overall performance and suggest the best HOFS for packaging. 36 refs., 145 figs., 14 tabs.

  20. Integrating Existing Simulation Components into a Cohesive Simulation System (United States)

    McLaughlin, Brian J.; Barrett, Larry K.


    A tradition of leveraging the re-use of components to help manage costs has evolved in the development of complex system. This tradition continues on in the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Program with the cloning of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite for the JPSS-1 mission, including the instrument complement. One benefit of re-use on a mission is the availability of existing simulation assets from the systems that were previously built. An issue arises in the continual shift of technology over a long mission, or multi-mission, lifecycle. As the missions mature, the requirements for the observatory simulations evolve. The challenge in this environment becomes re-using the existing components in that ever-changing landscape. To meet this challenge, the system must: establish an operational architecture that minimizes impacts on the implementation of individual components, consolidate the satisfaction of new high-impact requirements into system-level infrastructure, and build in a long-term view of system adaptation that spans the full lifecycle of the simulation system. The Flight Vehicle Test Suite (FVTS) within the JPSS Program is defining and executing this approach to ensure a robust simulation capability for the JPSS multi-mission environment

  1. Green IT engineering components, networks and systems implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Kondratenko, Yuriy; Kacprzyk, Janusz


    This book presents modern approaches to improving the energy efficiency, safety and environmental performance of industrial processes and products, based on the application of advanced trends in Green Information Technologies (IT) Engineering to components, networks and complex systems (software, programmable and hardware components, communications, Cloud and IoT-based systems, as well as IT infrastructures). The book’s 16 chapters, prepared by authors from Greece, Malaysia, Russia, Slovakia, Ukraine and the United Kingdom, are grouped into four sections: (1) The Green Internet of Things, Cloud Computing and Data Mining, (2) Green Mobile and Embedded Control Systems, (3) Green Logic and FPGA Design, and (4) Green IT for Industry and Smart Grids. The book will motivate researchers and engineers from different IT domains to develop, implement and propagate green values in complex systems. Further, it will benefit all scientists and graduate students pursuing research in computer science with a focus on green ...

  2. Plant systems/components modularization study. Final report. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The final results are summarized of a Plant Systems/Components Modularization Study based on Stone and Webster's Pressurized Water Reactor Reference Design. The program has been modified to include evaluation of the most promising areas for modular consideration based on the level of the Sundesert Project engineering design completion and the feasibility of their incorporation into the plant construction effort.

  3. Precoded spatial multiplexing MIMO system with spatial component interleaver. (United States)

    Gao, Xiang; Wu, Zhanji

    In this paper, the performance of precoded bit-interleaved coded modulation (BICM) spatial multiplexing multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system with spatial component interleaver is investigated. For the ideal precoded spatial multiplexing MIMO system with spatial component interleaver based on singular value decomposition (SVD) of the MIMO channel, the average pairwise error probability (PEP) of coded bits is derived. Based on the PEP analysis, the optimum spatial Q-component interleaver design criterion is provided to achieve the minimum error probability. For the limited feedback precoded proposed scheme with linear zero forcing (ZF) receiver, in order to minimize a bound on the average probability of a symbol vector error, a novel effective signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)-based precoding matrix selection criterion and a simplified criterion are proposed. Based on the average mutual information (AMI)-maximization criterion, the optimal constellation rotation angles are investigated. Simulation results indicate that the optimized spatial multiplexing MIMO system with spatial component interleaver can achieve significant performance advantages compared to the conventional spatial multiplexing MIMO system.

  4. Exhaust gas purification with sodium bicarbonate. Analysis and evaluation; Abgasreinigung mit Natriumhydrogencarbonat. Analyse und Bewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quicker, Peter; Rotheut, Martin; Schulten, Marc [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet Technologie der Energierohstoffe (TEER); Athmann, Uwe [dezentec ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Essen (Germany)


    The dry exhaust gas cleaning uses sodium bicarbonate in order to absorb acid components of exhaust gases such as sulphur dioxide or hydrochloric acid. Recently, sodium and calcium based adsorbents are compared with respect to their economic and ecologic options. None of the investigations performed considered decidedly practical experiences from the system operation such as differences in the management, availability, personnel expenditure and maintenance expenditure. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on exhaust gas cleaning systems using sodium carbonate as well as lime adsorbents. The operators of these exhaust gas cleaning systems were questioned on their experiences, and all relevant operational data (consumption of additives, consumption of energy, emissions, standstill, maintenance effort) were recorded and evaluated at a very detailed level.

  5. Modelling safety of multistate systems with ageing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kołowrocki, Krzysztof; Soszyńska-Budny, Joanna [Gdynia Maritime University, Department of Mathematics ul. Morska 81-87, Gdynia 81-225 Poland (Poland)


    An innovative approach to safety analysis of multistate ageing systems is presented. Basic notions of the ageing multistate systems safety analysis are introduced. The system components and the system multistate safety functions are defined. The mean values and variances of the multistate systems lifetimes in the safety state subsets and the mean values of their lifetimes in the particular safety states are defined. The multi-state system risk function and the moment of exceeding by the system the critical safety state are introduced. Applications of the proposed multistate system safety models to the evaluation and prediction of the safty characteristics of the consecutive “m out of n: F” is presented as well.

  6. Functional and component structure of the population trading service system


    Кобилін, П. О.


    Formulation the problem. Over the past decade the system of population trading service has seen substantial qualitative changes, particularly the ownership form of retail, restaurant business institutions changed, the range of products expanded, new types of stores, forms of trade (supermarkets, hypermarkets, shopping malls, internet commerce, vending machines etc.) appeared. These changes affect the functional and component structure of population trading service system that has become more ...

  7. Modeling Hydraulic Components for Automated FMEA of a Braking System (United States)


    to be reusable and, on the other hand, powerful enough to deliver the predictions relevant to FMEA of braking systems. In this paper, we present...context-independent,  analyze how a stimulus in terms of a local pressure change (e.g. pushing a brake pedal ) propagates through the system...mechanical components and the electronic control unit (ECU) and its software. It contains a tandem pedal actuation unit (with two pistons and two

  8. Active and Passive RF Components for High-Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nantista, Christopher D.


    In recent years, R&D for pulse compression and power distribution systems for the Next Linear Collider has led to the invention of many novel rf components, some of which must handle up to 600 MW of pulsed power at X-band. These include passive waveguide components, active switch designs, and non-reciprocal devices. Among the former is a class of multi-moded, highly efficient rf components based on planar geometries with overmoded rectangular ports. Multi-moding allows us, by means of input phasing, to direct power to different locations through the same waveguide. Planar symmetry allows the height to be increased to improve power handling capacity. Features that invite breakdown, such as coupling slots, irises and H-plane septa, are avoided. This class includes hybrids, directional couplers, an eight-port superhybrid/dual-mode launcher, a mode-selective extractor, mode-preserving bends, a rectangular mode converter, and mode-mixers. We are able to utilize such rectangular waveguide components in systems incorporating low-loss, circular waveguide delay lines by means of specially designed tapers that efficiently transform multiple rectangular waveguide modes into their corresponding circular waveguide modes, specifically TE10 and TE20 into circular TE11 and TE01. These extremely compact tapers can replace well-known mode converters such as the Marie type. Another component, a reflective TE01-TE02 mode converter in circular waveguide, allows us to double the delay in reflective or resonant delay lines. Ideas for multi-megawatt active components, such as switches, have also been pursued. Power-handling capacity for these is increased by making them also highly overmoded. We present a design methodology for active rf magnetic components which are suitable for pulse compression systems of future X-band linear colliders. We also present an active switch based on a PIN diode array. This component comprises an array of active elements arranged so that the electric fields

  9. Design Review Report for formal review of safety class features of exhauster system for rotary mode core sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Report documenting Formal Design Review conducted on portable exhausters used to support rotary mode core sampling of Hanford underground radioactive waste tanks with focus on Safety Class design features and control requirements for flammable gas environment operation and air discharge permitting compliance.

  10. Diffuser Optimation at Exhaust System with Catalytic Converter for 110 cc Mopet with Fluid Flow CFD Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tresna Soemardi


    Full Text Available CFD simulation used to get behavior of exhaust gas through catalyst, this result will be used to optimize geometry form to perform uniform stream distribution to catalyst, and CFD Simulation will used to analyze backpressure that happened at the model.

  11. Computer aided engineering in exhaust aftertreatment systems design. Pt. 1. Spark ignition engine; Computergestuetzter Entwurf von Abgas-Nachbehandlungskonzepten. T. 1. Ottomotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamatelos, A.M.; Koltsakis, G.C.; Kandylas, I.P. [Aristotelian Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece)


    At the Aristotle University Thessaloniki, Greece, an integrated Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) methodology assisting the design of SI-engine exhaust aftertreatment systems employing the following computational tools was developed: A computer code which models transient exhaust system heat transfer, a tuneable computer code which models the transient operation of a three-way catalytic converter, a database containing chemical kinetics data for a variety of catalyst formulations, and a methodology for ageing assessment calculations. Application of the CAE methodology, which aids the exhaust aftertreatment system design engineer to meet the upcoming, increasingly stringent emission standards, is high-lighted by referring to a number of representative case studies. (orig.) [Deutsch] An der Aristoteles-Universitaet Thessaloniki, Griechenland, wurde eine computergestuetzte Methode (CAE) entwickelt, die den Entwurf und die Konstruktion von Abgasnachbehandlungskonzepten unterstuetzt. Die Methode setzt auf die folgenden Rechenmodelle und Datenbanken: Ein Rechenmodell zur Berechnung des Waermeuebergangs in Motorabgassystemen, ein Rechenmodell zur Abschaetzung des Katalysatorgegendrucks, eine Datenbank mit den chemischen Kinetikdaten fuer die verschiedenen Typen von Dreiwegekatalysatoren und eine computergestuetzte Prozedur zur Abschaetzung des Alterungsverhaltens von Dreiwegekatalysatoren. Integrierte CAE-Methoden koennen beim Entwurf von modernen Abgasnachbehandlungssystemen angewandt werden, um die Entwicklungszeit und -kosten betraechtlich zu reduzieren. (orig.)

  12. Study on the Optimizing Operation of Exhaust Air Heat Recovery and Solar Energy Combined Thermal Compensation System for Ground-Coupled Heat Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan Wang


    Full Text Available This study proposed an exhaust air heat recovery and solar energy combined thermal compensation system (ESTC for ground-coupled heat pumps. Based on the prediction of the next day’s exhaust air temperature and solar irradiance, an optimized thermal compensation (OTC method was developed in this study as well, in which the exhaust air heat recovery compensator and solar energy compensator in the ESTC system run at high efficiency throughout various times of day. Moreover, a modified solar term similar days group (STSDG method was proposed to improve the accuracy of solar irradiance prediction in hazy weather. This modified STSDG method was based on air quality forecast and AQI (air quality index correction factors. Through analyzing the operating parameters and the simulation results of a case study, the ESTC system proved to have good performance and high efficiency in eliminating the heat imbalance by using the OTC method. The thermal compensation quantity per unit energy consumption (TEC of ESTC under the proposed method was 1.25 times as high as that under the traditional operation method. The modified STSDG method also exhibited high accuracy. For the accumulated solar irradiance of the four highest daily radiation hours, the monthly mean absolute percentage error (MAPE between the predicted values and the measured values was 6.35%.

  13. Qualification and Issues with Space Flight Laser Systems and Components (United States)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Coyle, D. Barry; Canham, John S.; Leidecker, Henning W.


    The art of flight quality solid-state laser development is still relatively young, and much is still unknown regarding the best procedures, components, and packaging required for achieving the maximum possible lifetime and reliability when deployed in the harsh space environment. One of the most important issues is the limited and unstable supply of quality, high power diode arrays with significant technological heritage and market lifetime. Since Spectra Diode Labs Inc. ended their involvement in the pulsed array business in the late 199O's, there has been a flurry of activity from other manufacturers, but little effort focused on flight quality production. This forces NASA, inevitably, to examine the use of commercial parts to enable space flight laser designs. System-level issues such as power cycling, operational derating, duty cycle, and contamination risks to other laser components are some of the more significant unknown, if unquantifiable, parameters that directly effect transmitter reliability. Designs and processes can be formulated for the system and the components (including thorough modeling) to mitigate risk based on the known failures modes as well as lessons learned that GSFC has collected over the past ten years of space flight operation of lasers. In addition, knowledge of the potential failure modes related to the system and the components themselves can allow the qualification testing to be done in an efficient yet, effective manner. Careful test plan development coupled with physics of failure knowledge will enable cost effect qualification of commercial technology. Presented here will be lessons learned from space flight experience, brief synopsis of known potential failure modes, mitigation techniques, and options for testing from the system level to the component level.

  14. Integrated component fluidic servovalves and position control systems (United States)

    Wormley, D. N.; Lee, K. M.


    The operating characteristics of fluidic laminar proportional amplifier (+PA's) operating on hydraulic oil have been determined as a function of pressure and temperature. The useful operating range of these elements has been defined for application in multistage gain blocks and summing amplifiers. An operational servovalve constructed from LPA's has been developed and coupled with a fluidic position feedback transducer, summing amplifier and ram to construct a closed loop position control system. Static and dynamic experimental evaluation of the servosystem has shown that its performance is comparable to that of a servo employing electrohydraulic components. This development effort has demonstrated the capability to develop high performance, closed loop servo components from standard, integrated component fluidic elements.

  15. Robustness of Component Models in Energy System Simulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian


    ). Others have to do with the interaction between models of the nature of the substances in an energy system (e.g., fuels, air, flue gas), models of the components in a system (e.g., heat exchangers, turbines, pumps), and the solver for the system of equations. This paper proposes that the interaction...... or less difficult depending on the mathematical expressions creating the exceptions. The proposed idea suggests that the solvers may be helped by exception handling leading it back on the right track. The original equation of the model is substituted by an algorithm, so the original equation is only...

  16. Development of advanced high temperature in-cylinder components and tribological systems for low heat rejection diesel engines, phase 1 (United States)

    Kroeger, C. A.; Larson, H. J.


    Analysis and concept design work completed in Phase 1 have identified a low heat rejection engine configuration with the potential to meet the Heavy Duty Transport Technology program specific fuel consumption goal of 152 g/kW-hr. The proposed engine configuration incorporates low heat rejection, in-cylinder components designed for operation at 24 MPa peak cylinder pressure. Water cooling is eliminated by selective oil cooling of the components. A high temperature lubricant will be required due to increased in-cylinder operating temperatures. A two-stage turbocharger air system with intercooling and aftercooling was selected to meet engine boost and BMEP requirements. A turbocompound turbine stage is incorporated for exhaust energy recovery. The concept engine cost was estimated to be 43 percent higher compared to a Caterpillar 3176 engine. The higher initial engine cost is predicted to be offset by reduced operating costs due the lower fuel consumption.

  17. Design for robustness of unique, multi-component engineering systems (United States)

    Shelton, Kenneth A.


    The purpose of this research is to advance the science of conceptual designing for robustness in unique, multi-component engineering systems. Robustness is herein defined as the ability of an engineering system to operate within a desired performance range even if the actual configuration has differences from specifications within specified tolerances. These differences are caused by three sources, namely manufacturing errors, system degradation (operational wear and tear), and parts availability. Unique, multi-component engineering systems are defined as systems produced in unique or very small production numbers. They typically have design and manufacturing costs on the order of billions of dollars, and have multiple, competing performance objectives. Design time for these systems must be minimized due to competition, high manpower costs, long manufacturing times, technology obsolescence, and limited available manpower expertise. Most importantly, design mistakes cannot be easily corrected after the systems are operational. For all these reasons, robustness of these systems is absolutely critical. This research examines the space satellite industry in particular. Although inherent robustness assurance is absolutely critical, it is difficult to achieve in practice. The current state of the art for robustness in the industry is to overdesign components and subsystems with redundancy and margin. The shortfall is that it is not known if the added margins were either necessary or sufficient given the risk management preferences of the designer or engineering system customer. To address this shortcoming, new assessment criteria to evaluate robustness in design concepts have been developed. The criteria are comprised of the "Value Distance", addressing manufacturing errors and system degradation, and "Component Distance", addressing parts availability. They are based on an evolutionary computation format that uses a string of alleles to describe the components in the

  18. Characterization of a high-pressure diesel fuel injection system as a control technology option to improve engine performance and reduce exhaust emissions (United States)

    Mcfadden, J. J.; Dezelick, R. A.; Barrows, R. R.


    Test results from a high pressure electronically controlled fuel injection system are compared with a commercial mechanical injection system on a single cylinder, diesel test engine using an inlet boost pressure of 2.6:1. The electronic fuel injection system achieved high pressure by means of a fluid intensifier with peak injection pressures of 47 to 69 MPa. Reduced exhaust emissions were demonstrated with an increasing rate of injection followed by a fast cutoff of injection. The reduction in emissions is more responsive to the rate of injection and injection timing than to high peak injection pressure.

  19. Robotic system construction with mechatronic components inverted pendulum: humanoid robot (United States)

    Sandru, Lucian Alexandru; Crainic, Marius Florin; Savu, Diana; Moldovan, Cristian; Dolga, Valer; Preitl, Stefan


    Mechatronics is a new methodology used to achieve an optimal design of an electromechanical product. This methodology is collection of practices, procedures and rules used by those who work in particular branch of knowledge or discipline. Education in mechatronics at the Polytechnic University Timisoara is organized on three levels: bachelor, master and PhD studies. These activities refer and to design the mechatronics systems. In this context the design, implementation and experimental study of a family of mechatronic demonstrator occupy an important place. In this paper, a variant for a mechatronic demonstrator based on the combination of the electrical and mechanical components is proposed. The demonstrator, named humanoid robot, is equivalent with an inverted pendulum. Is presented the analyze of components for associated functions of the humanoid robot. This type of development the mechatronic systems by the combination of hardware and software, offers the opportunity to build the optimal solutions.

  20. Component based distributed systems - CORBA and EJB in context. (United States)

    Lunney, T. F.; McCaughey, A. J.


    Astronomy, like other sciences, is highly collaborative, so it is no surprise that astronomical computing environments have become increasingly distributed in nature. Therefore the interest in benefiting from new developments in distributed computing technologies is clear, but to reap these potential benefits one must overcome the problems posed by the heterogeneous mix of different architectures and operating systems that occur. This mix has made information flow between systems at best difficult and organizations have not been able to fully harness one of their most valuable assets, namely information. This paper introduces the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) and Enterprise Java Beans (EJBs), and puts forward a rationale as to why they have the potential to provide the required integration platform. These component based distributed technologies, allow disparate, heterogeneous legacy data systems to be integrated with current systems and they also support the incremental growth of current systems to meet evolving requirements.

  1. Seismic Design of ITER Component Cooling Water System-1 Piping (United States)

    Singh, Aditya P.; Jadhav, Mahesh; Sharma, Lalit K.; Gupta, Dinesh K.; Patel, Nirav; Ranjan, Rakesh; Gohil, Guman; Patel, Hiren; Dangi, Jinendra; Kumar, Mohit; Kumar, A. G. A.


    The successful performance of ITER machine very much depends upon the effective removal of heat from the in-vessel components and other auxiliary systems during Tokamak operation. This objective will be accomplished by the design of an effective Cooling Water System (CWS). The optimized piping layout design is an important element in CWS design and is one of the major design challenges owing to the factors of large thermal expansion and seismic accelerations; considering safety, accessibility and maintainability aspects. An important sub-system of ITER CWS, Component Cooling Water System-1 (CCWS-1) has very large diameter of pipes up to DN1600 with many intersections to fulfill the process flow requirements of clients for heat removal. Pipe intersection is the weakest link in the layout due to high stress intensification factor. CCWS-1 piping up to secondary confinement isolation valves as well as in-between these isolation valves need to survive a Seismic Level-2 (SL-2) earthquake during the Tokamak operation period to ensure structural stability of the system in the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) event. This paper presents the design, qualification and optimization of layout of ITER CCWS-1 loop to withstand SSE event combined with sustained and thermal loads as per the load combinations defined by ITER and allowable limits as per ASME B31.3, This paper also highlights the Modal and Response Spectrum Analyses done to find out the natural frequency and system behavior during the seismic event.

  2. 76 FR 45859 - In the Matter of Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products... analytics software, systems, components thereof, and products containing same by reason of infringement of... after importation of certain video analytics software, systems, components thereof, and products...

  3. 77 FR 45376 - Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... analytics software, systems, components thereof, and products containing same by reason of infringement of... after importation of certain video analytics software, systems, components thereof, and products...

  4. 77 FR 39509 - Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components... analytics software, systems, components thereof, and products containing same. The complaint names as...

  5. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA airworthiness certification for ceramic matrix composite components in civil aircraft systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonczy Stephen T.


    Full Text Available Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs are being designed and developed for engine and exhaust components in commercial aviation, because they offer higher temperature capabilities, weight savings, and improved durability compared to metals. The United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA issues and enforces regulations and minimum standards covering the safe manufacture, operation, and maintenance of civil aircraft. As new materials, these ceramic composite components will have to meet the certification regulations of the FAA for “airworthiness”. The FAA certification process is defined in the Federal Aviation Regulations (Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations, FAA policy statements, orders, advisory circulars, technical standard orders, and FAA airworthiness directives. These regulations and documents provide the fundamental requirements and guidelines for design, testing, manufacture, quality assurance, registration, operation, inspection, maintenance, and repair of aircraft systems and parts. For metallic parts in aircraft, the FAA certification and compliance process is well-established for type and airworthiness certification, using ASTM and SAE standards, the MMPDS data handbook, and FAA advisory circulars. In a similar manner for polymer matrix composites (PMC, the PMC industry and the FAA have jointly developed and are refining parallel guidelines for polymer matrix composites (PMCs, using guidance in FAA circulars and the CMH-17 PMC handbook. These documents discuss design methods and codes, material testing, property data development, life/durability assessment, production processes, QA procedures, inspection methods, operational limits, and repairs for PMCs. For ceramic composites, the FAA and the CMC and aerospace community are working together (primarily through the CMH-17 CMC handbook to define and codify key design, production, and regulatory issues that have to be addressed in the certification of CMC components in

  6. Bed-integrated local exhaust ventilation system combined with local air cleaning for improved IAQ in hospital patient rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Mizutani, Chiyomi


    micro-environment was exhausted. Two modes of operation were studied: 1) the exhausted polluted air was discharged out of the room and 2) the polluted air was cleaned by the ACF material installed inside the mattress and recirculated back into the room. Both modes of operation efficiently reduced...... the generated bio-effluents in the room with about 70%. Reduction in the exposure to body-emitted ammonia was up to 96% when the VM was operated at only 1.5 L/s and the ACF was used as a blanket....... the exposure to body generated bio-effluents in a hospital room was determined. Full-scale experiments were conducted in a climate chamber furnished as a single-bed patient room. Two heated dummies were used to simulate a patient and a doctor in the room. The patient was lying on a bed equipped with the VM...

  7. DEKRA: New basis for testing of engines, exhaust systems and powertrains; DEKRA: Neue Versuchsbasis fuer Motor, Abgas und Antriebsstrang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R. [Dekra Automotive Test Center (Germany); Engeljehringer, K. [AVL List GmbH (Germany)


    Demands on internal combustion engines are getting increasingly rigid in terms of exhaust emissions and fuel consumptions. For the type testing authorities, this means ever higher accuracies of measurement and reproducibility of test results. In cooperation with the AVL List GmbH, a new exhaust laboratory was constructed at the Dekra Automobil Test Center. [German] An Verbrennungsmotoren werden immer hoehere Anforderungen hinsichtlich der Abgasemission und des Kraftstoffverbrauchs gestellt. Die stete Verschaerfung der gesetzlichen Grenzwerte und Pruefvorschriften stellt nicht nur die Fahrzeug- und Motorenhersteller, sondern auch die Typpruefstellen vor immer anspruchsvollere Aufgaben bezueglich der Messgenauigkeit und Reproduzierbarkeit der Testergebnisse. Im Dekra Automobil Test Center entstand in Zusammenarbeit mit der AVL List GmbH ein neues Abgaslabor. (orig.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yorkina N.V.


    Full Text Available Some classifications of city soils together with possibilities of operative tracking of the ecological state of urban system soil cover were considered. Data analysis of complex ecological monitoring of the soil cover was performed towards structural-functional organization of urban system and soils of city principal basic industrial enterprises and territories adjacent to artillery base complex near Novobogdanovka.The use of modern classifications of urban soils allows us to monitor the ecological state of soil of urban system and take proper measures for its optimization. The most representative indicators of the ecological status of soils for urban system are pH and heavy metals. All components of urban system must be considered as integrated structural and functional formation, where the main structural components are the administrative and territorial units - regions, and functional - industrial, residential and recreational areas of the city.Environmental monitoring of the spatial distribution of heavy metals and pH in Melitopol proved their uneven distribution. Most disadvantaged areas were located near highways. The main role in the pollution of the urban Melitopol environment has shifted to the road transport industry due to its significant increase.

  9. The farming system component of European agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Erling


    endowments. The focus is on the farming systems component of the agricultural landscapes by applying a typology to the sample farms of the Farm Accountancy Data Network and scaling up the results to the landscape level for the territory of the EU. The farming system approach emphasises that agricultural......Agricultural landscapes are the outcome of combined natural and human factors over time. This paper explores the scope of perceiving the agricultural landscapes of the European Union (EU) as distinct patterns of farming systems and landscape elements in homogeneous biophysical and administrative...... landscapes evolve from the praxis of the farmers and takes into account the scale, intensity and specialisation of the agricultural production. From farming system design point of view, the approach can be used to integrate the landscape in the design process. From a policy point of view, the approach offers...

  10. Applying Systems Engineering to Improve the Main Gas Turbine Exhaust System Maintenance Strategy for the CG-47 Ticonderoga Class Cruiser (United States)


    national security and prosperity (U.S. Navy 2014). In perspective, oceans are the lifeblood of the planet and its entire population. The excess of 80 percent of the world’s population lives within 100 miles of an ocean and greater than 90 percent of the world’s commerce travels via...emergency drainage, backup seawater service, machinery and electronic cooling systems. The Countermeasure Wash down System (CMWD), magazine

  11. Exhaustion from prolonged gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Lateef


    Full Text Available Complaints of fatigue and physical exhaustion are frequently seen in the acute medical setting, especially amongst athletes, army recruits and persons involved in strenuous and exertional physical activities. Stress-induced exhaustion, on the other hand, is less often seen, but can present with very similar symptoms to physical exhaustion. Recently, three patients were seen at the Department of Emergency Medicine, presenting with exhaustion from prolonged involvement in gambling activities. The cases serve to highlight some of the physical consequences of prolonged gambling.

  12. A Reconfigurable FPGA System for Parallel Independent Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Hongtao


    Full Text Available A run-time reconfigurable field programmable gate array (FPGA system is presented for the implementation of the parallel independent component analysis (ICA algorithm. In this work, we investigate design challenges caused by the capacity constraints of single FPGA. Using the reconfigurability of FPGA, we show how to manipulate the FPGA-based system and execute processes for the parallel ICA (pICA algorithm. During the implementation procedure, pICA is first partitioned into three temporally independent function blocks, each of which is synthesized by using several ICA-related reconfigurable components (RCs that are developed for reuse and retargeting purposes. All blocks are then integrated into a design and development environment for performing tasks such as FPGA optimization, placement, and routing. With partitioning and reconfiguration, the proposed reconfigurable FPGA system overcomes the capacity constraints for the pICA implementation on embedded systems. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this implementation on real images with large throughput for dimensionality reduction in hyperspectral image (HSI analysis.

  13. A Reconfigurable FPGA System for Parallel Independent Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairong Qi


    Full Text Available A run-time reconfigurable field programmable gate array (FPGA system is presented for the implementation of the parallel independent component analysis (ICA algorithm. In this work, we investigate design challenges caused by the capacity constraints of single FPGA. Using the reconfigurability of FPGA, we show how to manipulate the FPGA-based system and execute processes for the parallel ICA (pICA algorithm. During the implementation procedure, pICA is first partitioned into three temporally independent function blocks, each of which is synthesized by using several ICA-related reconfigurable components (RCs that are developed for reuse and retargeting purposes. All blocks are then integrated into a design and development environment for performing tasks such as FPGA optimization, placement, and routing. With partitioning and reconfiguration, the proposed reconfigurable FPGA system overcomes the capacity constraints for the pICA implementation on embedded systems. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this implementation on real images with large throughput for dimensionality reduction in hyperspectral image (HSI analysis.

  14. Detection of Component Failures for Smart Structure Control Systems (United States)

    Okubo, Hiroshi

    Uncertainties in the dynamics model of a smart structure are often of significance due to model errors caused by parameter identification errors and reduced-order modeling of the system. Design of a model-based Failure Detection and Isolation (FDI) system for smart structures, therefore, needs careful consideration regarding robustness with respect to such model uncertainties. In this paper, we proposes a new method of robust fault detection that is insensitive to the disturbances caused by unknown modeling errors while it is highly sensitive to the component failures. The capability of the robust detection algorithm is examined for the sensor failure of a flexible smart beam control system. It is shown by numerical simulations that the proposed method suppresses the disturbances due to model errors and markedly improves the detection performance.

  15. Testing of Liquid Metal Components for Nuclear Surface Power Systems (United States)

    Polzin, K. A.; Pearson, J. B.; Godfroy, T. J.; Schoenfeld, M.; Webster, K.; Briggs, M. H.; Geng, S. M.; Adkins, H. E.; Werner, J. E.


    The capability to perform testing at both the module/component level and in near prototypic reactor configurations using a non-nuclear test methodology allowed for evaluation of two components critical to the development of a potential nuclear fission power system for the lunar surface. A pair of 1 kW Stirling power convertors, similar to the type that would be used in a reactor system to convert heat to electricity, were integrated into a reactor simulator system to determine their performance using pumped NaK as the hot side working fluid. The performance in the pumped-NaK system met or exceed the baseline performance measurements where the converters were electrically heated. At the maximum hot-side temperature of 550 C the maximum output power was 2375 watts. A specially-designed test apparatus was fabricated and used to quantify the performance of an annular linear induction pump that is similar to the type that could be used to circulate liquid metal through the core of a space reactor system. The errors on the measurements were generally much smaller than the magnitude of the measurements, permitting accurate performance evaluation over a wide range of operating conditions. The pump produced flow rates spanning roughly 0.16 to 5.7 l/s (2.5 to 90 GPM), and delta p levels from less than 1 kPa to 90 kPa (greater than 0.145 psi to roughly 13 psi). At the nominal FSP system operating temperature of 525 C the maximum efficiency was just over 4%.

  16. An Efficient Connected Component Labeling Architecture for Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Spagnolo


    Full Text Available Connected component analysis is one of the most fundamental steps used in several image processing systems. This technique allows for distinguishing and detecting different objects in images by assigning a unique label to all pixels that refer to the same object. Most of the previous published algorithms have been designed for implementation by software. However, due to the large number of memory accesses and compare, lookup, and control operations when executed on a general-purpose processor, they do not satisfy the speed performance required by the next generation high performance computer vision systems. In this paper, we present the design of a new Connected Component Labeling hardware architecture suitable for high performance heterogeneous image processing of embedded designs. When implemented on a Zynq All Programmable-System on Chip (AP-SOC 7045 chip, the proposed design allows a throughput rate higher of 220 Mpixels/s to be reached using less than 18,000 LUTs and 5000 FFs, dissipating about 620 μJ.

  17. Application of fuzzy-MOORA method: Ranking of components for reliability estimation of component-based software systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Ali Siddiqui


    Full Text Available Component-based software system (CBSS development technique is an emerging discipline that promises to take software development into a new era. As hardware systems are presently being constructed from kits of parts, software systems may also be assembled from components. It is more reliable to reuse software than to create. It is the glue code and individual components reliability that contribute to the reliability of the overall system. Every component contributes to overall system reliability according to the number of times it is being used, some components are of critical usage, known as usage frequency of component. The usage frequency decides the weight of each component. According to their weights, each component contributes to the overall reliability of the system. Therefore, ranking of components may be obtained by analyzing their reliability impacts on overall application. In this paper, we propose the application of fuzzy multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis, Fuzzy-MOORA. The method helps us find the best suitable alternative, software component, from a set of available feasible alternatives named software components. It is an accurate and easy to understand tool for solving multi-criteria decision making problems that have imprecise and vague evaluation data. By the use of ratio analysis, the proposed method determines the most suitable alternative among all possible alternatives, and dimensionless measurement will realize the job of ranking of components for estimating CBSS reliability in a non-subjective way. Finally, three case studies are shown to illustrate the use of the proposed technique.

  18. Insulating complex cooling system components; Kaeltedaemmung komplexer Anlagenteile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, M.


    This illustrated article takes a look at the use of specially formed insulation components made of synthetic rubber. The author comments on the difficulties encountered by companies when estimating the amount of work needed to insulate complex systems, as this often involves work being carried out in several stages. The importance of a clear concept for the insulation work is stressed. Details on the insulation of piping, connection flanges, valves and stop-cocks are presented and the use of specially formed insulation elements is discussed. Various tips are given and practical guides are presented regarding couplings, critical elements and problematical zones.

  19. Bronchoalveolar inflammation after exposure to diesel exhaust: comparison between unfiltered and particle trap filtered exhaust. (United States)

    Rudell, B; Blomberg, A; Helleday, R; Ledin, M C; Lundbäck, B; Stjernberg, N; Hörstedt, P; Sandström, T


    Air pollution particulates have been identified as having adverse effects on respiratory health. The present study was undertaken to further clarify the effects of diesel exhaust on bronchoalveolar cells and soluble components in normal healthy subjects. The study was also designed to evaluate whether a ceramic particle trap at the end of the tail pipe, from an idling engine, would reduce indices of airway inflammation. The study comprised three exposures in all 10 healthy never smoking subjects; air, diluted diesel exhaust, and diluted diesel exhaust filtered with a ceramic particle trap. The exposures were given for 1 hour in randomised order about 3 weeks apart. The diesel exhaust exposure apperatus has previously been carefully developed and evaluated. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed 24 hours after exposures and the lavage fluids from the bronchial and bronchoalveolar region were analysed for cells and soluble components. The particle trap reduced the mean steady state number of particles by 50%, but the concentrations of the other measured compounds were almost unchanged. It was found that diesel exhaust caused an increase in neutrophils in airway lavage, together with an adverse influence on the phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages in vitro. Furthermore, the diesel exhaust was found to be able to induce a migration of alveolar macrophages into the airspaces, together with reduction in CD3+CD25+ cells. (CD = cluster of differentiation) The use of the specific ceramic particle trap at the end of the tail pipe was not sufficient to completely abolish these effects when interacting with the exhaust from an idling vehicle. The current study showed that exposure to diesel exhaust may induce neutrophil and alveolar macrophage recruitment into the airways and suppress alveolar macrophage function. The particle trap did not cause significant reduction of effects induced by diesel exhaust compared with unfiltered diesel exhaust. Further studies are warranted to

  20. Hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome. (United States)

    Ristiniemi, Heli; Perski, Aleksander; Lyskov, Eugene; Emtner, Margareta


    Chronic stress is among the most common diagnoses in Sweden, most commonly in the form of exhaustion syndrome (ICD-10 classification - F43.8). The majority of patients with this syndrome also have disturbed breathing (hyperventilation). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome. Thirty patients with exhaustion syndrome and 14 healthy subjects were evaluated with the Nijmegen Symptom Questionnaire (NQ). The participants completed questionnaires about exhaustion, mental state, sleep disturbance, pain and quality of life. The evaluation was repeated 4 weeks later, after half of the patients and healthy subjects had engaged in a therapy method called 'Grounding', a physical exercise inspired by African dance. The patients reported significantly higher levels of hyperventilation as compared to the healthy subjects. All patients' average score on NQ was 26.57 ± 10.98, while that of the healthy subjects was 15.14 ± 7.89 (t = -3.48, df = 42, p exhaustion (Karolinska Exhaustion Scale KES r = 0.772, p exhaustion scores and scores of depression and anxiety. The conclusion is that hyperventilation is common in exhaustion syndrome patients and that it can be reduced by systematic physical therapy such as Grounding. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic College of Caring Science.

  1. Immune Exhaustion and Transplantation. (United States)

    Sanchez-Fueyo, A; Markmann, J F


    Exhaustion of lymphocyte function through chronic exposure to a high load of foreign antigen is well established for chronic viral infection and antitumor immunity and has been found to be associated with a distinct molecular program and characteristic cell surface phenotype. Although exhaustion has most commonly been studied in the context of CD8 viral responses, recent studies indicate that chronic antigen exposure may affect B cells, NK cells and CD4 T cells in a parallel manner. Limited information is available regarding the extent of lymphocyte exhaustion development in the transplant setting and its impact on anti-graft alloreactivity. By analogy to the persistence of a foreign virus, the large mass of alloantigen presented by an allograft in chronic residence could provide an ideal setting for exhausting donor-reactive T cells. The extent of T cell exhaustion occurring with various allografts, the kinetics of its development, whether exhaustion is influenced positively or negatively by different immunosuppressants, and the impact of exhaustion on graft survival and tolerance development remains a fertile area for investigation. Harnessing or encouraging the natural processes of exhaustion may provide a novel means to promote graft survival and transplantation tolerance. © Copyright 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  2. System and method for manufacture of airfoil components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moors, Thomas Michael


    Embodiments of the present disclosure relate generally to systems and methods for manufacturing an airfoil component. The system can include: a geometrical mold; an elongated flexible sleeve having a closed-off interior and positioned within the geometrical mold, wherein the elongated flexible sleeve is further positioned to have a desired geometry; an infusing channel in fluid communication with the closed-off interior of the elongated flexible sleeve and configured to communicate a resinous material thereto; a vacuum channel in fluid communication with the closed-off interior of the elongated flexible sleeve and configured to vacuum seal the closed-off interior of the elongated flexible sleeve; and a glass fiber layer positioned within the closed-off interior of the elongated flexible sleeve.

  3. Health effects of exhaust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihlava, T.; Uuppo, M.; Niemi, S.


    This report introduces general information about diesel particles and their health effects. The purpose of this report is to introduce particulate matter pollution and present some recent studies made regarding the health effects of particulate matter. The aim is not to go very deeply into the science, but instead to keep the text understandable for the average layman. Particulate matter is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets. These small particles are made up of a number of components that include for example acids, such as nitrates and sulphates, as well as organic chemicals, metals and dust particles from the soil. Particulate matter comes from several sources, such as transportation emissions, industrial emissions, forest fires, cigarette smoke, volcanic ash and climate variations. Particles are divided into coarse particles with diameters less than 10 ..m, fine particles with diameters smaller than 2.5 ..m and ultra-fine particles with diameters less than 0.1 ..m. The particulate matter in diesel exhaust gas is a highly complex mixture of organic, inorganic, solid, volatile and partly volatile compounds. Many of these particles do not form until they reach the air. Many carcinogenic compounds have been found in diesel exhaust gas and it is considered carcinogenic to humans. Particulate matter can cause several health effects, such as premature death in persons with heart or lung disease, cancer, nonfatal heart attacks, irregular heartbeat, aggravated asthma, decreased lung function and an increase in respiratory symptoms, such as irritation of the airways, coughing or difficulty breathing. It is estimated that in Finland about 1300 people die prematurely due to particles and the economic loss in the EU due to the health effects of particles can be calculated in the billions. Ultra-fine particles are considered to be the most harmful to human health. Ultrafine particles usually make the most of their quantity and surface area

  4. Method for removing soot from exhaust gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suib, Steven L.; Dharmarathna, D. A. Saminda; Pahalagedara, Lakshitha R.


    A method for oxidizing soot from diesel exhaust gas from a diesel engine. The method involves providing a diesel particulate filter for receiving the diesel exhaust gas; coating a catalyst composition on the diesel particulate filter; and contacting the soot from the diesel exhaust gas with the catalyst coated diesel particulate filter at a temperature sufficient to oxidize the soot to carbon dioxide. The catalyst composition is a doped or undoped manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) material. A diesel exhaust gas treatment system that includes a diesel particulate filter for receiving diesel exhaust gas from a diesel engine and collecting soot; and a catalyst composition coated on the diesel particulate filter. The catalyst composition is a doped or undoped manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2).

  5. Economic Optimization of Component Sizing for Residential Battery Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger C. Hesse


    Full Text Available Battery energy storage systems (BESS coupled with rooftop-mounted residential photovoltaic (PV generation, designated as PV-BESS, draw increasing attention and market penetration as more and more such systems become available. The manifold BESS deployed to date rely on a variety of different battery technologies, show a great variation of battery size, and power electronics dimensioning. However, given today’s high investment costs of BESS, a well-matched design and adequate sizing of the storage systems are prerequisites to allow profitability for the end-user. The economic viability of a PV-BESS depends also on the battery operation, storage technology, and aging of the system. In this paper, a general method for comprehensive PV-BESS techno-economic analysis and optimization is presented and applied to the state-of-art PV-BESS to determine its optimal parameters. Using a linear optimization method, a cost-optimal sizing of the battery and power electronics is derived based on solar energy availability and local demand. At the same time, the power flow optimization reveals the best storage operation patterns considering a trade-off between energy purchase, feed-in remuneration, and battery aging. Using up to date technology-specific aging information and the investment cost of battery and inverter systems, three mature battery chemistries are compared; a lead-acid (PbA system and two lithium-ion systems, one with lithium-iron-phosphate (LFP and another with lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC cathode. The results show that different storage technology and component sizing provide the best economic performances, depending on the scenario of load demand and PV generation.

  6. Injection system used into SI engines for complete combustion and reduction of exhaust emissions in the case of alcohol and petrol alcohol mixtures feed (United States)

    Ispas, N.; Cofaru, C.; Aleonte, M.


    Internal combustion engines still play a major role in today transportation but increasing the fuel efficiency and decreasing chemical emissions remain a great goal of the researchers. Direct injection and air assisted injection system can improve combustion and can reduce the concentration of the exhaust gas pollutes. Advanced air-to-fuel and combustion air-to-fuel injection system for mixtures, derivatives and alcohol gasoline blends represent a major asset in reducing pollutant emissions and controlling combustion processes in spark-ignition engines. The use of these biofuel and biofuel blending systems for gasoline results in better control of spark ignition engine processes, making combustion as complete as possible, as well as lower levels of concentrations of pollutants in exhaust gases. The main purpose of this paper was to provide most suitable tools for ensure the proven increase in the efficiency of spark ignition engines, making them more environmentally friendly. The conclusions of the paper allow to highlight the paths leading to a better use of alcohols (biofuels) in internal combustion engines of modern transport units.

  7. Corrosion failure of Ni-resist pumping system components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatarov, A.; Gareau, F. [Skystone Engineering, Calgary, AB (Canada); Bondarchuk, D.; Cymbol, B. [Apache Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    This paper discussed a failure analysis conducted after the failure of a new high pressure horizontal pumping system that was installed as part of an oilfield injection system. The pump impellers failed after less than a year in service due to the corrosion and cracking. The components were constructed from Ni-Resist type 1, a commonly used material in corrosive environments, as well as a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surface coating. A visual examination, X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a metallographic examination did not demonstrate signs of impingement corrosion, abrasive wear, or cavitation. Results of the study showed that the root cause of the corrosion failure was the permeability of the coating, and the unprotected surfaces of the Ni-Resist material, which did not have a protective passive film. The system was found to contain an un-removed surface scale of sand and ceramics as well as materials left over from the manufacturing process. A thorough cleaning of the system's surfaces would have allowed a passive layer to form on the surface and prevented the failure from occurring. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Investigation of Diesel Exhaust Gas Toxicity on Transient Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivashchenko Nikolay Antonovich


    Full Text Available Currently, the generation of heat engines and their control systems are based on ecological indices such as the toxicity of the fulfilled gases. When designing motors, software packages are widely used. These software packages provide the ability to calculate the workflow of engine at steady-state conditions. The definition of indicators emissions is a difficult task. The distribution statistics of the modes shows that the engines of the transport units work on unsteady modes most of the time. The calculation of toxicity indicators is even less developed. In this article experimental and numeric study of the diesel engine with turbocharger exhaust toxicity was considered. As a result of the experimental study, which was conducted with single-cylinder diesel engine compartment simulated work on the transient state, working process characteristics of a diesel engine were obtained, including carbon and nitrogen oxides concentrations. Functional dependencies of concentrations of toxic exhaust components, such as carbon and nitrogen oxides, on excess air ratio and exhaust temperature were obtained. Diesel engine transient processes were simulated using developed mathematical dynamic model of combined engine in locomotive power plant with a change in control signal (position of locomotive driver’s controller and external influence signal (resistance moment. The analysis of exhaust gas toxicity was conducted.

  9. Visualization Component of Vehicle Health Decision Support System (United States)

    Jacob, Joseph; Turmon, Michael; Stough, Timothy; Siegel, Herbert; Walter, patrick; Kurt, Cindy


    The visualization front-end of a Decision Support System (DSS) also includes an analysis engine linked to vehicle telemetry, and a database of learned models for known behaviors. Because the display is graphical rather than text-based, the summarization it provides has a greater information density on one screen for evaluation by a flight controller.This tool provides a system-level visualization of the state of a vehicle, and drill-down capability for more details and interfaces to separate analysis algorithms and sensor data streams. The system-level view is a 3D rendering of the vehicle, with sensors represented as icons, tied to appropriate positions within the vehicle body and colored to indicate sensor state (e.g., normal, warning, anomalous state, etc.). The sensor data is received via an Information Sharing Protocol (ISP) client that connects to an external server for real-time telemetry. Users can interactively pan, zoom, and rotate this 3D view, as well as select sensors for a detail plot of the associated time series data. Subsets of the plotted data can be selected and sent to an external analysis engine to either search for a similar time series in an historical database, or to detect anomalous events. The system overview and plotting capabilities are completely general in that they can be applied to any vehicle instrumented with a collection of sensors. This visualization component can interface with the ISP for data streams used by NASA s Mission Control Center at Johnson Space Center. In addition, it can connect to, and display results from, separate analysis engine components that identify anomalies or that search for past instances of similar behavior. This software supports NASA's Software, Intelligent Systems, and Modeling element in the Exploration Systems Research and Technology Program by augmenting the capability of human flight controllers to make correct decisions, thus increasing safety and reliability. It was designed specifically as a

  10. Sperry Low Temperature Geothermal Conversion System, Phase I and Phase II. Volume V. Component development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, C.; McBee, W.; Matthews, H.B.


    The fundamental inventions which motivate this program are system concepts centered on a novel heat engine cycle and the use of downwell heat exchange. Here, the primary emphasis is on downwell hardware. The only surface equipment included is the surface portion of the instrumentation and control systems. Downwell instrumentation is reported. Downwell conduits and techniques for installing, connecting and sealing them are covered. The downwell turbine-pump unit (TPU) is a critical component since it is relatively inaccessible and operates in a hostile environment. Its development is reported. The TPU for the gravity-head system requires a different type of turbine because of the large flow-rate through it and the small pressure difference across it. The design study for a Francis turbine to meet these requirements is reported. A feature of these systems is use of a downwell heat exchanger. There were extensive studies of tube-bundle configuration, tube-sheet seals, structural integrity, and flow and heat transfer, as well as the research on welded connections and sliding elastomeric seals. Another innovative component in these systems is the enthalpy recovery unit (ERU). This direct-contact heat exchanger compensates for under-cooling in the condenser and superheat in the main turbine exhaust.

  11. 40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section... Procedures § 89.416 Raw exhaust gas flow. The exhaust gas flow shall be determined by one of the methods...) Measurement of the air flow and the fuel flow by suitable metering systems (for details see SAE J244. This...

  12. Calorimetric Measuring Systems for Characterizing High Frequency Power Losses in Power Electronic Components and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim; Ritchie, Andrew Ewen


    High frequency power losses in power electronic components and systems are very difficult to measure. The same applies to the efficiency of high-efficiency systems and components. An important method to measure losses with high accuracy is the calorimetric measuring systems. This paper describes...... two different calorimetric measuring systems, one for power losses up to 50 W and one for power losses up to 1500 W. These differ in size and also the systems which can be analysed. The basic concept of calorimetry is discussed and the overall performance of the two systems is specified. Methods...

  13. Phase Transitions in Biological Systems with Many Components. (United States)

    Jacobs, William M; Frenkel, Daan


    Biological mixtures such as the cytosol may consist of thousands of distinct components. There is now a substantial body of evidence showing that, under physiological conditions, intracellular mixtures can phase separate into spatially distinct regions with differing compositions. In this article we present numerical evidence indicating that such spontaneous compartmentalization exploits general features of the phase diagram of a multicomponent biomolecular mixture. In particular, we show that demixed domains are likely to segregate when the variance in the intermolecular interaction strengths exceeds a well-defined threshold. Multiple distinct phases are likely to become stable under very similar conditions, which can then be tuned to achieve multiphase coexistence. As a result, only minor adjustments to the composition of the cytosol or the strengths of the intermolecular interactions are needed to regulate the formation of different domains with specific compositions, implying that phase separation is a robust mechanism for creating spatial organization. We further predict that this functionality is only weakly affected by increasing the number of components in the system. Our model therefore suggests that, for purely physico-chemical reasons, biological mixtures are naturally poised to undergo a small number of demixing phase transitions. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo


    Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period we coated coupons of selected alloy steels with diffusion coatings of Cr and Al, as well as with titanium and tantalum nitrides. The coated samples were analyzed for their surface composition. In several instances, the samples were also cut to determine the depth profile of the coating. Several of the early runs did not yield uniform or deep enough coatings and hence a significant portion of the effort in this period was devoted fixing the problems with our fluidized bed reactor. Before the end of the quarter we had prepared a number of samples, many of them in duplicates, and sent one set to Wabash River Energy Laboratory for them to install in their gasifier. The gasifier was undergoing a scheduled maintenance and thus presented an opportunity to place some of our coupons in the stream of an operating gasifier. The samples submitted included coated and uncoated pairs of different alloys.

  15. Critical mm-wave components for synthetic automatic test systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hrobak, Michael


    Michael Hrobak studied hybrid integrated front end modules for high frequency measurement equipment and especially for synthetic automatic test systems. Recent developments of innovative, critical millimeter-wave components like frequency multipliers, directional couplers, filters, triple balanced mixers and power detectors are illustrated by the author separately and in combination.  Contents Synthetic Instruments Resistive Diode Frequency Multipliers Planar Directional Couplers and Filters Triple Balanced Mixers Zero Bias Schottky Power Detectors Integrated Front End Assemblies  Target Groups Scientists and students in the field of electrical engineering with main emphasis on high frequency technology Engineers and Practitioners dealing with the development of micro- and millimeter-wave measurement instruments  About the Author Dr. Michael Hrobak is with the Microwave Department of the Ferdinand-Braun-Institut (FBH), Berlin, Germany, where he is involved in the development and measurement of monolithic i...

  16. Efficient two-component relativistic method for large systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, Hiromi [Department of Chemitsry and Biochemistry, School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Elements Strategy Initiative for Catalysts and Batteries (ESICB), Kyoto University, Katsura, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan)


    This paper reviews a series of theoretical studies to develop efficient two-component (2c) relativistic method for large systems by the author’s group. The basic theory is the infinite-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (IODKH) method for many-electron Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian. The local unitary transformation (LUT) scheme can effectively produce the 2c relativistic Hamiltonian, and the divide-and-conquer (DC) method can achieve linear-scaling of Hartree-Fock and electron correlation methods. The frozen core potential (FCP) theoretically connects model potential calculations with the all-electron ones. The accompanying coordinate expansion with a transfer recurrence relation (ACE-TRR) scheme accelerates the computations of electron repulsion integrals with high angular momenta and long contractions.

  17. Production of complement components by cells of the immune system. (United States)

    Lubbers, R; van Essen, M F; van Kooten, C; Trouw, L A


    The complement system is an important part of the innate immune defence. It contributes not only to local inflammation, removal and killing of pathogens, but it also assists in shaping of the adaptive immune response. Besides a role in inflammation, complement is also involved in physiological processes such as waste disposal and developmental programmes. The complement system comprises several soluble and membrane-bound proteins. The bulk of the soluble proteins is produced mainly by the liver. While several complement proteins are produced by a wide variety of cell types, other complement proteins are produced by only a few related cell types. As these data suggest that local production by specific cell types may have specific functions, more detailed studies have been employed recently analysing the local and even intracellular role of these complement proteins. Here we review the current knowledge about extrahepatic production and/or secretion of complement components. More specifically, we address what is known about complement synthesis by cells of the human immune system. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  18. Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Pico Geerdsen, Lars; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due


    This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12...... studies for final analysis and interpretation. Twelve studies could be included in the data synthesis. Results: We found clear evidence that the prospect of exhaustion of benefits results in a significantly increased incentive for finding work. Discussion: The theoretical suggestion that the prospect...... of exhaustion of benefits results in an increased incentive for finding work has been confirmed empirically by measures from seven different European countries, the United States, and Canada. The results are robust in the sense that sensitivity analyses evidenced no appreciable changes in the results. We found...

  19. Immune Exhaustion and Transplantation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanchez‐Fueyo, A; Markmann, J. F


    Exhaustion of lymphocyte function through chronic exposure to a high load of foreign antigen is well established for chronic viral infection and antitumor immunity and has been found to be associated...

  20. Solvent Replacement for Hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225 for Cleaning Oxygen System Components (United States)

    Mitchell, M. A.; Lowrey, N. M.


    This Technical Memorandum is the result of a 2-year project funded by the Defense Logistics Agency-Aviation, Hazardous Minimization and Green Products Branch, to identify and test two candidate solvents to replace hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225 (HCFC-225) for cleaning oxygen systems. The solvents were also compared to a second solvent composed predominantly of perfluorobutyl iodide (PFBI), which had received limited approval by the United States Air Force (USAF) for hand wipe cleaning of components for aviators’ breathing oxygen systems. The tests performed for this study were based on those reported in AFRL-ML-WP-TR-2003-4040, “The Wipe Solvent Program,” the test program used to qualify Ikon® Solvent P for USAF applications.The study was completed in August 2014, prior to the completion of a more extensive study funded by the NASA Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) program. The results of the RPT project are reported in NASA/TP-2015-18207, “Replacement of Hydrochlorofluorocarbon–225 Solvent for Cleaning and Verification Sampling of NASA Propulsion Oxygen Systems Hardware, Ground Support Equipment, and Associated Test Systems.” The test methods used in this study for nonvolatile residue (NVR) background, materials compatibility, and cleaning effectiveness were different than those used for the RPT project; a smaller set of materials and contaminants were tested. The tests for this study were complementary to and provided supplementary information for the down-selection process during the course of the test program reported in NASA/TP-2015-218207.

  1. Architecture Support for Runtime Integration and Verification of Component-based Systems of Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez, A.; Piel, E.; Gross, H.G.


    Preprint of paper published in: ASE 2008 - 23rd IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering, 15-19 September 2008; doi:10.1109/ASEW.2008.4686292 Systems-of-Systems (SoS) represent a novel kind of system, for which runtime evolution is a key requirement, as components join and

  2. [Components of plastic disrupt the function of the nervous system]. (United States)

    Szychowski, Konrad Andrzej; Wójtowicz, Anna Katarzyna


    Development of the chemical industry leads to the development of new chemical compounds, which naturally do not exist in the environment. These chemicals are used to reduce flammability, increase plasticity, or improve solubility of other substances. Many of these compounds, which are components of plastic, the new generation of cosmetics, medical devices, food packaging and other everyday products, are easily released into the environment. Many studies have shown that a major lipophilicity characterizes substances such as phthalates, BPA, TBBPA and PCBs. This feature allows them to easily penetrate into living cells, accumulate in the tissues and the organs, and affect human and animal health. Due to the chemical structures, these compounds are able to mimic some endogenous hormones such as estradiol and to disrupt the hormone homeostasis. They can also easily pass the placental barrier and the blood-brain barrier. As numerous studies have shown, these chemicals disturb the proper functions of the nervous system from the earliest moments of life. It has been proven that these compounds affect neurogenesis as well as the synaptic transmission process. As a consequence, they interfere with the formation of the sex of the brain, as well as with the learning processes, memory and behavior. Additionally, the cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effect may cause neurodegenerative diseases. This article presents the current state of knowledge about the effects of phthalates, BPA, TBBPA, and PCBs on the nervous system.

  3. EBV Infection of Mice with Reconstituted Human Immune System Components. (United States)

    Münz, Christian


    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was discovered 50 years ago as the first candidate human tumor virus. Since then, we have realized that this human γ-herpesvirus establishes persistent infection in the majority of adult humans, but fortunately causes EBV-associated diseases only in few individuals. This is an incredible success story of the human immune system, which controls EBV infection and its transforming capacity for decades. A better understanding of this immune control would not only benefit patients with EBV-associated malignancies, but could also provide clues how to establish such a potent, mostly cell-mediated immune control against other pathogens and tumors. However, the functional relevance of EBV-specific immune responses can only be addressed in vivo, and mice with reconstituted human immune system components (huMice) constitute a small animal model to interrogate the protective value of immune compartments during EBV infection, but also might provide a platform to test EBV-specific vaccines. This chapter will summarize the insights into EBV immunobiology that have already been gained in these models and provide an outlook into promising future avenues to develop this in vivo model of EBV infection and human immune responses further.

  4. Designing Radiotherapy Software Components and Systems That Will Work Together. (United States)



    The radiation treatment planning and delivery process requires that many different computerized data sources, software tools, and computer control systems be smoothly integrated. These include computer-controlled accelerators and new digital imaging modalities. At the same time, the applications themselves are becoming increasingly complex. In radiotherapy, the variety of components to integrate is much greater than in other areas of clinical medicine, growing out of more than a 30-year history of use of highly stylized traditional computer applications and many rigid conventions and practices associated with these computer programs. The introduction of new tools and computer-controlled equipment influenced the evolution of radiotherapy planning software, leading us to take a new look at how radiotherapy planning is done. Addressing and solving these integration problems as a serious research undertaking is vital to continued success in deploying computer applications for clinical use. New software design ideas such as object oriented design, behavioral abstraction and mediators can solve these problems. Our experience shows that the time and effort to build high-quality adaptable modular systems can be kept modest and within the reach of a small development team.

  5. Development of a component centered fault monitoring and diagnosis knowledge based system for space power system (United States)

    Lee, S. C.; Lollar, Louis F.


    The overall approach currently being taken in the development of AMPERES (Autonomously Managed Power System Extendable Real-time Expert System), a knowledge-based expert system for fault monitoring and diagnosis of space power systems, is discussed. The system architecture, knowledge representation, and fault monitoring and diagnosis strategy are examined. A 'component-centered' approach developed in this project is described. Critical issues requiring further study are identified.

  6. Is overactive bladder microvasculature disease a component of systemic atheroscleorosis? (United States)

    Yeniel, Ahmet Ozgur; Ergenoglu, Ahmet Mete; Meseri, Reci; Kismali, Erkan; Ari, Anıl; Kavukcu, Gulgun; Aydin, Hikmet H; Ak, Handan; Atay, Sevcan; Itil, Ismail Mete


    To evaluate the relationship between overactive bladder (OAB) and systemic atherosclerosis in a cohort of women. In this case-control study, we assessed atherosclerosis indicators, such as Framingham risk scores and carotid and femoral artery intima-media thickness, and evaluated possible bladder wall responses to atherosclerosis using endovaginal color Doppler ultrasound and the detection of urinary cytokines in women with OAB and in controls. Quantitative assessment of blood perfusion at the bladder neck was performed using a method that allows for the dynamic monitoring of flow in a predefined region of interest at every point of the cardiac cycle. The independent samples t-test was used to evaluate the relationship between OAB and the atherosclerotic findings when parametric conditions were met, and the Mann-Whitney U test was used when parametric conditions were not met. Kendall's Tau was used to assess the correlation between OAB severity and the atherosclerotic variables. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. There were 74 OAB patients and 73 controls; in total, 147 women were evaluated. We found that all atherosclerosis indicators were significantly associated with OAB and that there was a significant relationship between OAB and decreased bladder neck perfusion. Additionally, there were correlations of OAB severity with systemic atherosclerosis and impaired vascular perfusion of the bladder. Decreased perfusion at the bladder neck, the Framingham scores in severe OAB, and the correlation between them suggest that OAB microvascular disease may be a component of systemic atherosclerosis rather than a separate process. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Stop and Restart Effects on Modern Vehicle Starting System Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windover, Paul R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Owens, Russell J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Levinson, Terry M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Laughlin, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gaines, Linda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    Many drivers of personal and commercial vehicles believe that turning the vehicle off and on frequently instead of idling will cause premature wear of the starter system (starter motor and starter battery). As a result, they are concerned that the replacement cost of the starter motor and/or battery due to increased manual engine cycling would be more than the cumulative cost of the fuel saved by not idling unnecessarily. A number of variables play a role in addressing this complex concern, including the number of starting cycles per day, the time between starting cycles, the intended design life of the starting system, the amount of fuel used to restart an engine, and the cumulative cost of the saved fuel. Qualitative and quantitative information from a variety of sources was used to develop a life-cycle economic model to evaluate the cost and quantify the realistic factors that are related to the permissible frequency of starter motor cycles for the average vehicle to economically minimize engine idle time. Annual cost savings can be calculated depending on shutdown duration and the number of shutdown cycles per day. Analysis shows that cost savings are realized by eliminating idling exceeding one minute by shutting down the engine and restarting it. For a typical motorist, the damage to starting system components resulting from additional daily start cycles will be negligible. Overall, it was found that starter life is mostly dependent on the total number of start cycles, while battery life is more dependent on ensuring a full charge between start events.

  8. Investigation of the Performance of HEMT-Based NO, NO2 and NH3 Exhaust Gas Sensors for Automotive Antipollution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacine Halfaya


    Full Text Available We report improved sensitivity to NO, NO2 and NH3 gas with specially-designed AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT that are suitable for operation in the harsh environment of diesel exhaust systems. The gate of the HEMT device is functionalized using a Pt catalyst for gas detection. We found that the performance of the sensors is enhanced at a temperature of 600 °C, and the measured sensitivity to 900 ppm-NO, 900 ppm-NO 2 and 15 ppm-NH 3 is 24%, 38.5% and 33%, respectively, at 600 °C. We also report dynamic response times as fast as 1 s for these three gases. Together, these results indicate that HEMT sensors could be used in a harsh environment with the ability to control an anti-pollution system in real time.

  9. Investigation of the Performance of HEMT-Based NO, NO2 and NH3 Exhaust Gas Sensors for Automotive Antipollution Systems (United States)

    Halfaya, Yacine; Bishop, Chris; Soltani, Ali; Sundaram, Suresh; Aubry, Vincent; Voss, Paul L.; Salvestrini, Jean-Paul; Ougazzaden, Abdallah


    We report improved sensitivity to NO, NO2 and NH3 gas with specially-designed AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) that are suitable for operation in the harsh environment of diesel exhaust systems. The gate of the HEMT device is functionalized using a Pt catalyst for gas detection. We found that the performance of the sensors is enhanced at a temperature of 600 °C, and the measured sensitivity to 900 ppm-NO, 900 ppm-NO2 and 15 ppm-NH3 is 24%, 38.5% and 33%, respectively, at 600 °C. We also report dynamic response times as fast as 1 s for these three gases. Together, these results indicate that HEMT sensors could be used in a harsh environment with the ability to control an anti-pollution system in real time. PMID:26907298

  10. 5th international exhaust gas and particulate emissions forum. Proceedings; 5. Internationales Forum Abgas- und Partikelemissionen. Beitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Proceedings of the 5th International Exhaust Gas and Particulate Emissions Forum contains 22 printed contributions as well as a CD-ROM. The titles of them are: (1) Diesel Emissions Control in the United States - 2010 and Beyond; (2) The MBE90 commercial vehicle engine for EPA '07 emissions regulations; (3) Concepts for engines and exhaust-gas cleaning systems for heavy duty trucks of the future; (4) HD Engine Technology for Near-Zero Emissions and Lowest Cost of Ownership; (5) (Partially-) Homogeneous Diesel Combustion; (6) Exhaust gas sensors for NOx storage catalysts and ammonia-SCR systems; (7) Sensors for modern exhaust gas after-treatment systems; (8) New reducing agents for low NOx-SCR Techno-logy; (9) Exhaust gas Aftertreatment on Lean Burn Gasoline Direct Injection Engines: The System of TWC and NOx-Storage Catalyst; (10) New Platinum/Palladium based catalyzed filter technologies for future passenger car applications; (11) Development of a Roadway Hydrocarbon Sorption Model and Characterization of a Novel PM Generator; (12) Requirements for current and future particulate measurement instrumentation from the point of view of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt; (13) Standardized dilution conditions for gravimetric PM sampling - measures to assure results that correlate; (14) Particle Counting according PMP; (15) Future high-confidence measurement of diesel particulate emissions for approval and development; (16) New developments in optical instrumentation for exhaust gas; (17) Simultaneous Detection of Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Components by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy; (18) Boundaries of modern exhaust gas instrumentation; (19) Raising quality and reducing application effort through efficient data input to the particulate filter load model for a EURO5 diesel car; (20) Stop-start operation of diesel engines - modified require-ment for exhaust gas after-treatment?; (21) Particulates emission with Biodiesel B30 impact on CSF management; (22

  11. Decision Support System and Customer Relationship Management as Components of the Cybernetic System Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra MISDOLEA


    Full Text Available This study analyzes the role played by the information system and its component, the software system, in a larger system - the Enterprise. In this context, the paper focuses on the structure of Decision Support System and Customer Relationship Management and their benefits in the functioning of the global system, by examining the conditions of implementation of these tools in the organization. We will show that used independently these tools offer reduced services, but when interconnected, they become a very powerful tool for command and control. Viability, evolution and autonomy requested by users for their information system are obtained more easily by a systemic-cybernetic approach to the Enterprise.

  12. Green Networking for Major Components of Information Communication Technology Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeadally Sherali


    Full Text Available Abstract Green Networking can be the way to help reduce carbon emissions by the Information and Communications Technology (ICT Industry. This paper presents some of the major components of Green Networking and discusses how the carbon footprint of these components can be reduced.

  13. Jet Engine Exhaust Analysis by Subtractive Chromatography (United States)


    hydrocarbon ( TIIC ) results for the March 1975 jet engine exhaust studies ......... .............. 11 3. Specific retention volumes (Vg) for selected...studies with subsequent low TiIC recove.’cries. At least three factors could singly or in combination bu I responsible for exceeding the trap capacities: 1...effective system for collectingq crqanics : in jet engine exhaust. The success of these modifications is illustrated by t.he TIIC recovery data compared

  14. 77 FR 39736 - Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof; Notice of Termination of the... (United States)


    ... Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof; Notice of Termination of the Investigation Based on... States after importation of certain integrated solar power systems and components thereof by reason of...

  15. 77 FR 75659 - Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... the United States after importation of certain video analytics software systems, components thereof...

  16. 76 FR 22726 - Certain Multimedia Display and Navigation Devices and Systems, Components Thereof, and Products... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Multimedia Display and Navigation Devices and Systems, Components Thereof, and Products... multimedia display and navigation devices and systems, components thereof, and products containing same by...

  17. 77 FR 13350 - Certain Automotive GPS Navigation Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Automotive GPS Navigation Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... importation of certain automotive GPS navigation systems, components thereof, and products containing the same...

  18. 77 FR 35428 - Certain Automotive GPS Navigation Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Automotive GPS Navigation Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... importation of certain automotive GPS navigation systems, components thereof, and products containing the same...

  19. 76 FR 55944 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Image Processing Systems, Components Thereof... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Image Processing Systems, Components Thereof, and... importation of certain electronic devices with image processing systems, components thereof, and associated... having graphics processing units (``GPUs'') supplied by NVIDIA Corporation (``NVIDIA'') infringe any...

  20. 77 FR 24738 - Certain Wireless Communication Devices and Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Certain Wireless Communication Devices and Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing... States after importation of certain wireless communication devices and systems, components thereof, and... Sunnyvale, California; Meru Networks of Sunnyvale, California; and Ruckus Wireless of Sunnyvale, California...

  1. The fractional virial potential energy in two-component systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi R.


    Full Text Available Two-component systems are conceived as macrogases, and the related equation of state is expressed using the virial theorem for subsystems, under the restriction of homeoidally striated density profiles. Explicit calculations are performed for a useful reference case and a few cases of astrophysical interest, both with and without truncation radius. Shallower density profiles are found to yield an equation of state, φ = φ(y, m, characterized (for assigned values of the fractional mass, m = Mj /Mi by the occurrence of two extremum points, a minimum and a maximum, as found in an earlier attempt. Steeper density profiles produce a similar equation of state, which implies that a special value of m is related to a critical curve where the above mentioned extremum points reduce to a single horizontal inflexion point, and curves below the critical one show no extremum points. The similarity of the isofractional mass curves to van der Waals' isothermal curves, suggests the possibility of a phase transition in a bell-shaped region of the (Oyφ plane, where the fractional truncation radius along a selected direction is y = Rj /Ri , and the fractional virial potential energy is φ = (Eji vir /(Eij vir . Further investigation is devoted to mass distributions described by Hernquist (1990 density profiles, for which an additional relation can be used to represent a sample of N = 16 elliptical galaxies (EGs on the (Oyφ plane. Even if the evolution of elliptical galaxies and their hosting dark matter (DM haloes, in the light of the model, has been characterized by equal fractional mass, m, and equal scaled truncation radius, or concentration, Ξu = Ru /r† , u = i, j, still it cannot be considered as strictly homologous, due to different values of fractional truncation radii, y, or fractional scaling radii, y† = r† /r† , deduced from sample objects.

  2. Lightweight Exhaust Manifold and Exhaust Pipe Ducting for Internal Combustion Engines (United States)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)


    An improved exhaust system for an internal combustion gasoline-and/or diesel-fueled engine includes an engine exhaust manifold which has been fabricated from carbon- carbon composite materials in operative association with an exhaust pipe ducting which has been fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials. When compared to conventional steel. cast iron. or ceramic-lined iron paris. the use of carbon-carbon composite exhaust-gas manifolds and exhaust pipe ducting reduces the overall weight of the engine. which allows for improved acceleration and fuel efficiency: permits operation at higher temperatures without a loss of strength: reduces the "through-the wall" heat loss, which increases engine cycle and turbocharger efficiency and ensures faster "light-off" of catalytic converters: and, with an optional thermal reactor, reduces emission of major pollutants, i.e. hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

  3. Prototype Variable-Area Exhaust Nozzle Designed (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Jun; Song, Gangbring


    Ongoing research in NASA Glenn Research Center s Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch to develop smart materials technologies for adaptive aeropropulsion components has resulted in the design of a prototype variable-area exhaust nozzle (see the preceding photograph). The novel design exploits the potential of smart materials to improve the performance of existing fixed-area exhaust nozzles by introducing new capabilities for adaptive shape control, vibration damping, and flow manipulation. The design utilizes two different smart materials: shape memory alloy wires as actuators and magnetorheological fluids as damper locks.

  4. The Fractional Virial Potential Energy in Two-Component Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi, R.


    Full Text Available Two-component systems are conceived as macrogases, and the related equation of state is expressed using the virial theorem for subsystems, under the restriction of homeoidally striated density profiles. Explicit calculations are performed for a useful reference case and a few cases of astrophysical interest, both with and without truncation radius. Shallower density profiles are found to yield an equation of state, $phi=phi(y,m$, characterized (for assigned values of the fractional mass, $m=M_j/ M_i$ by the occurrence of two extremum points, a minimum and a maximum, as found in an earlier attempt. Steeper density profiles produce a similar equation of state, which implies that a special value of $m$ is related to a critical curve where the above mentioned extremum points reduce to a single horizontal inflexion point, and curves below the critical one show no extremum points. The similarity of the isofractional mass curves to van der Waals' isothermal curves, suggests the possibility of a phase transition in a bell-shaped region of the $({sf O}yphi$ plane, where the fractional truncation radius along a selected direction is $y=R_j/R_i$, and the fractional virial potential energy is $phi=(E_{ji}_mathrm{vir}/(E_{ij}_mathrm{vir}$. Further investigation is devoted to mass distributions described by Hernquist (1990 density profiles, for which an additional relation can be used to represent a sample of $N=16$ elliptical galaxies (EGs on the $({sf O}yphi$ plane. Even if the evolution of elliptical galaxies and their hosting dark matter (DM haloes, in the light of the model, has been characterized by equal fractional mass, $m$, and equal scaled truncation radius, or concentration, $Xi_u=R_u/r_u^dagger$, $u=i,j$, still it cannot be considered as strictly homologous, due to different values of fractional truncation radii, $y$, or fractional scaling radii, $y^dagger=r_j^dagger/r_i^dagger$, deduced from sample objects.

  5. Handbook of driver assistance systems basic information, components and systems for active safety and comfort

    CERN Document Server

    Hakuli, Stephan; Lotz, Felix; Singer, Christina


    This fundamental work explains in detail systems for active safety and driver assistance, considering both their structure and their function. These include the well-known standard systems such as Anti-lock braking system (ABS), Electronic Stability Control (ESC) or Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC). But it includes also new systems for protecting collisions protection, for changing the lane, or for convenient parking. The book aims at giving a complete picture focusing on the entire system. First, it describes the components which are necessary for assistance systems, such as sensors, actuators, mechatronic subsystems, and control elements. Then, it explains key features for the user-friendly design of human-machine interfaces between driver and assistance system. Finally, important characteristic features of driver assistance systems for particular vehicles are presented: Systems for commercial vehicles and motorcycles.

  6. Model-integrating software components engineering flexible software systems

    CERN Document Server

    Derakhshanmanesh, Mahdi


    In his study, Mahdi Derakhshanmanesh builds on the state of the art in modeling by proposing to integrate models into running software on the component-level without translating them to code. Such so-called model-integrating software exploits all advantages of models: models implicitly support a good separation of concerns, they are self-documenting and thus improve understandability and maintainability and in contrast to model-driven approaches there is no synchronization problem anymore between the models and the code generated from them. Using model-integrating components, software will be

  7. Effect of Component Failures on Economics of Distributed Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubin, Barry T. [Univ. of Hartford, West Hartford, CT (United States)


    This report describes an applied research program to assess the realistic costs of grid connected photovoltaic (PV) installations. A Board of Advisors was assembled that included management from the regional electric power utilities, as well as other participants from companies that work in the electric power industry. Although the program started with the intention of addressing effective load carrying capacity (ELCC) for utility-owned photovoltaic installations, results from the literature study and recommendations from the Board of Advisors led investigators to the conclusion that obtaining effective data for this analysis would be difficult, if not impossible. The effort was then re-focused on assessing the realistic costs and economic valuations of grid-connected PV installations. The 17 kW PV installation on the University of Hartford's Lincoln Theater was used as one source of actual data. The change in objective required a more technically oriented group. The re-organized working group (changes made due to the need for more technically oriented participants) made site visits to medium-sized PV installations in Connecticut with the objective of developing sources of operating histories. An extensive literature review helped to focus efforts in several technical and economic subjects. The objective of determining the consequences of component failures on both generation and economic returns required three analyses. The first was a Monte-Carlo-based simulation model for failure occurrences and the resulting downtime. Published failure data, though limited, was used to verify the results. A second model was developed to predict the reduction in or loss of electrical generation related to the downtime due to these failures. Finally, a comprehensive economic analysis, including these failures, was developed to determine realistic net present values of installed PV arrays. Two types of societal benefits were explored, with quantitative valuations developed

  8. Multiple corrosion protection systems for reinforced concrete bridge components. (United States)


    Eleven systems combining epoxy-coated reinforcement with another corrosion protection system are evaluated using : the rapid macrocell, Southern Exposure, cracked beam, and linear polarization resistance tests. The systems include : bars that are pre...

  9. Experiences integrating autonomous components and legacy systems into tsunami early warning systems (United States)

    Reißland, S.; Herrnkind, S.; Guenther, M.; Babeyko, A.; Comoglu, M.; Hammitzsch, M.


    Fostered by and embedded in the general development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) the evolution of Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS) shows a significant development from seismic-centred to multi-sensor system architectures using additional sensors, e.g. sea level stations for the detection of tsunami waves and GPS stations for the detection of ground displacements. Furthermore, the design and implementation of a robust and scalable service infrastructure supporting the integration and utilisation of existing resources serving near real-time data not only includes sensors but also other components and systems offering services such as the delivery of feasible simulations used for forecasting in an imminent tsunami threat. In the context of the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and the project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS) a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination has been newly developed and demonstrated. In particular, standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) have been successfully incorporated. In the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC) new developments are used to extend the existing platform to realise a component-based technology framework for building distributed TEWS. This talk will describe experiences made in GITEWS, DEWS and TRIDEC while integrating legacy stand-alone systems and newly developed special-purpose software components into TEWS using different software adapters and communication strategies to make the systems work together in a corporate infrastructure. The talk will also cover task management and data conversion between the different systems. Practical approaches and software solutions for the integration of sensors, e.g. providing seismic and sea level data, and utilisation of special

  10. Structured automated code checking through structural components and systems engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenders, J.L.; Rolvink, A.


    This paper presents a proposal to employ the design computing methodology proposed as StructuralComponents (Rolvink et al [6] and van de Weerd et al [7]) as a method to perform a digital verification process to fulfil the requirements related to structural design and engineering as part of a

  11. StructuralComponents : A software system for conceptual structural design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Weerd, B.; Rolvink, A.; Coenders, J.L.


    Conceptual design is the starting point of the design process. The conceptual design stage comprises the formation of several ideas or design concepts to meet the imposed constraints. StructuralComponents is a software application that attempts to provide the designing engineer with a suitable set

  12. Maintenance of HVAC-systems and components: How to prevent pollution from HVAC-systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, B.; Björkroth, M.; Plitt, U.; Bluyssen, P.M.


    In the beginning of 1998 a three-year European project, AIRLESS, was started to develop strategies, principles and protocols to improve and control the performance of HVAC-systems and its components for incorporation in codes and guidelines. Twelve institutes, universities and companies, from seven

  13. Differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system and components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutman, Daniel; Finkenthal, Michael


    A differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system includes an X-ray illumination system, a beam splitter arranged in an optical path of the X-ray illumination system, and a detection system arranged in an optical path to detect X-rays after passing through the beam splitter.

  14. Differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system and components (United States)

    Stutman, Daniel; Finkenthal, Michael


    A differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system includes an X-ray illumination system, a beam splitter arranged in an optical path of the X-ray illumination system, and a detection system arranged in an optical path to detect X-rays after passing through the beam splitter.

  15. Engineering task plan for five portable exhausters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rensink, G.E.


    Exhausters will be employed to ventilate certain single-shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping campaigns. Active ventilation is necessary to reduce the potential flammable gas inventory (LANL 1996a) in the dome space that may accumulate during steady-state conditions or during/after postulated episodic gas release events. The tanks described in this plan support the activities required to fabricate and test three 500 cfm portable exhausters in the 200 W area shops, and to procure, design, fabricate and test two 1000 cfm units. Appropriate Notice of Construction (NOC) radiological and toxic air pollutant permits will be obtained for the portable exhausters. The portable exhauster design media to be employed to support this task was previously developed for the 241-A-101 exhauster. The same design as A101 will be fabricated with only minor improvements to the design based upon operator input/lessons learned. The safety authorization basis for this program effort will follow SAD 36 (LANL 1996b), and each tank will be reviewed against this SAD for changes or updates. The 1000 cfm units will be designed by the selected offsite contractor according to the specification requirements in KHC-S-O490. The offsite units have been specified to utilize as many of the same components as the 500 cfm units to ensure a more cost effective operation and maintenance through the reduction of spare parts and additional procedures.

  16. 21 CFR 882.5550 - Central nervous system fluid shunt and components. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central nervous system fluid shunt and components... Central nervous system fluid shunt and components. (a) Identification. A central nervous system fluid... central nervous system to an internal delivery site or an external receptacle for the purpose of relieving...

  17. Reducing the Runtime Acceptance Costs of Large-Scale Distributed Component-Based Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez, A.; Piel, E.; Gross, H.G.


    Software Systems of Systems (SoS) are large-scale distributed component-based systems in which the individual components are elaborate and complex systems in their own right. Distinguishing characteristics are their short expected integration and deployment time, and the need to modify their

  18. Probabilistic techniques using Monte Carlo sampling for multi- component system diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumeier, S.E. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lee, J.C.; Akcasu, A.Z. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering


    We outline the structure of a new approach at multi-component system fault diagnostics which utilizes detailed system simulation models, uncertain system observation data, statistical knowledge of system parameters, expert opinion, and component reliability data in an effort to identify incipient component performance degradations of arbitrary number and magnitude. The technique involves the use of multiple adaptive Kalman filters for fault estimation, the results of which are screened using standard hypothesis testing procedures to define a set of component events that could have transpired. Latin Hypercube sample each of these feasible component events in terms of uncertain component reliability data and filter estimates. The capabilities of the procedure are demonstrated through the analysis of a simulated small magnitude binary component fault in a boiling water reactor balance of plant. The results show that the procedure has the potential to be a very effective tool for incipient component fault diagnosis.

  19. Application of advanced austenitic alloys to fossil power system components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, R.W.


    Most power and recovery boilers operating in the US produce steam at temperatures below 565{degrees}C (1050{degrees}F) and pressures below 24 MPa (3500 psi). For these operating conditions, carbon steels and low alloy steels may be used for the construction of most of the boiler components. Austenitic stainless steels often are used for superheater/reheater tubing when these components are expected to experience temperatures above 565{degrees}C (1050{degrees}F) or when the environment is too corrosive for low alloys steels. The austenitic stainless steels typically used are the 304H, 321H, and 347H grades. New ferritic steels such as T91 and T92 are now being introduced to replace austenitic: stainless steels in aging fossil power plants. Generally, these high-strength ferritic steels are more expensive to fabricate than austenitic stainless steels because the ferritic steels have more stringent heat treating requirements. Now, annealing requirements are being considered for the stabilized grades of austenitic stainless steels when they receive more than 5% cold work, and these requirements would increase significantly the cost of fabrication of boiler components where bending strains often exceed 15%. It has been shown, however, that advanced stainless steels developed at ORNL greatly benefit from cold work, and these steels could provide an alternative to either conventional stainless steels or high-strength ferritic steels. The purpose of the activities reported here is to examine the potential of advanced stainless steels for construction of tubular components in power boilers. The work is being carried out with collaboration of a commercial boiler manufacturer.

  20. Design of Dependable Control System Using a Component Based Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.


    Design of fault handling in control systems is discussed and a consistent method for design is presented.......Design of fault handling in control systems is discussed and a consistent method for design is presented....

  1. Distributed co-simulation of embedded control software with exhaust gas recirculation water handling system using INTO-CPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nicolai; Lausdahl, Kenneth; Sanchez, Enrique Vidal


    Engineering complex Cyber-Physical Systems, such as emission reduction control systems for large two-stroke engines, require advanced modelling of both the cyber and physical aspects. Different tools are specialised for each of these domains and a combination of tools validating different propert...

  2. Development of Sensors for Ceramic Components in Advanced Propulsion Systems. Phase 2; Temperature Sensor Systems Evaluation (United States)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Cyr, M. A.; Strange, R. R.


    The 'development of sensors for ceramic components in advanced propulsion systems' program is divided into two phases. The objectives of Phase 1 were to analyze, evaluate and recommend sensor concepts for the measurement of surface temperature, strain and heat flux on ceramic components for advanced propulsion systems. The results of this effort were previously published in NASA CR-182111. As a result of Phase 1, three approaches were recommended for further development: pyrometry, thin-film sensors, and thermographic phosphors. The objective of Phase 2 were to fabricate and conduct laboratory demonstration tests of these systems. Six materials, mutually agreed upon by NASA and Pratt & Whitney, were investigated under this program. This report summarizes the Phase 2 effort and provides conclusions and recommendations for each of the categories evaluated.

  3. Pediatric Primary Care as a Component of Systems of Care (United States)

    Brown, Jonathan D.


    Systems of care should be defined in a manner that includes primary care. The current definition of systems of care shares several attributes with the definition of primary care: both are defined as community-based services that are accessible, accountable, comprehensive, coordinated, culturally competent, and family focused. However, systems of…

  4. Process planning for a modular component placement system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijm, Willem H.M.; van Harten, Aart


    This paper discusses the design of a hierarchically structured process planning system for a printed circuit board assembly line. Basically, the assembly system consists of a series of independently operating placement modules, connected by a carrierless conveyor system. Both the modules and the

  5. Exhaustive extraction of peptides by electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig


    This fundamental work illustrates for the first time the possibility of exhaustive extraction of peptides using electromembrane extraction (EME) under low system-current conditions (... 15% (v/v) DEHP was selected as a suitable SLM for exhaustive extraction of peptides under low system-current conditions. Interestingly, increasing the SLM volume from 5 to 10 μL was found to be beneficial for stable and efficient EME. The pH of the sample strongly affected the EME process, and pH 3.......5 was found to be optimal. The EME efficiency was also dependent on the acceptor solution composition, and the extraction time was found to be an important element for exhaustive extraction. When EME was carried out for 25 min with an extraction voltage of 15 V, the system-current across the SLM was less than...


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yorkina N.V


    .... Data analysis of complex ecological monitoring of the soil cover was performed towards structural-functional organization of urban system and soils of city principal basic industrial enterprises...

  7. Component Analysis of Deposits in Selective Catalytic Reduction System for Automotive Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Neng


    Full Text Available In this paper, deposits in exhaust pipes for automotive diesel engines were studied by various chemical analysis methods and a kind of analysis process to determine the compositions of organic matter was proposed. Firstly, the elements of the deposits were determined through the element analysis method. Then using characteristic absorption properties of organic functional groups to the infrared spectrum, the functional groups in the deposits were determined. Finally, by GC-MS (gas chromatography - mass spectrometry test, the content of each main component was determined quantitatively. Element analysis results indicated that the deposits adsorbed metal impurities from fuel oil, lubricating oil, mechanical wear and urea water solution. The result of GC-MS test showed that the area percentage of cyanuric acid was the biggest (about 85%, the second was urea (about 4%, and the content of biuret and biurea was scarce.

  8. 46 CFR 63.25-7 - Exhaust gas boilers. (United States)


    ... drum type exhaust gas steam boiler must have a feed water control system. The system must automatically... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 63.25-7 Section 63.25-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS...

  9. 76 FR 69284 - Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof: Notice of Institution of... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof: Notice of Institution of... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated solar power systems... importation of certain integrated solar power systems and components thereof that infringe one or more of...

  10. 77 FR 75188 - Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... certain video analytics software, systems, components thereof, and products containing same by reason of..., Inc. The remaining respondents are Bosch Security Systems, Inc.; Robert Bosch GmbH; Bosch...

  11. 77 FR 808 - Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... States after importation of certain video analytics software, systems, components thereof, and products...; Bosch Security Systems, Inc. of Fairpoint, New York; Samsung Techwin Co., Ltd. of Seoul, Korea; Samsung...

  12. Initial data problems for the two-component Camassa-Holm system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohuan Wang


    Full Text Available This article concerns the study of some properties of the two-component Camassa-Holm system. By constructing two sequences of solutions of the two-component Camassa-Holm system, we prove that the solution map of the Cauchy problem of the two-component Camassa-Holm system is not uniformly continuous in $H^s(\\mathbb{R}$, $s>5/2$.

  13. Effect of farming system on colour components of wheat noodles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Lacko-Bartosova


    Full Text Available Colour of noodles is definitely a key element of a consumer's buying decisions. It can be influenced by many factors. Conditions, under which is winter wheat grown, can be considered as one of these factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate colour of noodles that were prepared from winter wheat grown in ecological and integrated arable farming systems, after different forecrops with two levels of fertilization (fertilized and unfertilized during the years 2009, 2010 and 2011. Winter wheat noodles were prepared from white flour and wholegrain flour and its colour was evaluated using the spectro-colorimeter. Colour was measured by three coordinates: lightness L*, red/ green value a* and yellow/ blue value b*. Wholegrain noodles had lower L* value, so they were darker than white flour noodles, with higher redness and higher yellowness. Colour of white flour noodles and wholegrain noodles was significantly influenced by crop nutrition (fertilized and unfertilized variants, farming system and meteorological conditions during experimental years. Wholegrain noodles from ecological system were darker, with lower lightness and higher redness compared to noodles from integrated system. White flour noodles from ecological system were also darker compared to noodles from integrated system. Fertilization decreased lightness of white flour noodles, on the contrary, fertilization increased the lightness and decreased the redness of wholegrain noodles. In non-fertilized treatment, ecological wheat noodles were darker, with higher redness and yellowness than noodles prepared from winter wheat grown in integrated arable farming system.

  14. An overview of the NASA electronic components information management system (United States)

    Kramer, G.; Waterbury, S.


    The NASA Parts Project Office (NPPO) comprehensive data system to support all NASA Electric, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) parts management and technical data requirements is described. A phase delivery approach is adopted, comprising four principal phases. Phases 1 and 2 support Space Station Freedom (SSF) and use a centralized architecture with all data and processing kept on a mainframe computer. Phases 3 and 4 support all NASA centers and projects and implement a distributed system architecture, in which data and processing are shared among networked database servers. The Phase 1 system, which became operational in February of 1990, implements a core set of functions. Phase 2, scheduled for release in 1991, adds functions to the Phase 1 system. Phase 3, to be prototyped beginning in 1991 and delivered in 1992, introduces a distributed system, separate from the Phase 1 and 2 system, with a refined semantic data model. Phase 4 extends the data model and functionality of the Phase 3 system to provide support for the NASA design community, including integration with Computer Aided Design (CAD) environments. Phase 4 is scheduled for prototyping in 1992 to 93 and delivery in 1994.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Marchenko


    Full Text Available Abstract. The article proposed the use of simulation methods for evaluating the effectiveness of a stepped fan engine speed control while maintaining the air flow volume in the set boundaries of the «fan-filter» system. A detailed algorithm of the program made on the basis of an Any Logic software package. Is analyzed the possibility of using the proposed method in the design of ventilation systems.The proposed method allows at the design stage to determine the maximum replacement intervals of the systems filter elements, as well as to predict the time to switch the fan motor speeds. Using of the technique allows to refuse the complex air flow systems and maximize the life of the filter elements set.Methods of logical processes modeling allows to reduce construction costs and improve energy efficiency of buildings. 

  16. Type systems for distributed programs components and sessions

    CERN Document Server

    Dardha, Ornela


    In this book we develop powerful techniques based on formal methods for the verification of correctness, consistency and safety properties related to dynamic reconfiguration and communication in complex distributed systems. In particular, static analysis techniques based on types and type systems are an adequate methodology considering their success in guaranteeing not only basic safety properties, but also more sophisticated ones like deadlock or lock freedom in concurrent settings. The main contributions of this book are twofold. i) We design a type system for a concurrent object-oriented calculus to statically ensure consistency of dynamic reconfigurations. ii) We define an encoding of the session pi-calculus, which models communication in distributed systems, into the standard typed pi-calculus. We use this encoding to derive properties like type safety and progress in the session pi-calculus by exploiting the corresponding properties in the standard typed pi-calculus.

  17. Heat pipe radiation cooling of advanced hypersonic propulsion system components (United States)

    Martin, R. A.; Keddy, M.; Merrigan, M. A.; Silverstein, C. C.


    Heat transfer, heat pipe, and system studies were performed to assess the newly proposed heat pipe radiation cooling (HPRC) concept. With an HPRC system, heat is removed from the ramburner and nozzle of a hypersonic aircraft engine by a surrounding, high-temperature, heat pipe nacelle structure, transported to nearby external surfaces, and rejected to the environment by thermal radiation. With HPRC, the Mach number range available for using hydrocarbon fuels for aircraft operation extends into the Mach 4 to Mach 6 range, up from the current limit of about Mach 4. Heat transfer studies using a newly developed HPRC computer code determine cooling system and ramburner and nozzle temperatures, heat loads, and weights for a representative combined-cycle engine cruising at Mach 5 at 80,000 ft altitude. Heat pipe heat transport calculations, using the Los Alamos code HTPIPE, reveal that adequate heat trasport capability is available using molybdenum-lithium heat pipe technology. Results show that the HPRC system radiator area is limited in size to the ramburner-nozzle region of the engine nacelle; reasonable system weights are expected; hot section temperatures are consistent with advanced structural materials development goals; and system impact on engine performance is minimal.

  18. An exhaustive, non-euclidean, non-parametric data mining tool for unraveling the complexity of biological systems--novel insights into malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheikh Loucoubar

    Full Text Available Complex, high-dimensional data sets pose significant analytical challenges in the post-genomic era. Such data sets are not exclusive to genetic analyses and are also pertinent to epidemiology. There has been considerable effort to develop hypothesis-free data mining and machine learning methodologies. However, current methodologies lack exhaustivity and general applicability. Here we use a novel non-parametric, non-euclidean data mining tool, HyperCube®, to explore exhaustively a complex epidemiological malaria data set by searching for over density of events in m-dimensional space. Hotspots of over density correspond to strings of variables, rules, that determine, in this case, the occurrence of Plasmodium falciparum clinical malaria episodes. The data set contained 46,837 outcome events from 1,653 individuals and 34 explanatory variables. The best predictive rule contained 1,689 events from 148 individuals and was defined as: individuals present during 1992-2003, aged 1-5 years old, having hemoglobin AA, and having had previous Plasmodium malariae malaria parasite infection ≤10 times. These individuals had 3.71 times more P. falciparum clinical malaria episodes than the general population. We validated the rule in two different cohorts. We compared and contrasted the HyperCube® rule with the rules using variables identified by both traditional statistical methods and non-parametric regression tree methods. In addition, we tried all possible sub-stratified quantitative variables. No other model with equal or greater representativity gave a higher Relative Risk. Although three of the four variables in the rule were intuitive, the effect of number of P. malariae episodes was not. HyperCube® efficiently sub-stratified quantitative variables to optimize the rule and was able to identify interactions among the variables, tasks not easy to perform using standard data mining methods. Search of local over density in m-dimensional space, explained

  19. Use of aromatic salts for simultaneously removing SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x pollutants from exhaust of a combustion system (United States)

    Levendis, Yiannis A.; Wise, Donald L.


    A method is disclosed for removing pollutants from the exhaust of combustion systems burning fuels containing substantial amounts of sulfur and nitrogen. An exemplary method of the invention involves the formation and reaction of a sorbent comprising calcium benzoate. The calcium benzoate is either dry-sprayed (in the form of a fine powder) or wet-sprayed in an aqueous solution in a high temperature environment such as a combustion chamber. The latter technique is feasible since calcium benzoate is a water-soluble form of calcium. When the dispersed particles of calcium benzoate are heated to a high temperature, the organic benzoate burns off and fine calcium oxide particles are formed. These particles are cenospheric (hollow) and have thin and highly porous walls, thus, affording optimum external and internal accessibility for reacting with toxic gaseous emissions such as SO.sub.2. Further, the combustion of the organic benzoate portion of the sorbent results in the conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2.

  20. Responses of spruce seedlings (Picea abies) to exhaust gas under laboratory conditions. 1. plant-insect interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viskari, E.-L.; Koessi, S. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Surakka, J.; Pasanen, P.; Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Mirme, A. [Tartu Univ. (Estonia). Int. of Environmental Physics; Holopainen, J.K. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Agricultural Research Centre, Plant Production research, Jokioinen (Finland)


    The effects of motor vehicle exhaust gas on Norway spruce seedlings (Picea abies (L) Karst) and plant-insect interaction of spruce shoot aphid (Cinara pilicornis Hartig) was studied. The exhaust gas concentrations in the fumigation chambers were monitored and controlled by measuring the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) with a computer aided feedback system. The concentrations of major exhaust gas components (black carbon (BC), fine particles, VOCs and carbonyl compounds) in the chamber air were also measured. Responses of Norway spruce seedlings to a 2 and 3 week exhaust gas exposure and subsequent performance of spruce shoot aphid were studied using realistic exposure regimes; 50, 100 and 200 ppb NO{sub x}. The feedback control system based on NO{sub x} concentrations proved an adequate and practical means for controlling the concentration of exhaust gases and studying plant responses in controlled environment chambers. The exhaust exposure resulted in increased concentrations of proline, glutamine, threonine, aspartic acid, glycine and phenylalanine and decreased concentration of arginine, serine, alanine and glycine in young needles. No changes in soluble N concentrations were observed. The results are interpreted as a stress response rather than use of NO{sub x} as a nitrogen source. No changes in total phenolics and only transient changes in some individual terpene concentrations were detected. The exhaust gas exposure stressed the exposed seedlings, but had no significant effect on N metabolism or the production of defence chemicals. Aphid performance was not significantly affected. Soluble N, secondary metabolism and aphid performance were not sensitive to exhaust gas exposure during shoot elongation in Norway spruce. (author)

  1. Diesel Exhaust Emissions Control for Light-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mital, R.; Li, J.; Huang, S. C.; Stroia, B. J.; Yu, R. C. (Cummins, Inc.); Anderson, J.A. (Argonne National Laboratory); Howden, Kenneth C. (U.S. Department of Energy)


    The objective of this paper is to present the results of diesel exhaust aftertreatment testing and analysis done under the FreedomCAR program. Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) adsorber technology was selected based on a previous investigation of various NOx aftertreatment technologies including non-thermal plasma, NOx adsorber and active lean NOx. Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were addressed by developing a catalyzed particulate filter. After various iterations of the catalyst formulation, the aftertreatment components were integrated and optimized for a light duty vehicle application. This compact exhaust aftertreatment system is dual leg and consists of a sulfur trap, NOx adsorbers, and catalyzed particulate filters (CPF). During regeneration, supplementary ARCO ECD low-sulfur diesel fuel is injected upstream of the adsorber and CPF in the exhaust. Steady state and transient emission test results with and without the exhaust aftertreatment system (EAS) are presented. Results of soot filter regeneration by injecting low-sulfur diesel fuel and slip of unregulated emissions, such as NH3, are discussed. Effects of adsorber size and bypass strategy on NOx conversion efficiency and fuel economy penalty are also presented in this paper. The results indicate that if the supplementary fuel injection is optimized, NH3 slip is negligible. During the FTP cycle, injection of low sulfur diesel fuel can create temperature exotherms high enough to regenerate a loaded CPF. With the optimized NOx adsorber regeneration strategies the fuel injection penalty can be reduced by 40 to 50%. Results for various other issues like low temperature light off, reductant optimization, exhaust sulfur management, system integration and design trade-off, are also presented and discussed in this paper. (SAE Paper SAE-2003-01-0041 © 2003 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on

  2. Conference on Radiation and its Effects on Components and Systems

    CERN Document Server


    The aim of RADECS conferences is to provide an annual European forum for the presentation and discussion of the latest advances in the field of radiation effects on electronic and photonic materials, devices, circuits, sensors, and systems. The scope of the conference encompasses technological processes and design techniques for producing radiation tolerant systems for space, aeronautical or terrestrial applications, as well as relevant methodologies for their characterization and qualification. The conference features a technical program, an Industrial Exhibit, and one day tutorial or ‘short course’ on radiation effects. The technical program includes oral and poster sessions and round tables.

  3. Component-Oriented Behavior Extraction for Autonomic System Design (United States)

    Bakera, Marco; Wagner, Christian; Margaria,Tiziana; Hinchey, Mike; Vassev, Emil; Steffen, Bernhard


    Rich and multifaceted domain specific specification languages like the Autonomic System Specification Language (ASSL) help to design reliable systems with self-healing capabilities. The GEAR game-based Model Checker has been used successfully to investigate properties of the ESA Exo- Mars Rover in depth. We show here how to enable GEAR s game-based verification techniques for ASSL via systematic model extraction from a behavioral subset of the language, and illustrate it on a description of the Voyager II space mission.

  4. Formal Verification of Safety Properties for Aerospace Systems Through Algorithms Based on Exhaustive State-Space Exploration (United States)

    Ciardo, Gianfranco


    The Runway Safety Monitor (RSM) designed by Lockheed Martin is part of NASA's effort to reduce aviation accidents. We developed a Petri net model of the RSM protocol and used the model checking functions of our tool SMART to investigate a number of safety properties in RSM. To mitigate the impact of state-space explosion, we built a highly discretized model of the system, obtained by partitioning the monitored runway zone into a grid of smaller volumes and by considering scenarios involving only two aircraft. The model also assumes that there are no communication failures, such as bad input from radar or lack of incoming data, thus it relies on a consistent view of reality by all participants. In spite of these simplifications, we were able to expose potential problems in the RSM conceptual design. Our findings were forwarded to the design engineers, who undertook corrective action. Additionally, the results stress the efficiency attained by the new model checking algorithms implemented in SMART, and demonstrate their applicability to real-world systems. Attempts to verify RSM with NuSMV and SPIN have failed due to excessive memory consumption.

  5. FDIR for the IMU Component of AOCS Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício N. Pontuschka


    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is the study of a FDIR for an IMU aiming at space applications with focus on the gyro signal analysis and the tests of the filtering algorithms. The algorithms have been tested by using lab data provided by the DMC LABSIM (Physical’s Simulation Laboratory of the Space Mechanics and Control Division of INPE. The results have demonstrated good agreement with the concepts applied in this study. Automatic detection procedures are very important in the characterization of occurrence, definition of criteria, and device types in the scenario of AOCS FDIR. An IMU comprised of four gyros in a tetrahedral configuration is one of the assumed components for the AOCS (attitude and orbit control subsystem considered in this work. The types of failures considered in this paper are the step abrupt change, ramp/drift/slow, stuck, cyclic, erratic, spike, and finally the stuck for variance alteration noise. An appropriate algorithm for the automatic detection of each type of fault is developed. The approach includes the mapping capability of fault event indicators to the IMU. This mapping is very important in the characterization of the occurrence, definition of criteria, and device types as well as associated fault identification for an AOCS.

  6. European standards for thermal solar systems and components. The finals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drück, H.; Heidemann, W.; Müller, H.; Veenstra, A.


    In Europe standards for solar collectors, hot water stores and for complete thermal solar systems have been developed during the past six years. This year (2001) these European Standards were established and therefore replaced all corresponding national standards. In the new European standards basic

  7. Component Based System Framework for Dynamic B2B Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu jinmin, Jinmin; Grefen, P.W.P.J.

    Business-to-Business (B2B) collaboration is becoming a pivotal way to bring today's enterprises to success in the dynamically changing e-business environment. Though many business-to-business protocols are developed to support B2B interaction, none are generally accepted. A B2B system should support

  8. Expression of complement components in the peripheral nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Rosalein R.; van Schaik, Ivo N.; Vreijling, Jeroen P.; Troost, Dirk; Baas, Frank


    We have generated a SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) library of normal sciatic nerve and found tags encoding for mRNAs of the complement system highly represented. RNA (RT-PCR and northern blot hybridization) and protein (western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry) studies confirmed

  9. Photovoltaic system and components price development in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628526; Schoen, Tony


    Market inventories have been made since fall 2011 for modules, inverters, and systems that are available for purchase in the Netherlands to provide the fast growing Dutch market with proper market information. The most recent inventory was made in December 2016. After the drop in module price in

  10. Acute Effect of One Incremental Exhausting Cycling Session with Hand on the Response of T and NK Cells of Immune System in Student Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Habibi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Various sorts of physical activites cause various changes in body immune system. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effect of one incremental exhausting cycling session with hand on the response of T and NK cells of immune system of male physical education students. Methods: In this study, twenty male subjects with mean age of 22.4±1.8(SD years, mean Vo2 max 41.7±7.1(SD ml/kg/min and mean BMI 23±1.87(SD kg/m2 were divided randomly into control(n=10 and experimental group(n=10. The subjects of experimental group performed Sawaka. Protocol, whereas the subjects of control group did not participate in any exercise activity. Blood samples were taken from brachial vein of control and experimental subjects during pre-test, post-test and two hours after the end of exercise. For analysis of statistical data, t-independent and t-correlated tests ( =0.05 significant were used. Results: Immediately after training, the percentage of CD8 (T and CD16.56 (NK cells increased significantly (P≤0.005, P≤0.001. On the other hand, the ratio of CD4/CD8 cells and the percentage of CD4 (T cells showed significant decrease (P≤0.002, P≤0.001. In addition, the percentage of CD56 and CD16 (NK cells did not change significantly. It is worth mentioning that these changes after two hours returned to the normal state at the end of the sport test (P≤0.251, P≤0.229. Conclusion: One acute training session with hand causes both increase and decrease in T and NK cells of immune system function. But, these changes are temporary and return back to normal levels within a few hours.

  11. Universality in a 2-component fermi system at finite temperature. (United States)

    Rupak, Gautam


    Thermodynamic properties of a Fermi system close to the unitarity limit, where the 2-body scattering length a approaches +/-infinity, are studied in the high temperature Boltzmann regime. For dilute systems the virial expansion coefficients in the Boltzmann regime are expected, from general arguments, to be universal. A model independent finite temperature T calculation of the third virial coefficient b3(T) is presented. At the unitarity limit, b3infinity approximately 1.11 is a universal number. The energy density up to the third virial expansion is derived. These calculations are of interest in dilute neutron matter and could be tested in current atomic experiments on dilute Fermi gases near the Feshbach resonance.



    Florin TUDOR; Andrei Bogdan BUDICA; Ilie BUDICA; Adrian Florin BUDICA


    A very important objective of logistics is the storage of material goods necessary to ensure the uninterrupted operation of activities to achieve successful missions . The typical definition of the concept of filing emphasizes that it is a space storage of stocks of goods. This paper aims to show the role and importance of storage in the logistics system. Storage related field has become a comprehensive economic category includes sizing issues, reducing expenditure and storage issues related ...

  13. Epigenetics Components of Aging in the Central Nervous System


    Zhao, Yue-Qiang; Jordan, I. King; Lunyak, Victoria V.


    This review highlights recent discoveries that have shaped the emerging viewpoints in the field of epigenetic influences in the central nervous system (CNS), focusing on the following questions: i) How is the CNS shaped during development when precursor cells transition into morphologically and molecularly distinct cell types, and is this event driven by epigenetic alterations?; ii) How do epigenetic pathways control CNS function?; iii) What happens to “epigenetic memory” during aging process...

  14. Information Flow Integrity for Systems of Independently-Developed Components (United States)


    Hayawardh Vijayakumar, Ph.D. dissertation, Penn State University, May 2014. 2.2 Kernel Software Execution Integrity Computing systems now may utilize ... cookies , browsing history, and the contents of individual web pages loaded by the browser. Extension code is not sandboxed in the same way as web...capweave can be applied to rewrite security-critical UNIX utilities to satisfy practical security policies. capweave itself works quickly, and the

  15. Inhomogeneity growth in two-component fermionic systems (United States)

    Napolitani, P.; Colonna, M.


    The dynamics of fermionic many-body systems is investigated in the framework of Boltzmann-Langevin (BL) stochastic one-body approaches. Within the recently introduced Boltzmann-Langevin one-body (BLOB) model, we examine the interplay between mean-field effects and two-body correlations, of stochastic nature, for nuclear matter at moderate temperature and in several density conditions, corresponding to stable or mechanically unstable situations. Numerical results are compared with analytic expectations for the fluctuation amplitude of isoscalar and isovector densities, probing the link to the properties of the employed effective interaction; namely, symmetry energy (for isovector modes) and incompressibility (for isoscalar modes). For unstable systems, clusterization is observed. The associated features are compared with analytical results for the typical length and timescales characterizing the growth of unstable modes in nuclear matter and for the isotopic variance of the emerging fragments. We show that the BLOB model is generally better suited than simplified approaches previously introduced to solve the BL equation, and it is therefore more advantageous in applications to open systems, such as heavy-ion collisions.

  16. Tests of a High Temperature Sample Conditioner for the Waste Treatment Plant LV-S2, LV-S3, HV-S3A and HV-S3B Exhaust Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaherty, Julia E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Glissmeyer, John A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Tests were performed to evaluate a sample conditioning unit for stack monitoring at Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) exhaust stacks with elevated air temperatures. The LV-S2, LV-S3, HV-S3A and HV-S3B exhaust stacks are expected to have elevated air temperature and dew point. At these emission points, exhaust temperatures are too high to deliver the air sample directly to the required stack monitoring equipment. As a result, a sample conditioning system is considered to cool and dry the air prior to its delivery to the stack monitoring system. The method proposed for the sample conditioning is a dilution system that will introduce cooler, dry air to the air sample stream. This method of sample conditioning is meant to reduce the sample temperature while avoiding condensation of moisture in the sample stream. An additional constraint is that the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 standard states that at least 50% of the 10 μm aerodynamic diameter (AD) particles present in the stack free stream must be delivered to the sample collector. In other words, depositional loss of particles should be limited to 50% in the sampling, transport, and conditioning systems. Based on estimates of particle penetration through the LV-S3 sampling system, the diluter should perform with about 80% penetration or better to ensure that the total sampling system passes the 50% or greater penetration criterion.

  17. Handoff algorithm for mobile satellite systems with ancillary terrestrial component

    KAUST Repository

    Sadek, Mirette


    This paper presents a locally optimal handoff algorithm for integrated satellite/ground communication systems. We derive the handoff decision function and present the results in the form of tradeoff curves between the number of handoffs and the number of link degradation events in a given distance covered by the mobile user. This is a practical receiver-controlled handoff algorithm that optimizes the handoff process from a user perspective based on the received signal strength rather than from a network perspective. © 2012 IEEE.

  18. 78 FR 41950 - Certain Video Game Systems and Wireless Controllers and Components Thereof; Commission... (United States)


    ..., ``Nintendo''). The products accused of infringing the asserted patents are gaming systems and related... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Video Game Systems and Wireless Controllers and Components Thereof; Commission...

  19. Sampling the Solar System. A Critical Exploration Component for Future Planetary Discovery (United States)

    Shearer, C. K.


    Sample return is a critical component for understanding our solar system (and other solar systems), and advancing human exploration activities. Here I will examine potential pathways for evolving sample return technologies needed to carry out increasingly complex missions.

  20. HTS thin films: Passive microwave components and systems integration issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, F.A.; Chorey, C.M.; Bhasin, K.B. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States)


    The excellent microwave properties of the High-Temperature-Superconductors (HTS) have been amply demonstrated in the laboratory by techniques such as resonant cavity, power transmission and microstrip resonator measurements. The low loss and high Q passive structures made possible with HTS, present attractive options for applications in commercial, military and space-based systems. However, to readily insert HTS into these systems improvement is needed in such areas as repeatability in the deposition and processing of the HTS films, metal-contact formation, wire bonding, and overall film endurance to fabrication and assembly procedures. In this paper we present data compiled in our lab which illustrate many of the problems associated with these issues. Much of this data were obtained in the production of a space qualified hybrid receiver-downconverter module for the Naval Research Laboratory`s High Temperature Superconductivity Space Experiment II (HTSSE-II). Examples of variations observed in starting films and finished circuits will be presented. It is shown that under identical processing the properties of the HTS films can degrade to varying extents. Finally, we present data on ohmic contacts and factors affecting their adhesion to HTS films, strength of wire bonds made to such contacts, and aging effects.

  1. 78 FR 25475 - Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing Treatment Systems and Components Thereof: Institution of... (United States)


    ... treatment systems and components thereof by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent No. 6... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing Treatment Systems and Components Thereof: Institution of...

  2. 75 FR 38118 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Image Processing Systems, Components Thereof... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Image Processing Systems, Components Thereof, and... certain electronic devices with image processing systems, components thereof, and associated software that... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain electronic devices with image...

  3. Two-Component Systems of Mycobacterium tuberculosis—Structure-Based Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tucker, Paul; Nowak, Elzbieta; Morth, Jens Preben


    Mycobacterium tuberculosis contains few two‐component systems compared to many other bacteria, possibly because it has more serine/threonine signaling pathways. Even so, these two‐component systems appear to play an important role in early intracellular survival of the pathogen as well as in aspe...

  4. 76 FR 33363 - In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communication Devices and Systems, Components Thereof, and... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communication Devices and Systems, Components Thereof, and... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain wireless communication devices... importation of certain wireless communication devices and systems, components thereof, and products containing...

  5. Components and systems for hybrid- and electromobiles; Komponenten und Systeme fuer Hybrid- und Elektrofahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Immle, Michael; Burgmayr, Thomas [Panasonic Electric Works Europe AG, Holzkirchen (Germany)


    On the Hybrid and Electric Vehicle sector Panasonic Electric Works is working among others on electro-mechanical products, such as contactors for battery disconnection or battery charging, on semi-conductor relays for battery monitoring and on complex systems as battery disconnect units. This paper will show experience on the hybrid vehicle sector. Further on different switching components and their usage will be introduced. As a main topic battery disconnected units will be discussed. Based on an actual example basic development items and system features will be touched and important development stages will be shown. As a general topic a future view on vehicles and batteries, as well as on charging systems and infrastructural necessities will be introduced. (orig.)

  6. Floodplains: the forgotten and abused component of the fluvial system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heritage George


    Full Text Available River restoration is strongly focussed on in-channel initiatives driven by fisheries interests and a continued desire for river stability. This contrasts greatly with the inherently mobile nature of watercourses. What is often overlooked is the fact that many rivers have developed floodplain units that would naturally operate as integrated functional systems, moderating the effects of extreme floods by distributing flow energy and sediment transport capacity through out of bank flooding. Floodplain utilisation for farming activities and landowner intransigence when it comes to acknowledging that the floodplain is part of the river system, has resulted in floodplains being the most degraded fluvial morphologic unit, both in terms of loss of form and function and sheer levels of spatial impact. The degradation has been facilitated by the failure of regulatory mechanisms to adequately acknowledge floodplain form and function. This is testament to the ‘inward looking’ thinking behind national assessment strategies. This paper reviews the state of floodplain systems drawing on quantitative data from England and Wales to argue for greater consideration of the floodplain in relation to river management. The database is poor and must be improved, however it does reveal significant loss of watercourse-floodplain connectivity linked to direct flood alleviation measures and also to altered flood frequency as a result of river downcutting following river engineering. These latter effects have persisted along many watercourses despite the historic nature of the engineering interventions and will continue to exacerbate the risk of flooding to downstream communities. We also present several examples of the local and wider values of reinstating floodplain form and function, demonstrating major ecological gains, improvement to downstream flood reduction, elevation of water quality status and reductions in overall fine sediment loss from farmland. A re

  7. IDMS: A System to Verify Component Interface Completeness and Compatibility for Product Integration (United States)

    Areeprayolkij, Wantana; Limpiyakorn, Yachai; Gansawat, Duangrat

    The growing approach of Component-Based software Development has had a great impact on today system architectural design. However, the design of subsystems that lacks interoperability and reusability can cause problems during product integration. At worst, this may result in project failure. In literature, it is suggested that the verification of interface descriptions and management of interface changes are factors essential to the success of product integration process. This paper thus presents an automation approach to facilitate reviewing component interfaces for completeness and compatibility. The Interface Descriptions Management System (IDMS) has been implemented to ease and fasten the interface review activities using UML component diagrams as input. The method of verifying interface compatibility is accomplished by traversing the component dependency graph called Component Compatibility Graph (CCG). CCG is the visualization of which each node represents a component, and each edge represents communications between associated components. Three case studies were studied to subjectively evaluate the correctness and usefulness of IDMS.

  8. Deep Charging Evaluation of Satellite Power and Communication System Components (United States)

    Schneider, T. A.; Vaughn, J. A.; Chu, B.; Wong, F.; Gardiner, G.; Wright, K. H.; Phillips, B.


    A set of deep charging tests has been carried out by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center on subscale flight-like samples developed by Space Systems/Loral, LLC. The samples, which included solar array wire coupons, a photovoltaic cell coupon, and a coaxial microwave transmission cable, were placed in passive and active (powered) circuit configurations and exposed to electron radiation. The energy of the electron radiation was chosen to deeply penetrate insulating (dielectric) materials on each sample. Each circuit configuration was monitored to determine if potentially damaging electrostatic discharge events (arcs) were developed on the coupon as a result of deep charging. The motivation for the test, along with charging levels, experimental setup, sample details, and results will be discussed.

  9. Optical Components for Reconfigurable Photonic Networks and Mobile Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Rodríguez Páez, Juan Sebastián; Rommel, Simon

    edge; RoF techniques based on photonic technologies enable to generate, transport and radiate in a straight forward manner microwave and millimeter wave signals. Although electronic technologies are able to sustain an increase in frequency from a technology point of view, with current development about...... communication needs to move to the millimeter-wavelength or sub-terahertz range. Radio-over-Fiber (RoF) technologies have evolved from a blue sky academic topic in the 90s to a main driver within the current quest for the 5th generation mobile systems (5G). A twist in RoF technologies is that it has found along...... the way niches in areas non purely related to communication technologies (ICT) applications: distribution of highly pure clock signals for radio telescopes, photonic-based coherent radar and fiber optic sensing. It is however in the communication arena where RoF seems to be able to provide a technological...

  10. Lower-Energy Energy Storage System (LEESS) Component Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Cosgrove, J.; Shi, Y.; Saxon, A.; Pesaran, A.


    Alternate hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) energy storage systems (ESS) such as lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) and electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) modules have the potential for improved life, superior cold temperature performance, and lower long-term cost projections relative to traditional battery storage systems. If such lower-energy ESS (LEESS) devices can also be shown to maintain high HEV fuel savings, future HEVs designed with these devices could have an increased value proposition relative to conventional vehicles. NREL's vehicle test platform is helping validate the in-vehicle performance capability of alternative LEESS devices and identify unforeseen issues. NREL created the Ford Fusion Hybrid test platform for in-vehicle evaluation of such alternative LEESS devices, bench testing of the initial LIC pack, integration and testing of the LIC pack in the test vehicle, and bench testing and installation of an EDLC module pack. EDLC pack testing will continue in FY15. The in-vehicle LIC testing results suggest technical viability of LEESS devices to support HEV operation. Several LIC configurations tested demonstrated equivalent fuel economy and acceleration performance as the production nickel-metal-hydride ESS configuration across all tests conducted. The lowest energy LIC scenario demonstrated equivalent performance over several tests, although slightly higher fuel consumption on the US06 cycle and slightly slower acceleration performance. More extensive vehicle-level calibration may be able to reduce or eliminate these performance differences. The overall results indicate that as long as critical attributes such as engine start under worst case conditions can be retained, considerable ESS downsizing may minimally impact HEV fuel savings.

  11. Calculating a checksum with inactive networking components in a computing system (United States)

    Aho, Michael E; Chen, Dong; Eisley, Noel A; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip; Tauferner, Andrew T


    Calculating a checksum utilizing inactive networking components in a computing system, including: identifying, by a checksum distribution manager, an inactive networking component, wherein the inactive networking component includes a checksum calculation engine for computing a checksum; sending, to the inactive networking component by the checksum distribution manager, metadata describing a block of data to be transmitted by an active networking component; calculating, by the inactive networking component, a checksum for the block of data; transmitting, to the checksum distribution manager from the inactive networking component, the checksum for the block of data; and sending, by the active networking component, a data communications message that includes the block of data and the checksum for the block of data.

  12. System partners `97. Innovations of the component manufacturing industry; System Partners 97. Innovationen der Zulieferindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebenpfeiffer, W. [comp.


    Innovativeness and high product quality are the two key factors of the positive image of the German car industry. The author presents some examples to illustrate this point: German producers were the first to replace carburetors with fuel injection systems with electronic control, the first to offer an antilock system, and the first to have xenon headlights. Dynamic speed control systems are another example. The component manufacturing industry has made an important contribution to all this, and it is for this reason that ATZ/MTZ have dedicated this special issue to the component manufacturing industry. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] Die Erfolge und das Image der deutschen Automobilindustrie haben sicherlich viele Gruende. Die wichtigsten sind Innovationen und Produktqualitaet, zu der auch die schnelle Umsetzung gehoert. Ein kurzer Rueckblick auf die letzten zwei Jahrzehnte verdeutlicht mit einigen Beispielen diese Aussage. Die Abloesung des Vergasers durch die elektronisch gesteuerte Benzineinspritzung ging von hier aus. Deutsche Automobilhersteller boten ihren Kunden weltweit als erste ein Antiblockiersystem an, das Xenonlicht ist bisher nur in deutschen Pkw lieferbar. An einer Fahrdynamikregelung arbeiten zwar weltweit viele Hersteller, bei Automobilen ``Made in Germany`` ist sie jedoch bereits in Serie. Bei allen Innovationen war auch immer die deutsche Zulieferindustrie federfuehrend beteiligt. Ein Grund genug fuer die Herausgabe dieses Sonderhefts. (orig./AKF)

  13. Spatially distributed effects of mental exhaustion on resting-state FMRI networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Esposito

    Full Text Available Brain activity during rest is spatially coherent over functional connectivity networks called resting-state networks. In resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, independent component analysis yields spatially distributed network representations reflecting distinct mental processes, such as intrinsic (default or extrinsic (executive attention, and sensory inhibition or excitation. These aspects can be related to different treatments or subjective experiences. Among these, exhaustion is a common psychological state induced by prolonged mental performance. Using repeated functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions and spatial independent component analysis, we explored the effect of several hours of sustained cognitive performances on the resting human brain. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed on the same healthy volunteers in two days, with and without, and before, during and after, an intensive psychological treatment (skill training and sustained practice with a flight simulator. After each scan, subjects rated their level of exhaustion and performed an N-back task to evaluate eventual decrease in cognitive performance. Spatial maps of selected resting-state network components were statistically evaluated across time points to detect possible changes induced by the sustained mental performance. The intensive treatment had a significant effect on exhaustion and effort ratings, but no effects on N-back performances. Significant changes in the most exhausted state were observed in the early visual processing and the anterior default mode networks (enhancement and in the fronto-parietal executive networks (suppression, suggesting that mental exhaustion is associated with a more idling brain state and that internal attention processes are facilitated to the detriment of more extrinsic processes. The described application may inspire future indicators of the level of fatigue in the neural attention system.

  14. The Effect of Unemployment Insurance Exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyk-Jensen, Stéphanie; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann

    . To identify the effect of UI exhaustion, we exploit the 1999 legislative change in the duration of benefit that progressively reduced regular UI entitlement from five to four years. According to time of entry into the UI system, all UI recipients had their potential UI period shortened. We use a competing...

  15. The GNSS Component of the Seismic Monitoring System in Chile (United States)

    Barrientos, S. E.


    Chile is amongst the most seismically active countries in the world. Since mid-XVI Century, a magnitude 8 or more earthquake has taken place every dozen of years, as an average. In the last 100 years, more than ten events with magnitudes around 8 or larger have taken place in this part of world. Three events with M>8 have taken place only in the last six years. The largest earthquake ever recorded took place in May, 1960, in southern Chile. Such extreme seismic activity is the result of the interaction of the Nazca, Antarctic, Scotia and South American plates in southwestern South America where Chile is located. These megathrust earthquakes exhibit long rupture regions reaching several hundreds of km with fault displacements of several tens of meters. At least eighteen of these earthquakes have generated local tsunamis with runups larger than 4 m -including events in 2010, 2014 and 2015- therefore it is mandatory to establish a system with capabilities to rapidly evaluate the tsunamigenic potential of these events. In 2013, the newly created National Seismological Center (CSN) of the University of Chile was tasked to upgrade the countrýs seismic network by increasing the numbers of real-time monitoring stations. The most important change to previous practices is the establishment of a GNSS network composed by 130 devices, in addition to the incorporation of 65 new collocated broadband and strong motion instruments. Additional 297 strong motion instruments for engineering purposes complement the system. Forty units -of the 130 devices- present an optional RTX capability, where satellite orbits and clock corrections are sent to the field device producing a 1-Hz position stream at 4-cm level. First records of ground displacement -using this technology-were recorded at the time of the largest aftershock (Mw=7.6) of the sequence that affected northern Chile in 2014. The CSN is currently developing automatic detectors and amplitude estimators of displacement from the

  16. Validation of Karolinska Exhaustion Scale: psychometric properties of a measure of exhaustion syndrome. (United States)

    Saboonchi, Fredrik; Perski, Aleksander; Grossi, Giorgio


    The syndrome of exhaustion is currently a medical diagnosis in Sweden. The description of the syndrome largely corresponds to the suggested core component of burnout, that is exhaustion. Karolinska Exhaustion Scale (KES) has been constructed to provide specific assessment of exhaustion in clinical and research settings. The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of this scale in its original and revised versions by examining the factorial structure and measures of convergent and discriminant validity. Data gathered from two independent samples (n1 = 358 & n2 = 403) consisting of patients diagnosed with 'reaction to severe stress, and adjustment disorder' were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis. The study's instruments were Karolinska Exhaustion Scale and Shirom Melam Burnout Measure. Correlation analyses were employed to follow up the established factorial structure of the scale. The study was ethically approved by Karolinska Institute regional ethic committee. The findings demonstrated adequate fit of the data to the measurement model provided by the revised version of KES Limitations: The main limitation of the present study is the lack of a gold standard of exhaustion for direct comparison with KES. (KES-26) and partially supported convergent validity and discriminant validity of the scale. The demonstrated psychometric properties of KES-26 indicate sound construct validity for this scale encouraging use of this scale in assessment of exhaustion. The factorial structure of KES-26 may also be used to provide information concerning possible different clinical profiles. © 2012 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  17. 46 CFR 182.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation. (United States)


    ... installation. (a) The design of all exhaust systems must ensure minimum risk of injury to personnel. Protection... steel or equivalent bulkhead in way of a penetration and a fiberglass wet exhaust pipe may be fiberglassed to a fiberglass reinforced plastic bulkhead if suitable arrangements are provided to relieve the...

  18. A Numerical and Experimental Study of Local Exhaust Capture Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, U.; Breum, N. O.; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm


    Direct capture efficiency of a local exhaust system is defined by introducing an imaginary control box surrounding the contaminant source and the exhaust opening. The imaginary box makes it possible to distinguish between contaminants directly captured and those that escape. Two methods...

  19. 5 CFR 1208.21 - VEOA exhaustion requirement. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false VEOA exhaustion requirement. 1208.21 Section 1208.21 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES... THE VETERANS EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES ACT VEOA Appeals § 1208.21 VEOA exhaustion requirement. Before...


    The report discusses the use of a wind tunnel to physically model the dispersion of exhaust plumes from active soil depressurization (ASD) radon mitigation systems in houses. he testing studied the effects of exhaust location (grade level vs. above the eave), as house height, roo...

  1. Nonlinear analysis of rotor-bearing systems using component mode synthesis (United States)

    Nelson, H. D.; Meacham, W. L.; Fleming, D. P.; Kascak, A. F.


    The method of component mode synthesis is developed to determine the forced response of nonlinear, multishaft, rotor-bearing systems. The formulation allows for simulation of system response due to blade loss, distributed unbalance, base shock, maneuver loads, and specified fixed frame forces. The motion of each rotating component of the system is described by superposing constraint modes associated with boundary coordinates and constrained precessional modes associated with internal coordinates. The precessional modes are truncated for each component and the reduced component equations are assembled with the nonlinear supports and interconnections to form a set of nonlinear system equations of reduced order. These equations are then numerically integrated to obtain the system response. A computer program, which is presently restricted to single shaft systems, has been written and results are presented for transient system response associated with blade loss dynamics with squeeze film dampers, and with interference rubs.

  2. Nondestructive Crack Detection in a Fuel System Component (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay; Wincheski, Russell; Prosser, William; Russell, Richard; Devries, Robert; Engel, James; Ruffino, Norman


    The paper discusses development of various NDE techniques to detect cracks in A40 steel poppets used in a valve of the fuel system of the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The valve assembly experiences a severe high cycle fatigue environment during its operation. Cracks were discovered at the radius of the poppet flange. Experience shows that very small cracks or material anomalies do not cause failure in a single operation event. While the design is being modified to eliminate the issue, NDE has been used to screen the poppets for cracks before every use. Several surface flaw detection techniques were considered and a few NDE techniques were developed to provide NDE screening for the flaw detection. The primary method used was the eddy current testing. In the eddy current technique, the X-Y channel test data from the eddy current instrument was recorded as computer files. A Matlab data review and plotting application was developed to analyze the data files. The Matlab application provides much higher resolution than the eddy current instrument that was used to acquire the data. Other techniques that were used included ultrasonic surface wave and magnetic particle testing. A probability of detection (POD) study was undertaken to determine the 90/95 size for the eddy current technique. This study used specimens with same geometry and material as the poppet. Fatigue cracks were grown in these specimens. Information on results of the NDE techniques and results of the POD study are provided.

  3. Recreation as a component of the community youth development system. (United States)

    Outley, Corliss; Bocarro, Jason N; Boleman, Chris T


    In an era of fragmented school systems and budget cuts, many educators and youth leaders seeking to solve the problems that youth face are turning to out-of-school-time programs. In many communities, these programs are seen as essential in the development of youth into fully functioning adults. One such area of the out-of-school-time sector is the provision of recreation services. Recreational services have a vital role in connecting youth to their communities, as well as enabling youth and adult allies to improve challenging conditions. This chapter outlines the historical role that recreation has played in community youth development programs and shows how community youth development has evolved. It then looks at how organizations in three communities--the Youthline Outreach Mentorship program in Minneapolis, a 4-H initiative in Parker City, Texas, and the Hockey Is for Everyone program--have successfully applied the theoretical knowledge. Best practices from these programs illustrate that the role of recreation in community youth development is changing. No longer are recreation programs about providing just "fun and games." Recreation organizations are now placing more value on the development of the community as a whole, in addition to the individual well-being of young people. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  4. Survey, modeling, interpretation as multidisciplinary components of a Knowledge System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Bianchini


    Full Text Available Cultural Heritage represents a very difficult subject to be handled. Despite its cross-cutting and multi-level characters (scientific, social, economic, political, etc., nevertheless the topic can hardly be framed in a proper and comprehensive way. Any project addressing Cultural Heritage  (documentation, preservation, retrofitting, valorisation and so on actually tends to exalt a specific point of view and, therefore, to neglect potentially crucial contributions coming from different fields of expertise. Comprehensive solutions to this problem seem by now available thanks to ICT and the 3D Digitalization and Multimedia Technologies: nevertheless the more the platforms improve their multidisciplinary capabilities and interoperability, the more they need an intelligent design and an accurate control during the implementation phase. Built Cultural Heritage (as historic buildings, districts, sites, etc. perfectly represents the wide range of situations, which have to be tackled. Any intervention, in fact, from the design phase to its realization and validation, actually deals with several different interlaced layers that together depict a “complex system”. The construction of a Knowledge System represents a crucial step in correctly addressing the problem.

  5. Mixed-level optical-system simulation incorporating component-level modeling of interface elements (United States)

    Mena, Pablo V.; Stone, Bryan; Heller, Evan; Herrmann, Dan; Ghillino, Enrico; Scarmozzino, Rob


    While system-level simulation can allow designers to assess optical system performance via measures such as signal waveforms, spectra, eye diagrams, and BER calculations, component-level modeling can provide a more accurate description of coupling into and out of individual devices, as well as their detailed signal propagation characteristics. In particular, the system-level simulation of interface components used in optical systems, including splitters, combiners, grating couplers, waveguides, spot-size converters, and lens assemblies, can benefit from more detailed component-level modeling. Depending upon the nature of the device and the scale of the problem, simulation of optical transmission through these components can be carried out using either electromagnetic device-level simulation, such as the beampropagation method, or ray-based approaches. In either case, system-level simulation can interface to such componentlevel modeling via a suitable exchange of optical signal data. This paper presents the use of a mixed-level simulation flow in which both electromagnetic device-level and ray-based tools are integrated with a system-level simulation environment in order to model the use of various interface components in optical systems for a range of purposes, including, for example, coupling to and from optical transmission media such as single- and multimode optical fiber. This approach enables case studies on the impact of physical and geometric component variations on system performance, and the sensitivity of system behavior to misalignment between components.

  6. Methods of producing epoxides from alkenes using a two-component catalyst system (United States)

    Kung, Mayfair C.; Kung, Harold H.; Jiang, Jian


    Methods for the epoxidation of alkenes are provided. The methods include the steps of exposing the alkene to a two-component catalyst system in an aqueous solution in the presence of carbon monoxide and molecular oxygen under conditions in which the alkene is epoxidized. The two-component catalyst system comprises a first catalyst that generates peroxides or peroxy intermediates during oxidation of CO with molecular oxygen and a second catalyst that catalyzes the epoxidation of the alkene using the peroxides or peroxy intermediates. A catalyst system composed of particles of suspended gold and titanium silicalite is one example of a suitable two-component catalyst system.

  7. Controlling exhaust gas recirculation (United States)

    Zurlo, James Richard [Madison, WI; Konkle, Kevin Paul [West Bend, WI; May, Andrew [Milwaukee, WI


    In controlling an engine, an amount of an intake charge provided, during operation of the engine, to a combustion chamber of the engine is determined. The intake charge includes an air component, a fuel component and a diluent component. An amount of the air component of the intake charge is determined. An amount of the diluent component of the intake charge is determined utilizing the amount of the intake charge, the amount of the air component and, in some instances, the amount of the fuel component. An amount of a diluent supplied to the intake charge is adjusted based at least in part on the determined amount of diluent component of the intake charge.

  8. Analysis on Sealing Reliability of Bolted Joint Ball Head Component of Satellite Propulsion System (United States)

    Guo, Tao; Fan, Yougao; Gao, Feng; Gu, Shixin; Wang, Wei


    Propulsion system is one of the important subsystems of satellite, and its performance directly affects the service life, attitude control and reliability of the satellite. The Paper analyzes the sealing principle of bolted joint ball head component of satellite propulsion system and discuss from the compatibility of hydrazine anhydrous and bolted joint ball head component, influence of ground environment on the sealing performance of bolted joint ball heads, and material failure caused by environment, showing that the sealing reliability of bolted joint ball head component is good and the influence of above three aspects on sealing of bolted joint ball head component can be ignored.

  9. Annual cycle solar energy utilization with seasonal storage. Part 7. Examination on design and control of the system partially recovering exhaust heat of heat pump; Kisetsukan chikunetsu ni yoru nenkan cycle taiyo energy riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu. 7. Bubuntekina hainetsu kaishu wo koryoshita baai no sekkei seigyoho no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, H.; Okumiya, M. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)


    The capacity and performance of the existing system that recovers the overall heating and cooling exhaust heat completely into a seasonal storage tank and the system that discharges the exhaust heat slightly to the outside and recovers it partially were compared and investigated. The system uses a central single-duct discharge system as an air-conditioning system. A heat pump and a flat-plate solar collector installed on the roof of a building are used as the heat source. The seasonal storage tank in the ground just under the building is a cylindrical water tank of 5 m deep with the concrete used as body. The upper surface of a storage tank is heat-insulated by a stylo-platform of 200 mm, and the lower side surface by a stylo-platform of 100 mm. Calculation when the difference in temperature used in a seasonal storage tank is set to 35{degree}C and 25{degree}C was performed for the system that has two control methods. The overall exhaust heat recovery system is almost the same in energy performance as the partial exhaust heat recovery system. The partial exhaust heat recovery system is more advantageous on the economic side. 4 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Formalized methodology for the separation of three component electrolytic systems: Partial separation of the system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suljkanović Midhat


    Full Text Available This work presents a formalized methodology for salt's separation from three component electrolytic systems. The methodology is based on the multi-variant modelling block of a generalized crystallization process, with options for simulating the boundary conditions of feasible equilibrium processes and the elements of crystallization techniques. The following techniques are considered: cooling crystallization, adiabatic evaporative-cooling crystallization, salt-out crystallization, isothermal crystallization, and a combination of the mentioned techniques. The multi-variant options of the crystallization module are based on different variable sets with assigned values for solving mathematical models of generalized crystallization processes. The first level of the methodology begins with the determination of salt crystallization paths from a hypothetical electrolytic AX-BX-H2O system, following by an examination of salt-cooling crystallization possibilities. The second level determines feasible processes by the communication of a feed-system with the environment through a stream of evaporated water, or introduced water with introduced crystallized BX salt. The third level determines the value intervals of the variables for feasible processes. The methodological logic and possibilities for the created process simulator are demonstrated on examples of sodium sulphate separation from the NaCl-Na2SO4-H2O system, using different salt concentrations within the feed system.

  11. Low-pressure-ratio regenerative exhaust-heated gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tampe, L.A.; Frenkel, R.G.; Kowalick, D.J.; Nahatis, H.M.; Silverstein, S.M.; Wilson, D.G.


    A design study of coal-burning gas-turbine engines using the exhaust-heated cycle and state-of-the-art components has been completed. In addition, some initial experiments on a type of rotary ceramic-matrix regenerator that would be used to transfer heat from the products of coal combustion in the hot turbine exhaust to the cool compressed air have been conducted. Highly favorable results have been obtained on all aspects on which definite conclusions could be drawn.

  12. The Serum Complement System: A Simplified Laboratory Exercise to Measure the Activity of an Important Component of the Immune System (United States)

    Inglis, Jordan E.; Radziwon, Kimberly A.; Maniero, Gregory D.


    The immune system is a vital physiological component that affords animals protection from disease and is composed of innate and adaptive mechanisms that rely on cellular and dissolved components. The serum complement system is a series of dissolved proteins that protect against a variety of pathogens. The activity of complement in serum can be…

  13. A new concept for exhaust diffusers of altitude test cells (United States)

    Parikh, P. G.; Sarohia, V.


    A new exhaust diffuser concept for jet engine altitude test cells which greatly reduces operating power and cost requirements for exhausters is discussed. The concept utilizes the capture duct as an efficient diffuser only, while evacuating the secondary air via a separate path using an auxiliary suction system. Implementation of the concept would reduce the peak exhauster power requirement during a TF-30 altitude test by 48 percent and the overall exhaust power cost of the test program by 41 percent. The design accommodates various engine sizes and can achieve optimum pressure recovery performance during both A/B and IRP modes of engine operation. The pressure recovery performance of the proposed exhaust diffusers does not deteriorate with increasing cooling air fraction. The disadvantages of the proposed scheme are: increased mechanical complexity of the extended variable geometry diffuser duct and the need for an auxiliary suction system for evacuating cell-cooling air.

  14. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate... (United States)


    ... cooling as required; or (ii) Using a short duct (up to 12 feet long) constructed of smooth wall pipe with a minimum of flexible sections maintained at a temperature above the dew point of the mixture, but... flexible connectors are allowed under this option; or (iv) By omitting the duct and performing the exhaust...

  15. Design of illumination systems for vision-assisted placement of surface-mount components (United States)

    Cheraghi, S. H.; Lehtihet, E. A.; Egbelu, Pius J.


    One of the major parts of any vision system design is the development of effective illumination techniques. For high accuracy applications one can not afford to ignore an obvious source of error, namely a poor lighting system. In electronic manufacturing, accurate placement of fine pitch surface-mount components (SMCs) requires the integration of a vision system with the placement system. This paper describes the design of very effective lighting techniques for a vision-assisted system to place surface-mount components. The lighting systems provide consistent images of SMCs and pads with high contrast.

  16. Building automation system of payment platform weight component for large spacecraft reflector (United States)

    Kovalev, I. V.; Badanina, J. O.


    Considered Design and the logic of opening large convertible antenna. The necessity of compensation weight component in the assembly and testing of the design. Given the logic of the movement elements of power spokes, concluded that the use of the tracking system to compensate for the weight component. The analysis of the existing equipment and control systems. Produced selection of the manufacturer of automated equipment that meets the stated objectives of management and control. It is concluded that the design component of the weight compensation system based on servo controllers and sensors combined platform automation, controlled by special software. The structure of the platform automation, consistent workflow testing. It defines the principles of interaction between subsystems of the weight compensation component for receiving, processing and monitoring of process parameters testing. It is concluded that the proposed system can be integrated into the automation system and the perspective of process control testing of disclosure of large spacecraft.

  17. Study on system layout and component design in the HTTR hydrogen production system. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishihara, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Tanihira, Masanori [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Uchida, Shoji [Advanced Reactor Technology Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The global warming becomes a significant issue in the world so that it needs to reduce the CO{sub 2} emission. It is expected that hydrogen is in place of the fossil fuels such as coal and oil, and plays the important role to resolve the global warming. There are several hydrogen making processes such as water electrolysis and steam reforming of hydrocarbon. Steam reforming of hydrocarbon is a major hydrogen making process because of economy in industry. It utilizes the fossil fuels as process heat for chemical reaction and results in a large CO{sub 2} emission. New steam reforming system without fossil fuel can contribute to resolve the global warming. High temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) has a unique feature to be able to supply a hot helium gas whose temperature is approximately 950degC at the reactor outlet. This makes HTGR possible to utilize for not only power generation but also process heat utilization. JAERI constructed the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) that is a sort of HTGR in Oarai establishment and starts operation. Nuclear heat utilization is one of the R and D items of the HTTR. The steam reforming system coupling to the HTTR for hydrogen production has been designed. This report represents the system layout and design specification of key components in HTTR steam reforming system. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostiantyn S. Khoruzhyi


    Full Text Available In this article, problems and features of forming the educational quality management information system for the future economists are examined, its component structure is presented and the significance and functions of every component are explained. The functions, which bind the components mentioned to each other, are also examined. To ensure functioning of the developed components of the EQMIS an indicator system is proposed. The article also covers the program components of this system, formed according to the requirements analysis, their technical description, as well as the importance and role in operation of the EQMIS of the future economists based on the individually-oriented, professionally-competent, informational-communicational and systematic approach methods.

  19. Electrostatic Discharge (ESD and Electrical Overstress (EOS: The state of the art in components to systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven H. Voldman


    Full Text Available Electrostatic Discharge (ESD, Electrical Overstress (EOS and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC continue to impact semiconductor manufacturing, semiconductor components and systems as technologies scale from micro- to nano-electronics. The range of concern for components include semiconductor components, magnetic recording industry, MEMs, and for products from disk drives, cell phones, notebooks, tablets, laptops, and desktop computers. The objective of this lecture is to address the state of the art of electrostatic discharge (ESD and electrical overstress (EOS in today’s electronic components and systems. The tutorial provides a clear picture of ESD, EOS and EMC phenomena, sources, physics, failure mechanisms, testing and qualification of components and systems. The conclusion of this talk is that ESD and EOS continue to be a concern in technologies from micro-electronics to nano-structures, and will remain a reliability and quality issue in the future.

  20. Towards system-level modeling and characterization of components for intravenous therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alveringh, Dennis; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad


    Problems occur regularly with intravenous therapy, especially with the flow behavior. A mechanical model can predict which components of intravenous therapy systems introduce non-ideal effects in the flow. This study concentrates on gaining quantitative information of each separate component for

  1. Using TinyOS Components for the Design of an Adaptive Ubiquitous System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaya, O.S.; Durmaz, O.; Dulman, S.O.; Gemesi, R.; Jansen, P.G.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    This work is an initiative attempt toward component-based software engineering in ubiquitous computing systems. Software components cooperate in a distributed manner to meet a demand, and adapt their software bindings during run-time depending on the context information. There are two main research

  2. A Study on Components of Internal Control-Based Administrative System in Secondary Schools (United States)

    Montri, Paitoon; Sirisuth, Chaiyuth; Lammana, Preeda


    The aim of this study was to study the components of the internal control-based administrative system in secondary schools, and make a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to confirm the goodness of fit of empirical data and component model that resulted from the CFA. The study consisted of three steps: 1) studying of principles, ideas, and theories…

  3. An Efficient Scalable Runtime System for S-Net Dataflow Component Coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.U.; Gijsbers, E.J.; Zimmermann, W.


    S-Net is a declarative component coordination language aimed at radically facilitating software engineering for modern parallel compute systems by near-complete separation of concerns between application (component) engineering and concurrency orchestration. S-Net builds on the concept of stream

  4. Feasibility study of submarine diesel exhaust valve interspace coating application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, W.; Zhou, M.; Bibby, D.; Huang, J.


    This document described a feasibility study conducted to evaluate surface coating systems applied to the surface of a diesel exhaust valve interspace on a VICTORIA Class submarine. A series of laboratory studies were conducted to determine the physical characteristics of the coatings, which will be subjected to high service temperatures, diesel exhaust gas, and seawater. The valves were made of Q1N steel castings. The surface coatings were designed to provide corrosion resistance and thermal protection to the valves. As part of the study, a survey was conducted on various state-of-the-art surface coating systems. Coatings were rated on their ability to protect the Q10 steel surface from corrosion, high temperatures and seawater. An additional requirement was that the coatings should not produce high amounts of hydrogen. Plating trials were conducted with a nickel-based alloy (Ni-Cu-P) placed on Q1N steel substrates with a hypophosphite reducing agent. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses suggested that the coatings can also be used to protect the external surfaces of various submarine components. 54 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  5. Brakes, brake control and driver assistance systems function, regulation and components

    CERN Document Server


    Braking systems have been continuously developed and improved throughout the last years. Major milestones were the introduction of antilock braking system (ABS) and electronic stability program. This reference book provides a detailed description of braking components and how they interact in electronic braking systems. Contents Motor vehicle safety.- Basic principles of vehicle dynamics.- Car braking systems.- Car braking-system components.- Wheel brakes.- Antilock breaking systems.- Traction control system.- Electronic stability program.- Automatic brake functions.- Hydraulic modulator.- Sensors for brake control.- Sensotronic brake control.- Active steering.- Occupant protection systems.- Driver assistance systems.- Adaptive cruise control.- Parking systems.- Instrumentation.- Orientation methods.- Navigation systems.- Workshop technology. The target groups Motor-vehicle technicians in education and vocational training Master-mechanics and technicians in garage-workshops Teachers and lecturers in vocation...

  6. Towards long pulse high performance discharges in Tore Supra: experimental knowledge and technological developments for heat exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TORE SUPRA Collaboration


    This document deals with fusion heat exhaust experiments in Tore Supra tokamak. The purpose of the Tore Supra tokamak is to achieve and control long pulse powerful discharges. High input power is required to generate the non inductive current, approximately 25 MW . The conception and realisation of a Plasma Facing Component (PFC) scheme able to deal with this large amount of power is the main issue. A description of the water loop used for power removal and of the calorimetric system to determine the overall heat exhaust balance is provided. The infra-red measurements used during plasma operation are also described, together with several heat exhaust devices. The behaviour of ion cyclotron and lower hybrid wave launchers is addressed. Eventually, some information is provided on technological developments of PFC in Tore Supra. (TEC). 61 refs., 34 figs.

  7. Profiles of Automotive Suppliers Industries--Engineered Mechanical Components and Systems : Volume II, Appendices. (United States)


    The profile describes and analyzes that segment of the automotive supplier industry which provides engineered mechanical components/assemblies/systems to the prime auto manufacturers. It presents an overview of the role and structure of this industry...

  8. Profiles of Automotive Suppliers Industries--Engineered Mechanical Components and Systems : Volume I, Text. (United States)


    This profile describes and analyzes that segment of the automotive supplier industry which provides engineered mechanical components/assemblies/systems to the prime auto manufacturers. It presents an overview of the role and structure of this industr...

  9. 76 FR 70490 - Certain Electronic Devices With Graphics Data Processing Systems, Components Thereof, and... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices With Graphics Data Processing Systems, Components Thereof, and Associated Software; Institution of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice...

  10. Experimental analysis of diffusion absorption refrigerator driven by electrical heater and engine exhaust gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Izzedine Serge ADJIBADE


    Full Text Available This work presents an experimental study of H20-NH3-H2 diffusion absorption refrigeration under two types of energy sources, i.e. the conventional electric energy from grid (electric and exhaust gas from internal combustion engine. Dynamic method is used to evaluate the behavior of the components of the system for both energy sources. Results obtained show that the performance of each component under different types of energy sources is almost coherent. For the generator, the electrical heater system requires more time to warm up, around three minutes, compared to the 40 s for system running with exhaust gas. For the evaporator, the decreasing rate is higher for the exhaust gas source and it took only about two hours to reach steady-state while for the electrical heat, the steady-state is reached after about seven hours of operation. For both energy sources, the evaporation temperature stabilizes to 3 °C and the minimum temperature to boil off ammonia is around 140 °C.

  11. 22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. (United States)


    ..., parts, firmware, software and systems. 121.8 Section 121.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE...-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. (a) An end-item is..., operating systems and support software for design, implementation, test, operation, diagnosis and repair. A...

  12. 10 CFR 73.46 - Fixed site physical protection systems, subsystems, components, and procedures. (United States)


    ... must be provided with two separated physical barriers with an intrusion detection system placed between... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fixed site physical protection systems, subsystems... physical protection systems, subsystems, components, and procedures. (a) A licensee physical protection...

  13. Optimal Repair And Replacement Policy For A System With Multiple Components (United States)



  14. Genetic basis for systems of skeletal quantitative traits: Principal component analysis of the canid skeleton


    Chase, Kevin; Carrier, David R.; Frederick R. Adler; Jarvik, Tyler; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Lorentzen, Travis D.; Lark, Karl G.


    Evolution of mammalian skeletal structure can be rapid and the changes profound, as illustrated by the morphological diversity of the domestic dog. Here we use principal component analysis of skeletal variation in a population of Portuguese Water Dogs to reveal systems of traits defining skeletal structures. This analysis classifies phenotypic variation into independent components that can be used to dissect genetic networks regulating complex biological systems. We show that unlinked quantit...

  15. Radiation hardening of components and systems for nuclear rocket vehicle applications (United States)

    Greenhow, W. A.; Cheever, P. R.


    The results of the analysis of the S-2 and S-4B components, although incomplete, indicate that many Saturn 5 components and subsystems, e.g., pumps, valves, etc., can be radiation hardened to meet NRV requirements by material substitution and minor design modifications. Results of these analyses include (1) recommended radiation tolerance limits for over 100 material applications; (2) design data which describes the components of each system; (3) presentation of radiation hardening examples of systems; and (4) designing radiation effects tests to supply data for selecting materials.

  16. A parametric design of compact exhaust manifold junction in heavy duty diesel engine using CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeimi Hessamedin


    Full Text Available Nowadays, computational fluid dynamics codes (CFD are prevalently used to simulate the gas dynamics in many fluid piping systems such as steam and gas turbines, inlet and exhaust in internal combustion engines. In this paper, a CFD software is used to obtain the total energy losses in adiabatic compressible flow at compact exhaust manifold junction. A steady state onedimensional adiabatic compressible flow with friction model has been applied to subtract the straight pipe friction losses from the total energy losses. The total pressure loss coefficient has been related to the extrapolated Mach number in the common branch and to the mass flow rate ratio between branches at different flow configurations, in both combining and dividing flows. The study indicate that the numerical results were generally in good agreement with those of experimental data from the literature and will be applied as a boundary condition in one-dimensional global simulation models of fluid systems in which these components are present.

  17. Studying the Relationship between System-Level and Component-Level Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Mitchell


    Full Text Available The capacity to maintain stability in a system relies on the components which make up the system. This study explores the relationship between component-level resilience and system-level resilience with the aim of identifying policies which foster system-level resilience in situations where existing incentives might undermine it. We use an abstract model of interacting specialized resource users and producers which can be parameterized to represent specific real systems. We want to understand how features, such as stockpiles, influence system versus component resilience. Systems are subject to perturbations of varying intensity and frequency. For our study, we create a simplified economy in which an inventory carrying cost is imposed to incentivize smaller inventories and examine how components with varying inventory levels compete in environments subject to periods of resource scarcity. The results show that policies requiring larger inventories foster higher component-level resilience but do not foster higher system-level resilience. Inventory carrying costs reduce production efficiency as inventory sizes increase. JIT inventory strategies improve production efficiency but do not afford any buffer against future uncertainty of resource availability.

  18. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  19. 5 CFR 1208.11 - Choice of procedure under USERRA; exhaustion requirement. (United States)


    ...; exhaustion requirement. 1208.11 Section 1208.11 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD... procedure under USERRA; exhaustion requirement. (a) Choice of procedure. An appellant may file a USERRA... under 38 U.S.C. 4322. (b) Exhaustion requirement. If an appellant files a complaint with the Secretary...

  20. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, O.D.


    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  1. Sensitivity of energy and exergy performances of heating and cooling systems to auxiliary components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Shukuya, Masanori; Olesen, Bjarne W.


    system required 53% lower auxiliary exergy input than the air cooling system, showing a clear benefit for the water-based systems over the air-based systems. The auxiliary energy and exergy input to different systems is an important parameter for the whole system performance. Its effects become more...... pronounced and can be studied better in terms of exergy than energy. The required exergy input to the power plant for space heating and cooling purposes are comparable to the required exergy input for auxiliary components. The exergy input to auxiliary components should be minimized to fully benefit from...... the water-based low temperature heating and high temperature cooling systems, and in general in heating and cooling systems, and to integrate effectively the renewable energy resources to building heating and cooling systems....

  2. Using a CLIPS expert system to automatically manage TCP/IP networks and their components (United States)

    Faul, Ben M.


    A expert system that can directly manage networks components on a Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) network is described. Previous expert systems for managing networks have focused on managing network faults after they occur. However, this proactive expert system can monitor and control network components in near real time. The ability to directly manage network elements from the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) is accomplished by the integration of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) and a Abstract Syntax Notation (ASN) parser into the CLIPS artificial intelligence language.

  3. Harmonic Stability Analysis of Inverter-Fed Power Systems Using Component Connection Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanbo; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede


    This paper presents a Component Connection Method (CCM)-based harmonic stability analysis for ac power-electronic-fed power systems. In the approach, the system is partitioned as individual components, including the controllers of DG units, LC filters, network impedances, and power loads...... is formulated. And the harmonic stability is assessed based on eigenvalue traces of the composite model. Simulations and experimental results are given to validate the effectiveness of the analysis method, which can be employed to assess the system harmonic stability for any combinations of system parameters...

  4. Determination of Temporal Order among the Components of an Oscillatory System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Barragán

    Full Text Available Oscillatory systems in biology are tightly regulated process where the individual components (e.g. genes express in an orderly manner by virtue of their functions. The temporal order among the components of an oscillatory system may potentially be disrupted for various reasons (e.g. environmental factors. As a result some components of the system may go out of order or even cease to participate in the oscillatory process. In this article, we develop a novel framework to evaluate whether the temporal order is unchanged in different populations (or experimental conditions. We also develop methodology to estimate the order among the components with a suitable notion of "confidence." Using publicly available data on S. pombe, S. cerevisiae and Homo sapiens we discover that the temporal order among the genes cdc18; mik1; hhf1; hta2; fkh2 and klp5 is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to humans.

  5. Component-Based Modelling for Scalable Smart City Systems Interoperability: A Case Study on Integrating Energy Demand Response Systems. (United States)

    Palomar, Esther; Chen, Xiaohong; Liu, Zhiming; Maharjan, Sabita; Bowen, Jonathan


    Smart city systems embrace major challenges associated with climate change, energy efficiency, mobility and future services by embedding the virtual space into a complex cyber-physical system. Those systems are constantly evolving and scaling up, involving a wide range of integration among users, devices, utilities, public services and also policies. Modelling such complex dynamic systems' architectures has always been essential for the development and application of techniques/tools to support design and deployment of integration of new components, as well as for the analysis, verification, simulation and testing to ensure trustworthiness. This article reports on the definition and implementation of a scalable component-based architecture that supports a cooperative energy demand response (DR) system coordinating energy usage between neighbouring households. The proposed architecture, called refinement of Cyber-Physical Component Systems (rCPCS), which extends the refinement calculus for component and object system (rCOS) modelling method, is implemented using Eclipse Extensible Coordination Tools (ECT), i.e., Reo coordination language. With rCPCS implementation in Reo, we specify the communication, synchronisation and co-operation amongst the heterogeneous components of the system assuring, by design scalability and the interoperability, correctness of component cooperation.

  6. Ecological effects and environmental fate of solid rocket exhaust (United States)

    Nimmo, B.; Stout, I. J.; Mickus, J.; Vickers, D.; Madsen, B.


    Specific target processes were classified as to the chemical, chemical-physical, and biological reactions and toxic effects of solid rocket emissions within selected ecosystems at Kennedy Space Center. Exposure of Citris seedlings, English peas, and bush beans to SRM exhaust under laboratory conditions demonstrated reduced growth rates, but at very high concentrations. Field studies of natural plant populations in three diverse ecosystems failed to reveal any structural damage at the concentration levels tested. Background information on elemental composition of selected woody plants from two terrestrial ecosystems is reported. LD sub 50 for a native mouse (peromysous gossypinus) exposed to SRM exhaust was determined to be 50 ppm/g body weight. Results strongly indicate that other components of the SRM exhaust act synergically to enhance the toxic effects of HCl gas when inhaled. A brief summary is given regarding the work on SRM exhaust and its possible impact on hatchability of incubating bird eggs.

  7. Time-independent and time-dependent contributions to the unavailability of standby safety system components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lofgren, E.V. [Science Applications International Corp., Fairfax Station, VA (United States); Uryasev, S.; Samanta, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)


    The unavailability of standby safety system components due to failures in nuclear power plants is considered to involve a time-independent and a time-dependent part. The former relates to the component`s unavailability from demand stresses due to usage, and the latter represents the component`s unavailability due to standby-time stresses related to the environment. In this paper, data from the nuclear plant reliability data system (NPRDS) were used to partition the component`s unavailability into the contributions from standby-time stress (i.e., due to environmental factors) and demand stress (i.e., due to usage). Analyses are presented of motor-operated valves (MOVs), motor-driven pumps (MDPs), and turbine-driven pumps (TDPs). MOVs fail predominantly (approx. 78 %) from environmental factors (standby-time stress failures). MDPs fail slightly more frequently from demand stresses (approx. 63 %) than standby-time stresses, while TDPs fail predominantly from standby-time stresses (approx. 78 %). Such partitions of component unavailability have many uses in risk-informed and performance-based regulation relating to modifications to Technical Specification, in-service testing, precise determination of dominant accident sequences, and implementation of maintenance rules.

  8. Design Choices for Thermofluid Flow Components and Systems that are Exported as Functional Mockup Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Michael; Fuchs, Marcus; Nouidui, Thierry


    This paper discusses design decisions for exporting Modelica thermofluid flow components as Functional Mockup Units. The purpose is to provide guidelines that will allow building energy simulation programs and HVAC equipment manufacturers to effectively use FMUs for modeling of HVAC components and systems. We provide an analysis for direct input-output dependencies of such components and discuss how these dependencies can lead to algebraic loops that are formed when connecting thermofluid flow components. Based on this analysis, we provide recommendations that increase the computing efficiency of such components and systems that are formed by connecting multiple components. We explain what code optimizations are lost when providing thermofluid flow components as FMUs rather than Modelica code. We present an implementation of a package for FMU export of such components, explain the rationale for selecting the connector variables of the FMUs and finally provide computing benchmarks for different design choices. It turns out that selecting temperature rather than specific enthalpy as input and output signals does not lead to a measurable increase in computing time, but selecting nine small FMUs rather than a large FMU increases computing time by 70%.

  9. Designing Fault Tolerance Strategy by Iterative Redundancy for Component-Based Distributed Computing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang


    Full Text Available Reliability is a critical issue for component-based distributed computing systems, some distributed software allows the existence of large numbers of potentially faulty components on an open network. Faults are inevitable in this large-scale, complex, distributed components setting, which may include a lot of untrustworthy parts. How to provide highly reliable component-based distributed systems is a challenging problem and a critical research. Generally, redundancy and replication are utilized to realize the goal of fault tolerance. In this paper, we propose a CFI (critical fault iterative redundancy technique, by which the efficiency can be guaranteed to make use of resources (e.g., computation and storage and to create fault-tolerance applications. When operating in an environment with unknown components’ reliability, CFI redundancy is more efficient and adaptive than other techniques (e.g., K-Modular Redundancy and N-Version Programming. In the CFI strategy of redundancy, the function invocation relationships and invocation frequencies are employed to rank the functions’ importance and identify the most vulnerable function implemented via functionally equivalent components. A tradeoff has to be made between efficiency and reliability. In this paper, a formal theoretical analysis and an experimental analysis are presented. Compared with the existing methods, the reliability of components-based distributed system can be greatly improved by tolerating a small part of significant components.

  10. High temperature sensors for exhaust diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svenningstorp, Henrik


    One of the largest problems that we will have to deal with on this planet this millennium is to stop the pollution of our environment. In many of the ongoing works to reduce toxic emissions, gas sensors capable of enduring rough environments and high temperatures, would be a great tool. The different applications where sensors like this would be useful vary between everything from online measurement in the paper industry and food industry to measurement in the exhaust pipe of a car. In my project we have tested Schottky diodes and MlSiCFET sensor as gas sensors operating at high temperatures. The measurement condition in the exhaust pipe of a car is extremely tough, not only is the temperature high and the different gases quite harmful, there are also a lot of particles that can affect the sensors in an undesirable way. In my project we have been testing Schottky diodes and MlSiCFET sensors based on SiC as high temperature sensors, both in the laboratory with simulated exhaust and after a real engine. In this thesis we conclude that these sensors can work in the hostile environment of an engines exhaust. It is shown that when measuring in a gas mixture with a fixed I below one, where the I-value is controlled by the O{sub 2} concentration, a sensor with a catalytic gate metal as sensitive material respond more to the increased O{sub 2} concentration than the increased HC concentration when varying the two correspondingly. A number of different sensors have been tested in simulated exhaust towards NO{sub x}. It was shown that resistivity changes in the thin gate metal influenced the gas response. Tests have been performed where sensors were a part of a SCR system with promising results concerning NH{sub 3} sensitivity. With a working temperature of 300 deg C there is no contamination of the metal surface.

  11. An experimental study on the effects of exhaust gas on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautala, E.L.; Holopainen, J.; Kaerenlampi, L. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Surakka, J.; Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences


    Motor vehicle exhausts are significant contributors to air pollution. Besides fine particles and inorganic gases, like CO, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, exhaust gas contains a large group of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, many of which are phytotoxic. In field studies, exhausts are found to have both direct and indirect harmful effects on roadside plants. However, only few experimental studies have been made about the effects of exhaust gas emissions on coniferous trees. The aim of this study was to survey the effects of exhausts on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) in standardized conditions. The concentrations of major exhaust gas components in the chamber atmosphere were detected simultaneously. The effects of exhaust on epistomatal waxes of first-year spruce needles are described. (author)

  12. Component-Based Modelling for Scalable Smart City Systems Interoperability: A Case Study on Integrating Energy Demand Response Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Palomar


    Full Text Available Smart city systems embrace major challenges associated with climate change, energy efficiency, mobility and future services by embedding the virtual space into a complex cyber-physical system. Those systems are constantly evolving and scaling up, involving a wide range of integration among users, devices, utilities, public services and also policies. Modelling such complex dynamic systems’ architectures has always been essential for the development and application of techniques/tools to support design and deployment of integration of new components, as well as for the analysis, verification, simulation and testing to ensure trustworthiness. This article reports on the definition and implementation of a scalable component-based architecture that supports a cooperative energy demand response (DR system coordinating energy usage between neighbouring households. The proposed architecture, called refinement of Cyber-Physical Component Systems (rCPCS, which extends the refinement calculus for component and object system (rCOS modelling method, is implemented using Eclipse Extensible Coordination Tools (ECT, i.e., Reo coordination language. With rCPCS implementation in Reo, we specify the communication, synchronisation and co-operation amongst the heterogeneous components of the system assuring, by design scalability and the interoperability, correctness of component cooperation.

  13. Determining Component Probability using Problem Report Data for Ground Systems used in Manned Space Flight (United States)

    Monaghan, Mark W.; Gillespie, Amanda M.


    During the shuttle era NASA utilized a failure reporting system called the Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) it purpose was to identify and track system non-conformance. The PRACA system over the years evolved from a relatively nominal way to identify system problems to a very complex tracking and report generating data base. The PRACA system became the primary method to categorize any and all anomalies from corrosion to catastrophic failure. The systems documented in the PRACA system range from flight hardware to ground or facility support equipment. While the PRACA system is complex, it does possess all the failure modes, times of occurrence, length of system delay, parts repaired or replaced, and corrective action performed. The difficulty is mining the data then to utilize that data in order to estimate component, Line Replaceable Unit (LRU), and system reliability analysis metrics. In this paper, we identify a methodology to categorize qualitative data from the ground system PRACA data base for common ground or facility support equipment. Then utilizing a heuristic developed for review of the PRACA data determine what reports identify a credible failure. These data are the used to determine inter-arrival times to perform an estimation of a metric for repairable component-or LRU reliability. This analysis is used to determine failure modes of the equipment, determine the probability of the component failure mode, and support various quantitative differing techniques for performing repairable system analysis. The result is that an effective and concise estimate of components used in manned space flight operations. The advantage is the components or LRU's are evaluated in the same environment and condition that occurs during the launch process.

  14. Formation of higher plant component microbial community in closed ecological system (United States)

    Tirranen, L. S.


    Closed ecological systems (CES) place at the disposal of a researcher unique possibilities to study the role of microbial communities in individual components and of the entire system. The microbial community of the higher plant component has been found to form depending on specific conditions of the closed ecosystem: length of time the solution is reused, introduction of intrasystem waste water into the nutrient medium, effect of other component of the system, and system closure in terms of gas exchange. The higher plant component formed its own microbial complex different from that formed prior to closure. The microbial complex of vegetable polyculture is more diverse and stable than the monoculture of wheat. The composition of the components' microflora changed, species diversity decreased, individual species of bacteria and fungi whose numbers were not so great before the closure prevailed. Special attention should be paid to phytopathogenic and conditionally pathogenic species of microorganisms potentially hazardous to man or plants and the least controlled in CES. This situation can endanger creation of CES and make conjectural existence of preplanned components, man, specifically, and consequently, of CES as it is.

  15. Full-scale experimental studies on mechanical smoke exhaust efficiency in an underground corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, L.H.; Li, Y.Z.; Huo, R.; Yi, L. [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui (China); Chow, W.K. [The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China). Department of Building Services Engineering


    Full-scale burning tests were conducted in a full-scale underground long corridor with beamed ceiling and smooth ceiling. The influence of air-supply opening position on the smoke exhaust efficiency was studied. The operation time of the smoke exhaust fan was also discussed to obtain a better smoke exhaust. Results showed that the smoke exhaust would be more efficient when air-supply openings were some distance away from the smoke exhaust openings. When the air-supply opening was near the smoke exhaust opening, even with larger smoke exhaust rate, it still gave poor smoke control results. Two comparing tests on the effects of operation time indicated that it would give poor smoke control ability when the smoke exhaust system operated too early. Finally, some future research topics were also discussed in this paper. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Brezavšek


    Full Text Available Two variants of a simple stochastic model for planning the inventory of spare components supporting maintenance of an industrial system are developed. In both variants, the aim is to determine how many spare components are needed at the beginning of a planning interval to fulfil demand for corrective replacements during this interval. Under the first variant, the acceptable probability of spare shortage during the planning interval is chosen as a decision variable while in the second variant, the adequate spare inventory level is assessed taking into account the expected number of component failures within the planning interval. Calculation of the number of spare components needed depends on the form of the probability density function of component failure times. Different statistical density functions that are useful to describe this function are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of using a particular density function in our model are discussed. The applicability of the model is given through illustrative numerical examples.

  17. Quality Research by Using Performance Evaluation Metrics for Software Systems and Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Software performance and evaluation have four basic needs: (1 well-defined performance testing strategy, requirements, and focuses, (2 correct and effective performance evaluation models, (3 well-defined performance metrics, and (4 cost-effective performance testing and evaluation tools and techniques. This chapter first introduced a performance test process and discusses the performance testing objectives and focus areas. Then, it summarized the basic challenges and issues on performance testing and evaluation of component based programs and components. Next, this chapter presented different types of performance metrics for software components and systems, including processing speed, utilization, throughput, reliability, availability, and scalability metrics. Most of the performance metrics covered here can be considered as the application of existing metrics to software components. New performance metrics are needed to support the performance evaluation of component based programs.

  18. Scientific calculating system with a number-oriented microprocessor sequenced by a single component microcomputer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ethridge, C.D.; Worth, G.M.


    A scientific calculating system for large distributed-task processing systems and for small isolated intelligent data acquisition and instrumentation systems is established with a number-oriented microprocessor sequenced by a single-component microcomputer. A MOS/LSI number-oriented microprocessor provides the scientific calculating capability with Reverse Polish Notation data entry. Input data sequencing, computation processing, intermediate result comparison, answer display and/or answer feed-back to master processors is controlled by a single-component microcomputer. 3 figures, 1 table.

  19. Cholinergic components of nervous system of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium (Digenea: Schistosomatidae). (United States)

    Reda, Enayat S; El-Shabasy, Eman A; Said, Ashraf E; Mansour, Mohamed F A; Saleh, Mai A


    A comparison has been made for the first time between the cholinergic components of the nervous system of important human digeneans namely Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium from infected hamster (Cricentus auratus) in Egypt. In each parasite, the central nervous system consists of two cerebral ganglia and three pairs of nerve cords (ventral, lateral, and dorsal) linked together by some transverse connectives and numerous ring commissures. Peripheral cholinergic innervation was detected in oral and ventral suckers and in some parts of female reproductive system in both species, but there were some differences. The possible functions of some of these nervous components are discussed.

  20. Secondary Containment System component failure data analysis from 1984 to 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sanchez, D.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)


    This report gives the failure rates for the major tritium containing glovebox systems that comprise the Secondary Containment System at the Tritium systems Test Assembly, which is a fusion research and technology facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The component failure reports, the numbers of components, and operating times or demands are all given in this report, and sample calculations of the binomial demand failure rates and poisson hourly failure rates are given in the appendices. The failure rates for these components form a solid data point based on actual operating experience, where there is very little published information. The eight years of nearly continuous Secondary Containment System operations should result in steady state failure rate values. These data should be useful for future fusion reactor design work and safety assessment tasks.

  1. A Legal Reasoning Component of a Network Security Command and Control System (United States)


    systems for controlling the remote management of firewalls, intrusion detection systems (IDS), and other network components and subsystems cannot...regulatory team is also logged in to C3IOS either directly or indirectly via remote management software. The legal database is also available to all

  2. System reliability with correlated components : Accuracy of the Equivalent Planes method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roscoe, K.; Diermanse, F.; Vrouwenvelder, T.


    Computing system reliability when system components are correlated presents a challenge because it usually requires solving multi-fold integrals numerically, which is generally infeasible due to the computational cost. In Dutch flood defense reliability modeling, an efficient method for computing

  3. System reliability with correlated components: Accuracy of the Equivalent Planes method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roscoe, K.; Diermanse, F.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.


    Computing system reliability when system components are correlated presents a challenge because it usually requires solving multi-fold integrals numerically, which is generally infeasible due to the computational cost. In Dutch flood defense reliability modeling, an efficient method for computing

  4. Inner-Resonance Conditions for Honeycomb Paperboard Cushioning Packaging System with Critical Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang


    Full Text Available A dynamic model was proposed for a honeycomb paperboard cushioning packaging system with critical component. Then the coupled equations of the system were solved by the variational iteration method, from which the conditions for inner-resonance were obtained, which should be avoided in the cushioning packaging design.

  5. EPA Seeks Public Comments on Addition of Subsurface Intrusion Component to the Superfund Hazard Ranking System (United States)

    WASHINGTON -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is seeking public comment on the proposed addition of a subsurface intrusion (SsI) component to the Superfund Hazard Ranking System (HRS). The HRS is a scoring system EPA uses to identify

  6. Tritium Waste Treatment System component failure data analysis from June 18, 1984--December 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA)); Stolpe Gavett, M.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))


    This document gives the failure rates for the major tritium-bearing components in the Tritium Waste Treatment System at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly, which is a fusion research and technology facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The failure reports, component populations, and operating demands/hours are given in this report, and sample calculations for binomial demand failure rates and poisson hourly failure rates are given in the appendices. The failure rates for tritium-bearing components were on the order of the screening failure rate values suggested for fusion reliability and risk analyses. More effort should be directed toward collecting and analyzing fusion component failure data, since accurate failure rates are necessary to refine reliability and risk analyses. 15 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. A comparative study of the proposed models for the components of the national health information system. (United States)

    Ahmadi, Maryam; Damanabi, Shahla; Sadoughi, Farahnaz


    National Health Information System plays an important role in ensuring timely and reliable access to Health information, which is essential for strategic and operational decisions that improve health, quality and effectiveness of health care. In other words, using the National Health information system you can improve the quality of health data, information and knowledge used to support decision making at all levels and areas of the health sector. Since full identification of the components of this system - for better planning and management influential factors of performanceseems necessary, therefore, in this study different attitudes towards components of this system are explored comparatively. This is a descriptive and comparative kind of study. The society includes printed and electronic documents containing components of the national health information system in three parts: input, process and output. In this context, search for information using library resources and internet search were conducted, and data analysis was expressed using comparative tables and qualitative data. The findings showed that there are three different perspectives presenting the components of national health information system Lippeveld and Sauerborn and Bodart model in 2000, Health Metrics Network (HMN) model from World Health Organization in 2008, and Gattini's 2009 model. All three models outlined above in the input (resources and structure) require components of management and leadership, planning and design programs, supply of staff, software and hardware facilities and equipment. Plus, in the "process" section from three models, we pointed up the actions ensuring the quality of health information system, and in output section, except for Lippeveld Model, two other models consider information products and use and distribution of information as components of the national health information system. the results showed that all the three models have had a brief discussion about the

  8. Investigation of effective factors of transient thermal stress of the MONJU-System components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Masaaki; Hirayama, Hiroshi; Kimura, Kimitaka; Jinbo, M. [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)


    Transient thermal stress of each system Component in the fast breeder reactor is an uncertain factor on it's structural design. The temperature distribution in a system component changes over a wide range in time and in space. An unified evaluation technique of thermal, hydraulic, and structural analysis, in which includes thermal striping, temperature stratification, transient thermal stress and the integrity of the system components, is required for the optimum design of tho fast reactor plant. Thermal boundary conditions should be set up by both the transient thermal stress analysis and the structural integrity evaluation of each system component. The reasonable thermal boundary conditions for the design of the MONJU and a demonstration fast reactor, are investigated. The temperature distribution analysis models and the thermal boundary conditions on the Y-piece structural parts of each system component, such as reactor vessel, intermediate heat exchanger, primary main circulation pump, steam generator, superheater and upper structure of reactor core, are illustrated in the report. (M. Suetake)

  9. Identification and functional characterization of gene components of Type VI Secretion system in bacterial genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshi Shrivastava

    Full Text Available A new secretion system, called the Type VI Secretion system (T6SS, was recently reported in Vibrio cholerae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia mallei. A total of 18 genes have been identified to be belonging to this secretion system in V. cholerae. Here we attempt to identify presence of T6SS in other bacterial genomes. This includes identification of orthologous sequences, conserved motifs, domains, families, 3D folds, genomic islands containing T6SS components, phylogenetic profiles and protein-protein association of these components. Our analysis indicates presence of T6SS in 42 bacteria and its absence in most of their non-pathogenic species, suggesting the role of T6SS in imparting pathogenicity to an organism. Analysis of genomic regions containing T6SS components, phylogenetic profiles and protein-protein association of T6SS components indicate few additional genes which could be involved in this secretion system. Based on our studies, functional annotations were assigned to most of the components. Except one of the genes, we could group all the other genes of T6SS into those belonging to the puncturing device, and those located in the outer membrane, transmembrane and inner membrane. Based on our analysis, we have proposed a model of T6SS and have compared the same with the other bacterial secretion systems.

  10. Capture of Heat Energy from Diesel Engine Exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuen-Sen Lin


    Diesel generators produce waste heat as well as electrical power. About one-third of the fuel energy is released from the exhaust manifolds of the diesel engines and normally is not captured for useful applications. This project studied different waste heat applications that may effectively use the heat released from exhaust of Alaskan village diesel generators, selected the most desirable application, designed and fabricated a prototype for performance measurements, and evaluated the feasibility and economic impact of the selected application. Exhaust flow rate, composition, and temperature may affect the heat recovery system design and the amount of heat that is recoverable. In comparison with the other two parameters, the effect of exhaust composition may be less important due to the large air/fuel ratio for diesel engines. This project also compared heat content and qualities (i.e., temperatures) of exhaust for three types of fuel: conventional diesel, a synthetic diesel, and conventional diesel with a small amount of hydrogen. Another task of this project was the development of a computer-aided design tool for the economic analysis of selected exhaust heat recovery applications to any Alaskan village diesel generator set. The exhaust heat recovery application selected from this study was for heating. An exhaust heat recovery system was fabricated, and 350 hours of testing was conducted. Based on testing data, the exhaust heat recovery heating system showed insignificant effects on engine performance and maintenance requirements. From measurements, it was determined that the amount of heat recovered from the system was about 50% of the heat energy contained in the exhaust (heat contained in exhaust was evaluated based on environment temperature). The estimated payback time for 100% use of recovered heat would be less than 3 years at a fuel price of $3.50 per gallon, an interest rate of 10%, and an engine operation of 8 hours per day. Based on experimental data

  11. Portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F storage plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, O.D.


    This document provides storage requirements for 1,000 CFM portable exhausters POR-O07/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F. These requirements are presented in three parts: preparation for storage, storage maintenance and testing, and retrieval from storage. The exhauster component identification numbers listed in this document contain the prefix POR-007 or POR-008 depending on which exhauster is being used.

  12. Integration of a molten carbonate fuel cell with a direct exhaust absorption chiller (United States)

    Margalef, Pere; Samuelsen, Scott

    A high market value exists for an integrated high-temperature fuel cell-absorption chiller product throughout the world. While high-temperature, molten carbonate fuel cells are being commercially deployed with combined heat and power (CHP) and absorption chillers are being commercially deployed with heat engines, the energy efficiency and environmental attributes of an integrated high-temperature fuel cell-absorption chiller product are singularly attractive for the emerging distributed generation (DG) combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) market. This study addresses the potential of cooling production by recovering and porting the thermal energy from the exhaust gas of a high-temperature fuel cell (HTFC) to a thermally activated absorption chiller. To assess the practical opportunity of serving an early DG-CCHP market, a commercially available direct fired double-effect absorption chiller is selected that closely matches the exhaust flow and temperature of a commercially available HTFC. Both components are individually modeled, and the models are then coupled to evaluate the potential of a DG-CCHP system. Simulation results show that a commercial molten carbonate fuel cell generating 300 kW of electricity can be effectively coupled with a commercial 40 refrigeration ton (RT) absorption chiller. While the match between the two "off the shelf" units is close and the simulation results are encouraging, the match is not ideal. In particular, the fuel cell exhaust gas temperature is higher than the inlet temperature specified for the chiller and the exhaust flow rate is not sufficient to achieve the potential heat recovery within the chiller heat exchanger. To address these challenges, the study evaluates two strategies: (1) blending the fuel cell exhaust gas with ambient air, and (2) mixing the fuel cell exhaust gases with a fraction of the chiller exhaust gas. Both cases are shown to be viable and result in a temperature drop and flow rate increase of the

  13. Simulating the binary variates for the components of a socio - economical system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan V. Stefanescu


    Full Text Available Often in practice the components Wj of a sociological or an economical system W take discrete 0-1 values. We talk about how to generate arbitrary observations from a binary 0-1 system B when is known the multidimensional distribution of the discrete random vector B. We also simulated a simplified structure of B given by the marginal distributions together with the matrix of the correlation coefficients. Different properties of the systems W are presented too.

  14. HD 181068: a triply eclipsing system with intrinsically variable red giant component (United States)

    Derekas, A.; Borkovits, T.; Fuller, J.; Huber, D.; Lehmann, H.


    We present the analysis of HD 181068 which is one of the first triply eclipsing triple system discovered. Using Kepler photometry, ground based spectroscopic and interferometric measurements, we determined the stellar and orbital parameters of the system. We show that the oscillations observed in the red giant component of the system are tidally forced oscillations, while one of the most surprising results is that it does not show solar-like oscillations.

  15. Stochastic study of information transmission and population stability in a generic bacterial two-component system

    CERN Document Server

    Mapder, Tarunendu; Banik, Suman K


    Studies on the role of fluctuations in signal propagation and on gene regulation in monoclonal bacterial population have been extensively pursued based on the machinery of two-component system. The bacterial two-component system shows noise utilisation through its inherent plasticity. The fluctuations propagation takes place using the phosphotransfer module and the feedback mechanism during gene regulation. To delicately observe the noisy kinetics the generic cascade needs stochastic investigation at the mRNA and protein levels. To this end, we propose a theoretical framework to investigate the noisy signal transduction in a generic two-component system. The model shows reliability in information transmission through quantification of several statistical measures. We further extend our analysis to observe the protein distribution in a population of cells. Through numerical simulation, we identify the regime of the kinetic parameter set that generates a stability switch in the steady state distribution of prot...

  16. A novel two-component system involved in secretion stress response in Streptomyces lividans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gullón

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Misfolded proteins accumulating outside the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane can interfere with the secretory machinery, hence the existence of quality factors to eliminate these misfolded proteins is of capital importance in bacteria that are efficient producers of secretory proteins. These bacteria normally use a specific two-component system to respond to the stress produced by the accumulation of the misfolded proteins, by activating the expression of HtrA-like proteases to specifically eliminate the incorrectly folded proteins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overproduction of alpha-amylase in S. lividans causing secretion stress permitted the identification of a two-component system (SCO4156-SCO4155 that regulates three HtrA-like proteases which appear to be involved in secretion stress response. Mutants in each of the genes forming part of the two-genes operon that encodes the sensor and regulator protein components accumulated misfolded proteins outside the cell, strongly suggesting the involvement of this two-component system in the S. lividans secretion stress response. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge this is the first time that a specific secretion stress response two-component system is found to control the expression of three HtrA-like protease genes in S. lividans, a bacterium that has been repeatedly used as a host for the synthesis of homologous and heterologous secretory proteins of industrial application.

  17. Component-Based Development of Runtime Observers in the COMDES Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Wei; Li, Gang; Angelov, Christo K.


    Formal verification methods, such as exhaustive model checking, are often infeasible because of high computational complexity. Runtime observers (monitors) provide an alternative, light-weight verification method, which offers a non-exhaustive but still feasible approach to monitor system behavior...... against formally specified properties. This paper presents a component-based design method for runtime observers in the context of COMDES framework—a component-based framework for distributed embedded system and its supporting tools. Therefore, runtime verification is facilitated by model......-driven engineering. The presented method has been experimentally validated in an industrial safety-related medical ventilator case study....

  18. Microalgae as part of the autotrophic component of life support systems for future planetary bases (United States)

    Sychev, Vladimir; Levinskikh, Margarita

    Research and development of human life support systems incorporating biospheric components performed in the USSR and Russia for over 50 years resulted in a well- structured and rational step-by-step approach to this area of activities. The development of biological life support systems (BLSS) was based on the theory of biocenology advanced by V.N. Sukachev, according to which organic matter turnover is a result of combined activities of plants, animals and microorganisms. Hence, a BLSS with its semi-closed matter turnover needs to incorporate all the components of natural ecosystems, i.e., plants (photoautotrophic organisms), animals, including humans, and microorganisms (heterotrophic organisms). The photoautotrophic component of the BLSS designed to support humans should meet a number of specific requirements, the most important of which are: - high productivity - stability of functional parameters within their normal fluctuation ranges - compatibility with other system components to preclude additional load on them - minimum of un-utilizable compounds in the material balance of the component. The photosynthetic component may consist of lower and higher plants, which may function separately or jointly. In either case, microalgae will play a key role, as they do on Earth, in the production of organic compounds and oxygen as well as in the support of BLSS reliability. The construction of a planetary base begins with the assembly of major engineering facilities whereas the construction of a BLSS starts after the assembly is complete and the base interior is fully separated from the outside environment. At early stages of base operation the autotrophic component of the system will consist of algae alone, which will provide photosynthetic regeneration of air and water. At later stages the autotrophic component will progress from lower to higher plants; when the greenhouses reach adequate sizes, higher plants will occupy the major portion of the autotrophic component

  19. Exhaust constituent emission factors of printed circuit board pyrolysis processes and its exhaust control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Hung-Lung, E-mail: [Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Kuo-Hsiung [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)


    Highlights: • Recycling of waste printed circuit boards is an important issue. • Pyrolysis is an emerging technology for PCB treatment. • Emission factors of VOCs are determined for PCB pyrolysis exhaust. • Iron-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was employed for the exhaust control. -- Abstract: The printed circuit board (PCB) is an important part of electrical and electronic equipment, and its disposal and the recovery of useful materials from waste PCBs (WPCBs) are key issues for waste electrical and electronic equipment. Waste PCB compositions and their pyrolysis characteristics were analyzed in this study. In addition, the volatile organic compound (VOC) exhaust was controlled by an iron-impregnated alumina oxide catalyst. Results indicated that carbon and oxygen were the dominant components (hundreds mg/g) of the raw materials, and other elements such as nitrogen, bromine, and copper were several decades mg/g. Exhaust constituents of CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and NOx, were 60–115, 0.4–4.0, 1.1–10, 30–95, and 0–0.7 mg/g, corresponding to temperatures ranging from 200 to 500 °C. When the pyrolysis temperature was lower than 300 °C, aromatics and paraffins were the major species, contributing 90% of ozone precursor VOCs, and an increase in the pyrolysis temperature corresponded to a decrease in the fraction of aromatic emission factors. Methanol, ethylacetate, acetone, dichloromethane, tetrachloromethane and acrylonitrile were the main species of oxygenated and chlorinated VOCs. The emission factors of some brominated compounds, i.e., bromoform, bromophenol, and dibromophenol, were higher at temperatures over 400 °C. When VOC exhaust was flowed through the bed of Fe-impregnated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the emission of ozone precursor VOCs could be reduced by 70–80%.

  20. Reliability Assessment of IGBT Modules Modeled as Systems with Correlated Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostandyan, Erik; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    System modeling of electrical components for Wind Turbine (WT) applications is an important part for the overall WT reliability assessment. The presented approach is an approximate method for Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) reliability estimation, modeled based on the parallel system...... the components in the reliability estimation though limit state functions and mechanical (failure-effect) correlations. The model is based on a physics of failure approach and a linear accumulated damage rule. To account model parameter variabilities, the First Order Reliability Method (FORM) technique...

  1. Electromagnetic Exhaust Valve Event Optimization for Enhancing Gasoline Engine Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xinyu


    Full Text Available Variable exhaust valve events have the potential to further improve the engine power output, fuel economy and decrease the NOX emissions. Based on the moving coil electromagnetic valve train applied to engine exhaust system, effects of variable exhaust valve events are analyzed in detail and the optimization approaches are carried out. Also with the fully variable intake and exhaust valve train, different internal EGR strategies can be achieved and the contrastive analyses are carried out between combustion chamber recirculation and exhaust port recirculation strategies at same operational condition. Results show that, the optimal exhaust valve opening motion can strengthen both power performance and fuel economy at engine part loads. And two principal EGR strategies are applied in a good combination under variable engine loads. At the engine speed of 2000 r/min, BMEP is about 0.3 MPa and with 30%~35% exhaust port recirculation rate, the BSFC and NOX emissions have decrease over 10% and 85% respectively compare with initial condition.

  2. Exhaust emissions from small engines in handheld devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijewski Piotr


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigations on the exhaust emissions carried out under real operating conditions of gasoline engines operating in a power generator and a chainsaw. During the operation of these devices the authors measured the following exhaust emissions: CO, HC, NOx and CO2. For the measurements the authors used a portable exhaust emission analyzer SEMTECH DS by SENSORS. This analyzer measures the concentrations of the exhaust gas components in an on-line mode while the engine is running under real operating conditions (road, field etc.. The exhaust emissions tests of non-road engine applications are performed on engine test beds in the NRSC (ISO 8178 and NRTC tests. The presented method is a new solution in determining of the exhaust emissions from such engines. The obtained results were compared with the applicable emission requirements. Besides, based on the performed investigations, the authors attempted an evaluation of the possibilities of the use of the measurement method for development works related to the reduction of the emission from small gasoline engines.

  3. A stable systemic risk ranking in China's banking sector: Based on principal component analysis (United States)

    Fang, Libing; Xiao, Binqing; Yu, Honghai; You, Qixing


    In this paper, we compare five popular systemic risk rankings, and apply principal component analysis (PCA) model to provide a stable systemic risk ranking for the Chinese banking sector. Our empirical results indicate that five methods suggest vastly different systemic risk rankings for the same bank, while the combined systemic risk measure based on PCA provides a reliable ranking. Furthermore, according to factor loadings of the first component, PCA combined ranking is mainly based on fundamentals instead of market price data. We clearly find that price-based rankings are not as practical a method as fundamentals-based ones. This PCA combined ranking directly shows systemic risk contributions of each bank for banking supervision purpose and reminds banks to prevent and cope with the financial crisis in advance.

  4. Scaling Analysis Techniques to Establish Experimental Infrastructure for Component, Subsystem, and Integrated System Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); O' Brien, James E. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael G. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Housley, Gregory K. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    Hybrid energy system research has the potential to expand the application for nuclear reactor technology beyond electricity. The purpose of this research is to reduce both technical and economic risks associated with energy systems of the future. Nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) mitigate the variability of renewable energy sources, provide opportunities to produce revenue from different product streams, and avoid capital inefficiencies by matching electrical output to demand by using excess generation capacity for other purposes when it is available. An essential step in the commercialization and deployment of this advanced technology is scaled testing to demonstrate integrated dynamic performance of advanced systems and components when risks cannot be mitigated adequately by analysis or simulation. Further testing in a prototypical environment is needed for validation and higher confidence. This research supports the development of advanced nuclear reactor technology and NHES, and their adaptation to commercial industrial applications that will potentially advance U.S. energy security, economy, and reliability and further reduce carbon emissions. Experimental infrastructure development for testing and feasibility studies of coupled systems can similarly support other projects having similar developmental needs and can generate data required for validation of models in thermal energy storage and transport, energy, and conversion process development. Experiments performed in the Systems Integration Laboratory will acquire performance data, identify scalability issues, and quantify technology gaps and needs for various hybrid or other energy systems. This report discusses detailed scaling (component and integrated system) and heat transfer figures of merit that will establish the experimental infrastructure for component, subsystem, and integrated system testing to advance the technology readiness of components and systems to the level required for commercial

  5. Structural lifetime, reliability and risk analysis approaches for power plant components and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronvall, O.


    Lifetime, reliability and risk analysis methods and applications for structural systems and components of power plants are discussed in this thesis. These analyses involve many fields of science, such as structural mechanics, fracture mechanics, probability mathematics, material science and fluid mechanics. An overview of power plant environments and a description of the various degradation mechanisms damaging the power plant systems and components are presented first. This is followed with a description of deterministic structural analysis methods, covering e.g. structural mechanics and fracture mechanics based analysis methods as well as the disadvantages of the deterministic analysis approach. Often, physical probabilistic methods are based on deterministic analysis methods with the modification that one or more of the model parameters are considered as probabilistically distributed. Several probabilistic analysis procedures are presented, e.g. Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) and importance sampling. Description of probabilistic analysis methods covers both physical and statistical approaches. When the system/component failure probabilities are combined with knowledge of failure consequences, it is possible to assess system/component risks. Several risk analysis methods are presented as well as some limitations and shortcomings concerning to them. Modelling methods for various degradation (or ageing) mechanisms are presented. These methods are needed in the lifetime analyses of structural systems and components of power plants. In general, the lifetime analyses in question necessitate a thorough knowledge of structural properties, loads, the relevant degradation mechanisms and prevailing environmental conditions. The nature of degradation models of structural systems/components can be deterministic, probabilistic or a combination of these two types. Degradation models of all these kinds are presented here. Some important risk analysis applications are described

  6. Ageing investigation and upgrading of components/systems of Kartini research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syarip; Widi Setiawan [Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Centre, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)


    Kartini research reactor has been operated in good condition and has demonstrated successful operation for the past 18 years, utilized for: reactor kinetic and control studies, instrumentation tests, neutronic and thermohydraulic studies, routine neutron activation analysis, reactor safety studies, training for research reactor operators and supervisors, and reactor physics experiments. Several components of Kartini reactor use components from the abandoned IRT-2000 Project at Serpong and from Bandung Reactor Centre such as: reactor tank, reactor core, heat exchanger, motor blower for ventilation system, fuel elements, etc. To maintain a good operating performance and also for aging investigation purposes, the component failure data collection has been done. The method used is based on the Manual on Reliability Data Collection For Research Reactor PSAs, IAEA TECDOC 636, and analyzed by using Data Entry System (DES) computer code. Analysis result shows that the components/systems failure rate of Kartini reactor is around 1,5.10{sup -4} up to 2,8.10{sup -4} per hour, these values are within the ranges of the values indicated in IAEA TECDOC 478. Whereas from the analysis of irradiation history shows that the neutron fluence of fuel element with highest burn-up (2,05 gram U-235 in average) is around 1.04.10{sup 16} n Cm{sup -2} and this value is still far below its limiting value. Some reactor components/systems have been replaced and upgraded such as heat exchanger, instrumentation and control system (ICS), etc. The new reactor ICS was installed in 1994 which is designed as a distributed structure by using microprocessor based systems and bus system technology. The characteristic and operating performance of the new reactor ICS, as well as the operation history and improvement of the Kartini research reactor is presented. (J.P.N.)

  7. Exhaust-gas systems for modern furnaces. The most important questions and answers on stacks. 2. rev. and enlarged ed. Abgasanlagen fuer moderne Feuerstaetten. Die wichtigsten Fragen und Antworten rund um den Schornstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeppner, J.; Postenrieder, E.


    The design of the exhaust gas plant for furnaces with chimneys is of great influence on function and economy of gas- and oil furnaces. Information on the most important questions in connection with the chimney is therefore supplied. Contents: chimney engineering, connecting parts (exhaust gas pipes), accessories of exhaust gas equipment, breakdowns and repair, regulations and rules. Terminology and tables are supplied. (BR).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оleh Shevchuk


    Full Text Available The paper reports on the design of a multi-component architecture of distributed hybrid expert training system that can be used for the study of knowledge base of both internal and external expert systems and artificial intelligence systems that are distributed on Internet servers and other computer networks. Expert training system is based on three groups of basic principles: cybernetic, reflecting experience of previous research of systems of artificial intelligence, expert training systems; pedagogical, determining the principles, on which pedagogical design and use of expert training systems are based; psychological, determining preconditious and understanding of pupils psychics, on which the processes of design and use of expert training systems in professional training of future specialists are based.It accounts for the efficient training through the distributed knowledge via the Internet, which greatly increases the didactic capabilities of the system.

  9. Impact Responses of Composite Cushioning System considering Critical Component with Simply Supported Beam Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-de Lu


    Full Text Available In some microelectronic products, one or several components can be idealized as simply supported beam type and viewed as vulnerable elements or critical component due to the fact that they are destroyed easily under impact loadings. The composite cushioning structure made of expanded polyethylene (EPE, and expanded polystyrene (EPS was utilized to protect the vulnerable elements against impact loadings during transportation. The vibration equations of composite cushioning system were deducted and virtual mass method was applied to predict impact behavior of critical component. Numerical results indicate that virtual mass method is appropriate for computing impact response of composite cushioning system with vulnerable element of simply supported beam type, which is affirmed by the fact that the impact responses of structure element in terms of velocity- and displacement-time curves are almost unchanged when virtual mass is smaller than a certain value. The results in this paper make it possible for installation of packaging optimization design.

  10. Motor Vehicle Exhaust Gas Suicide. (United States)

    Routley, Virginia


    In many motorized countries, inhalation of carbon monoxide from motor vehicle exhaust gas (MVEG) has been one of the leading methods of suicide. In some countries it remains so (e.g., Australia 16.0% of suicides in 2005). Relative to other methods it is a planned method and one often used by middle-aged males. The study provides a review of countermeasures aimed at restricting this method of suicide. The prevention measures identified were catalytic converters (introduced to reduce carbon monoxide for environmental reasons); in-cabin sensors; exhaust pipe modification; automatic idling stops; and helpline signage at suicide "hotspots." Catalytic converters are now in 90% of new vehicles worldwide and literature supports them being associated with a reduction in exhaust-gassing suicides. There remain, however, accounts of exhaust-gas fatalities in modern vehicles, whether accidentally or by suicide. These deaths and also crashes from fatigue could potentially be prevented by in-cabin multi-gas sensors, these having been developed to the prototype stage. Helpline signage at an exhaust-gassing suicide "hotspot" had some success in reducing suicides. The evidence on method substitution and whether a reduction in MVEG suicides causes a reduction in total suicides is inconsistent.

  11. Interacting Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlic, B.; Broenink, Johannes F.; Welch, Peter; Kerridge, Jon; Barnes, Fred


    SystemCSP is a graphical modeling language based on both CSP and concepts of component-based software development. The component framework of SystemCSP enables specification of both interaction scenarios and relative execution ordering among components. Specification and implementation of

  12. Reliability of piping system components. Volume 4: The pipe failure event database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, R.; Erixon, S. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Tomic, B. [ENCONET Consulting GmbH, Vienna (Austria); Lydell, B. [RSA Technologies, Visat, CA (United States)


    Available public and proprietary databases on piping system failures were searched for relevant information. Using a relational database to identify groupings of piping failure modes and failure mechanisms, together with insights from published PSAs, the project team determined why, how and where piping systems fail. This report represents a compendium of technical issues important to the analysis of pipe failure events, and statistical estimation of failure rates. Inadequacies of traditional PSA methodology are addressed, with directions for PSA methodology enhancements. A `data driven and systems oriented` analysis approach is proposed to enable assignment of unique identities to risk-significant piping system component failure. Sufficient operating experience does exist to generate quality data on piping failures. Passive component failures should be addressed by today`s PSAs to allow for aging analysis and effective, on-line risk management. 42 refs, 25 figs.

  13. Operational Experience of Cooling Water Systems for Accelerator Components at PLS

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kyungryul; Kim, Young-Chan; Lee, Bongho; Sik Han, Hong; Soo Ko In; Wha Chung, Chin


    The cooling water system has been utilized for absorbing heat generated by a multitude of electromagnetic power delivering networks at PLS. The separate cooling water distribution systems for the storage ring, beam transport line and linear accelerator have been operated with a different operating temperature of supplying water. All water used for heat removal from the accelerator components are deionised and filtered to provide with over 2 MO-cm specific resistance. The operating pressures and flows of input water are also controlled with flow balancing scheme at a specified range. The operating temperature of components in the accelerator is sustained as tight as below ±0.1 deg C to minimize the influence of temperature fluctuation on the beam energy and stability. Although the PLS cooling systems were initially installed with a high degree of flexibility to allow for easy maintenance, a number of system improvements have been employed to enhance operational reliability and to incorporate the newly...

  14. Prototypic implementations of the building block for component based open Hypermedia systems (BB/CB-OHSs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Omer I. Eldai


    In this paper we describe the prototypic implementations of the BuildingBlock (BB/CB-OHSs) that proposed to address some of the Component-based Open Hypermedia Systems (CB-OHSs) issues, including distribution and interoperability [4, 11, 12]. Four service implementations were described below...

  15. Effects of climate change and adaptation on the livestock component of mixed farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Descheemaeker, Katrien; Zijlstra, Mink; Masikati, Patricia; Crespo, Olivier; Homann-Kee Tui, Sabine


    Large uncertainties about the impacts of climate change and adaptation options on the livestock component of heterogeneous African farming systems hamper tailored decision making towards climate-smart agriculture. This study addressed this knowledge gap through the development and use of a

  16. 76 FR 38417 - In the Matter of Certain Multimedia Display and Navigation Devices and Systems, Components... (United States)


    ... 6,122,592 (``the '592 patent''). The complaint named Garmin International, Inc. of Olathe, Kansas... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Multimedia Display and Navigation Devices and Systems, Components Thereof...

  17. 78 FR 57414 - Certain Video Game Systems and Wireless Controllers and Components Thereof, Commission... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Video Game Systems and Wireless Controllers and Components Thereof, Commission Determination Finding No Violation of the Tariff Act of 1930 AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION...

  18. Catabolite repression of the citST two-component system in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Repizo, GD; Blancato, VS; Sender, PD; Lolkema, J; Magni, C; Blancato, Víctor S.; Sender, Pablo D.

    In Bacillus subtilis, expression of the citrate transporter CitM is under strict control. Transcription of the citM gene is induced by citrate in the medium mediated by the CitS-CitT two-component system and repressed by rapidly degraded carbon sources mediated by carbon catabolite repression (CCR).

  19. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Structures, Systems, and Components Safety Classification White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pete Jordan


    This white paper outlines the relevant regulatory policy and guidance for a risk-informed approach for establishing the safety classification of Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant and sets forth certain facts for review and discussion in order facilitate an effective submittal leading to an NGNP Combined Operating License application under 10 CFR 52.

  20. 78 FR 76320 - Advisory Opinion Proceeding; Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing Treatment Systems and Components... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Advisory Opinion Proceeding; Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing Treatment Systems and Components Thereof; Institution of an Advisory Opinion Proceeding AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION... institute an advisory opinion proceeding in the above-captioned investigation. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  1. Evaluating the speech output component of a smart-home system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Möller, S.; Krebber, J.; Smeele, P.


    This paper describes four experiments which have been carried out to evaluate the speech output component of the INSPIRE spoken dialogue system, providing speech control for di.erent devices located in a ‘‘smart’’ home environment. The aim is to quantify the impact of different factors on the

  2. Effects of climate change and adaptation on the livestock component of mixed farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Descheemaeker, Katrien; Zijlstra, Mink; Masikati, Patricia; Crespo, Olivier; Homann-Kee Tui, Sabine


    Large uncertainties about the impacts of climate change and adaptation options on the livestock component of heterogeneous African farming systems hamper tailored decision making towards climate-smart agriculture. This study addressed this knowledge gap through the development and use of a

  3. Impact of the tree component on N cycling in agroforestry system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of the tree component on N cycling in agroforestry system under subhumid tropical conditions. B Vanlauwe, N Sanginga. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by ...

  4. The generation of bending sequences in a CAPP system for sheet-metal components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vin, L.J.; de Vin, L.J.; de Vries, J.; de Vries, J.; Streppel, A.H.; Klaassen, E.J.W.; Kals, H.J.J.


    An important process-planning task in sheet-metal manufacturing is the determination of bending sequences for individual components. Computer-aided generation of these sequences, as part of a computer-aided process-planning (CAPP) system, can relieve the workload of process-planning departments,

  5. Contrasting single and multi-component working-memory systems in dual tasking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Menno; Borst, Jelmer; van Rijn, Hedderik; Taatgen, Niels


    Working memory can be a major source of interference in dual tasking. However, there is no consensus on whether this interference is the result of a single working memory bottleneck, or of interactions between different working memory components that together form a complete working-memory system.

  6. Quasistationary Solution of a Two-Component Hyperbolic System on an Interval (United States)

    Isakov, K. A.; Shapovalov, A. V.


    A quasistationary solution of a two-component system of first-order telegraph equations on an interval with time-dependent conditions is constructed, where these conditions are prescribed at interior points of the interval. Application of the obtained solution as a criterion for leakage detection is considered.

  7. The Components of Communication Systems in Universities: Their Influence on Academic Work Life (United States)

    Uslu, Baris


    This research aimed to identify the components of communication systems in universities and to explore their influence on academic life. To collect data, interviews were carried out with academics from Australian universities. Thematic descriptive and content analyses were performed on the data-set. Analyses showed that the human relations unit,…

  8. The essential YycFG two-component system controls cell wall metabolism in Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisicchia, Paola; Noone, David; Lioliou, Efthimia


    Adaptation of bacteria to the prevailing environmental and nutritional conditions is often mediated by two-component signal transduction systems (TCS). The Bacillus subtilis YycFG TCS has attracted special attention as it is essential for viability and its regulon is poorly defined. Here we show...

  9. A method for integrating multiple components in a decision support system (United States)

    Donald Nute; Walter D. Potter; Zhiyuan Cheng; Mayukh Dass; Astrid Glende; Frederick Maierv; Cy Routh; Hajime Uchiyama; Jin Wang; Sarah Witzig; Mark Twery; Peter Knopp; Scott Thomasma; H. Michael Rauscher


    We present a flexible, extensible method for integrating multiple tools into a single large decision support system (DSS) using a forest ecosystem management DSS (NED-2) as an example. In our approach, a rich ontology for the target domain is developed and implemented in the internal data model for the DSS. Semi-autonomous agents control external components and...

  10. A model for determining condition-based maintenance policies for deteriorating multi-component systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hontelez, J.A.M.; Wijnmalen, D.J.D.


    We discuss a method to determine strategies for preventive maintenance of systems consisting of gradually deteriorating components. A model has been developed to compute not only the range of conditions inducing a repair action, but also inspection moments based on the last known condition value so

  11. Phosphate sink containing two-component signaling systems as tunable threshold devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Munia; Kothamachu, Varun B; Feliu, Elisenda


    Synthetic biology aims to design de novo biological systems and reengineer existing ones. These efforts have mostly focused on transcriptional circuits, with reengineering of signaling circuits hampered by limited understanding of their systems dynamics and experimental challenges. Bacterial two......-component signaling systems offer a rich diversity of sensory systems that are built around a core phosphotransfer reaction between histidine kinases and their output response regulator proteins, and thus are a good target for reengineering through synthetic biology. Here, we explore the signal-response relationship...

  12. Symmetrical components and power analysis for a two-phase microgrid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alibeik, M.; Santos Jr., E. C. dos; Blaabjerg, Frede


    This paper presents a mathematical model for the symmetrical components and power analysis of a new microgrid system consisting of three wires and two voltages in quadrature, which is designated as a two-phase microgrid. The two-phase microgrid presents the following advantages: 1) constant power...... through the power line at balanced condition; 2) two voltages available by using a three-wire system; 3) optimized voltage utilization compared to a three-phase system; and 4) a direct connection of both symmetrical two-phase and single-phase machines. Unlike the unbalanced three-phase system, which can...

  13. Autonomous Fault Detection for Performance Bugs in Component Based Robotic Systems (United States)


    requiring a manual modeling of the system behavior . 3295 Khalastchi et al. [11], in contrast, introduce an online fault detection approach which is purely...diagnosis of robot navigation software,” in Simulation, Modeling , and Programming for Autonomous Robots, S. Carpin, I. Noda, E. Pagello, M. Reggiani, and... Autonomous Fault Detection for Performance Bugs in Component-Based Robotic Systems Johannes Wienke1 and Sebastian Wrede1 Abstract— We present a novel

  14. Costs and cost algorithms for dry cooling tower systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ard, P.A.; Henager, C.H.; Pratt, D.R.; Wiles, L.E.


    Costs were obtained and cast models prepared for the major components beyond the turbine exhaust flange of a dry cooling system using either water or ammonia as the intermediate heat exchange fluid. (LCL)

  15. Nonoptimal component placement, but short processing paths, due to long-distance projections in neural systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Kaiser


    Full Text Available It has been suggested that neural systems across several scales of organization show optimal component placement, in which any spatial rearrangement of the components would lead to an increase of total wiring. Using extensive connectivity datasets for diverse neural networks combined with spatial coordinates for network nodes, we applied an optimization algorithm to the network layouts, in order to search for wire-saving component rearrangements. We found that optimized component rearrangements could substantially reduce total wiring length in all tested neural networks. Specifically, total wiring among 95 primate (Macaque cortical areas could be decreased by 32%, and wiring of neuronal networks in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans could be reduced by 48% on the global level, and by 49% for neurons within frontal ganglia. Wiring length reductions were possible due to the existence of long-distance projections in neural networks. We explored the role of these projections by comparing the original networks with minimally rewired networks of the same size, which possessed only the shortest possible connections. In the minimally rewired networks, the number of processing steps along the shortest paths between components was significantly increased compared to the original networks. Additional benchmark comparisons also indicated that neural networks are more similar to network layouts that minimize the length of processing paths, rather than wiring length. These findings suggest that neural systems are not exclusively optimized for minimal global wiring, but for a variety of factors including the minimization of processing steps.

  16. An expert system for diagnostics and estimation of steam turbine components condition (United States)

    Murmansky, B. E.; Aronson, K. E.; Brodov, Yu. M.


    The report describes an expert system of probability type for diagnostics and state estimation of steam turbine technological subsystems components. The expert system is based on Bayes’ theorem and permits to troubleshoot the equipment components, using expert experience, when there is a lack of baseline information on the indicators of turbine operation. Within a unified approach the expert system solves the problems of diagnosing the flow steam path of the turbine, bearings, thermal expansion system, regulatory system, condensing unit, the systems of regenerative feed-water and hot water heating. The knowledge base of the expert system for turbine unit rotors and bearings contains a description of 34 defects and of 104 related diagnostic features that cause a change in its vibration state. The knowledge base for the condensing unit contains 12 hypotheses and 15 evidence (indications); the procedures are also designated for 20 state parameters estimation. Similar knowledge base containing the diagnostic features and faults hypotheses are formulated for other technological subsystems of turbine unit. With the necessary initial information available a number of problems can be solved within the expert system for various technological subsystems of steam turbine unit: for steam flow path it is the correlation and regression analysis of multifactor relationship between the vibration parameters variations and the regime parameters; for system of thermal expansions it is the evaluation of force acting on the longitudinal keys depending on the temperature state of the turbine cylinder; for condensing unit it is the evaluation of separate effect of the heat exchange surface contamination and of the presence of air in condenser steam space on condenser thermal efficiency performance, as well as the evaluation of term for condenser cleaning and for tube system replacement and so forth. With a lack of initial information the expert system enables to formulate a diagnosis

  17. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa AlgZR two-component system coordinates multiple phenotypes (United States)

    Okkotsu, Yuta; Little, Alexander S.; Schurr, Michael J.


    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes a multitude of infections. These infections can occur at almost any site in the body and are usually associated with a breach of the innate immune system. One of the prominent sites where P. aeruginosa causes chronic infections is within the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. P. aeruginosa uses two-component systems that sense environmental changes to differentially express virulence factors that cause both acute and chronic infections. The P. aeruginosa AlgZR two component system is one of its global regulatory systems that affects the organism's fitness in a broad manner. This two-component system is absolutely required for two P. aeruginosa phenotypes: twitching motility and alginate production, indicating its importance in both chronic and acute infections. Additionally, global transcriptome analyses indicate that it regulates the expression of many different genes, including those associated with quorum sensing, type IV pili, type III secretion system, anaerobic metabolism, cyanide and rhamnolipid production. This review examines the complex AlgZR regulatory network, what is known about the structure and function of each protein, and how it relates to the organism's ability to cause infections. PMID:24999454

  18. Concept of Heat Recovery from Exhaust Gases (United States)

    Bukowska, Maria; Nowak, Krzysztof; Proszak-Miąsik, Danuta; Rabczak, Sławomir


    The theme of the article is to determine the possibility of waste heat recovery and use it to prepare hot water. The scope includes a description of the existing sample of coal-fired boiler plant, the analysis of working condition and heat recovery proposals. For this purpose, a series of calculations necessary to identify the energy effect of exhaust temperature decreasing and transferring recovery heat to hot water processing. Heat recover solutions from the exhaust gases channel between boiler and chimney section were proposed. Estimation for the cost-effectiveness of such a solution was made. All calculations and analysis were performed for typical Polish conditions, for coal-fired boiler plant. Typicality of this solution is manifested by the volatility of the load during the year, due to distribution of heat for heating and hot water, determining the load variation during the day. Analysed system of three boilers in case of load variation allows to operational flexibility and adaptation of the boilers load to the current heat demand. This adaptation requires changes in the operating conditions of boilers and in particular assurance of properly conditions for the combustion of fuel. These conditions have an impact on the existing thermal loss and the overall efficiency of the boiler plant. On the boiler plant efficiency affects particularly exhaust gas temperature and the excess air factor. Increasing the efficiency of boilers plant is possible to reach by following actions: limiting the excess air factor in coal combustion process in boilers and using an additional heat exchanger in the exhaust gas channel outside of boilers (economizer) intended to preheat the hot water.

  19. Local-Level Prognostics Health Management Systems Framework for Passive AdvSMR Components. Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Roy, Surajit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hirt, Evelyn H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pardini, Allan F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Anthony M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deibler, John E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States; Pitman, Stan G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States; Tucker, Joseph C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States; Prowant, Matthew S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States; Suter, Jonathan D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States


    This report describes research results to date in support of the integration and demonstration of diagnostics technologies for prototypical AdvSMR passive components (to establish condition indices for monitoring) with model-based prognostics methods. The focus of the PHM methodology and algorithm development in this study is at the localized scale. Multiple localized measurements of material condition (using advanced nondestructive measurement methods), along with available measurements of the stressor environment, enhance the performance of localized diagnostics and prognostics of passive AdvSMR components and systems.

  20. Failure analysis a practical guide for manufacturers of electronic components and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bâzu, Marius


    Failure analysis is the preferred method to investigate product or process reliability and to ensure optimum performance of electrical components and systems. The physics-of-failure approach is the only internationally accepted solution for continuously improving the reliability of materials, devices and processes. The models have been developed from the physical and chemical phenomena that are responsible for degradation or failure of electronic components and materials and now replace popular distribution models for failure mechanisms such as Weibull or lognormal. Reliability engineers nee