WorldWideScience

Sample records for exhaust emission control

  1. Exhaust constituent emission factors of printed circuit board pyrolysis processes and its exhaust control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Hung-Lung, E-mail: hlchiang@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Kuo-Hsiung [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Recycling of waste printed circuit boards is an important issue. • Pyrolysis is an emerging technology for PCB treatment. • Emission factors of VOCs are determined for PCB pyrolysis exhaust. • Iron-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was employed for the exhaust control. -- Abstract: The printed circuit board (PCB) is an important part of electrical and electronic equipment, and its disposal and the recovery of useful materials from waste PCBs (WPCBs) are key issues for waste electrical and electronic equipment. Waste PCB compositions and their pyrolysis characteristics were analyzed in this study. In addition, the volatile organic compound (VOC) exhaust was controlled by an iron-impregnated alumina oxide catalyst. Results indicated that carbon and oxygen were the dominant components (hundreds mg/g) of the raw materials, and other elements such as nitrogen, bromine, and copper were several decades mg/g. Exhaust constituents of CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and NOx, were 60–115, 0.4–4.0, 1.1–10, 30–95, and 0–0.7 mg/g, corresponding to temperatures ranging from 200 to 500 °C. When the pyrolysis temperature was lower than 300 °C, aromatics and paraffins were the major species, contributing 90% of ozone precursor VOCs, and an increase in the pyrolysis temperature corresponded to a decrease in the fraction of aromatic emission factors. Methanol, ethylacetate, acetone, dichloromethane, tetrachloromethane and acrylonitrile were the main species of oxygenated and chlorinated VOCs. The emission factors of some brominated compounds, i.e., bromoform, bromophenol, and dibromophenol, were higher at temperatures over 400 °C. When VOC exhaust was flowed through the bed of Fe-impregnated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the emission of ozone precursor VOCs could be reduced by 70–80%.

  2. Diesel Exhaust Emissions Control for Light-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mital, R.; Li, J.; Huang, S. C.; Stroia, B. J.; Yu, R. C. (Cummins, Inc.); Anderson, J.A. (Argonne National Laboratory); Howden, Kenneth C. (U.S. Department of Energy)

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the results of diesel exhaust aftertreatment testing and analysis done under the FreedomCAR program. Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) adsorber technology was selected based on a previous investigation of various NOx aftertreatment technologies including non-thermal plasma, NOx adsorber and active lean NOx. Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were addressed by developing a catalyzed particulate filter. After various iterations of the catalyst formulation, the aftertreatment components were integrated and optimized for a light duty vehicle application. This compact exhaust aftertreatment system is dual leg and consists of a sulfur trap, NOx adsorbers, and catalyzed particulate filters (CPF). During regeneration, supplementary ARCO ECD low-sulfur diesel fuel is injected upstream of the adsorber and CPF in the exhaust. Steady state and transient emission test results with and without the exhaust aftertreatment system (EAS) are presented. Results of soot filter regeneration by injecting low-sulfur diesel fuel and slip of unregulated emissions, such as NH3, are discussed. Effects of adsorber size and bypass strategy on NOx conversion efficiency and fuel economy penalty are also presented in this paper. The results indicate that if the supplementary fuel injection is optimized, NH3 slip is negligible. During the FTP cycle, injection of low sulfur diesel fuel can create temperature exotherms high enough to regenerate a loaded CPF. With the optimized NOx adsorber regeneration strategies the fuel injection penalty can be reduced by 40 to 50%. Results for various other issues like low temperature light off, reductant optimization, exhaust sulfur management, system integration and design trade-off, are also presented and discussed in this paper. (SAE Paper SAE-2003-01-0041 © 2003 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on

  3. [Evaluation on the Effectiveness of Vehicle Exhaust Emission Control Measures During the APEC Conference in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shou-bin; Tian, Ling-di; Zhang, Dong-xu; Guo, Jin-jin

    2016-01-15

    Vehicle emission is one of the primary factors affecting the quality of atmospheric environment in Beijing. In order to improve the air quality during APEC conference, strict control measures including vehicle emission control were taken in Beijing during APEC meeting. Based on the activity level data of traffic volume, vehicle speed and vehicle types, the inventory of motor vehicle emissions in Beijing was developed following bottom-up methodology to assess the effectiveness of the control measures. The results showed that the traffic volume of Beijing road network during the APEC meeting decreased significantly, the vehicle speed increased obviously, and the largest decline of traffic volume was car. CO, NOx, HC and PM emissions of vehicle exhaust were reduced by 15.1%, 22.4%, 18.4% and 21.8% for freeways, 29.9%, 36.4%, 32.7% and 35.8% for major arterial, 35.7%, 41.7%, 38.4% and 41.2% for minor arterial, 40.8%, 46.5%, 43.1% and 46.0% for collectors, respectively. The vehicles exhaust emissions inventory before and during APEC conference was developed based on bottom-up emissions inventory method. The results indicated that CO, NOx, HC and PM emissions of vehicle exhaust were reduced by 37.5%, 43.4%, 39.9% and 42.9% in the study area, respectively.

  4. Unanticipated benefits of automotive emission control: reduction in fatalities by motor vehicle exhaust gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, M

    1994-05-23

    In 1970, before the implementation of strict controls on emissions in motor vehicle exhaust gas (MVEG), the annual USA incidence of fatal accidents by carbon monoxide in the MVEG was approximately 800 and that of suicides approximately 2000 (somewhat less than 10% of total suicides). In 1987, there were approximately 400 fatal accidents and approximately 2700 suicides by MVEG. Accounting for the growth in population and vehicle registration, the yearly lives saved in accidents by MVEG were approximately 1200 in 1987 and avoided suicides approximately 1400. The decrease in accidents continues unabated while the decrease in expected suicides by MVEG reached a plateau in 1981-1983. The reasons for this disparity are discussed. Juxtaposition of these results with the projected cancer risk avoidance of less than 500 annually in 2005 (as compared with 1986) plainly shows that, in terms of mortality, the unanticipated benefits of emission control far overshadow the intended benefits. With the spread of MVEG control these benefits will accrue worldwide.

  5. Aircraft specific exhaust emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecht, M.; Deidewig, F.; Doepelheuer, A. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Antriebstechnik

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this work to calculate essential species of aircraft emissions has been approached by a combination of different tasks. First of all engine performance and emission correlation has been modelled taking sea level static measurements from the engine certification process as a reference. At second a flight simulation program has been modified to couple aircraft and engine performance along a flight mission profile. By this for a selected number of aircraft/engine combinations the emissions of NO{sub x}, CO and HC as well as fuel burn for short, medium and long haul flights have been calculated and finally adapted to a specified format of flight distance and altitude increments. Sensitivity studies of the change of emissions along the cruise section showed a 30% decrease of the NO{sub x} emission rate until the end of cruise. Differences of ambient air temperature from ISA conditions will have a substantial impact on NO{sub x}, CO and HC emissions rather than on mission fuel. (orig.) 144 figs., 42 tabs., 497 refs.

  6. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  7. Aerodynamic Control of Exhaust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgård, Carl-Erik

    In the autumn of 1985 the Unive!Sity of Aalborg was approached by the manufacturer C. P. Aaberg, who had obtained aerodynilmic control of the exhaust by means of injection. The remaining investigations comprising optimizations of the system with regard to effect, consumption, requirements...

  8. Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of aircrafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, R. [Institute of Flightmechanics, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The reduction of contamination of sensitive atmospheric layers by improved flight planning steps, is investigated. Calculated results have shown, that a further development of flight track planning allows considerable improvements on fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Even if air traffic will further increase, optimistic investigations forecast a reduction of the environmental damage by aircraft exhausts, if the effects of improved flight track arrangement and engine innovations will be combined. (R.P.) 4 refs.

  9. Catalytic Converter Developed By Washcoat Of γ-Alumina On Nickel Oxide (Nio Catalyst In FeCrAl Substrate For Exhaust Emission Control : A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Automobile exhaust emission control is one of the trending issues in automobile research field. The existing catalytic converter using the noble metals of platinum (Pt, palladium (Pd and rhodium (Rd recently were in limited supply and higher in cost. There is a need for the automotive industry to produce ultra-low emitting vehicles at a reasonable cost. The objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of methods of fabrication of modified catalytic converter by approaching FeCrAl as a substrate which treated using ultrasonic bath technique to improve the exhaust emission control. The modified catalytic converter preparation will involve the ultrasonic bath process of FeCrAl foil which has fabricated as metallic monolith coated by γ-Al2O3 powder. Nickel as catalyst material will be prepared using electroplating process. The oxidation test will be conducted using a tube and automatic furnace in temperature of 1100°C for 100 hours. Mitsubishi 4G93 1800cc Petrol E.F.I with a multi -gas analyzer equipped with a hydraulic dynamometer will be used for emission measurements of HC, CO, and NOx in varying speed and load for both conditions with and without catalytic converter. The result will expect the γ-Al2O3 as the washcoat material that fully embedded to FeCrAl substrate with the combination of ultrasonic and electroplating technique will effectively convert the CO, NOx and HC to CO2, NO2 and H2O which means that catalytic converter is effective to improve exhaust emission control of diesel engine. The FeCrAl substrate as a metallic catalytic converter which coated by γ-Al2O3 using ultrasonic and nickelelectroplating technique may improve the exhaust emission control.

  10. Catalytic Converter Developed By Washcoat Of γ-Alumina On Nickel Oxide (Nio) Catalyst In FeCrAl Substrate For Exhaust Emission Control : A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Leman A.M.; Afiqah J.; Rahman Fakhrurrazi; Feriyanto Dafit; Zakaria Supa’at; Rahmad R.

    2016-01-01

    Automobile exhaust emission control is one of the trending issues in automobile research field. The existing catalytic converter using the noble metals of platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rd) recently were in limited supply and higher in cost. There is a need for the automotive industry to produce ultra-low emitting vehicles at a reasonable cost. The objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of methods of fabrication of modified catalytic converter by approaching F...

  11. Characterization of a high-pressure diesel fuel injection system as a control technology option to improve engine performance and reduce exhaust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfadden, J. J.; Dezelick, R. A.; Barrows, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Test results from a high pressure electronically controlled fuel injection system are compared with a commercial mechanical injection system on a single cylinder, diesel test engine using an inlet boost pressure of 2.6:1. The electronic fuel injection system achieved high pressure by means of a fluid intensifier with peak injection pressures of 47 to 69 MPa. Reduced exhaust emissions were demonstrated with an increasing rate of injection followed by a fast cutoff of injection. The reduction in emissions is more responsive to the rate of injection and injection timing than to high peak injection pressure.

  12. Exhaust bypass flow control for exhaust heat recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michael G.

    2015-09-22

    An exhaust system for an engine comprises an exhaust heat recovery apparatus configured to receive exhaust gas from the engine and comprises a first flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas and a second flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas. A heat exchanger/energy recovery unit is disposed in the second flow passage and has a working fluid circulating therethrough for exchange of heat from the exhaust gas to the working fluid. A control valve is disposed downstream of the first and the second flow passages in a low temperature region of the exhaust heat recovery apparatus to direct exhaust gas through the first flow passage or the second flow passage.

  13. Numerical analysis of C.I engine to control emissions using exhaust gas recirculation and advanced start of inject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kashyap Chowdary

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As major limitation of diesel engines is the high soot and nitrogen oxide emissions which cannot be reduced totally with only conventional catalytic converters today, varying fuel characteristics became a focus of interest to meet the pollution emission legislations as they require very few or no changes in existing engine model. The present work deals with, numerical analysis of combined effect of Advanced Start of Injection (SOI and Exhaust Gas Re-circulation (EGR on performance and emissions which were studied, by performing numerical analysis on a Caterpillar 3401 single cylinder C.I engine model at constant speed using diesel as fuel via three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD procedures and validated with experimental data. The SOI is advanced from 11° Crank angle bTDC to 14.5° Crank angle bTDC and EGR as a fraction is increased from 0% to 10%. The modified conditions of these parameters resulted in simultaneous reduction of NOx and Soot.

  14. Controlling exhaust gas recirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurlo, James Richard [Madison, WI; Konkle, Kevin Paul [West Bend, WI; May, Andrew [Milwaukee, WI

    2012-01-31

    In controlling an engine, an amount of an intake charge provided, during operation of the engine, to a combustion chamber of the engine is determined. The intake charge includes an air component, a fuel component and a diluent component. An amount of the air component of the intake charge is determined. An amount of the diluent component of the intake charge is determined utilizing the amount of the intake charge, the amount of the air component and, in some instances, the amount of the fuel component. An amount of a diluent supplied to the intake charge is adjusted based at least in part on the determined amount of diluent component of the intake charge.

  15. 40 CFR 87.64 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.64 Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions. (a) The system and...

  16. 40 CFR 1042.240 - Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emissions at the low-hour test point. For example, if you use aftertreatment technology that controls... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION... deterioration factors as follows: (1) Additive deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. Except as specified...

  17. CATALYTIC REDUCTION TECHNIQUES FOR POST-COMBUSTION DIESEL EXHAUST EMISSIONS

    OpenAIRE

    KESKİN, Ahmet; EMİROĞLU, Alaattin Osman

    2016-01-01

    Stiff exhaust emission regulations set for limiting the air pollution caused by motor vehicles have oriented the producers and researchers to investigate new techniques to reduce exhaust emissions. The main pollutants caused by diesel engines are particle matters (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC), and carbon monoxides (CO). Among the preventive actions to keep the emissions caused by motor vehicles at a certain level are enhancing the fuel quality, preventing the pollutant format...

  18. The indicative effects of inefficient urban traffic flow on fuel cost and exhaust air pollutant emissions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moselakgomo, M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The indicative effects of inefficient urban traffic flow on fuel cost and exhaust air pollutant emissions Madumetja Moselakgomo, Mogesh Naidoo, Mosimanegape O. Letebele ABSTRACT: Poor urban traffic management such as poor intersection controls...

  19. Exhaust emissions from small engines in handheld devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijewski Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigations on the exhaust emissions carried out under real operating conditions of gasoline engines operating in a power generator and a chainsaw. During the operation of these devices the authors measured the following exhaust emissions: CO, HC, NOx and CO2. For the measurements the authors used a portable exhaust emission analyzer SEMTECH DS by SENSORS. This analyzer measures the concentrations of the exhaust gas components in an on-line mode while the engine is running under real operating conditions (road, field etc.. The exhaust emissions tests of non-road engine applications are performed on engine test beds in the NRSC (ISO 8178 and NRTC tests. The presented method is a new solution in determining of the exhaust emissions from such engines. The obtained results were compared with the applicable emission requirements. Besides, based on the performed investigations, the authors attempted an evaluation of the possibilities of the use of the measurement method for development works related to the reduction of the emission from small gasoline engines.

  20. Non-exhaust PM emissions from electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Victor R. J. H.; Achten, Peter A. J.

    2016-06-01

    Particulate matter (PM) exposure has been linked to adverse health effects by numerous studies. Therefore, governments have been heavily incentivising the market to switch to electric passenger cars in order to reduce air pollution. However, this literature review suggests that electric vehicles may not reduce levels of PM as much as expected, because of their relatively high weight. By analysing the existing literature on non-exhaust emissions of different vehicle categories, this review found that there is a positive relationship between weight and non-exhaust PM emission factors. In addition, electric vehicles (EVs) were found to be 24% heavier than equivalent internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). As a result, total PM10 emissions from EVs were found to be equal to those of modern ICEVs. PM2.5 emissions were only 1-3% lower for EVs compared to modern ICEVs. Therefore, it could be concluded that the increased popularity of electric vehicles will likely not have a great effect on PM levels. Non-exhaust emissions already account for over 90% of PM10 and 85% of PM2.5 emissions from traffic. These proportions will continue to increase as exhaust standards improve and average vehicle weight increases. Future policy should consequently focus on setting standards for non-exhaust emissions and encouraging weight reduction of all vehicles to significantly reduce PM emissions from traffic.

  1. Exhaust gas bypass valve control for thermoelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michael G; Yang, Jihui; Meisner, Greogry P.; Stabler, Francis R.; De Bock, Hendrik Pieter Jacobus; Anderson, Todd Alan

    2012-09-04

    A method of controlling engine exhaust flow through at least one of an exhaust bypass and a thermoelectric device via a bypass valve is provided. The method includes: determining a mass flow of exhaust exiting an engine; determining a desired exhaust pressure based on the mass flow of exhaust; comparing the desired exhaust pressure to a determined exhaust pressure; and determining a bypass valve control value based on the comparing, wherein the bypass valve control value is used to control the bypass valve.

  2. Adaptive feedforward control of exhaust recirculation in large diesel engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kræn Vodder; Blanke, Mogens; Eriksson, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Environmental concern has led the International Maritime Organization to restrict NO푥 emissions from marine diesel engines. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems have been introduced in order to comply to the new standards. Traditional fixed-gain feedback methods are not able to control the EGR...

  3. 40 CFR 87.82 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.82 Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions. The system and procedures for sampling and...

  4. Hydrogen cyanide exhaust emissions from in-use motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Marc M; Moss, John A; Pastel, Stephen H; Poskrebyshev, Gregory A

    2007-02-01

    Motor vehicle exhaust emissions are known to contain hydrogen cyanide (HCN), but emission rate data are scarce and, in the case of idling vehicles, date back over 20 years. For the first time, vehicular HCN exhaust emissions from a modern, in-use fleet at idle have been measured. The 14 tested light duty motor vehicles were operating at idle as these conditions are associated with the highest risk exposure scenarios (i.e., enclosed spaces). Vehicular HCN was detected in 89% of the sampled exhaust streams and did not correlate with instantaneous air-fuel-ratio or with any single, coemitted pollutant. However, a moderate correlation between HCN emissions and the product of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide emissions was observed under cold-start conditions. Fleet average, cold-start, undiluted HCN emissions were 105 +/- 97 ppbV (maximum: 278 ppbV), whereas corresponding emissions from vehicles operating under stabilized conditions were 79 +/- 71 ppbV (maximum: 245 ppbV); mean idle fleet HCN emission rates were 39 +/- 35 and 21 +/- 18 microg-min(-1) for cold-start and stabilized vehicles, respectively. The significance of these results is discussed in terms of HCN emissions inventories in the South Coast Air Basin of California and of health risks due to exposure to vehicular HCN.

  5. Environmental impact of exhaust emissions by Arctic shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Christian; Reimer, Nils; Jochmann, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Since 2005, a dramatic decline of the Arctic sea-ice extent is observed which results in an increase of shipping activities. Even though this provides commercial and social development opportunities, the resulting environmental impacts need to be investigated and monitored. In order to understand the impact of shipping in arctic areas, the method described in this paper determines the travel time, fuel consumption and resulting exhaust emissions of ships navigating in arctic waters. The investigated case studies are considering ship particulars as well as environmental conditions with special focus on ice scenarios. Travel time, fuel consumption and exhaust gas emission were investigated for three different vessels, using different passages of the Northern Sea Route (NSR) in different seasons of years 1960, 2000 and 2040. The presented results show the sensitivity of vessel performance and amount of exhaust emissions to optimize arctic traffic with respect to efficiency, safety and environmental impact.

  6. Exhaust emissions from ships at berth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, D. A.

    Emission measurements have been carried out on board six ships at berth during normal real-world operation (hotelling, unloading and loading activities). The study included three passenger ferries, one transoceanic container/ro-ro, one transoceanic car/truck carrier, and one chemical tanker. Emissions were measured from 22 auxiliary engines (AEs, medium and high-speed marine diesels) covering seven engine models and ranging in size from 720 to 2675 kW maximum output. The fuels varied from low sulphur gasoils ( 2.91 cst viscosity) through to residual oils ( 411 cst viscosity). Both specific emission factors ( g kWh -1) at a given engine load and total emissions (kg) of nitrogen oxides (NO x), sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, particulate matter (PM) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons during actual harbour stops were determined. In addition, some preliminary measurements to investigate PM size distributions were undertaken. The specific emissions showed significant variations between the different engine models and also within the same engine model on board the same ship. For example NO x emissions varied between 9.6 and 20.2 g kWh corr-1 between all engines and 14.2- 18.6 g kWh corr-1 between engines of the same model and fuel. Other emissions from boiler use and possible main engine warm-up prior to departure were in general expected to be considerably less than those from the AEs. The results obtained for the three passenger ferries demonstrate that empirically derived, emission formulae using dead weight tonnage can prove to be a cost-effective and accurate tool for harbour emission inventories.

  7. Particulate matters from diesel engine exhaust emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Velimir S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution caused by diesel engine emissions, especially particulate matters and nitric oxides emissions, is one of the biggest problems of current transportation. In the near future the emission of diesel particulate matters will become one of the most important factors that will affect the trend of engine development. Ambient airborne particles have adverse environmental and health effects and therefore their concentration in the air is regulated. Recent medical studies showed that different particle properties are important (for example: number/concentration, active surface, chemical composition/morphology and may take role in the responsibility for their human health impact. Thus, diesel engines are one of the most important sources of particles in the atmosphere, especially in urban areas. Studying health effects and diesel engine particulate properties, it has been concluded that they are a complex mixture of solids and liquids. Biological activity of particulate matter may be related to particle sizes and their number. The paper presents the activities of UN-ECE working group PMP on defining the best procedure and methodology for the measurement of passenger cars diesel engines particle mass and number concentrations. The results of inter-laboratory emissions testing are presented for different engine technologies with special attention on repeatability and reproducibility of measured data. .

  8. A Study on the Model of Traffic Flow and Vehicle Exhaust Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Xue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase of traffic flow in cities causes traffic congestion and accidents as well as air pollution. Traffic problems have attracted the interest of many researchers from the perspective of theory and engineering. In order to provide a simple and practical method for measuring the exhaust emission and assessing the effect of pollution control, a model is based on the relationship between traffic flow and vehicle exhaust emission under a certain level of road capacity constraints. In the proposed model, the hydrocarbons (HC, carbon monoxide (CO, and nitrogen oxides (NOx are considered as the indexes of total exhaust emission, and the speed is used as an intermediate variable. To verify the rationality and practicality of the model, a case study for Beijing, China, is provided in which the effects of taxi fare regulation and the specific vehicle emission reduction policy are analyzed.

  9. 40 CFR 1039.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-hour test point. For example, if you use aftertreatment technology that controls emissions of a... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE... deterioration factors as follows: (1) Additive deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. Except as specified...

  10. Development of Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment System for Tier II Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, R. C.; Cole, A. S., Stroia, B. J.; Huang, S. C. (Cummins, Inc.); Howden, Kenneth C.; Chalk, Steven (U.S. Dept. of Energy)

    2002-06-01

    system design and analysis, critical lab/engine experiments, and ranking then selection of NOX control technologies against reliability, up-front cost, fuel economy, service interval/serviceability, and size/weight. The results of the investigations indicate that the best NOX control approach for LDV and LDT applications is a NOX adsorber system. A greater than 83% NOX reduction efficiency is required to achieve 0.07g/mile NOX Tier II vehicle-out emissions. Both active lean NOX and PACR technology are currently not capable of achieving the high conversion efficiency required for Tier II, Bin 5 emissions standards. In this paper, the NOX technology assessment and selection is first reviewed and discussed. Development of the selected NOX technology (NOX adsorber) and PM control are then discussed in more detail. Discussion includes exhaust sulfur management, further adsorber formulation development, reductant screening, diesel particulate filter development & active regeneration, and preliminary test results on the selected integrated SOX trap, NOX adsorber, and diesel particulate filter system over an FTP-75 emissions cycle, and its impact on fuel economy. Finally, the direction of future work for continued advanced aftertreatment technology development is discussed. (SAE Paper SAE-2002-01-1867 © 2002 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

  11. Development of alternative ship propulsion in terms of exhaust emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowski Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of new emission limits for exhaust emissions of ship engines contributes to the development of new powertrain solutions. New solutions in the simplest approach concern the reduction of the concentration of sulfur in motor fuels. Typically, the aforementioned fuels have a lower value of viscosity which causes a number of supply system problems. It is becoming more and more common to use fuel cells in engine rooms of various types of marine vessels. Unlike conventional systems that use internal combustion engines, these systems have zero exhaust emissions. Hydrogen, methanol, methane and other substances may be used as a fuel in fuel cells. However, so far the best operating parameters are manifested by cells powered by hydrogen, which is associated with difficulties in obtaining and storing this fuel. Therefore, the use of turbine engines allows the obtaining of large operating and environmental advantages. The paper presents a comparison of the ecological parameters of turbine and piston engines.

  12. On-Road Measurement of Exhaust Emission Factors for Individual Diesel Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallmann, T. R.; DeMartini, S.; Harley, R. A.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Wood, E. C.; Onasch, T. B.; Herndon, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    Diesel trucks are an important source of primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that includes black carbon (BC) as a major component. More stringent exhaust emission standards for new engines, effective starting in 2007, considerably reduce allowable emissions and have led to use of after-treatment control devices such as diesel particle filters. The state of California is also implementing programs to accelerate replacement or retrofit of older trucks. In light of these changes, measurements of emissions from in-use heavy-duty diesel trucks are timely and needed to understand the impact of new control technologies on emissions. PM2.5, BC mass, particle light absorption, and particle light extinction emission factors for hundreds of individual diesel trucks were measured in this study. Emissions were measured in July 2010 from trucks driving through the Caldecott tunnel in the San Francisco Bay area. Gas-phase emissions including nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide (CO2) were also measured. Pollutants were measured using air sampling inlets located directly above the vertical exhaust stacks of heavy-duty trucks driving by on the roadway below. All of these measurements were made using fast time response (1 Hz) sensors. Particle optical properties were simultaneously characterized with direct measurements of absorption (babs) and extinction (bext) coefficients. Emission factors for individual trucks were calculated using a carbon balance method in which emissions of PM2.5, BC, babs, and bext in each exhaust plume were normalized to emissions of CO2. Emission factor distributions and fleet-average values are quantified. Absorption and extinction emission factors are used to calculate the aerosol single scattering albedo and BC mass absorption efficiency for individual truck exhaust plumes.

  13. Emissions of exhaust gases and health of the person

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanova, Tatiana; Kernozhitskaya, Anna

    2017-10-01

    The auto-road complex brings the considerable contribution to pollution and adverse change of environment. Influence of exhaust gases of cars is at the bottom of occurrence and developments of various forms of diseases. Every townsman feels the negative influence rendered by motor transport on himself. The modern city dweller is so accustomed to the smell of exhaust gases that he does not even notice it at all, continues to breathe a poisonous mixture, while neither the car nor the road can be isolated from the habitats of people. The higher the population density, the higher the need for motor transport. The health effects of emissions of exhaust gases and vapors, including regulated and unregulated pollutants, are discussed in this article.

  14. An experimental investigation of exhaust emission from agricultural tractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholami, Rashid; Rabbani, Hekmat; Lorestani, Ali Nejat; Javadikia, Payam; Jaliliantabar, Farzad [Mechanics of Agricultural Machinery Department, Razi University of Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Agricultural machinery is an important source of emission of air pollutant in rural locations. Emissions of a specific tractor engine mainly depend on engine speed. Various driving methods and use of implements with different work capacities can affect the engine load. This study deals with the effects of types of tractors and operation conditions on engine emission. In this study two types of agricultural tractors (MF285 and U650) and some tillage implements such as centrifugal type spreader, boom type sprayer and rotary tiller were employed. Some of the exhausted gases from both tractors in each condition were measured such as, hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2) and nitrogen oxide (NO). Engine oil temperature was measured at every step for both types of tractors. Difference between steady-state condition and operation conditions was evaluated. The results showed all exhaust gases that measured and engine oil temperature at every operation conditions are higher than steady-state condition. A general conclusion of the work was that, using various implements and employing different types of tractors effect on engine emissions. The results of variance analysis showed all exhausted gases had a significant relationship with types of implements used at 1%. Also, all exhausted gases except CO had a significant relationship with types of tractors. A further conclusion was that NO emission increased as engine oil temperature increased. The final conclusion was about the difference between MF285 and U650; using U650 at operation conditions is better than MF285 in terms of pollution.

  15. Performance and exhaust emissions of a biodiesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canakci, Mustafa [Kocaeli University, Technical Education Faculty, 41380 Kocaeli (Turkey); Erdil, Ahmet [Kocaeli University, Engineering Faculty, 41040 Kocaeli (Turkey); Arcaklioglu, Erol [Kirikkale University, Engineering Faculty, 71450 Kirikkale (Turkey)

    2006-06-15

    In this study, the applicabilities of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have been investigated for the performance and exhaust-emission values of a diesel engine fueled with biodiesels from different feedstocks and petroleum diesel fuels. The engine performance and emissions characteristics of two different petroleum diesel-fuels (No. 1 and No. 2), biodiesels (from soybean oil and yellow grease), and their 20% blends with No. 2 diesel fuel were used as experimental results. The fuels were tested at full load (100%) at 1400-rpm engine speed, where the engine torque was 257.6Nm. To train the network, the average molecular weight, net heat of combustion, specific gravity, kinematic viscosity, C/H ratio and cetane number of each fuel are used as the input layer, while outputs are the brake specific fuel-consumption, exhaust temperature, and exhaust emissions. The back-propagation learning algorithm with three different variants, single layer, and logistic sigmoid transfer function were used in the network. By using weights in the network, formulations have been given for each output. The network has yielded R{sup 2} values of 0.99 and the mean % errors are smaller than 4.2 for the training data, while the R{sup 2} values are about 0.99 and the mean % errors are smaller than 5.5 for the test data. The performance and exhaust emissions from a diesel engine, using biodiesel blends with No. 2 diesel fuel up to 20%, have been predicted using the ANN model. sing the ANN model. (author)

  16. 40 CFR 86.1823-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions. 86.1823-01 Section 86.1823-01 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In...

  17. 40 CFR 1045.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION... engine families certified under this part. Apply deterioration factors as follows: (1) Additive deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. For engines that do not use aftertreatment technology, use an...

  18. 40 CFR 1048.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology. Also, you may use an additive deterioration factor for exhaust emissions for a particular... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD... the deterioration factor. If the factor is less than one, use one. (2) Additive deterioration factor...

  19. Correction of Measured Taxicab Exhaust Emission Data Based on Cmem Modle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Jia, T.

    2017-09-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions from urban road traffic mainly come from automobile exhaust. However, the carbon dioxide emissions obtained by the instruments are unreliable due to time delay error. In order to improve the reliability of data, we propose a method to correct the measured vehicles' carbon dioxide emissions from instrument based on the CMEM model. Firstly, the synthetic time series of carbon dioxide emissions are simulated by CMEM model and GPS velocity data. Then, taking the simulation data as the control group, the time delay error of the measured carbon dioxide emissions can be estimated by the asynchronous correlation analysis, and the outliers can be automatically identified and corrected using the principle of DTW algorithm. Taking the taxi trajectory data of Wuhan as an example, the results show that (1) the correlation coefficient between the measured data and the control group data can be improved from 0.52 to 0.59 by mitigating the systematic time delay error. Furthermore, by adjusting the outliers which account for 4.73 % of the total data, the correlation coefficient can raise to 0.63, which suggests strong correlation. The construction of low carbon traffic has become the focus of the local government. In order to respond to the slogan of energy saving and emission reduction, the distribution of carbon emissions from motor vehicle exhaust emission was studied. So our corrected data can be used to make further air quality analysis.

  20. 5th international exhaust gas and particulate emissions forum. Proceedings; 5. Internationales Forum Abgas- und Partikelemissionen. Beitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-11

    The Proceedings of the 5th International Exhaust Gas and Particulate Emissions Forum contains 22 printed contributions as well as a CD-ROM. The titles of them are: (1) Diesel Emissions Control in the United States - 2010 and Beyond; (2) The MBE90 commercial vehicle engine for EPA '07 emissions regulations; (3) Concepts for engines and exhaust-gas cleaning systems for heavy duty trucks of the future; (4) HD Engine Technology for Near-Zero Emissions and Lowest Cost of Ownership; (5) (Partially-) Homogeneous Diesel Combustion; (6) Exhaust gas sensors for NOx storage catalysts and ammonia-SCR systems; (7) Sensors for modern exhaust gas after-treatment systems; (8) New reducing agents for low NOx-SCR Techno-logy; (9) Exhaust gas Aftertreatment on Lean Burn Gasoline Direct Injection Engines: The System of TWC and NOx-Storage Catalyst; (10) New Platinum/Palladium based catalyzed filter technologies for future passenger car applications; (11) Development of a Roadway Hydrocarbon Sorption Model and Characterization of a Novel PM Generator; (12) Requirements for current and future particulate measurement instrumentation from the point of view of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt; (13) Standardized dilution conditions for gravimetric PM sampling - measures to assure results that correlate; (14) Particle Counting according PMP; (15) Future high-confidence measurement of diesel particulate emissions for approval and development; (16) New developments in optical instrumentation for exhaust gas; (17) Simultaneous Detection of Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Components by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy; (18) Boundaries of modern exhaust gas instrumentation; (19) Raising quality and reducing application effort through efficient data input to the particulate filter load model for a EURO5 diesel car; (20) Stop-start operation of diesel engines - modified require-ment for exhaust gas after-treatment?; (21) Particulates emission with Biodiesel B30 impact on CSF management; (22

  1. Diesel emission reduction using internal exhaust gas recirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin [Denver, CO; Durrett, Russell P [Bloomfield Hills, MI

    2012-01-24

    A method for controlling combustion in a direct-injection diesel engine includes monitoring a crankshaft rotational position of a cylinder of the engine, monitoring an engine load, determining an intake stroke within the cylinder based upon the crankshaft rotational position, and when the engine load is less than a threshold engine load, opening an exhaust valve for the cylinder during a portion of the intake stroke.

  2. Global emission projections of particulate matter (PM): II. Uncertainty analyses of on-road vehicle exhaust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Winijkul, Ekbordin; Bond, Tami C.; Streets, David G.

    2014-04-01

    Estimates of future emissions are necessary for understanding the future health of the atmosphere, designing national and international strategies for air quality control, and evaluating mitigation policies. Emission inventories are uncertain and future projections even more so, thus it is important to quantify the uncertainty inherent in emission projections. This paper is the second in a series that seeks to establish a more mechanistic understanding of future air pollutant emissions based on changes in technology. The first paper in this series (Yan et al., 2011) described a model that projects emissions based on dynamic changes of vehicle fleet, Speciated Pollutant Emission Wizard-Trend, or SPEW-Trend. In this paper, we explore the underlying uncertainties of global and regional exhaust PM emission projections from on-road vehicles in the coming decades using sensitivity analysis and Monte Carlo simulation. This work examines the emission sensitivities due to uncertainties in retirement rate, timing of emission standards, transition rate of high-emitting vehicles called “superemitters”, and emission factor degradation rate. It is concluded that global emissions are most sensitive to parameters in the retirement rate function. Monte Carlo simulations show that emission uncertainty caused by lack of knowledge about technology composition is comparable to the uncertainty demonstrated by alternative economic scenarios, especially during the period 2010-2030.

  3. 40 CFR 86.160-00 - Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.160-00 Exhaust emission test... official test cycle, is either conducted in an environmental test facility or under test conditions that...-00. (1) Drain and fill the vehicle's fuel tank to 40 percent capacity with test fuel. If a vehicle...

  4. Assessment of exhaust emissions from carbon nanotube production and particle collection by sampling filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Candace Su-Jung; Hofmann, Mario; Hallock, Marilyn; Ellenbecker, Michael; Kong, Jing

    2015-11-01

    This study performed a workplace evaluation of emission control using available air sampling filters and characterized the emitted particles captured in filters. Characterized particles were contained in the exhaust gas released from carbon nanotube (CNT) synthesis using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Emitted nanoparticles were collected on grids to be analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). CNT clusters in the exhaust gas were collected on filters for investigation. Three types of filters, including Nalgene surfactant-free cellulose acetate (SFCA), Pall A/E glass fiber, and Whatman QMA quartz filters, were evaluated as emission control measures, and particles deposited in the filters were characterized using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to further understand the nature of particles emitted from this CNT production. STEM analysis for collected particles on filters found that particles deposited on filter fibers had a similar morphology on all three filters, that is, hydrophobic agglomerates forming circular beaded clusters on hydrophilic filter fibers on the collecting side of the filter. CNT agglomerates were found trapped underneath the filter surface. The particle agglomerates consisted mostly of elemental carbon regardless of the shapes. Most particles were trapped in filters and no particles were found in the exhaust downstream from A/E and quartz filters, while a few nanometer-sized and submicrometer-sized individual particles and filament agglomerates were found downstream from the SFCA filter. The number concentration of particles with diameters from 5 nm to 20 µm was measured while collecting particles on grids at the exhaust piping. Total number concentration was reduced from an average of 88,500 to 700 particle/cm(3) for the lowest found for all filters used. Overall, the quartz filter showed the most consistent and highest particle reduction control, and exhaust particles containing nanotubes were successfully

  5. 40 CFR 90.103 - Exhaust emission standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards Engine displacement class Hydrocarbons+oxides of nitrogen (HC+NOX) Hydrocarbons Carbon monoxide... HC+NOX 143 119 96 72 CO 603 603 603 603 (1) Each engine displacement class has a unique set of... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission...

  6. Effect of gasoline/methanol blends on motorcycle emissions: Exhaust and evaporative emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Ge, Yunshan; Wang, Mingda; Li, Jiaqiang; Peng, Zihang; Song, Yanan; Zhang, Liwei

    2015-02-01

    The emission characteristics of motorcycles using gasoline and M15 (consisting of 85% gasoline and 15% methanol by volume) were investigated in this article. Exhaust and evaporative emissions, including regulated and unregulated emissions, of three motorcycles were investigated on the chassis dynamometer over the Urban Driving Cycle (UDC) and in the Sealed Housing for Evaporative Determination (SHED), respectively. The regulated emissions were detected by an exhaust gas analyzer directly. The unregulated emissions, including carbonyls, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and methanol, were sampled through battery-operated air pumps using tubes coated with 2,4-dintrophenylhydrazine (DNPH), Tenax TA and silica gel, respectively. The experimental results showed that, for exhaust emission, compared with those from gasoline fueled motorcycles, the concentration of total hydrocarbons (THC) and CO from motorcycles fueled with M15 decreased by 11%-34.5% and 63%-84% respectively, while the concentration of NOx increased by 76.9%-107.7%. Compared with those from gasoline fueled motorcycles, BTEX from motorcycles fueled with M15 decreased by 16%-60% while formaldehyde increased by 16.4%-52.5%. For evaporative emission, diurnal losses were more than hot soak losses and turned out to be dominated in evaporative emissions. In addition, compared with gasoline fueling motorcycles, the evaporative emissions of THC, carbonyls and VOCs from motorcycles fueled with M15 increased by 11.7%-37%, 38%-45% and 16%-42%, respectively. It should be noted that the growth rate of methanol was as high as 297%-1429%. It is important to reduce the evaporative emissions of methanol fueling motorcycles.

  7. The role of sulfur emission in volatile particle formation in jet aircraft exhaust plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärcher, B.; Fahey, D. W.

    Recent in-situ emission measurements of the Concorde in the lower stratosphere point to a surprisingly efficient conversion of fuel sulfur to H2SO4 in the exhaust plume. By means of a comprehensive model, the formation and evolution of aerosol particles and precursors are calculated in the diluting aircraft wake. The results provide strong evidence that high levels of SO3 present in the nascent plume are required to explain the observations of large numbers of nanometer-sized aerosols. Limiting particle formation at emission to keep potential chemical effects on stratospheric ozone small will require control of the sulfur oxidation kinetics during fuel combustion. The similarities between super- and subsonic exhaust plumes suggest that the presence of SO3 in the latter will also be a key limiting factor in new aerosol production.

  8. Analysis on fuel economy improvement and exhaust emission reduction in a two-stroke engine by using an exhaust valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, Masahiro; Kurosaki, Takaharu; Okada, Kazunori

    1995-12-31

    A timing controlled auto-ignition name ``AR combustion`` could improve irregular combustion in the part load operation of conventional two-stroke engines. Their previous papers have suggested its idea and the drastic improvements in fuel consumption and HC emission proven through a bench experiments. This time, form a concept that improvements of a two-stroke engine should be done maintaining its original advantages, an AR combustion engine was developed by using a simple exhaust valve and maintaining engine`s original power output. This engine was mounted on a motorcycle and experimented in the ``Dakar rally``. As the results, good fuel economies exceeding a four-stroke rally model, excellent driveability and durability were proven, because of the improvement in the combustion and engine`s potential for the downsizing. The AR combustion engine, consequently, has good prospects for the practical use.

  9. 40 CFR 1051.107 - What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and offroad utility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the exhaust emission... of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF... operating life from advertisements or other marketing materials for any vehicles in the engine family. (ii...

  10. A comparison of exhaust emissions from vehicles fuelled with petrol, LPG and CNG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielaczyc, P.; Szczotka, A.; Woodburn, J.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an analysis of THC, NMHC, CO, NOx and CO2 emissions during testing of two bi-fuel vehicles, fuelled with petrol and gaseous fuels, on a chassis dynamometer in the context of the Euro 6 emissions requirements. The analyses were performed on one Euro 5 bi-fuel vehicle (petrol/LPG) and one Euro 5 bi-fuel vehicle (petrol/CNG), both with SI engines equipped with MPI feeding systems operating in closed-loop control, typical three-way-catalysts and heated oxygen sensors. The vehicles had been adapted by their manufacturers for fuelling with LPG or CNG by using additional special equipment mounted onto the existing petrol fuelling system. The vehicles tested featured multipoint gas injection systems. The aim of this paper was an analysis of the impact of the gaseous fuels on the exhaust emission in comparison to the emission of the vehicles fuelled with petrol. The tests subject to the analyses presented here were performed in the Engine Research Department of BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd in Bielsko-Biala, Poland, within a research programme investigating the influence of alternative fuels on exhaust emissions from light duty vehicle vehicles with spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines.

  11. 40 CFR 86.1343-88 - Calculations; particulate exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...)(5). (8)(i) Real time flow rate measurement and calculating devices are permitted under these... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES...C = Total brake horsepower-hour (brake horsepower integrated with respect to time) for the cold...

  12. Modelling for Control of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Large Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Mahler; Zander, Claes-Göran; Pedersen, Nicolai

    2013-01-01

    Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) reduces NOx emissions by reducing O2 concentration for the combustion and is a preferred way to obtain emission regulations that will take effect from 2016. If not properly controlled, reduction of O2 has adverse side eects and proper control requires proper dynamic...... models. While literature is rich on four-stroke automotive engines, this paper considers two-stroke engines and develops a non-linear dynamic model of the exhaust gas system. Parameters are determined by system identication. The paper uses black-box nonlinear model identication and modelling from rst...

  13. Characteristics of volatile organic compounds from motorcycle exhaust emission during real-world driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Huang, Pei-Hsiu; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2014-12-01

    The number of motorcycles has increased significantly in Asia, Africa, Latin American and Europe in recent years due to their reasonable price, high mobility and low fuel consumption. However, motorcycles can emit significant amounts of air pollutants; therefore, the emission characteristics of motorcycles are an important consideration for the implementation of control measures for motorcycles in urban areas. Results of this study indicate that most volatile organic compound (VOC) emission factors were in the range of several decades mg/km during on-road driving. Toluene, isopentane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, and o-xylene were the most abundant VOCs in motorcycle exhaust, with emission factors of hundreds mg/km. Motorcycle exhaust was 15.4 mg/km for 15 carbonyl species. Acetaldehyde, acetone, formaldehyde and benzaldehyde were the major carbonyl species, and their emission factors ranged from 1.4 to 3.5 mg/km 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, 1-butene, toluene, o-xylene, 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, propene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, isoprene, m-diethylbenzene, and m-ethyltoluene were the main ozone formation potential (OFP) species, and their OFP was 200 mg-O3/km or higher.

  14. Control-Oriented Model of Molar Scavenge Oxygen Fraction for Exhaust Recirculation in Large Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kræn Vodder; Blanke, Mogens; Eriksson, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems have been introduced to large marine engines in order to reduce NOx formation. Adequate modelling for control design is one of the bottlenecks to design EGR control that also meets emission requirements during transient loading conditions. This paper...... effect from 2016....

  15. 40 CFR 1054.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my handheld engines meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emission Standards for Handheld Engines (g/kW-hr) Engine displacement class HC+NOX CO Class III 50 805... my handheld engines meet? 1054.103 Section 1054.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1054.103 What exhaust emission...

  16. Effect of exhaust emissions on carbon monoxide levels in employees working at indoor car wash facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Topacoglu, H; Katsakoglou, S; Ipekci, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exhaust emissions from motor vehicles threaten the environment and human health. Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, especially the use of exhaust gas CO in suicidal attempts is well known in the literature. Recently, indoor car wash facilities established in large shopping malls with closed parking, lots is a new risk area that exposes car wash employees to prolonged periods of high level CO emissions from cars. The aim of this study was to investigate how carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) bl...

  17. US Department of Energy - Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Inter-Agency Agreement Research on "The Analysis of Genotoxic Activities of Exhaust Emissions from Mobile Natural Gas, Diesel, and Spark-Ignition Engines"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William E. Wallace

    2006-09-30

    The US Department of Energy-Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (now the DOE-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies) signed an Interagency Agreement (IAA) with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), No.01-15 DOE, 9/4/01, for 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile natural gas, diesel, and spark-ignition engines'; subsequently modified on 3/27/02 (DOE IAG No.01-15-02M1); subsequently modified 9/02/03 (IAA Mod No. 01-15-03M1), as 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile internal combustion engines: identification of engine design and operational parameters controlling exhaust genotoxicity'. The DOE Award/Contract number was DE-AI26-01CH11089. The IAA ended 9/30/06. This is the final summary technical report of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health research performed with the US Department of Energy-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies under that IAA: (A) NIOSH participation was requested by the DOE to provide in vitro genotoxicity assays of the organic solvent extracts of exhaust emissions from a suite of in-use diesel or spark-ignition vehicles; (B) research also was directed to develop and apply genotoxicity assays to the particulate phase of diesel exhaust, exploiting the NIOSH finding of genotoxicity expression by diesel exhaust particulate matter dispersed into the primary components of the surfactant coating the surface of the deep lung; (C) from the surfactant-dispersed DPM genotoxicity findings, the need for direct collection of DPM aerosols into surfactant for bioassay was recognized, and design and developmental testing of such samplers was initiated.

  18. Exhaust Recirculation Control for Reduction of NOx from Large Two-Stroke Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kræn Vodder

    restriction on NOx emissions from large two-stroke diesel engines on vessels operating in certain NOx Emission Control Areas. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is one of the three technologies on the market that are able to reduce the NOx emission adequately for Tier III operation. EGR is well known from...... the automotive industry, but have only recently been introduced commercially to large two-stroke diesel engines. Recirculation of exhaust gas to the cylinders lowers the oxygen availability and increases the heat capacity during combustion, which in turn leads to less formation of NOx. Experience shows......, that while large two-stroke engines with EGR perform well in steady state, fast engine load transients cause smoke formation due to the decreased oxygen availability. The aim of this thesis is to design a control system that enables the large two-stroke engines with EGR to meet the emission limits...

  19. Effect of hydroxy (HHO) gas addition on performance and exhaust emissions in compression ignition engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Ali Can; Uludamar, Erinc; Aydin, Kadir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cukurova University, 01330 Adana (Turkey)

    2010-10-15

    In this study, hydroxy gas (HHO) was produced by the electrolysis process of different electrolytes (KOH{sub (aq)}, NaOH{sub (aq)}, NaCl{sub (aq)}) with various electrode designs in a leak proof plexiglass reactor (hydrogen generator). Hydroxy gas was used as a supplementary fuel in a four cylinder, four stroke, compression ignition (CI) engine without any modification and without need for storage tanks. Its effects on exhaust emissions and engine performance characteristics were investigated. Experiments showed that constant HHO flow rate at low engine speeds (under the critical speed of 1750 rpm for this experimental study), turned advantages of HHO system into disadvantages for engine torque, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) emissions and specific fuel consumption (SFC). Investigations demonstrated that HHO flow rate had to be diminished in relation to engine speed below 1750 rpm due to the long opening time of intake manifolds at low speeds. This caused excessive volume occupation of hydroxy in cylinders which prevented correct air to be taken into the combustion chambers and consequently, decreased volumetric efficiency was inevitable. Decreased volumetric efficiency influenced combustion efficiency which had negative effects on engine torque and exhaust emissions. Therefore, a hydroxy electronic control unit (HECU) was designed and manufactured to decrease HHO flow rate by decreasing voltage and current automatically by programming the data logger to compensate disadvantages of HHO gas on SFC, engine torque and exhaust emissions under engine speed of 1750 rpm. The flow rate of HHO gas was measured by using various amounts of KOH, NaOH, NaCl (catalysts). These catalysts were added into the water to diminish hydrogen and oxygen bonds and NaOH was specified as the most appropriate catalyst. It was observed that if the molality of NaOH in solution exceeded 1% by mass, electrical current supplied from the battery increased dramatically due to the too much

  20. 78 FR 34375 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Exhaust Emissions of Light-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... provided, unless the comment includes profanity, threats, information claimed to be Confidential Business... necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the Agency, including whether the information will... characteristics, and measurement of exhaust emissions. One of the main issues in the study of vehicle emissions is...

  1. 40 CFR 86.544-90 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... = Carbon dioxide concentration of the dilution air as measured, in percent. (5)(i) CH3OHmass = Methanol...,000,000) (3) Carbon monoxide mass: COmass = Vmix × DensityCO × (COconc/1,000,000) (4) Carbon dioxide... of HC in exhaust gas. (A) For gasoline-fuel; DensityHC=576.8 g/m3-carbon atom (16.33 g/ft3-carbon...

  2. Method of calculation of exhaust gases emissions of biogas engine

    OpenAIRE

    Абрамчук, Ф. И.; Кабанов, А. Н.; Петров, Н. В.

    2013-01-01

    In article has been presented method allows to calculate content of harmful chemical species in exhaust gases of biogas engine. To determine the equilibrium composition of internal combustion engine with spark ignition is proposed to use a system of 10 equations with 10 unknowns based on six chemical reactions, 3 equations of material balance and Dalton’s law equation. The technique of algebraic solutions of system of nonlinear equations has been proposed. Comparison of results of calculation...

  3. Impact of Freeway Weaving Segment Design on Light-duty Vehicle Exhaust Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Qiao, Fengxiang; Yu, Lei; Chen, Shuyan; Li, Tiezhu

    2017-06-21

    In United States, 26% of greenhouse gas emissions is emitted from the transportation sector, which meanwhile accompanies with enormous toxic emissions to humans, such as CO, NOx, and HC, approximately 2.5% and 2.44% of a total exhaust emission for a petrol and diesel engine, respectively. These exhaust emissions are typically subject to vehicles' intermittent operations, such as hard acceleration and hard braking. In practice, drivers are inclined to operate intermittently while driving through a weaving segment, due to complex vehicle maneuvering for weaving. As a result, the exhaust emissions within a weaving segment ought to be varied from those on a basic segment. However, existing emission models usually rely on vehicle operation information, and computer a generalized emission result, regardless of road configuration. This research is proposed to explore the impacts of weaving segment configuration on vehicle emissions, identify important predictors for emission estimations, and develop a nonlinear Normalized Emission Factor (NEF) model for weaving segments. An on-board emission test was conducted to twelve subjects on State Highway 288 in Houston, Texas. Vehicles' activity information, road conditions, and real-time exhaust emissions were collected by On-Board Diagnosis (OBD), a smartphone based roughness app, and a Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS), respectively. Five feature selection algorithms were used to identify the important predictors for the response of NEF and the modeling algorithm. The predictive power of four algorithm based emission models was tested by 10-fold cross validation. Results showed that emissions are also susceptible to the type and length of a weaving segment. Bagged decision tree algorithm was chosen to develop a 50 grown tree NEF model, which provided 0.0051 validation error. The estimated NEFs are highly correlated to the observed NEFs in the training dataset as well as in the validation dataset with the R values of 0

  4. ANALYSIS OF EXHAUST GAS EMISSION IN THE MARINE TWO-STROKE SLOW-SPEED DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Lalić

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the problem of exhaust emissions of the marine two-stroke slow-speed diesel engines. After establishing marine diesel engine regulations and defining the parameters influencing exhaust emissions, the simulation model of the marine two-stroke slow-speed diesel engine has been developed. Furthermore, the comparison of numerical and experimentally obtained data has been performed, resulting in achieving the model validity at 100% load, which represents a requirement for further exhaust gas analysis. Deviations obtained at the real engine and the model range from 2% to 7%. An analysis of the influential parameters such as compression ratio, exhaust valve timing and fuel injection timing has been performed. The obtained results have been compared and conclusions have been drawn.

  5. On exhaust emissions from petrol-fuelled passenger cars at low ambient temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurikko, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Use

    1998-11-01

    The study at hand deals with regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions from petrol-fuelled cars at low ambient temperatures with present-day or near-future exhaust after treatment systems. The subject has been investigated at VTT over a decade and this report compiles data from various sub-studies carried out between the years 1993 - 1997. Each one of them viewed different aspects of the phenomenon, like determining the low-temperature response of today`s new cars employing three-way catalytic converters or assessing the long-term durability and the influence of vehicle mileage upon the low-temperature emissions performance. Within these studies, together more than 120 cars of model years from 1990 to 1997 have been tested. Most of them were normal, in-service vehicles with total mileages differing between only a few thousand kilometres for new cars up to 80,000 km or even more for the in-use vehicles. Both the US FTP75 and the European test cycle have been employed, and the ambient temperatures ranged from the baseline (+22 deg C) down to +- O deg C, -7 deg C and in some cases even to -20 deg C. The studies attested that new cars having today`s advanced emissions control systems produced fairly low levels of emissions when tested in conditions designated in the regulations that are the basis of the current new-vehicle certification. However, this performance was not necessarily attained at ambient temperatures that were below the normative range. Fairly widespread response was recorded, and cars having almost equal emissions output at baseline could produce largely deviating outcomes in low-temperature conditions. On average, CO and HC emissions increased by a factor of five to 10, depending on the ambient temperature and vehicle type. However, emissions of NO{sub x} were largely unaffected. Apart from these regulated emissions, many unregulated species were also determined, either by using traditional sampling and chromatography methods or on-line, employing

  6. The characteristics of performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine using a biodiesel with antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Kyunghyun

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of antioxidants on the oxidation stability of biodiesel fuel, the engine performance and the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine. Biodiesel fuel used in the study was derived from soybean oil. The results show that the efficiency of antioxidants is in the order TBHQ>PrG>BHA>BHT>alpha-tocopherol. The oxidative stability of biodiesel fuel attained the 6-h quality standard with 100 ppm TBHQ and with 300 ppm PrG in biodiesel fuel. Combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions in diesel engine were not influenced by the addition of antioxidants in biodiesel fuel. The BSFC of biodiesel fuel with antioxidants decreased more than that of biodiesel fuel without antioxidants, but no trends were observed according to the type or amount of antioxidant. Antioxidants had few effects on the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine running on biodiesel.

  7. Real-world vehicle emissions as measured by in situ analysis of exhaust plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitzmeier, Christian; Loschke, Carmen; Wiedenhaus, Hanna; Klemm, Otto

    2017-10-01

    We conducted a 60-day roadside measurement campaign on a busy street in Münster, Germany, during summer 2016. We used gas and particle concentration measurements with high temporal resolution (10 Hz) to quantify both the emission ratios of nitrogen oxides per carbon dioxide (NO x /CO2) for over 70,000 individual exhaust plumes as well as the emission ratios for size-resolved particle numbers per carbon dioxide (d(PN CO2-1)/dlogD) for about 10,000 plumes. The real-world fleet passing by the measurement station consisted of passenger cars (85%), buses (5.9%), light duty commercial vehicles (5.7%), trucks (1.7%), and motorcycles (1.6%). The median measured NO x /CO2 ratio was 3.33 g kg-1. The median measured PN/CO2 emission ratio for particles with diameters between 0.03 and 10 μm was 5.6 × 1014 kg-1. We compared our results with the Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport (HBEFA) and the Euro 5 and Euro 6 emission standards by employing traffic counts, assuming the diesel-to-gasoline ratios of vehicles according to registration statistics, and estimating that stop-and-go traffic occurred 65% of the time. Using a conservative estimate, our median ratios exceeded the HBEFA data by more than 65% for NO x /CO and by a factor of about 100 for PN/CO2. Furthermore, our median NO x emission per kilometer travelled (NO x  km-1) exceeded the Euro 5 emission limit for diesel cars by a factor of 3 and exceeded the Euro 6 limit by almost a factor of 7. Additionally, our median particle number emission (PN km-1) exceeded the Euro 5 and Euro 6 limits of diesel cars by a factor of almost 150. These results confirm the presumption that the emissions of a real-world traffic fleet comprehensively exceed the legal limits. Very likely, the widespread presence of defeat devices in vehicle emission control systems plays a major role in this discrepancy. This has a strong impact on the apparent inability of authorities to comply with the legal limits of the NO2

  8. The Problems of Reducing Exhaust Gas Emissions from Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Panasiuk

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the environmental impact of shipping and air pollution caused by ships. The paper presents the development of regulations on air pollution caused by ships and describes the efficiency of methods for reducing emissions.

  9. Generic methods for aero-engine exhaust emission prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shakariyants, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    In the thesis, generic methods have been developed for aero-engine combustor performance, combustion chemistry, as well as airplane aerodynamics, airplane and engine performance. These methods specifically aim to support diverse emission prediction studies coupled with airplane and engine

  10. Investigation into pedestrian exposure to near-vehicle exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzard, Neil A; Clark, Nigel N; Guffey, Steven E

    2009-03-30

    Inhalation of diesel particulate matter (DPM) is known to have a negative impact on human health. Consequently, there are regulations and standards that limit the maximum concentrations to which persons may be exposed and the maximum concentrations allowed in the ambient air. However, these standards consider steady exposure over large spatial and time scales. Due to the nature of many vehicle exhaust systems, pedestrians in close proximity to a vehicle's tailpipe may experience events where diesel particulate matter concentrations are high enough to cause acute health effects for brief periods of time. In order to quantify these exposure events, instruments which measure specific exhaust constituent concentrations were placed near a roadway and connected to the mouth of a mannequin used as a pedestrian surrogate. By measuring concentrations at the mannequin's mouth during drive-by events with a late model diesel truck, a representative estimate of the exhaust constituent concentrations to which a pedestrian may be exposed was obtained. Typical breathing rates were then multiplied by the measured concentrations to determine the mass of pollutant inhaled. The average concentration of diesel particulate matter measured over the duration of a single drive-by test often exceeded the low concentrations used in human clinical studies which are known to cause acute health effects. It was also observed that higher concentrations of diesel particulate matter were measured at the height of a stroller than were measured at the mouth of a mannequin. Diesel particulate matter concentrations during drive-by incidents easily reach or exceed the low concentrations that can cause acute health effects for brief periods of time. For the case of a particularly well-tuned late-model year vehicle, the mass of particulate matter inhaled during a drive-by incident is small compared to the mass inhaled daily at ambient conditions. On a per breath basis, however, the mass of particulate

  11. Investigation into pedestrian exposure to near-vehicle exhaust emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guffey Steven E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhalation of diesel particulate matter (DPM is known to have a negative impact on human health. Consequently, there are regulations and standards that limit the maximum concentrations to which persons may be exposed and the maximum concentrations allowed in the ambient air. However, these standards consider steady exposure over large spatial and time scales. Due to the nature of many vehicle exhaust systems, pedestrians in close proximity to a vehicle's tailpipe may experience events where diesel particulate matter concentrations are high enough to cause acute health effects for brief periods of time. Methods In order to quantify these exposure events, instruments which measure specific exhaust constituent concentrations were placed near a roadway and connected to the mouth of a mannequin used as a pedestrian surrogate. By measuring concentrations at the mannequin's mouth during drive-by events with a late model diesel truck, a representative estimate of the exhaust constituent concentrations to which a pedestrian may be exposed was obtained. Typical breathing rates were then multiplied by the measured concentrations to determine the mass of pollutant inhaled. Results The average concentration of diesel particulate matter measured over the duration of a single drive-by test often exceeded the low concentrations used in human clinical studies which are known to cause acute health effects. It was also observed that higher concentrations of diesel particulate matter were measured at the height of a stroller than were measured at the mouth of a mannequin. Conclusion Diesel particulate matter concentrations during drive-by incidents easily reach or exceed the low concentrations that can cause acute health effects for brief periods of time. For the case of a particularly well-tuned late-model year vehicle, the mass of particulate matter inhaled during a drive-by incident is small compared to the mass inhaled daily at ambient

  12. Real-time exhaust gas modular flowmeter and emissions reporting system for mobile apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Leo Alphonse Gerard (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A real-time emissions reporting system includes an instrument module adapted to be detachably connected to the exhaust pipe of a combustion engine to provide for flow of exhaust gas therethrough. The instrument module includes a differential pressure probe which allows for determination of flow rate of the exhaust gas and a gas sampling tube for continuously feeding a sample of the exhaust gas to a gas analyzer or a mounting location for a non-sampling gas analyzer. In addition to the module, the emissions reporting system also includes an elastomeric boot for detachably connecting the module to the exhaust pipe of the combustion engine, a gas analyzer for receiving and analyzing gases sampled within the module and a computer for calculating pollutant mass flow rates based on concentrations detected by the gas analyzer and the detected flowrate of the exhaust gas. The system may also include a particulate matter detector with a second gas sampling tube feeding same mounted within the instrument module.

  13. Multicomponent remote sensing of vehicle exhaust emissions by dispersive IR and UV spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Marc M.; Kiyomiya, Eileen S.; Kumar, Sasi; Lappas, Anastasios M.; Lord, Harry C., III

    2000-12-01

    Direct remote sensing of vehicle exhaust emissions under real-world driving conditions is desirable for a number of reasons, including: identifying high emitters, investigating the chemical composition of the exhaust, and probing fast reactions in the plume. A remote sensor, incorporating IR and UV spectrometers, was developed. The IR spectrometer consists of a grating system mounted on a synchronous motor, optically interfaced to a room temperature PbSe detector. UV-vis measurements are made with a CCD array spectrometer. Eight optical passes through the exhaust plume allow rapid and sensitive monitoring of the exhaust stream emitted by moving vehicles on a car-by-car basis. The combination of these two techniques resulted in unprecedented, direct measurement capability of over 25 pollutants in the exhaust plume. Emissions from a fleet of vehicles powered by a range of fuels (gasoline, diesel, natural gas, and methanol) were tested. The exhaust from hot gasoline- and methanol-powered cars contained high levels of NH3, up to 1500 ppm. These emissions were up to 14 times higher than the corresponding NOx emissions. Unlike most previous work, NOx was measured as the sum of NO and NO2; N2O was also measured. Field testing at a southern California freeway on-ramp was conducted over a one week period, totaling >4,500 measurements. It was found that 66.4% of the emitted NH3 was produced by 10% of the fleet, following the (gamma) - distribution that has been reported for criteria pollutants. Mean NH3 emission rates were calculated at 138 mg km-1, nearly twice as high was previous estimates.

  14. Exhaust emissions of DI diesel engine using unconventional fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudrajad, Agung; Ali, Ismail; Hamdan, Hazmie; Hamzah, Mohd. Herzwan

    2012-06-01

    Optimization of using waste plastic and tire disposal fuel on diesel engine were observed. The experimental project was comparison between using both of unconventional fuel and base diesel fuel. The engine experiment was conducted with YANMAR TF120 single cylinder four stroke diesel engine set-up at variable engine speed at 2100, 1900, 1700, 1500 and 1300 rpm. The data have been taken at each point of engine speed during the stabilized engine-operating regime. Measurement of emissions parameters at different engine speed conditions have generally indicated lower in emission COfor waste plastic fuel, lower NOx for tire disposal fuel and lower SOx for diesel fuel.

  15. Accuracy of exhaust emission factor measurements on chassis dynamometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joumard, R.; Laurikko, J.; Han, T.L.; Geivanidis, S.; Samaras, Z.; Merétei, T.; Devaux, P.; André, J.-M.; Cornelis, E.; Lacour, S.; Prati, M.V.; Vermeulen, R.; Zallinger, M.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of 20 parameters on the measurement of light-vehicle emission factors on chassis dynamometer based on driving patterns, vehicle-related parameters, vehicle sampling, and laboratory-related parameters, was studied. The results were based on literature synthesis, ≈ 2700 specific tests

  16. Exhaust and evaporative emissions from motorcycles fueled with ethanol gasoline blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Ge, Yunshan; Wang, Mingda; Peng, Zihang; Song, Yanan; Zhang, Liwei; Yuan, Wanli

    2015-01-01

    The emission characteristics of motorcycles using gasoline and E10 (90% gasoline and 10% ethanol by volume) were investigated in this article. Exhaust and evaporative emissions of three motorcycles were investigated on the chassis dynamometer over the Urban Driving Cycle (UDC) and in the Sealed Housing for Evaporative Determination (SHED) including regulated and unregulated emissions. The regulated emissions were detected by an exhaust gas analyzer directly. The unregulated emissions including carbonyls and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled through battery-operated air pumps using tubes coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and Tenax TA, respectively. The experimental results showed that the emission factors of total hydrocarbons (THC) and carbon monoxide (CO) from E10 fueling motorcycles decreased by 26%-45% and 63%-73%, while the emission factor of NOx increased by 36%-54% compared with those from gasoline fueling motorcycles. For unregulated emissions, the emission amount of VOCs from motorcycles fueled with E10 decreased by 18%-31% while total carbonyls were 2.6-4.5 times higher than those for gasoline. For evaporative emissions of THC and VOCs, for gasoline or E10, the diurnal breathing loss (DBL) was higher than hot soak loss (HSL). Using E10 as a fuel does not make much difference in the amount of evaporative THC, while resulted in a slightly growth of 14%-17% for evaporative BETX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Contactless electric igniter for vehicle to lower exhaust emission and fuel consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chih-Lung; Su, Jye-Chau

    2014-01-01

    An electric igniter for engine/hybrid vehicles is presented. The igniter comprises a flyback converter, a voltage-stacked capacitor, a PIC-based controller, a differential voltage detector, and an ignition coil, of which structure is non-contact type. Since the electric igniter adopts a capacitor to accumulate energy for engine ignition instead of traditional contacttype approach, it enhances the igniting performance of a spark plug effectively. As a result, combustion efficiency is promoted, fuel consumption is saved, and exhaust emission is reduced. The igniter not only is good for fuel efficiency but also can reduce HC and CO emission significantly, which therefore is an environmentally friendly product. The control core of the igniter is implemented on a single chip, which lowers discrete component count, reduces system volume, and increases reliability. In addition, the ignition timing can be programmed so that a timing regulator can be removed from the proposed system, simplifying its structure. To verify the feasibility and functionality of the igniter, key waveforms are measured and real-car experiments are performed as well.

  18. Contactless Electric Igniter for Vehicle to Lower Exhaust Emission and Fuel Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An electric igniter for engine/hybrid vehicles is presented. The igniter comprises a flyback converter, a voltage-stacked capacitor, a PIC-based controller, a differential voltage detector, and an ignition coil, of which structure is non-contact type. Since the electric igniter adopts a capacitor to accumulate energy for engine ignition instead of traditional contacttype approach, it enhances the igniting performance of a spark plug effectively. As a result, combustion efficiency is promoted, fuel consumption is saved, and exhaust emission is reduced. The igniter not only is good for fuel efficiency but also can reduce HC and CO emission significantly, which therefore is an environmentally friendly product. The control core of the igniter is implemented on a single chip, which lowers discrete component count, reduces system volume, and increases reliability. In addition, the ignition timing can be programmed so that a timing regulator can be removed from the proposed system, simplifying its structure. To verify the feasibility and functionality of the igniter, key waveforms are measured and real-car experiments are performed as well.

  19. Estimation of exhaust emission from ocean-going vessels for the Port of Cape Town

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moodley, FB

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available -1 Shifting challenges of air quality in South Africa, Bloemfontein, 1-2 October 2015 Estimation of exhaust emission from ocean-going vessels for the Port of Cape Town Farryn B. Moodley *1, 2 and Tirusha Thambiran 3, 4 1 uMoya-NILU Consulting, 29...

  20. 40 CFR 1051.105 - What are the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... travel greater than 10 inches. (E) Engine displacement greater than 50 cc. (F) The absence of a... engines that have total displacement of 70 cc or less to the exhaust emission standards in § 1051.615... first. For off-highway motorcycles with engines that have total displacement of 70 cc or less, the...

  1. 40 CFR 1045.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet? 1045.105 Section 1045.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... from advertisements or other marketing materials for any engines in the engine family. (B) Your basic...

  2. 40 CFR 1054.107 - What is the useful life period for meeting exhaust emission standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the useful life period for meeting exhaust emission standards? 1054.107 Section 1054.107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... product warranty statements and marketing materials regarding engine life, in making this determination...

  3. 40 CFR 1051.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... catalytic converters, use a multiplicative deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. A multiplicative... considered in compliance with the applicable numerical exhaust emission standards in subpart B of this part... durability demonstration. (Note: if you participate in the ABT program in subpart H of this part, your FELs...

  4. Controlling spontaneous emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter

    Control over spontaneous emission of light is of great importance in quantum optics. It is essential for diverse applications such as miniature lasers, light-emitting diodes, and single-photon sources for quantum information. We present experimental studies on spontaneous emission of CdSe quantum...

  5. Strategies for controlling pollution from vehicular emissions in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qidong; He, Kebin; Li, Tiejun; Fu, Lixin

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the severe situation of vehicular emission pollution in Beijing, and discusses the following mitigation strategies: improving fuel quality, controlling the exhaust from new vehicles, controlling the emissions from vehicles in use through, e.g., Inspection/Maintenance (I/M), renovating in-use vehicles and scrapping of old vehicles, and road infrastructure and traffic policies.

  6. Study of exhaust and noise emissions reduction on a single spray direct injection diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, Hirofumi; Sahara, Masanori; Takamori, Yuji; Sakurai, Shigeru (Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan))

    1989-04-01

    In order to materialize the automobile use small direct injection diesel engine (DI), the reduction in both exhaust emission and noise, as studied, was explained in summary. The DI, as excellent in fuel consumption characteristics, was studied to be adopted to the small automobile, with the materialization of small DI to be about 600cc in capacity per cylinder. However the further diminution in dimension had not been materialized yet, because of the aggravation in exhaust emission and vibration noise. Then a single spray DI, characterized by the approximate sphericity in shape of combustion chamber and adoption of cast iron made piston and two-stage spring nozzle, was prototypically made, with optimizing the combustion in characteristics, decreasing HC in exhaust quantity by modifying the injection system, doing also NOx in exhaust quantity by adopting the lag angle at injection time and EGR, modifying the structure to lower the noise, and adopting an air heater to improve the cold start-up in performance. As a result, the present ten-mode exhaust gas regulation and noise level target were achieved, with the improvement in cold start-up and warm-up properties. 6 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Assessment for fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of China's vehicles: future trends and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingying; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Hongwei; Wang, Yuan; Mao, Guozhu

    2012-01-01

    In the recent years, China's auto industry develops rapidly, thus bringing a series of burdens to society and environment. This paper uses Logistic model to simulate the future trend of China's vehicle population and finds that China's auto industry would come into high speed development time during 2020-2050. Moreover, this paper predicts vehicles' fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (CO, HC, NO(x), and PM) and quantificationally evaluates related industry policies. It can be concluded that (1) by 2020, China should develop at least 47 million medium/heavy hybrid cars to prevent the growth of vehicle fuel consumption; (2) China should take the more stringent vehicle emission standard V over 2017-2021 to hold back the growth of exhaust emissions; (3) developing new energy vehicles is the most effective measure to ease the pressure brought by auto industry.

  8. Effects of equivalence ratio and dwell time on exhaust emissions from an experimental premixing prevaporizing burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D.

    1975-01-01

    A flame-tube study was performed to determine the effects of equivalence ratio and residence time on exhaust emissions with premixed, prevaporized propane fuel. Nitrogen oxides emissions as low as 0.3 g NO2/kg fuel were measured with greater than 99 percent combustion efficiency at 800 K inlet temperature and an equivalence ratio of 0.4. For a constant combustion efficiency, lower nitrogen oxides emissions were obtained by burning very lean with relatively long residence times than by using somewhat higher equivalence ratios with shorter times.

  9. Toward reconciling instantaneous roadside measurements of light duty vehicle exhaust emissions with type approval driving cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhys-Tyler, Glyn A; Bell, Margaret C

    2012-10-02

    A method is proposed to relate essentially instantaneous roadside measurements of vehicle exhaust emissions, with emission results generated over a type approval driving cycle. An urban remote sensing data set collected in 2008 is used to define the dynamic relationship between vehicle specific power and exhaust emissions, across a range of vehicle ages, engine capacities, and fuel types. The New European Driving Cycle is synthesized from the remote sensing data using vehicle specific power to characterize engine load, and the results compared with official published emissions data from vehicle type approval tests over the same driving cycle. Mean carbon monoxide emissions from gasoline-powered cars ≤ 3 years old measured using remote sensing are found to be 1.3 times higher than published original type approval test values; this factor increases to 2.2 for cars 4-8 years old, and 6.4 for cars 9-12 years old. The corresponding factors for diesel cars are 1.1, 1.4, and 1.2, respectively. Results for nitric oxide, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter are also reported. The findings have potential implications for the design of traffic management interventions aimed at reducing emissions, fleet inspection and maintenance programs, and the specification of vehicle emission models.

  10. Particulate matters from diesel heavy duty trucks exhaust versus cigarettes emissions: a new educational antismoking instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Cinzia; Ruprecht, Ario Alberto; Pozzi, Paolo; Munarini, Elena; Ogliari, Anna Chiara; Mazza, Roberto; Boffi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Indoor smoking in public places and workplaces is forbidden in Italy since 2003, but some health concerns are arising from outdoor secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure for non-smokers. One of the biggest Italian Steel Manufacturer, with several factories in Italy and abroad, the Marcegaglia Group, recently introduced the outdoor smoking ban within the perimeter of all their factories. In order to encourage their smoker employees to quit, the Marcegaglia management decided to set up an educational framework by measuring the PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 emissions from heavy duty trucks and to compare them with the emissions of cigarettes in an indoor controlled environment under the same conditions. The exhaust pipe of two trucks powered by a diesel engine of about 13.000/14.000 cc(3) were connected with a flexible hose to a hole in the window of a container of 36 m(3) volume used as field office. The trucks operated idling for 8 min and then, after adequate office ventilation, a smoker smoked a cigarette. Particulate matter emission was thereafter analyzed. Cigarette pollution was much higher than the heavy duty truck one. Mean of the two tests was: PM1 truck 125.0(47.0), cigarettes 231.7(90.9) p = 0.002; PM2.5 truck 250.8(98.7), cigarettes 591.8(306.1) p = 0.006; PM10 truck 255.8(52.4), cigarettes 624.0(321.6) p = 0.002. Our findings may be important for policies that aim reducing outdoor SHS exposure. They may also help smokers to quit tobacco dependence by giving them an educational perspective that rebuts the common alibi that traffic pollution is more dangerous than cigarettes pollution.

  11. Investigations on burning efficiency and exhaust emission of in-line type emulsified fuel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Y.K. [National Chinyi University of Technology (Taiwan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Cheng, H.C. [Point Environmental Protection Technology Company Limited (Taiwan)

    2011-07-28

    In this research, the burning efficiency as well as exhaust emission of a new water-in-oil emulsified fuel system was studied. This emulsified system contains two core processes, the first one is to mix 97% water with 3% emulsifier by volume, and get the milk-like emulsified liquid, while the second one is to compound the milk-like emulsified liquid with heavy oil then obtain the emulsified fuel. In order to overcome the used demulsification problem during in reserve or in transport, this system was designed as a made and use in-line type. From the results of a series of burning tests, the fuel saving can be 8--15%. Also, from the comparison of decline for the heat value and total energy output of emulsified fuel, one can find that the water as the dispersed phase in the combustion process will lead to a micro-explosion as well as the water gas effect, both can raise the combustion temperature and burning efficiency. By comparing the waste gas emission of different types of emulsified fuel, one can know that, the CO2 emission reduces approximately 14%, and NOx emission reduces above 46%, meaning the reduction of the exhaust gas is truly effective. From the exhaust temperature of tail pipe, the waste heat discharge also may reduce 27%, it is quite advantageous to the global warming as well as earth environmental protection.

  12. Exposure Control Indoors with Wearable Personal Exhaust Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Barova, Maria I.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2013-01-01

    A wearable personalized ventilation (PV) unit to reduce the risk from airborne disease contamination is reported. The PV unit consists of a nozzle, installed on a headset, which is used to locally exhaust the exhaled air before it mixes with the surroundings. Experiments at 22 °C were performed i...... engineering control method that can reduce the spread of pathogen laden air from sick occupants in densely occupied spaces, i.e. cinemas, public transportation, office buildings etc.......A wearable personalized ventilation (PV) unit to reduce the risk from airborne disease contamination is reported. The PV unit consists of a nozzle, installed on a headset, which is used to locally exhaust the exhaled air before it mixes with the surroundings. Experiments at 22 °C were performed...

  13. 40 CFR 1039.102 - What exhaust emission standards and phase-in allowances apply for my engines in model year 2014...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements § 1039.102 What exhaust emission standards and phase-in allowances apply for my engines in model year 2014 and earlier? The exhaust emission standards of this section apply for 2014 and earlier model years. See § 1039.101 for exhaust emission standards that apply to later model years. See 40 CFR 89.112...

  14. 40 CFR 1051.103 - What are the exhaust emission standards for snowmobiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES... emission credits, and the vehicles within the family meet the family emission limit. The phase-in values... on the following types of hydrocarbon emissions for snowmobiles powered by the following fuels: (1...

  15. Effect of aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions on near field plume aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics

    1997-12-31

    Based on estimated exit plane sulfur speciation, a two dimensional, axisymmetric flow field model with coupled gas phase oxidation kinetics and aerosol nucleation and growth dynamics is used to evaluate the effect of fuel sulfur oxidation in the engine on the formation and growth of volatile H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O aerosols in the near field plume. The conversion of fuel sulfur to sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid in the engine is predicted to significantly increase the number density and surface area density of volatile H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O aerosols and the chemical activation of exhaust soot particulates. This analysis indicates the need for experimental measurements of exhaust SO{sub x} emissions to fully assess the atmospheric impact of aircraft emissions. (author) 18 refs.; Submitted to Geophysical Research Letters

  16. [Emission Characteristics of Vehicle Exhaust in Beijing Based on Actual Traffic Flow Information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shou-bin; Tian, Ling-di; Zhang, Dong-xu; Qu, Song

    2015-08-01

    The basic data of traffic volume, vehicle type constitute and speed on road networks in Beijing was obtained fly modei simulation and field survey. Based on actual traffic flow information and. emission factors data with temporal and spatial distribution features, emission inventory of motor vehicle exhaust in Beijing was built on the ArcGIS platform, meanwhile, the actual road emission characteristics and spatial distribution of the pollutant emissions were analyzed. The results showed that the proportion of passenger car was higher than 89% on each type of road in the urban, and the proportion of passenger car was the highest in suburban roads as well while the pickup truck, medium truck, heavy truck, motorbus, tractor and motorcycle also occupied a certain proportion. There was a positive correlation between the pollutant emission intensity and traffic volume, and the emission intensity was generally higher in daytime than nighttime, but the diurnal variation trend of PM emission was not clear for suburban roads and the emission intensity was higher in nighttime than daytime for highway. The emission intensities in urban area, south, southeast and northeast areas near urban were higher than those in the western and northern mountainous areas with lower density of road network. The ring roads in urban and highways in suburban had higher emission intensity because of the heavy traffic volume.

  17. Compensation of the exhaust gas transport dynamics for accurate instantaneous emission measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajtay, Delia; Weilenmann, Martin

    2004-10-01

    Instantaneous emission models of vehicles describe the amount of emitted pollutants as a function of the driving state of the car. Emission measurements of chassis dynamometer tests with high time resolution are necessary for the development of such models. However, the dynamics of gas transport in both the exhaust system of the car and the measurement line last significantly longer than 1 s. In a simplified approach, the transport dynamics can be divided into two parts: a perfect time delay, corresponding to a piston-like transport of the exhaust gas, and a dynamic part, corresponding to the mixing of gases by turbulence along the way. This determines the occurrence of emission peaks that are longer in time and lower in height at the analyzer than they actually are in the vehicle at their location of formation. It is shown here how the sharp emission signals at their location of formation can be reconstructed from the flattened emission signals recorded at the analyzer by using signal theory approaches. A comparison between the reconstructions quality when using the raw or the dilution analyzer system is also given.

  18. Primary particulate emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from idling diesel vehicle exhaust in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei; Hu, Qihou; Liu, Tengyu; Wang, Xinming; Zhang, Yanli; Song, Wei; Sun, Yele; Bi, Xinhui; Yu, Jianzhen; Yang, Weiqiang; Huang, Xinyu; Zhang, Zhou; Huang, Zhonghui; He, Quanfu; Mellouki, Abdelwahid; George, Christian

    2017-09-01

    In China diesel vehicles dominate the primary emission of particulate matters from on-road vehicles, and they might also contribute substantially to the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). In this study tailpipe exhaust of three typical in-use diesel vehicles under warm idling conditions was introduced directly into an indoor smog chamber with a 30m 3 Teflon reactor to characterize primary emissions and SOA formation during photo-oxidation. The emission factors of primary organic aerosol (POA) and black carbon (BC) for the three types of Chinese diesel vehicles ranged 0.18-0.91 and 0.15-0.51gkg-fuel -1 , respectively; and the SOA production factors ranged 0.50-1.8gkg-fuel -1 and SOA/POA ratios ranged 0.7-3.7 with an average of 2.2. The fuel-based POA emission factors and SOA production factors from this study for idling diesel vehicle exhaust were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than those reported in previous studies for idling gasoline vehicle exhaust. The emission factors for total particle numbers were 0.65-4.0×10 15 particleskg-fuel -1 , and particles with diameters less than 50nm dominated in total particle numbers. Traditional C 2 -C 12 precursor non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) could only explain less than 3% of the SOA formed during aging and contribution from other precursors including intermediate volatile organic compounds (IVOC) needs further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 40 CFR 1039.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet after the 2014 model year?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emission standards must my engines meet after the 2014 model year? The exhaust emission standards of this section apply after the 2014 model year. Certain of these standards also apply for model year 2014 and... emission standards that apply to 2014 and earlier model years. Section 1039.105 specifies smoke standards...

  20. Modeling of aircraft exhaust emissions and infrared spectra for remote measurement of nitrogen oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Beier

    Full Text Available Infrared (IR molecular spectroscopy is proposed to perform remote measurements of NOx concentrations in the exhaust plume and wake of aircraft. The computer model NIRATAM is applied to simulate the physical and chemical properties of the exhaust plume and to generate low resolution IR spectra and synthetical thermal images of the aircraft in its natural surroundings. High-resolution IR spectra of the plume, including atmospheric absorption and emission, are simulated using the molecular line-by-line radiation model FASCODE2. Simulated IR spectra of a Boeing 747-400 at cruising altitude for different axial and radial positions in the jet region of the exhaust plume are presented. A number of spectral lines of NO can be identified that can be discriminated from lines of other exhaust gases and the natural atmospheric background in the region around 5.2 µm. These lines can be used to determine NO concentration profiles in the plume. The possibility of measuring nitrogen dioxide NO2 is also discussed briefly, although measurements turn out to be substantially less likely than those of NO. This feasibility study compiles fundamental data for the optical and radiometric design of an airborne Fourier transform spectrometer and the preparation of in-flight measurements for monitoring of aircraft pollutants.

  1. Modeling of aircraft exhaust emissions and infrared spectra for remote measurement of nitrogen oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Beier

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Infrared (IR molecular spectroscopy is proposed to perform remote measurements of NOx concentrations in the exhaust plume and wake of aircraft. The computer model NIRATAM is applied to simulate the physical and chemical properties of the exhaust plume and to generate low resolution IR spectra and synthetical thermal images of the aircraft in its natural surroundings. High-resolution IR spectra of the plume, including atmospheric absorption and emission, are simulated using the molecular line-by-line radiation model FASCODE2. Simulated IR spectra of a Boeing 747-400 at cruising altitude for different axial and radial positions in the jet region of the exhaust plume are presented. A number of spectral lines of NO can be identified that can be discriminated from lines of other exhaust gases and the natural atmospheric background in the region around 5.2 µm. These lines can be used to determine NO concentration profiles in the plume. The possibility of measuring nitrogen dioxide NO2 is also discussed briefly, although measurements turn out to be substantially less likely than those of NO. This feasibility study compiles fundamental data for the optical and radiometric design of an airborne Fourier transform spectrometer and the preparation of in-flight measurements for monitoring of aircraft pollutants.

  2. Exhaust gas emissions and mutagenic effects of modern diesel fuels, GTL, biodiesel and biodiesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schroeder, Olaf [Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries, Braunschweig (Germany)], E-mail: axel.munack@vti.bund.de; Krahl, Juergen [Coburg Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany); Buenger, Juergen [University of Bochum (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Biodiesel can be used alone (B100) or blended with petroleum diesel in any proportion. The most popular biodiesel blend in the U.S.A. is B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% diesel fuel), which can be used for Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) compliance. In the European Union, the use of biofuel blends is recommended and was introduced by federal regulations in several countries. In Germany, biodiesel is currently blended as B5 (5% biodiesel) to common diesel fuel. In 2008, B7 plus three percent hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) as well is intended to become mandatory in Germany. To investigate the influence of blends on the emissions and possible health effects, we performed a series of studies with several engines (Euro 0, III and IV) measuring regulated and non-regulated exhaust compounds and determining their mutagenic effects. Emissions of blends showed an approximate linear dependence on the blend composition, in particular when regulated emissions are considered. However, a negative effect of blends was observed with respect to mutagenicity of the exhaust gas emissions. In detail, a maximum of the mutagenic potency was found in the range of B20. From this point of view, B20 must be considered as a critical blend, in case diesel fuel and biodiesel are used as binary mixtures. (author)

  3. Influence of driving cycles on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of gasoline passenger car in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutramon, Tamsanya; Supachart, Chungpaibulpatana

    2009-01-01

    The influence of different driving cycles on their exhaust emissions and fuel consumption rate of gasoline passenger car was investigated in Bangkok based on the actual measurements obtained from a test vehicle driving on a standard chassis dynamometer. A newly established Bangkok driving cycle (BDC) and the European driving cycle (EDC) which is presently adopted as the legislative cycle for testing automobiles registered in Thailand were used. The newly developed BDC is constructed using the driving characteristic data obtained from the real on-road driving tests along selected traffic routes. A method for selecting appropriate road routes for real driving tests is also introduced. Variations of keyed driving parameters of BDC with different driving cycles were discussed. The results showed that the HC and CO emission factors of BDC are almost two and four times greater than those of EDC, respectively. Although the difference in the NOx emission factor is small, the value from BDC is still greater than that of EDC by 10%. Under BDC, the test vehicle consumes fuel about 25% more than it does under EDC. All these differences are mainly attributed to the greater proportion of idle periods and higher fluctuations of vehicle speed in the BDC cycle. This result indicated that the exhausted emissions and fuel consumption of vehicles obtained from tests under the legislative modal-type driving cycle (EDC) are significantly different from those actually produced under real traffic conditions especially during peak periods.

  4. IDI diesel engine performance and exhaust emission analysis using biodiesel with an artificial neural network (ANN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Prasada Rao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is receiving increasing attention each passing day because of its fuel properties and compatibility. This study investigates the performance and emission characteristics of single cylinder four stroke indirect diesel injection (IDI engine fueled with Rice Bran Methyl Ester (RBME with Isopropanol additive. The investigation is done through a combination of experimental data analysis and artificial neural network (ANN modeling. The study used IDI engine experimental data to evaluate nine engine performance and emission parameters including Exhaust Gas Temperature (E.G.T, Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC, Brake Thermal Efficiency (B.The and various emissions like Hydrocarbons (HC, Carbon monoxide (CO, Carbon dioxide (CO2, Oxygen (O2, Nitrogen oxides (NOX and smoke. For the ANN modeling standard back propagation algorithm was found to be the optimum choice for training the model. A multi-layer perception (MLP network was used for non-linear mapping between the input and output parameters. It was found that ANN was able to predict the engine performance and exhaust emissions with a correlation coefficient of 0.995, 0.980, 0.999, 0.985, 0.999, 0.999, 0.980, 0.999, and 0.999 for E.G.T, BSFC, B.The, HC, O2, CO2, CO, NOX, smoke respectively.

  5. Tank exhaust comparison with 40 CFR 61.93, Subpart H, and other referenced guidelines for Tank Farms National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant (NESHAP) designated stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachand, D.D.; Crummel, G.M.

    1994-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated National Emission Standards other than Radon from US Department of Energy (DOE) Facilities (40 CFR 61, Subpart H) on December 15, 1989. The regulations specify procedures, equipment, and test methods that.are to be used to measure radionuclide emissions from exhaust stacks that are designated as National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant (NESHAP) stacks. Designated NESHAP stacks are those that have the potential to cause any member of the public to receive an effective dose equivalent (EDE) greater than or equal to 0.1 mrem/year, assuming all emission controls were removed. Tank Farms currently has 33 exhaust stacks, 15 of which are designated NESHAP stacks. This document assesses the compliance status of the monitoring and sampling systems for the designated NESHAP stacks.

  6. Exhaust emissions reduction from diesel engine using combined Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends and antioxidant additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, R.; Silambarasan, R.; Pranesh, G.

    2017-03-01

    The limited resources, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel have now become a matter of great concern. Hence, there is an urgent need for researchers to find some alternate fuels which are capable of substituting partly or wholly the higher demanded conventional diesel fuel. Lot of research work has been conducted on diesel engine using biodiesel and its blends with diesel as an alternate fuel. Very few works have been done with combination of biodiesel-Eucalypts oil without neat diesel and this leads to lots of scope in this area. The aim of the present study is to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, direct injection, compression ignition engine using eucalyptus oil-biodiesel as fuel. The presence of eucalyptus oil in the blend reduces the viscosity and improves the volatility of the blends. The methyl ester of Annona oil is blended with eucalypts oil in 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The performance and emission characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different loads. The performance characteristics such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature are evaluated. The emission constituents measured are Carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and Smoke. It is found that A50-Eu50 (50 Annona + 50 % Eucalyptus oil) blend showed better performance and reduction in exhaust emissions. But, it showed a very marginal increase in NOx emission when compared to that of diesel. Therefore, in order to reduce the NOx emission, antioxidant additive (A-tocopherol acetate) is mixed with Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends in various proportions by which NOx emission is reduced. Hence, A50-Eu50 blend can be used as an alternate fuel for diesel engine without any modifications.

  7. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL- AND CNG-POWERED URBAN BUSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COROLLER, P; PLASSAT, G

    2003-08-24

    Couple years ago, ADEME engaged programs dedicated to the urban buses exhaust emissions studies. The measures associated with the reduction of atmospheric and noise pollution has particular importance in the sector of urban buses. In many cases, they illustrate the city's environmental image and contribute to reinforcing the attractiveness of public transport. France's fleet in service, presently put at about 14,000 units, consumes about 2 per cent of the total energy of city transport. It causes about 2 per cent of the HC emissions and from 4 to 6 per cent of the NOx emissions and particles. These vehicles typically have a long life span (about 15 years) and are relatively expensive to buy, about 150.000 euros per unit. Several technical solutions were evaluated to quantify, on a real condition cycle for buses, on one hand pollutants emissions, fuel consumption and on the other hand reliability, cost in real existing fleet. This paper presents main preliminary results on urban buses exhaust emission on two different cases: - existing Diesel buses, with fuel modifications (Diesel with low sulphur content), Diesel with water emulsion and bio-Diesel (30% oil ester in standard Diesel fuel); renovating CNG powered Euro II buses fleet, over representative driving cycles, set up by ADEME and partners. On these cycles, pollutants (regulated and unregulated) were measured as well as fuel consumption, at the beginning of a program and one year after to quantify reliability and increase/decrease of pollutants emissions. At the same time, some after-treatment technologies were tested under real conditions and several vehicles. Information such as fuel consumption, lubricant analysis, problem on the technology were following during a one year program. On the overall level, it is the combination of various action, pollution-reduction and renewal that will make it possible to meet the technological challenge of reducing emissions and fuel consumption by urban bus

  8. Experimental investigation on performance and exhaust emissions of castor oil biodiesel from a diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaeefard, M H; Etgahni, M M; Meisami, F; Barari, A

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, produced from plant and animal oils, is an important alternative to fossil fuels because, apart from dwindling supply, the latter are a major source of air pollution. In this investigation, effects of castor oil biodiesel blends have been examined on diesel engine performance and emissions. After producing castor methyl ester by the transesterification method and measuring its characteristics, the experiments were performed on a four cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, diesel engine. Engine performance (power, torque, brake specific fuel consumption and thermal efficiency) and exhaust emissions were analysed at various engine speeds. All the tests were done under 75% full load. Furthermore, the volumetric blending ratios of biodiesel with conventional diesel fuel were set at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30%. The results indicate that lower blends of biodiesel provide acceptable engine performance and even improve it. Meanwhile, exhaust emissions are much decreased. Finally, a 15% blend of castor oil-biodiesel was picked as the optimized blend of biodiesel-diesel. It was found that lower blends of castor biodiesel are an acceptable fuel alternative for the engine.

  9. An Experimental Investigation of Ethanol-Diesel Blends on Performance and Exhaust Emissions of Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarkan Sandalcı

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is a promising alternative fuel, due to its renewable biobased origin. Also, it has lower carbon content than diesel fuel and it is oxygenated. For this reason, ethanol is providing remarkable potential to reduce particulate emulsions in compression-ignition engines. In this study, performance of ethanol-diesel blends has been investigated experimentally. Tested fuels were mineral diesel fuel (E0D100, 15% (v/v ethanol/diesel fuel blend (E15D85, and 30% (v/v ethanol/diesel fuel blend (E30D70. Firstly, the solubility of ethanol and diesel was experienced. Engine tests were carried out to reveal the performance and emissions of the engine fuelled with the blends. Full load operating conditions at various engine speeds were investigated. Engine brake torque, brake power, brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature, and finally exhaust emissions were measured. Performance of the tested engine decreased substantially while improvement on smoke and gaseous emissions makes ethanol blend favorable.

  10. Effect of exhaust emissions on carbon monoxide levels in employees working at indoor car wash facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topacoglu, H; Katsakoglou, S; Ipekci, A

    2014-01-01

    Exhaust emissions from motor vehicles threaten the environment and human health. Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, especially the use of exhaust gas CO in suicidal attempts is well known in the literature. Recently, indoor car wash facilities established in large shopping malls with closed parking, lots is a new risk area that exposes car wash employees to prolonged periods of high level CO emissions from cars. The aim of this study was to investigate how carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) blood levels of employees get affected in confined areas with relatively poor air circulation. Twenty male volunteers working in indoor parking car wash facilities were included in the study. Participants were informed about the aim of this study and their consent was obtained. Their pulse COHb levels were measured twice, at the beginning and at the end of the working day using Rad-57 pulse CO-oximeter device, allowing non-invasive measurement of COHb blood levels to compare the changes in their COHb levels before and after work. The mean age of the male volunteers was 29.8 ± 11.9 (range 18-55). While the mean COHb levels measured at the start of the working day was 2.1 ± 2.0 (range 0-9), it was increased to 5.2 ± 3.3 (range 1-15) at the end of work shift (Wilcoxon test, p car wash facility employees is directly impacted and gets elevated by motor vechile exhaust emissions. For the health of the employees at indoor parking car wash facilities, stricter precautions are needed and the government should not give permit to such operations.

  11. COST EFFECTIVE VOC EMISSION CONTROL STARTEGIES FOR MILITARY, AEROSPACE,AND INDUSTRIAL PAINT SPRAY BOOTH OPERATIONS: COMBINING IMPROVED VENTILATION SYSTEMS WITH INNOVATIVE, LOW COST EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes a full-scale demonstration program in which several paint booths were modified for recirculation ventilation; the booth exhaust streams are vented to an innovative volatile organic compound (VOC) emission control system having extremely low operating costs. ...

  12. Remote gas analysis of aircraft exhausts using FTIR-emission-spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heland, J.; Schaefer, K. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Atmospheric Environmental Research, Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    FITR emission spectroscopy as a remote sensing multi-component analyzing technique was investigated to determine the composition of aircraft exhausts at ground level. A multi-layer radiative transfer interpretation software based on a line-by-line computer algorithm using the HITRAN data base was developed. Measurements were carried out with different engine types to determine the traceable gas species and their detection limits. Finally validation measurements were made to compare the results of the system to those of conventional equipment. (author) 8 refs.

  13. The Effect on Performance and Exhaust Emissions of Adding Cotton Oil Methyl Ester to Diesel Fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Kahraman, Ali; Ciniviz, Murat; Örs, İlker; Oğuz, Hidayet

    2016-01-01

    In the study, engine performance and exhaust emissions of diesel fuel and cotton oil methyl ester (COME) blends at proportions of 2%, %5 and 10% (v/v) have been investigated. The engine was fuelled with COME–diesel blends and pure diesel when running the engine at six different engine speed (1000,1200, 1400, 1600, 1800, 2000 rpm) and at full load. Test results are presented engine torque and specific fuel consumption (SCF) as engine performance, and Carbon monoxide (CO), Hydrocarbon (HC), smo...

  14. Aircraft engine exhaust emissions and other airport-related contributions to ambient air pollution: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiol, Mauro; Harrison, Roy M.

    2014-10-01

    Civil aviation is fast-growing (about +5% every year), mainly driven by the developing economies and globalisation. Its impact on the environment is heavily debated, particularly in relation to climate forcing attributed to emissions at cruising altitudes and the noise and the deterioration of air quality at ground-level due to airport operations. This latter environmental issue is of particular interest to the scientific community and policymakers, especially in relation to the breach of limit and target values for many air pollutants, mainly nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, near the busiest airports and the resulting consequences for public health. Despite the increased attention given to aircraft emissions at ground-level and air pollution in the vicinity of airports, many research gaps remain. Sources relevant to air quality include not only engine exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from aircraft, but also emissions from the units providing power to the aircraft on the ground, the traffic due to the airport ground service, maintenance work, heating facilities, fugitive vapours from refuelling operations, kitchens and restaurants for passengers and operators, intermodal transportation systems, and road traffic for transporting people and goods in and out to the airport. Many of these sources have received inadequate attention, despite their high potential for impact on air quality. This review aims to summarise the state-of-the-art research on aircraft and airport emissions and attempts to synthesise the results of studies that have addressed this issue. It also aims to describe the key characteristics of pollution, the impacts upon global and local air quality and to address the future potential of research by highlighting research needs.

  15. Using GC×GC-ToF-MS to characterise SVOC from diesel exhaust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M. S.; Ramadhas, A. S.; Stark, C. P.; Liu, D.; Xu, H.; Harrison, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Despite intensive research over the last 20 years, a number of major research questions remain concerning the sources and properties of road traffic-generated particulate matter. There are major knowledge gaps concerning the composition of primary vehicle exhaust aerosol, and its contribution to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. These uncertainties relate especially to the semi-volatile component of the particles. Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds (SVOC) are compounds which partition directly between the gas and aerosol phases under ambient conditions, and include compounds with saturation concentrations roughly between 0.1 and 104 μg m-3. The SVOC in engine exhaust are typically hydrocarbons in the C15-C35 range. They are largely uncharacterised, other than the n-alkanes, because they are unresolved by traditional gas chromatography and form a large hump in the chromatogram referred to as Unresolved Complex Mixture (UCM). In this study, samples were collected from the exhaust of a diesel engine with and without abatement devices fitted. Engine exhaust was diluted with air and collected using both filter and impaction (MOUDI), to resolve total mass and size resolved mass respectively. Particle size distribution was evaluated by sampling simultaneously with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). 2D Gas-Chromatography Time-of-Flight Mass-Spectrometry (GC×GC-ToF-MS) was exploited to characterise and quantify the composition of SVOC from the exhaust emission. The SVOC was observed to contain predominantly n-alkanes, alkyl-cyclohexanes and aromatics; similar to both fresh lubricating oil and fuel. Preliminary results indicate that the contribution of diesel fuel to the exhaust SVOC composition is dominant at high speeds, and a more pronounced contribution from lubricating oil is observed at low speeds. Differences were also observed in the SVOC composition when using different fuel types, engine lubricants, starting temperatures and collecting samples with

  16. Effect of aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions on near field plume aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. C.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Anderson, M. R.; Kolb, C. E.

    A two dimensional, axisymmetric flowfield model with coupled gas phase oxidation kinetics and aerosol nucleation and growth dynamics is used to evaluate the effect of fuel sulfur oxidation in the Concorde engine on the formation and growth of volatile H2SO4/H2O aerosols in the near field plume. Rased on estimated exit plane sulfur speciation, results are shown for between 2% and 20% conversion of the fuel sulfur to S(VI) (SO3 and H2SO4) in engine. The primary motivation is to provide estimates for the changes in the number density and surface area density of sulfuric acid aerosols due to sulfur oxidation in the engine. This analysis indicates the need for experimental measurements of sulfur emissions at the exhaust exit, in addition to soot properties, to fully assess the atmospheric impact of aircraft emissions.

  17. Nonintrusive optical measurements of aircraft engine exhaust emissions and comparison with standard intrusive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, K; Heland, J; Lister, D H; Wilson, C W; Howes, R J; Falk, R S; Lindermeir, E; Birk, M; Wagner, G; Haschberger, P; Bernard, M; Legras, O; Wiesen, P; Kurtenbach, R; Brockmann, K J; Kriesche, V; Hilton, M; Bishop, G; Clarke, R; Workman, J; Caola, M; Geatches, R; Burrows, R; Black, J D; Hervé, P; Vally, J

    2000-01-20

    Nonintrusive systems for the measurement on test rigs of aeroengine exhaust emissions required for engine certification (CO, NO(x), total unburned hydrocarbon, and smoke), together with CO(2) and temperature have been developed. These results have been compared with current certified intrusive measurements on an engine test. A spectroscopic database and data-analysis software has been developed to enable Fourier-transform Infrared measurement of concentrations of molecular species. CO(2), CO, and NO data showed agreement with intrusive techniques of approximately ?30%. A narrow-band spectroscopic device was used to measure CO(2) (with deviations of less than ?10% from the intrusive measurement), whereas laser-induced incandescence was used to measure particles. Future improvements to allow for the commercial use of the nonintrusive systems have been identified and the methods are applicable to any measurement of combustion emissions.

  18. Investigation of diesel engine for low exhaust emissions with different combustion chambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghodke Pundlik R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Upcoming stringent Euro-6 emission regulations for passenger vehicle better fuel economy, low cost are the key challenges for engine development. In this paper, 2.2L, multi cylinder diesel engine have been tested for four different piston bowls designed for compression ratio of CR 15.5 to improve in cylinder performance and reduce emissions. These combustion chambers were verified in CFD at two full load points. 14 mode points have been derived using vehicle model run in AVL CRUISE software as per NEDC cycle based on time weightage factor. Base engine with compression ratio CR16.5 for full load performance and 14-mode points on Engine test bench was taken as reference for comparison. The bowl with flat face on bottom corner has shown reduction 25% and 12 % NOx emissions at 1500 and 3750 rpm full load points at same level of Soot emissions. Three piston bowls were tested for full load performance and 14 mode points on engine test bench and combustion chamber ‘C’ has shown improvement in thermal efficiency by 0.8%. Combinations of cooled EGR and combustion chamber ‘C’ with geometrical changes in engine have reduced exhaust NOx, soot and CO emissions by 22%, 9 % and 64 % as compared to base engine at 14 mode points on engine test bench.

  19. Exhaust Gas Recirculation Control for Large Diesel Engines - Achievable Performance with SISO Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Mahler; Blanke, Mogens; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates control possibilities for Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on large diesel engines. The goal is to reduce the amount of NOx in the exhaust gas by reducing the oxygen concentration available for combustion. Control limitations imposed by the system are assessed using linear ...... Feedback Theory (QFT) designs. Validation of the controller is made on the model with focus on disturbance reduction ability....

  20. Control of Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor); Chung, Landy (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods and apparatus utilizing chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce NOx emissions, as well as SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions, from combustion flue gas streams.

  1. The significance of vehicle emissions standards for levels of exhaust pollution from light vehicles in an urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhys-Tyler, G. A.; Legassick, W.; Bell, M. C.

    2011-06-01

    This paper addresses the research question "Are more stringent exhaust emissions standards, as applied to light vehicle type approval, resulting in reduced vehicle pollution in an urban area?" The exhaust emissions of a sample of over fifty thousand road vehicles operating in London were measured using roadside remote sensing absorption spectroscopy techniques (infrared and ultraviolet), combined with Automatic Number Plate Recognition for vehicle identification. Levels of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitric oxide (NO), and smoke (particulate) exhaust emissions are reported by vehicle class, fuel type, and Euro emissions standard. Emissions from petrol cars of each pollutant were all observed to display a statistically significant reduction with the introduction of each successive Euro emissions standard from Euro 1 onwards. However, Euro 2 diesel cars were observed to emit statistically higher rates of NO than either Euro 1 or Euro 3 standard diesel cars. The study also confirms the continuing 'dieselisation' of the UK passenger car fleet. Mean NO emissions from Euro 4 diesel cars were found to be 6 times higher than Euro 4 petrol cars, highlighting the need to develop a sound understanding of the current and future 'in-use' emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles, and their influence on local air quality. Smoke emissions from TXII London taxis (black cabs) were found to be statistically higher than either earlier TX1 or later TX4 model variants, with possible implications for local air quality policy interventions such as maximum age limits for taxis.

  2. Using a source-receptor approach to characterize the volatile organic compounds from control device exhaust in a science park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Fan; Liang, Jeng-Jong

    2013-03-01

    The science parks have helped shape Taiwan as a high-tech island with a good reputation worldwide. But some complaints on air pollution from the science parks have recently risen. To better understand the environmental effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from various high-tech factories in a science park, this study uses a source-receptor approach to characterize the environmental effects of VOCs from control device exhaust in Taichung Science Park. The chemical mass balance model (CMB8.2) of field measurements of 30 stacks and ambient air at nine sites was used to identify the source and relative contribution of ambient VOCs. The exhaust gas of various pollution control devices was also sampled by drawing a stream of the gases from the exhaust duct at its sampling port. The VOC source profile of each control device exhaust was determined using a database of noncharacteristic compounds. Monthly ambient concentrations of 167 VOCs were divided into monsoon datasets to investigate the effect of monsoon conditions on the emission of VOCs in the science park. This study also suggests a method for determining the optimum source profile in source-receptor modeling, and identifies and analyzes the sources of ambient VOCs at nine sites during southwest and northeast monsoons. Results show a direct relationship between the relative contribution of each source and its control device efficiency. The proposed source-receptor approach can characterize the environmental effect of air pollutants from various factories and successfully assess the efficiency of various control devices.

  3. Carbonaceous aerosol in jet engine exhaust: emission characteristics and implications for heterogeneous chemical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzold, A.; Schroeder, F.P.; Kaercher, B. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Wessling (Germany). Institut fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Stroem, J. [Stockholm University (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1999-08-01

    Characteristic parameters of black carbon aerosol (BC) emitted from jet engine were measured during ground tests and in-flight behind the same aircraft. Size distribution features were a primary BC mode at a model diameter D {approx} 0.045 {mu}m, and a BC agglomeration mode at D < 0.2 {mu}m. The total BC number concentration at the engine exit was 2.9 x 10{sup 7} cm{sup -3} with good agreement between model results and in-flight measured number concentrations of non-volatile particles with D {>=} 0.014 {mu}m. A comparison between total number concentration of BC particles and the non-volatile fraction of the total aerosol at the exit plane suggests that the non-volatile fraction of jet engine exhaust aerosol consists almost completely of BC. In-flight BC mass emission indices ranged from 0.11 to 0.15 g BC (kg fuel){sup -1}. The measured in-flight particle emission value was 1.75 {+-} 0.15 x 10{sup 15} kg{sup -1} with corresponding ground test values of 1.0-8.7 x 10{sup 14} kg{sup -1}. Both size distribution properties and mass emission indices can be scaled from ground test to in-flight conditions. Implications for atmosphere BC loading, BC and cirrus interaction and the potential of BC for perturbation of atmospheric chemistry are briefly outlined. (author)

  4. Primary Emission and the Potential of Secondary Aerosol Formation from Chinese Gasoline Engine Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min; Peng, Jianfei; Qin, Yanhong; Du, Zhuofei; Li, Mengjin; Zheng, Rong; Zheng, Jing; Shang, Dongjie; Lu, Sihua; Wu, Yusheng; Zeng, Limin; Guo, Song; Shao, Min; Wang, Yinhui; Shuai, Shijin

    2017-04-01

    Along with the urbanization and economic growth, vehicle population in China reached 269 million, ranked the second in the world in 2015. Gasoline vehicle is identified to be the main source for urban PM2.5 in China, accounting for 15%-31%. In this study the impact of fuel components on PM2.5 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from a gasoline port fuel injection (PFI) engine and a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine are discussed. Results show that, higher proportion of aromatics, alkenes or sulfur in gasoline fuel will lead to higher PM emissions. The PM from the PFI engine mainly consists of OC and a small amount of EC and inorganic ions, while the PM discharge from the GDI engine mainly consists of EC, OM and a small amount of inorganic ions. Since the GDI engines can reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, and it would become more and more popular in the near future. The characteristics of POM component, emission factors and source profile were investigated from GDI engine, particularly focused on the effect of engine speed, load and the catalyst, which will be very much helpful for source identification as source indicators. Chamber experiments were conducted to quantify the potential of secondary aerosol formation from exhaust of a PFI gasoline engine and China V gasoline fuel. During 4-5 h simulation, equivalent to10 days of atmospheric photo-oxidation in Beijing, the extreme SOA production was 426 ± 85 mg/kg fuel, with high precursors and OH exposure. 14% of SOA measured in the chamber experiments could be explained through the oxidation of speciated single-ring aromatics. Unspeciated precursors, such as intermediate-volatility organic compounds and semi-volatility organic compounds, might be significant for SOA formation from gasoline VOCs. We concluded that reduction of emissions of aerosol precursor gases from vehicles is essential to mediate pollution in China.

  5. Carbonyl emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicle exhaust in China and the contribution to ozone formation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Dong; Shao, Min; Li, Yue; Lu, Sihua; Wang, Yanjun; Ji, Zhe; Tang, Dagang

    2014-01-01

    Fifteen heavy-duty diesel vehicles were tested on chassis dynamometer by using typical heavy duty driving cycle and fuel economy cycle. The air from the exhaust was sampled by 2,4-dinitrophenyhydrazine cartridge and 23 carbonyl compounds were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The average emission factor of carbonyls was 97.2 mg/km, higher than that of light-duty diesel vehicles and gasoline-powered vehicles. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone and propionaldehyde were the species with the highest emission factors. Main influencing factors for carbonyl emissions were vehicle type, average speed and regulated emission standard, and the impact of vehicle loading was not evident in this study. National emission of carbonyls from diesel vehicles exhaust was calculated for China, 2011, based on both vehicle miles traveled and fuel consumption. Carbonyl emission of diesel vehicle was estimated to be 45.8 Gg, and was comparable to gasoline-powered vehicles (58.4 Gg). The emissions of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone were 12.6, 6.9, 3.8 Gg, respectively. The ozone formation potential of carbonyls from diesel vehicles exhaust was 537 mg O3/km, higher than 497 mg O3/km of none-methane hydrocarbons emitted from diesel vehicles.

  6. Effect of lower and higher alcohol fuel synergies in biofuel blends and exhaust treatment system on emissions from CI engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Thiyagarajan; Varuvel, Edwin Geo; Martin, Leenus Jesu; Beddhannan, Nagalingam

    2017-11-01

    The present study deals with performance, emission and combustion studies in a single cylinder CI engine with lower and higher alcohol fuel synergies with biofuel blends and exhaust treatment system. Karanja oil methyl ester (KOME), widely available biofuel in India, and orange oil (ORG), a low carbon biofuel, were taken for this study, and equal volume blend was prepared for testing. Methanol (M) and n-pentanol (P) was taken as lower and higher alcohol and blended 20% by volume with KOME-ORG blend. Activated carbon-based exhaust treatment indigenous system was designed and tested with KOME-ORG + M20 and KOME-ORG + P20 blend. The tests were carried out at various load conditions at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The study revealed that considering performance, emission and combustion studies, KOME-ORG + M20 + activated carbon are found optimum in reducing NO, smoke and CO2 emission. Compared to KOME, for KOME-ORG + M20 + activated carbon, NO emission is reduced from 10.25 to 7.85 g/kWh, the smoke emission is reduced from 49.4 to 28.9%, and CO2 emission is reduced from 1098.84 to 580.68 g/kWh. However, with exhaust treatment system, an increase in HC and CO emissions and reduced thermal efficiency is observed due to backpressure effects.

  7. Work stress and emotional exhaustion in nurses: the mediating role of internal locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partlak Günüşen, Neslihan; Ustün, Besti; Erdem, Sabri

    2014-01-01

    Burnout is a major problem for nursing. There is a strong relationship between work stress and emotional exhaustion. Although studies report a negative correlation between the internal locus of control and emotional exhaustion and work stress, the number of studies available on the subject is limited. This study intends to examine the extent to which the relationship between work stress and emotional exhaustion is mediated by nurses' internal locus of control. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey design. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling techniques. The study sample consisted of 347 nurses who worked in a university hospital in Izmir, Turkey and who agreed to participate in the study. The Work-Related Strain Inventory was used to evaluate the nurses' work stress level, Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to evaluate their emotional exhaustion levels, and the Locus of Control Scale was used to evaluate the internal locus of control. The variables of the study were based on the Neuman Systems Model. Work stress was positively related to internal locus of control (β3 = .21, p exhaustion (β = -.03, p > 0.1). Internal locus of control was negatively related to emotional exhaustion (β = -.14, p exhaustion (mediated by internal locus of control β = .84, p exhaustion (mediated by internal locus of control, β = .84, p exhaustion and work stress was mediated, the impact of internal locus of control was limited. It is recommended that different variables be included in future studies so that they can mediate the relationship between work stress and emotional exhaustion.

  8. Effect of measurement protocol on organic aerosol measurements of exhaust emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngseob; Sartelet, Karine; Seigneur, Christian; Charron, Aurélie; Besombes, Jean-Luc; Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc; Marchand, Nicolas; Polo, Lucie

    2016-09-01

    Exhaust emissions of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) from passenger vehicles are usually estimated only for the particle phase via the total particulate matter measurements. However, they also need to be estimated for the gas phase, as they are semi-volatile. To better estimate SVOC emission factors of passenger vehicles, a measurement campaign using a chassis dynamometer was conducted with different instruments: (1) a constant volume sampling (CVS) system in which emissions were diluted with filtered air and sampling was performed on filters and polyurethane foams (PUF) and (2) a Dekati Fine Particle Sampler (FPS) in which emissions were diluted with purified air and sampled with on-line instruments (PTR-ToF-MS, HR-ToF-AMS, MAAP, CPC). Significant differences in the concentrations of organic carbon (OC) measured by the instruments are observed. The differences can be explained by sampling artefacts, differences between (1) the time elapsed during sampling (in the case of filter and PUF sampling) and (2) the time elapsed from emission to measurement (in the case of on-line instruments), which vary from a few seconds to 15 min, and by the different dilution factors. To relate elapsed times and measured concentrations of OC, the condensation of SVOC between the gas and particle phases is simulated with a dynamic aerosol model. The simulation results allow us to understand the relation between elapsed times and concentrations in the gas and particle phases. They indicate that the characteristic times to reach thermodynamic equilibrium between gas and particle phases may be as long as 8 min. Therefore, if the elapsed time is less than this characteristic time to reach equilibrium, gas-phase SVOC are not at equilibrium with the particle phase and a larger fraction of emitted SVOC will be in the gas phase than estimated by equilibrium theory, leading to an underestimation of emitted OC if only the particle phase is considered or if the gas-phase SVOC are estimated

  9. Experimental investigation of the effects of diesel-like fuel obtained from waste lubrication oil on engine performance and exhaust emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arpa, Orhan [Dicle University, Mechanical Engineering Department, Diyarbakir (Turkey); Yumrutas, Recep [University of Gaziantep, Mechanical Engineering Department, Gaziantep (Turkey); Argunhan, Zeki [University of Batman, Mechanical Engineering Department, Batman (Turkey)

    2010-10-15

    In this study, effects of diesel-like fuel (DLF) on engine performance and exhaust emission are investigated experimentally. The DLF is produced from waste engine lubrication oil purified from dust, heavy carbon soot, metal particles, gum-type materials and other impurities. A fuel production system mainly consisting of a waste oil storage tank, filters, a reactor, oil pump, a product storage tank, thermostats and control panel is designed and manufactured. The DLF is produced by using the system and applying pyrolitic distillation method. Characteristics, performance and exhaust emissions tests of the produced DLF are carried out at the end of the production. The characteristic tests such as density, viscosity, flash point, heating value, sulfur content and distillation of the DLF sample are performed utilizing test equipments presented in motor laboratory of Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Gaziantep, Turkey. Performance and exhaust emission tests for the DLF are performed using diesel test engine. It is observed from the test results that about 60 cc out of each 100 cc of the waste oil are converted into the DLF. Characteristics and distillation temperatures of the DLF are close to those values of a typical diesel fuel sample. It is observed that the produced DLF can be used in diesel engines without any problem in terms of engine performance. The DLF increases torque, brake mean effective pressure, brake thermal efficiency and decreases brake specific fuel consumption of the engine for full power of operation. (author)

  10. Exhaust gas emission from two-stroke engines in private cars and motorcycles in West Germany. Abgasemissionen von Zweitaktmotoren in Personenkraftwagen und Motorraedern der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, C. (Rheinisch-Westfaelischer Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein e.V., Essen (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Fahrzeugtechnik)

    1990-01-01

    The proportion of motorised cycles is only about 10% of the stock of cars in West Germany, but their harmful emission are not negligible, as these two-wheeled vehicles are mainly driven in towns or near towns. The emission of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides and also of particle-bound, polycyclic, aromatic hydrocarbons was therefore determined in the driving cycle and at constant speeds. The results obtained can be seen from many diagrams. Some measures to reduce the emission of harmful substances were tried on a series of 2-stroke engines (250 cc). These included postcombustion, oxidation catalyst, blowing in additional air, manually controlled additional carburettor or a combination of these measures. From our present state of knowledge, a simple 2-stroke engine cannot comply with the requirements regarding exhaust gas emission behaviour and fuel consumption. Such a 2-stroke engine will in future have to have direct, electronically controlled injection and probably a combined slot and valve controlled common flow flushing, together with a catalytic exhaust gas treatment system. (orig.).

  11. Nonlinear Adaptive Control of Exhaust Gas Recirculation for Large Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kræn Vodder; Blanke, Mogens; Vejlgaard-Laursen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    A nonlinear adaptive controller is proposed for the exhaust gas recirculation systemon large two-stroke diesel engines. The control design is based on a control oriented model ofthe nonlinear dynamics at hand that incorporates load and engine speed changes as knowndisturbances to the exhaust gas...... will make the system converge exponentiallyto the best achievable state. Simulation examples confirm convergence and good disturbancerejection over relevant operational ranges of the engine....

  12. Formation of secondary inorganic aerosols by power plant emissions exhausted through cooling towers in Saxony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinneburg, Detlef; Renner, Eberhard; Wolke, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    The fraction of ambient PM10 that is due to the formation of secondary inorganic particulate sulfate and nitrate from the emissions of two large, brown-coal-fired power stations in Saxony (East Germany) is examined. The power stations are equipped with natural-draft cooling towers. The flue gases are directly piped into the cooling towers, thereby receiving an additionally intensified uplift. The exhausted gas-steam mixture contains the gases CO, CO2, NO, NO2, and SO2, the directly emitted primary particles, and additionally, an excess of 'free' sulfate ions in water solution, which, after the desulfurization steps, remain non-neutralized by cations. The precursor gases NO2 and SO2 are capable of forming nitric and sulfuric acid by several pathways. The acids can be neutralized by ammonia and generate secondary particulate matter by heterogeneous condensation on preexisting particles. The simulations are performed by a nested and multi-scale application of the online-coupled model system LM-MUSCAT. The Local Model (LM; recently renamed as COSMO) of the German Weather Service performs the meteorological processes, while the Multi-scale Atmospheric Transport Model (MUSCAT) includes the transport, the gas phase chemistry, as well as the aerosol chemistry (thermodynamic ammonium-sulfate-nitrate-water system). The highest horizontal resolution in the inner region of Saxony is 0.7 km. One summer and one winter episode, each realizing 5 weeks of the year 2002, are simulated twice, with the cooling tower emissions switched on and off, respectively. This procedure serves to identify the direct and indirect influences of the single plumes on the formation and distribution of the secondary inorganic aerosols. Surface traces of the individual tower plumes can be located and distinguished, especially in the well-mixed boundary layer in daytime. At night, the plumes are decoupled from the surface. In no case does the resulting contribution of the cooling tower emissions to PM10

  13. Assessment for Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions of China’s Vehicles: Future Trends and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, China’s auto industry develops rapidly, thus bringing a series of burdens to society and environment. This paper uses Logistic model to simulate the future trend of China’s vehicle population and finds that China’s auto industry would come into high speed development time during 2020–2050. Moreover, this paper predicts vehicles’ fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (CO, HC, NOx, and PM and quantificationally evaluates related industry policies. It can be concluded that (1 by 2020, China should develop at least 47 million medium/heavy hybrid cars to prevent the growth of vehicle fuel consumption; (2 China should take the more stringent vehicle emission standard V over 2017–2021 to hold back the growth of exhaust emissions; (3 developing new energy vehicles is the most effective measure to ease the pressure brought by auto industry.

  14. Emission Characteristics for a Homogeneous Charged Compression Ignition Diesel Engine with Exhaust Gas Recirculation Using Split Injection Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhee Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the serious issues caused by air pollution and global warming, emission regulations are becoming stricter. New technologies that reduce NOx and PM emissions are needed. To cope with these social exhaust gas regulation demands, many advanced countries are striving to develop eco-friendly vehicles in order to respond to stricter emissions regulations. The homogeneous charged compression ignition engine (HCCI incorporates a multi-stage combustion engine with multiple combustion modes, catalyst, direct fuel injection and partial mixing combustion. In this study, the HCCI combustion was applied to analyze and review the results of engines applying HCCI combustion without altering the conventional engine specifications. The optimization of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR and compression ratio changes provides an optimal fuel economy. In this study, potential for optimum economy within the range of IMEP 0.8 MPa has been evaluated.

  15. Impact of methanol-gasoline fuel blend on the fuel consumption and exhaust emission of a SI engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifal, Mohamad; Sinaga, Nazaruddin

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the effect of methanol-gasoline fuel blend (M15, M30 and M50) on the fuel consumption and exhaust emission of a spark ignition engine (SI) were investigated. In the experiment, an engine four-cylinder, four stroke injection system (engine of Toyota Kijang Innova 1TR-FE) was used. Test were did to know the relation of fuel consumption and exhaust emission (CO, CO2, HC) were analyzed under the idle throttle operating condition and variable engine speed ranging from 1000 to 4000 rpm. The experimental result showed that the fuel consumption decrease with the use of methanol. It was also shown that the CO and HC emission were reduced with the increase methanol content while CO2 were increased.

  16. Unregulated gaseous exhaust emission from modern ethanol fuelled light duty vehicles in cold ambient condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clairotte, M.; Adam, T. W.; Zardini, A. A.; Astorga, C.

    2011-12-01

    According to Directive 2003/30/EC and 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and the Council, Member States should promote the use of biofuel. Consequently, all petrol and diesel used for transport purpose available on the market since the 1st of January 2011 must contain a reference value of 5.75% of renewable energy. Ethanol in gasoline could be a promising alternative to comply with this objective, and is actually available in higher proportion in Sweden and Brazil. In addition to a lower dependence on fossil fuel, it is well established that ethanol contributes to reduce air pollutant emissions during combustion (CO, THC), and presents a beneficial effect on the greenhouse gas emissions. However, these statements rely on numerous chassis dynamometer emission studies performed in warm condition (22°C), and very few emission data are available at cold ambient condition encountered in winter, particularly in the north of Europe. In this present study, the effects of ethanol (E75-E85) versus gasoline (E5) have been investigated at cold ambient temperature (-7°C). Experiments have been carried out in a chassis dynamometer at the Vehicle Emission Laboratory (VELA) of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC - Ispra, Italy). Emissions of modern passenger cars complying with the latest European standard (Euro4 and Euro5a) were tracked over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Unregulated gaseous compounds like greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide), and air quality related compounds (ammonia, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde) were monitored by an online Fourier Transformed Infra-Red spectrometer with 1 Hz acquisition frequency. In addition, a number of ozone precursors (carbonyls and volatile organic hydrocarbons) were collected in order to assess the ozone formation potential (OFP) of the exhaust. Results showed higher unregulated emissions at -7°C, regardless of the ethanol content in the fuel blend. Most of the emissions occurred during

  17. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants unregistered stack (power exhaust) source assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W.E.

    1994-08-04

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site to determine which are subject to continuous emission measurement requirements in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H, and to continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. This evaluation provides an assessment of the 39 unregistered stacks, under Westinghouse Hanford Company`s management, and their potential radionuclide emissions, i.e., emissions with no control devices in place. The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified three stacks, 107-N, 296-P-26 and 296-P-28, as having potential emissions that would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr. These stacks, as noted by 40 CFR 61.93, would require continuous monitoring.

  18. Reducing CO2 emissions in temperature-controlled road transportation using the LDVRP model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellingwerf, Helena M.; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Vorst, van der Jack G.A.J.; Bloemhof, Jacqueline M.

    2018-01-01

    Temperature-controlled transport is needed to maintain the quality of products such as fresh and frozen foods and pharmaceuticals. Road transportation is responsible for a considerable part of global emissions. Temperature-controlled transportation exhausts even more emissions than ambient

  19. Engine Performance (Section C: Emission Control Systems). Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Module 3. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, Larry

    This engine performance (emission control systems) module is one of a series of competency-based modules in the Missouri Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Topics of this module's five units are: positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) and evaporative emission control systems; exhaust gas recirculation (EGR); air injection and catalytic converters;…

  20. Identification of Surrogate Measures of Diesel Exhaust Exposure in a Controlled Chamber Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) has been associated with acute cardiopulmonary and vascular responses, chronic noncancer health effects, and respiratory cancers in humans. To better understand DE exposures and eventually their related health effects, we established a controlled c...

  1. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners study: a nested case-control study of lung cancer and diesel exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Debra T; Samanic, Claudine M; Lubin, Jay H; Blair, Aaron E; Stewart, Patricia A; Vermeulen, Roel; Coble, Joseph B; Rothman, Nathaniel; Schleiff, Patricia L; Travis, William D; Ziegler, Regina G; Wacholder, Sholom; Attfield, Michael D

    2012-06-06

    Most studies of the association between diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer suggest a modest, but consistent, increased risk. However, to our knowledge, no study to date has had quantitative data on historical diesel exposure coupled with adequate sample size to evaluate the exposure-response relationship between diesel exhaust and lung cancer. Our purpose was to evaluate the relationship between quantitative estimates of exposure to diesel exhaust and lung cancer mortality after adjustment for smoking and other potential confounders. We conducted a nested case-control study in a cohort of 12 315 workers in eight non-metal mining facilities, which included 198 lung cancer deaths and 562 incidence density-sampled control subjects. For each case subject, we selected up to four control subjects, individually matched on mining facility, sex, race/ethnicity, and birth year (within 5 years), from all workers who were alive before the day the case subject died. We estimated diesel exhaust exposure, represented by respirable elemental carbon (REC), by job and year, for each subject, based on an extensive retrospective exposure assessment at each mining facility. We conducted both categorical and continuous regression analyses adjusted for cigarette smoking and other potential confounding variables (eg, history of employment in high-risk occupations for lung cancer and a history of respiratory disease) to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Analyses were both unlagged and lagged to exclude recent exposure such as that occurring in the 15 years directly before the date of death (case subjects)/reference date (control subjects). All statistical tests were two-sided. We observed statistically significant increasing trends in lung cancer risk with increasing cumulative REC and average REC intensity. Cumulative REC, lagged 15 years, yielded a statistically significant positive gradient in lung cancer risk overall (P (trend) = .001); among heavily

  2. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: A Nested Case–Control Study of Lung Cancer and Diesel Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanic, Claudine M.; Lubin, Jay H.; Blair, Aaron E.; Stewart, Patricia A.; Vermeulen, Roel; Coble, Joseph B.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Schleiff, Patricia L.; Travis, William D.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Wacholder, Sholom; Attfield, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Most studies of the association between diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer suggest a modest, but consistent, increased risk. However, to our knowledge, no study to date has had quantitative data on historical diesel exposure coupled with adequate sample size to evaluate the exposure–response relationship between diesel exhaust and lung cancer. Our purpose was to evaluate the relationship between quantitative estimates of exposure to diesel exhaust and lung cancer mortality after adjustment for smoking and other potential confounders. Methods We conducted a nested case–control study in a cohort of 12 315 workers in eight non-metal mining facilities, which included 198 lung cancer deaths and 562 incidence density–sampled control subjects. For each case subject, we selected up to four control subjects, individually matched on mining facility, sex, race/ethnicity, and birth year (within 5 years), from all workers who were alive before the day the case subject died. We estimated diesel exhaust exposure, represented by respirable elemental carbon (REC), by job and year, for each subject, based on an extensive retrospective exposure assessment at each mining facility. We conducted both categorical and continuous regression analyses adjusted for cigarette smoking and other potential confounding variables (eg, history of employment in high-risk occupations for lung cancer and a history of respiratory disease) to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Analyses were both unlagged and lagged to exclude recent exposure such as that occurring in the 15 years directly before the date of death (case subjects)/reference date (control subjects). All statistical tests were two-sided. Results We observed statistically significant increasing trends in lung cancer risk with increasing cumulative REC and average REC intensity. Cumulative REC, lagged 15 years, yielded a statistically significant positive gradient in lung cancer risk overall

  3. 40 CFR 1042.101 - Exhaust emission standards for Category 1 engines and Category 2 engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...), except for variable-speed marine engines used with controllable-pitch propellers or with electrically... MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1042.101... the 2014 model year, recreational marine engines at or above 3700 kW (with any displacement) must be...

  4. Controlling radiated emissions by design

    CERN Document Server

    Mardiguian, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The 3rd edition of Controlling Radiated Emissions by Design has been updated to reflect the latest changes in the field. New to this edition is material related to technical advances, specifically super-fast data rates on wire pairs, with no increase in RF interference. Throughout the book, details are given to control RF emissions using EMC design techniques. This book retains the step-by-step approach for incorporating EMC into every new design from the ground up. It describes the selection of quieter IC technologies, their implementation into a noise-free printed circuit layout, and the gathering of these into a low emissions package. Also included is how to design an I/O filter, along with connectors and cable considerations. All guidelines are supported throughout with comprehensive calculated examples. Design engineers, EMC specialists, and technicians will benefit from learning about the development of more efficient and economical control of emissions.

  5. Comparison of the mutagenicity of exhaust emissions from motor vehicles using leaded and unleaded gasoline as fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, D; Zhou, W; Ye, S H

    1999-06-01

    While unleaded gasoline has the advantage of eliminating lead from automobile exhaust, its potential to reduce the exhaust gas and particles, merits further examination. In the present studies, the concentrations of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon mono-oxides (CO) in emissions were analyzed on Santana engine Dynamometer under a standard test cycle, and total exhaust particles were collected from engines using leaded and unleaded gasoline. It was found that unleaded gasoline reduced the emissions of CO and HC, and decreased the quantity of vehicle exhaust particulate matters by 60%. With the unleaded gasoline, only 23 kinds of organic substances, adsorbed in the particles, were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) while 32 components were detected using the leaded gasoline. The results of in vitro Salmonella/microsomal test and micronucleus induction assay in CHL cells indicated that both types of gasoline increased the number of histidine-independent colonies and the frequencies of micronucleus induction; no significant difference was found in their mutagenicity.

  6. Particle-Bound PAH Emission from the Exhaust of Combustion Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari Lamjiri, M.; Medrano, Y. S.; Guillaume, D. W.; Khachikian, C. S.

    2013-12-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are harmful, semi-volatile organic compounds which are generated due to the incomplete combustion of organic substances. PAHs are of concern as a pollutant because some of these compounds are carcinogenic and mutagenic even at low levels. Most of the PAHs are recalcitrant and persistent in the environment. The PAHs carcinogenic potential can be increased by the adsorption onto small size particles (extracting the particles with dichloromethane followed by analysis via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In general, lower molecular weight PAHs emitted from the exhaust of combustion chamber are mostly in gas phase while PAHs of higher molecular weight are adsorbed onto particles. Preliminary results from GC/MS confirm the presence of higher molecular weight PAHs like Benzo[a]pyrene in most of the samples. Better recirculation between air and fuel in higher swirl numbers results in better combustion. In higher swirl numbers, the temperature of the combustion process increases which leads to a more complete combustion. Another result of higher swirl number is a longer residence time which allows the organic substances in the fuel to remain in the reaction longer and also leads to a more complete combustion. The preliminary results from particle analyzer show that the abundance ratio of smaller particles to larger particles increases at higher swirl numbers. For example, at swirl 86, the abundance ratio of 0.3 micron particles to 0.7 micron particles was 400 while at swirl 0, this ratio was 35. Smaller particles have higher specific surface area which allows for more PAH adsorption. The preliminary results show that operating the jet engine at higher swirl numbers can have positive or negative effects on particle-bound PAH emissions. Higher temperature and residence time as well as better mixture of fuel and air can reduce PAH emission while generating more small size particles can increase surface available for PAH

  7. Assessment for Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions of China’s Vehicles: Future Trends and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Yingying Wu; Peng Zhao; Hongwei Zhang; Yuan Wang; Guozhu Mao

    2012-01-01

    In the recent years, China’s auto industry develops rapidly, thus bringing a series of burdens to society and environment. This paper uses Logistic model to simulate the future trend of China’s vehicle population and finds that China’s auto industry would come into high speed development time during 2020–2050. Moreover, this paper predicts vehicles’ fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (CO, HC, NOx, and PM) and quantificationally evaluates related industry policies. It can be concluded th...

  8. Simultaneous reduction in cloud point, smoke, and NOx emissions by blending bioethanol into biodiesel fuels and exhaust gas recirculation

    OpenAIRE

    Shudo, T; Nakajima, T.; HIRAGA, K.

    2009-01-01

    Palm oil has the important advantage of productivity compared with other vegetable oils such as rapeseed oil and soybean oil. However, the cold flow performance of palm oil methyl ester (PME) is poorer than other vegetable-oil-based biodiesel fuels. Previous research by the current authors has shown that ethanol blending into PME improves the cold flow performance and considerably reduces smoke emission. The reduced smoke may be expected to allow an expansion in the exhaust gas recirculation ...

  9. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  10. A coupled road dust and surface moisture model to predict non-exhaust road traffic induced particle emissions (NORTRIP). Part 2: Surface moisture and salt impact modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denby, B. R.; Sundvor, I.; Johansson, C.; Pirjola, L.; Ketzel, M.; Norman, M.; Kupiainen, K.; Gustafsson, M.; Blomqvist, G.; Kauhaniemi, M.; Omstedt, G.

    2013-12-01

    Non-exhaust traffic induced emissions are a major source of airborne particulate matter in most European countries. This is particularly important in Nordic and Alpine countries where winter time road traction maintenance occurs, e.g. salting and sanding, and where studded tyres are used. Though the total mass generated by wear sources is a key factor in non-exhaust emissions, these emissions are also strongly controlled by surface moisture conditions. In this paper, Part 2, the road surface moisture sub-model of a coupled road dust and surface moisture model (NORTRIP) is described. We present a description of the road surface moisture part of the model and apply the coupled model to seven sites in Stockholm, Oslo, Helsinki and Copenhagen over 18 separate periods, ranging from 3.5 to 24 months. At two sites surface moisture measurements are available and the moisture sub-model is compared directly to these observations. The model predicts the frequency of wet roads well at both sites, with an average fractional bias of -2.6%. The model is found to correctly predict the hourly surface state, wet or dry, 85% of the time. From the 18 periods modelled using the coupled model an average absolute fractional bias of 15% for PM10 concentrations was found. Similarly the model predicts the 90'th daily mean percentiles of PM10 with an average absolute bias of 19% and an average correlation (R2) of 0.49. When surface moisture is not included in the modelling then this average correlation is reduced to 0.16, demonstrating the importance of the surface moisture conditions. Tests have been carried out to assess the sensitivity of the model to model parameters and input data. The model provides a useful tool for air quality management and for improving our understanding of non-exhaust traffic emissions.

  11. Sleep duration, vital exhaustion, and odds of spontaneous preterm birth: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Sanchez, Sixto E; Gelaye, Bizu; Qiu, Chunfang; Barrios, Yasmin V; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Williams, Michelle A

    2014-09-27

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, resulting in a pressing need to identify risk factors leading to effective interventions. Limited evidence suggests potential relationships between maternal sleep or vital exhaustion and preterm birth, yet the literature is generally inconclusive. We examined the relationship between maternal sleep duration and vital exhaustion in the first six months of pregnancy and spontaneous (non-medically indicated) preterm birth among 479 Peruvian women who delivered a preterm singleton infant (exhaustion were ascertained through in-person interviews. Spontaneous preterm birth cases were further categorized as those following either spontaneous preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes. In addition, cases were categorized as very (exhaustion was also associated with increased odds of preterm birth (aOR = 2.41; 95% CI 1.79-3.23) compared to no exhaustion (Ptrend exhaustion on the odds of spontaneous preterm birth. The results of this case-control study suggest maternal sleep duration, particularly short sleep duration, and vital exhaustion may be risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth. These findings call for increased clinical attention to maternal sleep and the study of potential intervention strategies to improve sleep in early pregnancy with the aim of decreasing risk of preterm birth.

  12. Analysis of tractor particulate emissions in a modified NRSC test after implementing a particulate filter in the exhaust system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siedlecki Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrofitting, which means retrofitting old generation engine systems with modern exhaust after treatment systems, is becoming increasingly popular, which allow vehicles to adhere to the newer and more stringent emission norms. This can save the operators of such vehicles money using older engineered designs without the need to design a new unit or buy an expensive new machine or vehicle. At present, there is a growing interest in emissions from off-road vehicles and the introduction of minimum limits for older vehicles that must be met in order to be able to allow for their operation. For the purposes of this article, the Stage IIIA farm tractor has been fitted with a particulate filter in the exhaust system. The study investigated the impact of the use of exhaust after treatment systems on particle emissions in terms of mass, size distribution and number using PEMS analyzers in the modified NRSC stationary test by engine loading, using a mobile engine dynamometer and comparison of test results.

  13. Online characterization of regulated and unregulated gaseous and particulate exhaust emissions from two-stroke mopeds: a chemometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clairotte, M; Adam, T W; Chirico, R; Giechaskiel, B; Manfredi, U; Elsasser, M; Sklorz, M; DeCarlo, P F; Heringa, M F; Zimmermann, R; Martini, G; Krasenbrink, A; Vicet, A; Tournié, E; Prévôt, A S H; Astorga, C

    2012-03-02

    Two-stroke mopeds are a popular and convenient mean of transport in particular in the highly populated cities. These vehicles can emit potentially toxic gaseous and aerosol pollutants due to their engine technology. The legislative measurements of moped emissions are based on offline methods; however, the online characterization of gas and particulate phases offers great possibilities to understand aerosol formation mechanism and to adapt future emission standards. The purpose of this work was to study the emission behavior of two mopeds complying with different European emission standards (EURO-1 and EURO-2). A sophisticated set of online analyzers was applied to simultaneously monitor the gas phase and particulate phase of exhaust on a real time basis. The gaseous emission was analyzed with a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR; nitrogen species) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-ToF-MS; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: PAH), whereas the particulate phase was chemically characterized by a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS; organic, nitrate and chloride aerosol) and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon). The physical characterization of the aerosol was carried out with a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number concentration) and a fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS; size distribution in real time). In order to extract underlying correlation between gas and solid emissions, principal component analysis was applied to the comprehensive online dataset. Multivariate analysis highlighted the considerable effect of the exhaust temperature on the particles and heavy PAH emissions. The results showed that the after-treatment used to comply with the latest EURO-2 emission standard may be responsible for the production of more potentially harmful particles compared to the EURO-1 moped emissions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All

  14. Cycling before and after Exhaustion Differently Affects Cardiac Autonomic Control during Heart Rate Matched Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weippert, Matthias; Behrens, Martin; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Bruhn, Sven; Behrens, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    During cycling before (PRE) and after exhaustion (POST) different modes of autonomic cardiac control might occur due to different interoceptive input and altered influences from higher brain centers. We hypothesized that heart rate variability (HRV) is significantly affected by an interaction of the experimental period (PRE vs. POST) and exercise intensity (HIGH vs. LOW; HIGH = HR > HR at the lactate threshold (HR LT ), LOW = HR ≤ HR LT ) despite identical average HR. Methods: Fifty healthy volunteers completed an incremental cycling test until exhaustion. Workload started with 30 W at a constant pedaling rate (60 revolutions · min -1 ) and was gradually increased by 30 W · 5 min -1 . Five adjacent 60 s inter-beat (R-R) interval segments from the immediate recovery period (POST 1-5 at 30 W and 60 rpm) were each matched with their HR-corresponding 60 s-segments during the cycle test (PRE 1-5). An analysis of covariance was carried out with one repeated-measures factor (PRE vs. POST exhaustion), one between-subject factor (HIGH vs. LOW intensity) and respiration rate as covariate to test for significant effects ( p exhaustion at HIGH intensity. On the opposite, at LOW intensity cycling, a stronger coactivational cardiac autonomic modulation pattern occurs during PRE-exhaustion if compared to POST-exhaustion cycling. The different autonomic modes during these phases might be the result of different afferent and/or central inputs to the cardiovascular control centers in the brainstem.

  15. EHMS: Exhaust Heat Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, T.; Schmidt, M.; Weinbrenner, M.; Geskes, P. [Behr GmbH und Co. KG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Pollutant concentrations in diesel engines are reduced by cooling of the recirculated exhaust. This reduces emissions and particulate matter. The cooler technology can also be used for heating the passenger compartment faster and more economically. The authors present a model ready for seral production, including an exhaust flap for bypass control for use as auxiliary heating system. Further applications in gasoline engines are pointed out. (orig.)

  16. Influence of cooled exhaust gas recirculation on performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of LPG fuelled lean burn SI engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, K.; Pradeep Bhasker, J.; Alexander, Jim; Porpatham, E.

    2017-11-01

    On fuel perspective, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) provides cleaner emissions and also facilitates lean burn signifying less fuel consumption and emissions. Lean burn technology can attain better efficiencies and lesser combustion temperatures but this temperature is quite sufficient to facilitate formation of nitrogen oxide (NOx). Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) for NOx reduction has been considered allover but extremely little literatures exist on the consequence of EGR on lean burn LPG fuelled spark ignition (SI) engine. The following research is carried out to find the optimal rate of EGR addition to reduce NOx emissions without settling on performance and combustion characteristics. A single cylinder diesel engine is altered to operate as LPG fuelled SI engine at a compression ratio of 10.5:1 and arrangements to provide different ratios of cooled EGR in the intake manifold. Investigations are done to arrive at optimum ratio of the EGR to reduce emissions without compromising on performance. Significant reductions in NOx emissions alongside HC and CO emissions were seen. Higher percentages of EGR further diluted the charge and lead to improper combustion and thus increased hydrocarbon emissions. Cooled EGR reduced the peak in-cylinder temperature which reduced NOx emissions but lead to misfire at lower lean limits.

  17. Diesel engine performance and exhaust emission analysis using waste cooking biodiesel fuel with an artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghobadian, B.; Rahimi, H.; Nikbakht, A.M.; Najafi, G. [Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-111, Tehran (Iran); Yusaf, T.F. [University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba 4350 QLD (Australia)

    2009-04-15

    This study deals with artificial neural network (ANN) modeling of a diesel engine using waste cooking biodiesel fuel to predict the brake power, torque, specific fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of the engine. To acquire data for training and testing the proposed ANN, a two cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with waste vegetable cooking biodiesel and diesel fuel blends and operated at different engine speeds. The properties of biodiesel produced from waste vegetable oil was measured based on ASTM standards. The experimental results revealed that blends of waste vegetable oil methyl ester with diesel fuel provide better engine performance and improved emission characteristics. Using some of the experimental data for training, an ANN model was developed based on standard Back-Propagation algorithm for the engine. Multi layer perception network (MLP) was used for non-linear mapping between the input and output parameters. Different activation functions and several rules were used to assess the percentage error between the desired and the predicted values. It was observed that the ANN model can predict the engine performance and exhaust emissions quite well with correlation coefficient (R) 0.9487, 0.999, 0.929 and 0.999 for the engine torque, SFC, CO and HC emissions, respectively. The prediction MSE (Mean Square Error) error was between the desired outputs as measured values and the simulated values were obtained as 0.0004 by the model. (author)

  18. Advanced Catalytic Converter in Gasoline Enginer Emission Control: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Leman A.M.; Jajuli Afiqah; Feriyanto Dafit; Rahman Fakhrurrazi; Zakaria Supaat

    2017-01-01

    Exhaust emission from automobile source has become a major contributor to the air pollution and environmental problem. Catalytic converter is found to be one of the most effective tools to reduce the overwhelming exhaust pollutants in our environment. The development of sustainable catalytic converter still remains a critical issue due to the stringent exhaust emission regulations. Another issue such as price and availability of the precious metal were also forced the automotive industry to i...

  19. Emission characteristics of iso-propanol/gasoline blends in a spark-ignition engine combined with exhaust gas re-circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Jing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out in a spark-ignition engine fueled with iso-propanol/gasoline blends. Emission characteristics of this engine were investigated experimentally, including gaseous emissions (HC, CO, NOx and particulate matter emission in term of number and size distributions. The effects of different iso-propanol percentages, loads and exhaust gas recirculation rates on emissions were analyzed. Results show that the introduction of exhaust gas recirculation reduces the NOx emission and NOx emission gives the highest value at full load condition. HC and CO emissions present inconspicuous variations at all the loads except the load of 10%. Additionally, HC emission shows a sharp increase for pure propanol when the exhaust gas recirculation rate is up to 5%, while little variation is observed at lager exhaust gas recirculation rates. Moreover, the particulate matter number concentration increases monotonically with the increase of load and the decrease of exhaust gas recirculation rate. There exists a critical spark timing that produces the highest particulate matter number concentration at all the blending ratios.

  20. Injection system used into SI engines for complete combustion and reduction of exhaust emissions in the case of alcohol and petrol alcohol mixtures feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispas, N.; Cofaru, C.; Aleonte, M.

    2017-10-01

    Internal combustion engines still play a major role in today transportation but increasing the fuel efficiency and decreasing chemical emissions remain a great goal of the researchers. Direct injection and air assisted injection system can improve combustion and can reduce the concentration of the exhaust gas pollutes. Advanced air-to-fuel and combustion air-to-fuel injection system for mixtures, derivatives and alcohol gasoline blends represent a major asset in reducing pollutant emissions and controlling combustion processes in spark-ignition engines. The use of these biofuel and biofuel blending systems for gasoline results in better control of spark ignition engine processes, making combustion as complete as possible, as well as lower levels of concentrations of pollutants in exhaust gases. The main purpose of this paper was to provide most suitable tools for ensure the proven increase in the efficiency of spark ignition engines, making them more environmentally friendly. The conclusions of the paper allow to highlight the paths leading to a better use of alcohols (biofuels) in internal combustion engines of modern transport units.

  1. Coal-fueled diesel technology development Emissions Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kleunen, W.; Kaldor, S.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1994-01-01

    GEESI Emissions Control program activity ranged from control concept testing of 10 CFM slipstream from a CWS fuel single cylinder research diesel engine to the design, installation, and operation of a full-size Emissions Control system for a full-size CWS fuel diesel engine designed for locomotive operation.Early 10 CFM slipstream testing program activity was performed to determine Emissions Characteristics and to evaluate Emissions Control concepts such a Barrier filtration, Granular bed filtration, and Cyclone particulate collection for reduction of particulate and gaseous emissions. Use of sorbent injection into the engine exhaust gas upstream of the barrier filter or use of sorbent media in the granular bed filter were found to provide reduction of exhaust gas SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in addition to collection of ash particulate. Emergence of the use of barrier filtration as a most practical Emissions Control concept disclosed a need to improve cleanability of the filter media in order to avoid reduction of turbocharger performance by excessive barrier filter pressure drop. The next progression of program activity, after the slipstream feasibility state, was 500 CFM cold flow testing of control system concepts. The successful completion of 500 CFM cold flow testing of the Envelope Filter led to a subsequent progression to a similar configuration Envelope Filter designed to operate at 500 CFM hot gas flow from the CWS fuel research diesel engine in the GETS engine test laboratory. This Envelope Filter included the design aspect proven by cold flow testing as well as optimization of the selection of the installed filter media.

  2. Coal-fueled diesel technology development emissions control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vankleunen, W.; Kaldor, S.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1994-01-01

    General Electric Environmental Services, Inc. (GEESI), Emissions Control program activity ranged from control concept testing of 10 CFM slipstream from a coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel single cylinder research diesel engine to the design, installation, and operation of a full-size emissions control system for a full-size CWS fuel diesel engine designed for locomotive operation. Early 10 CFM slipstream testing program activity was performed to determine emissions characteristics and to evaluate emissions control concepts such a barrier filtration, granular bed filtration, and cyclone particulate collection for reduction of particulate and gaseous emissions. Use of sorbent injection into the engine exhaust gas upstream of the barrier filter or use of sorbent media in the granular bed filter were found to provide reduction of exhaust gas SO2 and NO(x) in addition to collection of ash particulate. Emergence of the use of barrier filtration as a most practical emissions control concept disclosed a need to improve cleanability of the filter media in order to avoid reduction of turbocharger performance by excessive barrier filter pressure drop. The next progression of program activity, after the slipstream feasibility state, was 500 CFM cold flow testing of control system concepts. The successful completion of 500 CFM cold flow testing of the envelope filter led to a subsequent progression to a similar configuration envelope filter designed to operate at 500 CFM hot gas flow from the CWS fuel research diesel engine in the GETS engine test laboratory. This envelope filter included the design aspect proven by cold flow testing as well as optimization of the selection of the installed filter media.

  3. Emissions of Transport Refrigeration Units with CARB Diesel, Gas-to-Liquid Diesel, and Emissions Control Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R. A.; Chernich, D.; Burnitzki, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Miyasato, M.; Lucht, E.; van der Merwe, D.; Schaberg, P.

    2010-05-01

    A novel in situ method was used to measure emissions and fuel consumption of transport refrigeration units (TRUs). The test matrix included two fuels, two exhaust configurations, and two TRU engine operating speeds. Test fuels were California ultra low sulfur diesel and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel. Exhaust configurations were a stock muffler and a Thermo King pDPF diesel particulate filter. The TRU engine operating speeds were high and low, controlled by the TRU user interface. Results indicate that GTL diesel fuel reduces all regulated emissions at high and low engine speeds. Application of a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions, sometimes almost entirely. The application of both GTL diesel and a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions at high engine speed, but showed an increase in oxides of nitrogen at low engine speed.

  4. THE EFFECT OF KARANJA OIL METHYL ESTER ON KIRLOSKAR HA394DI DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EXHAUST EMISSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharanappa K Godiganur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels are being investigated as potential substitutes for current high pollutant fuels obtained from the conventional sources. The primary problem associated with using straight vegetable oil as fuel in a compression ignition engine is caused by viscosity. The process of transesterifiction of vegetable oil with methyl alcohol provides a significant reduction in viscosity, thereby enhancing the physical properties of vegetable oil. The Kirloskar HA394 compression ignition, multi cylinder diesel engine does not require any modification to replace diesel by karanja methyl ester. Biodiesel can be used in its pure form or can be blended with diesel to form different blends. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the potential of karanja oil methyl ester and its blend with diesel from 20% to 80% by volume. Engine performance and exhaust emissions were investigated and compared with the ordinary diesel fuel in a diesel engine. The experimental results show that the engine power of the mixture is closed to the values obtained from diesel fuel and the amounts of exhaust emissions are lower than those of diesel fuel. Hence, it is seen that the blend of karanja ester and diesel fuel can be used as an alternative successfully in a diesel engine without any modification and in terms of emission parameters; it is an environmental friendly fuel

  5. Exhaustion Experiences in Junior Athletes:The Importance of Motivation and Self - Control Competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gro Jordalen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Quality of motivation, self-control competencies, as well as past performance experience influence sport participation outcomes in developing athletes. Studies have shown that junior athletes high in self-determined motivation are less prone to experience burnout, while self-control competencies help developing athletes to be conscious and deliberate in their self-regulatory efforts toward elite sport performances and avoid negative sport participation outcomes. Combining the self-determination theory (SDT framework and psychosocial theories of self-regulation, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine how various types of motivation and self-control competencies together are associated with the development of burnout symptoms in junior athletes. High-level Norwegian winter-sport athletes from elite sport academies (N = 199; female n = 72; 16 to 20 years of age consented to participate. Associations between six types of motivational regulation, self-control, and indices of exhaustion were investigated. We hypothesized that athletes’ self-control competencies are important to operate successfully, and influenced by different types of motivation, they are expected to help athletes avoid negative sport participation outcomes such as emotional and physical exhaustion. Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to analyze these relationships, and results revealed some multifaceted associations. When identifying antecedents of sport participation exhaustion and burnout, there is a need to go beyond the unique framework of motivation theories, and explore what cognitive competencies ensure fulfillment of motivation desires. In the current study, differences in junior athletes’ quality of motivation influenced self-control competencies when predicting exhaustion. Interestingly, young athletes driven by self-determined (intrinsic, integrated, and identified, and controlled (introjected and amotivation regulations in association

  6. Exhaustion Experiences in Junior Athletes: The Importance of Motivation and Self-Control Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordalen, Gro; Lemyre, Pierre-Nicolas; Durand-Bush, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Quality of motivation, self-control competencies, as well as past performance experience influence sport participation outcomes in developing athletes. Studies have shown that junior athletes high in self-determined motivation are less prone to experience burnout, while self-control competencies help developing athletes to be conscious and deliberate in their self-regulatory efforts toward elite sport performances and avoid negative sport participation outcomes. Combining the self-determination theory framework and psychosocial theories of self-regulation, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine how various types of motivation and self-control competencies together are associated with the development of burnout symptoms in junior athletes. High-level Norwegian winter-sport athletes from elite sport academies ( N = 199; female n = 72; 16-20 years of age) consented to participate. Associations between six types of motivational regulation, self-control, and indices of exhaustion were investigated. We hypothesized that athletes' self-control competencies are important to operate successfully, and influenced by different types of motivation, they are expected to help athletes avoid negative sport participation outcomes such as emotional and physical exhaustion. Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to analyze these relationships, and results revealed some multifaceted associations. When identifying antecedents of sport participation exhaustion and burnout, there is a need to go beyond the unique framework of motivation theories, and explore what cognitive competencies ensure fulfillment of motivation desires. In the current study, differences in junior athletes' quality of motivation influenced self-control competencies when predicting exhaustion. Interestingly, young athletes driven by self-determined (intrinsic, integrated, and identified), and controlled (introjected and amotivation) regulations in association with self-control offered the

  7. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster at 244-AR vault. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrell, D.J.

    1997-12-17

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.96, a portable exhauster at the 244-AR Vault. The exhauster would be used during air jetting of accumulated liquids from the cell sumps into the tanks and to make transfers among the tanks within the vault when needed. The 244-AR Vault is considered to be a double-contained receiver tank (OCRT) based on its functional characteristics, although it is not listed as one of the five designated DCRTs in the 200 Area Tank Farm systems. Process operations at the vault have been inactive since 1978 and the vault`s two stacks have not operated since 1993. Since cessation of vault operations an extremely large amount of rain water and snow melt have accumulated in the cell sumps. The water level in the sumps is substantially above their respective operating levels and there is concern for leakage to the environment through containment failure due to corrosion from backed-up sump liquid. Active ventilation is required to provide contamination control during air jetting operations within the vault. It has been determined that it would not be cost effective to repair the existing exhaust systems to an operational condition; thus, a portable exhauster will be used to support the intermittent operations.

  8. Under actuated air path control of diesel engines for low emissions and high efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Criens, C.; Willems, F.P.T.; Steinbuch, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for feedback control using the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valve and Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) of a diesel engine. The controller effectively counteracts disturbances in NOx and PM emissions while maintaining the fuel efficiency. It is shown that by using a

  9. Delays at signalized intersections with exhaustive traffic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, M.A.A.; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Winands, E.M.M.; Down, D.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study a traffic intersection with vehicle-actuated traffic signal control. Traffic lights stay green until all lanes within a group are emptied. Assuming general renewal arrival processes, we derive exact limiting distributions of the delays under heavy traffic (HT) conditions.

  10. Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Performance and Emission Characteristic of SI Engine using Hydrogen and CNG Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitnaware, Pravin Tukaram; Suryawanshi, Jiwak G.

    2018-01-01

    This paper shows exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) effects on multi-cylinder bi-fuel SI engine using blends of 0, 5, 10 and 15% hydrogen by energy with CNG. All trials are performed at a speed of 3000, 3500 and 4000 rpm with EGR rate of 0, 5, 10 and 15%, with equal spark timing and injection pressure of 2.6 bar. At specific hydrogen percentage with increase in EGR rate NOx emission reduces drastically and increases with increase in hydrogen addition. Hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission decreases with increase in speed and hydrogen addition. There is considerable improvement in brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) at 15% EGR rate. At 3000 rpm, 5% EGR rate with 5% hydrogen had shown maximum cylinder pressure. Brake specific fuel consumption (b.s.f.c) increased with increase in EGR rate and decreased with increase in hydrogen addition for all speeds.

  11. RSM Based Optimization of Chemical and Enzymatic Transesterification of Palm Oil: Biodiesel Production and Assessment of Exhaust Emission Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

    2014-01-01

    Current study presents RSM based optimized production of biodiesel from palm oil using chemical and enzymatic transesterification. The emission behavior of biodiesel and its blends, namely, POB-5, POB-20, POB-40, POB-50, POB-80, and POB-100 was examined using diesel engine (equipped with tube well). Optimized palm oil fatty acid methyl esters (POFAMEs) yields were depicted to be 47.6 ± 1.5, 92.7 ± 2.5, and 95.4 ± 2.0% for chemical transesterification catalyzed by NaOH, KOH, and NaOCH3, respectively, whereas for enzymatic transesterification reactions catalyzed by NOVOZYME-435 and A. n. lipase optimized biodiesel yields were 94.2 ± 3.1 and 62.8 ± 2.4%, respectively. Distinct decrease in particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO) levels was experienced in exhaust emissions from engine operating on biodiesel blends POB-5, POB-20, POB-40, POB-50, POB-80, and POB-100 comparative to conventional petroleum diesel. Percentage change in CO and PM emissions for different biodiesel blends ranged from −2.1 to −68.7% and −6.2 to −58.4%, respectively, relative to conventional diesel, whereas an irregular trend was observed for NOx emissions. Only POB-5 and POB-20 showed notable reductions, whereas all other blends (POB-40 to POB-100) showed slight increase in NOx emission levels from 2.6 to 5.5% comparative to petroleum diesel. PMID:25162053

  12. Combined particle emission reduction and heat recovery from combustion exhaust - A novel approach for small wood-fired appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messerer, A.; Poeschl, U.; Niessner, R. [Technical University of Munich, Munich (Germany). Institute of Hydrochemistry; Schmatloch, V. [EMPA, Swiss Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2007-07-15

    Replacing fossil fuels by renewable sources of energy is one approach to address the problem of global warming due to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. Wood combustion can help to replace fuel oil or gas. It is advisable, however, to use modern technology for combustion and exhaust gas after-treatment in order to achieve best efficiency and avoid air quality problems due to high emission levels often related to small scale wood combustion. In this study, simultaneous combustion particle deposition and heat recovery from the exhaust of two commercially available wood-fired appliances has been investigated. The experiments were performed with a miniature pipe bundle heat exchanger operating in the exhaust gas lines of a fully automated pellet burner or a closed fireplace. The system has been characterised for a wide range of aerosol inlet temperatures (135-295 {sup circle} C) and flow velocities (0.13-1.0ms{sup -1}), and particle deposition efficiencies up to 95% have been achieved. Deposition was dominated by thermophoresis and diffusion and increased with the average temperature difference and retention time in the heat exchanger. The aerosols from the two different appliances exhibited different deposition characteristics, which can be attributed to enhanced deposition of the nucleation mode particles generated in the closed fire place. The measured deposition efficiencies can be described by simple linear parameterisations derived from laboratory studies. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of thermophoretic particle removal from biomass burning flue gas and support the development of modified heat exchanger systems with enhanced capability for simultaneous heat recovery and particle deposition. (author)

  13. 40 CFR 1054.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my nonhandheld engines meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards for Nonhandheld Engines (g/kW-hr) Engine displacement class HC+NOX Primary CO standard COstandard...: (1) 40.0 g/kW-hr for Class I engines with displacement below 100 cc. (2) 16.1 g/kW-hr for Class I engines with displacement at or above 100 cc. (3) 12.1 for Class II engines. (c) Fuel types. The exhaust...

  14. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners study: a nested case-control study of lung cancer and diesel exhaust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silverman, D.T.; Samanic, C.; Lubin, J.H.; Blair, A.; Stewart, P.A.; Vermeulen, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Schleiff, P.L.; Travis, W.D.; Ziegler, R.; Wacholder, S.; Attfield, M.D.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Most studies of the association between diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer suggest a modest, but consistent, increased risk. However, to our knowledge, no study to date has had quantitative data on historical diesel exposure coupled with adequate sample size to evaluate the

  15. 40 CFR 1045.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my outboard and personal watercraft engines meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION... hydrocarbons in this section based on the following types of hydrocarbon emissions for engines powered by the... engine family if the average service life of your vehicles is longer than the minimum value, as follows...

  16. The Effect of Fuel Dose Division on The Emission of Toxic Components in The Car Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietras Dariusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the effect of fuel dose division in the Diesel engine on smoke opacity and composition of the emitted exhaust gas. The research activities reported in the article include experimental examination of a small Diesel engine with Common Rail type supply system. The tests were performed on the engine test bed equipped with an automatic data acquisition system which recorded all basic operating and control parameters of the engine, and smoke opacity and composition of the exhaust gas. The parameters measured during the engine tests also included the indicated pressure and the acoustic pressure. The tests were performed following the pre-established procedure in which 9 engine operation points were defined for three rotational speeds: 1500, 2500 and 3500 rpm, and three load levels: 25, 40 and 75 Nm. At each point, the measurements were performed for 7 different forms of fuel dose injection, which were: the undivided dose, the dose divided into two or three parts, and three different injection advance angles for the undivided dose and that divided into two parts. The discussion of the obtained results includes graphical presentation of contests of hydrocarbons, carbon oxide, and nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas, and its smoke opacity. The presented analyses referred to two selected cases, out of nine examined engine operation points. In these cases the fuel dose was divided into three parts and injected at the factory set control parameters. The examination has revealed a significant effect of fuel dose division on the engine efficiency, and on the smoke opacity and composition of the exhaust gas, in particular the content of nitrogen oxides. Within the range of low loads and rotational speeds, dividing the fuel dose into three parts clearly improves the overall engine efficiency and significantly decreases the concentration of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas. Moreover, it slightly decreases the contents of hydrocarbons and

  17. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous ari pollutants registered and and unregistered stack (powered exhaust) source assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W.E.

    1995-12-01

    On February 3, 1993, US DOE Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Div. of US EPA, Region X. The compliance order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford site to determine which are subject to the continuous emission measurement requirements in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, and to continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. The Information Request required The provision of a written compliance plan to meet the requirements of the compliance order. A compliance plan was submitted to EPA, Region X, on April 30, 1993. It set as one of the milestones, the complete assessment of the Hanford Site 84 stacks registered with the Washington State Department of Health, by December 17, 1993. This milestone was accomplished. The compliance plan also called for reaching a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement; this was reached on February 7, 1994, between DOE Richland Operations and EPA, Region X. The milestone to assess the unregistered stacks (powered exhaust) by August 31, 1994, was met. This update presents assessments for 72 registered and 22 unregistered stacks with potential emissions > 0.1 mrem/yr.

  18. Effects of a Dual-Loop Exhaust Gas Recirculation System and Variable Nozzle Turbine Control on the Operating Parameters of an Automotive Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Zamboni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of NOX emissions and fuel consumption are the main topics in engine development, forcing the adoption of complex techniques and components, whose interactions have to be clearly understood for proper and reliable operations and management of the whole system. The investigation presented in this paper aimed at the development of integrated control strategies of turbocharging, high pressure (HP and low pressure (LP exhaust gas recirculation (EGR systems for better NOX emissions and fuel consumption, while analyzing their reciprocal influence and the resulting variations of engine quantities. The study was based on an extended experimental program in three part load engine operating conditions. In the paper a comparison of the behavior of the main engine sub-systems (intake and exhaust circuits, turbocharger turbine and compressor, HP and LP EGR loops in a wide range of operating modes is presented and discussed, considering open and closed loop approaches for variable nozzle turbine (VNT control, and showing how these affect engine performance and emissions. The potential of significant decrease in NOX emissions through the integration of HP and LP EGR was confirmed, while a proper VNT management allowed for improved fuel consumption level, if an open loop control scheme is followed. At higher engine speed and load, further actions have to be applied to compensate for observed soot emissions increase.

  19. Metal particle emissions in the exhaust stream of diesel engines: an electron microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liati, Anthi; Schreiber, Daniel; Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Panayotis; Arroyo Rojas Dasilva, Yadira

    2013-12-17

    Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were applied to investigate the morphology, mode of occurrence and chemical composition of metal particles (diesel ash) in the exhaust stream of a small truck outfitted with a typical after-treatment system (a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a downstream diesel particulate filter (DPF)). Ash consists of Ca-Zn-P-Mg-S-Na-Al-K-phases (lube-oil related), Fe, Cr, Ni, Sn, Pb, Sn (engine wear), and Pd (DOC coating). Soot agglomerates of variable sizes (1-5 μm, exceptionally 13 μm), rarely engine wear and escape into the atmosphere.

  20. Urban air quality: the challenge of traffic non-exhaust emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amato, Fulvio; Cassee, Flemming R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/143038990; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A C; Gehrig, Robert; Gustafsson, Mats; Hafner, Wolfgang; Harrison, Roy M.; Jozwicka, Magdalena; Kelly, Frank J.; Moreno, Teresa; Prevot, Andre S H; Schaap, Martijn; Sunyer, Jordi; Querol, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    About 400,000 premature adult deaths attributable to air pollution occur each year in the European Region. Road transport emissions account for a significant share of this burden. While important technological improvements have been made for reducing particulate matter (PM) emissions from motor

  1. Urban air quality: The challenge of traffic non-exhaust emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amato, F.; Cassee, F.R.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Gehrig, R.; Gustafsson, M.; Hafner, W.; Harrison, R.M.; Jozwicka, M.; Kelly, F.J.; Moreno, T.; Prevot, A.S.H.; Schaap, M.; Sunyer, J.; Querol, X.

    2014-01-01

    About 400,000 premature adult deaths attributable to air pollution occur each year in the European Region. Road transport emissions account for a significant share of this burden. While important technological improvements have been made for reducing particulate matter (PM) emissions from motor

  2. Occupational exposures to engine exhausts and other PAHs and breast cancer risk: A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Rajni; Glass, Deborah C; Heyworth, Jane S; Saunders, Christobel; Fritschi, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Some previous studies have suggested that exposure to engine exhausts may increase risk of breast cancer. In a population-based case-control study of breast cancer in Western Australia we assessed occupational exposure to engine exhausts using questionnaires and telephone interviews. Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression. We found no association between risk of breast cancer and occupational exposure to diesel exhaust (OR 1.07, 95%CI: 0.81-1.41), gasoline exhaust (OR 0.98, 95%CI: 0.74-1.28), or other exhausts (OR 1.08, 95%CI: 0.29-4.08). There were also no significant dose- or duration-response relationships. This study did not find evidence supporting the association between occupational exposures to engine exhausts and breast cancer risk. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:437-444, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Exhaust emissions of volatile organic compounds of powered two-wheelers: effect of cold start and vehicle speed. Contribution to greenhouse effect and tropospheric ozone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costagliola, M Antonietta; Murena, Fabio; Prati, M Vittoria

    2014-01-15

    Powered two-wheeler (PTW) vehicles complying with recent European type approval standards (stages Euro 2 and Euro 3) were tested on chassis dynamometer in order to measure exhaust emissions of about 25 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the range C1-C7, including carcinogenic compounds as benzene and 1,3-butadiene. The fleet consists of a moped (engine capacity ≤ 50 cm(3)) and three fuel injection motorcycles of different engine capacities (150, 300 and 400 cm(3)). Different driving conditions were tested (US FPT cycle, constant speed). Due to the poor control of the combustion and catalyst efficiency, moped is the highest pollutant emitter. In fact, fuel injection strategy and three way catalyst with lambda sensor are able to reduce VOC motorcycles' emission of about one order of magnitude with respect to moped. Cold start effect, that is crucial for the assessment of actual emission of PTWs in urban areas, was significant: 30-51% of extra emission for methane. In the investigated speed range, moped showed a significant maximum of VOC emission factor at minimum speed (10 km/h) and a slightly decreasing trend from 20 to 60 km/h; motorcycles showed on the average a less significant peak at 10 km/h, a minimum at 30-40 km/h and then an increasing trend with a maximum emission factor at 90 km/h. Carcinogenic VOCs show the same pattern of total VOCs. Ozone Formation Potential (OFP) was estimated by using Maximum Incremental Reactivity scale. The greatest contribution to tropospheric ozone formation comes from alkenes group which account for 50-80% to the total OFP. VOC contribution effect on greenhouse effect is negligible with respect to CO2 emitted. © 2013.

  4. Emission and performance analysis on the effect of exhaust gas recirculation in alcohol-biodiesel aspirated research diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingam, Arulprakasajothi; Munuswamy, Dinesh Babu; Devarajan, Yuvarajan; Radhakrishnan, Santhanakrishnan

    2018-02-21

    In this study, the effect of blending pentanol to biodiesel derived from mahua oil on emissions and performance pattern of a diesel engine under exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) mode was examined and compared with diesel. The purpose of this study is to improve the feasibility of employing biofuels as a potential alternative in an unmodified diesel engine. Two pentanol-biodiesel blends denoted as MOBD90P10 and MOBD80P20 which matches to 10 and 20 vol% of pentanol in biodiesel, respectively, were used as fuel in research engine at 10 and 20% EGR rates. Pentanol is chosen as a higher alcohol owing to its improved in-built properties than the other first-generation alcohols such as ethanol or methanol. Experimental results show that the pentanol and biodiesel blends (MOBD90P10 and MOBD80P20) have slightly higher brake thermal efficiency (0.2-0.4%) and lower brake-specific fuel consumption (0.6 to 1.1%) than that of neat biodiesel (MOBD100) at all engine loads. Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission and smoke emission are reduced by 3.3-3.9 and 5.1-6.4% for pentanol and biodiesel blends compared to neat biodiesel. Introduction of pentanol to biodiesel reduces the unburned hydrocarbon (2.1-3.6%) and carbon monoxide emissions (3.1-4.2%) considerably. In addition, at 20% EGR rate, smoke, NO X emissions, and BTE drop by 7.8, 5.1, and 4.4% respectively. However, CO, HC emissions, and BSFC increased by 2.1, 2.8, and 3.8%, respectively, when compared to 0% EGR rate.

  5. First approach to exhaust emissions characterization of light vehicles in Montevideo, Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Mauro; González, Alice Elizabeth; Rezzano Tizze, Nicolás

    2017-11-02

    According to Act No. 17283 of November 28th, 2000, air quality protection is a general concern in Uruguay. Road transport is the main emitter of nitrogen oxides (NOx), as the National Inventory of Air Emissions 2006 stated. Actually, it is responsible for the emissions of 59.8% of NOx and 28% of carbon monoxide (CO). The number of households owning a car in Uruguay increased from 29% in 2005 to 39% in 2013, enhancing the importance of characterizing the vehicular emissions of the national fleet. In this paper, a first approach for this characterization is presented. It was carried out on a sample of 11 light vehicles currently in use in Montevideo city, Uruguay. On-road emissions measurements of nitrogen monoxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were carried out for calculating the emission factors. The fitness of the set of calculated emission factors values to different probability distributions was tested. When possible, the 95% confidence intervals were obtained for the mean emission factors (CO: 2.0g/km±0.3g/km; NO: 0.05g/km±0.01g/km). This procedure was useful to obtaining accurate confidence intervals from a relatively small sample size. Finally, the link between atmospheric emissions and some other parameters of the tested vehicles was studied using a multivariate statistical tool, highlighting the strong increase in carbon monoxide emissions observed for low vehicles speeds and fuel efficiencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A portable fiber-optic chemical device for the quantitative determination of carbon monoxide from automobile exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, F A; Tubino, M

    2001-07-01

    A colorimetric method for the quantitative determination of CO by diffuse reflectance is described. This method is based on the reduction by CO of Mo (VI) from the indicator reagent molybdosilicic acid (H8Si[Mo2O7]6). The reduction yielded a change of color from clear yellow to dark green on white disk filter chart paper wetted with reagent indicator solution. The gaseous mixture containing CO was forced to pass through this chart paper, initiating the reaction. The intensity of the color produced, measured by diffuse reflectance, was proportional to the CO concentration present in exhaust gases in the range from 0.02 to 12% volume/volume (v/v). A 650-nm light-emitting diode was used as a light source. A two-fiber-optic system carried the light from the source to the detection system, which was composed of a photodiode, an amplification circuit, and a digital display. The method was applied with success in field measurements for automobiles in the Otto cycle. In a previous paper, this method was used for the quantitative determination of exhaust emissions from diesel-fueled vehicles.

  7. Black carbon emissions in gasoline exhaust and a reduction alternative with a gasoline particulate filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tak W; Meloche, Eric; Kubsh, Joseph; Brezny, Rasto

    2014-05-20

    Black carbon (BC) mass and solid particle number emissions were obtained from two pairs of gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) drive cycles on gasoline and 10% by volume blended ethanol (E10). BC solid particles were emitted mostly during cold-start from all GDI and PFI vehicles. The reduction in ambient temperature had significant impacts on BC mass and solid particle number emissions, but larger impacts were observed on the PFI vehicles than the GDI vehicles. Over the FTP-75 phase 1 (cold-start) drive cycle, the BC mass emissions from the two GDI vehicles at 0 °F (-18 °C) varied from 57 to 143 mg/mi, which was higher than the emissions at 72 °F (22 °C; 12-29 mg/mi) by a factor of 5. For the two PFI vehicles, the BC mass emissions over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle at 0 °F varied from 111 to 162 mg/mi, higher by a factor of 44-72 when compared to the BC emissions of 2-4 mg/mi at 72 °F. The use of a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) reduced BC emissions from the selected GDI vehicle by 73-88% at various ambient temperatures over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle. The ambient temperature had less of an impact on particle emissions for a warmed-up engine. Over the US06 drive cycle, the GPF reduced BC mass emissions from the GDI vehicle by 59-80% at various temperatures. E10 had limited impact on BC emissions from the selected GDI and PFI vehicles during hot-starts. E10 was found to reduce BC emissions from the GDI vehicle by 15% at standard temperature and by 75% at 19 °F (-7 °C).

  8. Advanced engine management of individual cylinders for control of exhaust species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Ronald L [Knoxville, TN; West, Brian H [Knoxville, TN; Huff, Shean P [Knoxville, TN; Parks, II, James E

    2008-12-30

    A method and system controls engine-out exhaust species of a combustion engine having a plurality of cylinders. The method typically includes various combinations of steps such as controlling combustion parameters in individual cylinders, grouping the individual cylinders into a lean set and a rich set of one or more cylinders, combusting the lean set in a lean combustion parameter condition having a lean air:fuel equivalence ratio, combusting the rich set in a rich combustion parameter condition having a rich air:fuel equivalence ratio, and adjusting the lean set and the rich set of one or more cylinders to generate net-lean combustion. The exhaust species may have elevated concentrations of hydrogen and oxygen.

  9. Detection of emission indices of aircraft exhaust compounds by open-path optical methods at airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürmann, Gregor; Schäfer, Klaus; Jahn, Carsten; Hoffmann, Herbert; Utzig, Selina

    2005-10-01

    Air pollutant emission rates of aircrafts are determined with test bed measurements. Regulations exist for CO2, NO, NO2, CO concentrations, the content of total unburned hydrocarbons and the smoke number, a measure of soot. These emission indices are listed for each engine in a data base of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) for four different Air pollutant emission rates of aircrafts are determined with test bed measurements. Regulations exist for CO2, NO, NO2, CO concentrations, the content of total unburned hydrocarbons and the smoke number, a measure of soot. These emission indices are listed for each engine in a data base of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) for four different thrust levels (Idle, approach, cruise and take-off). It is a common procedure to use this data base as a starting point to estimate aircraft emissions at airports and further on to calculate the contribution of airports on local air quality. The comparison of these indices to real in use measurements therefore is a vital task to test the quality of air quality models at airports. Here a method to determine emission indices is used, where concentration measurements of CO2 together with other pollutants in the aircraft plume are needed. During intensive measurement campaigns at Zurich (ZRH) and Paris Charles De Gaulle (CDG) airports, concentrations of CO2, NO, NO2 and CO were measured. The measurement techniques were Fourier-Transform-Infrared (FTIR) spectrometry and Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). The big advantage of these methods is that no operations on the airport are influenced during measurement times. Together with detailed observations of taxiway movements, a comparison of emission indices with real in use emissions is possible.

  10. Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of variable compression ratio diesel engine fuelled with esters of crude rice bran oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudeva, Mohit; Sharma, Sumeet; Mohapatra, S K; Kundu, Krishnendu

    2016-01-01

    As a substitute to petroleum-derived diesel, biodiesel has high potential as a renewable and environment friendly energy source. For petroleum importing countries the choice of feedstock for biodiesel production within the geographical region is a major influential factor. Crude rice bran oil is found to be good and viable feedstock for biodiesel production. A two step esterification is carried out for higher free fatty acid crude rice bran oil. Blends of 10, 20 and 40 % by vol. crude rice bran biodiesel are tested in a variable compression ratio diesel engine at compression ratio 15, 16, 17 and 18. Engine performance and exhaust emission parameters are examined. Cylinder pressure-crank angle variation is also plotted. The increase in compression ratio from 15 to 18 resulted in 18.6 % decrease in brake specific fuel consumption and 14.66 % increase in brake thermal efficiency on an average. Cylinder pressure increases by 15 % when compression ratio is increased. Carbon monoxide emission decreased by 22.27 %, hydrocarbon decreased by 38.4 %, carbon dioxide increased by 17.43 % and oxides of nitrogen as NOx emission increased by 22.76 % on an average when compression ratio is increased from 15 to 18. The blends of crude rice bran biodiesel show better results than diesel with increase in compression ratio.

  11. EU-project AEROJET. Non-intrusive measurements of aircraft engine exhaust emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, K.; Heland, J. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Umweltforschung (IFU), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany); Burrows, R. [Rolls-Royce Ltd. (United Kingdom). Engine Support Lab.; Bernard, M. [AUXITROL, S.A. (France). Aerospace Equipment Div.; Bishop, G. [British Aerospace (United Kingdom). Sowerby Research Centre; Lindermeir, E. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e. V. (DLR), Bonn (Germany). Inst. fuer Optoelektronik; Lister, D.H. [Defence and Research Agency, Hants (United Kingdom). Propulsion and Development Dept.; Wiesen, P. [Bergische Univ. Wuppertal (Gesamthochshule) (Germany); Hilton, M. [University of Reading (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    1997-12-31

    The main goal of the AEROJET programme is to demonstrate the equivalence of remote measurement techniques to conventional extractive methods for both gaseous and particulate measurements. The different remote measurement techniques are compared and calibrated. A demonstrator measurement system for exhaust gases, temperature and particulates including data-analysis software is regarded as result of this project. Non-intrusive measurements are the method of choice within the AEROJET project promising to avoid the disadvantages of the gas sampling techniques which are currently used. Different ground based non-intrusive measurement methods are demonstrated during a final evaluation phase. Several non-intrusive techniques are compared with conventional gas sampling and analysis techniques. (R.P.) 3 refs.

  12. RSM Based Optimization of Chemical and Enzymatic Transesterification of Palm Oil: Biodiesel Production and Assessment of Exhaust Emission Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Waseem Mumtaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current study presents RSM based optimized production of biodiesel from palm oil using chemical and enzymatic transesterification. The emission behavior of biodiesel and its blends, namely, POB-5, POB-20, POB-40, POB-50, POB-80, and POB-100 was examined using diesel engine (equipped with tube well. Optimized palm oil fatty acid methyl esters (POFAMEs yields were depicted to be 47.6±1.5,  92.7±2.5, and 95.4±2.0% for chemical transesterification catalyzed by NaOH, KOH, and NaOCH3, respectively, whereas for enzymatic transesterification reactions catalyzed by NOVOZYME-435 and A. n. lipase optimized biodiesel yields were 94.2±3.1 and 62.8±2.4%, respectively. Distinct decrease in particulate matter (PM and carbon monoxide (CO levels was experienced in exhaust emissions from engine operating on biodiesel blends POB-5, POB-20, POB-40, POB-50, POB-80, and POB-100 comparative to conventional petroleum diesel. Percentage change in CO and PM emissions for different biodiesel blends ranged from −2.1 to −68.7% and −6.2 to −58.4%, respectively, relative to conventional diesel, whereas an irregular trend was observed for NOx emissions. Only POB-5 and POB-20 showed notable reductions, whereas all other blends (POB-40 to POB-100 showed slight increase in NOx emission levels from 2.6 to 5.5% comparative to petroleum diesel.

  13. Effects of Specific Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions of Four Stroke Diesel Engine with CuO/Water Nanofluid as Coolant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthilraja S.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the effects of CuO/water based coolant on specific fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of four stroke single cylinder diesel engine. The CuO nanoparticles of 27 nm were used to prepare the nanofluid-based engine coolant. Three different volume concentrations (i.e 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2% of CuO/water nanofluids were prepared by using two-step method. The purpose of this study is to investigate the exhaust emissions (NOx, exhaust gas temperature and specific fuel consumption under different load conditions with CuO/water nanofluid. After a series of experiments, it was observed that the CuO/water nanofluids, even at low volume concentrations, have a significant influence on exhaust emissions. The experimental results revealed that, at full load condition, the specific fuel consumption was reduced by 8.6%, 15.1% and 21.1% for the addition of 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2% CuO nanoparticles with water, respectively. Also, the emission tests were concluded that 881 ppm, 853 ppm and 833 ppm of NOx emissions were observed at high load with 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2% volume concentrations of CuO/water nanofluids, respectively.

  14. 75 FR 37310 - Control of Emissions From New and In-Use Nonroad Compression-Ignition Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 1039 Control of Emissions From New and In-Use Nonroad Compression- Ignition Engines... follows: Sec. 1039.102 What exhaust emission standards and phase-in allowances apply for my engines in...

  15. Systemic effects of controlled exposure to diesel exhaust: a meta-analysis from randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Jefferson Luis; Macedo, Francisco Yuri; Benjo, Alexandre Miguel; Guimarães, Guilherme V; Contreras, Johanna Paola; Bocchi, Edimar A

    2017-03-01

    Ambient air pollution is associated with adverse cardiovascular events. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the short-term association between air pollution and cardiovascular effects on healthy volunteers. We searched databases to identify randomized trials with controlled human exposures to either of two models for studying ambient particulate matter: diesel-exhaust or concentrated ambient particles. Estimates of size effect were performed using standardized mean difference (SMD). Heterogeneity was assessed with I2 statistics. Outcomes were vascular function estimated by forearm blood flow (FBF), blood pressure, heart rate, and blood analysis. Database searches yielded 17 articles (n = 342) with sufficient information for meta-analyses. High levels of heterogeneity for the some outcomes were analyzed using random-effects model. The pooled effect estimate showed that short-term exposure to air pollution impaired FBF response from 2.7 to 2.5 mL/100 mL tissue/min (SMD 0.404; p = .006). There was an increase in 5000 platelet/mm3 following pollution exposure (SMD 0.390; p = .050) but no significant differences for other outcomes. Controlled human exposures to air pollution are associated with the surrogates of vascular dysfunction and increase in platelet count, which might be related to adverse cardiovascular events. Given the worldwide prevalence of exposure to air pollution, these findings are relevant for public health. KEY MESSAGES Controlled exposure to air pollution impairs vasomotor response, which is a surrogate for adverse cardiovascular events. This is the first meta-analysis from randomized clinical trials showing short-term association between air pollution and cardiovascular effects on healthy volunteers. Given the worldwide prevalence of exposure to air pollution, this finding is important for public health.

  16. Cycling before and after Exhaustion Differently Affects Cardiac Autonomic Control during Heart Rate Matched Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Weippert

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available During cycling before (PRE and after exhaustion (POST different modes of autonomic cardiac control might occur due to different interoceptive input and altered influences from higher brain centers. We hypothesized that heart rate variability (HRV is significantly affected by an interaction of the experimental period (PRE vs. POST and exercise intensity (HIGH vs. LOW; HIGH = HR > HR at the lactate threshold (HRLT, LOW = HR ≤ HRLT despite identical average HR.Methods: Fifty healthy volunteers completed an incremental cycling test until exhaustion. Workload started with 30 W at a constant pedaling rate (60 revolutions · min−1 and was gradually increased by 30 W · 5 min−1. Five adjacent 60 s inter-beat (R-R interval segments from the immediate recovery period (POST 1–5 at 30 W and 60 rpm were each matched with their HR-corresponding 60 s-segments during the cycle test (PRE 1–5. An analysis of covariance was carried out with one repeated-measures factor (PRE vs. POST exhaustion, one between-subject factor (HIGH vs. LOW intensity and respiration rate as covariate to test for significant effects (p < 0.050 on the natural log-transformed root mean square of successive differences between adjacent R-R intervals (lnRMSSD60s.Results: LnRMSSD60s was significantly affected by the interaction of experimental period × intensity [F(1, 242 = 30.233, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.111]. LnRMSSD60s was higher during PRE compared to POST at LOW intensity (1.6 ± 0.6 vs. 1.4 ± 0.6 ms; p < 0.001. In contrast, at HIGH intensity lnRMSSD60s was lower during PRE compared to POST (1.0 ± 0.4 vs. 1.2 ± 0.4 ms; p < 0.001.Conclusion: Identical net HR during cycling can result from distinct autonomic modulation patterns. Results suggest a pronounced sympathetic-parasympathetic coactivation immediately after the cessation of peak workload compared to HR-matched cycling before exhaustion at HIGH intensity. On the opposite, at LOW intensity cycling, a stronger coactivational

  17. Effects of fuels, engine load and exhaust after-treatment on diesel engine SVOC emissions and development of SVOC profiles for receptor modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Bohac, Stanislav V.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Batterman, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Diesel exhaust emissions contain numerous semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) for which emission information is limited, especially for idling conditions, new fuels and the new after-treatment systems. This study investigates exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), and sterane and hopane petroleum biomarkers from a heavy-duty (6.4 L) diesel engine at various loads (idle, 600 and 900 kPa BMEP), with three types of fuel (ultra-low sulfur diesel or ULSD, Swedish low aromatic diesel, and neat soybean biodiesel), and with and without a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF). Swedish diesel and biodiesel reduced emissions of PM2.5, Σ15PAHs, Σ11NPAHs, Σ5Hopanes and Σ6Steranes, and biodiesel resulted in the larger reductions. However, idling emissions increased for benzo[k]fluoranthene (Swedish diesel), 5-nitroacenaphthene (biodiesel) and PM2.5 (biodiesel), a significant result given the attention to exposures from idling vehicles and the toxicity of high-molecular-weight PAHs and NPAHs. The DOC + DPF combination reduced PM2.5 and SVOC emissions during DPF loading (>99% reduction) and DPF regeneration (83–99%). The toxicity of diesel exhaust, in terms of the estimated carcinogenic risk, was greatly reduced using Swedish diesel, biodiesel fuels and the DOC + DPF. PAH profiles showed high abundances of three and four ring compounds as well as naphthalene; NPAH profiles were dominated by nitro-naphthalenes, 1-nitropyrene and 9-nitroanthracene. Both the emission rate and the composition of diesel exhaust depended strongly on fuel type, engine load and after-treatment system. The emissions data and chemical profiles presented are relevant to the development of emission inventories and exposure and risk assessments. PMID:25709535

  18. Spatial and temporal allocation of ship exhaust emissions in Australian coastal waters using AIS data: Analysis and treatment of data gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsworthy, Brett

    2017-08-01

    Ship exhaust emissions need to be allocated accurately in both space and time in order to examine many of the associated impacts, including on air quality and health. Data on ship activity from the Automatic Identification System (AIS) allow ship exhaust emissions to be calculated with fine spatial and temporal resolution. However, there are spatial gaps in the coverage afforded by the coastal network of ground stations that are used to collect the AIS data. This paper focuses on the problem of allocating emissions to the coastal gap regions. Allocating emissions to these regions involves generating interpolated ship tracks that both span the gaps and avoid coming too close to land. In most cases, a simple shortest path or straight line interpolation produces tracks that do not overlap or come too close to land. Where the simple method does not produce acceptable results, vessel tracks are steered around land on shortest available paths using a combination of visibility graphs and Dijkstra's algorithm. A geographical cluster analysis is first used to identify the boundary regions of the data gaps. The properties of the data gaps are summarised in terms of the length, duration and speed of the spanning tracks. The interpolation methods are used to improve the spatial distribution of emissions. It is also shown that emissions in the gap regions can contribute substantially to the total ship exhaust emissions in close proximity to highly populated areas.

  19. Absence of multiplicative interactions between occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking: a systematic review involving asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad El Zoghbi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is the main cause of lung cancer, but it is not the sole causal factor. Significant proportions of workers are smokers and exposed to occupational lung carcinogens. This study aims to systematically review the statistical interaction between occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking, in particular asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions. Methods Articles were identified using Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science, and were limited to those published in English or French, without limitation of time. The reference list of selected studies was reviewed to identify other relevant papers. One reviewer selected the articles based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Two reviewers checked the eligibility of articles to be included in the systematic review. Data were extracted by one reviewer and revised by two other reviewers. Cohorts and case–control studies were analyzed separately. The risk of bias was evaluated for each study based on the outcome. The results of the interaction between the tobacco smoking and each carcinogen was evaluated and reported separately. Results Fifteen original studies were included for asbestos-smoking interaction, seven for silica-smoking interaction and two for diesel-smoking interaction. The results suggested the absence of multiplicative interaction between the three occupational lung carcinogens and smoking. There is no enough evidence from the literature to conclude for the additive interaction. We believe there is a limited risk of publication bias as several studies reporting negative results were published. Conclusion There are no multiplicative interactions between tobacco smoking and occupational lung carcinogens, in particular asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions. Even though, specific programs should be developed and promoted to reduce concomitantly the exposure to occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco

  20. Absence of multiplicative interactions between occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking: a systematic review involving asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zoghbi, Mohamad; Salameh, Pascale; Stücker, Isabelle; Brochard, Patrick; Delva, Fleur; Lacourt, Aude

    2017-02-02

    Tobacco smoking is the main cause of lung cancer, but it is not the sole causal factor. Significant proportions of workers are smokers and exposed to occupational lung carcinogens. This study aims to systematically review the statistical interaction between occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking, in particular asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions. Articles were identified using Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science, and were limited to those published in English or French, without limitation of time. The reference list of selected studies was reviewed to identify other relevant papers. One reviewer selected the articles based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Two reviewers checked the eligibility of articles to be included in the systematic review. Data were extracted by one reviewer and revised by two other reviewers. Cohorts and case-control studies were analyzed separately. The risk of bias was evaluated for each study based on the outcome. The results of the interaction between the tobacco smoking and each carcinogen was evaluated and reported separately. Fifteen original studies were included for asbestos-smoking interaction, seven for silica-smoking interaction and two for diesel-smoking interaction. The results suggested the absence of multiplicative interaction between the three occupational lung carcinogens and smoking. There is no enough evidence from the literature to conclude for the additive interaction. We believe there is a limited risk of publication bias as several studies reporting negative results were published. There are no multiplicative interactions between tobacco smoking and occupational lung carcinogens, in particular asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions. Even though, specific programs should be developed and promoted to reduce concomitantly the exposure to occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking.

  1. 40 CFR 600.113-12 - Fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... For vehicles with more than one source of propulsion energy, one of which is a rechargeable energy storage system, or vehicles with special features that the Administrator determines may have a...-related exhaust emissions for electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles...

  2. Absence of multiplicative interactions between occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking: a systematic review involving asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    El Zoghbi, Mohamad; Salameh, Pascale; Stücker, Isabelle; Brochard, Patrick; Delva, Fleur; Lacourt, Aude

    ...]. Many of them are found in occupational settings such as all forms of asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions, which are among the top most frequent occupational exposures [8-11]. The rate of smoking is higher among blue-collar workers than white-collar workers [12]. Thus a significant proportion of workers are concomitantl...

  3. Effects of fuel properties and oxidation catalyst on diesel exhaust emissions; Keiyu seijo oyobi sanka shokubai no diesel haishutsu gas eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, S.; Morihisa, H.; Tamanouchi, M.; Araki, H.; Yamada, S. [Petroleum Energy Center, Advanced Technology and Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Effects of fuel properties (T90 and Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbons: PAH) and oxidation catalyst on diesel exhaust emissions were studied using three DI diesel engines and two diesel passenger cars. (IDI engine) PM emissions were found to increase as T90 and PAH increased and could be decreased considerably for each fuel if an oxidation catalyst was installed. 5 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Effects of gasoline properties on exhaust emission and photochemical reactivity; Gasoline seijo ga haiki gas sosei, kokagaku hannosei ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, R.; Usui, K.; Moriya, A.; Sato, M.; Nomura, T.; Sue, H. [Petroleum Energy Center, Advanced Technology and Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In order to investigate the effects of fuel properties on emissions, four passenger cars were tested under Japanese 11 and 10-15 modes using two series gasoline fuels. The test results suggest that the distillation property (T90) affects A/F ratio which in turn influences exhaust emissions. The results of regression analysis show that both ozone forming potential and air toxics are highly corrected with the composition of aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline. 3 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. New trends in emission control in the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    Merkisz, Jerzy; Radzimirski, Stanislaw

    2014-01-01

    This book discusses recent changes in the European legislation for exhaust emissions from motor vehicles. It starts with a comprehensive explanation of both the structure and range of applicability of new regulations, such as Euro 5 and Euro 6 for light-duty vehicles and Euro VI for heavy-duty vehicles. Then it introduces the most important issues in in-service conformity and conformity of production for vehicles, describing the latest procedures for performing exhaust emissions tests under both bench and operating conditions. Subsequently, it reports on portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) and their application for assessing the emissions of gaseous and particulate matter alike, under actual operating conditions and in all transport modes. Lastly, the book presents selected findings from exhaust emissions research on engines for a variety of transport vehicles, such as light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles, as well as non-road vehicles, which include farm tractors, groundwork and forest machinery, diese...

  6. Assessment of environmentally friendly fuel emissions from in-use vehicle exhaust: low-blend iso-stoichiometric GEM mixture as example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifter, Isaac; Díaz-Gutiérrez, Luis; Rodríguez-Lara, René; González-Macías, Carmen; González-Macías, Uriel

    2017-05-01

    Gasoline-ethanol-methanol fuel blends were formulated with the same stoichiometric air-to-fuel ratio and volumetric energy concentration as any binary ethanol-gasoline blend. When the stoichiometric blends operated in a vehicle, the time period, injector voltage, and pressure for each fuel injection event in the engine corresponded to a given stoichiometric air-to-fuel ratio, and the load was essentially constant. Three low oxygen content iso-stoichiometric ternary gasoline-ethanol-methanol fuel blends were prepared, and the properties were compared with regular-type fuel without added oxygen. One of the ternary fuels was tested using a fleet of in-use vehicles for15 weeks and compared to neat gasoline without oxygenated compounds as a reference. Only a small number of publications have compared these ternary fuels in the same engine, and little data exist on the performance and emissions of in-use spark-ignition engines. The total hydrocarbon emissions observed was similar in both fuels, in addition to the calculated ozone forming potential of the tailpipe and evaporative emissions. In ozone non-attainment areas, the original purpose for oxygenate gasolines was to decrease carbon monoxide emissions. The results suggest that the strategy is less effective than expected because there still exist a great number of vehicles that have suffered the progressive deterioration of emissions and do not react to oxygenation, while new vehicles are equipped with sophisticated air/fuel control systems, and oxygenation does not improve combustion because the systems adjust the stoichiometric point, making it insensitive to the origin of the added excess oxygen (fuel or excess air). Graphical abstract Low level ternary blend of gasoline-ethanol-methanol were prepared with the same stoichiometric air-fuel ratio and volumetric energy concentration, based on the volumetric energy density of the pre-blended components. Exhaust and evaporative emissions was compared with a blend

  7. Certification of Pd and Pt single spikes and application to the quantification of Pt and Pd in automotive exhaust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Jochen; Meyer, Christian; Noordmann, Janine; Rienitz, Olaf; Geilert, Sonja

    2014-05-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies show the effect of increased ambient pollution. Therefore measurement networks for air quality have been installed worldwide and legislation requires the monitoring of air pollution. Besides monitoring it is also important to be able to identify, to quantify and finally to regulate the emission of distinct sources in order to improve the quality of life. Automotive vehicles are a major source of environmental pollution especially through contaminants such as CO, NOX, SOX and hydrocarbons which derive from petrol combustion, while for example Platinum Group Elements (PGE) can be present from catalytic converters. The release of PGE into the environment, however, may be damaging in terms of public health, ecological and economic interests. In order to reliably assess the risks from PGEs, traceable and thus comparable data on the release rates of PGE from automotive catalysers are needed. As no Certified Reference Materials (CRM) are available for such samples the development of analytical procedures enabling SI-traceable results will be challenging. Therefore reference procedures for Pd and Pt in automotive exhaust emissions based on isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) have been developed and applied to specifically sampled automotive exhaust emissions. Due to the commonly known advantages, IDMS often is applied for quantification PGEs, as is the case within this work. The main reasons here are the required accuracy and the low PGE mass fractions in the sample. In order to perform IDMS analysis the analyte element must be available in an isotopically enriched form as so-called spike material or solution thereof, which is mixed with the sample. Unfortunately, no certified PGE spike solutions are available yet. To fill this gap two single PGE spikes, one 106Pd and one 194Pt spike, have been produced and characterized. The selection of the isotopes, the production of the solutions and the ampoulation will be described in this

  8. Experimental investigation on cyclic variability, engine performance and exhaust emissions in a diesel engine using alcohol-diesel fuel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurgen Samet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impacts of using n-butanol-diesel fuel and ethanol-diesel fuel blends on engine performance, exhaust emission, and cycle-by-cycle variation in a Diesel engine. The engine was operated at two different engine speed and full load condition with pure diesel fuel, 5% and 10% (by vol. ethanol and n-butanol fuel blends. The coefficient of variation of indicated mean effective pressure was used to evaluate the cyclic variability of n-butanol-diesel fuel and ethanol-diesel fuel blends. The results obtained in this study showed that effective efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption generally increased with the use of the n-butanol-diesel fuel or ethanol-diesel fuel blends with respect to that of the neat diesel fuel. The addition of ethanol or n-butanol to diesel fuel caused a decrement in CO and NOx emissions. Also, the results indicated that cycle-by-cycle variation has an increasing trend with the increase of alcohol-diesel blending ratio for all engine speed. An increase in cyclic variability of alcohol-diesel fuel blends at low engine speed is higher than that of high engine speed.

  9. Aldehyde, Ketone and Methane Emissions from Motor Vehicle Exhaust: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Sasi; Nayek, M.; A. Kumar; Tandon, A.; Mondal, P; Vijay, P.; Bhangale, U. D.; Tyagi, D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent data indicate that, in many countries, mobile sources are responsible for the largest portion of emissions of aldehydes, ketones and certain other air toxic pollutants. These air toxic pollutants along with methane are either carcinogenic or pose significant human health threat. These pollutants also add to global warming in a substantial way. This paper gives an overview of their properties, basic chemistry and conditions of formation in internal combustion engines. Again worldwide ma...

  10. IDI diesel engine performance and exhaust emission analysis using biodiesel with an artificial neural network (ANN)

    OpenAIRE

    K. Prasada Rao; T. Victor Babu; Anuradha, G.; B.V. Appa Rao

    2016-01-01

    Biodiesel is receiving increasing attention each passing day because of its fuel properties and compatibility. This study investigates the performance and emission characteristics of single cylinder four stroke indirect diesel injection (IDI) engine fueled with Rice Bran Methyl Ester (RBME) with Isopropanol additive. The investigation is done through a combination of experimental data analysis and artificial neural network (ANN) modeling. The study used IDI engine experimental data to evaluat...

  11. Engine performance and exhaust emission analysis of a single cylinder diesel engine fuelled with water-diesel emulsion fuel blended with manganese metal additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsin Ithnin, Ahmad; Jazair Yahya, Wira; Baun Fletcher, Jasmine; Kadir, Hasannuddin Abd

    2017-10-01

    Water-in-diesel emulsion fuel (W/D) is one of the alternative fuels that capable to reduce the exhaust emission of diesel engine significantly especially the nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). However, the usage of W/D emulsion fuels contributed to higher CO emissions. Supplementing metal additive into the fuel is the alternate way to reduce the CO emissions and improve performance. The present paper investigates the effect of using W/D blended with organic based manganese metal additives on the diesel engine performance and exhaust emission. The test were carried out by preparing and analysing the results observed from five different tested fuel which were D2, emulsion fuel (E10: 89% D2, 10% - water, 1% - surfactant), E10Mn100, E10Mn150, E10Mn200. Organic based Manganese (100ppm, 150ppm, 200ppm) used as the additive in the three samples of the experiments. E10Mn200 achieved the maximum reduction of BSFC up to 13.66% and has the highest exhaust gas temperature. Whereas, E10Mn150 achieved the highest reduction of CO by 14.67%, and slightly increased of NOx emissions as compared to other emulsion fuels. Organic based manganese which act as catalyst promotes improvement of the emulsion fuel performance and reduced the harmful emissions discharged.

  12. Exhaust Emission Characteristics of Heavy Duty Diesel Engine During Cold and Warm Start

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Rong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Through experiment conducted on a six cylinder direct injection diesel engine with SCR catalyst, effects of coolant temperature on rail pressure, injection quantity, excess air coefficient and emissions characteristics during cold and warm start were investigated. The results showed that, the maximum injection quantity during a starting event was several times higher than idling operation mode, so was the maximal opacity in the cold and warm starting process. When coolant temperature rose up to above 20℃, NOX emissions in the starting process exhibited peculiar rise which was times higher than idling mode. Compared with engine warm start, rail pressure, cycle fuel quantity, opacity, CO and HC emissions during engine cold start were higher in the course from their transient maximal values towards stabilized idling status. NOX in the same transient course, however, were lower in cold start. As coolant temperature rose, the maximal and the idling value of rail pressure and cycle fuel injection quantity during diesel engine starting process decreased gradually, the excess air coefficient increased to a certain degree, and the maximal and idling values of NOX increased gradually.

  13. Exhaust Emission Traverse Investigation of a JT3D-1 Turbofan Engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    12 Points 4 Area Weighted From Traverse Maps 3 Traverse Emission Indices And Efficiencies 5 I P V S —~~~~~~~~ I r ~~~--i~i...NOTE: NUMBERS fl4D1CATE THE ILLUSTRATION - IN PARTS PER MILU FIGURE 4. CO ~ (ISSI0~ TRAVERSE MAP—2...i-;~~. 16 El ~A T E n W I T H I N noN ARF : V AL U E S 41L LION. 79— 1 f l_ e r, 11 U - p

  14. Impact of intake CO 2 addition and exhaust gas recirculation on NO x emissions and soot reactivity in a common rail diesel engine

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Qurashi, Khalid

    2012-10-18

    The impact of intake CO 2 addition and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on engine combustion characteristics, NO x emissions, and soot oxidative reactivity was studied in a common rail diesel engine equipped with a cooled EGR system. The engine test results and the heat release analysis show that the reduced flame temperature, induced by the reduction of the oxygen concentration (dilution effect) is the dominant mechanism via which CO 2 and EGR lower NO x emissions in diesel engines. On the other hand, the collected soot from the engine tests was examined for its oxidative reactivity using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Results show that EGR has a significant effect on soot reactivity and results in higher initial active sites compared to the CO 2 case. We conclude that the reduced flame temperature (thermal effect) which is a consequence of the dilution effect is responsible for the observed increase in soot reactivity. These results confirm observations from our past work on flame soot, which showed that the peak adiabatic flame temperature is the governing factor affecting soot reactivity. These findings imply that driving the combustion concepts toward low temperature is favorable to effectively control engine pollutants, including soot reactivity. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  15. Emissions in the exhaust of fishing boats after adding viscous agents into fuel oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Lien-Te; Shih, Shun-I; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Yang, Tsun-Lirng; Wu, Tser-Son; Hung, Chung-Hsien

    2009-12-20

    In order to avoid the illegal use of fishing boat fuel A (FBFA) by traveling diesel vehicles (TDVs) in Taiwan, alternatives that are easily distinguished from premium diesel fuel (PDF) were prepared to evaluate their suitability. Two new ingredients, pyrolysis fuel oil (PFO) and residue of desulfurization unit (RDS), were added into FBFA and formed PFO0.5 and RDS0.5, respectively. Along with FBFA, these three fuels were analyzed for their chemical and physical properties. Furthermore, they were used by three fishing boats with different sizes, output powers, and weights. The engine performances and pollutant emissions were examined and monitored. Experimental results show that there are significant differences in appearance between PDF and the two new blended fuels (PFO0.5 and RDS0.5), and thus misuse or illegal use of FBFA could be substantially reduced. The fuel consumption, which is negatively related to the heating value of fuels, is in order of FBFAPDF, RDS0.5 is superior to PFO0.5, and is thus recommended as a better alternative to FBFA, particularly because it can help lower more emissions of CO, NO(x), PM and BaP(eq).

  16. Diesel engine performance and exhaust emission analysis using diesel-organic germanium fuel blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafiq Zulkifli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative fuels such as biodiesel, bio-alcohol and other biomass sources have been extensively research to find its potential as an alternative sources to fossil fuels. This experiment compared the performance of diesel (D, biodiesel (BD and diesel-organic germanium blend (BG5 at five different speeds ranging from 1200-2400 rpm. BG5 shows significant combustion performance compared to BD. No significant changes of power observed between BG5 and BD at a low speed (1200 rpm. On the contrary, at higher speeds (1800 rpm and 2400 rpm, BG5 blend fuel shows increased engine power of 12.2 % and 9.2 %, respectively. Similarly, torque shows similar findings as engine power, whereby the improvement could be seen at higher speeds (1800 rpm and 2400 rpm when torque increased by 7.3 % and 2.3 %, respectively. In addition, the emission results indicated that for all speeds, CO2, and NO had reduced at an average of 2.1 % and 177 %, respectively. Meanwhile, CO emission had slightly increased compared to BD at low speeds by 0.04 %. However, the amount of CO released had decreased at an average of 0.03 % as the engine speed increased. Finally, measurement of O2 shows an increment at 16.4 % at all speed range.

  17. Denuder for measuring emissions of gaseous organic exhaust gas constituents; Denuder zur Emissionsmessung von gasfoermigen organischen Abgasinhaltsstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerchel, B.; Jockel, W.; Kallinger, G.; Niessner, R.

    1997-05-01

    Industrial plants which emit carcinogenic or other noxious substances should be given top priority in any policy to ward off harmful environmental effects. This also applies to many volatile and semi-volatile air constituents such as volatile aliphatic carbonyls or amines. To date there are no satisfactory methods for determining trace organic components of exhaust gases. It is true that aldehydes are considered in the VDI Guideline 3862, but the measuring methods given there are based on absorption in liquids and are accordingly difficult to use and show a high cross-sensitivity for other substances. No VDI Guideline exists to date on amine emissions. In view of the complexity of exhaust gases a selective enrichment of certain families of substances would appear indicated. Sampling trouble could be reduced if it was possible only to accumulate the gaseous phase, or even just one family of gaseous constituents. A particularly suitable air sampling method is that of diffusion separation. These diffusion separators (denuders) are well known as a powerful measuring system which is able to accumulate trace pollutants in the outside air. The purpose of the present study was to find out whether the concept of diffusion separation is also applicable to emission monitoring, and in particular whether it is suitable for detecting volatile aliphatic aldehydes and amines (primary and secondary) at extremely low concentrations (<10 ppb). (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Fuer Anlagen mit Emissionen von krebserzeugenden und gesundheitsgefaehrdenden Stoffen ergibt sich ein besonderer Handlungsbedarf zum Schutz vor schaedlichen Umwelteinwirkungen. Zu diesen Stoffen gehoeren auch viele leicht- und mittelfluechtigen Luftinhaltsstoffe, wie z.B. die leichtfluechtigen aliphatischen Carbonyle oder Amine. Fuer organische Komponenten, die nur in geringen Konzentrationen im Abgas vorkommen, existieren bisher keine zufriedenstellenden Messverfahren. Fuer die Aldehyde liegt zwar die VDI-Richtlinie 3862

  18. Advanced Catalytic Converter in Gasoline Enginer Emission Control: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust emission from automobile source has become a major contributor to the air pollution and environmental problem. Catalytic converter is found to be one of the most effective tools to reduce the overwhelming exhaust pollutants in our environment. The development of sustainable catalytic converter still remains a critical issue due to the stringent exhaust emission regulations. Another issue such as price and availability of the precious metal were also forced the automotive industry to investigate the alternatives for producing a better replacement for the material used in catalytic converter. This paper aims at reviewing the present development and improvement on the catalytic converter used on the reduction of exhaust emission in order to meet the regulations and market demand. The use of new catalyst such as to replace the noble metal material of Platinum (Pt, Palladium (Pd and Rhodium (Rh has been reviewed. Material such as zeolite, nickel oxide and metal oxide has been found to effectively reduce the emission than the commercial converter. The preparation method of the catalyst has also evolved through the years as it is to ensure a good characteristic of a good monolith catalyst. Ultrasonic treatment with combination of electroplating technique, citrate method and Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO has been found as the latest novel preparation method on producing an effective catalyst in reducing the exhaust emission.

  19. Occupational Exposure to Respirable Dust, Respirable Crystalline Silica and Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions in the London Tunnelling Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Karen S; Mair, Craig; Alexander, Carla; de Vocht, Frank; van Tongeren, Martie

    2016-03-01

    Personal 8-h shift exposure to respirable dust, diesel engine exhaust emissions (DEEE) (as respirable elemental carbon), and respirable crystalline silica of workers involved in constructing an underground metro railway tunnel was assessed. Black carbon (BC) concentrations were also assessed using a MicroAeth AE51. During sprayed concrete lining (SCL) activities in the tunnel, the geometric mean (GM) respirable dust exposure level was 0.91mg m(-3), with the highest exposure measured on a back-up sprayer (3.20mg m(-3)). The GM respirable crystalline silica concentration for SCL workers was 0.03mg m(-3), with the highest measurement also for the back-up sprayer (0.24mg m(-3)). During tunnel boring machine (TBM) activities, the GM respirable dust concentration was 0.54mg m(-3). The GM respirable elemental carbon concentration for all the TBM operators was 18 µg m(-3); with the highest concentration measured on a segment lifter. The BC concentrations were higher in the SCL environment in comparison to the TBM environment (daily GM 18-54 µg m(-3) versus 3-6 µg m(-3)). This small-scale monitoring campaign provides additional personal data on exposures experienced by underground tunnel construction workers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  20. Physical Sciences Facility Air Emission Control Equivalency Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, David M.; Belew, Shan T.

    2008-10-17

    This document presents the adequacy evaluation for the application of technology standards during design, fabrication, installation and testing of radioactive air exhaust systems at the Physical Sciences Facility (PSF), located on the Horn Rapids Triangle north of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) complex. The analysis specifically covers the exhaust portion of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems associated with emission units EP-3410-01-S, EP-3420-01-S and EP 3430-01-S.

  1. 40 CFR 86.1823-08 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control device. This procedure requires installation of the catalyst-plus-oxygen-sensor system on a... period of time calculated from the bench aging time (BAT) equation. The BAT equation requires, as input... procedure to future durability groups. The manufacturer may apply a durability procedure approved under...

  2. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of

  3. Evaporation Controlled Emission in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus; Nielsen, Peter V.; Heiselberg, Per

    -scale ventilated room when the emission is fully or partly evaporation controlled. The objective of the present research work has been to investigate the change of emission rates from small-scale experiments to full-scale ventilated rooms and to investigate the influence of the local air velocity field near...

  4. A poluição gerada por máquinas de combustão interna movidas à diesel - a questão dos particulados. Estratégias atuais para a redução e controle das emissões e tendências futuras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braun Silvana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The exhaust emissions of vehicles greatly contribute to environmental pollution. Diesel engines are extremely fuel-efficient. However, the exhaust compounds emitted by diesel engines are both a health hazard and a nuisance to the public. This paper gives an overview of the emission control of particulates from diesel exhaust compounds. The worldwide emission standards are summarized. Possible devices for reducing diesel pollutants are discussed. It is clear that after-treatment devices are necessary. Catalytic converters that collect particulates from diesel exhaust and promote the catalytic burn-off are examined. Finally, recent trends in diesel particulate emission control by novel catalysts are presented.

  5. Observations of primary and secondary emissions in a B747 exhaust plume in the upper troposphere and inferred engine exit plane OH concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlager, H.; Schulte, P.; Tremmel, H.G.; Ziereis, H. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Arnold, F.; Droste-Franke, B.; Klemm, M.; Schneider, J. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The speciation of NO{sub y} exhaust emissions in the near-field plume of a B747 cruising at 9.2 km was measured in situ using the DLR Falcon research aircraft instrumented with a chemical ionisation mass spectrometer of MPI-K and a chemiluminescence NO detector of DLR. In addition, CO{sub 2} was measured providing a dilution factor for the exhaust species. Observed maximum peak concentrations above background in the plume 60 s after emission were 25.4 ppmv (CO{sub 2}), 184 ppbv (NO), 2.6 ppbv (HNO{sub 2}), and 1.3 ppbv (HNO{sub 3}). The observations were used to infer the initial OH concentration (15.4 ppmv) and NO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} ratio (0.08) at the engine exit by back calculations using a chemistry box model. (author) 20 refs.

  6. Effects of antioxidant additives on exhaust emissions reduction in compression ignition engine fueled with methyl ester of annona oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Senthil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, biodiesel is a cleaner burning alternative fuel to the Neat diesel fuel. However, several studies are pointed out that increase in NOx emission for biodiesel when compared with the Neat diesel fuel. The aim of the present study is to analyze the effect of antioxidant (p-phenylenediamine on engine emissions of a Diesel engine fuelled with methyl ester of annona oil. The antioxidant is mixed in various concentrations (0.010 to 0.040% (w/w with methyl ester of annona oil. Result shows that antioxidant additive mixture (MEAO+P200 is effective in control of NOx and HC emission of methyl ester of annona oil fuelled engine without doing any engine modification.

  7. Environmental effect of antioxidant additives on exhaust emission reduction in compression ignition engine fuelled with Annona methyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, R; Silambarasan, R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to analyse the effect of antioxidant l-ascorbic acid on engine performance and emissions of a diesel engine fuelled with methyl ester of Annona oil (MEAO). The antioxidant is mixed in various concentrations (100-400 mg) with MEAO. Result shows that the antioxidant additive mixture (MEAO+LA200) is effective in control of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and hydrocarbon (HC) emission of MEAO-fuelled engine without doing any engine modification. In this study by using MEAO, the NOx emission is reduced by about 23.38% at full load while compared with neat diesel fuel. Likewise there is a reduction in carbon monoxide, smoke, and HC by about 48%, 28.57% and 29.71% at full load condition compared with neat diesel fuel.

  8. Waterbury, Conn., Incinerator to Control Mercury Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emission control equipment to limit the discharge of mercury pollution to the atmosphere will be installed at an incinerator owned by the City of Waterbury, Conn., according to a proposed agreement between the city and federal government.

  9. Absence of multiplicative interactions between occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking: a systematic review involving asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions

    OpenAIRE

    El Zoghbi, Mohamad; Salameh, Pascale; Stücker, Isabelle; Brochard, Patrick; Delva, Fleur; Lacourt, Aude

    2016-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking is the main cause of lung cancer, but it is not the sole causal factor. Significant proportions of workers are smokers and exposed to occupational lung carcinogens. This study aims to systematically review the statistical interaction between occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking, in particular asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions. Methods Articles were identified using Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science, and were limited to th...

  10. A poluição gerada por máquinas de combustão interna movidas à diesel- a questão dos particulados. Estratégias atuais para a redução e controle das emissões e tendências futuras

    OpenAIRE

    Braun Silvana; Appel Lucia Gorenstin; Schmal Martin

    2010-01-01

    The exhaust emissions of vehicles greatly contribute to environmental pollution. Diesel engines are extremely fuel-efficient. However, the exhaust compounds emitted by diesel engines are both a health hazard and a nuisance to the public. This paper gives an overview of the emission control of particulates from diesel exhaust compounds. The worldwide emission standards are summarized. Possible devices for reducing diesel pollutants are discussed. It is clear that after-treatment devices are ne...

  11. A comparative study of the elemental composition of the exhaust emissions of cars powered by liquefied petroleum gas and unleaded petrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, McKenzie C. H.; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Morawska, Lidia; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Jayaratne, E. Rohan; Kokot, Serge

    Elements emitted from the exhausts of new Ford Falcon Forte cars powered by unleaded petrol (ULP) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) were measured on a chassis dynamometer. The measurements were carried out in February, June and August 2001, and at two steady state driving conditions (60 and 80 km h -1). Thirty seven elements were quantified in the exhaust samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The total emission factors of the elements from the exhausts of ULP cars were higher than those of LPG cars at both engine speeds even though high variability in the exhaust emissions from different cars was noted. The effect of the operating conditions such as mileage of the cars, engine speed, fuel and lubricating oil compositions on the emissions was studied. To investigate the effects of these conditions, multivariate data analysis methods were employed including exploratory principal component analysis (PCA), and the multi-criteria decision making methods (MCDM), preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE) and geometrical analysis for interactive aid (GAIA), for ranking the cars on the basis of the emission factors of the elements. PCA biplot of the complete data matrix showed a clear discrimination of the February, June and August emission test results. In addition, (i) platinum group elements (PGE) emissions were separated from each other in the three different clusters viz. Pt with February, Pd with June and Rh with August; (ii) the motor oil related elements, Zn and P, were particularly associated with the June and August tests (these vectors were also grouped with V, Al and Cu); and (iii) highest emissions of most major elements were associated with the August test after the cars have recorded their highest mileage. Extensive analysis with the aid of the MCDM ranking methods demonstrated clearly that cars powered by LPG outperform those powered by ULP. In general, cars tested in June perform better than

  12. Non-intrusive measurement of emission indices. A new approach to the evaluation of infrared spectra emitted by aircraft engine exhaust gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindermeir, E.; Haschberger, P.; Tank, V. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Optoelektronik

    1997-12-31

    A non-intrusive method is used to determine the emission indices of a research aircraft`s engine in-flight. The principle is based on the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer MIROR which was specifically designed and built for operation aboard aircrafts. This device measures the spectrum of the infrared radiation emitted by the hot exhaust gas under cruise conditions. From these spectra mixing ratios and emission indices can be derived. An extension to previously applied evaluation schemes is proposed: Whereas formerly the plume was assumed a homogeneous layer of gas, temperature and concentration profiles are now introduced to the evaluation procedure. (author) 5 refs.

  13. Reduction of diesel engine emissions through the recirculation of cooled exhaust gas; Senkung von Diesel-Emissionen durch Rueckfuehrung von gekuehltem Abgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, R. [Behr GmbH und Co., Stuttgart (Germany). Entwicklungsteam Abgaswaermeuebertrager

    1997-09-01

    More stringent exhaust regulations for diesel engines which will come into force in Europe (Euro III, 1999) and the USA (2004) will necessitate new methods of reducing emissions, one of which entails the recirculation of cooled exhaust gas. By this process, a certain volume of the exhaust gas is bled off upstream of the turbine, cooled by the engine coolant and remixed with the combustion air down-stream of the intercooler. By contrast with other methods of exhaust gas purification, such as a lean-NO{sub x} catalytic converter, this process needs no second activating agent, such as urea, and, in comparison with a modification of the combustion process, only slightly more fuel. The heat transfer system developed by Behr, which uses the engine coolant to cool the exhaust gas, is capable of withstanding the high temperatures and pressures in the forward section of the exhaust system, is resistant to the sulphuric acid in diesel condensation and, despite its compact design, exhibits a low level of flow resistance. Its exceptional cooling capacity is achieved by a new heat transfer system employing `winglet` turbulence generators. These reduce deposits of soot and other particles on the walls of the heat exchanger to a considerable extent, thereby contributing to its long-term efficiency. (orig.) [Deutsch] Durch die Einfuehrung neuer, strengerer Abgasvorschriften fuer Dieselmotoren 1999 in Europa und 2004 in den USA ruecken neue Techniken zur Emissionssenkung ins Blickfeld. Eine davon ist die gekuehlte Abgasrueckfuehrung, die eine Emissionssenkung bei nur minimalem Anstieg des Kraftstoffverbrauchs erlaubt. An den Waermeuebertrager fuer solch ein System werden hinsichtlich kompakter Bauweise und Leistung, Temperaturbestaendigkeit, Verschutzungs-Unempfindlichkeit und Korrosionsbestaendigkeit hohe Anforderungen gestellt. Der von Behr entwickelte Abgas-Kuehlmittel-Waermeuebertrager erfuellt diese Anforderungen und zeichnet sich durch eine hohe Leistungsdichte aus. Dies

  14. Acidic emissions control technology and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmel, T.E.; Waddell, J.T.; Adams, R.C. (Radian Corp. (US))

    1989-01-01

    This book describes acidic emissions control technology and costs. The objectives are: to identify and characterize stationary combustion and industrial sources of directly emitted acidic materials in the United States; to evaluate the feasibility of control technologies for these sources; and to estimate the costs of applying these control technologies. This book gives results of estimates, using a model plant approach, of costs for retrofitting selected acidic emission control systems to utility and industrial boilers, Claus sulfur recovery plants, catalytic cracking units, primary copper smelters, coke oven plants, primary aluminum smelters, and municipal solid waste incinerators.

  15. Effects of Pilot Injection Timing and EGR on Combustion, Performance and Exhaust Emissions in a Common Rail Diesel Engine Fueled with a Canola Oil Biodiesel-Diesel Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cong Ge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel as a clean energy source could reduce environmental pollution compared to fossil fuel, so it is becoming increasingly important. In this study, we investigated the effects of different pilot injection timings from before top dead center (BTDC and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR on combustion, engine performance, and exhaust emission characteristics in a common rail diesel engine fueled with canola oil biodiesel-diesel (BD blend. The pilot injection timing and EGR rate were changed at an engine speed of 2000 rpm fueled with BD20 (20 vol % canola oil and 80 vol % diesel fuel blend. As the injection timing advanced, the combustion pressure, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC, and peak combustion pressure (Pmax changed slightly. Carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM emissions clearly decreased at BTDC 20° compared with BTDC 5°, but nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions increased slightly. With an increasing EGR rate, the combustion pressure and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP decreased slightly at BTDC 20° compared to other injection timings. However, the Pmax showed a remarkable decrease. The BSFC and PM emissions increased slightly, but the NOx emission decreased considerably.

  16. Investigation of PCDD/F emissions from mobile source diesel engines: impact of copper zeolite SCR catalysts and exhaust aftertreatment configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z Gerald; Wall, John C; Barge, Patrick; Dettmann, Melissa E; Ottinger, Nathan A

    2011-04-01

    This study investigated the impact of copper zeolite selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts and exhaust aftertreatment configurations on the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from mobile source diesel engines. Emissions of PCDD/Fs, reported as the weighted sum of 17 congeners called the toxic equivalency quotient (TEQ), were measured using a modified EPA Method 0023A in the absence and presence of exhaust aftertreatment. Engine-out emissions were measured as a reference, while aftertreatment configurations included various combinations of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), Cu-zeolite SCR, Fe-zeolite SCR, ammonia oxidation catalyst (AMOX), and aqueous urea dosing. In addition, different chlorine concentrations were evaluated. Results showed that all aftertreatment configurations reduced PCDD/F emissions in comparison to the engine-out reference, consistent with reduction mechanisms such as thermal decomposition or combined trapping and hydrogenolysis reported in the literature. Similarly low PCDD/F emissions from the DOC-DPF and the DOC-DPF-SCR configurations indicated that PCDD/F reduction primarily occurred in the DOC-DPF with no noticeable contribution from either the Cu- or Fe-zeolite SCR systems. Furthermore, experiments performed with high chlorine concentration provided no evidence that chlorine content has an impact on the catalytic synthesis of PCDD/Fs for the chlorine levels investigated in this study.

  17. Economic growth and carbon emission control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenyu

    The question about whether environmental improvement is compatible with continued economic growth remains unclear and requires further study in a specific context. This study intends to provide insight on the potential for carbon emissions control in the absence of international agreement, and connect the empirical analysis with theoretical framework. The Chinese electricity generation sector is used as a case study to demonstrate the problem. Both social planner and private problems are examined to derive the conditions that define the optimal level of production and pollution. The private problem will be demonstrated under the emission regulation using an emission tax, an input tax and an abatement subsidy respectively. The social optimal emission flow is imposed into the private problem. To provide tractable analytical results, a Cobb-Douglas type production function is used to describe the joint production process of the desired output and undesired output (i.e., electricity and emissions). A modified Hamiltonian approach is employed to solve the system and the steady state solutions are examined for policy implications. The theoretical analysis suggests that the ratio of emissions to desired output (refer to 'emission factor'), is a function of productive capital and other parameters. The finding of non-constant emission factor shows that reducing emissions without further cutting back the production of desired outputs is feasible under some circumstances. Rather than an ad hoc specification, the optimal conditions derived from our theoretical framework are used to examine the relationship between desired output and emission level. Data comes from the China Statistical Yearbook and China Electric Power Yearbook and provincial information of electricity generation for the year of 1993-2003 are used to estimate the Cobb-Douglas type joint production by the full information maximum likelihood (FIML) method. The empirical analysis shed light on the optimal

  18. Experimental and numerical analysis of the performance and exhaust gas emissions of a biogas/n-heptane fueled HCCI engine

    KAUST Repository

    Kozarac, Darko

    2016-09-12

    The use of highly reactive fuel as an ignition promoter enables operation of biogas fueled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine at low intake temperatures with practical control of combustion phasing. In order to gain some insight into this operation mode the influence of addition of n-heptane on combustion, performance, emissions and control of combustion phasing of a biogas fueled HCCI engine is experimentally researched and presented in this paper. Additionally, the performance analysis of the practical engine solution for such operation is estimated by using the numerical simulation of entire engine. The results showed that the introduction of highly reactive fuel results with a significant change in operating conditions and with a change in optimum combustion phasing. The addition of n-heptane resulted in lower nitrogen oxides and increased carbon monoxide emissions, while the unburned hydrocarbons emissions were strongly influenced by combustion phasing and at optimal conditions are lowered compared to pure biogas operation. The results also showed a practical operation range for strategies that use equivalence ratio as a control of load. Simulation results showed that the difference in performance between pure biogas and n-heptane/biogas operation is even greater when the practical engine solution is taken into account.

  19. The effects of emission control strategies on light-absorbing carbon emissions from a modern heavy-duty diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael A; Olson, Michael R; Liu, Z Gerald; Schauer, James J

    2015-06-01

    Control of atmospheric black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) has been proposed as an important pathway to climate change mitigation, but sources of BC and BrC are still not well understood. In order to better identify the role of modern heavy-duty diesel engines on the production of BC and BrC, emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine operating with different emission control strategies were examined using a source dilution sampling system. The effect of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) on light-absorbing carbon (LAC) was evaluated at three steady-state engine operation modes: idle, 50% speed and load, and 100% speed and load. LAC was measured with four different engine configurations: engine out, DOC out, DPF out, and engine out with an altered combustion calibration. BC and BrC emission rates were measured with the Aethalometer (AE-31). EC and BC emission rates normalized to the mass of CO₂emitted increased with increasing engine speed and load. Emission rates normalized to brake-specific work did not exhibit similar trends with speed and load, but rather the highest emission rate was measured at idle. EC and OC emissions were reduced by 99% when the DOC and DPF architecture was applied. The application of a DPF was equally effective at removing 99% of the BC fraction of PM, proving to be an important control strategy for both LAC and PM. BC emissions were unexpectedly increased across the DOC, seemingly due to a change aerosol optical properties. Removal of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) flow due to simulated EGR cooler failure caused a large increase in OC and BrC emission rates at idle, but had limited influence during high load operation. LAC emissions proved to be sensitive to the same control strategies effective at controlling the total mass of diesel PM. In the context of black carbon emissions, very small emission rates of brown carbon were measured over a range of control technologies and engine operating

  20. Subjective recovery time after exhausting muscular activity in postpolio and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agre, J C; Rodriquez, A A; Franke, T M

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the time to subjectively fully recover after the performance of exhausting muscular exercise was greater in unstable postpolio as compared with stable postpolio or control subjects. Twenty-five unstable (those complaining of declining muscle strength) postpolio, 16 stable (those denying declining muscle strength) postpolio, and 25 control subjects performed an isometric contraction of the knee extensor (quadriceps femoris) musculature at 40% of maximal torque until they were no longer able to do so. Five-second maximal effort contractions were made every 30 s through 2 min after the time of failure was reached and then at 1-min intervals through 10 min after failure was reached. Subjects reported the duration of time required to subjectively fully recover from this activity. Choices of "less than 1 day," "1 day," "2 days," etc., up to "greater than 2 wk" were given to the subjects for their response. Analysis was by nonparametric ANOVA and appropriate post hoc comparison procedures. Unstable postpolio subjects reported a greater recovery time than either the stable postpolio or control subjects (mean +/- SD of 2.6 +/- 3.0 days, 0.6 +/- 1.0 days, and 0.7 +/- 1.1 days, respectively, P postpolio subjects than stable postpolio or control subjects. The cause for this finding is unknown and requires further investigation.

  1. Diesel exhaust augments allergen-induced lower airway inflammation in allergic individuals: a controlled human exposure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsten, Chris; Blomberg, Anders; Pui, Mandy; Sandstrom, Thomas; Wong, Sze Wing; Alexis, Neil; Hirota, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollution has been shown to augment allergy and airway disease. However, the enhancement of allergenic effects by diesel exhaust in particular is unproven in vivo in the human lung, and underlying details of this apparent synergy are poorly understood. To test the hypothesis that a 2 h inhalation of diesel exhaust augments lower airway inflammation and immune cell activation following segmental allergen challenge in atopic subjects. 18 blinded atopic volunteers were exposed to filtered air or 300 µg PM(2.5)/m(3) of diesel exhaust in random fashion. 1 h post-exposure, diluent-controlled segmental allergen challenge was performed; 2 days later, samples from the challenged segments were obtained by bronchoscopic lavage. Samples were analysed for markers and modifiers of allergic inflammation (eosinophils, Th2 cytokines) and adaptive immune cell activation. Mixed effects models with ordinal contrasts compared effects of single and combined exposures on these end points. Diesel exhaust augmented the allergen-induced increase in airway eosinophils, interleukin 5 (IL-5) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and the GSTT1 null genotype was significantly associated with the augmented IL-5 response. Diesel exhaust alone also augmented markers of non-allergic inflammation and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and suppressed activity of macrophages and myeloid dendritic cells. Inhalation of diesel exhaust at environmentally relevant concentrations augments allergen-induced allergic inflammation in the lower airways of atopic individuals and the GSTT1 genotype enhances this response. Allergic individuals are a susceptible population to the deleterious airway effects of diesel exhaust. NCT01792232. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Emission control with route optimization in solid waste collection ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Solid waste collection processes are usually carried out by using trucks with diesel engine. In solid waste collection process, the trucks emit to environment different emissions from its exhausts. For this reason, in solid waste collection process, it is necessary that route optimization should be performed in order to decrease ...

  3. Environmental controls over methanol emission from leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Harley

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Methanol is found throughout the troposphere, with average concentrations second only to methane among atmospheric hydrocarbons. Proposed global methanol budgets are highly uncertain, but all agree that at least 60% of the total source arises from the terrestrial biosphere and primary emissions from plants. However, the magnitude of these emissions is also highly uncertain, and the environmental factors which control them require further elucidation.

    Using a temperature-controlled leaf enclosure, we measured methanol emissions from leaves of six plant species by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, with simultaneous measurements of leaf evapotranspiration and stomatal conductance. Rates of emission at 30°C varied from 0.2 to 38 μg g (dry mass−1 h−1, with higher rates measured on young leaves, consistent with the production of methanol via pectin demethylation in expanding foliage. On average, emissions increased by a factor of 2.3 for each 10°C increase in leaf temperature. At constant temperature, emissions were also correlated with co-varying incident photosynthetic photon flux density and rates of stomatal conductance. The data were analyzed using the emission model developed by Niinemets and Reichstein (2003a, b, with the incorporation of a methanol production term that increased exponentially with temperature. It was concluded that control of emissions, during daytime, was shared by leaf temperature and stomatal conductance, although rates of production may also vary diurnally in response to variations in leaf growth rate in expanding leaves. The model, which generally provided reasonable simulations of the measured data during the day, significantly overestimated emissions on two sets of measurements made through the night, suggesting that production rates of methanol were reduced at night, perhaps because leaf growth was reduced or possibly through a direct effect of light on production

  4. Demand, control and social climate as predictors of emotional exhaustion symptoms in working Swedish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Theorell, Töres; Oxenstierna, Gabriel; Hyde, Martin; Westerlund, Hugo

    2008-09-01

    Most studies on burnout have been cross-sectional and focused on specific occupations. In the present study we prospectively investigated the association between demands, control, support and conflicts as well as downsizing and emotional exhaustion in men and women derived from a representative sample of the working population in Sweden. The study comprised working men (1,511) and women (1,493), who participated in the Swedish Work Environment Survey (SWES) in 2003 and had no physical exhaustion and prior sick leave at baseline. These participants were followed up in 2006 as part of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). Demands, decision authority, support from fellow workers and superiors, conflicts with fellow workers and superiors, and downsizing were utilized as predictors and the Maslach Burnout Inventory subscale of emotional exhaustion as the outcome in multiple logistic regression analyses. High demands were a highly significant predictor of symptoms of emotional exhaustion (>/=75th percentile). Downsizing and lack of support from superiors were also independent predictors for men as well as lack of support from fellow workers and low decision authority for women. This study indicates that high demands, low decision authority, lack of support at work and downsizing could be important predictors of emotional exhaustion symptoms among working men and women.

  5. Performance evaluation of non-thermal plasma on particulate matter, ozone and CO2 correlation for diesel exhaust emission reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babaie, Meisam; Davari, Pooya; Talebizadeh, Poyan

    2015-01-01

    This study is seeking to investigate the effect of non-thermal plasma technology in the abatement of particulate matter (PM) from the actual diesel exhaust. Ozone (O3) strongly promotes PM oxidation, the main product of which is carbon dioxide (CO2). PM oxidation into the less harmful product (CO2......) is the main objective whiles the correlation between PM, O3 and CO2 is considered. A dielectric barrier discharge reactor has been designed with pulsed power technology to produce plasma inside the diesel exhaust. To characterise the system under varied conditions, a range of applied voltages from 11 k...... concentration and PM removal has been found and the role of ozone in PM removal in plasma treatment of diesel exhaust has been highlighted....

  6. 49 CFR 325.91 - Exhaust systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 325.91 Section 325.91... EMISSION STANDARDS Exhaust Systems and Tires § 325.91 Exhaust systems. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 57193, Sept. 20, 2010. A motor vehicle does not conform to the visual exhaust system inspection...

  7. Control mechanisms for Nordic ship emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsen, K. [DNV, Oslo (Norway); Torvanger, A. [Cicero, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-04-15

    Shipping today operates under a complex set of international and domestic regulations. However, the environmental regulations have lagged behind those of other industries. This situation is now changing quite dramatically. The increased focus on environmental issues, combined with the growing realisation of the actual pollution burden imposed by shipping, has led to an upsurge in both international and national regulations. Some are ready and will enter into force in the near future, while others are still being developed. On behalf of the Nordic Council of Ministers DNV has carried out a study on possible control mechanisms for Nordic ship emission. The aim is to assess the baseline shipping emissions and reduction potential and the possible controlling mechanisms (both incentives and regulations) available for reducing the emissions to air from shipping within the Nordic region. (Author)

  8. The comparison of engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics of sesame oil-diesel fuel mixture with diesel fuel in a direct injection diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altun, Sehmus [Technical Education Faculty, Automotive Division, Batman University, Batman (Turkey); Bulut, Huesamettin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osmanbey Campus, Harran University, 63100 Sanliurfa (Turkey); Oener, Cengiz [Technical Education Faculty, Automotive Division, Firat University, Elazig (Turkey)

    2008-08-15

    The use of vegetable oils as a fuel in diesel engines causes some problems due to their high viscosity compared with conventional diesel fuel. Various techniques and methods are used to solve the problems resulting from high viscosity. One of these techniques is fuel blending. In this study, a blend of 50% sesame oil and 50% diesel fuel was used as an alternative fuel in a direct injection diesel engine. Engine performance and exhaust emissions were investigated and compared with the ordinary diesel fuel in a diesel engine. The experimental results show that the engine power and torque of the mixture of sesame oil-diesel fuel are close to the values obtained from diesel fuel and the amounts of exhaust emissions are lower than those of diesel fuel. Hence, it is seen that blend of sesame oil and diesel fuel can be used as an alternative fuel successfully in a diesel engine without any modification and also it is an environmental friendly fuel in terms of emission parameters. (author)

  9. Assessment of the controllability of condensible emissions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shareef, G.S.; Waddell, J.T.

    1990-10-01

    The report gives results of a study to gain insights into the condensible emissions area from an air toxics perspective, with emphasis on controllability and chemical composition of these emissions. The study: compiled existing data on condensible emissions; determined the chemical composition of condensible emissions, where possible; identified source categories that are major emitters of condensibles; evaluated the effectiveness of various control devices in reducing condensible emissions; and evaluated how the performance of currently available control technologies can be improved to better control condensible emissions. Two data bases were developed: the Condensibles Data Base contains 43 emission source categories; the Specialized Condensibles Data Base focuses on the chemical composition of condensible emissions.

  10. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith Hohn; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2011-08-31

    This final report describes a project intended to identify, develop, test, and commercialize emissions control and monitoring technologies that can be implemented by E&P operators to significantly lower their cost of environmental compliance and expedite project permitting. Technologies were installed and tested in controlled laboratory situations and then installed and tested on field engines based on the recommendations of an industry-based steering committee, analysis of installed horsepower, analysis of available emissions control and monitoring technologies, and review of technology and market gaps. The industry-recognized solution for lean-burn engines, a low-emissions-retrofit including increased airflow and pre-combustion chambers, was found to successfully control engine emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub X}) and carbon monoxide (CO). However, the standard non-selective catalytic reduction (NSCR) system recognized by the industry was found to be unable to consistently control both NO{sub X} and CO emissions. The standard NSCR system was observed to produce emissions levels that changed dramatically on a day-to-day or even hour-to-hour basis. Because difficulties with this system seemed to be the result of exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensors that produced identical output for very different exhaust gas conditions, models were developed to describe the behavior of the EGO sensor and an alternative, the universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor. Meanwhile, an integrated NSCR system using an advanced, signal-conditioned UEGO sensor was tested and found to control both NO{sub X} and CO emissions. In conjunction with this project, advanced monitoring technologies, such as Ion Sense, and improved sensors for emissions control, such as the AFM1000+ have been developed and commercialized.

  11. Effect of EGR on the exhaust gas temperature and exhaust opacity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In diesel engines, NOx formation is a highly temperature-dependent phenomenon and takes place when the temperature in the combustion chamber exceeds 2000 K. Therefore, in order to reduce NOx emissions in the exhaust, it is necessary to keep peak combustion temperatures under control. One simple way of ...

  12. Local Exhaust Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ulla; Breum, N. O.; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Capture efficiency of a local exhaust system, e.g. a kitchen hood, should include only contaminants being direct captured. In this study basic concepts of local exhaust capture efficiency are given, based on the idea of a control box. A validated numerical model is used for estimation...

  13. Controlling collective spontaneous emission with plasmonic waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Argyropoulos, Christos

    2016-11-14

    We demonstrate a plasmonic route to control the collective spontaneous emission of two-level quantum emitters. Superradiance and subradiance effects are observed over distances comparable to the operating wavelength inside plasmonic nanochannels. These plasmonic waveguides can provide an effective epsilon-near-zero operation in their cut-off frequency and Fabry-Pérot resonances at higher frequencies. The related plasmonic resonant modes are found to efficiently enhance the constructive (superradiance) or destructive (subradiance) interference between different quantum emitters located inside the waveguides. By increasing the number of emitters located in the elongated plasmonic channel, the superradiance effect is enhanced at the epsilon-near-zero operation, leading to a strong coherent increase in the collective spontaneous emission rate. In addition, the separation distance between neighboring emitters and their emission wavelengths can be changed to dynamically control the collective emission properties of the plasmonic system. It is envisioned that the dynamic modification between quantum superradiant and subradiant modes will find applications in quantum entanglement of qubits, low-threshold nanolasers and efficient sensors.

  14. Effect of Gasoline Properties on Exhaust Emissions from Tier 2 Light-Duty Vehicles -- Final Report: Phase 3; July 28, 2008 - July 27, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, K.

    2014-05-01

    This report covers work the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) Office of Automotive Engineering has conducted for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) in support of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct). Section 1506 of EPAct requires EPA to produce an updated fuel effects model representing the 2007 light - duty gasoline fleet, including determination of the emissions impacts of increased renewable fuel use. This report covers the exhaust emissions testing of 15 light-duty vehicles with 27 E0 through E20 test fuels, and 4 light-duty flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) on an E85 fuel, as part of the EPAct Gasoline Light-Duty Exhaust Fuel Effects Test Program. This program will also be referred to as the EPAct/V2/E-89 Program based on the designations used for it by the EPA, NREL, and CRC, respectively. It is expected that this report will be an attachment or a chapter in the overall EPAct/V2/E-89 Program report prepared by EPA and NREL.

  15. Diesel Engine Exhaust: Basis for Occupational Exposure Limit Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxell, Piia; Santonen, Tiina

    2017-08-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in transport and power supply, making occupational exposure to diesel exhaust common. Both human and animal studies associate exposure to diesel exhaust with inflammatory lung effects, cardiovascular effects, and an increased risk of lung cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated diesel exhaust as carcinogenic to humans. Yet national or regional limit values for controlling occupational exposure to diesel exhaust are rare. In recent decades, stricter emission regulations have led to diesel technologies evolving significantly, resulting in changes in exhaust emissions and composition. These changes are also expected to influence the health effects of diesel exhaust. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the health effects of diesel exhaust and the influence of new diesel technologies on the health risk. It discusses the relevant exposure indicators and perspectives for setting occupational exposure limit values for diesel exhaust, and outlines directions for future research. The review is based on a collaborative evaluation report by the Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals and the Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Safety. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Turbine exhaust diffuser with a gas jet producing a coanda effect flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosa, John; Montgomery, Matthew

    2014-02-11

    An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine includes an inner boundary and an outer boundary with a flow path defined therebetween. The inner boundary is defined at least in part by a hub structure that has an upstream end and a downstream end. The outer boundary may include a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inward toward the hub structure and may direct at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub structure. The hub structure includes at least one jet exit located on the hub structure adjacent to the upstream end of the tail cone. The jet exit discharges a flow of gas substantially tangential to an outer surface of the tail cone to produce a Coanda effect and direct a portion of the exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the inner boundary.

  17. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program: Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.T. Amrhein; R.T. Bailey; W. Downs; M.J. Holmes; G.A. Kudlac; D.A. Madden

    1999-07-01

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses - BH), and wet flue gas desulfurization systems (WFGD). Development work concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, with an emphasis on the control of mercury. The AECDP project is jointly funded by the US Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (OCDO), and Babcock and Wilcox, a McDermott company (B and W). This report discusses results of all three phases of the AECDP project with an emphasis on Phase III activities. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on characterization of the emissions of mercury and other air toxics and the control of these emissions for typical operating conditions of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment. Some general comments that can be made about the control of air toxics while burning a high-sulfur bituminous coal are as follows: (1) particulate control devices such as ESP's and baghouses do a good job of removing non-volatile trace metals, (2) particulate control devices (ESPs and baghouses) effectively remove the particulate-phase mercury, but the particulate-phase mercury was only a small fraction of the total for the coals tested, (3) wet scrubbing can effectively remove hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, and (4) wet scrubbers show good potential for the removal of mercury when operated under certain conditions, however, for certain applications, system enhancements can be required to achieve

  18. 40 CFR 90.407 - Engine inlet and exhaust systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... exhaust emission compliance over the full range of air inlet filter systems and exhaust muffler systems. (b) The air inlet filter system and exhaust muffler system combination used on the test engine must...

  19. Control of harmful hydrocarbon species in the exhaust of modern advanced GDI engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, A. O.; Abu-jrai, A.; Turner, D.; Tsolakis, A.; Xu, H. M.; Golunski, S. E.; Herreros, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    A qualitative and quantitative analysis of toxic but currently non-regulated hydrocarbon compounds ranging from C5-C11, before and after a zoned three-way catalytic converter (TWC) in a modern gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine has been studied using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The GDI engine has been operated under conventional and advanced combustion modes, which result in better fuel economy and reduced levels of NOx with respect to standard SI operation. However, these fuel-efficient conditions are more challenging for the operation of a conventional TWC, and could lead to higher level of emissions released to the environment. Lean combustion leads to the reduction in pumping losses, fuel consumption and in-cylinder emission formation rates. However, lean HCCI will lead to high levels of unburnt HCs while the presence of oxygen will lower the TWC efficiency for NOx control. The effect on the catalytic conversion of the hydrocarbon species of the addition of hydrogen upstream the catalyst has been also investigated. The highest hydrocarbon engine-out emissions were produced for HCCI engine operation at low engine load operation. The catalyst was able to remove most of the hydrocarbon species to low levels (below the permissible exposure limits) for standard and most of the advanced combustion modes, except for naphthalene (classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer) and methyl-naphthalene (which has the potential to cause lung damage). However, when hydrogen was added upstream of the catalyst, the catalyst conversion efficiency in reducing methyl-naphthalene and naphthalene was increased by approximately 21%. This results in simultaneous fuel economy and environmental benefits from the effective combination of advanced combustion and novel aftertreatment systems.

  20. Role of average speed in N₂O exhaust emissions as greenhouse gas in a huge urban zone (MVMZ): would we need a cold sun?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, S; Mac-Beath, I; Mejia, I; Camposeco, R; Bazan, G; Morán-Pineda, M; Carrera, R; Gómez, R

    2012-05-15

    Nowadays, the drastic pollution problems, some of them related with greenhouse gas emissions, have promoted important attempts to face and diminish the global warming effects on the Mexico Valley Metropolitan Zone (MVMZ) as well as on the huge urban zones around the world. To reduce the exhaust gas emissions, many efforts have been carried out to reformulate fuels and design new catalytic converters; however, it is well known that other variables such as socio-economic and transport structure factors also play an important role around this problem. The present study analyzes the roles played by several commonly-used three-way catalytic converters (TWC) and the average traffic speed in the emission of N(2)O as greenhouse gas. According to this study, by increasing the average traffic flow and avoiding constant decelerations (frequent stops) during common trips, remarkable environmental and economic benefits could be obtained due to the diminution of N(2)O and other contaminant emissions such as ammonia (NH(3)) and even CO(2) with the concomitant reduced fossil fuel consumption. The actions mentioned above could be highly viable to diminish, in general, the global warming effects and contamination problems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Combusting vegetable oils in diesel engines: the impact of unsaturated fatty acids on particle emissions and mutagenic effects of the exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bünger, Jürgen; Bünger, Jörn F; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Schröder, Olaf; Brüning, Thomas; Hallier, Ernst; Westphal, Götz A

    2016-06-01

    High particle emissions and strong mutagenic effects were observed after combustion of vegetable oil in diesel engines. This study tested the hypothesis that these results are affected by the amount of unsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids of vegetable oils. Four different vegetable oils (coconut oil, CO; linseed oil, LO; palm tree oil, PO; and rapeseed oil, RO) and common diesel fuel (DF) were combusted in a heavy-duty diesel engine. The exhausts were investigated for particle emissions and mutagenic effects in direct comparison with emissions of DF. The engine was operated using the European Stationary Cycle. Particle masses were measured gravimetrically while mutagenicity was determined using the bacterial reverse mutation assay with tester strains TA98 and TA100. Combustion of LO caused the largest amount of total particulate matter (TPM). In comparison with DF, it particularly raised the soluble organic fraction (SOF). RO presented second highest TPM and SOF, followed by CO and PO, which were scarcely above DF. RO revealed the highest number of mutations of the vegetable oils closely followed by LO. PO was less mutagenic, but still induced stronger effects than DF. While TPM and SOF were strongly correlated with the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the vegetable oils, mutagenicity had a significant correlation with the amount of total unsaturated fatty acids. This study supports the hypothesis that numbers of double bounds in unsaturated fatty acids of vegetable oils combusted in diesel engines influence the amount of emitted particles and the mutagenicity of the exhaust. Further investigations have to elucidate the causal relationship.

  2. Asbestos emissions from baghouse controlled sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, C F; Oestreich, D K; Siebert, P; Stockham, J D

    1975-08-01

    There is virtually no information published on the absolute efficiency of baghouses in reducing the emmisions of fine particles of asbestos. This lack of information is unfortunate because serious occupational health problems may result from the common practice of recirculating air to conserve energy. Emission testing has been conducted at five asbestos processing plants where the emissions are controlled by baghouses. The results showed that the mass removal efficiency frequently exceeded 99.00%. Membrane filter samples of the effluent were examined by optical and electron microscope. It was observed that despite the high mass efficiency, the number of fibers emitted, which were greater than 1.5 mum in length, was about 10(4)-10(5) fibers/m3, while the number of fibers less than 1.5 mum was 10(7)-10(8) fibers/m3. The significance of the size of the fibers in terms of probably health impact is briefly discussed.

  3. 4th international exhaust gas and particulate emissions forum. Proceedings; 4. internationales FORUM Abgas- und Partikelemissionen. Beitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Lectures of the conference addressed the following topics: European and US American pollution regulations, particulate measuring systems, emission factors for vehicles, particulate emission abatement through simulation and optimization, selective catalytic reduction in heavy duty diesel trucks, filters, combustion properties, performance assessment, contribution of biofuels. (uke)

  4. Study on direct measurement of diesel exhaust gas flow rate. Development of ultrasonic exhaust gas flowmeter; Diesel hai gas ryuryo no chokusetsu sokuteiho ni kansuru kenkyu. Choonpa hai gas ryuryokeino kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, A.; Takamoto, M.; Yamzaki, H. [National Research Laboratory of Meteology, Tsukuba (Japan); Hosoi, K. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan); Arai, S.; Shimizu, K. [Kaijo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-02-25

    The partial flow dilution method is one of the typical measurement methods for particulate matter emission from diesel engines. In this method, exhaust gas at a transient flow rate should be transferred to a dilution tunnel at a constant ratio of exhaust gas. The present partial flow dilution method is used under steady-state engine operating conditions in lieu of direct flow rate measurement of exhaust gas. A more practical control of exhaust emission is, however, required world widely; therefore development of an exhaust gas flowmeter is indispensable in the partial flow dilution method for transient engine operating conditions. An ultrasonic exhaust gas flowmeter has been developed and been demonstrated to be capable of measuring the exhaust gas flow rate with sufficient accuracy. (author)

  5. Ship Compliance in Emission Control Areas: Technology Costs and Policy Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Edward W; Corbett, James J

    2015-08-18

    This paper explores whether a Panama Canal Authority pollution tax could be an effective economic instrument to achieve Emission Control Area (ECA)-like reductions in emissions from ships transiting the Panama Canal. This tariff-based policy action, whereby vessels in compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) ECA standards pay a lower transit tariff than noncompliant vessels, could be a feasible alternative to petitioning for a Panamanian ECA through the IMO. A $4.06/container fuel tax could incentivize ECA-compliant emissions reductions for nearly two-thirds of Panama Canal container vessels, mainly through fuel switching; if the vessel(s) also operate in IMO-defined ECAs, exhaust-gas treatment technologies may be cost-effective. The RATES model presented here compares current abatement technologies based on hours of operation within an ECA, computing costs for a container vessel to comply with ECA standards in addition to computing the Canal tax that would reduce emissions in Panama. Retrofitted open-loop scrubbers are cost-effective only for vessels operating within an ECA for more than 4500 h annually. Fuel switching is the least-cost option to industry for vessels that operate mostly outside of ECA regions, whereas vessels operating entirely within an ECA region could reduce compliance cost with exhaust-gas treatment technology (scrubbers).

  6. Is Job Control a Double-Edged Sword? A Cross-Lagged Panel Study on the Interplay of Quantitative Workload, Emotional Dissonance, and Job Control on Emotional Exhaustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivkin, Wladislaw; Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut

    2017-01-01

    Previous meta-analytic findings have provided ambiguous evidence on job control as a buffering moderator of the adverse impact of job demands on psychological well-being. To disentangle these mixed findings, we examine the moderating effect of job control on the adverse effects of quantitative workload and emotional dissonance as distinct work-related demands on emotional exhaustion over time. Drawing on the job demands-control model, the limited strength model of self-control, and the matching principle we propose that job control can facilitate coping with work-related demands but at the same time may also require employees’ self-control. Consequently, we argue that job control buffers the adverse effects of quantitative workload while it reinforces the adverse effects of emotional dissonance, which also necessitates self-control. We examine the proposed relations among employees from an energy supplying company (N = 139) in a cross-lagged panel study with a six-month time lag. Our results demonstrate a mix of causal and reciprocal effects of job characteristics on emotional exhaustion over time. Furthermore, as suggested, our data provides evidence for contrasting moderating effects of job control. That is, job control buffers the adverse effects of quantitative workload while it reinforces the adverse effects of emotional dissonance on emotional exhaustion. PMID:29261116

  7. Is Job Control a Double-Edged Sword? A Cross-Lagged Panel Study on the Interplay of Quantitative Workload, Emotional Dissonance, and Job Control on Emotional Exhaustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Kathrin Konze

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous meta-analytic findings have provided ambiguous evidence on job control as a buffering moderator of the adverse impact of job demands on psychological well-being. To disentangle these mixed findings, we examine the moderating effect of job control on the adverse effects of quantitative workload and emotional dissonance as distinct work-related demands on emotional exhaustion over time. Drawing on the job demands-control model, the limited strength model of self-control, and the matching principle we propose that job control can facilitate coping with work-related demands but at the same time may also require employees’ self-control. Consequently, we argue that job control buffers the adverse effects of quantitative workload while it reinforces the adverse effects of emotional dissonance, which also necessitates self-control. We examine the proposed relations among employees from an energy supplying company (N = 139 in a cross-lagged panel study with a six-month time lag. Our results demonstrate a mix of causal and reciprocal effects of job characteristics on emotional exhaustion over time. Furthermore, as suggested, our data provides evidence for contrasting moderating effects of job control. That is, job control buffers the adverse effects of quantitative workload while it reinforces the adverse effects of emotional dissonance on emotional exhaustion.

  8. Is Job Control a Double-Edged Sword? A Cross-Lagged Panel Study on the Interplay of Quantitative Workload, Emotional Dissonance, and Job Control on Emotional Exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konze, Anne-Kathrin; Rivkin, Wladislaw; Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut

    2017-12-20

    Previous meta-analytic findings have provided ambiguous evidence on job control as a buffering moderator of the adverse impact of job demands on psychological well-being. To disentangle these mixed findings, we examine the moderating effect of job control on the adverse effects of quantitative workload and emotional dissonance as distinct work-related demands on emotional exhaustion over time. Drawing on the job demands-control model, the limited strength model of self-control, and the matching principle we propose that job control can facilitate coping with work-related demands but at the same time may also require employees' self-control. Consequently, we argue that job control buffers the adverse effects of quantitative workload while it reinforces the adverse effects of emotional dissonance, which also necessitates self-control. We examine the proposed relations among employees from an energy supplying company ( N = 139) in a cross-lagged panel study with a six-month time lag. Our results demonstrate a mix of causal and reciprocal effects of job characteristics on emotional exhaustion over time. Furthermore, as suggested, our data provides evidence for contrasting moderating effects of job control. That is, job control buffers the adverse effects of quantitative workload while it reinforces the adverse effects of emotional dissonance on emotional exhaustion.

  9. Estimation of southern resident killer whale exposure to exhaust emissions from whale-watching vessels and potential adverse health effects and toxicity thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmuth, Cara L; Barrett-Lennard, Lance G; Steyn, D Q; Milsom, William K

    2011-04-01

    Southern resident killer whales in British Columbia and Washington are exposed to heavy vessel traffic. This study investigates their exposure to exhaust gases from whale-watching vessels by using a simple dispersion model incorporating data on whale and vessel behavior, atmospheric conditions, and output of airborne pollutants from the whale-watching fleet based on emissions data from regulatory agencies. Our findings suggest that current whale-watching guidelines are usually effective in limiting pollutant exposure to levels at or just below those at which measurable adverse health effects would be expected in killer whales. However, safe pollutant levels are exceeded under worst-case conditions and certain average-case conditions. To reduce killer whale exposure to exhaust we recommend: vessels position on the downwind side of whales, a maximum of 20 whale-watching vessels should be within 800 m at any given time, viewing periods should be limited, and current whale-watch guidelines and laws should be enforced. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Local exhaust ventilation for the control of welding fumes in the construction industry--a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael R; Susi, Pam

    2012-08-01

    Arc welding is a common unit operation in the construction industry, where frequent changes in location and welding position make it more difficult to control fume exposures than in industries where fixed locations are the norm. Welders may be exposed to a variety of toxic airborne contaminants including manganese (Mn) and hexavalent chromium (CrVI). Local exhaust ventilation (LEV) is a well-known engineering control for welding fumes but has not been adopted widely in the construction industry. This literature review presents data on the performance of a variety of LEV systems for welding fume control from the construction (five references), shipyard (five references), and other industries. The studies indicate that LEV can reduce fume exposures to total particulate, Mn, and CrVI to levels below currently relevant standards. Field studies suggest that 40-50% or more reduction in exposure is possible with portable or fixed LEV systems relative to natural ventilation but that correct positioning of the hood and adequate exhaust flow rates are essential. Successful implementation of extraction guns for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and flux core arc welding has been demonstrated, indicating that a successful balance between extraction airflow and shielding gas requirements is possible. Work practices are an important part of achieving successful control of fume exposures; in particular, positioning the hood close to the arc, checking exhaust flow rates, and avoiding the plume. Further research is needed on hood size effects for controlling welding fume with portable LEV systems and identifying and overcoming barriers to LEV use in construction.

  11. Effect of nozzle hole size coupling with exhaust gas re-circulation on the engine emission perfomance based on KH-ACT spray model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To research an effective measure of reducing the Soot and NOx in engine at the same time, different nozzle hole diameters coupled with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR were adopted in this study based on KH-ACT spray breakup model, which takes the aerodynamic-induced ,cavitation-induced and turbulence-induced breakup into account. The SAGE detailed chemistry combustion and the new atomization model used in the simulation have been verified with the experiment data from a YN4100QBZL engine. Different diesel nozzles was adopted in the study combined with different EGR rates ranging from 0% to 40%. The simulation results show that the NOx emission could be reduced effectively for both small(0.1mm and large(0.15mm diesel nozzle when increasing EGR ratio. The soot emission increases for the small nozzle hole size as the EGR increasing. However, when it comes to the large diesel nozzle, the emission increases slightly first and decrease quickly when the EGR rate above 20%.

  12. Concentrations of motor vehicle exhaust emissions and ozone in the area surrounding a motorway; Konzentrationen von Kraftfahrzeugemissionen und Ozon im Nahbereich einer Autobahn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsmeier, U.; Vogel, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Umwelt und Technik (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung]|[Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.). (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung

    1998-01-01

    The measuring concept realized along the federal motorway BAB656, which makes use of meteorological and air-chemical measuring techniques under selected meteorological conditions, permits detecting the plume of motorway exhaust emissions beyond doubt. By simultaneous, comprehensive traffic surveys, the input parameters for numerical emission calculation models valid up to now could be verified. In part, as regards trafic density, fleet composition and driving speed, they were corrected. From the difference between the vertical profiles of the meteorological parameters and ozone concentration measured at the luff and lee sides of the motorway and from measurements of the concentrations of primarily emitted substances at ground level, the actual emissions of these substances for the motorway segment in kgh{sup 1} km{sup -}1 were calculated. (orig./KW) [Deutsch] Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass mit dem bei BAB656 realisierten Messkonzept mit Hilfe meteorologischer und luftchemischer Messtechnik bei ausgesuchten meteorologischen Bedingungen die Abluftfahne mit den auf einer Autobahn emittierten Substanzen zweifelsfrei detektiert werden kann. Durch gleichzeitige umfangreiche Verkehrserhebungen konnten die bisher gueltigen Eingabeparameter fuer numerische Emissionsberechnungsmodelle ueberprueft und was Verkehrsdichte, Flottenzusammensetzung und Fahrgeschwindigkeit angeht, teilweise korrigiert werden. Aus der Differenz der im Luv und Lee der Autobahn gemessenen Vertikalprofile meteorologischer Parameter und der Ozonkonzentration sowie der Messung der Konzentrationen primaer emittierter Substanzen am Boden konnten die Emissionen dieser Stoffe fuer den Autobahnabschnitt in kgh{sup -1} km{sup -1} aktuell berechnet werden. (orig./KW)

  13. Control of exposure to exhaled air from sick occupant with wearable personal exhaust unit

    OpenAIRE

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Barova, Maria I.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure reduction to exhaled air from a sick doctor wearing personal exhaust unit incorporated in headset-microphone was studied. Experiments were performed in a full-scale test room furnished as a double-bed hospital room with overhead ventilation at 3, 6 and 12 ACH. Room air temperature was 22 °C. Breathing thermal manikin with realistic body and breathing cycle was used to mimic doctor. Second thermal manikin and heated dummy were used to resemble lying patients. Exhaled air by the doctor...

  14. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... velocity, is inversely proportional to the square root of the gas temperature, and is computed continuously... ±5 percent. (The volumetric sample flow rate shall be varied inversely with the square root of the... determining CVS flow rates are detailed in “Calculation of Emissions and Fuel Economy When Using Alternative...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1709-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light light-duty trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...,” defined as small changes in the air-fuel ratio for the purposes of optimizing vehicle emissions or... “lean-on-cruise” strategies are incorporated into the vehicle design. A “lean-on-cruise” air-fuel... not apply to vehicles powered by “lean-burn” engines or diesel-cycle engines. A “lean-burn” engine is...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1708-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...,” defined as small changes in the air-fuel ratio for the purposes of optimizing vehicle emissions or... “lean-on-cruise” strategies are incorporated into the vehicle design. A “lean-on-cruise” air-fuel... not apply to vehicles powered by “lean-burn” engines or diesel-cycle engines. A “lean-burn” engine is...

  17. Dispersion of traffic-related exhaust particles near the Berlin urban motorway – estimation of fleet emission factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Birmili

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric particle number size distributions of airborne particles (diameter range 10–500 nm were collected over ten weeks at three sites in the vicinity of the A100 urban motorway in Berlin, Germany. The A100 carries about 180 000 vehicles on a weekday. The roadside particle distributions showed a number maximum between 20 and 60 nm clearly related to the motorway emissions. The average total number concentration at roadside was 28 000 cm−3 with a total range of 1200–168 000 cm−3. At distances of 80 and 400 m from the motorway the concentrations decreased to mean levels of 11 000 and 9000 cm−3, respectively. An obstacle-resolving dispersion model was applied to simulate the 3-D flow field and traffic tracer transport in the urban environment around the motorway. By inverse modelling, vehicle emission factors were derived that are representative of a fleet with a relative share of 6% lorry-like vehicles, and driving at a speed of 80 km h−1. Three different calculation approaches were compared, which differ in the choice of the experimental winds driving the flow simulation. The average emission factor per vehicle was 2.1 (±0.2 · 1014 km−1 for particle number and 0.077 (±0.01 · 1014 cm3 km−1 for particle volume. Regression analysis suggested that lorry-like vehicles emit 123 (±28 times more particle number than passenger car-like vehicles, and lorry-like vehicles account for about 91% of particulate number emissions on weekdays. Our work highlights the increasing applicability of 3-D flow models in urban microscale environments and their usefulness for determining traffic emission factors.

  18. The depletion of NK cells prevents T cell exhaustion to efficiently control disseminating virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kevin D; Whitmire, Jason K

    2013-01-15

    NK cells have well-established functions in immune defense against virus infections and cancer through their cytolytic activity and production of cytokines. In this study, we examined the frequency of NK cells and their influence on T cell responses in mice given variants of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus that cause acute or persisting infection. We found increased frequencies of circulating NK cells during disseminating infection compared with uninfected or acutely infected mice. Consistent with recent reports, we observed that the depletion of NK cells in mice with disseminated infection increased peak numbers of virus-specific cytokine producing CD8(+) T cells and resulted in the rapid resolution of disseminated infection. Additionally, we show that NK cell depletion sustained T cell responses across time and protected against T cell exhaustion. The positive effects of NK cell depletion on T cell responses only occurred when NK cells were depleted within the first 2 d of infection. We find that the improved CD8(+) T cell response correlated with an enhanced ability of APCs from NK cell-depleted mice to stimulate T cell proliferation, independently of the effects of NK cells on CD4(+) T cells. These results indicate that NK cells play an integral role in limiting the CD8 T cell response and contribute to T cell exhaustion by diminishing APC function during persisting virus infection.

  19. Evaluation of Exhaust Emissions from Three Diesel-Hybrid Cars and Simulation of After-Treatment Systems for Ultralow Real-World NOx Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Vicente; Zacharopoulou, Theodora; Hammer, Jan; Schmidt, Helge; Mock, Peter; Weiss, Martin; Samaras, Zissis

    2016-12-06

    Hybridization offers great potential for decreasing pollutant and carbon dioxide emissions of diesel cars. However, an assessment of the real-world emissions performance of modern diesel hybrids is missing. Here, we test three diesel-hybrid cars on the road and benchmark our findings with two cars against tests on the chassis dynamometer and model simulations. The pollutant emissions of the two cars tested on the chassis dynamometer were in compliance with the relevant Euro standards over the New European Driving Cycle and Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure. On the road, all three diesel-hybrids exceeded the regulatory NOx limits (average exceedance for all trips: +150% for the Volvo, +510% for the Peugeot, and +550% for the Mercedes-Benz) and also showed elevated on-road CO2 emissions (average exceedance of certification values: +178, +77, and +52%, respectively). These findings point to a wide discrepancy between certified and on-road CO2 and suggest that hybridization alone is insufficient to achieve low-NOx emissions of diesel powertrains. Instead, our simulation suggests that properly calibrated selective catalytic reduction filter and lean-NOx trap after-treatment technologies can reduce the on-road NOx emissions to 0.023 and 0.068 g/km on average, respectively, well below the Euro 6 limit (0.080 g/km).

  20. Effects of rigorous emission controls on reducing ambient volatile organic compounds in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wu, Rongrong; Li, Yaqi; Hao, Yufang; Xie, Shaodong; Zeng, Liming

    2016-07-01

    102 volatile organic compound (VOC) species were measured online using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector (GC-MS/FID) at an urban site in Beijing in 11 August to 3 September 2015, when a series of rigorous air quality control measures were implemented in Beijing city and neighbouring provinces. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to identify emission sources from 1h averaged values of VOC data. Based on the online VOC data and the PMF analysis results, the effectiveness of different control measures were investigated. The PMF results were compared with an emission inventory data. Results show that the rigorous air quality restrictions implemented were successful. The averaged ambient VOC mixing ratios during the emission control period and non-control period were 27.53 and 45.42ppbv, respectively. The mixing ratios of total VOC during the control period were reduced by 40%. Alkanes were the most abundant chemical group in the two periods, followed by oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs). Almost all quantified VOC species decreased during the control period. Tracers of industrial sources and vehicle exhaust reduced most, including some halocarbons, esters and aromatics. Eight sources were resolved by online PMF analysis for ambient VOCs in Beijing. Contributions of those sources varied significantly during the control and non-control period. Compared with the values before control, contributions of vehicle-related sources were most reduced, followed by solvent utilization. Reductions of vehicle-related sources, solvent utilization, secondary formation, fuel combustion, and biogenic were responsible for 65%, 19%, 10%, 5%, and 1% of the reductions in ambient VOCs. Both PMF results and emission inventory data indicated that the control measure on traffic was very effective in reducing ambient VOCs in Beijing, with the emission reductions of about 50%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. EFFECT OF ETHANOL ADDITION WITH CASHEW NUT SHELL LIQUID ON ENGINE COMBUSTION AND EXHAUST EMISSION IN A DI DIESEL ENGINE

    OpenAIRE

    A.VELMURUGAN; M.LOGANATHAN

    2012-01-01

    In this study, biofuel, diesel and ethanol blends (BDEB) were tested in a single cylinder direct-injection diesel engine to investigate the engine combustion, performance and emission characteristics of the engine under five engine loads at the speed of 1500 rpm. Here the ethanol is used as an additive to enhance the engine combustion. The mixture of Commercial diesel fuel, biofuel from Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) and ethanol mixture called BDEB is used to run the direct injection diesel e...

  2. An experimental study of gaseous exhaust emissions of diesel engine using blend of natural fatty acid methyl ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudrajad, Agung; Ali, Ismail; Samo, Khalid; Faturachman, Danny

    2012-09-01

    Vegetable oil form in Natural Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) has their own advantages: first of all they are available everywhere in the world. Secondly, they are renewable as the vegetables which produce oil seeds can be planted year after year. Thirdly, they are friendly with our environment, as they seldom contain sulphur element in them. This makes vegetable fuel studies become current among the various popular investigations. This study is attempt to optimization of using blend FAME on diesel engine by experimental laboratory. The investigation experimental project is comparison between using blend FAME and base diesel fuel. The engine experiment is conducted with YANMAR TF120M single cylinder four stroke diesel engine set-up at variable engine speed with constant load. The data have been taken at each point of engine speed during the stabilized engine-operating regime. Measurement of emissions parameters at difference engine speed conditions have generally indicated lower in emission NOx, but slightly higher on CO2 emission. The result also shown that the blends FAME are good in fuel consumption and potentially good substitute fuels for diesel engine

  3. Physical and chemical characterisation of PM emissions from two ships operating in European Emission Control Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldanová, J.; Fridell, E.; Winnes, H.; Holmin-Fridell, S.; Boman, J.; Jedynska, A.; Tishkova, V.; Demirdjian, B.; Joulie, S.; Bladt, H.; Ivleva, N. P.; Niessner, R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper emission factors (EFs) for particulate matter (PM) and some sub-components as well as gaseous substances were investigated in two onboard measurement campaigns. Emissions from two 4-stroke main engines were measured under stable-load conditions. The impact of varying engine load on the emissions was investigated on one of the engines, and the impact of fuel quality on the other, where heavy fuel oil (HFO) with sulphur content 1% and 0.5% and marine gas oil (MGO) with sulphur content 0.1% were used. Furthermore, emissions from one auxiliary engine were studied. The measured EFs for PM mass were in the range of 0.3 to 2.7 g kg-1 fuel with the lowest values for emissions from the combustion of MGO, and the highest values for HFO with a sulphur content of 1%. The PM mass size distribution was dominated by particles in accumulation mode. Emission factors for particle numbers EF(PN) in the range of 5 × 1015-1 × 1017 # kg-1 fuel were found, the number concentration was dominated by particles in the ultrafine mode and ca. 2/3 of the particle number were non-volatile. The most abundant component of the PM mass was organic carbon, making up 25-60% of the PM. The measured EFs for organic carbon (OC) were 0.6 g kg-1 fuel for HFO and 0.2 g kg-1 fuel for MGO. Elemental carbon (EC) made up 10-38% of the PM mass, with no significant differences between HFO and MGO fuels. The concentrations of metals on sampled filters were investigated with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and the detected metal elements in exhaust when using HFO was concluded to originate from both the fuel (V, Ni, Fe) and the lubricant (Ca, Zn), while for the case of MGO combustion, most of the metals were concluded to originate from the lubricants. The measured emission factors for sulphate particles, EF (SO2-4), were low, ca. 0.1-0.2 g kg-1 fuel for HFO with 1% sulphur, 0.07-0.09 g kg-1 fuel for HFO with 0.5% sulphur and 0.003-0.006 g kg-1 fuel for MGO. This corresponds to 0

  4. The combination of exhaust port and smoke screen for smoke control in commercial building%商业建筑排烟口与挡烟垂壁组合控制烟气

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭增辉; 陆守香; 何其泽; 黎昌海

    2012-01-01

    利用足寸为38 m(长)×21 m(宽)×5.4m(高)的真实商业建筑火灾场景,使用3.0 MW真实柴油池火火源,研究排烟口与挡烟垂壁组合控制烟气时挡烟垂壁高度、排烟口位置和朝向等因素对烟气控制效果的影响.在火灾规模、排烟量和排烟系统启动时间都一定的情况下,挡烟垂壁的高度是影响烟气控制效果的关键因素.排烟口距火源越近烟气控制效果越好.排烟口的朝向对烟气控制效果的影响并不显著.%Using 3. 0 MW real diesel pool fire as the fire source, the impact of the height of smoke screen and the location and o-rientation of the exhaust port on the effect of smoke control in the real commercial building fire scene was studied, with the combination of exhaust port and smoke screen.. The size of building is 38 m(length) × 21 m(width) × 5. 4 mCheight). In the case of certain fire scale, emission of smoke and smoke ex-traction system start-up time, the height of smoke screen is a key factor influencing the effect of smoke control. The nearer exhaust port is away from the fire source, the better effect smoke control can get. The impact on the smoke control from the orientation of exhaust port is not significant.

  5. Evaluation of concepts for controlling exhaust emissions from minimally processed petroleum and synthetic fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, P. L.; Beal, G. W.; Sederquist, R. A.; Shultz, D.

    1981-01-01

    Rich-lean combustor concepts designed to enhance rich combustion chemistry and increase combustor flexibility for NO(x) reduction with minimally processed fuels are examined. Processes such as rich product recirculation in the rich chamber, rich-lean annihilation, and graduated air addition or staged rich combustion to release bound nitrogen in steps of reduced equivalence ratio are discussed. Variations to the baseline rapid quench section are considered, and the effect of residence time in the rich zone is investigated. The feasibility of using uncooled non-metallic materials for the rich zone combustion construction is also addressed. The preliminary results indicate that rich primary zone staged combustion provides environmentally acceptable operation with residual and/or synthetic coal-derived liquid fuels

  6. 40 CFR 52.987 - Control of hydrocarbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of hydrocarbon emissions. 52.987 Section 52.987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Louisiana § 52.987 Control of hydrocarbon emissions. (a) Notwithstanding any provisions...

  7. Controlled exposure to diesel exhaust and traffic noise - Effects on oxidative stress and activation in mononuclear blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Jette Gjerke; Møller, Peter; Jantzen, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Particulate air pollution increases risk of cancer and cardiopulmonary disease, partly through oxidative stress. Traffic-related noise increases risk of cardiovascular disease and may cause oxidative stress. In this controlled random sequence study, 18 healthy subjects were exposed for 3h to diesel...... exhaust (DE) at 276μg/m(3) from a passenger car or filtered air, with co-exposure to traffic noise at 48 or 75dB(A). Gene expression markers of inflammation, (interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor), oxidative stress (heme oxygenase (decycling-1)) and DNA repair (8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1)) were...... unaltered in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). No significant differences in DNA damage levels, measured by the comet assay, were observed after DE exposure, whereas exposure to high noise levels was associated with significantly increased levels of hOGG1-sensitive sites in PBMCs. Urinary levels...

  8. Professional efficacy, exhaustion, and work characteristics among police officers: A longitudinal test of the learning-related predictions of the demand-control model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taris, T.W.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Heuvel, F.F.M. van den

    2010-01-01

    The present study addressed the relationships among professional efficacy, emotional exhaustion, and job characteristics (job demands and job control) in the context of a two-wave panel study among 828 Dutch police officers. Based on the demand-control model, we expected that high demands/high

  9. Distributed co-simulation of embedded control software with exhaust gas recirculation water handling system using INTO-CPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nicolai; Lausdahl, Kenneth; Sanchez, Enrique Vidal

    2017-01-01

    Engineering complex Cyber-Physical Systems, such as emission reduction control systems for large two-stroke engines, require advanced modelling of both the cyber and physical aspects. Different tools are specialised for each of these domains and a combination of tools validating different propert...

  10. Chemical sensor systems for environmental and emission control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd Spetz, Anita; Darmastuti, Zhafira; Bur, Christian; Huotari, Joni; Bjorklund, Robert; Lindqvist, Niclas; Lappalainen, Jyrki; Jantunen, Heli; Schütze, Andreas; Andersson, Mike

    2013-05-01

    Focusing on environment and health aspects, the importance of monitoring and controlling dangerous gases and particulate matter increases. For this purpose we present a new version of silicon carbide based gas sensors with improved properties and suitable for high temperature and harsh environments such as power plants or car exhausts. Development of sulfur dioxide sensors for a power plant application is described as well as sensors for detection of ammonia in connection with the SCR process where urea is converted to ammonia, which reduces nitric oxide components in the exhausts. We also describe progress on nanoparticle detection, especially related to detection of the content of adsorbed particles through heating and detection of emitted molecules by a sensor array. Some results are also presented from impedance spectroscopy for detection of the concentration of nanoparticles but with the potential to reveal more details about the particles such as shape and kind of particles.

  11. Physical and chemical characterisation of PM emissions from two ships operating in European Emission Control Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldanová, J.; Fridell, E.; Winnes, H.; Holmin-Fridell, S.; Boman, J.; Jedynska, A.; Tishkova, V.; Demirdjian, B.; Joulie, S.; Bladt, H.; Ivleva, N. P.; Niessner, R.

    2013-04-01

    Emissions of particulate matter (PM) from shipping contribute significantly to the anthropogenic burden of PM. The environmental effects of PM from shipping include negative impact on human health through increased concentrations of particles in many coastal areas and harbour cities and the climate impact. The PM emitted by ship engines consists of organic carbon (OC), elemental or black carbon (EC/BC), sulphate, inorganic compounds containing V, Ni, Ca, Zn and other metals and associated water. The chemical composition and physical properties of PM vary with type of fuel burned, type of engine and engine operation mode. While primary PM emissions of species like V, Ni and Ca are supposed to be determined by composition of fuel and lubricant oil, emissions of particulate OC, EC and sulphate are affected both by fuel quality and by operation mode of the engine. In this paper a number of parameters describing emission factors (EFs) of gases and of particulate matter from ship engines were investigated during 2 on-board measurement campaigns for 3 different engines and 3 different types of fuels. The measured EFs for PM mass were in the range 0.3 to 2.7 g/kg-fuel with lowest values for emissions from combustion of marine gas oil (MGO) and the highest for heavy fuel oil (HFO). Emission factors for particle numbers EF(PN) in the range 5 × 1015-1 × 1017 #/kg-fuel were found, the number concentration was dominated by particles in the ultrafine mode and ca. 2/3 of particles were non-volatile. The PM mass was dominated by particles in accumulation mode. Main metal elements in case of HFO exhaust PM were V, Ni, Fe, Ca and Zn, in case of MGO Ca, Zn and P. V and Ni were typical tracers of HFO while Ca, Zn and P are tracers of the lubricant oil. EC makes up 10-38% of the PM mass, there were not found large differences between HFO and MGO fuels. EC and ash elements make up 23-40% of the PM mass. Organic matter makes up 25-60% of the PM. The measured EF(OC) were 0.59 ± 0.15 g

  12. Performance and exhaust emissions from an engine operating with soybean and radish bio diesel; Desempenho e emissoes na exaustao de um motor operando com biodiesel de soja e nabo forrageiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geanezi, Henrique Avelhaneda; Campos, Inacio Loiola Pereira; Diogo, Andre Luis; Valle, Ramon Molina [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: avelhaneda@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: inaciolpcampos@terra.com.br, e-mail: andreufmg2000@yahoo.com.br; Rodrigues, Vander Ferreira [Fundacao Centro Tecnologico de Minas Gerais (CETEC), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: vander.rodrigues@cetec.br, e-mail: ramon@demec.ufmg.br; Sodre, Jose Ricardo [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Minas Gerais (PUC-Minas), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: ricardo@pucminas.br

    2006-07-01

    Performance and pollutant emissions from an engine operating on bio diesel blends from two different oleaginous plants are compared to results from operation on diesel oil. Full load tests were performed in an engine fuelled by bio diesel from wild radish, soybean and blends of 50% bio diesel from these origins with 50% metropolitan diesel oil. Performance and emissions tests were carried out according to NBR ISO 1585 standard and smoke was measured according to NBR 13037 standard. The performance parameters analyzed were torque, power, and specific fuel consumption. Exhaust CO, HC, NOX, and smoke emissions were also analyzed. The results indicate the most adequate fuel mixture for emissions improvement without penalizing engine performance. Generally, there was a small performance reduction for the bio diesel blends, in comparison to metropolitan diesel oil. With respect to pollutant emissions, the results showed a significant reduction for most of the bio diesel mixtures from the two tested sources. (author)

  13. Effects of Mixture Stratification on Combustion and Emissions of Boosted Controlled Auto-Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Hunicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The stratification of in-cylinder mixtures appears to be an effective method for managing the combustion process in controlled auto-ignition (CAI engines. Stratification can be achieved and controlled using various injection strategies such as split fuel injection and the introduction of a portion of fuel directly before the start of combustion. This study investigates the effect of injection timing and the amount of fuel injected for stratification on the combustion and emissions in CAI engine. The experimental research was performed on a single cylinder engine with direct gasoline injection. CAI combustion was achieved using negative valve overlap and exhaust gas trapping. The experiments were performed at constant engine fueling. Intake boost was applied to control the excess air ratio. The results show that the application of the late injection strategy has a significant effect on the heat release process. In general, the later the injection is and the more fuel is injected for stratification, the earlier the auto-ignition occurs. However, the experimental findings reveal that the effect of stratification on combustion duration is much more complex. Changes in combustion are reflected in NOX emissions. The attainable level of stratification is limited by the excessive emission of unburned hydrocarbons, CO and soot.

  14. Evaluation of carcinogenic hazard of diesel engine exhaust needs to consider revolutionary changes in diesel technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Roger O; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Wall, John C

    2012-07-01

    Diesel engines, a special type of internal combustion engine, use heat of compression, rather than electric spark, to ignite hydrocarbon fuels injected into the combustion chamber. Diesel engines have high thermal efficiency and thus, high fuel efficiency. They are widely used in commerce prompting continuous improvement in diesel engines and fuels. Concern for health effects from exposure to diesel exhaust arose in the mid-1900s and stimulated development of emissions regulations and research to improve the technology and characterize potential health hazards. This included epidemiological, controlled human exposure, laboratory animal and mechanistic studies to evaluate potential hazards of whole diesel exhaust. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (1989) classified whole diesel exhaust as - "probably carcinogenic to humans". This classification stimulated even more stringent regulations for particulate matter that required further technological developments. These included improved engine control, improved fuel injection system, enhanced exhaust cooling, use of ultra low sulfur fuel, wall-flow high-efficiency exhaust particulate filters, exhaust catalysts, and crankcase ventilation filtration. The composition of New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE) is qualitatively different and the concentrations of particulate constituents are more than 90% lower than for Traditional Diesel Exhaust (TDE). We recommend that future reviews of carcinogenic hazards of diesel exhaust evaluate NTDE separately from TDE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Emission Control Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative-Fuel Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Quanlu; Sperling, Daniel; Olmstead, Janis

    1993-01-01

    Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquified petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission es...

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in exhaust emissions from diesel engines powered by rapeseed oil methylester and heated non-esterified rapeseed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Czerwinski, Jan; Leníček, Jan; Sekyra, Milan; Topinka, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of exhaust emissions were studied in four direct-injection turbocharged four-cylinder diesel engines, with power ratings of 90-136 kW. The engines were operated on biodiesel (B-100), a blend of 30% biodiesel in diesel fuel (B-30), and heated rapeseed oil (RO) in two independent laboratories. Diesel particle filters (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were used with B-30 and B-100. Concentrations of individual PAHs sampled in different substrates (quartz, borosilicate fiber and fluorocarbon membrane filters, polyurethane foam) were analyzed using different methods. Benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (BaP TEQ) were calculated using different sets of toxic equivalency factors (TEF). Operation on B-100 without aftertreatment devices, compared to diesel fuel, yielded a mean reduction in PAHs of 73%, consistent across engines and among TEF used. A lower PAH reduction was obtained using B-30. The BaP TEQ reductions on DPF were 91-99% using B-100, for one non-catalyzed DPF, and over 99% in all other cases. The BaP TEQ for heated RO were higher than those for B-100 and one half lower to over twice as high as that of diesel fuel. B-100 and RO samples featured, compared to diesel fuel, a relatively high share of higher molecular weight PAH and a relatively low share of lighter PAHs. Using different sets of TEF or different detection methods did not consistently affect the observed effect of fuels on BaP TEQ. The compilation of multiple tests was helpful for discerning emerging patterns. The collection of milligrams of particulate matter per sample was generally needed for quantification of all individual PAHs.

  17. Exhaustion Experiences in Junior Athletes: The Importance of Motivation and Self-Control Competencies

    OpenAIRE

    Gro Jordalen; Pierre-Nicolas Lemyre; Natalie Durand-Bush

    2016-01-01

    Quality of motivation, self-control competencies, as well as past performance experience influence sport participation outcomes in developing athletes. Studies have shown that junior athletes high in self-determined motivation are less prone to experience burnout, while self-control competencies help developing athletes to be conscious and deliberate in their self-regulatory efforts toward elite sport performances and avoid negative sport participation outcomes. Combining the self-determinati...

  18. Semiconductor industry wafer fab exhaust management

    CERN Document Server

    Sherer, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    Given the myriad exhaust compounds and the corresponding problems that they can pose in an exhaust management system, the proper choice of such systems is a complex task. Presenting the fundamentals, technical details, and general solutions to real-world problems, Semiconductor Industry: Wafer Fab Exhaust Management offers practical guidance on selecting an appropriate system for a given application. Using examples that provide a clear understanding of the concepts discussed, Sherer covers facility layout, support facilities operations, and semiconductor process equipment, followed by exhaust types and challenges. He reviews exhaust point-of-use devices and exhaust line requirements needed between process equipment and the centralized exhaust system. The book includes information on wet scrubbers for a centralized acid exhaust system and a centralized ammonia exhaust system and on centralized equipment to control volatile organic compounds. It concludes with a chapter devoted to emergency releases and a separ...

  19. Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The Advanced Combustion and Emission Control (ACEC) Technical Team is focused on removing technical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high-efficiency, emission-compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light-duty vehicle powertrains (i.e., passenger car, minivan, SUV, and pickup trucks).

  20. Optimal control for integrated emission management in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, M.C.F.; Schijndel, J. van; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated Emission Management (IEM) is a supervisory control strategy that minimises operational costs (consisting of fuel and AdBlue) for diesel engines with an aftertreatment system, while satisfying emission constraints imposed by legislation. In most work on IEM, a suboptimal heuristic

  1. 40 CFR 89.110 - Emission control information label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... designation; (4) Engine displacement; (5) Advertised power; (6) Engine tuneup specifications and adjustments... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards... affix at the time of manufacture a permanent and legible label identifying each nonroad engine. The...

  2. Solar powered high voltage energization for vehicular exhaust cleaning: A step towards possible retrofitting in vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajanikanth, B.S.; Mohapatro, Sankarsan [High Voltage Lab, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012 (India); Umanand, L. [CEDT, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012 (India)

    2009-03-15

    This paper proposes a novel way of generating high voltage for electric discharge plasma in controlling NO{sub x} emission in diesel engine exhaust. A solar powered high frequency electric discharge topology has been suggested that will improve the size and specific energy density required when compared to the traditional repetitive pulse or 50 Hz AC energization. This methodology has been designed, fabricated and experimentally verified by conducting studies on real diesel engine exhaust. (author)

  3. Self-organized global control of carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenyuan; Fenn, Daniel J.; Hui, Pak Ming; Johnson, Neil F.

    2010-09-01

    There is much disagreement concerning how best to control global carbon emissions. We explore quantitatively how different control schemes affect the collective emission dynamics of a population of emitting entities. We uncover a complex trade-off which arises between average emissions (affecting the global climate), peak pollution levels (affecting citizens’ everyday health), industrial efficiency (affecting the nation’s economy), frequency of institutional intervention (affecting governmental costs), common information (affecting trading behavior) and market volatility (affecting financial stability). Our findings predict that a self-organized free-market approach at the level of a sector, state, country or continent can provide better control than a top-down regulated scheme in terms of market volatility and monthly pollution peaks. The control of volatility also has important implications for any future derivative carbon emissions market.

  4. An Adaptive Fuzzy Control Scheme for Dyebath pH in Exhaust Dyeing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    The corresponding pH and ISE responses are shown in Figures 9 and 10, respectively. In this case the dyebath pH is characterized by high overshoots at the start of the process, and a steady-state error 0.7 pH at 2400 s, with a corresponding ISE exceeding 1400 pH2s. Table 2 Process and Controller parameters. Parameter.

  5. Influence of physical and chemical characteristics of diesel fuels and exhaust emissions on biological effects of particle extracts: A multivariant statistical analysis of ten diesel fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoegren, M.; Rannug, U.; Li, Hang [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated the biological effects of particulates found in exhaust gases from the combustion of diesel fuel. Models are described for correlating the biological effects to the physical and chemical properties of the fuel.

  6. Circadian control of isoprene emissions from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Michael J; Owen, Susan M; Possell, Malcolm; Hartwell, James; Gould, Peter; Hall, Anthony; Vickers, Claudia; Nicholas Hewitt, C

    2006-09-01

    The emission of isoprene from the biosphere to the atmosphere has a profound effect on the Earth's atmospheric system. Until now, it has been assumed that the primary short-term controls on isoprene emission are photosynthetically active radiation and temperature. Here we show that isoprene emissions from a tropical tree (oil palm, Elaeis guineensis) are under strong circadian control, and that the circadian clock is potentially able to gate light-induced isoprene emissions. These rhythms are robustly temperature compensated with isoprene emissions still under circadian control at 38 degrees C. This is well beyond the acknowledged temperature range of all previously described circadian phenomena in plants. Furthermore, rhythmic expression of LHY/CCA1, a genetic component of the central clock in Arabidopsis thaliana, is still maintained at these elevated temperatures in oil palm. Maintenance of the CCA1/LHY-TOC1 molecular oscillator at these temperatures in oil palm allows for the possibility that this system is involved in the control of isoprene emission rhythms. This study contradicts the accepted theory that isoprene emissions are primarily light-induced.

  7. Thermoelectric Exhaust Heat Recovery with Heat Pipe-Based Thermal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, F. P.; Martins, Jorge; Hançer, Esra; Antunes, Nuno; Gonçalves, L. M.

    2015-06-01

    Heat pipe (HP)-based heat exchangers can be used for very low resistance heat transfer between a hot and a cold source. Their operating temperature depends solely on the boiling point of their working fluid, so it is possible to control the heat transfer temperature if the pressure of the HP can be adjusted. This is the case of the variable conductance HPs (VCHP). This solution makes VCHPs ideal for the passive control of thermoelectric generator (TEG) temperature levels. The present work assesses, both theoretically and experimentally, the merit of the aforementioned approach. A thermal and electrical model of a TEG with VCHP assist is proposed. Experimental results obtained with a proof of concept prototype attached to a small single-cylinder engine are presented and used to validate the model. It was found that the HP heat exchanger indeed enables the TEG to operate at a constant, optimal temperature in a passive and safe way, and with a minimal overall thermal resistance, under part load, it effectively reduces the active module area without deprecating the temperature level of the active modules.

  8. Power exhaust scenarios and control for projected high-power NSTX-U operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Jonathan; Gerhardt, S. P.; Myers, C. E.; Reinke, M. L.; Brooks, A.; Mardenfeld, M.; NSTX Upgrade Team

    2017-10-01

    An important goal of the NSTX Upgrade (NSTX-U) research program is to characterize energy confinement in the low-aspect-ratio spherical tokamak configuration over a significantly expanded range of plasma current, toroidal field, and heating power, while increasing flattop durations up to 5 seconds. However, the narrowing of the scrape-off layer at higher current combined with an improved understanding of expected halo-current loads has motivated a significant re-design of NSTX-U plasma facing components in the high-heat-flux regions of the divertor. In order to reduce the expected divertor heat flux to acceptable levels, a combination of mitigation techniques will be used: increased divertor poloidal flux expansion, increased divertor radiation, and controlled strike-point sweeping. The machine requirements for these various mitigation techniques are studied here using a newly implemented reduced heat-flux model. Systematic equilibrium scans are used to quantify the required divertor coil currents and to verify vertical stability for a range of plasma shapes. Free-boundary control schemes to constrain the strike-point location and field-line angle-of-incidence will also be discussed. Work supported by DOE contract DE-AC02- 09CH11466.

  9. Experimental Investigation of a Temperature-Controlled Car Seat Powered by an Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, H.; Wang, Y. P.; Yuan, X. H.; Deng, Y. D.; Su, C. Q.

    2016-03-01

    To improve the riding comfort and rational utilization of the electrical energy captured by an automotive thermoelectric generator (ATEG), a temperature-controlled car seat was constructed to adjust the temperature of the car seat surface. Powered by the ATEG and the battery, the seat-embedded air conditioner can improve the riding comfort using a thermoelectric device to adjust the surface temperature of the seat, with an air duct to regulate the cold side and hot side of the thermoelectric device. The performance of the thermoelectric cooler (TEC) and theoretical analysis on the optimum state of the TEC device are put forward. To verify the rationality of the air duct design and to ensure sufficient air supply, the velocity field of the air duct system was obtained by means of the finite element method. To validate the reliability of the numerical simulation, the air velocity around the thermoelectric device was measured by a wind speed transmitter. The performance of the temperature-controlled car seat has been validated and is in good agreement with bench tests and real vehicle tests.

  10. High temperature sensors for exhaust diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svenningstorp, Henrik

    2000-07-01

    One of the largest problems that we will have to deal with on this planet this millennium is to stop the pollution of our environment. In many of the ongoing works to reduce toxic emissions, gas sensors capable of enduring rough environments and high temperatures, would be a great tool. The different applications where sensors like this would be useful vary between everything from online measurement in the paper industry and food industry to measurement in the exhaust pipe of a car. In my project we have tested Schottky diodes and MlSiCFET sensor as gas sensors operating at high temperatures. The measurement condition in the exhaust pipe of a car is extremely tough, not only is the temperature high and the different gases quite harmful, there are also a lot of particles that can affect the sensors in an undesirable way. In my project we have been testing Schottky diodes and MlSiCFET sensors based on SiC as high temperature sensors, both in the laboratory with simulated exhaust and after a real engine. In this thesis we conclude that these sensors can work in the hostile environment of an engines exhaust. It is shown that when measuring in a gas mixture with a fixed I below one, where the I-value is controlled by the O{sub 2} concentration, a sensor with a catalytic gate metal as sensitive material respond more to the increased O{sub 2} concentration than the increased HC concentration when varying the two correspondingly. A number of different sensors have been tested in simulated exhaust towards NO{sub x}. It was shown that resistivity changes in the thin gate metal influenced the gas response. Tests have been performed where sensors were a part of a SCR system with promising results concerning NH{sub 3} sensitivity. With a working temperature of 300 deg C there is no contamination of the metal surface.

  11. Emission Facilities - Erosion & Sediment Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Erosion and Sediment Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control program. The following sub-facility types related to...

  12. Sampling and measurement methods for diesel exhaust aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristimaeki, J.

    2006-07-01

    Awareness of adverse health effects of urban aerosols has increased general interest in aerosol sources. As diesel engines are one significant urban anthropogenic particle source, diesel aerosols have been under intense research during the last decades. This thesis discusses the measurement issues related to the diesel exhaust particles, focusing on the effective density measurement with Elpi-Sumps and Tda-Elpi methods and presents some additional performance issues not discussed in the papers. As the emergence of volatile nanoparticles in the diesel exhaust is sensitive to prevailing circumstances there is a need to properly control the dilution parameters in laboratory measurements in order to obtain repeatable and reproducible results. In addition to the dilution parameters, the effect of ambient temperature on the light duty vehicle exhaust particulate emission was studied. It was found that turbo charged diesel engines were relatively insensitive to changes in ambient temperature whereas particle emissions from naturally aspirated gasoline vehicles were significantly increased at low temperatures. The measurement of effective density and mass of aerosol particles with Dma and impactor was studied and applied to characterisation of diesel exhaust particles. The Tda-Elpi method was used for determination of the volatile mass of diesel exhaust particles as a function of particle size. Based on the measurement results, condensation was suggested to be the main phenomena driving volatile mass transfer to the exhaust particles. Identification of the process and the separation of volatile and solid mass may become important as some health effect studies suggest the volatile fraction to be a key component causing the biological effects of diesel exhaust particles. (orig.)

  13. Relationship between vehicle emissions laws and incidence of suicide by motor vehicle exhaust gas in Australia, 2001-06: an ecological analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Studdert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Globally, suicide accounts for 5.2% of deaths among persons aged 15 to 44 years and its incidence is rising. In Australia, suicide rates peaked in 1997 and have been declining since. A substantial part of that decline stems from a plunge in suicides by one particular method: asphyxiation by motor vehicle exhaust gas (MVEG. Although MVEG remains the second most common method of suicide in Australia, its incidence decreased by nearly 70% in the decade to 2006. The extent to which this phenomenon has been driven by national laws in 1986 and 1999 that lowered permissible levels of carbon monoxide (CO emissions is unknown. The objective of this ecological study was to test the relationship by investigating whether areas of Australia with fewer noxious vehicles per capita experienced lower rates of MVEG suicide. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We merged data on MVEG suicides in Australia (2001-06 with data on the number and age of vehicles in the national fleet, as well as socio-demographic data from the national census. Poisson regression was used to analyse the relationship between the incidence of suicide within two levels of geographical area--postcodes and statistical subdivisions (SSDs--and the population density of pre-1986 and pre-1999 passenger vehicles in those areas. (There was a mean population of 8,302 persons per postcode in the study dataset and 87,413 persons per SSD. The annual incidence of MVEG suicides nationwide decreased by 57% (from 2.6 per 100,000 in 2001 to 1.1 in 2006 during the study period; the population density of pre-1986 and pre-1999 vehicles decreased by 55% (from 14.2 per 100 persons in 2001 to 6.4 in 2006 and 26% (from 44.5 per 100 persons in 2001 to 32.9 in 2006, respectively. Area-level regression analysis showed that the suicide rates were significantly and positively correlated with the presence of older vehicles. A percentage point decrease in the population density of pre-1986 vehicles was associated with a 6

  14. Electric-utility emissions: control strategies and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Horn, A.; Arpi, D.; Bowen, C.; Chapman, R.; Cooper, R.; Greenfield, S.; Moffett, M.; Wells, M.

    1981-04-01

    The Utility Simulation Model has been used to project the emissions, costs, and operating decisions of the electric utilities for each year between 1980 and 2000. For each steam generating unit in the United States, the model simulates the compliance decision, including choice of fuels and pollution controls, as well as emissions and pollution control costs. Results are aggregated to state, regional, and national levels. The results presented here, summarized by strategy for selected years, include SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions, annual revenue requirements, the average price of electricity, dollars per ton of SO/sub 2/ reduced, coal capacity with FGD, utility fuel consumption, and regional production of coal for utility consumption. Because the strategies analyzed were aimed at SO/sub 2/ reduction, the results focus on the emissions and costs of controlling SO/sub 2/. This report is not intended to provide complete analysis and interpretation of the numerical results given in Section 3.

  15. Characterization and Control of Nanoparticle Emission during 3D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ohhun; Yoon, Chungsik; Ham, Seunghon; Park, Jihoon; Lee, Jinho; Yoo, Danbi; Kim, Yoojin

    2017-09-19

    This study aimed to evaluate particle emission characteristics and to evaluate several control methods used to reduce particle emissions during three-dimensional (3D) printing. Experiments for particle characterization were conducted to measure particle number concentrations, emission rates, morphology, and chemical compositions under manufacturer-recommended and consistent-temperature conditions with seven different thermoplastic materials in an exposure chamber. Eight different combinations of the different control methods were tested, including an enclosure, an extruder suction fan, an enclosure ventilation fan, and several types of filter media. We classified the thermoplastic materials as high emitter (>1011 #/min), medium emitters (109 #/min -1011 #/min), and low emitters (HEPA) filter had the highest removal effectiveness (99.95%) of nanoparticles. Our recommendations for reducing particle emissions include applying a low temperature, using low-emitting materials, and instituting control measures like using an enclosure around the printer in conjunction with an appropriate filter (e.g., HEPA filter) during 3D printing.

  16. Diffusion and Evaporation-Controlled Emission in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus

    and sources. This work provides an investigation based on fundamental fluid dynamics and mass transfer theory to obtain a general understanding of the mechanisms involved in the emission from building materials in ventilated rooms. In addition, a generally applicable model for prediction of surface emission...... change rate, local air velocity and local turbulence intensity as the mass transfer coefficient increases in proportion to these parameters. The experimental results moreover exhibit the behaviour of a diffusion-controlled emission process at the end of the experiments. A simplified version of the model...... proposed was applied to investigate the influence of source diffusion coefficient and air velocity on the concentration distribution. The findings show that the mass transfer coefficient increases in proportion to the velocity when the emission is controlled by evaporation from the surface. As to diffusion-controlled...

  17. Controlled exposure to diesel exhaust and traffic noise--Effects on oxidative stress and activation in mononuclear blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmingsen, Jette Gjerke; Møller, Peter; Jantzen, Kim; Jönsson, Bo A G; Albin, Maria; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Gudmundsson, Anders; Loft, Steffen; Rissler, Jenny

    2015-05-01

    Particulate air pollution increases risk of cancer and cardiopulmonary disease, partly through oxidative stress. Traffic-related noise increases risk of cardiovascular disease and may cause oxidative stress. In this controlled random sequence study, 18 healthy subjects were exposed for 3h to diesel exhaust (DE) at 276 μg/m(3) from a passenger car or filtered air, with co-exposure to traffic noise at 48 or 75 dB(A). Gene expression markers of inflammation, (interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor), oxidative stress (heme oxygenase (decycling-1)) and DNA repair (8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1)) were unaltered in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). No significant differences in DNA damage levels, measured by the comet assay, were observed after DE exposure, whereas exposure to high noise levels was associated with significantly increased levels of hOGG1-sensitive sites in PBMCs. Urinary levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine were unaltered. In auxiliary ex vivo experiments whole blood was incubated with particles from the exposure chamber for 3h without effects on DNA damage in PBMCs or intracellular reactive oxygen species production and expression of CD11b and CD62L adhesion molecules in leukocyte subtypes. 3-h exposure to DE caused no genotoxicity, oxidative stress or inflammation in PBMCs, whereas exposure to noise might cause oxidatively damaged DNA. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Linear Quadratic Mean Field Type Control and Mean Field Games with Common Noise, with Application to Production of an Exhaustible Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graber, P. Jameson, E-mail: jameson-graber@baylor.edu [Baylor University, Department of Mathematics (United States)

    2016-12-15

    We study a general linear quadratic mean field type control problem and connect it to mean field games of a similar type. The solution is given both in terms of a forward/backward system of stochastic differential equations and by a pair of Riccati equations. In certain cases, the solution to the mean field type control is also the equilibrium strategy for a class of mean field games. We use this fact to study an economic model of production of exhaustible resources.

  19. Control of the magnetic topology and plasma exhaust in the edge region of Wendelstein 7-X. A numerical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelbe, Hauke

    2016-02-15

    Nuclear fusion is the energy source of the stars and has the potential of being the main energy source for mankind in the future. The research on fusion energy focuses primarily on magnetic confinement, where hot plasma - with temperatures on the order of 100 million degrees Celsius - are confined by specially designed toroidal magnetic topology. The main candidates for magnetic confinement are the tokamak and the stellarator. The tokamak concept is further developed than the stellarator concept, but the stellarator concept has some intrinsic and potentially very important advantages and is therefore also actively pursued. The Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) stellarator will be the world's leading stellarator experiment. It is about to go into operation in Greifswald, Germany. This thesis delves into some very important scientific challenges for the stellarator concept as a whole and W7-X in particular, namely, how one effectively interfaces the hot plasma with the material walls of the experiment, in special how the plasma heat and particle fluxes are controlled. The fundamental concept that will be used in W7-X for particle and heat exhaust is the island divertor. Although the divertor concept at a stellarator was invented by Lyman Spitzer back in the 1950s, the stellarator island divertor still needs to be experimentally tested at fusion-relevant heat loads and temperatures in steady-state. W7-X is the first experiment that will be able to do so. A number of theoretical and numerical studies have been performed to guide the design of the divertor components. The actual divertor components are in series production at this time, and are largely compatible with the expected heat loads. However, with the sophisticated codes now available, it has become clear that there are some, otherwise very attractive, operational scenarios that could lead to overloading of the W7-X divertors. At least one mitigation strategy was proposed but was until now not analyzed in sufficient

  20. Effects of a flexible utilization of biogas on the electrical efficiency and the exhaust gas emissions from cogeneration plants; Auswirkungen einer flexiblen Biogasverwertung auf den elektrischen Wirkungsgrad und die Abgasemissionen von Blockheizkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tappen, Simon Juan; Effenberger, Mathias [Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (LfL), Freising (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Technikfolgenabschaetzung

    2016-08-01

    The German Renewable Energy Act of 2014 implements improved conditions to support market and grid integration of renewable energies, which resulted in the generated electricity to be sold directly to the market. In supporting the application of start-stop procedure and part load condition (e.g. during operating reserve), new requirements need to be set for biogas driven eo-generation units (CGU). Seven CGUs were analyzed during on-field measurements in Bavaria. The following article shows how results of part load adjustments affect the electrical efficiency and emissions, such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) and unburned hydrocarbons (C{sub n}H{sub m}). Under part load condition, the CGU showed a decrease in electrical efficiency and NO{sub x}-concentration. No significant changes have been identified in the exhaust treated emissions. In general, part load response leads to higher environmental impact. However, the environmental impact is expected to be low, since the application and extent of using flexible driving behavior is still limited. In contrast, stricter emission limit values set by TA Luft 2017 could impact the electrical efficiency and lead to higher costs for monitoring and exhaust treatment.

  1. Evaluation of local exhaust ventilation system performance for control of Fe2O3 dust at an iron making unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Jamshidi Rastani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adherence to the design values and ventilation standards (VS after installing and also maintaining continuous work of ventilation system with maximum performance throughout its life are amongst the reasons of ventilation systems monitoring. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate performance of local exhaust ventilation system for control of dust by measuring the operating parameters and also to compare it with ventilation standards (VS and design values. Material and Method: The present research is a descriptive and cross-sectional study, conducted in three sections of measuring, monitoring and evaluating the operating parameters on hoods, channels and fan of ventilation system based on the current status of the system, documentation (design, and recommended standards (VS. Static pressure, velocity pressure, surface area, and flow rate were measured based on the recommendations of various sources and ACGIH industrial ventilation manual, and the data were compared with the design and recommended values, using the SPSS software version 16.   Result: The results of paired sample t-test between flow rate and velocities of design and current status, showed significant differences in various parts. Accordingly, the results revealed a reduction of more than 50% in the design duct velocity compared to the current duct velocity, while design duct velocity is 1.3 more than the standard duct velocity of current status, and current duct velocity is about 65% of standard duct velocity. Conclusion: The reduction and nonconformity of the results of measurements of operating parameters (after a minimum of two decades with design and standard values are corroborant and sufficient reason for obstructions, abrasions, leaks, imbalance of system ducts and their inefficiency in some branches. Since there is no base line measurements for system (supposing that the system worked with maximum amounts of setup time, one of the reasons for these

  2. Diesel exhaust exposures in port workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debia, Maximilien; Neesham-Grenon, Eve; Mudaheranwa, Oliver C; Ragettli, Martina S

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to diesel engine exhaust has been linked to increased cancer risk and cardiopulmonary diseases. Diesel exhaust is a complex mixture of chemical substances, including a particulate fraction mainly composed of ultrafine particles, resulting from the incomplete combustion of fuel. Diesel trucks are known to be an important source of diesel-related air pollution, and areas with heavy truck traffic are associated with higher air pollution levels and increased public health problems. Several indicators have been proposed as surrogates for estimating exposures to diesel exhaust but very few studies have focused specifically on monitoring the ultrafine fraction through the measurement of particle number concentrations. The aim of this study is to assess occupational exposures of gate controllers at the port of Montreal, Canada, to diesel engine emissions from container trucks by measuring several surrogates through a multimetric approach which includes the assessment of both mass and number concentrations and the use of direct reading devices. A 10-day measurement campaign was carried out at two terminal checkpoints at the port of Montreal. Respirable elemental and organic carbon, PM1, PM2.5, PMresp (PM4), PM10, PMtot (inhalable fraction), particle number concentrations, particle size distributions, and gas concentrations (NO2, NO, CO) were monitored. Gate controllers were exposed to concentrations of contaminants associated with diesel engine exhaust (elemental carbon GM = 1.6 µg/m(3); GSD = 1.6) well below recommended occupational exposure limits. Average daily particle number concentrations ranged from 16,544-67,314 particles/cm³ (GM = 32,710 particles/cm³; GSD = 1.6). Significant Pearson correlation coefficients were found between daily elemental carbon, PM fractions and particle number concentrations, as well as between total carbon, PM fractions and particle number concentrations. Significant correlation coefficients were found between particle number

  3. Mercury emissions control technologies for mixed waste thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, A.; Knecht, M.; Soelberg, N.; Eaton, D. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Roberts, D.; Broderick, T. [ADA Technologies, Englewood, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    EPA has identified wet scrubbing at low mercury feedrates, as well as carbon adsorption via carbon injection into the offgas or via flow through fixed carbon beds, as control technologies that can be used to meet the proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rule limit for mercury emissions from hazardous waste incinerators. DOE is currently funding demonstrations of gold amalgamation that may also control mercury to the desired levels. Performance data from a variety of sources was reviewed to determine ranges of achievable mercury control. Preliminary costs were estimated for using these technologies to control mercury emissions from mixed waste incineration. Mercury emissions control for mixed waste incineration may need to be more efficient than for incineration of other hazardous wastes because of higher mercury concentrations in some mixed waste streams. However, mercury control performance data for wet scrubbing and carbon adsorption is highly variable. More information is needed to demonstrate control efficiencies that are achievable under various design and operating conditions for wet scrubbing, carbon adsorption, and gold amalgamation technologies. Given certain assumptions made in this study, capital costs, operating costs, and lifecycle costs for carbon injection, carbon beds, and gold amalgamation generally vary for different assumed mercury feedrates and for different offgas flowrates. Assuming that these technologies can in fact provide the necessary mercury control performance, each of these technologies may be less costly than the others for certain mercury feedrates and the offgas flowrates.

  4. Cut off from supplies - sulfate exhaustion and implications for methane emissions in a brackish rewetted peatland after separation from the coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebsch, Franziska; Liu, Bo; Schmiedinger, Iris; Spitzy, Alejandro; Köhler, Stefan; Koch, Marian; Jurasinski, Gerald; Gehre, Matthias; Sachs, Torsten; Böttcher, Michael

    2016-04-01

    in the bottom up to +4.2‰ in the top profile, thereby indicating zones of high CH4 production in the top 30 cm of the peat, whilst non-fractionating C metabolic processes such as SO42- reduction are dominating in the deeper parts. Our study shows that coastal wetlands can turn to strong sources for CH4 when marine SO42-supply is cut off. Indeed, brackish impact might still be present in form of high salinities, however, the contemporary SO42- pool becomes exhausted. Thus, locally high SO42-concentrations do not inhibit high CH4 emissions on ecosystem scale. Citation: Hahn J, Köhler S, Glatzel S, Jurasinski G (2015) Methane Exchange in a Coastal Fen in the First Year after Flooding - A Systems Shift. PLoS ONE 10(10): e0140657. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0140657

  5. Effects of Diesel Exhaust on Cardiovascular Function and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Simon J; Miller, Mark R; Newby, David E

    2017-07-14

    Air pollution is a major global health concern with particulate matter (PM) being especially associated with increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Diesel exhaust emissions are a particularly rich source of the smallest sizes of PM ("fine" and "ultrafine") in urban environments, and it is these particles that are believed to be the most detrimental to cardiovascular health. Recent Advances: Controlled exposure studies to diesel exhaust in animals and man demonstrate alterations in blood pressure, heart rate, vascular tone, endothelial function, myocardial perfusion, thrombosis, atherogenesis, and plaque stability. Oxidative stress has emerged as a highly plausible pathobiological mechanism by which inhalation of diesel exhaust PM leads to multiple facets of cardiovascular dysfunction. Diesel exhaust inhalation promotes oxidative stress in several biological compartments that can be directly associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. Further studies with more sensitive and specific in vivo human markers of oxidative stress are required to determine if targeting oxidative stress pathways involved in the actions of diesel exhaust PM could be of therapeutic value. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

  6. Switching regulator emission control circuit for ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, F. P., Jr.; Brock, F. J.; Melfi, L. T., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An electron emission control circuit of the switching regulator type operating at 100 kHz has been developed which maintains a constant emission current within 0.1% for a cathode power demand variation of approximately 100%. The power output stage has an efficiency of 67%, and the overall efficiency is 45% when driving a thoria-coated iridium cathode having a nominal resistance at operating temperature of 2.5 ohms. Under optimum conditions, the bus power demand is 1.75 W. The circuit is useful in controlling the electron emission current of ion sources in applications which involve a substantial variation of the cathode work function, such as oxygen partial pressure measurements over a large dynamic range.

  7. Legislation, standards and methods for mercury emissions control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-15

    Mercury is an element of growing global concern. The United Nations Environment Programme plans to finalise and ratify a new global legally-binding convention on mercury by 2013. Canada already has legislation on mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities and the USA has recently released the new Mercury and Air Toxics Standard. Although other countries may not have mercury-specific legislation as such, many have legislation which results in significant co-benefit mercury reduction due to the installation of effective flue-gas cleaning technologies. This report reviews the current situation and trends in mercury emission legislation and, where possible, discusses the actions that will be taken under proposed or impending standards globally and regionally. The report also reviews the methods currently applied for mercury control and for mercury emission measurement with emphasis on the methodologies most appropriate for compliance. Examples of the methods of mercury control currently deployed in the USA, Canada and elsewhere are included.

  8. Designing, construction, assessment, and efficiency of local exhaust ventilation in controlling crystalline silica dust and particles, and formaldehyde in a foundry industry plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morteza, Mortezavi Mehrizi; Hossein, Kakooi; Amirhossein, Matin; Naser, Hasheminegad; Gholamhossein, Halvani; Hossein, Fallah

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to design and assess the efficiency of a local exhaust ventilation system used in a foundry operation to control inhalable dust and particles, microcrystal particles, and noxious gases and vapours affecting workers during the foundry process. It was designed based on recommendations from the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygiene. After designing a local exhaust ventilation system (LEV), we prepared and submitted the implementation plan to the manufacturer. High concentrations of crystalline silica dust and formaldehyde, which are common toxic air pollutants in foundries, were ultimately measured as an indicator for studying the efficiency of this system in controlling inhalable dust and particles as well as other air pollutants. The level of occupational exposure to silica and formaldehyde as major air pollutants was assessed in two modes: first, when the LEV was on, and second, when it was off. Air samples from the exposure area were obtained using a personal sampling pump and analysed using the No. 7601 method for crystal silica and the No. 2541 method for formaldehyde of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Silica and formaldehyde concentrations were determined by visible absorption spectrophotometry and gas chromatography. The results showed that local exhaust ventilation was successful in preserving the crystal silica particles in the work environment at a level below the NIOSH maximum allowed concentration (0.05 mg m-3). In contrast, formaldehyde exceeded the NIOSH limit (1 ppm or 1.228 mg m-3).

  9. Promoted decomposition of NOx in automotive diesel-like exhausts by electro-catalytic honeycombs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ta-Jen; Chiang, De-Yi; Shih, Chi; Lee, Cheng-Chin; Mao, Chih-Wei; Wang, Bo-Chung

    2015-03-17

    NO and NO2 (collectively called NOx) are major air pollutants in automotive emissions. More effective and easier treatments of NOx than those achieved by the present methods can offer better protection of human health and higher fuel efficiency that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, currently commercialized technologies for automotive NOx emission control cannot effectively treat diesel-like exhausts with high NOx concentrations. Thus, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has been used extensively, which reduces fuel efficiency and increases particulate emission considerably. Our results show that the electro-catalytic honeycomb (ECH) promotes the decomposition of NOx to nitrogen and oxygen, without consuming reagents or other resources. NOx can be converted to nitrogen and oxygen almost completely. The ECHs are shown to effectively remove NOx from gasoline-fueled diesel-like exhausts. A very high NO concentration is preferred in the engine exhaust, especially during engine cold-start. Promoted NOx decomposition (PND) technology for real-world automotive applications is established in this study by using the ECH. With PND, EGR is no longer needed. Diesel-like engines can therefore achieve superior fuel efficiency, and all major automotive pollutants can be easily treated due to high concentration of oxygen in the diesel-like exhausts, leading to zero pollution.

  10. Maritime routing and speed optimization with emission control areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerholt, Kjetil; Gausel, Nora T.; Rakke, Jørgen G.

    2015-01-01

    Strict limits on the maximum sulphur content in fuel used by ships have recently been imposed in some Emission Control Areas (ECAs). In order to comply with these regulations many ship operators will switch to more expensive low-sulphur fuel when sailing inside ECAs. Since they are concerned about...

  11. Emissions inventories and options for control SUMMARY REPORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart RJ; Amstel AR van; Born GJ van den; Kroeze C; MTV; LAE

    1994-01-01

    This report is the final summary report of the project "Social causes of the greenhouse effect ; emissions inventories and options for control", funded by the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP) and the Environment Directorate of the Ministry of Housing,

  12. Controlling spontaneous emission of light by photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter

    2005-01-01

    propagation have appeared that hold great promises for integrated optics. These major achievements solidly demonstrate the ability to control propagation of light. In contrast, an experimental demonstration of the use of photonic crystals for timing the emission of light has so far lacked. In a recent...

  13. Controlled spontaneous emission in erbium-doped microphotonic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkman, Jeroen

    2005-01-01

    Erbium is a rare-earth metal that, when incorporated in a solid, can emit light at a wavelength of 1.5 μm. It plays a key role in current day telecommunication technology as the principle ingredient of optical fiber amplifiers. In this thesis the control of the Er spontaneous emission in three

  14. Mercury emission, control and measurement from coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei-Ping [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering; Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States). Inst. for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology; Cao, Yan [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States). Inst. for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology; Zhang, Kai [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Coal-fired electric power generation accounts for 65% of U.S. emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), 22% of nitrogen oxides (NOx), and 37% of mercury (Hg). The proposed Clear Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) will attempt to regulate these emissions using a cap-and-trade program to replace a number of existing regulatory requirements that will impact this industry over the next decade. Mercury emissions remain the largest source that has not yet been efficiently controlled, in part because this is one of the most expensive to control. Mercury is a toxic, persistent pollutant that accumulates in the food chain. During the coal combustion process, when both sampling and accurate measurements are challenging, we know that mercury is present in three species: elemental, oxidized and particulate. There are three basic types of mercury measurement methods: Ontario Hydro Method, mercury continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) and sorbent-based monitoring. Particulate mercury is best captured by electrostatic precipitators (ESP). Oxidized mercury is best captured in wet scrubbers. Elemental mercury is the most difficult to capture, but selective catalytic reduction units (SCRs) are able to convert elemental mercury to oxidized mercury allowing it to be captured by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). This works well for eastern coals with high chlorine contents, but this does not work well on the Wyoming Powder River Basin (PRB) coals. However, no good explanation for its mechanism, correlations of chlorine content in coal with SCR performance, and impacts of higher chlorine content in coal on FGD re-emission are available. The combination of SCR and FGD affords more than an 80% reduction in mercury emissions in the case of high chlorine content coals. The mercury emission results from different coal ranks, boilers, and the air pollution control device (APCD) in power plant will be discussed. Based on this UAEPA new regulation, most power plants

  15. Portuguese agriculture and the evolution of greenhouse gas emissions-can vegetables control livestock emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourao, Paulo Reis; Domingues Martinho, Vítor

    2017-07-01

    One of the most serious externalities of agricultural activity relates to greenhouse gas emissions. This work tests this relationship for the Portuguese case by examining data compiled since 1961. Employing cointegration techniques and vector error correction models (VECMs), we conclude that the evolution of the most representative vegetables and fruits in Portuguese production are associated with higher controls on the evolution of greenhouse gas emissions. Reversely, the evolution of the output levels of livestock and the most representative animal production have significantly increased the level of CO 2 (carbon dioxide) reported in Portugal. We also analyze the cycle length of the long-term relationship between agricultural activity and greenhouse gas emissions. In particular, we highlight the case of synthetic fertilizers, whose values of CO 2 have quickly risen due to changes in Portuguese vegetables, fruit, and animal production levels.

  16. 40 CFR 91.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES.... (a) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in this section is designed to measure the... the mixing area to ensure a uniform sample distribution across the CVS duct at the sampling zone. (3...

  17. 40 CFR 90.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT... analytical system description. (a) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in this section is... downstream of the mixing area to ensure a uniform sample distribution across the CVS duct at the sampling...

  18. 40 CFR 91.414 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... exhaust gas probe must be located in a position which yields a well mixed, homogeneous sample of the... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES... components that are wetted by the sample or corrosive calibration gases shall be either chemically cleaned...

  19. Automated on-line determination of PPB levels of sodium and potassium in low-Btu coal gas and fluidized bed combustor exhaust by atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, W.J. Jr.; Eckels, D.E.; Kniseley, R.N.; Fassel, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), US Department of Energy, is involved in the development of processes and equipment for production of low-Btu gas from coal and for fluidized bed combustion of coal. The ultimate objective is large scale production of electricity using high temperature gas turbines. Such turbines, however, are susceptible to accelerated corrosion and self-destruction when relatively low concentrations of sodium and potassium are present in the driving gas streams. Knowledge and control of the concentrations of those elements, at part per billion levels, are critical to the success of both the gas cleanup procedures that are being investigated and the overall energy conversion processes. This presentation describes instrumentation and procedures developed at the Ames Laboratory for application to the problems outlined above and results that have been obtained so far at METC. The first Ames instruments, which feature an automated, dual channel flame atomic emission spectrometer, perform the sodium and potassium determinations simultaneously, repetitively, and automatically every two to three minutes by atomizing and exciting a fraction of the subject gas sample stream in either an oxyhydrogen flame or a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. The analytical results are printed and can be transmitted simultaneously to a process control center.

  20. T cell exhaustion and immune-mediated disease-the potential for therapeutic exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Eoin F; Smith, Kenneth Gc

    2016-12-01

    T cell exhaustion represents a continuous spectrum of cellular dysfunction induced during chronic viral infection, facilitating viral persistence and associating with poor clinical outcome. Modulation of T cell exhaustion can restore function in exhausted CD8 T cells, promoting viral clearance. Exhaustion has also been implicated as playing an important role in anti-tumour responses, whereby exhausted tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes fail to control tumour progression. More recently exhaustion has been linked to long-term clinical outcome in multiple autoimmune diseases but, in contrast to cancer or infection, it is associated with a favourable clinical outcome characterised by fewer relapses. An increasing understanding of key inhibitory signals promoting exhaustion has led to advances in therapy for chronic infection and cancer. An increasing understanding of this biology may facilitate novel treatment approaches for autoimmunity through the therapeutic induction of exhaustion. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Investigation of Diesel Exhaust Gas Toxicity on Transient Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivashchenko Nikolay Antonovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the generation of heat engines and their control systems are based on ecological indices such as the toxicity of the fulfilled gases. When designing motors, software packages are widely used. These software packages provide the ability to calculate the workflow of engine at steady-state conditions. The definition of indicators emissions is a difficult task. The distribution statistics of the modes shows that the engines of the transport units work on unsteady modes most of the time. The calculation of toxicity indicators is even less developed. In this article experimental and numeric study of the diesel engine with turbocharger exhaust toxicity was considered. As a result of the experimental study, which was conducted with single-cylinder diesel engine compartment simulated work on the transient state, working process characteristics of a diesel engine were obtained, including carbon and nitrogen oxides concentrations. Functional dependencies of concentrations of toxic exhaust components, such as carbon and nitrogen oxides, on excess air ratio and exhaust temperature were obtained. Diesel engine transient processes were simulated using developed mathematical dynamic model of combined engine in locomotive power plant with a change in control signal (position of locomotive driver’s controller and external influence signal (resistance moment. The analysis of exhaust gas toxicity was conducted.

  2. Atorvastatin reduces T-cell activation and exhaustion among HIV-infected cART-treated suboptimal immune responders in Uganda: a randomised crossover placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanjako, Damalie; Ssinabulya, Isaac; Nabatanzi, Rose; Bayigga, Lois; Kiragga, Agnes; Joloba, Moses; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kambugu, Andrew D; Kamya, Moses R; Sekaly, Rafick; Elliott, Alison; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet

    2015-03-01

    T-cell activation independently predicts mortality, poor immune recovery and non-AIDS illnesses during combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Atorvastatin showed anti-immune activation effects among HIV-infected cART-naïve individuals. We investigated whether adjunct atorvastatin therapy reduces T-cell activation among cART-treated adults with suboptimal immune recovery. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial, of atorvastatin 80 mg daily vs. placebo for 12 weeks, was conducted among individuals with CD4 increase <295 cells/μl after seven years of suppressive cART. Change in T-cell activation (CD3 + CD4 + /CD8 + CD38 + HLADR+) and in T-cell exhaustion (CD3 + CD4 + /CD8 + PD1 + ) was measured using flow cytometry. Thirty patients were randomised, 15 to each arm. Atorvastatin resulted in a 28% greater reduction in CD4 T-cell activation (60% reduction) than placebo (32% reduction); P = 0.001. Atorvastatin also resulted in a 35% greater reduction in CD8-T-cell activation than placebo (49% vs. 14%, P = 0.0009), CD4 T-cell exhaustion (27% vs. 17% in placebo), P = 0.001 and CD8 T-cell exhaustion (27% vs. 16%), P = 0.004. There was no carry-over/period effect. Expected adverse events were comparable in both groups, and no serious adverse events were reported. Atorvastatin reduced T-cell immune activation and exhaustion among cART-treated adults in a Ugandan cohort. Atorvastatin adjunct therapy should be explored as a strategy to improve HIV treatment outcomes among people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Modelling and Operation of Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åberg, Andreas

    Diesel engine exhaust gases contain several harmful substances. The main pollutants are carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), particulate matter (PM), and nitrous gases such as nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (together NOx). Reducing the emission of these pollutants is of great...... outperformed the other control structures. The results were experimentally verified by implementing the tested controllers on a full-scale engine setup, and the results showed that coupling feedback with ANR based feedforward was yielding better performance. The PD controller showed good performance...... importance due to their effect on urban air quality, and because of new legislation. In modern heavy-duty applications, the exhaust gases are typically treated with four different catalysts: a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) which oxidises HC and CO into H2O and CO2, and NO into NO2, a Diesel Particulate...

  4. Control of Several Emissions during Olive Pomace Thermal Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Miranda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomass plays an important role as an energy source, being an interesting alternative to fossil fuels due to its environment-friendly and sustainable characteristics. However, due to the exposure of customers to emissions during biomass heating, evolved pollutants should be taken into account and controlled. Changing raw materials or mixing them with another less pollutant biomass could be a suitable step to reduce pollution. This work studied the thermal behaviour of olive pomace, pyrenean oak and their blends under combustion using thermogravimetric analysis. It was possible to monitor the emissions released during the process by coupling mass spectrometry analysis. The experiments were carried out under non-isothermal conditions at the temperature range 25–750 °C and a heating rate of 20 °C·min−1. The following species were analysed: aromatic compounds (benzene and toluene, sulphur emissions (sulphur dioxide, 1,4-dioxin, hydrochloric acid, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides. The results indicated that pollutants were mainly evolved in two different stages, which are related to the thermal degradation steps. Thus, depending on the pollutant and raw material composition, different emission profiles were observed. Furthermore, intensity of the emission profiles was related, in some cases, to the composition of the precursor.

  5. Design and testing of an independently controlled urea SCR retrofit system for the reduction of NOx emissions from marine diesels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Derek R; Bedick, Clinton R; Clark, Nigel N; McKain, David L

    2009-05-15

    Diesel engine emissions for on-road, stationary and marine applications are regulated in the United States via standards set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A major component of diesel exhaust that is difficult to reduce is nitrogen oxides (NOx). Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has been in use for many years for stationary applications, including external combustion boilers, and is promising for NOx abatement as a retrofit for mobile applications where diesel compression ignition engines are used. The research presented in this paper is the first phase of a program focused on the reduction of NOx by use of a stand-alone urea injection system, applicable to marine diesel engines typical of work boats (e.g., tugs). Most current urea SCR systems communicate with engine controls to predict NOx emissions based on signals such as torque and engine speed, however many marine engines in use still employ mechanical injection technology and lack electronic communication abilities. The system developed and discussed in this paper controls NOx emissions independentof engine operating parameters and measures NOx and exhaust flow using the following exhaust sensor inputs: absolute pressure, differential pressure, temperature, and NOx concentration. These sensor inputs were integrated into an independent controller and open loop architecture to estimate the necessary amount of urea needed, and the controller uses pulse width modulation (PWM) to power an automotive fuel injector for airless urea delivery. The system was tested in a transient test cell on a 350 hp engine certified at 4 g/bhp-hr of NOx, with a goal of reducing the engine out NOx levels by 50%. NOx reduction capabilities of 41-67% were shown on the non road transient cycle (NRTC) and ICOMIA E5 steady state cycles with system optimization during testing to minimize the dilute ammonia slip to cycle averages of 5-7 ppm. The goal of 50% reduction of NOx can be achieved dependent upon cycle. Further

  6. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Augenstein

    1999-01-11

    ''Conventional'' waste landfills emit methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in quantities such that landfill methane is a major factor in global climate change. Controlled landfilling is a novel approach to manage landfills for rapid completion of total gas generation, maximizing gas capture and minimizing emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated and brought to much earlier completion by improving conditions for biological processes (principally moisture levels) in the landfill. Gas recovery efficiency approaches 100% through use of surface membrane cover over porous gas recovery layers operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project's results at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California are, to date, highly encouraging. Two major controlled landfilling benefits would be the reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions.

  7. T Cell Exhaustion During Persistent Viral Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Shannon M.; Wherry, E. John; Zajac, Allan J.

    2015-01-01

    Although robust and highly effective anti-viral T cells contribute to the clearance of many acute infections, viral persistence is associated with the development of functionally inferior, exhausted, T cell responses. Exhaustion develops in a step-wise and progressive manner, ranges in severity, and can culminate in the deletion of the anti-viral T cells. This disarming of the response is consequential as it compromises viral control and potentially serves to dampen immune-mediated damage. Exhausted T cells are unable to elaborate typical anti-viral effector functions. They are characterized by the sustained upregulation of inhibitory receptors and display a gene expression profile that distinguishes them from prototypic effector and memory T cell populations. In this review we discuss the properties of exhausted T cells; the virological and immunological conditions that favor their development; the cellular and molecular signals that sustain the exhausted state; and strategies for preventing and reversing exhaustion to favor viral control. PMID:25620767

  8. SOCRATES simulation of the emission at wavelength 6300 A generated by the interaction between the atmosphere and the Space Shuttle exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setayesh, A.; Tautz, M. F.

    1993-08-01

    The SOCRATES contamination-interaction code has been used to simulate the reactions between the space shuttle exhaust and the atmosphere at an altitude of 320 km. The investigation carries out the simulations for regions extending to 15 km from spacecraft. These simulations calculate the radiation from O(D1) - O(P3) photons as function of time for orientations of engine firing into the ram, perpendicular, and into the wake of the shuttle motion. The IRMA plotting program has been used to depict in color the time development of the shuttle plume.

  9. Modeling study of natural emissions, source apportionment, and emission control of atmospheric mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Suraj K.

    ) and CAMNet (Canadian Atmospheric Mercury Measurement Network). The model estimated a total deposition of 474 Mg yr-1 to the CONUS (Contiguous United States) domain, with two-thirds being dry deposited. Reactive gaseous mercury contributed the most to 60% of deposition. Emission speciation distribution is a key factor for local deposition as contribution from large point sources can be as high as 75% near (attention due to its toxicity and the emission-control regulations and has lead to advancement in state-of-the-art control technologies that alleviate the impact of mercury on ecosystem and human health. This part of the work applies a sorption model to simulate adsorption of mercury in flue gases, onto a confined-bed of activated carbon. The model's performances were studied at various flue gas flow rates, inlet mercury concentrations and adsorption bed temperatures. The process simulated a flue gas, with inlet mercury concentration of 300 ppb, entering at a velocity of 0.3 m s-1 from the bottom into a fixed bed (inside bed diameter of 1 m and 3 m bed height; bed temperature of 25 °C) of activated carbon (particle size of 0.004 m with density of 0.5 g cm-3 and surface area of 90.25 cm2 g -1). The model result demonstrated that a batch of activated carbon bed was capable of controlling mercury emission for approximately 275 days after which further mercury uptake starts to decrease till it reaches about 500 days when additional control ceases. An increase in bed temperature significantly reduces mercury sorption capacity of the activated carbon. Increase in flue gas flow rate may result in faster consumption of sorption capacity initially but at a later stage, the sorption rate decreases due to reduced sorption capacity. Thus, overall sorption rate remains unaffected. The activated carbon's effective life (time to reach saturation) is not affected by inlet mercury concentration, implying that the designing and operation of a mercury sorption process can be done

  10. Bioethanol Blending Reduces Nanoparticle, PAH, and Alkyl- and Nitro-PAH Emissions and the Genotoxic Potential of Exhaust from a Gasoline Direct Injection Flex-Fuel Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Maria; Heeb, Norbert V; Haag, Regula; Honegger, Peter; Zeyer, Kerstin; Mohn, Joachim; Comte, Pierre; Czerwinski, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Bioethanol as an alternative fuel is widely used as a substitute for gasoline and also in gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles, which are quickly replacing traditional port-fuel injection (PFI) vehicles. Better fuel efficiency and increased engine power are reported advantages of GDI vehicles. However, increased emissions of soot-like nanoparticles are also associated with GDI technology with yet unknown health impacts. In this study, we compare emissions of a flex-fuel Euro-5 GDI vehicle operated with gasoline (E0) and two ethanol/gasoline blends (E10 and E85) under transient and steady driving conditions and report effects on particle, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), and alkyl- and nitro-PAH emissions and assess their genotoxic potential. Particle number emissions when operating the vehicle in the hWLTC (hot started worldwide harmonized light-duty vehicle test cycle) with E10 and E85 were lowered by 97 and 96% compared with that of E0. CO emissions dropped by 81 and 87%, while CO 2 emissions were reduced by 13 and 17%. Emissions of selected PAHs were lowered by 67-96% with E10 and by 82-96% with E85, and the genotoxic potentials dropped by 72 and 83%, respectively. Ethanol blending appears to reduce genotoxic emissions on this specific flex-fuel GDI vehicle; however, other GDI vehicle types should be analyzed.

  11. Impact of carbohydrate mouth rinsing on time to exhaustion during Ramadan: A randomized controlled trial in Jordanian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataineh, Mo'ath F; Al-Nawaiseh, Ali M; Abu Altaieb, Mohammad H; Bellar, David M; Hindawi, Omar S; Judge, Lawrence W

    2018-01-24

    Mouth rinsing using a carbohydrate (CHO) solution has been suggested to improve physical performance in fasting participants. This study examined the effects of CHO mouth rinsing during Ramadan fasting on running time to exhaustion and on peak treadmill speed (V peak ). In a counterbalanced crossover design, 18 sub-elite male runners (Age: 21 ± 2 years, Weight: 68.1 ± 5.7 kg, VO 2max : 55.4 ± 4.8 ml/kg/min) who observed Ramadan completed a familiarization trial and three experimental trials. The three trials included rinsing and expectorating a 25 mL bolus of either a 7.5% sucrose solution (CHO), a flavour and taste matched placebo solution (PLA) for 10 s, or no rinse (CON). The treatments were performed prior to an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion. Three-day dietary and exercise records were obtained on two occasions and analysed. Anthropometric characteristics were obtained and recorded for all participants. A main effect for mouth rinse on peak velocity (V peak ) (CHO: 17.6 ± 1.5 km/h; PLA: 17.1 ± 1.4 km/h; CON: 16.7 ± 1.2 km/h; P exhaustion (CHO: 1282.0 ± 121.3 s; PLA: 1258.1 ± 113.4 s; CON: 1228.7 ± 98.5 s; P = .002, η p 2  = 0.41) was detected, with CHO significantly higher than PLA (P  .05). Energy availability from dietary analysis, body weight, and fat-free mass did not change during the last two weeks of Ramadan (P > .05). This study concludes that carbohydrate mouth rinsing improves running time to exhaustion and peak treadmill speed under Ramadan fasting conditions.

  12. Effect of a participatory organizational-level occupational health intervention on job satisfaction, exhaustion and sleep disturbances: results of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Framke

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined whether the implementation of a participatory organizational-level intervention aiming to improve the working environment with a focus on the core task at work, increased job satisfaction and reduced exhaustion and sleep disturbances among pre-school employees. Methods The study sample consisted of 41 intervention group pre-schools with 423 employees and 30 control group pre-schools with 241 employees. The intervention lasted 25 months and consisted of seminars, workshops, and workplace specific intervention activities that were developed by focusing on the core task at work. We analyzed within-group changes in the three outcome variables from baseline to follow-up with t-tests for paired samples, separately for intervention and control group. Between-group differences in changes in the three outcome variables were analyzed using a mixed model with a repeated statement to account for the clustering effect of workplaces. Results Within-group analyses showed that exhaustion decreased statistically significantly in both the intervention and the control group. There were no statistically significantly changes in job satisfaction and sleep disturbances. Between-group analyses showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups for changes in any of the outcome variables, neither in the unadjusted or in the adjusted analyses. Conclusions We found no evidence that participating in an organizational-level occupational health intervention aiming to improve the working environment with a focus on the core task at work has an effect on pre-school employees’ job satisfaction, exhaustion and sleep disturbances. Trial registration ISRCTN16271504 , November 15, 2016.

  13. Control of mercury emissions: policies, technologies, and future trends

    OpenAIRE

    Rhee, Seung-Whee

    2015-01-01

    Seung-Whee Rhee Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyonggi University, Suwon, Republic of Korea Abstract: Owing to the Minamata Convention on Mercury and the Global Mercury Partnership, policies and regulations on mercury management in advanced countries were intensified by a mercury phaseout program in the mercury control strategy. In developing countries, the legislative or regulatory frameworks on mercury emissions are not established specifically, but mercury management is designed...

  14. A Review on Diesel Soot Emission, its Effect and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The diesel engines are energy efficient, but their particulate (soot emissions are responsible of severe environmental and health problems. This review provides a survey on published information regarding diesel soot emission, its adverse effects on the human health, environment, vegetations, climate, etc. The legislations to limit diesel emissions and ways to minimize soot emission are also summarized. Soot particles are suspected to the development of cancer; cardiovascular and respiratory health effects; pollution of air, water, and soil; impact agriculture productivity, soiling of buildings; reductions in visibility; and global climate change. The review covers important recent developments on technologies for control of particulate matter (PM; diesel particulate filters (DPFs, summarizing new filter and catalyst materials and DPM measurement. DPF technology is in a state of optimization and cost reduction. New DPF regeneration strategies (active, passive and plasma-assisted regenerations as well as the new learning on the fundamentals of soot/catalyst interaction are described. Recent developments in diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC are also summarized showing potential issues with advanced combustion strategies, important interactions on NO2 formation, and new formulations for durability. Finally, systematic compilation of the concerned newer literature on catalytic oxidation of soot in a well conceivable tabular form is given. A total of 156 references are cited. ©2010 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 2nd June 2010, Revised: 17th June 2010; Accepted: 24th June 2010[How to Cite: R. Prasad, V.R. Bella. (2010. Review on Diesel Soot Emission, its Effect and Control. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 5(2: 69-86. doi:10.9767/bcrec.5.2.794.69-86][DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.5.2.794.69-86 || or local:   http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/794 ]Cited by in: ACS 1 |

  15. Methods of characterizing the distribution of exhaust emissions from light-duty, gasoline-powered motor vehicles in the U.S. fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulper, Carl R; Kishan, Sandeep; Baldauf, Richard W; Sabisch, Michael; Warila, Jim; Fujit, Eric M; Scarbro, Carl; Crews, William S; Snow, Richard; Gabele, Peter; Santos, Robert; Tierney, Eugene; Cantrell, Bruce

    2010-11-01

    Mobile sources significantly contribute to ambient concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM). Source apportionment studies for PM10 (PM vehicle combustion. Several source apportionment studies conducted in the United States suggested that gasoline combustion from mobile sources contributed more to ambient PM than diesel combustion. However, existing emission inventories for the United States indicated that diesels contribute more than gasoline vehicles to ambient PM concentrations. A comprehensive testing program was initiated in the Kansas City metropolitan area to measure PM emissions in the light-duty, gasoline-powered, on-road mobile source fleet to provide data for PM inventory and emissions modeling. The vehicle recruitment design produced a sample that could represent the regional fleet, and by extension, the national fleet. All vehicles were recruited from a stratified sample on the basis of vehicle class (car, truck) and model-year group. The pool of available vehicles was drawn primarily from a sample of vehicle owners designed to represent the selected demographic and geographic characteristics of the Kansas City population. Emissions testing utilized a portable, light-duty chassis dynamometer with vehicles tested using the LA-92 driving cycle, on-board emissions measurement systems, and remote sensing devices. Particulate mass emissions were the focus of the study, with continuous and integrated samples collected. In addition, sample analyses included criteria gases (carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide/nitrogen dioxide, hydrocarbons), air toxics (speciated volatile organic compounds), and PM constituents (elemental/organic carbon, metals, semi-volatile organic compounds). Results indicated that PM emissions from the in-use fleet varied by up to 3 orders of magnitude, with emissions generally increasing for older model-year vehicles. The study also identified a strong influence of ambient temperature on vehicle PM mass emissions, with

  16. Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: Test results of a prototype Chrysler Volare, 225 CID (3.7-liter) automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The results obtained from fuel economy and emission tests conducted on a prototype Chrysler Volare diesel vehicle are documented. The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. The fuel used, was a DOE/BETC referee fuel. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. The vehicle obtained 32.7 mpg for the FTP urban cycle and 48.8 mpg for the highway cycle. The emissions rates were 0.42/1.58/1.17/0.28 g/mile of HC, CO, NOx and particulates respectively.

  17. Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: Test results of a prototype fiat 131TC 2.4 liter automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quayle, S. S.

    1982-01-01

    The results obtained from fuel economy and emission tests conducted on a prototype Fiat 131 turbocharged diesel vehicle are presented. The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. Two fuels were used, a United States number 2 diesel and a European diesel fuel. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. It was determined that turbocharging accompanied by complementary modifications results in small but substantial improvements in regulated emissions, fuel economy, and performance. Notably, particulate levels were reduced by 30 percent.

  18. City-specific vehicle emission control strategies to achieve stringent emission reduction targets in China's Yangtze River Delta region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Zhao, Bin; Wu, Xiaomeng; Shu, Jiawei; Hao, Jiming

    2017-01-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region is one of the most prosperous and densely populated regions in China and is facing tremendous pressure to mitigate vehicle emissions and improve air quality. Our assessment has revealed that mitigating vehicle emissions of NOx would be more difficult than reducing the emissions of other major vehicular pollutants (e.g., CO, HC and PM2.5) in the YRD region. Even in Shanghai, where the emission control implemented are more stringent than in Jiangsu and Zhejiang, we observed little to no reduction in NOx emissions from 2000 to 2010. Emission-reduction targets for HC, NOx and PM2.5 are determined using a response surface modeling tool for better air quality. We design city-specific emission control strategies for three vehicle-populated cities in the YRD region: Shanghai and Nanjing and Wuxi in Jiangsu. Our results indicate that even if stringent emission control consisting of the Euro 6/VI standards, the limitation of vehicle population and usage, and the scrappage of older vehicles is applied, Nanjing and Wuxi will not be able to meet the NOx emissions target by 2020. Therefore, additional control measures are proposed for Nanjing and Wuxi to further mitigate NOx emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. [Pollution Characteristics of Aldehydes and Ketones Compounds in the Exhaust of Beijing Typical Restaurants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing-chen; Cui, Tong; He, Wan-qing; Nie, Lei; Wang, Jun-ling; Pan, Tao

    2015-08-01

    Aldehydes and ketones compounds, as one of the components in the exhaust of restaurants, are a class of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with strong chemical reactivity. However, there is no systematic study on aldehydes and ketones compounds in the exhaust of restaurants. To further clarify the food source emission levels of aldehydes and ketones compounds and controlling measures, to access city group catering VOCs emissions control decision-making basis, this study selected 8 Beijing restaurants with different types. The aldehydes and ketones compounds were sampled using DNPH-silica tube, and then ultra performance liquid chromatography was used for quantitative measurement. The aldehydes and ketones concentrations of reference volume condition from 8 restaurants in descending order were Roasted Duck restaurant, Chinese Style Barbecue, Home Dishes, Western Fast-food, School Canteen, Chinese Style Fast-food, Sichuan Cuisine, Huaiyang Cuisine. The results showed that the range of aldehydes and ketones compounds (C1-C9) concentrations of reference volume condition in the exhaust of restaurants was 115.47-1035.99 microg x m(-3). The composition of aldehydes and ketones compounds in the exhaust of sampled restaurants was obviously different. The percentages of C1-C3 were above 40% in the exhaust from Chinese style restaurants. Fast food might emit more C4-C9 aldehydes and ketones compounds. From the current situation of existing aldehydes and ketones compounds control, the removal efficiency of high voltage electrostatic purifiers widely used in Beijing is limited.

  20. Fuel Economy and Exhaust Emissions Characteristics of a Diesel Vehicle : Results of the Prototype Volkswagen 1.5 Liter Turbocharged Rabbit Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Tests were performed on a prototyple Vokswagen (VW) Turbocharged (TC) Rabbit diesel vehicle on a chassis dynamometer. The vheicle was tested for fuel economy and emissions on the urban Federal test Procedure (FTP), Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), C...

  1. Emissions of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PAHs from a modern diesel engine equipped with catalyzed emission control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroo, Christopher A; Schenk, Charles R; Sanchez, L James; McDonald, Joseph

    2011-08-01

    Exhaust emissions of 17 2,3,7,8-substituted chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan (CDD/F) congeners, tetra-octa CDD/F homologues, 12 2005 WHO chlorinated biphenyls (CB) congeners, mono-nona CB homologues, and 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a model year 2008 Cummins ISB engine were investigated. Testing included configurations composed of different combinations of aftertreatment including a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF), copper zeolite urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR), iron zeolite SCR, and ammonia slip catalyst. Results were compared to a baseline engine out configuration. Testing included the use of fuel that contained the maximum expected chlorine (Cl) concentration of U.S. highway diesel fuel and a Cl level 1.5 orders of magnitude above. Results indicate there is no risk for an increase in polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan and polychlorinated biphenyl emissions from modern diesel engines with catalyzed aftertreatment when compared to engine out emissions for configurations tested in this program. These results, along with PAH results, compare well with similar results from modern diesel engines in the literature. The results further indicate that polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan emissions from modern diesel engines both with and without aftertreatment are below historical values reported in the literature as well as the current inventory value.

  2. Crystal Phase Quantum Well Emission with Digital Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assali, S; Lähnemann, J; Vu, T T T; Jöns, K D; Gagliano, L; Verheijen, M A; Akopian, N; Bakkers, E P A M; Haverkort, J E M

    2017-10-11

    One of the major challenges in the growth of quantum well and quantum dot heterostructures is the realization of atomically sharp interfaces. Nanowires provide a new opportunity to engineer the band structure as they facilitate the controlled switching of the crystal structure between the zinc-blende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) phases. Such a crystal phase switching results in the formation of crystal phase quantum wells (CPQWs) and quantum dots (CPQDs). For GaP CPQWs, the inherent electric fields due to the discontinuity of the spontaneous polarization at the WZ/ZB junctions lead to the confinement of both types of charge carriers at the opposite interfaces of the WZ/ZB/WZ structure. This confinement leads to a novel type of transition across a ZB flat plate barrier. Here, we show digital tuning of the visible emission of WZ/ZB/WZ CPQWs in a GaP nanowire by changing the thickness of the ZB barrier. The energy spacing between the sharp emission lines is uniform and is defined by the addition of single ZB monolayers. The controlled growth of identical quantum wells with atomically flat interfaces at predefined positions featuring digitally tunable discrete emission energies may provide a new route to further advance entangled photons in solid state quantum systems.

  3. Occupational exposure to diesel engine emissions and risk of lung cancer: evidence from two case-control studies in Montreal, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintos, Javier; Parent, Marie-Elise; Richardson, Lesley; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2012-11-01

    To examine the risk of lung cancer among men associated with exposure to diesel engine emissions incurred in a wide range of occupations and industries. 2 population-based lung cancer case-control studies were conducted in Montreal. Study I (1979-1986) comprised 857 cases and 533 population controls; study II (1996-2001) comprised 736 cases and 894 population controls. A detailed job history was obtained, from which we inferred lifetime occupational exposure to 294 agents, including diesel engine emissions. ORs were estimated for each study and in the pooled data set, adjusting for socio-demographic factors, smoking history and selected occupational carcinogens. While it proved impossible to retrospectively estimate absolute exposure concentrations, there were estimates and analyses by relative measures of cumulative exposure. Increased risks of lung cancer were found in both studies. The pooled analysis showed an OR of lung cancer associated with substantial exposure to diesel exhaust of 1.80 (95% CI 1.3 to 2.6). The risk associated with substantial exposure was higher for squamous cell carcinomas (OR 2.09; 95% CI 1.3 to 3.2) than other histological types. Joint effects between diesel exhaust exposure and tobacco smoking are compatible with a multiplicative synergistic effect. Our findings provide further evidence supporting a causal link between diesel engine emissions and risk of lung cancer. The risk is stronger for the development of squamous cell carcinomas than for small cell tumours or adenocarcinomas.

  4. Exhaust gas emissions from various automotive fuels for light-duty vehicles. Effects on health, environment and energy utilization; Avgasemissioner fraan laetta fordon drivna med olika drivmedel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlvik, P.; Brandberg, Aa. [Ecotraffic RandD AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    The main aim of the investigation has been to assess the effects on health and environment from various alternative fuels for light-duty vehicles. Effects that can be identified and quantified, such as acidification, ozone formation, cancer risk and climate change, have been of primary interest but other effects, such as respiratory diseases, have also been investigated. Data have been collected through literature surveys for subsequent calculation of the mentioned effects in different time-frames. Corrections have been used to take into consideration the influence of climate, ageing and driving pattern. Emissions generated in fuel production have also been accounted for. The most significant and important differences between the fuels have been found for effects as ozone formation cancer risk and particulate emissions. Alternative fuels, such as methanol and methane (natural gas and biogas), significantly decrease the ozone formation in comparison to petrol, while ethanol, methanol and methane are advantageous concerning cancer risk. The particulate emissions are considerably higher for diesel engines fuelled by diesel oil and RME in comparison to the other fuels. In the future, the importance of acid emissions in the fuel production will increase since the NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions will decrease from the vehicles. The emissions of climate gases could be significantly reduced by using non-fossil fuels but the efficiency of the drive train is also of importance. The technical development potential for further emission reductions is considerable for all fuels but the advantage for the best fuel options will remain in the future.

  5. In-situ studies on volatile jet exhaust particle emissions - impacts of fuel sulfur content and environmental conditions on nuclei-mode aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, F.; Baumann, R.; Petzold, A.; Busen, R.; Schulte, P.; Fiebig, M. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Brock, C.A. [Denver Univ., CO (United States). Dept. of Engineering

    2000-02-01

    In-situ measurements of ultrafine aerosol particle emissions were performed at cruise altitudes behind the DLR ATTAS research jet (RR M45H M501 engines) and a B737-300 aircraft (CFM56-3B1 engines). Measurements were made 0.15-20 seconds after emission as the source aircraft burned fuel with sulfur contents (FSC) of 2.6, 56 or 118 mg kg{sup -1}. Particle size distributions of from 3 to 60 nm diameter were determined using CN-counters with varying lower size detection limits. Volatile particle concentrations in the aircraft plumes strongly increased as diameter decreased toward the sizes of large molecular clusters, illustrating that apparent particle emissions are extremely sensitive to the smallest particle size detectable by the instrument used. Environmental conditions and plume age alone could influence the number of detected ultrafine (volatile) aerosols within an order of magnitude, as well. The observed volatile particle emissions decreased nonlinearly as FSC decreased to 60 mg kg{sup -1}, reaching minimum values of about 2 x 10{sup 17} kg{sup -1} and 2 x 10{sup 16} kg{sup -1} for particles >3 nm and >5 nm, respectively. Volatile particle emissions did not change significantly as FSCs were further reduced below 60 mg kg{sup -1}. Volatile particle emissions did not differ significantly between the two studied engine types. In contrast, soot particle emissions from the modern CFM56-3B1 engines were 4-5 times less (4 x 10{sup 14} kg{sup -1}) than from the older RR M45H M501 engines (1.8 x 10{sup 15} kg{sup -1}). Contrail processing has been identified as an efficient sink/quenching parameter for ultrafine particles and reduces the remaining interstitial aerosol by factors 2-10 depending on particle size.

  6. [Polar neutral organic compounds (POCN) in city aerosols. 2. Measuring of emissions from domestic fuel and vehicle exhaust and from immission particles in Berlin (West)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriske, H J; Freise, R; Schneider, C; Rüden, H

    1987-10-01

    During April and May 1985, some emission samples from private coal firing (domestic fuel) were taken and were fired with two different kind of coal (bituminous and brown coal). Also, measurements were done under different combustion conditions (low and high concentrations of oxygenium during the combustion process). In June and November 1985, some emission samples from heavy diesel-engines were taken in a special tunnel equipment, at different engine conditions. During September 1985, also suspended particulates in a highway traffic tunnel were taken. All these samples were taken using high volume cascade impactors which give a fractionation of the suspended particulates into different particle sizes, according to their retention behaviour in the human respiratory system. The results of these emission samples and samples in the highway tunnel were compared with prior immission measurements of urban suspended particulates in Berlin-West, during January 1984. The etherextractable organic matter (= EEOM) of the total suspended particulate matter (= TPM) was determined using ultrasonic extraction method. The EEOM was separated into an acidic (= AF), a basic (= BF) and a neutral fraction (= NF) by dissolution in acidic and basic agents. Of the neutral fraction (NF), further separation was done into aliphatic compounds (= AIP), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (= PAH) and polar neutral organic compounds (POCN) by using thin layer chromatography. From the PAH and POCN, single compounds were identified by gas chromatographic analysis with dual capillary collumns and internal standard method. All organic fractions were tested to their mutagenic activity in the Salmonella typhimurium mammalian microsome bioassay by Ames. The following results were gained: the neutral fraction (NF) made the highest part of the EEOM (greater than or equal to 60%) whereas the part of the AF amounted to 10-25% and of the basic fraction (BF) to approximatively 5-20%. Making further separation of

  7. Vehicle exhaust: An overstated cause of haze in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi-Bo; Gao, Pan-Pan; Yang, Wan-Dong; Ni, Hong-Gang

    2018-01-15

    Overall, total exhaust emissions of NOX, VOC and particulate matter (PM) declined, though vehicles in use continued to increase in China. This suggested that contribution of motor vehicle exhaust to haze in China may be exaggerated. A higher frequency of haze episodes in China with lower total emissions fraction from vehicle exhaust compared with those in the USA confirmed that there exists no strict causality between vehicle and haze. No significant correlation (pvehicles to airborne PM2.5 (particulates that are aerodynamic diameter) or car ownerships. All results revealed again that vehicle exhaust is an overstated cause for haze formation in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Survey of Emissions Associated with Enclosed Combustor Emission Control Devices in the Denver-Julesburg Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knighton, W. B.; Floerchinger, C. R.; Wormhoult, J.; Massoli, P.; Fortner, E.; Brooks, B.; Roscioli, J. R.; Bon, D.; Herndon, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play an important role in local and regional air quality. A large source of VOCs comes from the oil and gas industry and the Denver-Julesburg Basin (D-J Basin) has seen a sharp increase in production in recent years primarily due to advances in horizontal drilling techniques. To help curb emissions with extraction and production of natural gas and its associated oil, emission control devices are required for facilities emitting over 6 tons of hydrocarbons per year. Within the ozone non-attainment area, which encompasses Denver and much of the front range, enclosed combustion devices (enclosed flares) are required to reduce hydrocarbon emissions by at least 95%. While certification tests indicate that these enclosed combustor devices provide high destruction removal efficiencies, there is considerable interest in knowing how well they perform in the field. As part of Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) project conducted during the Summer of 2014, the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory (AML) surveyed oil and gas operations within the Wattenberg gas field and the surrounding D-J Basin. The AML deployed a full suite of gas and particle phase instrumentation providing a comprehensive set of on-line, real-time measurements for the major natural gas components (methane and ethane) and their combustion products (CO2, CO, NOx) using a variety of spectroscopic techniques. Additional gas phase organic gas emissions were made using a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). Particle number and composition were determined using a condensation particle counter and an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). A summary of the number of enclosed combustor devices measured and their observed combustion efficiencies will be presented.

  9. Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: Test results of a prototype Fiat 131 NA 2.4 liter automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quayle, S. S.; Davis, M. M.; Walter, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. Two fuels were used, a U.S. no. 2 diesel and a European diesel fuel. The vehicle was tested with retarded timing and with and without an oxidation catalyst. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. It was determined that while the catalyst was generally effective in reducing hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide levels, it was also a factor in increasing particulate emissions. Increased particulate emission rates were particularly evident when the vehicle was operated on the European fuel which has a high sulfur content.

  10. Comparative Study of Different Methods for Soot Sensing and Filter Monitoring in Diesel Exhausts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Feulner

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasingly tighter emission limits for diesel and gasoline engines, especially concerning particulate matter emissions, particulate filters are becoming indispensable devices for exhaust gas after treatment. Thereby, for an efficient engine and filter control strategy and a cost-efficient filter design, reliable technologies to determine the soot load of the filters and to measure particulate matter concentrations in the exhaust gas during vehicle operation are highly needed. In this study, different approaches for soot sensing are compared. Measurements were conducted on a dynamometer diesel engine test bench with a diesel particulate filter (DPF. The DPF was monitored by a relatively new microwave-based approach. Simultaneously, a resistive type soot sensor and a Pegasor soot sensing device as a reference system measured the soot concentration exhaust upstream of the DPF. By changing engine parameters, different engine out soot emission rates were set. It was found that the microwave-based signal may not only indicate directly the filter loading, but by a time derivative, the engine out soot emission rate can be deduced. Furthermore, by integrating the measured particulate mass in the exhaust, the soot load of the filter can be determined. In summary, all systems coincide well within certain boundaries and the filter itself can act as a soot sensor.

  11. Comparative Study of Different Methods for Soot Sensing and Filter Monitoring in Diesel Exhausts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feulner, Markus; Hagen, Gunter; Hottner, Kathrin; Redel, Sabrina; Müller, Andreas; Moos, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Due to increasingly tighter emission limits for diesel and gasoline engines, especially concerning particulate matter emissions, particulate filters are becoming indispensable devices for exhaust gas after treatment. Thereby, for an efficient engine and filter control strategy and a cost-efficient filter design, reliable technologies to determine the soot load of the filters and to measure particulate matter concentrations in the exhaust gas during vehicle operation are highly needed. In this study, different approaches for soot sensing are compared. Measurements were conducted on a dynamometer diesel engine test bench with a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The DPF was monitored by a relatively new microwave-based approach. Simultaneously, a resistive type soot sensor and a Pegasor soot sensing device as a reference system measured the soot concentration exhaust upstream of the DPF. By changing engine parameters, different engine out soot emission rates were set. It was found that the microwave-based signal may not only indicate directly the filter loading, but by a time derivative, the engine out soot emission rate can be deduced. Furthermore, by integrating the measured particulate mass in the exhaust, the soot load of the filter can be determined. In summary, all systems coincide well within certain boundaries and the filter itself can act as a soot sensor. PMID:28218700

  12. Control of inhomogeneous materials strength by method of acoustic emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Носов

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The ambiguous connection between the results of acoustic emission control and the strength of materials makes acoustic-emission diagnosis ineffective and actualizes the problem of strength and metrological heterogeneity. Inhomogeneity is some deviation from a certain norm. The real object is always heterogeneous, homogeneity is an assumption that simplifies the image of the object and the solution of the tasks associated with it. The need to consider heterogeneity is due to the need to clarify a particular task and is a transition to a more complex level of research. Accounting for heterogeneity requires the definition of its type, criterion and method of evaluation. The type of heterogeneity depends on the problem being solved and should be related to the property that determines the function of the real object, the criterion should be informative, and the way of its evaluation is non-destructive. The complexity of predicting the behavior of heterogeneous materials necessitates the modeling of the destructive process that determines the operability, the formulation of the inhomogeneity criterion, the interpretation of the Kaiser effect, as showing inhomogeneity of the phenomenon of non-reproduction of acoustic emission (AE activity upon repeated loading of the examined object.The article gives an example of modeling strength and metrological heterogeneity, analyzes and estimates the informative effect of the Kaiser effect on the danger degree of state of diagnosed object from the positions of the micromechanical model of time dependencies of AE parameters recorded during loading of structural materials and technical objects.

  13. Control of diesel gaseous and particulate emissions with a tube-type wet electrostatic precipitator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiyasitpanich, Phirun; Keener, Tim C; Lu, Mingming; Liang, Fuyan; Khang, Soon-Jai

    2008-10-01

    In this study, experiments were performed with a bench-scale tube-type wet electrostatic precipitator (wESPs) to investigate its effectiveness for the removal of mass- and number-based diesel particulate matter (DPM), hydrocarbons (HCs), carbon monoxide (CO), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from diesel exhaust emissions. The concentration of ozone (O3) present in the exhaust that underwent a nonthermal plasma treatment process inside the wESP was also measured. A nonroad diesel generator operating at varying load conditions was used as a stationary diesel emission source. The DPM mass analysis was conducted by means of isokinetic sampling and the DPM mass concentration was determined by a gravimetric method. An electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) was used to quantify the DPM number concentration. The HC compounds, n-alkanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were collected on a moisture-free quartz filter together with a PUF/XAD/PUF cartridge and extracted in dichloromethane with sonication. Gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectroscopy (MS) was used to determine HC concentrations in the extracted solution. A calibrated gas combustion analyzer (Testo 350) and an O3 analyzer were used for quantifying the inlet and outlet concentrations of CO and NOx (nitric oxide [NO] + nitrogen dioxide [NO2]), and O3 in the diesel exhaust stream. The wESP was capable of removing approximately 67-86% of mass- and number-based DPM at a 100% exhaust volumetric flow rate generated from 0- to 75-kW engine loads. At 75-kW engine load, increasing gas residence time from approximately 0.1 to 0.4 sec led to a significant increase of DPM removal efficiency from approximately 67 to more than 90%. The removal of n-alkanes, 16 PAHs, and CO in the wESP ranged from 31 to 57% and 5 to 38%, respectively. The use of the wESP did not significantly affect NOx concentration in diesel exhaust. The O3 concentration in diesel exhaust was measured to be less than 1 ppm. The main mechanisms

  14. Crystal Phase Quantum Well Emission with Digital Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assali, S.; Laehnemann, J.; Vu, Thi Thu Trang

    2017-01-01

    One of the major challenges in the growth of quantum well and quantum dot heterostructures is the realization of atomically sharp interfaces. Nanowires provide a new opportunity to engineer the band structure as they facilitate the controlled switching of the crystal structure between the zinc...... of both types of charge carriers at the opposite interfaces of the WZ/ZB/WZ structure. This confinement leads to a novel type of transition across a ZB flat plate barrier. Here, we show digital tuning of the visible emission of WZ/ZB/WZ CPQWs in a GaP nanowire by changing the thickness of the ZB barrier...

  15. Method of electron emission control in RF guns

    CERN Document Server

    Khodak, I V

    2001-01-01

    The electron emission control method for a RF gun is considered.According to the main idea of the method,the additional resonance system is created in a cathode region where the RF field strength could be varied using the external pulse equipment. The additional resonance system is composed of a coaxial cavity coupled with a RF gun cylindrical cavity via an axial hole. Computed results of radiofrequency and electrodynamic performances of such a two-cavity system and results of the RF gun model pilot study are presented in. Results of particle dynamics simulation are described.

  16. The pollution from diesel engines - the particulate matter current experiences and future needs; A poluicao gerada por maquinas de combustao interna movidas a diesel - a questao dos particulados. Estrategias atuais para a reducao e controle das emissoes e tendencias futuras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Silvana [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: braun@rdc.puc-rio.br; Appel, Lucia Gorenstin [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Schmal, Martin [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    2004-06-01

    The exhaust emissions of vehicles greatly contribute to environmental pollution. Diesel engines are extremely fuel-efficient. However, the exhaust compounds emitted by diesel engines are both a health hazard and a nuisance to the public. This paper gives an overview of the emission control of particulates from diesel exhaust compounds. The worldwide emission standards are summarized. Possible devices for reducing diesel pollutants are discussed. It is clear that after-treatment devices are necessary. Catalytic converters that collect particulates from diesel exhaust and promote the catalytic burn-off are examined. Finally, recent trends in diesel particulate emission control by novel catalysts are presented. (author)

  17. Exhaustion from prolonged gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Lateef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complaints of fatigue and physical exhaustion are frequently seen in the acute medical setting, especially amongst athletes, army recruits and persons involved in strenuous and exertional physical activities. Stress-induced exhaustion, on the other hand, is less often seen, but can present with very similar symptoms to physical exhaustion. Recently, three patients were seen at the Department of Emergency Medicine, presenting with exhaustion from prolonged involvement in gambling activities. The cases serve to highlight some of the physical consequences of prolonged gambling.

  18. Lightweight Exhaust Manifold and Exhaust Pipe Ducting for Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An improved exhaust system for an internal combustion gasoline-and/or diesel-fueled engine includes an engine exhaust manifold which has been fabricated from carbon- carbon composite materials in operative association with an exhaust pipe ducting which has been fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials. When compared to conventional steel. cast iron. or ceramic-lined iron paris. the use of carbon-carbon composite exhaust-gas manifolds and exhaust pipe ducting reduces the overall weight of the engine. which allows for improved acceleration and fuel efficiency: permits operation at higher temperatures without a loss of strength: reduces the "through-the wall" heat loss, which increases engine cycle and turbocharger efficiency and ensures faster "light-off" of catalytic converters: and, with an optional thermal reactor, reduces emission of major pollutants, i.e. hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

  19. "APEC Blue": Secondary Aerosol Reductions from Emission Controls in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa; Wild, Oliver; Xu, Weiqi; Chen, Chen; Fu, Pingqing; Du, Wei; Zhou, Libo; Zhang, Qi; Han, Tingting; Wang, Qingqing; Pan, Xiaole; Zheng, Haitao; Li, Jie; Guo, Xiaofeng; Liu, Jianguo; Worsnop, Douglas R

    2016-02-18

    China implemented strict emission control measures in Beijing and surrounding regions to ensure good air quality during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit. We conducted synchronous aerosol particle measurements with two aerosol mass spectrometers at different heights on a meteorological tower in urban Beijing to investigate the variations in particulate composition, sources and size distributions in response to emission controls. Our results show consistently large reductions in secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) of 61-67% and 51-57%, and in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) of 55% and 37%, at 260 m and ground level, respectively, during the APEC summit. These changes were mainly caused by large reductions in accumulation mode particles and by suppression of the growth of SIA and SOA by a factor of 2-3, which led to blue sky days during APEC commonly referred to as "APEC Blue". We propose a conceptual framework for the evolution of primary and secondary species and highlight the importance of regional atmospheric transport in the formation of severe pollution episodes in Beijing. Our results indicate that reducing the precursors of secondary aerosol over regional scales is crucial and effective in suppressing the formation of secondary particulates and mitigating PM pollution.

  20. PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF DIMETHYLAMINE VAPORS EMISSION: HERBICIDE PRODUCTION PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorana Arsenijević

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The widely used herbicide, dimethylamine salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D-DMA, is usually prepared by mixing a dimethylamine (DMA aqueous solution with a solid 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D. The vapors of the both, reactants and products, are potentially hazardous for the environment. The contribution of DMA vapors in overall pollution from this process is most significant, concerning vapor pressures data of these pollutants. Therefore, the control of the air pollution in the manufacture and handling of methylamines is very important. Within this paper, the optimal air pollution control system in preparation of 2,4-D-DMA was developed for the pesticides manufacturing industry. This study employed the simple pollution prevention concept to reduce the emission of DMA vapors at the source. The investigations were performed on the pilot plant scale. To reduce the emission of DMA vapors, the effluent gases from the herbicide preparation zone were passed through the packed bed scrubber (water - scrubbing medium, and the catalytic reactor in sequence. The end result is a substantially improved air quality in the working area, as well as in the urbanized areas located near the chemical plant.

  1. Effect of Gasoline Properties on Exhaust Emissions from Tier 2 Light-Duty Vehicles -- Final Report: Phases 4, 5, & 6; July 28, 2008 - July 27, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, K.; Shoffner, B.

    2014-06-01

    This report covers work the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) Office of Automotive Engineering has conducted for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in support of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct). Section 1506 of EPAct requires the EPA to produce an updated fuel effects model representing the 2007 light-duty gasoline fleet, including determination of the emissions impacts of increased renewable fuel use.

  2. Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

    2007-09-07

    Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal

  3. Air Pollutant Emissions Projections for the Cement and Steel Industry in China and the Impact of Emissions Control Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Khanna, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    China’s cement and steel industry accounts for approximately half of the world’s total cement and steel production. These two industries are two of the most energy-intensive and highest carbon dioxide (CO2)-emitting industries and two of the key industrial contributors to air pollution in China. For example, the cement industry is the largest source of particulate matter (PM) emissions in China, accounting for 40 percent of its industrial PM emissions and 27 percent of its total national PM emissions. The Chinese steel industry contributed to approximately 20 percent of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions and 27 percent of PM emissions for all key manufacturing industries in China in 2013. In this study, we analyzed and projected the total PM and SO2 emissions from the Chinese cement and steel industry from 2010–2050 under three different scenarios: a Base Case scenario, an Advanced scenario, and an Advanced EOP (end-of-pipe) scenario. We used bottom-up emissions control technologies data and assumptions to project the emissions. In addition, we conducted an economic analysis to estimate the cost for PM emissions reductions in the Chinese cement industry using EOP control technologies, energy efficiency measures, and product change measures. The results of the emissions projection showed that there is not a substantial difference in PM emissions between the Base Case and Advanced scenarios, for both the cement and steel industries. This is mainly because PM emissions in the cement industry caused mainly by production process and not the fuel use. Since our forecast for the cement production in the Base Case and Advanced scenarios are not too different from each other, this results in only a slight difference in PM emissions forecast for these two scenarios. Also, we assumed a similar share and penetration rate of control technologies from 2010 up to 2050 for these two scenarios for the cement and steel industry. However, the Advanced EOP

  4. 24 CFR 3280.308 - Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formaldehyde emission controls for... Body and Frame Construction Requirements § 3280.308 Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products. (a) Formaldehyde emission levels. All plywood and particleboard materials bonded with a resin...

  5. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Augenstein; Ramin Yazdani; Rick Moore; Michelle Byars; Jeff Kieffer; Professor Morton Barlaz; Rinav Mehta

    2000-02-26

    Controlled landfilling is an approach to manage solid waste landfills, so as to rapidly complete methane generation, while maximizing gas capture and minimizing the usual emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated to more rapid and earlier completion to full potential by improving conditions (principally moisture, but also temperature) to optimize biological processes occurring within the landfill. Gas is contained through use of surface membrane cover. Gas is captured via porous layers, under the cover, operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project has been ongoing under NETL sponsorship for the past several years near Davis, CA. Results have been extremely encouraging. Two major benefits of the technology are reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times, more predictably, than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role both in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions and in US renewable energy. The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with

  6. Reducing Diesel Engine Emission Using Reactivity Controlled Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Hasib Ghazal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several automobile manufacturers are interested in investigating of dual fuel internal combustion engines, due to high efficiencand low emissions. Many alternative fuels have been used in dual fuel mode for IC engine, such as methane, hydrogen, and natural gas. In the present study, a reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI engine using gasoline/diesel (G/D dual fuel has been investigated. The effectof mixing gasoline with diesel fuel on combustion characteristic, engine performance and emissions has been studied. The gasoline was injected in the engine intake port, to produce a homogeneous mixture with air. The diesel fuel was injected directly to the combustion chamber during compression stroke to initiate the combustion process. A direct injection compression ignition engine has been built and simulated using ANSYS Forte professional code. The gasoline amount in the simulation varied from (50%-80% by volume. The diesel fuel was injected to the cylinder in two stages. The model has been validated and calibrated for neat diesel fuel using available data from the literature. The results show that the heat release rate and the cylinder pressure increased when the amount of added gasoline is between 50%-60% volume of the total injected fuels, compared to the neat diesel fuel. Further addition of gasoline will have a contrary effect. In addition, the combustion duration is extended drastically when the gasoline ratio is higher than 60% which results in an incomplete combustion. The NO emission decreased drastically as the gasoline ratio increased. Moreover, addition of gasoline to the mixture increased the engine power, thermal efficienc and combustion efficienc compared to neat diesel fuel.

  7. Hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristiniemi, Heli; Perski, Aleksander; Lyskov, Eugene; Emtner, Margareta

    2014-12-01

    Chronic stress is among the most common diagnoses in Sweden, most commonly in the form of exhaustion syndrome (ICD-10 classification - F43.8). The majority of patients with this syndrome also have disturbed breathing (hyperventilation). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome. Thirty patients with exhaustion syndrome and 14 healthy subjects were evaluated with the Nijmegen Symptom Questionnaire (NQ). The participants completed questionnaires about exhaustion, mental state, sleep disturbance, pain and quality of life. The evaluation was repeated 4 weeks later, after half of the patients and healthy subjects had engaged in a therapy method called 'Grounding', a physical exercise inspired by African dance. The patients reported significantly higher levels of hyperventilation as compared to the healthy subjects. All patients' average score on NQ was 26.57 ± 10.98, while that of the healthy subjects was 15.14 ± 7.89 (t = -3.48, df = 42, p exhaustion (Karolinska Exhaustion Scale KES r = 0.772, p exhaustion scores and scores of depression and anxiety. The conclusion is that hyperventilation is common in exhaustion syndrome patients and that it can be reduced by systematic physical therapy such as Grounding. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic College of Caring Science.

  8. Immune Exhaustion and Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Fueyo, A; Markmann, J F

    2016-07-01

    Exhaustion of lymphocyte function through chronic exposure to a high load of foreign antigen is well established for chronic viral infection and antitumor immunity and has been found to be associated with a distinct molecular program and characteristic cell surface phenotype. Although exhaustion has most commonly been studied in the context of CD8 viral responses, recent studies indicate that chronic antigen exposure may affect B cells, NK cells and CD4 T cells in a parallel manner. Limited information is available regarding the extent of lymphocyte exhaustion development in the transplant setting and its impact on anti-graft alloreactivity. By analogy to the persistence of a foreign virus, the large mass of alloantigen presented by an allograft in chronic residence could provide an ideal setting for exhausting donor-reactive T cells. The extent of T cell exhaustion occurring with various allografts, the kinetics of its development, whether exhaustion is influenced positively or negatively by different immunosuppressants, and the impact of exhaustion on graft survival and tolerance development remains a fertile area for investigation. Harnessing or encouraging the natural processes of exhaustion may provide a novel means to promote graft survival and transplantation tolerance. © Copyright 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  9. Diesel Emissions Control--Sulfer Effects Project (DECSE): Summary of Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-02-01

    This summary describes a government and industry cost-shared project to determine the impact of fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems that could be used to lower emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter.

  10. Preliminary survey report: control technology for formaldehyde emissions at Drexel Heritage Plant 60, Morganton, North Carolina, August 31, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortimer, V.D.

    1983-07-08

    A visit was made to the Drexel Heritage Facility No. 60, Morganton, North Carolina for the purpose of observing the processes and associated controls for veneering wood panels using heated platen presses. Specific concern was expressed about controlling formaldehyde emissions. At this specific site, veneered panels were produced by both the hot press and the radiofrequency (R/F) press methods. A canopy hood exhausted through a duct to a roof fan was installed about 4 feet above the inspection platform of each feed through press. A small canopy hood covers a small mixer on the main floor. Auxiliary fans were placed throughout the facility. A few ceiling vents were noted, but the only makeup air was the filtered air returned from the dust collection system in winter. Each canopy hood captured only part of the emissions which rose from the platform. The volumetric airflow rate was not sufficient to capture vapors much beyond the boundary of the large canopy opening. Partial shift time weighted average formaldehyde concentrations were all less than 0.5 parts per million (ppm), except around the large R/F press where some peak concentrations were 3 ppm. The author concludes that this facility offers a unique opportunity to study the effectiveness of a canopy hood over an unloading platform.

  11. Application of microturbines to control emissions from associated gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Darren D.

    2013-04-16

    A system for controlling the emission of associated gas produced from a reservoir. In an embodiment, the system comprises a gas compressor including a gas inlet in fluid communication with an associated gas source and a gas outlet. The gas compressor adjusts the pressure of the associated gas to produce a pressure-regulated associated gas. In addition, the system comprises a gas cleaner including a gas inlet in fluid communication with the outlet of the gas compressor, a fuel gas outlet, and a waste product outlet. The gas cleaner separates at least a portion of the sulfur and the water from the associated gas to produce a fuel gas. Further, the system comprises a gas turbine including a fuel gas inlet in fluid communication with the fuel gas outlet of the gas cleaner and an air inlet. Still further, the system comprises a choke in fluid communication with the air inlet.

  12. Quality control of positron emission tomography radiopharmaceuticals: An institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Jaya; Vatsa, Rakhee; Garg, Nitasha; Bhusari, Priya; Watts, Ankit; Mittal, Bhagwant R

    2013-10-01

    To study quality control parameters of routinely prepared positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceuticals. Three PET radiopharmaceuticals fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG), N-13 ammonia (N-13 NH3), and Ga-68 DOTATATE (n = 25 each), prepared by standardized protocols were used. The radionuclide purity, radiochemical purity, residual solvents, pH, endotoxins, and sterility of these radiopharmaceuticals were determined. The physical half-life of radionuclide in radiopharmaceuticals, determined by both graphical and formula method, demonstrated purity of radionuclides used. pH of all PET radiopharmaceuticals used was in the range of 5-6.5. No microbial growth was observed in radiopharmaceutical preparations. The residual solvents, chemical impurity, and pyrogens were within the permissible limits. All three PET radiopharmaceuticals were safe for intravenous administration.

  13. A chemometric investigation of aromatic emission profiles from a marine engine in comparison with residential wood combustion and road traffic: Implications for source apportionment inside and outside sulphur emission control areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Hendryk; Stengel, Benjamin; Adam, Thomas; Sklorz, Martin; Streibel, Thorsten; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2017-10-01

    Ship emissions are known to cause severe impacts on human health, but are less restricted than land-based emissions. A regulation to improve air quality in coastal regions and frequented waterways is the limitation of fuel sulphur content to 0.1% in sulphur emission control areas (SECAs), which has caused a switch from heavy fuel oil (HFO) towards diesel-like marine gas oil (MGO) or marine diesel oil (MDO). The fraction of aromatic organic vapours in the exhaust from a marine engine, operating on HFO and MGO, was investigated by resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS). MGO with fuel sulphur content (FSC) below 0.1% and HFO with an average FSC of 2.7% denote representative marine fuels inside and outside SECAs, respectively. The obtained emission spectra were combined with data of previous REMPI-TOFMS studies of combustion engines and wood combustion in statistical analyses to derive marker substances for ship emissions inside and outside SECAs. A diagnostic ratio of C2-naphthalenes to methyl-naphthalenes was found to hold for a good discriminator between ship emissions on the one hand and road traffic and wood combustion on the other hand. Furthermore, random REMPI spectra from all emission sources were mixed with different proportions in a simulation to create a model based on partial least square (PLS) regression for the prediction of ship contribution to aromatic organic vapours. We point out that in particular PAHs with higher degree of alkylation are significant markers for primary ship emissions which may support source apportionment studies inside and outside SECAs to assess the benefits of fuel sulphur content regulation on air quality.

  14. Landfill aeration for emission control before and during landfill mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raga, Roberto; Cossu, Raffaello; Heerenklage, Joern; Pivato, Alberto; Ritzkowski, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The landfill of Modena, in northern Italy, is now crossed by the new high velocity railway line connecting Milan and Bologna. Waste was completely removed from a part of the landfill and a trench for the train line was built. With the aim of facilitating excavation and further disposal of the material extracted, suitable measures were defined. In order to prevent undesired emissions into the excavation area, the aerobic in situ stabilisation by means of the Airflow technology took place before and during the Landfill Mining. Specific project features involved the pneumatic leachate extraction from the aeration wells (to keep the leachate table low inside the landfill and increase the volume of waste available for air migration) and the controlled moisture addition into a limited zone, for a preliminary evaluation of the effects on process enhancement. Waste and leachate were periodically sampled in the landfill during the aeration before the excavation, for quality assessment over time; the evolution of biogas composition in the landfill body and in the extraction system for different plant set-ups during the project was monitored, with specific focus on uncontrolled migration into the excavation area. Waste biological stability significantly increased during the aeration (waste respiration index dropped to 33% of the initial value after six months). Leachate head decreased from 4 to 1.5m; leachate recirculation tests proved the beneficial effects of moisture addition on temperature control, without hampering waste aerobization. Proper management of the aeration plant enabled the minimization of uncontrolled biogas emissions into the excavation area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Power plant emissions reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy

    2015-10-20

    A system for improved emissions performance of a power plant generally includes an exhaust gas recirculation system having an exhaust gas compressor disposed downstream from the combustor, a condensation collection system at least partially disposed upstream from the exhaust gas compressor, and a mixing chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust gas compressor and the condensation collection system, where the mixing chamber is in fluid communication with the combustor.

  16. Particulate Emissions Hazards Associated with Fueling Heat Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2010-01-01

    All hydrocarbon- (HC-) fueled heat engine exhaust (tailpipe) emissions (heat engine emissions hazards, detection at low levels and tracking of emissions, and alternate energy sources for general aviation.

  17. Electron beam technology for multipollutant emissions control from heavy fuel oil-fired boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G; Ostapczuk, Anna; Licki, Janusz

    2010-08-01

    The electron beam treatment technology for purification of exhaust gases from the burning of heavy fuel oil (HFO) mazout with sulfur content approximately 3 wt % was tested at the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology laboratory plant. The parametric study was conducted to determine the sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) removal efficiency as a function of temperature and humidity of irradiated gases, absorbed irradiation dose, and ammonia stoichiometry process parameters. In the test performed under optimal conditions with an irradiation dose of 12.4 kGy, simultaneous removal efficiencies of approximately 98% for SO2, and 80% for NO(x) were recorded. The simultaneous decrease of PAH and one-ringed aromatic hydrocarbon (benzene, toluene, and xylenes [BTX]) concentrations was observed in the irradiated flue gas. Overall removal efficiencies of approximately 42% for PAHs and 86% for BTXs were achieved with an irradiation dose 5.3 kGy. The decomposition ratio of these compounds increased with an increase of absorbed dose. The decrease of PAH and BTX concentrations was followed by the increase of oxygen-containing aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations. The PAH and BTX decomposition process was initialized through the reaction with hydroxyl radicals that formed in the electron beam irradiated flue gas. Their decomposition process is based on similar principles as the primary reaction concerning SO2 and NO(x) removal; that is, free radicals attack organic compound chains or rings, causing volatile organic compound decomposition. Thus, the electron beam flue gas treatment (EBFGT) technology ensures simultaneous removal of acid (SO2 and NO(x)) and organic (PAH and BTX) pollutants from flue gas emitted from burning of HFO. This technology is a multipollutant emission control technology that can be applied for treatment of flue gas emitted from coal-, lignite-, and HFO-fired boilers. Other thermal processes such

  18. Too Exhausted to Perform at the Highest Level? On the Importance of Self-control Strength in Educational Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Chris; Zavery, Alafia; Bertrams, Alex

    2017-01-01

    In order to perform at the highest level in educational settings (e.g., students in testing situations), individuals often have to control their impulses or desires (e.g., to study for an upcoming test or to prepare a course instead of spending time with the peer group). Previous research suggests that the ability to exert self-control is an important predictor of performance and behavior in educational contexts. According to the strength model, all self-control acts are based on one global energy pool whose capacity is assumed to be limited. After having performed a first act of self-control, this resource can become temporarily depleted which negatively affects subsequent self-control. In such a state of ego depletion, individuals tend to display impaired concentration and academic performance, fail to meet academic deadlines, or even disengage from their duties. In this mini-review, we report recent studies on ego depletion which have focused on children as well as adults in educational settings, derive practical implications for how to improve self-control strength in the realm of education and instruction, and discuss limitations regarding the assumptions of the strength model of self-control.

  19. Too Exhausted to Perform at the Highest Level? On the Importance of Self-control Strength in Educational Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Englert

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to perform at the highest level in educational settings (e.g., students in testing situations, individuals often have to control their impulses or desires (e.g., to study for an upcoming test or to prepare a course instead of spending time with the peer group. Previous research suggests that the ability to exert self-control is an important predictor of performance and behavior in educational contexts. According to the strength model, all self-control acts are based on one global energy pool whose capacity is assumed to be limited. After having performed a first act of self-control, this resource can become temporarily depleted which negatively affects subsequent self-control. In such a state of ego depletion, individuals tend to display impaired concentration and academic performance, fail to meet academic deadlines, or even disengage from their duties. In this mini-review, we report recent studies on ego depletion which have focused on children as well as adults in educational settings, derive practical implications for how to improve self-control strength in the realm of education and instruction, and discuss limitations regarding the assumptions of the strength model of self-control.

  20. Quantification and Controls of Wetland Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNicol, Gavin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-10

    Wetlands cover only a small fraction of the Earth’s land surface, but have a disproportionately large influence on global climate. Low oxygen conditions in wetland soils slows down decomposition, leading to net carbon dioxide sequestration over long timescales, while also favoring the production of redox sensitive gases such as nitrous oxide and methane. Freshwater marshes in particular sustain large exchanges of greenhouse gases under temperate or tropical climates and favorable nutrient regimes, yet have rarely been studied, leading to poor constraints on the magnitude of marsh gas sources, and the biogeochemical drivers of flux variability. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California was once a great expanse of tidal and freshwater marshes but underwent drainage for agriculture during the last two centuries. The resulting landscape is unsustainable with extreme rates of land subsidence and oxidation of peat soils lowering the surface elevation of much of the Delta below sea level. Wetland restoration has been proposed as a means to slow further subsidence and rebuild peat however the balance of greenhouse gas exchange in these novel ecosystems is still poorly described. In this dissertation I first explore oxygen availability as a control on the composition and magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions from drained wetland soils. In two separate experiments I quantify both the temporal dynamics of greenhouse gas emission and the kinetic sensitivity of gas production to a wide range of oxygen concentrations. This work demonstrated the very high sensitivity of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide production to oxygen availability, in carbon rich wetland soils. I also found the temporal dynamics of gas production to follow a sequence predicted by thermodynamics and observed spatially in other soil or sediment systems. In the latter part of my dissertation I conduct two field studies to quantify greenhouse gas exchange and understand the carbon sources for

  1. Too Exhausted to Perform at the Highest Level? On the Importance of Self-control Strength in Educational Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Englert; Alafia Zavery; Alex Bertrams

    2017-01-01

    In order to perform at the highest level in educational settings (e.g., students in testing situations), individuals often have to control their impulses or desires (e.g., to study for an upcoming test or to prepare a course instead of spending time with the peer group). Previous research suggests that the ability to exert self-control is an important predictor of performance and behavior in educational contexts. According to the strength model, all self-control acts are based on one global e...

  2. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Pu-Xian

    2013-07-31

    This final report to the Department of Energy (DOE) and National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for DE-EE0000210 covers the period from October 1, 2009 to July 31, 2013. Under this project, DOE awarded UConn about $1,248,242 to conduct the research and development on a new class of 3D composite nanostructure based catalysts for lean NOx emission control. Much of the material presented here has already been submitted to DOE/NETL in quarterly technical reports. In this project, through a scalable solution process, we have successfully fabricated a new class of catalytic reactors, i.e., the composite nanostructure array (nano-array) based catalytic converters. These nanocatalysts, distinct from traditional powder washcoat based catalytic converters, directly integrate monolithic substrates together with nanostructures with well-defined size and shape during the scalable hydrothermal process. The new monolithic nanocatalysts are demonstrated to be able to save raw materials including Pt-group metals and support metal oxides by an order of magnitude, while perform well at various oxidation (e.g., CO oxidation and NO oxidation) and reduction reactions (H{sub 2} reduction of NOx) involved in the lean NOx emissions. The size, shape and arrangement of the composite nanostructures within the monolithic substrates are found to be the key in enabling the drastically reduced materials usage while maintaining the good catalytic reactivity in the enabled devices. The further understanding of the reaction kinetics associated with the unique mass transport and surface chemistry behind is needed for further optimizing the design and fabrication of good nanostructure array based catalytic converters. On the other hand, the high temperature stability, hydrothermal aging stability, as well as S-poisoning resistance have been investigated in this project on the nanocatalysts, which revealed promising results toward good chemical and mechanical robustness, as well as S

  3. Optical sensors for process control and emissions monitoring in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. W. Alendorf; D. K. Ottensen; D. W. Hahn; T. J. Kulp; U. B. Goers

    1999-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has a number of ongoing projects developing optical sensors for industrial environments. Laser-based sensors can be attractive for relatively harsh environments where extractive sampling is difficult, inaccurate, or impractical. Tools developed primarily for laboratory research can often be adapted for the real world and applied to problems far from their original uses. Spectroscopic techniques, appropriately selected, have the potential to impact the bottom line of a number of industries and industrial processes. In this paper the authors discuss three such applications: a laser-based instrument for process control in steelmaking, a laser-induced breakdown method for hazardous metal detection in process streams, and a laser-based imaging sensor for evaluating surface cleanliness. Each has the potential to provide critical, process-related information in a real-time, continuous manner. These sensor techniques encompass process control applications and emissions monitoring for pollution prevention. They also span the range from a field-tested pre-commercial prototype to laboratory instrumentation. Finally, these sensors employ a wide range of sophistication in both the laser source and associated analytical spectroscopy. In the ultimate applications, however, many attributes of the sensors are in common, such as the need for robust operation and hardening for harsh industrial environments.

  4. Methods of Reducing Emissions from Two-stroke low-speed Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela-Elena Mitu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide focus on fuels is generally increasing because of the focus on exhaust gas emissions. General awareness of environmental issues is increasing rapidly. Diesel engine makers were first involved in questions regarding exhaust gas emissions in the field of stationary applications. A study of the exhaust gas emissions from a diesel engine represents a challenge to both the engine designer and to makers of exhaust gas treatment equipment. It is also a valuable tool for reaching a deeper understanding of the engine combustion process. These emissions control technologies, like Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR, will help to reduce pollutants that impact our health and the health of our communities as well as reduce smog creation and other factors that contribute to climate change and global warming.

  5. NK Cell Exhaustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Jiacheng; Tian, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    Natural killer cells are important effector lymphocytes of the innate immune system, playing critical roles in antitumor and anti-infection host defense. Tumor progression or chronic infections, however, usually leads to exhaustion of NK cells, thus limiting the antitumor/infection potential of NK cells. In many tumors or chronic infections, multiple mechanisms might contribute to the exhaustion of NK cells, such as dysregulated NK cell receptors signaling, as well as suppressive effects by regulatory cells or soluble factors within the microenvironment. Better understanding of the characteristics, as well as the underlying mechanisms of NK cell exhaustion, not only should increase our understanding of the basic biology of NK cells but also could reveal novel NK cell-based antitumor/infection targets. Here, we provide an overview of our current knowledge on NK cell exhaustion in tumors, and in chronic infections. PMID:28702032

  6. Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Pico Geerdsen, Lars; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12...... studies for final analysis and interpretation. Twelve studies could be included in the data synthesis. Results: We found clear evidence that the prospect of exhaustion of benefits results in a significantly increased incentive for finding work. Discussion: The theoretical suggestion that the prospect...... of exhaustion of benefits results in an increased incentive for finding work has been confirmed empirically by measures from seven different European countries, the United States, and Canada. The results are robust in the sense that sensitivity analyses evidenced no appreciable changes in the results. We found...

  7. Immune Exhaustion and Transplantation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanchez‐Fueyo, A; Markmann, J. F

    2016-01-01

    Exhaustion of lymphocyte function through chronic exposure to a high load of foreign antigen is well established for chronic viral infection and antitumor immunity and has been found to be associated...

  8. Physical and chemical characterisation of PM emissions from two ships operating in European emission control areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moldanová, J.; Fridell, E.; Winnes, H.; Holmin-Fridell, S.; Boman, J.; Jedynska, A.; Tishkova, V.; Demirdjian, B.; Joulie, S.; Bladt, H.; Ivleva, N.P.; Niessner, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper emission factors (EFs) for particulate matter (PM) and some sub-components as well as gaseous substances were investigated in two onboard measurement campaigns. Emissions from two 4-stroke main engines were measured under stable-load conditions. The impact of varying engine load on the

  9. Non-Exhaust PM10 and Road Dust

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Joacim

    2018-01-01

    Non-exhaust PM10 is an issue in the urban environment linked to health issues. Emissions of non-exhaust PM10 is relatable to pavement properties. Also of importance is resuspension of road dust stored from surfaces. This depends on the traffic and metrological conditions. Given this, the purpose of the thesis was to give an overview limited to Sweden and the Nordic countries regarding non-exhaust PM10 emissions and road dust. The overview includes how particles are related to human health. Al...

  10. Estimates of increased black carbon emissions from electrostatic precipitators during powdered activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Herek L

    2012-07-03

    The behavior of mercury sorbents within electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is not well-understood, despite a decade or more of full-scale testing. Recent laboratory results suggest that powdered activated carbon exhibits somewhat different collection behavior than fly ash in an ESP and particulate filters located at the outlet of ESPs have shown evidence of powdered activated carbon penetration during full-scale tests of sorbent injection for mercury emissions control. The present analysis considers a range of assumed differential ESP collection efficiencies for powdered activated carbon as compared to fly ash. Estimated emission rates of submicrometer powdered activated carbon are compared to estimated emission rates of particulate carbon on submicrometer fly ash, each corresponding to its respective collection efficiency. To the extent that any emitted powdered activated carbon exhibits size and optical characteristics similar to black carbon, such emissions could effectively constitute an increase in black carbon emissions from coal-based stationary power generation. The results reveal that even for the low injection rates associated with chemically impregnated carbons, submicrometer particulate carbon emissions can easily double if the submicrometer fraction of the native fly ash has a low carbon content. Increasing sorbent injection rates, larger collection efficiency differentials as compared to fly ash, and decreasing sorbent particle size all lead to increases in the estimated submicrometer particulate carbon emissions.

  11. Vehicle exhaust gas chemical sensors using acoustic wave resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernosek, R.W.; Small, J.H.; Sawyer, P.S.; Bigbie, J.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anderson, M.T. [3M Industrial and Consumer Sector Research Lab., St. Paul, MN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Under Sandia`s Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program, novel acoustic wave-based sensors were explored for detecting gaseous chemical species in vehicle exhaust streams. The need exists for on-line, real-time monitors to continuously analyze the toxic exhaust gases -- nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrocarbons (HC) -- for determining catalytic converter efficiency, documenting compliance to emission regulations, and optimizing engine performance through feedback control. In this project, the authors adapted existing acoustic wave chemical sensor technology to the high temperature environment and investigated new robust sensor materials for improving gas detection sensitivity and selectivity. This report describes one new sensor that has potential use as an exhaust stream residual hydrocarbon monitor. The sensor consists of a thickness shear mode (TSM) quartz resonator coated with a thin mesoporous silica layer ion-exchanged with palladium ions. When operated at temperatures above 300 C, the high surface area film catalyzes the combustion of the hydrocarbon vapors in the presence of oxygen. The sensor acts as a calorimeter as the exothermic reaction slightly increases the temperature, stressing the sensor surface, and producing a measurable deviation in the resonator frequency. Sensitivities as high as 0.44 (ppm-{Delta}f) and (ppm-gas) have been measured for propylene gas, with minimum detectable signals of < 50 ppm of propylene at 500 C.

  12. New method for control of biological fouling in pipelines based on elevated partial pressures of carbon dioxide or combustion exhaust gases.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.J. Watten; R.E. Sears; R.F. Bumgardner [U.S. Geological Survey - Leetown Science Center, Kearneysville, WV (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea) are major macro fouling species of water conduits used in industrial and power station raw water/condensor systems. Control typically involves manual scraping and use of thermal treatment, deoxygenation or biocides. The costs of control and system damage resulting from fouling in the United States alone have been estimated at $1 billion/year. There is a pressing need for new economical and safe control strategies. Aquatic species in general are intolerant to increases in PCO{sub 2} given its effect on water, blood and hemolymph pH. These species are also sensitive to increases in elevated total dissolved gas pressure. The gas bubble disease that develops following exposure can, as with CO{sub 2} exposure, lead to mortality. We are exploiting this sensitivity by developing a control method based on manipulation of PCO{sub 2} or power plant exhaust gas (CO{sub 2}, 14%; SO{sub 2}, 0.3%), i.e., the supersaturation of hemolymph and tissues with gas followed by an induced (short term) pressure release designed to induce formation of gas emboli. SO{sub 2} present in stack gas acts with CO{sub 2} to reduce water and hemolymph pH so as to reduce required exposure periods. System effluents are degassed, CO{sub 2} recovered and pH adjusted if needed with alkaline reagents. Test results indicate the new process is effective at controlling C. fluminea as well as other target species, including crustaceans and fish. Required exposure periods (LT50) are short and decrease with increasing gas supersaturation levels. Gas recovery and reuse methods developed have reduced gas requirements by 85% making the method attractive economically and environmentally. 40 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  13. 40 CFR 90.413 - Exhaust sample procedure-gaseous components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... percent of the final reading for the dilute exhaust sample. The ADC must store a single value representing... dictates that exhaust emission sample bag analyzer readings below 15 percent of full scale should generally... dilute exhaust sampling only) by the grab (“bag”) technique outlined in paragraph (c) of this section. (e...

  14. Cost-effective control of SO2 emissions in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cofala, J.; Amann, M.; Gyarfas, F.; Schoepp, F.; Boudri, J.C.; Hordijk, L.; Kroeze, C.; Li Junfeng,; Dai Lin, D.; Panwar, T.S.; Gupta, S.

    2004-01-01

    Despite recent efforts to limit the growth of SO2 emissions in Asia, the negative environmental effects of sulphur emissions are likely to further increase in the future. This paper presents an extension of the RAINS-Asia integrated assessment model for acidification in Asia with an optimisation

  15. Energy, Carbon-emission and Financial Savings from Thermostat Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasing, T J [ORNL; Schroeder, Dana [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

    2013-08-01

    Among the easiest approaches to energy, and cost, savings for most people is the adjustment of thermostats to save energy. Here we estimate savings of energy, carbon, and money in the United States of America (USA) that would result from adjusting thermostats in residential and commercial buildings by about half a degree Celsius downward during the heating season and upward during the cooling season. To obtain as small a unit as possible, and therefore the least likely to be noticeable by most people, we selected an adjustment of one degree Fahrenheit (0.56 degree Celsius) which is the gradation used almost exclusively on thermostats in the USA and is the smallest unit of temperature that has been used historically. Heating and/or cooling of interior building space for personal comfort is sometimes referred to as space conditioning, a term we will use for convenience throughout this work without consideration of humidity. Thermostat adjustment, as we use the term here, applies to thermostats that control the indoor temperature, and not to other thermostats such as those on water heaters. We track emissions of carbon only, rather than of carbon dioxide, because carbon atoms change atomic partners as they move through the carbon cycle, from atmosphere to biosphere or ocean and, on longer time scales, through the rock cycle. To convert a mass of carbon to an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide (thereby including the mass of the 2 oxygen atoms in each molecule) simply multiply by 3.67.

  16. Simplified prediction of soot emissions in the exhaust of gas turbines operated at atmospheric pressure; Prediction simplifiee des emissions de suie a la sortie des chambres de combustion des turbines a gaz operees a la pression atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsogo, J. [College de la garde cotiere du Canada, Departement de genie maritime, Sydney (Canada); Kretschmer, D. [Universite Laval, Departement de genie mecanique, Quebec (Canada)

    2010-04-15

    In previous works [1, 2], a correlation for the prediction of soot in gas turbine exhaust has been presented. The development of the correlation is based on 300 of experimental data for a total of 19 fuels burned both at atmospheric and high pressure (0.1 to 0.9 MPa) and two scales (1/2 and 1/3) of a Laval type combustion chamber. With the wide range of fuels burned in the experiment giving a smoke number variation from 0 to 100, the accuracy of the correlation (Standard Deviation of 40%) is acceptable for most purposes Later on the correlation has been improved using data from the full scaled combustion chamber as shown in [3]. A detailed analysis of the correlation is undertaken within the present work for the case of the experiments at atmospheric pressure. The result is a simplification of the correlation presented in [3] without a major deterioration of the standard deviation. This result leads to a simplification of the previous proposed soot formation and oxidation model within gas turbine combustors (operated at atmospheric pressure) and limits the analysis of the phenomenon on essential functional parameters as well. Gas turbines are generally used in aircraft, ships, and in stationary production of electricity, heat and vapor. (author)

  17. Preliminary survey report: control technology for formaldehyde emissions at Baker Furniture Company, Mocksville, North Carolina, September 2, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortimer, V.D.

    1983-07-28

    An on-site visit was made to the Baker Furniture Company, Mocksville, North Carolina to observe the processes and associated controls for veneering wood panels using heated platen presses. The facility manufactured furniture and produced veneered panels. For flat panels, the hot-press process was used exclusively. There was some radiofrequency (RF) laminating of small parts and frames. Less than 5,000 square feet of panels were produced per day. The veneer department consisted of 35 workers, eight assigned to the hot press operation. For most applications, a urea/formaldehyde resin was used as the adhesive. There were canopy hoods over the feed-through press and the shuttle press. General ventilation was provided mainly by open doors and an extensive local exhaust ventilation for controlling sawdust. Formaldehyde concentrations ranging from less than 1 part per million (ppm) to between 1 and 2 ppm were noted around the feed-through press in the morning. Concentrations of 1 to 3 ppm were noted at the glue mixing station, loading platform, and unloading area in the afternoon. The general airflow through the space between the press and face of the canopy appeared to carry some emission into the work place. The author notes that this facility offers the opportunity to study a canopy hood over a feed-through press, but the low production rate may preclude an accurate evaluation of control-system effectiveness.

  18. Environmental consequences of invasive species: greenhouse gas emissions of insecticide use and the role of biological control in reducing emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimpel, George E; Yang, Yi; Hill, Jason D; Ragsdale, David W

    2013-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions associated with pesticide applications against invasive species constitute an environmental cost of species invasions that has remained largely unrecognized. Here we calculate greenhouse gas emissions associated with the invasion of an agricultural pest from Asia to North America. The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, was first discovered in North America in 2000, and has led to a substantial increase in insecticide use in soybeans. We estimate that the manufacture, transport, and application of insecticides against soybean aphid results in approximately 10.6 kg of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent greenhouse gasses being emitted per hectare of soybeans treated. Given the acreage sprayed, this has led to annual emissions of between 6 and 40 million kg of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gasses in the United States since the invasion of soybean aphid, depending on pest population size. Emissions would be higher were it not for the development of a threshold aphid density below which farmers are advised not to spray. Without a threshold, farmers tend to spray preemptively and the threshold allows farmers to take advantage of naturally occurring biological control of the soybean aphid, which can be substantial. We find that adoption of the soybean aphid economic threshold can lead to emission reductions of approximately 300 million kg of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gases per year in the United States. Previous studies have documented that biological control agents such as lady beetles are capable of suppressing aphid densities below this threshold in over half of the soybean acreage in the U.S. Given the acreages involved this suggests that biological control results in annual emission reductions of over 200 million kg of CO2 equivalents. These analyses show how interactions between invasive species and organisms that suppress them can interact to affect greenhouse gas emissions.

  19. Environmental consequences of invasive species: greenhouse gas emissions of insecticide use and the role of biological control in reducing emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E Heimpel

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas emissions associated with pesticide applications against invasive species constitute an environmental cost of species invasions that has remained largely unrecognized. Here we calculate greenhouse gas emissions associated with the invasion of an agricultural pest from Asia to North America. The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, was first discovered in North America in 2000, and has led to a substantial increase in insecticide use in soybeans. We estimate that the manufacture, transport, and application of insecticides against soybean aphid results in approximately 10.6 kg of carbon dioxide (CO2 equivalent greenhouse gasses being emitted per hectare of soybeans treated. Given the acreage sprayed, this has led to annual emissions of between 6 and 40 million kg of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gasses in the United States since the invasion of soybean aphid, depending on pest population size. Emissions would be higher were it not for the development of a threshold aphid density below which farmers are advised not to spray. Without a threshold, farmers tend to spray preemptively and the threshold allows farmers to take advantage of naturally occurring biological control of the soybean aphid, which can be substantial. We find that adoption of the soybean aphid economic threshold can lead to emission reductions of approximately 300 million kg of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gases per year in the United States. Previous studies have documented that biological control agents such as lady beetles are capable of suppressing aphid densities below this threshold in over half of the soybean acreage in the U.S. Given the acreages involved this suggests that biological control results in annual emission reductions of over 200 million kg of CO2 equivalents. These analyses show how interactions between invasive species and organisms that suppress them can interact to affect greenhouse gas emissions.

  20. 40 CFR 63.3555 - How do I determine the outlet THC emissions and add-on control device emission destruction or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I determine the outlet THC.../outlet Concentration Option § 63.3555 How do I determine the outlet THC emissions and add-on control... section to determine either the outlet THC emissions or add-on control device emission destruction or...

  1. Executive control, ERP and pro-inflammatory activity in emotionally exhausted middle-aged employees. Comparison between subclinical burnout and mild to moderate depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Patrick D; Boden, Sylvia; Freude, Gabriele; Potter, Guy G; Claus, Maren; Bröde, Peter; Watzl, Carsten; Getzmann, Stephan; Falkenstein, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Burnout is a syndrome occurring mainly in individuals with long-term stressful work. The main complaints are emotional exhaustion and reduced performance. Burnout also largely overlaps with depression. Both are characterized by increased incidence of infections due to dysregulation of the immune system, overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cognitive deficits, particularly related to executive functions. To distinguish between burnout and depression already at the pre-clinical stage, the present double-blinded study compared immunological and cognitive parameters in seventy-six employees from emotionally demanding occupations who were post-hoc subdivided into two groups scoring low (EE-) and high (EE+) in emotional exhaustion and low (DE-) and high (DE+) in depression. Immunological parameters were measured from blood samples. Executive functions were studied by analyzing event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and performance during a task switching paradigm. Psychosocial job parameters were measured with standardized questionnaires. Burnout and mild to moderate depression largely overlapped. However, several subjects showed burnout without depressive symptoms. Higher levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-12 were correlated with burnout severity and depressive symptoms in male individuals. In the switch task a trend for lower performance in the EE+ vs. EE- group and no difference between DE+ and DE- groups were found. In the ERPs, however, differences were observed which distinguished between subclinical burnout and depression: the terminal contingent negative variation (CNV), indicating preparatory activity and the P3b, related to allocation of cognitive resources were generally reduced in EE+ vs. EE-, whereas no differences were found in the DE+ vs. DE- groups. The frontal P3a was selectively reduced in switch trials in the EE+ vs. EE- group and showed only a trend in DE+ vs. DE-, indicating impairment of executive control in subclinical

  2. Exercise Combined with Rhodiola sacra Supplementation Improves Exercise Capacity and Ameliorates Exhaustive Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage through Enhancement of Mitochondrial Quality Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoshan Dun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence has firmly established that increased exercise capacity (EC is associated with considerable improvements in the survival of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD and that antistress capacity is a prognostic predictor of adverse cardiovascular events in patients with CVD. Previous studies have indicated that aerobic exercise (AE and supplementation with Rhodiola sacra (RS, a natural plant pharmaceutical, improve EC and enable resistance to stress; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study explored the ability of AE and RS, alone or combined, to improve EC and ameliorate exhaustive exercise- (EE- induced stress and elucidate the mechanism involved. We found that AE and RS significantly increased EC in mice and ameliorated EE-induced stress damage in skeletal and cardiac muscles (SCM; furthermore, a synergistic effect was detected for the first time. To our knowledge, the present work is the first to report that AE and RS activate mitophagy, mitochondrial dynamics, and biogenesis in SCM, both in the resting state and after EE. These data indicate that AE and RS synergistically improve EC in mice and protect SCM from EE-induced stress by enhancing mitochondrial quality control, including the activation of mitophagy, mitochondrial dynamics, and biogenesis, both at rest and after EE.

  3. Electrophysiologic Study of Exhaustive Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Babaee Bigi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exhaustive exercise is well known to pose a variety ofhealth hazards, such as sudden cardiac death reported in ultra-marathon runners.Depressed parasympathetic tone is associated with increased risk of suddencardiac death, thus parasympathetic withdrawal in post-exercise phase may be ahigh risk period for sudden death. To date, the effect on cardiacelectrophysiology after exhaustive strenuous exercise has not been described.The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of severe exhaustive exerciseon cardiac electrophysiology.Methods: The subjects in ranger training were invited to participatein this prospective study. The parameters measured consisted of PR interval, QRSduration, and macro T wave alternans as well as corrected QT, QTc dispersion,Tpeak –Tend interval and Tpeak –Tend dispersion.Results: The study group consisted of 40 consecutive male rangers whocompleted training and the control group (22 healthy age and height matched malesubjects. In regard to electrocardiographic criteria, no differences were foundbetween rangers before and after training program. In respect of therepolarization markers, there were no significant differences between therangers before and after training program.

  4. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 6: Emission Control Systems. Student Guide. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, E. Miles

    This student guide is for Unit 6, Emission Control Systems, in the Engine Tune-Up Service portion of the Automotive Mechanics Curriculum. It deals with inspecting, testing, and servicing an emission control system. A companion review exercise book and posttests are available separately as CE 031 221-222. An introduction tells how this unit fits…

  5. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 6: Emission Control Systems. Posttests. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, David T.; May, Theodore R.

    This book of posttests is designed to accompany the Engine Tune-Up Service Student Guide for Unit 6, Emission Control Systems, available separately as CE 031 220. Focus of the posttests is inspecting, testing, and servicing emission control systems. One multiple choice posttest is provided that covers the seven performance objectives contained in…

  6. On-road vehicle emission control in Beijing: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ye; Wang, Renjie; Zhou, Yu; Lin, Bohong; Fu, Lixin; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming

    2011-01-01

    Beijing, the capital of China, has experienced rapid motorization since 1990; a trend that is likely to continue. The growth in vehicles and the corresponding emissions create challenges to improving the urban air quality. In an effort to reduce the impact of vehicle emissions on urban air quality, Beijing has adopted a number of vehicle emission control strategies and policies since the mid 1990 s. These are classified into seven categories: (1) emission control on new vehicles; (2) emission control on in-use vehicles; (3) fuel quality improvements; (4) alternative-fuel and advanced vehicles; (5) economic policies; (6) public transport; and (7) temporal traffic control measures. Many have proven to be successful, such as the Euro emission standards, unleaded gasoline and low sulfur fuel, temporal traffic control measures during the Beijing Olympic Games, etc. Some, however, have been failures, such as the gasoline-to-LPG taxi retrofit program. Thanks to the emission standards for new vehicles as well as other controls, the fleet-average emission rates of CO, HC, NO(X), and PM(10) by each major vehicle category are decreasing over time. For example, gasoline cars decreased fleet-average emission factors by 12.5% for CO, 10.0% for HC, 5.8% for NO(X), and 13.0% for PM(10) annually since 1995, and such a trend is likely to continue. Total emissions for Beijing's vehicle fleet increased from 1995 to 1998. However, they show a clear and steady decrease between 1999 and 2009. In 2009, total emissions of CO, HC, NO(X), and PM(10) were 845,000 t, 121,000 t, 84,000 t, and 3700 t, respectively; with reductions of 47%, 49%, 47%, and 42%, relative to 1998. Beijing has been considered a pioneer in controlling vehicle emissions within China, similar to the role of California to the U.S. The continued rapid growth of vehicles, however, is challenging Beijing's policy-makers.

  7. Two phase exhaust for internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuk, Carl T [Denver, IA

    2011-11-29

    An internal combustion engine having a reciprocating multi cylinder internal combustion engine with multiple valves. At least a pair of exhaust valves are provided and each supply a separate power extraction device. The first exhaust valves connect to a power turbine used to provide additional power to the engine either mechanically or electrically. The flow path from these exhaust valves is smaller in area and volume than a second flow path which is used to deliver products of combustion to a turbocharger turbine. The timing of the exhaust valve events is controlled to produce a higher grade of energy to the power turbine and enhance the ability to extract power from the combustion process.

  8. Control technology for radioactive emissions to the atmosphere at US Department of Energy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, E.B.

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection agency (EPA) on existing technology for the control of radionuclide emissions into the air from US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, and to provide EPA with information on possible additional control technologies that could be used to further reduce these emissions. Included in this report are generic discussions of emission control technologies for particulates, iodine, rare gases, and tritium. Also included are specific discussions of existing emission control technologies at 25 DOE facilities. Potential additional emission control technologies are discussed for 14 of these facilities. The facilities discussed were selected by EPA on the basis of preliminary radiation pathway analyses. 170 references, 131 figures, 104 tables.

  9. Emission of greenhouse gases from controlled incineration of cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Sun, Xiucui; Taniguchi, Miki; Takaoka, Masaki; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Fujiwara, Taku

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emission is a potential limiting factor in livestock farming development. While incineration is one approach to minimize livestock manure, there are concerns about significant levels of nitrogen and organic compounds in manure as potential sources of greenhouse gas emissions (N2O and CH4). In this study, the effects of various incineration conditions, such as the furnace temperature and air ratio on N2O and CH4 formation behaviour, of cattle manure (as a representative livestock manure) were investigated in a pilot rotary kiln furnace. The results revealed that N2O emissions decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing air ratio. In addition, CH4 emissions tended to be high above 800 degrees C at a low air ratio. The emission factors for N2O and CH4 under the general conditions (combustion temperature of 800-850 degrees C and air ratio of 1.4) were determined to be 1.9-6.0% g-N2O-N/g-N and 0.0046-0.26% g-CH4/g-burning object, respectively. The emission factor for CH4 differed slightly from the published values between 0.16 and 0.38% g-CH4/g-burning object. However, the emission factor for N2O was much higher than the currently accepted value of 0.7% g-N2O-N/g-N and, therefore, it is necessary to revise the N2O emission factor for the incineration of livestock manure.

  10. Will Aerosol Hygroscopicity Change with Biodiesel, Renewable Diesel Fuels and Emission Control Technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Diep; Short, Daniel; Karavalakis, Georgios; Durbin, Thomas D; Asa-Awuku, Akua

    2017-02-07

    The use of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels in compression ignition engines and aftertreatment technologies may affect vehicle exhaust emissions. In this study two 2012 light-duty vehicles equipped with direct injection diesel engines, diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) were tested on a chassis dynamometer. One vehicle was tested over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle on seven biodiesel and renewable diesel fuel blends. Both vehicles were exercised over double Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Highway fuel economy test (HWFET) cycles on ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and a soy-based biodiesel blend to investigate the aerosol hygroscopicity during the regeneration of the DPF. Overall, the apparent hygroscopicity of emissions during nonregeneration events is consistently low (κ fuels over the FTP cycle. Aerosol emitted during filter regeneration is significantly more CCN active and hygroscopic; average κ values range from 0.242 to 0.439 and are as high as 0.843. Regardless of fuel, the current classification of "fresh" tailpipe emissions as nonhygroscopic remains true during nonregeneration operation. However, aftertreatment technologies such as DPF, will produce significantly more hygroscopic particles during regeneration. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show a significant enhancement of hygroscopic materials emitted during DPF regeneration of on-road diesel vehicles. As such, the contribution of regeneration emissions from a growing fleet of diesel vehicles will be important.

  11. Neuralfussy multivariable control applied to the control of velocity, power, and exhaust gas temperature of a turbo gas unit; Control neurodifuso multivariable aplicado al control de velocidad, potencia y temperatura de gases de escape de una unidad turbogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura Ozuna, Victor Octavio

    2004-11-15

    The electric power demand in Mexico has forced to the electric sector to be in a constant search of methods and systems that, among other objectives, improve the operation of the generating power stations of electric power continually. As part of their mission, the Electrical Research Institute (IIE) has promoted and leaning the applied research and the technological development to improve the indexes of security, readiness, dependability, efficiency and durability of central generating by means of the development and the installation of big digital systems of information and control. At the present time, inside the scheme of electric power generation, the gas turbine (UTG) represent 7% of the generation of the national electric sector [1]. These units have become the dominant way of the new electric generation in the U.S, either in simple cycle or combined. The above-mentioned, is attributable at less installation cost for generated kilowatt, to the shortest construction programs, at first floor levels of emission of pollutants and competitive operation costs. The control system of the gas turbine is based on conventional control algorithms of the type PI [2]. This control scheme is dedicated for regulation tasks and rejection to interferences, and it doesn't stop pursuit of reference points. The controllers act all on a control valve, that which represents a strong interaction among the same ones, for example an adjustment in the parameters of the algorithm of the digital PI of temperature, it can improve their acting but it can also affect the acting of the speed control or that of power. The gas turbine presents a non lineal behavior and variant in the time, mainly in the starting stage where several important disturbances are presented. At the moment, the controllers used in the scheme of control of the turbines are lineal, which are syntonized for a specific operation point and they are conserved this way by indefinite time. In this thesis the

  12. Pulsed plasma processing for control of diesel engine emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogtlin, G. E.; Freytag, E. K.; Bardsley, J. N.; Wallman, H.

    1993-02-01

    Electrical discharges can be used as an after treatment for diesel exhaust. We are presently involved in research to determine the feasibility of this process. These discharges have been shown to remove nitric oxide, sulfur dioxide, particulates, and many organic compounds. A key issue is the efficiency of this removal since it effects both capital and operating costs. These discharges must be of short duration, less than one microsecond, to avoid energy losses due to heating of bulk gas molecules. The voltage must be kept below the voltage breakdown limit where ion heating creates an arc discharge. The basic process is the acceleration of electrons which then collide with gas molecules to form radicals such as O and OH. These radicals then react with and eliminate pollutants. Two basic electrode geometries are used to generate these discharges. The barrier discharge is when one or both of the electrodes is insulated and the pulse length is limited by charging of the insulator. This discharge must be driven by alternating current to permit alternating charging of the insulator. The other geometry is when one electrode has a peak voltage stress five or more times the average stress. We have been investigating the high stress geometry which uses a small wire inside a pipe. The principal experimental apparatus utilized by this effort uses a closed loop gas system. This system permits the production of various gas combinations prior to testing. Analysis can be conducted during or after these tests. The recirculated gas can be heated up to 400 F. This system can measure the energy used and the pollutant removal to determine efficiency. Our primary goal is the simultaneous removal of nitric oxide and particulates typical of diesel exhaust.

  13. Evaluation of Partial Oxidation Reformer Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unnasch, Stefan; Fable, Scott; Waterland, Larry

    2006-01-06

    In this study, a gasoline fuel processor and an ethanol fuel processor were operated under conditions simulating both startup and normal operation. Emissions were measured before and after the AGB in order to quantify the effectiveness of the burner catalyst in controlling emissions. The emissions sampling system includes CEM for O2, CO2, CO, NOx, and THC. Also, integrated gas samples are collected in evacuated canisters for hydrocarbon speciation analysis via GC. This analysis yields the concentrations of the hydrocarbon species required for the California NMOG calculation. The PM concentration in the anode burner exhaust was measured through the placement of a filter in the exhaust stream. The emissions from vehicles with fully developed on board reformer systems were estimated.

  14. Response of selected plant and insect species to simulated SRM exhaust mixtures and to exhaust components from SRM fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, W. W.

    1980-01-01

    The possible biologic effects of exhaust products from solid rocket motor (SRM) burns associated with the space shuttle are examined. The major components of the exhaust that might have an adverse effect on vegetation, HCl and Al2O3 are studied. Dose response curves for native and cultivated plants and selected insects exposed to simulated exhaust and component chemicals from SRM exhaust are presented. A system for dispensing and monitoring component chemicals of SRM exhaust (HCl and Al2O3) and a system for exposing test plants to simulated SRM exhaust (controlled fuel burns) are described. The effects of HCl, Al2O3, and mixtures of the two on the honeybee, the corn earworm, and the common lacewing and the effects of simulated exhaust on the honeybee are discussed.

  15. Decreasing NOx of a Low-Speed Two-Stroke Marine Diesel Engine by Using In-Cylinder Emission Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Feng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors applied one-dimensional (1-D simulation and 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulation to evaluate the potential of in-cylinder control methods on a low-speed 2-stroke marine engine to reach the International Maritime Organization (IMO Tier 3 NOx emissions standards. Reducing the combustion temperature is an important in-cylinder measure to decrease NOx emissions of marine diesel engines. Miller-cycle and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR are effective methods to reduce the maximum combustion temperature and accordingly decrease NOx emissions. The authors’ calculation results indicate that with a combination of 2-stage turbocharging, a mild Miller-cycle and 10% EGR rate, the NOx emissions can be decreased by 48% without the increased Specific Fuel Oil Consumption (SFOC penalties; with a medium Miller-cycle and 10% EGR, NOx can be decreased by 56% with a slight increase of SFOC; with a medium Miller-cycle and 20% EGR, NOx can be decreased by 77% and meet IMO Tier 3 standards, but with the high price of a considerable increase of SFOC. The first two schemes are promising to meet IMO Tier 3 standards with good fuel economy if other techniques are combined.

  16. Diesel emission control: Catalytic filters for particulate removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Fino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The European diesel engine industry represents a vital sector across the Continent, with more than 2 million direct work positions and a turnover of over 400 billion Euro. Diesel engines provide large paybacks to society since they are extensively used to transport goods, services and people. In recent years increasing attention has been paid to the emissions from diesel engines which, like gasoline engine emissions, include carbon monoxide (CO, hydrocarbons (HC and oxides of nitrogen (NOx. Diesel engines also produce significant levels of particulate matter (PM, which consists mostly of carbonaceous soot and a soluble organic fraction (SOF of hydrocarbons that have condensed on the soot.

  17. Delay-feedback control strategy for reducing CO2 emission of traffic flow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Dong; Zhu, Wen-Xing

    2015-06-01

    To study the signal control strategy for reducing traffic emission theoretically, we first presented a kind of discrete traffic flow model with relative speed term based on traditional coupled map car-following model. In the model, the relative speed difference between two successive running cars is incorporated into following vehicle's acceleration running equation. Then we analyzed its stability condition with discrete control system stability theory. Third, we designed a delay-feedback controller to suppress traffic jam and decrease traffic emission based on modern controller theory. Last, numerical simulations are made to support our theoretical results, including the comparison of models' stability analysis, the influence of model type and signal control on CO2 emissions. The results show that the temporal behavior of our model is superior to other models, and the traffic signal controller has good effect on traffic jam suppression and traffic CO2 emission, which fully supports the theoretical conclusions.

  18. Condensation Dripping Water Detection and Its Control Method from Exhaust Pipe of Gasohol Vehicle under Low Environmental Temperature Conditions: A Case Study in Harbin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangdong Tian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gasohol is one of renewable clean alternative energies, which is widely used around the world. Gasohol had been raised to be used in 9 provinces of China since 2001. However, its closed use was merely promoted in Heilongjiang province since November 1, 2004. Moreover, this issue aroused extensive discussions and controversies. One of them is the condensation dripping water issue from exhaust pipe in cold winter. Does the ethanol cause the road freezing in cold winter? To deal with this issue, taking the Harbin city as a case study, this work designs detection experiments of the condensation dripping water from exhaust pipe. Moreover, the amount of the condensation dripping water from exhaust pipe for gasohol and gasoline vehicles with the same working condition is obtained and measured, and their results are compared and analyzed. Simultaneously, the method of reducing the condensation dripping water is proposed. The results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Revisiting factors controlling methane emissions from high-Arctic tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastepanov, M.; Sigsgaard, C.; Tagesson, T.

    2013-01-01

    The northern latitudes are experiencing disproportionate warming relative to the mid-latitudes, and there is growing concern about feedbacks between this warming and methane production and release from high-latitude soils. Studies of methane emissions carried out in the Arctic, particularly those...

  20. Vital Exhaustion and Coronary Heart Disease Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frestad, Daria; Prescott, Eva

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The construct of vital exhaustion has been identified as a potential independent psychological risk factor for incident and recurrent coronary heart disease (CHD). Despite several decades of research, no systematic review or meta-analysis has previously attempted to collate the empiri......OBJECTIVES: The construct of vital exhaustion has been identified as a potential independent psychological risk factor for incident and recurrent coronary heart disease (CHD). Despite several decades of research, no systematic review or meta-analysis has previously attempted to collate...... the empirical evidence in this field. The purpose of this study was to review and quantify the impact of vital exhaustion on the development and progression of CHD. METHODS: Prospective and case-control studies reporting vital exhaustion at baseline and CHD outcomes at follow-up were derived from PubMed, Psyc...... by two authors. RESULTS: Thirteen prospective (n = 52,636) and three case-control (cases, n = 244; controls, n = 457) studies assessed vital exhaustion and could be summarized in meta-analyses. The pooled adjusted risk of CHD in healthy populations was 1.50 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1...

  1. Investigations of the Impact of Biodiesel Metal Contaminants on Emissions Control Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookshear, Daniel W [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL; Mccormick, Robert [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Toops, Todd J [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel with the potential to displace a portion of petroleum use. However, as with any alternative fuel, in order to be a viable choice it must be compatible with the emissions control devices. The finished biodiesel product can contain up to 5 ppm Na + K and 5 ppm Ca + Mg, and these metal impurities can lead to durability issues with the devices used to control emissions in diesel vehicles. Significant work has been performed to understand how the presence of these metals impacts each individual component of diesel emissions control systems, and this chapter summarizes the findings of these research efforts.

  2. Investigations of the Impact of Biodiesel Metal Contaminants on Emissions Control Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookshear, D. W.; Lance, M. J.; McCormick, Robert L.; Toops, T. J.

    2017-02-27

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel with the potential to displace a portion of petroleum use. However, as with any alternative fuel, in order to be a viable choice it must be compatible with the emissions control devices. The finished biodiesel product can contain up to 5 ppm Na+K and 5 ppm Ca+Mg, and these metal impurities can lead to durability issues with the devices used to control emissions in diesel vehicles. Significant work has been performed to understand how the presence of these metals impacts each individual component of diesel emissions control systems, and this chapter summarizes the findings of these research efforts.

  3. Application of commercial sensor manufacturing methods for NOx/NH3 mixed potential sensors for emissions control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosha, Eric L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, Mark A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sekhar, Praveen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williamson, Todd [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garzon, Fernando H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research effort is to develop a low cost on-board Nitrogen Oxide (NO{sub x})/Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) sensor that can not only be used for emissions control but has the potential to improve efficiency through better monitoring of the combustion process and feedback control in both vehicle and stationary systems. Over the past decade, Los AJamos National Laboratory (LANL) has developed a unique class of electrochemical gas sensors for the detection of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, hydrogen and nitrogen oxides. These sensors are based on the mixed-potential phenomenon and are a modification of the existing automotive lambda (oxygen) sensor and have the potential to meet the stringent sensitivity, selectivity and stability requirements of an on-board emissions/engine control sensor system. The current state of the art LANL technology is based on the stabilization of the electrochemical interfaces and relies on an externally heated, hand-made, tape cast device. We are now poised to apply our patented sensing principles in a mass production sensor platform that is more suitable for real world engine-out testing such as on dynamometers for vehicle applications and for exhaust-out testing in heavy boilers/SCR systems in power plants. In this present work, our goal is to advance towards commercialization of this technology by packaging the unique LANL sensor design in a standard automotive sensor-type platform. This work is being performed with the help of a leading US technical ceramics firm, utilizing commercial manufacturing techniques. Initial tape cast platforms with screen printed metal oxide and Pt sensor electrodes have shown promising results but also clearly show the need for us to optimize the electrode and electrolyte compositions/morphologies and interfaces of these devices in order to demonstrate a sensitive, selective, and stable NO{sub x} sensor. Our previous methods and routes to preparing stable and reproducible mixed potential sensors

  4. Control strategies for nitrous oxide emissions reduction on wastewater treatment plants operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santín, I; Barbu, M; Pedret, C; Vilanova, R

    2017-11-15

    The present paper focused on reducing greenhouse gases emissions in wastewater treatment plants operation by application of suitable control strategies. Specifically, the objective is to reduce nitrous oxide emissions during the nitrification process. Incomplete nitrification in the aerobic tanks can lead to an accumulation of nitrite that triggers the nitrous oxide emissions. In order to avoid the peaks of nitrous oxide emissions, this paper proposes a cascade control configuration by manipulating the dissolved oxygen set-points in the aerobic tanks. This control strategy is combined with ammonia cascade control already applied in the literature. This is performed with the objective to take also into account effluent pollutants and operational costs. In addition, other greenhouse gases emissions sources are also evaluated. Results have been obtained by simulation, using a modified version of Benchmark Simulation Model no. 2, which takes into account greenhouse gases emissions. This is called Benchmark Simulation Model no. 2 Gas. The results show that the proposed control strategies are able to reduce by 29.86% of nitrous oxide emissions compared to the default control strategy, while maintaining a satisfactory trade-off between water quality and costs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Control of Atmospheric Emissions in the Wood Pulping Industry, Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, E. R.; And Others

    Volume 3 contains chapters 9 through 13 of the final report on the control of atmospheric emissions in the wood pulping industry. These chapters deal with the following topics: sampling and analytical techniques; on-going research related to reduction of emissions; research and development recommendations; current industry investment and operating…

  6. Control over emissivity of zero-static-power thermal emitters based on phase changing material GST

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Kaikai; Lyu, Yanbiao; Ding, Jichao; Lu, Yue; Cheng, Zhiyuan; Qiu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Controlling the emissivity of a thermal emitter has attracted growing interest with a view towards a new generation of thermal emission devices. So far, all demonstrations have involved sustained external electric or thermal consumption to maintain a desired emissivity. Here control over the emissivity of a thermal emitter consisting of a phase changing material Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) film on top of a metal film is demonstrated. This thermal emitter shows broad wavelength-selective spectral emissivity in the mid-infrared. The peak emissivity approaches the ideal blackbody maximum and a maximum extinction ratio of above 10dB is attainable by switching GST between the crystalline and amorphous phases. By controlling the intermediate phases, the emissivity can be continuously tuned. This switchable, tunable, wavelength-selective and thermally stable thermal emitter will pave the way towards the ultimate control of thermal emissivity in the field of fundamental science as well as for energy-harvesting and thermal contro...

  7. On two speed optimization problems for ships that sail in and out of emission control areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerholt, Kjetil; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with two speed optimization problems for ships that sail in and out of Emission Control Areas (ECAs) with strict limits on sulfur emissions. For ships crossing in and out of ECAs, such as deep-sea vessels, one of the common options for complying with these limits is to burn heavy...

  8. ADDENDUM TO ASSESSMENT OF STYRENE EMISSION CONTROLS FOR FRP/C AND BOAT BUILDING INDUSTRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is an addendum to a 1996 report, Assessment of Styrene Emission Controls for FRP/C and Boat Building Industries. It presents additional evaluation of the biological treatment of styrene emissions, Dow Chemical Company's Sorbathene solvent vapor recovery system, Occupa...

  9. ASSESSMENT OF STYRENE EMISSION CONTROLS FOR FRP/C AND BOAT BUILDING INDUSTRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an evaluation of several conventional and novel emission control technologies that have been used or could be used to treat styrene emissions from open molding processes in fiberglass-reinforced plastics/composites (FRP/C) and fiberglass boat building ...

  10. Developing a Reference Material for Diffusion-Controlled Formaldehyde Emissions Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions of formaldehyde from building materials can contaminate indoor air and create significant risks to human health. The need to control formaldehyde emissions from indoor materials is made more urgent by the prevailing drive to improve building energy by decreasing ventil...

  11. 76 FR 20598 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Control of Emissions of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... going through http://www.regulations.gov your e-mail address will be automatically captured and included...-21-25 ``Control of VOC emissions from reinforced plastic composites production operations,'' which... regulated by and complying with chapter 3745-76, which regulates non-methane organic emissions from existing...

  12. Development and Application of a Virtual NOx Sensor for Robust Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Emission Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mentink, P.; Seykens, X.; Escobar Valdivieso, D.

    2017-01-01

    To meet future emission targets, it becomes increasingly important to optimize the synergy between engine and aftertreatment system. By using an integrated control approach minimal fluid (fuel and DEF) consumption is targeted within the constraints of emission legislation during real-world

  13. Respiratory Filter Reduces the Cardiovascular Effects Associated With Diesel Exhaust Exposure: A Randomized, Prospective, Double-Blind, Controlled Study of Heart Failure: The FILTER-HF Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Jefferson L; Guimaraes, Guilherme V; de Andre, Paulo A; Cruz, Fátima D; Saldiva, Paulo H Nascimento; Bocchi, Edimar A

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the effects of a respiratory filter intervention (filter) during controlled pollution exposure. Air pollution is considered a risk factor for heart failure (HF) decompensation and mortality. This study was a double-blind, randomized to order, controlled, 3-way crossover, single-center clinical trial. It enrolled 26 patients with HF and 15 control volunteers. Participants were exposed in 3 separate sessions to clean air, unfiltered diesel exhaust exposure (DE), or filtered DE. Endpoints were endothelial function assessed by using the reactive hyperemia index (RHi), arterial stiffness, serum biomarkers, 6-min walking distance, and heart rate variability. In patients with HF, DE was associated with a worsening in RHi from 2.17 (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.8 to 2.5) to 1.72 (IQR: 1.5 to 2.2; p = 0.002) and an increase in B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) from 47.0 pg/ml (IQR: 17.3 to 118.0 pg/ml) to 66.5 pg/ml (IQR: 26.5 to 155.5 pg/ml; p = 0.004). Filtration reduced the particulate concentration (325 ± 31 μg/m(3) vs. 25 ± 6 μg/m(3); p HF, filter was associated with an improvement in RHi from 1.72 (IQR: 1.5 to 2.2) to 2.06 (IQR: 1.5 to 2.6; p = 0.019) and a decrease in BNP from 66.5 pg/ml (IQR: 26.5 to 155.5 pg/ml) to 44.0 pg/ml (IQR: 20.0 to 110.0 pg/ml; p = 0.015) compared with DE. In both groups, DE decreased the 6-min walking distance and arterial stiffness, although filter did not change these responses. DE had no effect on heart rate variability or exercise testing. To our knowledge, this trial is the first to show that a filter can reduce both endothelial dysfunction and BNP increases in patients with HF during DE. Given these potential benefits, the widespread use of filters in patients with HF exposed to traffic-derived air pollution may have beneficial public health effects and reduce the burden of HF. (Effects of Air Pollution Exposure Reduction by Filter Mask on Heart Failure; NCT01960920). Copyright © 2016

  14. Evaluation of Fuel-Borne Sodium Effects on a DOC-DPF-SCR Heavy-Duty Engine Emission Control System: Simulation of Full-Useful Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lance, Michael; Wereszczak, Andrew; Toops, Todd J.; Ancimer, Richard; An, Hongmei; Li, Junhui; Rogoski, Leigh; Sindler, Petr; Williams, Aaron; Ragatz, Adam; McCormick, Robert L.

    2016-04-05

    For renewable fuels to displace petroleum, they must be compatible with emissions control devices. Pure biodiesel contains up to 5 ppm Na + K and 5 ppm Ca + Mg metals, which have the potential to degrade diesel emissions control systems. This study aims to address these concerns, identify deactivation mechanisms, and determine if a lower limit is needed. Accelerated aging of a production exhaust system was conducted on an engine test stand over 1,001 hr using B20 doped with 14 ppm Na. During the study, oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions exceeded the engine certification limit of 0.33 g/bhp-hr before the 435,000-mile requirement. Replacing aged diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) devices with new degreened parts showed that each device contributed equally to the NOx increase. Following this systems-based evaluation, a detailed investigation of the individual components was completed. Na was determined to have minimal impact on DOC activity. For this system, it is estimated that B20-Na resulted in 50% more ash into the DPF. However, the Na did not diffuse into the cordierite DPF nor degrade its mechanical properties. The SCR degradation was found to be caused by a small amount of precious group metals contamination that increased ammonia oxidation, and lowered NOx reduction. Therefore, it was determined that the primary effect of Na in this study is through increased ash in the DPF rather than deactivation of the catalytic activity.

  15. Modeling Nitrous Oxide emissions and identifying emission controlling factors for a spruce forest ecosystem on drained organic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongxing; Kasimir, Åsa; Jansson, Per-Erik; Svensson, Magnus; Meyer, Astrid; Klemedtsson, Leif

    2015-04-01

    High Nitrous Oxide (N2O) emission has been identified in hemiboreal forests on drained organic soils. However, the controlling factors regulating the emissions have been unclear. To examine the importance of different factors on the N2O emission in a spruce forest on drained organic soil, a process-based model, CoupModel, was calibrated by the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) method. The calibrated model reproduced most of the high resolution data (total net radiation, soil temperature, groundwater level, net ecosystem exchange, etc.) very well, as well as accumulated measured N2O emissions, but showed difficulties to capture all the measured emission peaks. Parameter uncertainties could be reduced by combining selected criteria with the measurement data. The model showed the N2O emissions during the summer to be controlled mainly by the competition between plants and microbes while during the winter season snow melt periods are important. The simulated N budget shows >100 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to be in circulation between soil and plants and back again. Each year the peat mineralization adds about 60 kg N ha-1 and atmospheric deposition 12 kg N ha-1. Most of the mineralized litter and peat N is directly taken up by the plants but only a part accumulates in the plant biomass. As long as no timber is harvested the main N loss from the system is through nitrate leaching (30 kg N ha-1 yr-1) and gas emissions (20 kg N ha-1 yr-1), 55% as NO, 27% as N2O and 18% as N2. Regarding N2O gas emissions, our modeling indicates denitrification to be the most responsible process, of the size 6 kg N ha-1 yr-1, which could be compared to 0.04 kg N ha-1 yr-1 from nitrification. Our modelling also reveal 88% of the N2O mainly to be produced by denitrification in the capillary fringe (c.a. 40-60 cm below soil surface) of the anaerobic zone using nitrate produced in the upper more aerobic layers. We conclude N2O production/emission to be controlled mainly by the complex

  16. Relationship between the variations of hydrogen in HCNG fuel and the oxygen in exhausted gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preecha Yaom

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The variation of the mixing ratio between hydrogen and compressed natural gas (CNG in hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas fuel (HCNG gives different results in terms of engine performances, fuel consumption, and emission characteristics. Therefore, the engine performance using HCNG as fuel can be optimized if the mixing ratio between the two fuels in HCNG can be adjusted in real time while the engine is being operated. In this research, the relationship between the amount of oxygen in the exhausted gas and the mixing composition between the hydrogen and CNG in HCNG is investigated based on the equilibrium equation of combustion. It is found that the main factors affecting the amount of oxygen in exhausted gas when using HCNG as fuel include the error from the air-fuel-ratio (AFR control, the error from the HCNG composition control, and the intended change of the HCNG composition. Theoretically, the amount of the oxygen in the exhaust should increase by 0.78% for every 5% addition of H2 at stoichiometric condition. This value can be higher or lower for lean and rich engine operation, respectively. The experimental results found that at the equivalent ratio around 0.8 the amount of O2 in the exhaust gas increases about 1.23% for every 5% H2 addition, which inclines with the proposed calculations.

  17. Health effects of exhaust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihlava, T.; Uuppo, M.; Niemi, S.

    2013-11-01

    This report introduces general information about diesel particles and their health effects. The purpose of this report is to introduce particulate matter pollution and present some recent studies made regarding the health effects of particulate matter. The aim is not to go very deeply into the science, but instead to keep the text understandable for the average layman. Particulate matter is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets. These small particles are made up of a number of components that include for example acids, such as nitrates and sulphates, as well as organic chemicals, metals and dust particles from the soil. Particulate matter comes from several sources, such as transportation emissions, industrial emissions, forest fires, cigarette smoke, volcanic ash and climate variations. Particles are divided into coarse particles with diameters less than 10 ..m, fine particles with diameters smaller than 2.5 ..m and ultra-fine particles with diameters less than 0.1 ..m. The particulate matter in diesel exhaust gas is a highly complex mixture of organic, inorganic, solid, volatile and partly volatile compounds. Many of these particles do not form until they reach the air. Many carcinogenic compounds have been found in diesel exhaust gas and it is considered carcinogenic to humans. Particulate matter can cause several health effects, such as premature death in persons with heart or lung disease, cancer, nonfatal heart attacks, irregular heartbeat, aggravated asthma, decreased lung function and an increase in respiratory symptoms, such as irritation of the airways, coughing or difficulty breathing. It is estimated that in Finland about 1300 people die prematurely due to particles and the economic loss in the EU due to the health effects of particles can be calculated in the billions. Ultra-fine particles are considered to be the most harmful to human health. Ultrafine particles usually make the most of their quantity and surface area

  18. Control and treatment of sulfur oxides emissions; Prevention et traitement des emissions d`oxydes de soufre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The conference on the control and treatment of sulfur oxides emissions has held in Le Havre the 4. and 5. december, 1997. The aim of this conference was to promote the information on the different treatment technologies and to contribute on the one hand to the supporting and revival of the environmental protection and on the other hand to the desulfurization programs. It has allowed to recall too the technical and financial support of the Ademe to the manufacturers. (O.M.)

  19. Electromagnetic Exhaust Valve Event Optimization for Enhancing Gasoline Engine Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xinyu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Variable exhaust valve events have the potential to further improve the engine power output, fuel economy and decrease the NOX emissions. Based on the moving coil electromagnetic valve train applied to engine exhaust system, effects of variable exhaust valve events are analyzed in detail and the optimization approaches are carried out. Also with the fully variable intake and exhaust valve train, different internal EGR strategies can be achieved and the contrastive analyses are carried out between combustion chamber recirculation and exhaust port recirculation strategies at same operational condition. Results show that, the optimal exhaust valve opening motion can strengthen both power performance and fuel economy at engine part loads. And two principal EGR strategies are applied in a good combination under variable engine loads. At the engine speed of 2000 r/min, BMEP is about 0.3 MPa and with 30%~35% exhaust port recirculation rate, the BSFC and NOX emissions have decrease over 10% and 85% respectively compare with initial condition.

  20. Multi-objective optimisation of wastewater treatment plant control to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetapple, Christine; Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David

    2014-05-15

    This study investigates the potential of control strategy optimisation for the reduction of operational greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment in a cost-effective manner, and demonstrates that significant improvements can be realised. A multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, NSGA-II, is used to derive sets of Pareto optimal operational and control parameter values for an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant, with objectives including minimisation of greenhouse gas emissions, operational costs and effluent pollutant concentrations, subject to legislative compliance. Different problem formulations are explored, to identify the most effective approach to emissions reduction, and the sets of optimal solutions enable identification of trade-offs between conflicting objectives. It is found that multi-objective optimisation can facilitate a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions without the need for plant redesign or modification of the control strategy layout, but there are trade-offs to consider: most importantly, if operational costs are not to be increased, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is likely to incur an increase in effluent ammonia and total nitrogen concentrations. Design of control strategies for a high effluent quality and low costs alone is likely to result in an inadvertent increase in greenhouse gas emissions, so it is of key importance that effects on emissions are considered in control strategy development and optimisation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Performance and Durability Assessment of Two Emission Control Technologies Installed on a Legacy High-Speed Marine Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-05

    Performance and Durability Assessment of Two Emission Control Technologies Installed on a Legacy High-Speed Marine Diesel Engine Jonathan DeHart...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Performance and Durability Assessment of Two Emission Control Technologies Installed on a Legacy High-Speed Marine Diesel Engine ... Performance and Durability Assessment of Two Emission Control Technologies Installed on a Legacy Marine Diesel Engine 2 MARINE ENGINE

  2. Investigation of Deposit Formation Mechanisms for Engine In-cylinder Combustion and Exhaust Systems Using Quantitative Analysis and Sustainability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Z.; Meng, Q.; Mohamadian, H. P.; Wang, J. T.; Chen, L.; Zhu, L.

    2007-06-01

    The formation of SI engine combustion deposits is a complex phenomenon which depends on various factors of fuel, oil, additives, and engine. The goal of this study is to examine the effects of operating conditions, gasoline, lubricating oil, and additives on deposit formation. Both an experimental investigation and theoretical analysis are conducted on a single cylinder engine. As a result, the impact of deposits on engine performance and exhaust emissions (HC, NO x ) has been indicated. Using samples from a cylinder head and exhaust pipe as well as switching gases via the dual-gas method (N2, O2), the deposit formation mechanism is thoroughly investigated via the thermogravity analysis approach, where the roles of organic, inorganic, and volatile components of fuel, additives, and oil on deposit formation are identified from thermogravity curves. Sustainable feedback control design is then proposed for potential emission control and performance optimization

  3. Emission control strategies for short-chain chloroparaffins in two semi-hypothetical case cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Revitt, M.; Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten

    2012-01-01

    The short-chain chloroparaffins (SCCP), (C10-13 chloroalkanes) are identified in the European Water Framework Directive, as priority hazardous substances. Within the ScorePP project, the aim is to develop emission control strategies that can be employed to reduce emissions from urban areas into r...... Technologies (BAT) and stormwater/CSO management were the most favorable in reducing emissions into the environment.......The short-chain chloroparaffins (SCCP), (C10-13 chloroalkanes) are identified in the European Water Framework Directive, as priority hazardous substances. Within the ScorePP project, the aim is to develop emission control strategies that can be employed to reduce emissions from urban areas...

  4. Control of mercury emissions from stationary coal combustion sources in China: Current status and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2016-11-01

    Coal burning in power plants and industrial boilers is the largest combustion source of mercury emissions in China. Together, power plants and industrial boilers emit around 250 tonnes of mercury each year, or around half of atmospheric mercury emissions from anthropogenic sources in the country. Power plants in China are generally equipped with multi-pollutant control technologies, which offer the co-benefit of mercury removal, while mercury-specific control technologies have been installed in some facilities. In contrast, most industrial boilers have only basic or no flue gas cleaning. A combination of measures, including energy conservation, coal switching and blending, reducing the mercury contents of coals through washing, combustion controls, and flue gas cleaning, can be used to reduce mercury emissions from these stationary combustion sources. More stringent emission standards for the major air pollutants from coal-fired power plants and industrial boiler, along with standards for the previously unregulated mercury, were implemented recently, which is expected to bring significant reduction in their mercury emissions through the necessary upgrades of multi-pollutant and mercury-specific control technologies. Meanwhile, strong monitoring capacity and strict enforcement are necessary to ensure that the combustion sources operate in compliance with the new emission standards and achieve significant reduction in the emissions of mercury and other air pollutants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Atmospheric emission characteristics and control policies of five precedent-controlled toxic heavy metals from anthropogenic sources in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ke; Wang, Yan; Tian, Hezhong; Gao, Xiang; Zhang, Yongxin; Wu, Xuecheng; Zhu, Chuanyong; Gao, Jiajia

    2015-01-20

    A bottom-up inventory of atmospheric emissions of five precedent-controlled toxic heavy metals (HMs), including mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr), from primary anthropogenic sources in China is established for the period 2000–2010. Total emissions of HMs demonstrate a gradually ascending trend along with the increase of coal consumption and industrial production, which are estimated at approximately 842.22 t for Hg, 4196.31 t for As, 29272.14 t for Pb, 795.29 t for Cd, and 13715.33 t for Cr for 2010. Coal combustion is found to be the primary source of HMs emissions. Owing to the dramatic differences of coal use by industrial and power sectors among provinces, spatial allocation performs remarkably uneven characteristics, and spatial distribution features are demonstrated by allocating the emissions into 0.5° × 0.5° grid cells with GDP and population as surrogate indexes. Further, HMs emissions from specified anthropogenic sources under three different control scenarios for the target year 2015 are projected, and collaborative and specialized control strategies are proposed to meet the demand of emission reduction goals of different regions. In the future, a whole processes control management system will be the most effective way for control of HMs.

  6. Controls of nitrous oxide emission after simulated cattle urine deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Khagendra Raj; Thomsen, Anton Gårde; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    was simulated in paired field plots to accommodate all measurements. One plot had a pre-installed chamber support for N2O flux measurements. Volumetric water content (VWC) was determined in the same position in both sub-plots, i.e., with and without chamber supports. Plant growth was monitored using ratio...... N and VWC it is proposed that nutrient retention and higher salinity in the presence of chamber supports increased water retention. This may have implications for the quantification of N2O emissions from urine patches....

  7. Molecular and cellular insights into T cell exhaustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wherry, E. John; Kurachi, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    In chronic infections and cancer, T cells are exposed to persistent antigen and/or inflammatory signals. This scenario is often associated with the deterioration of T cell function: a state called ‘exhaustion’. Exhausted T cells lose robust effector functions, express multiple inhibitory receptors and are defined by an altered transcriptional programme. T cell exhaustion is often associated with inefficient control of persisting infections and tumours, but revitalization of exhausted T cells can reinvigorate immunity. Here, we review recent advances that provide a clearer molecular understanding of T cell exhaustion and reveal new therapeutic targets for persisting infections and cancer. PMID:26205583

  8. THE CONTROL OF INCIPIENT STATE TREATING TOOL WEAR WITH USAGE OF ACOUSTIC EMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergii Filonenko

    2017-07-01

    one will precede to tool damage, there is a discontinuous of acoustic emission signals amplitudes distribution kurtosis change from stable positive value up to negative value. At the moment of tool disastrous damage the nature of acoustic emission signals amplitudes distribution kurtosis change varies on inverse. Such change of acoustic emission parameters, apparently, is conditioned by originating the processes leading to tool destruction, and, as a consequent, change of treating and treated composite materials conditions interplay. The obtained outcomes have shown that the processing and analysis of regularity of acoustic emission signals amplitudes distribution kurtosis change can be utilized for control of composite materials technological process machining. Thus it is possible to determine and control the moment of processes originating incipient state, which one conduct to destruction of the treating tool.

  9. Single photon emission from site-controlled InGaN/GaN quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lei; Hill, Tyler A.; Deng, Hui, E-mail: dengh@umich.edu [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Teng, Chu-Hsiang; Lee, Leung-Kway; Ku, Pei-Cheng, E-mail: peicheng@umich.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, 1301 Beal Ave., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2013-11-04

    Single photon emission was observed from site-controlled InGaN/GaN quantum dots. The single-photon nature of the emission was verified by the second-order correlation function up to 90 K, the highest temperature to date for site-controlled quantum dots. Micro-photoluminescence study on individual quantum dots showed linearly polarized single exciton emission with a lifetime of a few nanoseconds. The dimensions of these quantum dots were well controlled to the precision of state-of-the-art fabrication technologies, as reflected in the uniformity of their optical properties. The yield of optically active quantum dots was greater than 90%, among which 13%–25% exhibited single photon emission at 10 K.

  10. The longview diesel emission control system : emissions performance of a combined DPF and NOx reduction catalyst system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgar, B.; Streichsbier, M. [Cleaire Advanced Emissions Controls, San Leandro, CA (United States)]|[Cummins Emissions Solutions, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Diesel engines operating in underground mines must be equipped with diesel particulate filters (DPFs) to control particulate matter (PM). Although wall flow filters offer the desired levels of PM/EC control, the use of precious metals as part of the regeneration strategy has an adverse impact on nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) formation. Therefore, the reductions in PM/EC are offset by increases in NO{sub 2}. This study presented a new system that offers the benefits of a passive regeneration system without the disadvantage of high NO{sub 2} formation. The Longview{sup R} system was initially developed for above ground mine facilities concerned with PM and ozone levels. The system combines HC-SCR with catalyzed DPF to reduce nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. HC-SCR refers to active hydrocarbon dosing upstream of a NOx reduction catalyst. This paper presented details of the system design features as well as emission performance test results. The impact of fuel sulfur level on emissions was also investigated at a Cummins test laboratory. The cycle averaged emissions from the Longview system using ULSD were a 40 per cent reduction in NOx; a 50 per cent reduction in NO{sub 2}; nearly a complete removal of CO; and, a 5 per cent increase in CO{sub 2}. It was determined that the system's fuel injection and NOx reduction catalysts play an important role in NO, NO{sub 2} and NOx emissions. The catalyzed PDF plays an important role in CO, HC and PM reductions. The Longview system is currently being tested in underground mining field trials. tabs., figs.

  11. Recent advances in investigations of toxicity of automotive exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupfel, Maurice

    1976-01-01

    The influence of auto exhaust on man's health is difficult to gauge considering the intricacy of human environmental urban stresses and particularly of other air polluting (industrial, domestic) emissions. Epidemiological surveys made in road tunnel employees and in traffic officers have not demonstrated specific effects and have often been complicated by cigarette smoking as a factor. Long-term animal experiments run mostly on small rodents give evidence of little effect of the pathological actions of dilutions such as those encountered in high polluted cities. However the acute toxicity of gasoline exhaust emission is well known and mostly due to carbon monoxide. Considering the different types of cycles and operating conditions of vehicles (gasoline and diesel), auto exhaust gases constitute no more a chemical entity than they show, a definite toxicity. A great number of substances that they contain (nitrogen oxides, aldehydes, antiknock additives, heavy metals, possible catalysts are highly toxic as shown by in vivo and in vitro (mutagenic) tests. Interactions of the components are for the moment ignored or poorly understood. Besides, the evolution of the physicochemical properties and natures of the auto exhaust emission in the gaseous biotope of man under determined conditions of ultraviolet irradiation, temperature, and hygrometry provoke the formation of secondary products such as oxidants and ozone. Several experiments show clearly that irradiation increases the toxicity of auto exhaust significantly. For these reasons, geographical, meteorological, and chronological (circadian and seasonal) factors should be taken into consideration, especially with regard to emission standards. PMID:67944

  12. Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Date Report No. 3: Diesel Fuel Sulfur Effects on Particulate Matter Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

    1999-11-15

    The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This interim report covers the effects of diesel fuel sulfur level on particulate matter emissions for four technologies.

  13. Prototype Variable-Area Exhaust Nozzle Designed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Jun; Song, Gangbring

    2005-01-01

    Ongoing research in NASA Glenn Research Center s Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch to develop smart materials technologies for adaptive aeropropulsion components has resulted in the design of a prototype variable-area exhaust nozzle (see the preceding photograph). The novel design exploits the potential of smart materials to improve the performance of existing fixed-area exhaust nozzles by introducing new capabilities for adaptive shape control, vibration damping, and flow manipulation. The design utilizes two different smart materials: shape memory alloy wires as actuators and magnetorheological fluids as damper locks.

  14. Neural activation in stress-related exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavelin, Hanna Malmberg; Neely, Anna Stigsdotter; Andersson, Micael

    2017-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the association between burnout and neural activation during working memory processing in patients with stress-related exhaustion. Additionally, we investigated the neural effects of cognitive training as part of stress rehabilitation. Fifty......-five patients with clinical diagnosis of exhaustion disorder were administered the n-back task during fMRI scanning at baseline. Ten patients completed a 12-week cognitive training intervention, as an addition to stress rehabilitation. Eleven patients served as a treatment-as-usual control group. At baseline...

  15. Relative impact of emissions controls and meteorology on air pollution mitigation associated with the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuqin; Zhang, Yang; Schauer, James Jay; de Foy, Benjamin; Guo, Bo; Zhang, Yuanxun

    2016-11-15

    The Beijing government and its surrounding provinces implemented a series of measures to ensure haze-free skies during the 22(nd) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference (November 10(th)-11(th), 2014). These measures included restrictions on traffic, construction, and industrial activity. Twelve hour measurements of the concentration and composition of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were performed for 5 consecutive months near the APEC conference site before (September 11(th)-November 2(nd), 2014), during (November 3(rd)-12(th), 2014) and after (November 13(th), 2014-January 31(st), 2015). The measurements are used in a positive matrix factorization model to determine the contributions from seven sources of PM2.5: secondary aerosols, traffic exhaust, industrial emission, road dust, soil dust, biomass burning and residual oil combustion. The source apportionment results are integrated with backward trajectory analysis using Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) meteorological simulations, which determine the relative influence of new regulation and meteorology upon improved air quality during the APEC conference. Data show that controls are very effective, but meteorology must be taken into account to determine the actual influence of the controls on pollution reduction. The industry source control is the most effective for reducing concentrations, followed by secondary aerosol and biomass controls, while the least effective control is for the residual oil combustion source. The largest reductions in concentrations occur when air mass transport is from the west-northwest (Ulanqab). Secondary aerosol and traffic exhaust reductions are most significant for air mass transport from the north-northwest (Xilingele League) origin, and least significant for northeast transport (Chifeng via Tangshan conditions). The largest reductions of soil dust, biomass burning, and industrial source are distinctly seen for Ulanqab conditions and least distinct for

  16. Linking Load, Fuel, and Emission Controls to Photochemical Production of Secondary Organic Aerosol from a Diesel Engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jathar, Shantanu H; Friedman, Beth; Galang, Abril A; Link, Michael F; Brophy, Patrick; Volckens, John; Eluri, Sailaja; Farmer, Delphine K

    2017-02-07

    Diesel engines are important sources of fine particle pollution in urban environments, but their contribution to the atmospheric formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is not well constrained. We investigated direct emissions of primary organic aerosol (POA) and photochemical production of SOA from a diesel engine using an oxidation flow reactor (OFR). In less than a day of simulated atmospheric aging, SOA production exceeded POA emissions by an order of magnitude or more. Efficient combustion at higher engine loads coupled to the removal of SOA precursors and particle emissions by aftertreatment systems reduced POA emission factors by an order of magnitude and SOA production factors by factors of 2-10. The only exception was that the retrofitted aftertreatment did not reduce SOA production at idle loads where exhaust temperatures were low enough to limit removal of SOA precursors in the oxidation catalyst. Use of biodiesel resulted in nearly identical POA and SOA compared to diesel. The effective SOA yield of diesel exhaust was similar to that of unburned diesel fuel. While OFRs can help study the multiday evolution, at low particle concentrations OFRs may not allow for complete gas/particle partitioning and bias the potential of precursors to form SOA.

  17. Integrated emissions control system for residential CWS furnace. Final report, September 20, 1989--March 20, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, R.W.; McLarnon, C.

    1993-03-01

    One of the major obstacles to the successful development and commercialization of a coal-fired residential furnace is the need for a reliable, cost-effective emission control system. Tecogen is developing a novel, integrated control system to control NO{sub x}SO{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. At the heart of this system is a unique emissions control reactor for the control of SO{sub 2}. This reactor provides high sorbent particle residence time within the reactor while doing so in a very compact geometry. Final cleanup of any fine particulates exiting the reactor including respirable-sized particulates, is completed with the use of high efficiency bag filters. Under a previous contract with PETC (Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79650), Tecogen developed a residential-scale Coal Water Slurry (CWS) combustor to control NO{sub x}emission. This combustor makes use of centrifugal forces, set up by a predominantly tangential flow field, to separate and confine larger unburned coal particles in the furnace upper chamber. Various partitions are used to retard the axial, downward flow of these particles, and thus maximize their residence time in the hottest section of the combustor. By operating this combustor under staged conditions, the local stoichiometry in the primary zone can be controlled in such a manner as to minimize NO{sub x} emission.

  18. 46 CFR 63.25-7 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... drum type exhaust gas steam boiler must have a feed water control system. The system must automatically... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 63.25-7 Section 63.25-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS...

  19. A Numerical and Experimental Study of Local Exhaust Capture Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, U.; Breum, N. O.; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    1993-01-01

    Direct capture efficiency of a local exhaust system is defined by introducing an imaginary control box surrounding the contaminant source and the exhaust opening. The imaginary box makes it possible to distinguish between contaminants directly captured and those that escape. Two methods...

  20. The influence of meteorological conditions and stringent emission control on high TSP episodes in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Sema; Incecik, Selahattin; Unal, Yurdanur Sezginer

    2003-01-01

    Istanbul has faced serious air pollution problems since the mid-80s. This is mainly due to particulate air pollution coming from poor quality lignite in areas, which are heavily populated and industrialized. As a consequence of severe air pollution problems, stringent control on the emissions in the city started in the year of 1994. In this work, in order to study the relationship between emissions and meteorological conditions, an assessment of air pollution episodes and air pollution potential in the city is presented for the terms at the changed emission schedule as the influence of an emission reduction strategy. The influence of meteorological conditions on the TSP (total suspended particulates) levels is considered for two consecutive winter periods. On this occasion, the city has faced different TSP levels and episode characteristics depending on stringent emission reductions covering the banned, poor-quality lignite and fuel switching. For this purpose, climatological conditions and air quality analyses were performed.

  1. Evolution of NOx emissions in Europe with focus on road transport control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Reis

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available European emission trends of nitrogen oxides since 1880 and up to present are presented here and are linked to the evolution of road transport emissions. Road transport has been the dominating source of NOx emissions since 1970, and contributes with 40% to the total emissions in 2005. Five trend regimes have been identified between 1880 and 2005. The first regime (1880–1950 is determined by a slow increase in fuel consumption all over Europe. The second regime (1950–1980 is characterized by a continued steep upward trend in liquid fuel use and by the introduction of the first regulations on road traffic emissions. Reduction in fuel consumption determines the emission trends in the third regime (1980–1990 that is also characterized by important differences between Eastern and Western Europe. Emissions from road traffic continue to grow in Western Europe in this period, and it is argued here that the reason for this continued NOx emission increase is related to early inefficient regulations for NOx in the transport sector. The fourth regime (1990–2000 involves a turning point for road traffic emissions, with a general decrease of emissions in Europe during that decade. It is in this period that we can identify the first emission reductions due to technological abatement in Western Europe. In the fifth regime (2000–2005, the economic recovery in Eastern Europe imposes increased emission from road traffic in this area. Western European emissions are on the other hand decoupled from the fuel consumption, and continue to decrease. The implementation of strict measures to control NOx emissions is demonstrated here to be a main reason for the continued Western European emission reductions. The results indicate that even though the effectiveness of European standards is hampered by a slow vehicle turnover, loopholes in the type-approval testing, and an increase in diesel consumption, the effect of such technical abatement measures is traceable

  2. Highly controlled, reproducible measurements of aerosol emissions from combustion of a common African biofuel source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslett, Sophie L.; Thomas, J. Chris; Morgan, William T.; Hadden, Rory; Liu, Dantong; Allan, James D.; Williams, Paul I.; Keita, Sekou; Liousse, Cathy; Coe, Hugh

    2018-01-01

    Particulate emissions from biomass burning can both alter the atmosphere's radiative balance and cause significant harm to human health. However, due to the large effect on emissions caused by even small alterations to the way in which a fuel burns, it is difficult to study particulate production of biomass combustion mechanistically and in a repeatable manner. In order to address this gap, in this study, small wood samples sourced from Côte D'Ivoire in West Africa were burned in a highly controlled laboratory environment. The shape and mass of samples, available airflow and surrounding thermal environment were carefully regulated. Organic aerosol and refractory black carbon emissions were measured in real time using an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer and a Single Particle Soot Photometer, respectively. This methodology produced remarkably repeatable results, allowing aerosol emissions to be mapped directly onto different phases of combustion. Emissions from pyrolysis were visible as a distinct phase before flaming was established. After flaming combustion was initiated, a black-carbon-dominant flame was observed during which very little organic aerosol was produced, followed by a period that was dominated by organic-carbon-producing smouldering combustion, despite the presence of residual flaming. During pyrolysis and smouldering, the two phases producing organic aerosol, distinct mass spectral signatures that correspond to previously reported variations in biofuel emissions measured in the atmosphere are found. Organic aerosol emission factors averaged over an entire combustion event were found to be representative of the time spent in the pyrolysis and smouldering phases, rather than reflecting a coupling between emissions and the mass loss of the sample. Further exploration of aerosol yields from similarly carefully controlled fires and a careful comparison with data from macroscopic fires and real-world emissions will help to deliver greater constraints on the

  3. Emission estimates for some acidifying and greenhouse gases and options for their control in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipatti, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-11-01

    This thesis presents estimates and options for control of anthropogenic ammonia (NH{sub 3}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and some halocarbon emissions in Finland. Ammonia is an air pollutant which contributes to both acidification and nitrogen eutrophication of ecosystems. Its emissions are mainly caused by livestock manure. In Finland the anthropogenic emissions of NH{sub 3} have been estimated to be approximately 44 Gg in 1985 and 43 Gg in 1990. In the 1990`s the emissions have declined due to the reduced number of cattle and voluntary implementation of emission reducing measures. The impact of NH{sub 3} emissions on acidification is serious but in Finland it is less than the impact of the other acidifying gases sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). All three gases and their transformation products are transported by the atmosphere up to distances of hundreds or even more than a thousand kilometres. NH{sub 3} emissions can be reduced with relatively cost-effective measures and the measures can partly replace the implementation of more costly abatement measures on SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions needed to lower the acidifying deposition in Finland. The other gases studied in this thesis are greenhouse gases. Some of the gases also deplete stratospheric ozone. Finnish anthropogenic CH{sub 4} emissions have been estimated to be around 250 Gg per year during the 1990`s. The emissions come mainly from landfills and agricultural sources (enteric fermentation and manure). The significance of other CH{sub 4} sources in Finland is minor. The potential to reduce the Finnish CH{sub 4} emissions is estimated to be good. Landfill gas recovery offers an option to reduce the emissions significantly at negligible cost if the energy produced can be utilised in electricity and/or heat production. Measures directed at reducing the emissions from livestock manure management are more costly, and the achievable reduction in the emissions

  4. Developing a reference material for diffusion-controlled formaldehyde emissions testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhe; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Xiaomin; Cox, Steven S; Little, John C

    2013-11-19

    Formaldehyde, a known human carcinogen and mucous membrane irritant, is emitted from a variety of building materials and indoor furnishings. The drive to improve building energy efficiency by decreasing ventilation rates increases the need to better understand emissions from indoor products and to identify and develop lower emitting materials. To help meet this need, formaldehyde emissions from indoor materials are typically measured using environmental chambers. However, chamber testing results are frequently inconsistent and provide little insight into the mechanisms governing emissions. This research addresses these problems by (1) developing a reference formaldehyde emissions source that can be used to validate chamber testing methods for characterization of dynamic sources of formaldehyde emissions and (2) demonstrating that emissions from finite formaldehyde sources can be predicted using a fundamental mass-transfer model. Formaldehyde mass-transfer mechanisms are elucidated, providing practical approaches for developing diffusion-controlled reference materials that mimic actual sources. The fundamental understanding of emissions mechanisms can be used to improve emissions testing and guide future risk reduction actions.

  5. T-cell exhaustion in allograft rejection and tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Edward B; Stehlik, Christian; Ansari, M Javeed

    2015-02-01

    The role of T-cell exhaustion in the failure of clearance of viral infections and tumors is well established. There are several ongoing trials to reverse T-cell exhaustion for treatment of chronic viral infections and tumors. The mechanisms leading to T-cell exhaustion and its role in transplantation, however, are only beginning to be appreciated and are the focus of the present review. Exhausted T cells exhibit a distinct molecular profile reflecting combinatorial mechanisms involving the interaction of multiple transcription factors important in control of cell metabolism, acquisition of effector function and memory capacity. Change of microenvironmental cues and limiting leukocyte recruitment can modulate T-cell exhaustion. Impaired leukocyte recruitment induces T-cell exhaustion and prevents allograft rejection. Preventing or reversing T-cell exhaustion may lead to prevention of transplant tolerance or triggering of rejection; therefore, caution should be exercised in the use of agents blocking inhibitory receptors for the treatment of chronic viral infections or tumors in transplant recipients. Further definition of the role of T-cell exhaustion in clinical transplantation and an understanding of the mechanisms of induction of T-cell exhaustion are needed to develop strategies for preventing allograft rejection and induction of tolerance.

  6. Modelling global methane emissions from livestock: Biological and nutritional controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Donald E.

    1992-01-01

    The available observations of methane production from the literature have been compiled into a ruminant methane data base. This data base includes 400 treatment mean observations of methane losses from cattle and sheep, and minor numbers of measurements from other species. Methane loss varied from 2.0 to 11.6 percent of dietary gross energy. Measurements included describe the many different weights and physiological states of the animals fed and diets ranging from all forage to all concentrate diets or mixtures. An auxiliary spreadsheet lists approximately 1000 individual animal observations. Many important concepts have emerged from our query and analysis of this data set. The majority of the world's cattle, sheep, and goats under normal husbandry circumstances likely produce methane very close to 6 percent of their daily diets gross energy (2 percent of the diet by weight). Although individual animals or losses from specific dietary research circumstances can vary considerably, the average for the vast majority of groups of ruminant livestock are likely to fall between 5.5 to 6.5 percent. We must caution, however, that little experimental data is available for two-thirds of the world's ruminants in developing countries. Available evidence suggests similar percentage of emissions, but this supposition needs confirmation. More importantly, data is skimpy or unavailable to describe diet consumption, animal weight, and class distribution.

  7. DEMONSTRATION OF AN ADVANCED INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SIMULTANEOUS EMISSIONS REDUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzanne Shea; Randhir Sehgal; Ilga Celmins; Andrew Maxson

    2002-02-01

    The primary objective of the project titled ''Demonstration of an Advanced Integrated Control System for Simultaneous Emissions Reduction'' was to demonstrate at proof-of-concept scale the use of an online software package, the ''Plant Environmental and Cost Optimization System'' (PECOS), to optimize the operation of coal-fired power plants by economically controlling all emissions simultaneously. It combines physical models, neural networks, and fuzzy logic control to provide both optimal least-cost boiler setpoints to the boiler operators in the control room, as well as optimal coal blending recommendations designed to reduce fuel costs and fuel-related derates. The goal of the project was to demonstrate that use of PECOS would enable coal-fired power plants to make more economic use of U.S. coals while reducing emissions.

  8. Experimental validation of concentration profiles in an HCCI engine, modelled by a multi-component kinetic mechanism: Outline for auto-ignition and emission control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machrafi, Hatim, E-mail: hatim-machrafi@enscp.f [UPMC Universite Paris 06, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, 11, rue de Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Universite de Liege, Thermodynamique des Phenomenes Irreversibles, 17, Allee du Six-Aout, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2010-10-15

    In order to contribute to the auto-ignition and emission control for Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), a kinetic multi-component mechanism, containing 62 reactions and 49 species for mixtures of n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene is validated in this work, comparing for the concentration profiles of the fuel, the total hydrocarbons, O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, acetaldehyde and iso-butene. These species are sampled during the combustion and quantified. For these measurements an automotive exhaust analyser, a gas chromatograph, coupled to a mass spectrometer and a flame ionisation detector are used, depending on the species to be measured. The fuel, total hydrocarbons, O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, iso-butene and acetaldehyde showed a satisfactory quantitative agreement between the mechanism and the experiments. Both the experiments and the modelling results showed the same formation behaviour of the different species. An example is shown of how such a validated mechanism can provide for a set of information of the behaviour of the auto-ignition process and the emission control as a function of engine parameters.

  9. Environmental Controls on Wildfire Emission Factors in Alaska during the Summer of 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, E. B.

    2016-12-01

    Boreal forests contain significant reservoirs of organic carbon and are subject to severe wildfires. Boreal fire emissions are important to quantify with respect to climate and ecosystem dynamics, especially within the rapidly changing climate of the Northern Hemisphere. The amount and composition of emissions from fires is highly variable and dependent on environmental conditions such as local weather, soil moisture, and land cover type. Emission factors are regularly used to estimate the composition of fire emissions. We investigated environmental controls on boreal forest fire emission factors in Alaska during the summer of 2015. A high-resolution fire emissions inventory was combined with an atmospheric transport model to estimate fire contribution to trace gas variability at an in-situ observational tower. Periods of high fire influence at the tower were identified, and emission ratios for CO, CO2, and CH4 were calculated for these times. Individual fire contributions to the trace gas signals observed at the tower were isolated utilizing the fire emissions inventory combined with an atmospheric transport model. Environmental conditions including soil moisture, meteorology, land and tree cover, fire type (smoldering vs. flaming), and burn severity were associated with individual fires that contributed to the trace gas signal at the tower. We found that soil moisture derived from the SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) satellite was correlated with burned area and that local daily meteorological variables, including vapor pressure deficit and temperature, explained some of the variance in emission factors. The results from this study may enable improved estimates of boreal fire emissions during a period of rapidly changing environmental conditions.

  10. Impact of the Volkswagen emissions control defeat device on US public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Steven R. H.; Speth, Raymond L.; Eastham, Sebastian D.; Dedoussi, Irene C.; Ashok, Akshay; Malina, Robert; Keith, David W.

    2015-11-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has alleged that Volkswagen Group of America (VW) violated the Clean Air Act (CAA) by developing and installing emissions control system ‘defeat devices’ (software) in model year 2009-2015 vehicles with 2.0 litre diesel engines. VW has admitted the inclusion of defeat devices. On-road emissions testing suggests that in-use NOx emissions for these vehicles are a factor of 10 to 40 above the EPA standard. In this paper we quantify the human health impacts and associated costs of the excess emissions. We propagate uncertainties throughout the analysis. A distribution function for excess emissions is estimated based on available in-use NOx emissions measurements. We then use vehicle sales data and the STEP vehicle fleet model to estimate vehicle distance traveled per year for the fleet. The excess NOx emissions are allocated on a 50 km grid using an EPA estimate of the light duty diesel vehicle NOx emissions distribution. We apply a GEOS-Chem adjoint-based rapid air pollution exposure model to produce estimates of particulate matter and ozone exposure due to the spatially resolved excess NOx emissions. A set of concentration-response functions is applied to estimate mortality and morbidity outcomes. Integrated over the sales period (2008-2015) we estimate that the excess emissions will cause 59 (95% CI: 10 to 150) early deaths in the US. When monetizing premature mortality using EPA-recommended data, we find a social cost of ˜450m over the sales period. For the current fleet, we estimate that a return to compliance for all affected vehicles by the end of 2016 will avert ˜130 early deaths and avoid ˜840m in social costs compared to a counterfactual case without recall.

  11. Ecological effects and environmental fate of solid rocket exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, B.; Stout, I. J.; Mickus, J.; Vickers, D.; Madsen, B.

    1974-01-01

    Specific target processes were classified as to the chemical, chemical-physical, and biological reactions and toxic effects of solid rocket emissions within selected ecosystems at Kennedy Space Center. Exposure of Citris seedlings, English peas, and bush beans to SRM exhaust under laboratory conditions demonstrated reduced growth rates, but at very high concentrations. Field studies of natural plant populations in three diverse ecosystems failed to reveal any structural damage at the concentration levels tested. Background information on elemental composition of selected woody plants from two terrestrial ecosystems is reported. LD sub 50 for a native mouse (peromysous gossypinus) exposed to SRM exhaust was determined to be 50 ppm/g body weight. Results strongly indicate that other components of the SRM exhaust act synergically to enhance the toxic effects of HCl gas when inhaled. A brief summary is given regarding the work on SRM exhaust and its possible impact on hatchability of incubating bird eggs.

  12. 40 CFR 63.3966 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I determine the add-on control... with Add-on Controls Option § 63.3966 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction... add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency as part of the performance test...

  13. Crystal Phase Quantum Well Emission with Digital Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assali, S.; Lähnemann, J.; Vu, TTT; Jöns, K.D.; Gagliano, L; Verheijen, M. A.; Akopian, N.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Haverkort, J. E.M.

    2017-01-01

    One of the major challenges in the growth of quantum well and quantum dot heterostructures is the realization of atomically sharp interfaces. Nanowires provide a new opportunity to engineer the band structure as they facilitate the controlled switching of the crystal structure between the

  14. The challenge to NOx emission control for heavy-duty diesel vehicles in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. He

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available China's new "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" set a target for total NOx emission reduction of 10% for the period of 2011–2015. Heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs have been considered a major contributor to NOx emissions in China. Beijing initiated a comprehensive vehicle test program in 2008. This program included a sub-task for measuring on-road emission profiles of hundreds of HDDVs using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS. The major finding is that neither the on-road distance-specific (g km−1 nor brake-specific (g kWh−1 NOx emission factors for diesel buses and heavy-duty diesel trucks improved in most cases as emission standards became more stringent. For example, the average NOx emission factors for Euro II, Euro III and Euro IV buses are 11.3 ± 3.3 g km−1, 12.5 ± 1.3 g km−1, and 11.8 ± 2.0 g km−1, respectively. No statistically significant difference in NOx emission factors was observed between Euro II and III buses. Even for Euro IV buses equipped with SCR systems, the NOx emission factors are similar to Euro III buses. The data regarding real-time engine performance of Euro IV buses suggest the engine certification cycles did not reflect their real-world operating conditions. These new on-road test results indicate that previous estimates of total NOx emissions for HDDV fleet may be significantly underestimated. The new estimate in total NOx emissions for the Beijing HDDV fleet in 2009 is 37.0 Gg, an increase of 45% compared to the previous study. Further, we estimate that the total NOx emissions for the national HDDV fleet in 2009 are approximately 4.0 Tg, higher by 1.0 Tg (equivalent to 18% of total NOx emissions for vehicle fleet in 2009 than that estimated in the official report. This would also result in 4% increase in estimation of national anthropogenic NOx emissions. More effective control measures (such as promotion of CNG buses and a new in-use compliance testing program are urged to secure the goal of total NOx

  15. Performance evaluation of a biodiesel fuelled transportation engine retrofitted with a non-noble metal catalysed diesel oxidation catalyst for controlling unregulated emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Pravesh Chandra; Gupta, Tarun; Agarwal, Avinash Kumar

    2018-02-15

    In present study, engine exhaust was sampled for measurement and analysis of unregulated emissions from a four cylinder transportation diesel engine using a state-of-the-art FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) emission analyzer. Test fuels used were Karanja biodiesel blend (B20) and baseline mineral diesel. Real-time emission measurements were performed for raw exhaust as well as exhaust sampled downstream of the two in-house prepared non-noble metal based diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) and a baseline commercial DOC based on noble metals. Two prepared non-noble metal based DOCs were based on Co-Ce mixed oxide and Lanthanum based perovskite catalysts. Perovskite based DOC performed superior compared to Co-Ce mixed oxide catalyst based DOC. Commercial noble metal based DOC was found to be the most effective in reducing unregulated hydrocarbon emissions in the engine exhaust, followed by the two in-house prepared non-noble metal based DOCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. An experimental study on the effects of exhaust gas on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautala, E.L.; Holopainen, J.; Kaerenlampi, L. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Surakka, J.; Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Motor vehicle exhausts are significant contributors to air pollution. Besides fine particles and inorganic gases, like CO, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, exhaust gas contains a large group of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, many of which are phytotoxic. In field studies, exhausts are found to have both direct and indirect harmful effects on roadside plants. However, only few experimental studies have been made about the effects of exhaust gas emissions on coniferous trees. The aim of this study was to survey the effects of exhausts on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) in standardized conditions. The concentrations of major exhaust gas components in the chamber atmosphere were detected simultaneously. The effects of exhaust on epistomatal waxes of first-year spruce needles are described. (author)

  17. Power train and emission control: allocation procedure by OBD-II system for automotive technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Porag

    2017-06-01

    OBD-II, systems were designed to maintain low emissions of in use vehicles, including light and medium duty vehicles. In 1989, the California code of Regulations (CCR) known as OBD - II was adopted by the California Air Resource Board (CARB) and the objective to reduce hydrocarbon (HC) emission caused by malfunction of the vehicles emission control systems. OBD-II provides additional information to engineer for diagnosis and repair of emissions related problems. OBD-II, standardizes on the amount of memory (Freeze Frame) it uses to store the readings of the vehicle sensor when it logs on emission related Intermittent Trouble code (IT). The intent of OBD-II, systems is to detect most vehicle malfunctions when performance of a power train component or system deteriorates to the point that the vehicle’s HC emission exceed standard. The vehicle operator is notified at the time when the vehicle begins to marginally exceed emission standards, by illuminating the Malfunctions Indicator Light (MIL).

  18. [Effects of controlled release fertilizers on N2O emission from paddy field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangmin; Fan, Xiaolin; Liu, Fang; Wang, Qiang

    2004-11-01

    With close chamber method, this paper studied the effects of controlled release fertilizer (CRF), non-coated compound fertilizer (Com) and conventional urea (CK) on N2O emission from paddy field. The results showed that within 10 days after transplanting, the ammonium and nitrate concentrations in the surface water of the plot treated with CRF were significantly different from those treated with Com. The partial coefficient between N2O emission rates and corresponding nitrate concentrations in the water was significantly high (r = 0.6834). Compared with Com, CRF was able to reduce N2O emission from the paddy field. Within 100 days after basal application, the N2O emission rate of treatment CRF was only 13.45%-21.26% of Corn and 71.17%-112.47% of CK. The N2O emission of Com was mainly concentrated in 1-25 d after basal fertilization and mid-aeration period, but that of CRF was remarkably lower during same period, while the peak of N2O emission of CK was postponed and reduced. It was concluded that both one-time fertilization of CRF and several-time fertilizations of conventional urea were able to reduce N2O emission from the paddy field.

  19. Chemical and stable carbon isotopic composition of PM2.5 from on-road vehicle emissions in the PRD region and implications for vehicle emission control policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Bi, X.; Chan, L. Y.; He, J.; Wang, B.; Wang, X.; Peng, P.; Sheng, G.; Fu, J.

    2015-03-01

    Vehicle emissions are a major source of urban air pollution. In recent decade, the Chinese government has introduced a range of policies to reduce vehicle emissions. In order to understand the chemical characteristics of PM2.5 from on-road vehicle emissions in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region and to evaluate the effectiveness of control policies on vehicle emissions, the emission factors of PM2.5 mass, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water-soluble inorganic ions (WSII), metal elements, organic compounds and stable carbon isotopic composition were measured in the Zhujiang tunnel of Guangzhou, in the PRD region of China in 2013. Emission factors of PM2.5 mass, OC, EC and WSOC were 92.4, 16.7, 16.4 and 1.31 mg vehicle-1 km-1 respectively. Emission factors of WSII were 0.016 (F-) ~ 4.17 (Cl-) mg vehicle-1 km-1, contributing about 9.8% to the PM2.5 emissions. The sum of 27 measured metal elements accounted for 15.2% of PM2.5 emissions. Fe was the most abundant metal element, with an emission factor of 3.91 mg vehicle-1 km-1. Emission factors of organic compounds including n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, hopanes and steranes were 91.9, 5.02, 32.0 and 7.59 μg vehicle-1 km-1, respectively. Stable carbon isotopic composition δ13C value was -25.0‰ on average. An isotopic fractionation of 3.2‰ was found during fuel combustion. Compared to a previous study in Zhujiang tunnel in 2004, emission factors of PM2.5mass, EC, OC, WSII except Cl- and organic compounds decreased by 16.0 ~ 93.4%, which could be attributed to emission control policy from 2004 to 2013. However, emission factors of most of the metal elements increased significantly, which could be partially attributed to the changes in motor oil additives and vehicle conditions. There are no mandatory national standards to limit metal content from vehicle emissions, which should be a concern of the government. A snapshot of the 2013 characteristic

  20. Chemical and stable carbon isotopic composition of PM2.5 from on-road vehicle emissions in the PRD region and implication for vehicle emission control policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Bi, X.; Chan, L. Y.; He, J.; Wang, B.; Wang, X.; Sheng, G.; Fu, J.

    2014-11-01

    Vehicle emission is a major source of urban air pollution. In recent decade, the Chinese government has introduced a range of policies to reduce the vehicle emission. In order to understand the chemical characteristics of PM2.5 from on-road vehicle emission in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region and to evaluate the effectiveness of control policies on vehicles emission, the emission factors of PM2.5 mass, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water-soluble inorganic ions (WSII), metal elements, organic compounds and stable carbon isotopic composition were measured in the Zhujiang Tunnel of Guangzhou, the PRD region of China in 2013. Emission factors of PM2.5 mass, OC, EC, and WSOC were 92.4, 16.7, 16.4, and 1.31 mg vehicle-1 km-1 respectively. Emission factors of WSII were 0.016 (F-) ~4.17 (Cl-) mg vehicle-1 km-1, totally contributing about 9.8% to the PM2.5 emissions. The sum of 27 measured metal elements accounted for 15.2% of the PM2.5 emissions. Fe was the most abundant metal element, with an emission factor of 3.91 mg vehicle-1 km-1. Emission factors of organic compounds including n-alkanes, PAHs, hopanes, and steranes were 91.9, 5.02, 32.0 and 7.59 μg vehicle-1 km-1, respectively. Stable carbon isotopic composition δ13C value was measured and it was -25.0‰ on average. An isotopic fractionation of 3.2‰ was found during fuel combustion. Compared with a previous study in Zhujiang Tunnel in year 2004, emission factors of PM2.5 mass, EC, OC, WSII except Cl-, and organic compounds decreased by 16.0-93.4%, which could be attributed to emission control policy from 2004 to 2013. However, emission factors of most of the metal elements increased significantly, which could be partially attributed to the changes in motor oil additives and vehicle condition. There are no mandatory national standards to limit metal content from vehicle emission, which should be a concern of the government. A snapshot of the 2013 characteristic