WorldWideScience

Sample records for exfoliated urinary bladder

  1. Detection of multiple mutations in urinary exfoliated cells from male bladder cancer patients at diagnosis and during follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critelli, Rossana; Fasanelli, Francesca; Oderda, Marco; Polidoro, Silvia; Assumma, Manuela Bianca; Viberti, Clara; Preto, Mirko; Gontero, Paolo; Cucchiarale, Giuseppina; Lurkin, Irene; Zwarthoff, Ellen C; Vineis, Paolo; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Matullo, Giuseppe; Naccarati, Alessio

    2016-10-11

    Most bladder cancer (BC) patients need life-long, invasive and expensive monitoring and treatment, making it a serious burden on the health system. Thus, there is a pressing need for an accurate test to assist diagnosis and surveillance of BC as an alternative to cystoscopy. Mutations in human TERT, FGFR3, PIK3CA, and RAS genes have been proposed as potential molecular markers in bladder tumor. Their concomitant presence in urine samples has not been fully explored.We investigated a panel of mutations in DNA from exfoliated urinary cells of 255 BC patients at diagnosis. Forty-one mutations in TERT, FGFR3, PIK3CA, and RAS were analyzed by SNaPshot assay in relation to clinical outcome. In 81 of these patients under surveillance, the same set of mutations was screened in additional 324 samples prospectively collected.The most common mutations detected in urine at diagnosis were in the TERT promoter. In non-invasive BC, these mutations were related to high risk and grade (pFGFR3 mutations were observed in low-grade BC (p=0.02) and patients with recurrences (p=0.05). Stronger associations were observed for combined TERT and FGFR3 mutations and number of recurrences (OR: 4.54 95% CI: 1.23-16.79, p=0.02). Analyses of the area under the curve for combinations of mutations detected at diagnosis and follow-up showed an accuracy of prediction of recurrence of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.71-0.89).Mutations in urine of BC patients may represent reliable biomarkers. In particular, TERT and FGFR3 mutations have a good accuracy of recurrence prediction.

  2. Detection of multiple mutations in urinary exfoliated cells from male bladder cancer patients at diagnosis and during follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Critelli (Rossana); Fasanelli, F. (Francesca); Oderda, M. (Marco); S. Polidoro (Silvia); Assumma, M.B. (Manuela Bianca); Viberti, C. (Clara); Preto, M. (Mirko); P. Gontero (Paolo); Cucchiarale, G. (Giuseppina); I. Lurkin (Irene); E.C. Zwarthoff (Ellen); P. Vineis (Paolo); C. Sacerdote (Carlotta); G. Matullo; Naccarati, A. (Alessio)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMost bladder cancer (BC) patients need life-long, invasive and expensive monitoring and treatment, making it a serious burden on the health system. Thus, there is a pressing need for an accurate test to assist diagnosis and surveillance of BC as an alternative to cystoscopy. Mutations in

  3. Paraganglioma of urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Priyadarshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraganglioma of the urinary bladder are tumors of chromaffin tissue originating from the sympathetic innervations of the urinary bladder wall and are extremely rare. Being functional, in most of the cases they are recognized by their characteristic presentation of hypertensive crisis and postmicturition syncope. A silent presentation of a bladder paraganglioma is very unusual but quite dangerous as they are easily misdiagnosed and adequate peri-operative attention is not provided. Here, we are presenting one such silent paraganglioma in adult women who presented with only a single episode of hematuria and severe hypertensive crisis occur during its trans-urethral resection.

  4. [Melanosis of the urinary bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöllner, J; Janzen, J; Pannek, J

    2016-01-01

    Melanosis of the bladder is rare. Only 10 cases have been described in the literature. We present the case of an 80-year-old woman with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction due to spinal paralysis. During the diagnostic work-up which included cystoscopy, black spots in the bladder wall were observed. Histopathological evaluation revealed a benign suburothelial melanosis. Thus, with cystoscopic suspicion of a malignancy (melanoma), a biopsy is mandatory and regular cystoscopic follow-up is recommended.

  5. Mullerianosis of the Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjini Kudva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mullerianosis of the urinary bladder is a rare and morphologically complex tumor-like lesion, composed of several types of mullerian lesions like endometriosis, endocervicosis, and endosalpingiosis. This disease occurs in women of reproductive age group. Implantative and metaplastic origins have been suggested in the pathogenesis.

  6. Modifying factors in urinary bladder carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Nobuyuki; Fukushima, Shoji; Shirai, Tomoyuki; Nakanishi, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Ryohei; Imaida, Katsumi

    1983-01-01

    N-Butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) is a potent carcinogen in the urinary bladder of animals. The BBN model of bladder cancer is an excellent model of human urinary bladder cancer and has already led to a greater knowledge of its pathogenesis. In our studies, histogenesis and morphological characteristics of BBN urinary bladder cancer were analyzed in different animal species such as rats, mice, hamsters and guinea pigs and also in different rat strains. Papillary or nodular hyperplas...

  7. Epitheloid hemangioendothelioma of urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narmada P Gupta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Epitheloid hemangioendothelioma is an uncommon vascular neoplasm and has an unpredictable clinical behavior. It is characterized by round or spindle-shaped endothelial cells with cytoplasmic vacuolation. Most often, epitheloid hemangioendothelioma arise from the soft tissues of the upper and lower extremities and it has borderline malignant potential. We describe the first reported case of epitheloid hemangioendothelioma in the urinary bladder, which was treated by transurethral resection. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry.

  8. Modifying factors in urinary bladder carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Nobuyuki; Fukushima, Shoji; Shirai, Tomoyuki; Nakanishi, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Ryohei; Imaida, Katsumi

    1983-01-01

    N-Butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) is a potent carcinogen in the urinary bladder of animals. The BBN model of bladder cancer is an excellent model of human urinary bladder cancer and has already led to a greater knowledge of its pathogenesis. In our studies, histogenesis and morphological characteristics of BBN urinary bladder cancer were analyzed in different animal species such as rats, mice, hamsters and guinea pigs and also in different rat strains. Papillary or nodular hyperplasia (PN hyperplasia) is found to be a preneoplastic lesion of the rat urinary bladder. Therefore, the promoting and inhibitory effects of various chemicals in two-stage urinary bladder carcinogenesis were judged by measuring PN hyperplasia in rats. Dose-dependent and organ-specific effects of the urinary bladder promoter, saccharin, in the induction of PN hyperplasia were shown in rats after initiation by BBN. The promoting effect of saccharin was seen more clearly in the urinary bladder of rats after potent initiation. A strain difference in susceptibility of the urinary bladder to the promoter was also shown. These results suggest that the above various factors may also have modifying activities on urinary bladder carcinogenesis in man. PMID:6832095

  9. [Surgical treatment of urinary bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatkin, N A; Martov, A G; Darenkov, S P; Kamalov, A A; Kudriavtsev, Iu V

    1999-01-01

    Ultrasonic transabdominal and transrectal investigations, computed tomography, endoscopic photodynamic studies, polyfocal biopsy of the urinary bladder were used in examination of 1238 patients which were diagnosed to have urinary bladder cancer. 894 patients underwent transurethral resection of the bladder. Morphologically, cancer of the urinary bladder has an inductory effect on intact parts of the bladder mucosa. This means that even most radical resection does not eliminate grounds for a new tumor growth. Radical cystectomy was performed in diffuse papillomatosis, multiple stage T2 tumors of high-grade malignancy, tumors at stage T3, T4, Nx, MO, in rapid recurrent tumors after conservative or operative treatment.

  10. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Elsa; Pereira, José; Corbusier, Florence; Demeter, Pieter; Bali, Maria Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of an inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder in a 31 year-old woman. She presented at the emergency room with low abdominal pain and urinary symptoms. Abdominal ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were performed and revealed asymmetric thickening of the urinary bladder wall. Cystoscopy with urinary cytology revealed a benign nature of the process. The patient underwent partial cystectomy and the pathologic examination of the specimen revealed an inflammatory pseudotumor. We reviewed the clinical, imaging and pathological features of the inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder and discussed its differential diagnosis.

  11. [Urodynamics of artificial urinary bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiakov, B K; Fadeev, V A; Novikov, A I; Zuban', O N; Atmadzhev, D N; Sergeev, A V; Kirichenko, O A; Burlaka, O O

    2006-01-01

    Radical cystectomy with creation of orthotopic reservoir from various segments of gastrointestinal tract was made in 120 patients (99 males, 21 females, age 37-74 years) with muscular-invasive cancer of the urinary bladder (UB) in 1996-2004. Replacement of UB was made according to the Studer and Hautmann method in 38 and 27 patients, respectively. S-cystoplasty was performed in 31 patients. The gastric segment was used for creation of the reservoir in 24 patients. Three patients died. Three to twelve month follow-up recorded the best functional results in patients after Studer cystoplasty.

  12. Lymphoma of the Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lymphoma of the urinary bladder (LUB is rare. Aims. To review the literature on LUB. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results. LUB can be either primary or secondary. The tumour has female predominance; most cases occur in middle-age women. Secondary LUB occurs in 10% to 25% of leukemias/lymphomas and in advanced-stage systemic lymphoma. Less than 100 cases have been reported. MALT typically affects adults older than 60 years; 75% are female. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is also common and may arise from transformation of MALT. LUB presents with haematuria, dysuria, urinary frequency, nocturia, and abdominal or back pain. Macroscopic examination of LUBs show large discrete tumours centred in the dome or lateral walls of the bladder. Positive staining of LUB varies by the subtype of lymphoma; B-cell lymphomas are CD20 positive. MALT lymphoma is positively stained for CD20, CD19, and FMC7 and negatively stained for CD5, CD10, and CD11c. LUB stains negatively with Pan-keratin, vimentin, CK20, and CK7. MALT lymphoma exhibits t(11; 18(q21: 21. Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the MALT type of LUB with no recurrence. Conclusions. LUB is diagnosed by its characteristic morphology and immunohistochemical characteristics. Radiotherapy is a useful treatment.

  13. Lymphoma of the Urinary Bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey

    2014-01-01

    Background. Lymphoma of the urinary bladder (LUB) is rare. Aims. To review the literature on LUB. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results. LUB can be either primary or secondary. The tumour has female predominance; most cases occur in middle-age women. Secondary LUB occurs in 10% to 25% of leukemias/lymphomas and in advanced-stage systemic lymphoma. Less than 100 cases have been reported. MALT typically affects adults older than 60 years; 75% are female. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is also common and may arise from transformation of MALT. LUB presents with haematuria, dysuria, urinary frequency, nocturia, and abdominal or back pain. Macroscopic examination of LUBs show large discrete tumours centred in the dome or lateral walls of the bladder. Positive staining of LUB varies by the subtype of lymphoma; B-cell lymphomas are CD20 positive. MALT lymphoma is positively stained for CD20, CD19, and FMC7 and negatively stained for CD5, CD10, and CD11c. LUB stains negatively with Pan-keratin, vimentin, CK20, and CK7. MALT lymphoma exhibits t(11; 18)(q21: 21). Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the MALT type of LUB with no recurrence. Conclusions. LUB is diagnosed by its characteristic morphology and immunohistochemical characteristics. Radiotherapy is a useful treatment. PMID:24511310

  14. Autonomic nervous control of the urinary bladder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochodnicky, P.; Uvelius, B.; Andersson, K.-E.; Michel, M. C.

    2013-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system plays an important role in the regulation of the urinary bladder function. Under physiological circumstances, noradrenaline, acting mainly on β(3) -adrenoceptors in the detrusor and on α(1) (A) -adrenoceptors in the bladder outflow tract, promotes urine storage, whereas

  15. Giant Leiomyosarcoma of the Urinary Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, José G A; Klojda, Carlos A B; Araújo, Claudio P De; Pires, Lucas A S; Babinski, Marcio A

    2016-05-01

    The bladder leiomyosarcoma is a rare and agressive mesenchymal tumour, and adult women of reproductive age have a higher incidence of developing the bladder leiomyosarcoma. The pathophysiology of the disease is not certain, and its main symptoms are hematuria, dysuria and abdominal pain. There are not a considerable amount of cases described in the literature. We report a case of a giant leiomyosarcoma of the urinary bladder in a 31-year-old woman.

  16. Modelling Creep (Relaxation of the Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravkovic Nebojsa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We first present the results of an experiment in which the passive properties of the urinary bladder were investigated using strips of rabbit bladder. Under the assumption that the urinary bladder had orthopaedic characteristics, the strips were taken in the longitudinal and in the circumferential directions. The material was subjected to uniaxial tension, and stress-stretch curves were generated for various rates of deformation. We found that the rates did not have a significantly effect on the passive response of the material. Additionally, the stress-stretch dependence during relaxation of the material when exposed to isometric conditions was determined experimentally.

  17. Urinary bladder rupture during voiding cystourethrography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong Ok Lee

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG is a commonly performed diagnostic procedure for the evaluation of vesicoureteral reflux with urinary tract infection or congenital renal diseases in children. The procedure is relatively simple and cost-effective, and complications are very rare. The iatrogenic complication of VCUG range from discomfort, urinary tract infection to bacteremia, as well as bladder rupture. Bladder rupture is a rare complication of VCUG, and only a few cases were reported. Bladder rupture among healthy children during VCUG is an especially uncommon event. Bladder rupture associated with VCUG is usually more common in chronically unused bladders like chronic renal failure. Presented is a case of bladder rupture that occurred during a VCUG in a healthy 9-monthold infant, due to instilled action of dye by high pressure. This injury completely healed after 7 days of operation, and it was confirmed with a postoperative cystography. The patient’s bladder volume, underlying disease, velocity of the contrast media instilled, catheter size, and styles of instillation are important factors to prevent bladder rupture during VCUG. Management of bladder rupture should be individualized, but the majority of infants are treated with the operation. In conclusion, bladder rupture is a rare complication, however, delicate attention is needed in order to prevent more dire situations.

  18. Villous adenoma of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kumar Pal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Villous adenoma is a known entity in the gastrointestinal tract, but very rare in the urinary tract. It is a benign tumor with excellent prognosis, but its progression to adenocarcinoma is not established. Here, we report an additional case of villous adenoma of the urinary bladder.

  19. Adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder: CT features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Woo Kyung; Kim, Seung Hyup; Choi, Chung Gon; Choi, Dae Seob; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Young [Cheungbuk National University College of Medicine, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-07-15

    Adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder, including urachal carcinoma, is a rear tumor with incidence in the range between 0.5% and 2.2% of all epithelial bladder neoplasms. Ten cases of adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder(eight cases of primary adenocarcinoma and two cases of urachal carcinoma) are presented. We describe the computed tomography(CT) appearance of adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder and tried to find out the characteristic CT findings of urachal carcinoma. CT scans were evaluated for the location of the tumors, presence of calcification in the tumor, and the tumor extension. Seven tumors were located at the dome of the bladder(70%), two were at lateral walls, and one was at calcifications scattered within the tumor were detected in four cases(40%); three of the eight, primary adenocarcinoma, and one of the two, urachal carcinoma. Two urachal carcinoma were characterized by midline position and predominantly extravascular growth along the urachus. Gross extravesical extension with distant metastasis were presented in seven cases(70%) at the time of initial diagnosis. CT may be useful in evaluating the adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder and differentiating urachal carcinoma from bladder cancer.

  20. p53 mutations in urinary bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, P; Steineck, G; Adolfsson, J; Hansson, J; Jansson, O; Larsson, P; Sandstedt, B; Wijkstr?m, H; Hemminki, K

    2001-01-01

    We have screened for mutations in exons 5?8 of the p53 gene in a series consisting of 189 patients with urinary bladder neoplasms. 82 (44%) neoplasms were lowly malignant (Ta, G1?G2a) and 106 (56%) were highly malignant (G2b?G4 or ?T1). Only one mutation was in a lowly malignant urinary bladder neoplasm, in total we found p53 mutations in 26 (14%) of the 189 patients. 30% of the samples had loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for one or both of the p53 exogenic (CA)n repeat and the p53 intragenic (A...

  1. Giant urinary bladder calculus: Case report | Otieno | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A vertical calculus weighing more than 100 g is categorised as a giant urinary bladder stone. Giant urinary bladder stones are very rare and very few cases have been reported in English literature and only one case from Africa. This is a case report of a patient with a giant urinary bladder calculus presenting as a rectal ...

  2. CASE REPORT: A GIANT URINARY BLADDER STONE IN A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A vesical calculus weighing more than 100g is categorized as a giant urinary bladder stone. Male preponderance for urinary bladder calculi is well known. A rare case of a giant urinary bladder calculus weighing 1200g and occurring in a female patient is reported. The stone was removed by open vesicolithotomy.

  3. Encrusted and incarcerated urinary bladder catheter: what are the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-11-25

    Nov 25, 2010 ... Urinary bladder catheter encrustations are known complications of long-term urinary catheterisation, which is commonly seen in ... urinary bladder catheter include extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and lithoclast. We describe here .... 9. Stamm WE. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections: epide-.

  4. Granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph von Klot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With only 16 cases reported in the literature, the mostly benign granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder is exceptionally rare. We present the case of a 68-year old patient with one of these lesions demonstrating our histological findings including several immunohistochemical stainings used to differentiate between other more common entities.

  5. Neurotrophins as regulators of urinary bladder function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochodnicky, Peter; Cruz, Célia D.; Yoshimura, Naoki; Cruz, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Increased voiding frequency and urgency are among the most prevalent storage lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), often diagnosed as part of overactive bladder syndrome (OAB). It has been suggested that these symptoms are caused by excessive sensory activation of the neural micturition circuit. It

  6. Primary localized amyloidosis of the urinary bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, H.; Toei, H.; Furuse, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Jichi Medical School and Hospital, Tochigi (Japan); Suzuki, K. [Dept. of Urology, Jichi Medical School and Hospital, Tochigi (Japan); Hironaka, M.; Saito, K. [Dept. of Pathology, Jichi Medical School and Hospital, Tochigi (Japan)

    2003-12-01

    We report a rare case of localized form of primary amyloidosis (amyloidoma) of the urinary bladder with CT and MR findings. Clinically, it is difficult to distinguish from invasive transitional cell carcinoma and inflammatory lesion. We think that the MR intensity on T2-weighted images is helpful in making the diagnosis. (orig.)

  7. Myopericytoma in urinary bladder: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Takahiro; Kamimura, Toshio; Itou, Kaoru; Fujii, Masato; Tsukino, Hiromasa; Mukai, Shoichiro; Akiyama, Yutaka; Kataoka, Hiroaki; Kamoto, Toshiyuki

    2017-02-19

    Myopericytoma is reported to occur mainly in the skin and superficial soft tissue of the extremities. In contrast, occurrence in the urinary bladder is extremely rare. We describe a 75-year-old Japanese man who developed a submucosal tumor at the right trigone of his bladder that led to interference with the discharge of right ureteral calculus. No invasive growth was observed by magnetic resonance imaging. Transurethral resection was successfully performed; histopathological analysis revealed perivascular proliferation of spindle-shaped to oval-shaped, cytologically bland tumor cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm. On immunohistochemical examination, the tumor cells were positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin, desmin, CD34 and h-caldesmon. Cystoscopic and pathological findings were compatible with a diagnosis of myopericytoma of the urinary bladder.

  8. Primary Amyloidosis of the Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Yuan Huang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloidosis is a systemic disease that usually occurs in the gastrointestinal tract or in muscular or adipose tissue. Primary amyloidosis of the urinary bladder is a rare disease that can mimic bladder cancer on cystoscopic examination as well as in its clinical presentation of painless gross hematuria. This report describes a 49-year-old male with repeated painless gross hematuria, who underwent transurethral resection of a suspected bladder tumor. Pathologic examination revealed papillary urothelial hyperplasia with vascular ectasia and no signs of malignancy. Massive gross hematuria occurred 2.5 years later. Cystoscopy showed multiple papillary lesions with yellowish-brown submucosal plaques on the posterior bladder wall. A second transurethral tumor resection was performed and histologic examination revealed plasma cell infiltration and eosinophilic amorphous deposits in the subepithelial stroma and vascular wall. The deposits were positive for Congo red and apple-green birefringence under polarized light examination but negative for Masson's trichrome stain, indicating that they were not fibrotic in nature. Hence, the diagnosis of amyloidosis of the urinary bladder was confirmed. Screening for amyloidosis was negative in other organ systems and the patient has remained disease-free up to the last follow-up 4 years after the second transurethral resection. Amyloidosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with recurrent hematuria who have symptoms characteristic of bladder cancer but negative pathologic study for malignancy. Correct diagnosis relies on clinical alertness and the use of a special staining technique during pathologic examination.

  9. [Creation of artificial urinary bladder in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, V V; Braev, A T; Shamatrin, S V

    2001-01-01

    In children creation of artificial urinary bladder using intestinal segments was made in the absent or reduced reservoir function of the bladder. From 1990 to 1998 enterocystoplasty was performed in 30 boys and 6 girls. 15 of them have undergone colocystoplasty, 21--ileocystoplasty with detubulized segment. Holding conduits were made of the appendix or intestinal segment in 31 patients. On postoperative day 1-16 six patients developed complications demanding emergency operation--3 cases of comissural ileus and 3 of urinary peritonitis. 33 patients were followed up for 1 to 9 years. 29 patients urinated only through catheter 3 to 6 times a day. 4 patients urinated without a catheter but they had imperative enuresis. Concrements in the artificial bladder were detected in 8 postcolocystoplasty patients and 1 postileocystoplasty patient. The preference was given to ileocystoplasty with detubulized segment with creation of the holding conduit and occlusion of the bladder neck. The ileal artificial bladder is characterized by less probable long-term complications, greater volume, low pressure at filling, less intensive mucus production.

  10. Primary posterior perineal herniation of urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurumboor Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary perineal hernia is a rare clinical condition wherein herniation of viscera occurs through pelvic diaphragm. They are usually mistaken for sciatic hernia, rectal prolapse or other diseases in the perineum. Correct identification of the type of hernia by imaging is crucial for planning treatment. We present a case of primary posterior herniation of urinary bladder and rectal wall through levator ani repaired laparoscopically using a mesh repair.

  11. Retroperitoneal lipoma arising from the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisato Kobayashi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Retroperitoneal benign lipomas are extremely rare and represent about 2.9% of all primary retroperitoneal tumors. About 80% of the tumors in the retroperitoneal cavities are malignant neoplasms. We experienced a case of a retroperitoneal lipoma simulating an ovarian mature cystic teratoma. A diagnosis was correctly made by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI prior to surgery, and a total tumorectomy was performed. The retroperitoneal lipoma was recognized to have arisen from the urinary bladder. Histological sections revealed a tumor consisting of typical adipose cells without atypia. These types of lipomas should be carefully followed-up because they often recur and undergo malignant transformations.

  12. Pathological and ultrasonic features of urinary bladder tumours | Ma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bladder tumour is a leading type of urinary tract malignancy after the prostate. This study was carried out to analyse the pathological and ultrasonographic features of urinary bladder tumours. Method: Ninety six consecutive patients were reviewed prospectively between, September 2004 and December 2007.

  13. Carcinoma Of The Urinary Bladder In Maiduguri, Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIMS: This study was conducted with the aim of determining the histopathological pattern, age and sex distribution of 100 cases of carcinoma of the urinary bladder in Maiduguri as well as highlight some of the associated aetiological factors. METHODS: One hundred urinary bladder biopsies were received in the ...

  14. Adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder, mesonephroid type: a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Abbas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare disease. It occurs in 0.5-2% of all bladder cancers and is discussed as the malignant counterpart of nephrogenic adenomas. We report a 46-year-old white female presented with gross hematuria for clinical examination. Histopathology revealed pT2, Pn1, L1, G2 adenocarcinoma of the bladder and carcinoma in situ according to the TNM classification. Computed tomography scan diagnostic was unremarkable. Patients with adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder should be treated vigorously and without time delay. Only 7 cases of adenocarcinoma in the urinary bladder (mesonephroid have been described until now. We present a case of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder, mesonephroid type that early diagnosed and till now 3 months after the cystectomy without symptoms and without complications.

  15. Paraganglioma of the Urinary Bladder: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Yi Kang

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Paragangliomas of the urinary bladder are very rare. To date, there are no reliable methods for predicting their clinical behavior, so long-term follow-up is required. We describe a paraganglioma of the urinary bladder in a 32-year-old male who presented with painless gross hematuria. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a protruding mass with hematoma over the right lateral wall of the urinary bladder. The tumor was not completely resected by transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT due to intermingling with the bladder wall. Follow-up I131-metaiodobenzylguanidine was performed 3 weeks after surgery and suspected incomplete resection lesions were noted. Histologic examination of the tumor indicated paraganglioma of the urinary bladder. We also provide a brief review of the literature for comparison.

  16. Xenon tissue/blood partition coefficient for pig urinary bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K K; Bülow, J; Nielsen, S L

    1990-01-01

    In four landrace pigs the tissue/blood partition coefficient (lambda) for xenon (Xe) for the urinary bladder was calculated after chemical analysis for lipid, water and protein content and determination of the haematocrit. The coefficients varied from bladder to bladder owing to small differences...

  17. Granular cell tumors of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayani Naila

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Granular cell tumors (GCTs are extremely rare lesions of the urinary bladder with only nine cases being reported in world literature of which one was malignant. Generally believed to be of neural origin based on histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural studies; they mostly follow a clinically benign course but are commonly mistaken for malignant tumors since they are solid looking, ulcerated tumors with ill-defined margins. Materials and methods We herein report two cases of GCTs, one benign and one malignant, presenting with gross hematuria in a 14- and a 47-year-old female, respectively. Results Histopathology revealed characteristic GCTs with positive immunostaining for neural marker (S-100 and negative immunostaining for epithelial (cytokeratin, Cam 5.2, AE/A13, neuroendocrine (neuron specific enolase, chromogranin A, and synaptophysin and sarcoma (desmin, vimentin markers. The benign tumor was successfully managed conservatively with transurethral resection alone while for the malignant tumor, radical cystectomy, hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, anterior vaginectomy, plus lymph node dissection was done. Both cases show long-term disease free survival. Conclusion We recommend careful pathologic assessment for establishing the appropriate diagnosis and either a conservative or aggressive surgical treatment for benign or localized malignant GCT of the urinary bladder, respectively.

  18. Rho kinase : a target for treating urinary bladder dysfunction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Stephan L. M.; Schmidt, Martina; Michel, Martin C.

    Urinary incontinence and other urinary storage symptoms are frequent in the general population but available treatments have limited efficacy and tolerability. Rho kinase (ROCK) has a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction, including that of the urinary bladder. Recent

  19. Rare pseudotumors of the urinary bladder in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, G; Ahlhelm, F; Altmeyer, K; Aliani, S; Remberger, K; Schoenhofen, H; Kramann, B; Uder, M

    2001-01-01

    We report two cases of inflammatory pseudotumors of the urinary bladder, one case of a chronic granulomatous pseudotumor (CGT) and one case of a pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic (fibromyxoid) tumor (PMT). Both tumors resembled malignancies such as rhabdomyosarcomas regarding clinical appearance and imaging findings and represent rare urinary bladder tumors. The imaging findings on unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MRI as well as histological specimen are presented. Final diagnosis was made following elective surgery. Differential diagnosis of urinary bladder tumors as well as the imaging findings of these clinically comparable cases are discussed. Awareness of these benign lesions may prevent patients from inappropriate therapies such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

  20. [Fluorescent diagnostics of urinary bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatkin, N A; Kamalov, A A; Kudriavtsev, Iu V; Tokarev, F V

    2000-01-01

    Introduction of optic markers in screening for cancer of the urinary bladder (UB) raises diagnostic significance of UB cystoscopy. Application of intravesical form of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), precursor of photodynamically active protoporphirine IX, prevents complications in systemic use of tetracycline or hepatoprophirines. Fluorescent cystoscopy with 5-ALA (n = 59) was made in 51 patients treated in the Research Institute of Urology. UB cancer was detected in 32 patients. This procedure proved highly sensitive and specific (97.0 and 75.6%, respectively, being much more effective than standard cystoscopy and biopsy in the white light (85.1 and 81.4%, respectively). Specificity of fluorescent cystoscopy is much higher in detection of tumors and pretumor lesions (88.4%). Fluorescent diagnosis is expected to become a gold standard in the program of UB cancer detection.

  1. Urinary tract infection in the neurogenic bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Humberto R; Hickling, Duane R

    2016-02-01

    There is a high incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract function. This results in significant morbidity and health care utilization. Multiple well-established risk factors unique to a neurogenic bladder (NB) exist while others require ongoing investigation. It is important for care providers to have a good understanding of the different structural, physiological, immunological and catheter-related risk factors so that they may be modified when possible. Diagnosis remains complicated. Appropriate specimen collection is of paramount importance and a UTI cannot be diagnosed based on urinalysis or clinical presentation alone. A culture result with a bacterial concentration of ≥10(3) CFU/mL in combination with symptoms represents an acceptable definition for UTI diagnosis in NB patients. Cystoscopy, ultrasound and urodynamics should be utilized for the evaluation of recurrent infections in NB patients. An acute, symptomatic UTI should be treated with antibiotics for 5-14 days depending on the severity of the presentation. Antibiotic selection should be based on local and patient-based resistance patterns and the spectrum should be as narrow as possible if there are no concerns regarding urosepsis. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) should not be treated because of rising resistance patterns and lack of clinical efficacy. The most important preventative measures include closed catheter drainage in patients with an indwelling catheter and the use of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) over other methods of bladder management if possible. The use of hydrophilic or impregnated catheters is not recommended. Intravesical Botox, bacterial interference and sacral neuromodulation show significant promise for the prevention of UTIs in higher risk NB patients and future, multi-center, randomized controlled trials are required.

  2. Molecular basis of urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hussain, Turki O; Akhtar, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a relatively common and potentially life-threatening neoplasm. The diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma usually entails a lifelong surveillance to detect recurrent disease. In recent years, significant progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis in urinary bladder. An early step in the process of carcinoma development is establishment of a premalignant abnormal urothelial patch that may give rise to various types of urothelial carcinoma and may provide a fertile ground for development of multifocal synchronous and metachronous tumors. Two distinct molecular pathways are involved. Low-grade papillary carcinoma is associated with mutation in the FGFR3 or in some cases mutations in RAS genes. High-grade in situ/muscle-invasive carcinoma on the other hand is characterized by alteration of p53 and pRB. Loss of function of these key genes, which play a crucial role in the control of cell cycle, leads to accumulation of additional mutations and deletions of genes resulting in an aggressive phenotype. It is hoped that a thorough understanding of the molecular basis of urothelial cancer will facilitate early diagnosis and will lead to development of new modalities for the management and treatment of these carcinomas.

  3. An Unusual Case Of Urinary Bladder Arteriovenous Malformation

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gnanappiragasam, D

    2016-07-01

    A 45-year-old male presented with haematuria and urinary frequency. Computed Tomography (CT) urogram revealed gross thickening of the left bladder wall. Histology showed large vessels cuffed by eosinophonilic material suggestive of urinary bladder arteriovenous malformation (AVM). No further intervention was carried out as symptoms resolve after the resection. Follow up rigid cystoscopy and CT at 3 months showed resolution of all visible pathology and no evidence of recurrence.

  4. Inguinal Herniation of the Urinary Bladder Presenting as Recurrent Urinary Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Frenkel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herniation of the urinary bladder into the inguinal canal is an uncommon finding, observed in 0.5–4% of inguinal hernias (Curry (2000. It is usually associated with other conditions that increase intra-abdominal pressure such as bladder neck obstruction due to prostatic hypertrophy. Consequently, in men, it is usually associated with some degree of urinary retention. We present a 42-year-old man in whom herniation of the urinary bladder was the cause of urinary retention, and not vice versa. The patient was on tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonist (TNFA (Etanercept for severe Ankylosing spondylitis. Initially, the urinary retention was thought to be a side effect of the medication, but after the drug was discontinued, urinary retention persisted. CT and MRI demonstrated huge herniation of the urinary bladder into the inguinal canal. Immediately after the hernia was repaired, bladder function was restored. TNF treatment was restarted, and no further urinary symptoms were observed in the next two years of follow-up. In this case, the primary illness and its treatment were distracting barriers to early diagnosis and treatment. In younger patients with a large hernia who develop unexpected urinary retention, herniation of the urinary bladder should be highly considered in the differential diagnosis.

  5. SERUM AND URINARY CYTOKERATIN 19 AND BLADDER TUMOR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cancer (Group lll). In Group Ill, 30 patients had squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), while. 25 patients had transitional cell carcinoma. (TCC). The serum samples were subjected to CYFRA ... SERUM AND URINARY CYTOKERATJN 19 AND BLADDER TUMOR ANTIGEN IN BLADDER CANCER ...... Phone: +4-20-1 0-1 579605.

  6. Prognostic relevance of urinary bladder cancer susceptibility Loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grotenhuis, A.J.; Dudek, A.M.D.; Verhaegh, G.W.C.T.; Witjes, J.A.; Aben, K.K.H.; Marel, S.L. van der; Vermeulen, S.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the last few years, susceptibility loci have been identified for urinary bladder cancer (UBC) through candidate-gene and genome-wide association studies. Prognostic relevance of most of these loci is yet unknown. In this study, we used data of the Nijmegen Bladder Cancer Study (NBCS) to perform a

  7. Four cases of spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Toshiyasu; Miwa, Sotaro; Takashima, Hiroshi; Takemae, Katsuro [Nagoya Red Cross Hospital (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    Between November 1997 and March 2001, 4 female patients from 44 to 65 years of age with a spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder were analyzed. They complained of abdominal pain and had undergone an intra-pelvic gynecological operation (3 for uterine cancer, 1 for an ovarian cyst) several years before. The three with uterine cancer had also received radiation therapy. For their present condition, spontaneous urinary bladder rupture, their treatment was indwelling a urethral catheter. Two of them have had no recurrence of urinary bladder rupture after one month since having the urethral catheter indwelt. One, however, had to have the catheter re-indwelt due to unsuccessful suturing of the urinary bladder wall. The fourth patient had bilateral nephrostomy tubes due to severe radiation cystitis. Thus, one can infer that intra-pelvic gynecological operations and radiation therapy are major factors causing spontaneous urinary bladder rupture. While indwelling a urethral catheter may be effective for some patients with a spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder, it may be very difficult to treat more complicated cases. (author)

  8. Paraganglioma of the urinary bladder with pelvic metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Hung Geng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old male, diagnosed with paraganglioma of the urinary bladder, underwent transurethral resection of the bladder tumor 10 years ago. He was lost to follow-up after the operation but was recently admitted to our hospital for the treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer. However, refractory hypertension with palpitation was noted and a computed tomography scan revealed a round, well-defined mass at the right pelvic region. Retroperitoneal tumor excision surgery was performed and a subsequent pathological analysis revealed paraganglioma. The diagnosis of paraganglioma of the urinary bladder with pelvic metastasis was confirmed and his blood pressure returned to normal level without medication after the operation.

  9. Spontaneous Intra-Peritoneal Urinary Bladder Rupture Complicating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pain and anuria of five days duration. He had initially gone into acute urinary retention (AUR) but the painful urge to micturate later abated. This was soon followed. Spontaneous Intra-Peritoneal Urinary. Bladder Rupture Complicating Benign. Prostate Hyperplasia: Case Report. Ajape AA 1 FWACS, Abdulkadir AY 2 FMCR, ...

  10. Carcinosarcoma of the Ureter and Urinary Bladder: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Yoon Ki; Kim, Soo Hyun; Kang, Mi Jin; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Soung Hee; Cho, Hyun Sun; Jeong, Myeong Ja [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Carcinosarcoma is biphasic neoplasm with distinct carcinomatous and sarcomatous components. Carcinosarcoma arising from the urinary system is extremely rare and only 14 such cases of the ureteral carcinosarcoma have been reported in the medical literature. We experienced a case of surgically proven carcinosarcoma of the ureter and urinary bladder and we report here on the computed tomography findings of this rare neoplasm

  11. Encrusted and incarcerated urinary bladder catheter: what are the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary bladder catheter encrustations are known complications of long-term urinary catheterisation, which is commonly seen in clinical practice. These encrustations can impede deflation of the balloon and therefore cause problems in the removal of the catheter. The options in managing an encrusted and incarcerated ...

  12. Pearls and Pitfalls in Diagnosing Pediatric Urinary Bladder Masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelmerdine, Susan C; Lorenzo, Armando J; Gupta, Abha A; Chavhan, Govind B

    2017-10-01

    Urinary bladder masses are rare in children, and the associated histologic features and prognoses in this population are different from those in adults. Most children with urinary bladder masses present with lower urinary tract symptoms, which may include hematuria, dysuria, frequent urination, and urgency to urinate. However, some of these masses may be identified incidentally or involve generic symptoms such as abdominal distention. In general, pediatric bladder tumors can be divided into those that originate from the bladder epithelium, known as urothelial neoplasms, and mesenchymal bladder neoplasms, which are more prevalent. The most common bladder malignancy in children is a rhabdomyosarcoma, whereas the most common benign bladder lesion in the pediatric population is a papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP). The first-line imaging tool for assessing bladder lesions is ultrasonography, which may be followed by a cross-sectional imaging examination such as computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging if the origin of the mass is unclear or if distant spread is suspected. Although imaging may enable the radiologist to suggest a differential diagnosis based on lesion location and patient age, tissue biopsy generally is required to identify the exact pathologic entity. This is usually performed at cystoscopy and may be curative in cases in which the lesion is small and has low recurrence potential. Knowledge of the clinical, histopathologic, and imaging features of common bladder neoplasms is essential, as it can aid in preventing imaging pitfalls. These may include the misinterpretation of either a pelvic mass as arising from the bladder or a bladder mass as arising from the pelvis, and interpreting an inflammatory mass or bladder detritus as a neoplasm. © RSNA, 2017.

  13. Surgical repair of giant inguinoscrotal hernia containing the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryapratap Singh Tomar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inguinal hernia repair is one of the commonest operations in surgical practice. Unusual contents of hernia sac are uncommon, but are likely to be encountered by a surgeon in his career due to the frequency of hernia repair. The bladder is involved in less than 4% of inguinal hernias. These patients usually present with frequent episodes of urinary tract infection, difficulty in walking and difficulty in initiating micturition because of incarceration of the urinary bladder into the scrotum. The incidence may reach 10% among obese men who are 50-70 years old. Most cases are asymptomatic and are usually found incidentally during radiographic evaluation or at the time of herniorrhaphy. Massive inguinoscrotal bladder hernia, also known as scrotal cystocele, is very rare. In India, there was only few reported case of inguinoscrotal bladder hernia. Here we report a case of left inguinoscrotal bladder hernia who presented with a scrotal mass. We also provide a review of the relevant literature.

  14. Delayed Presentation of Traumatic Intraperitoneal Rupture of Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazim H. Alhamzawi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Blunt injury of the urinary bladder is well known and usually associates pelvic fractures. Isolated bladder injury is a rare condition and on the other hand, delayed bladder perforation is an extremely rare entity. Herein, we described an unusual case of isolated delayed intraperitoneal bladder rupture that occurred on the third post injury day in a young male in the absence of free intraperitoneal fluid and pelvic fracture. The diagnostic workup, course and the need for surgical repair of the injury is presented.

  15. Does radio frequency radiation induce micronuclei frequency in exfoliated bladder cells of diabetic rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuz, N; Sirav, B; Kuzay, D; Ozer, C; Seyhan, N

    2015-07-01

    For many years there has been a discussion among both experts and the general public regarding the effects of radio frequency (RF) radiation on the human organism. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship of micronucleui (MN) frequency and RF radiation in exfoliated bladder cells of non-diabetic and diabetic rats. Three groups were used in the experiment: Group I (n=6): diabetic group without RF exposure; Group II (n=6): diabetic group exposed 2100 MHz RF radiation and Group III (n=6): control animals (non-diabetic group, no RF exposure). RF exposure in the experiment resulted in a whole body average SAR of 0.24 W/kg with an ERMS field of 17.5 V/m in non-thermal levels. Results showed that there was no statistically important differences between non-RF exposed diabetes group and control group; Group I and Group III (p>0.05). There was no statistically important differences between diabetes group and diabetes+RF exposed group (Group I and Group II) (p>0.05). RF exposure did not result in increased MN frequencies in exfoliated bladder cells of diabetic rats with respect to control animals (Group II and Group III), either and this result found no statistically important (p>0.05). This study suggested no possible genotoxic effects of RF radiation among human beings especially with chronic disorders, such as diabetes.

  16. Application of bladder acellular matrix in urinary bladder regeneration: the state of the art and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrywczynska, Marta; Gubanska, Iga; Drewa, Gerard; Drewa, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Construction of the urinary bladder de novo using tissue engineering technologies is the "holy grail" of reconstructive urology. The search for the ideal biomaterial for urinary bladder reconstruction has been ongoing for decades. One of the most promising biomaterials for this purpose seems to be bladder acellular matrix (BAM). In this review we determine the most important factors, which may affect biological and physical properties of BAM and its regeneration potential in tissue engineered urinary bladder. We also point out the directions in modification of BAM, which include incorporation of exogenous growth factors into the BAM structure. Finally, we discuss the results of the urinary bladder regeneration with cell seeded BAM.

  17. A Rare Case of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma with Urinary Bladder Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Katz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic esophageal adenocarcinoma to the urinary bladder is extremely rare. We describe a previously healthy 49-year-old female with recent diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction with metastatic disease to the liver. Biopsy was positive for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH. She received six cycles of Cisplatin, 5-Fluorouracil, and Herceptin and subsequently developed symptomatic anemia and hematuria. Cystoscopy with retroflexion was performed and she received a transurethral resection of bladder tumor with fulguration. Pathology of the bladder tumor revealed similar morphology to her liver metastasis and immunohistochemical stains were consistent with metastatic esophageal cancer. Three weeks after being diagnosed with metachronous urinary bladder metastasis from esophageal adenocarcinoma primary, she expired. She only received her first cycle of palliative chemotherapy with Ramucirumab and Paclitaxel.

  18. Radionuclide targeting with particular emphasis on urinary bladder carcinoma

    CERN Document Server

    Sjöström, A

    2001-01-01

    primary bladder carcinoma tumours was investigated. Both receptors were expressed in the majority of metastases and primary tumours. Targeting the EGF receptor and/or HER-2 in urinary bladder carcinoma is an exciting new concept The incidence of urinary bladder carcinoma is increasing and many patients die every year of this disease despite assumed radical therapy. Thus, there is a need for improved methods of diagnosis and therapy. Radionuclide targeting is based on achieving specific delivery of radioactive nuclides to tumour cells with minimal damage to surrounding normal tissues. Two possible target structures are the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor and the related receptor HER-2. Cellular binding and retention of sup 1 sup 2 sup 5 I-EGF-dextran conjugates was investigated in two bladder carcinoma cell lines. The conjugate bound specifically to the EGF receptor with delayed maximum binding, limited intracellular degradation and prolonged cellular retention compared to sup 1 sup 2 sup 5 I-EGF. EGF w...

  19. Skeletal metastases from recurrent paraganglioma of the urinary bladder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Goyal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Paragangliomas arising from the urinary bladder are extremely rare. Most of them are benign, and are curable with surgical resection alone, but about 10% are malignant and may metastasise to regional nodes or distant sites. We present the case of a 45 year male patient who had a recurrent paraganglioma of the urinary bladder with vertebral metastases. The patient was managed using a combination of palliative chemotherapy with carboplatin, etoposide and zoledronate and radiotherapy to the spine. However, the patient′s general condition rapidly deteriorated while on systemic treatment. This case demonstrates the unusually aggressive course that this disease may occasionally take.

  20. Mesh erosion into urinary bladder following laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Singh Sandhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with advantages, evolving surgical techniques bring unique complications. A young male developed urinary symptoms a few months after undergoing laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. On evaluation, mesh erosion into the urinary bladder was found. Removal of mesh with repair of bladder was done. A vesico-cutaneous fistula resulted which was managed with repeat surgery. We review all such cases reported in literature; discuss the etiopathogenesis, presentation, management and possible preventive measures. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the 12th case being reported.

  1. Unusual Foreign Body in Urinary Bladder: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deb Prosad Paul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the urinary tract, foreign body is most commonly found in the urinary bladder. It is commonly self-inflicted but can rarely be introduced by other person. Various types of foreign bodies have been reported, which includes infusion set, aluminum rod, gold chain, pearl, fish, pencil etc. Here we report a case of a 28-year young man who gave the history of forceful introduction of a long wire of mobile charger into the bladder by another person. It could not be removed by himself and by the local doctors. Then he was referred to Enam Medical College & Hospital and subsequently was removed by suprapubic cystostomy.

  2. File list: ALL.Oth.20.AllAg.Urinary_Bladder [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Oth.20.AllAg.Urinary_Bladder hg19 All antigens Others Urinary Bladder SRX190770...,SRX213919,SRX342281,SRX213928 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Oth.20.AllAg.Urinary_Bladder.bed ...

  3. File list: NoD.Oth.50.AllAg.Urinary_Bladder [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Oth.50.AllAg.Urinary_Bladder hg19 No description Others Urinary Bladder SRX1907...70,SRX213919,SRX342281,SRX213928 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Oth.50.AllAg.Urinary_Bladder.bed ...

  4. File list: ALL.Oth.50.AllAg.Urinary_Bladder [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Oth.50.AllAg.Urinary_Bladder hg19 All antigens Others Urinary Bladder SRX190770...,SRX213919,SRX342281,SRX213928 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Oth.50.AllAg.Urinary_Bladder.bed ...

  5. File list: NoD.Oth.10.AllAg.Urinary_Bladder [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Oth.10.AllAg.Urinary_Bladder hg19 No description Others Urinary Bladder SRX1907...70,SRX342281,SRX213919,SRX213928 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Oth.10.AllAg.Urinary_Bladder.bed ...

  6. File list: ALL.Oth.05.AllAg.Urinary_Bladder [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Oth.05.AllAg.Urinary_Bladder hg19 All antigens Others Urinary Bladder SRX342281...,SRX190770,SRX213919,SRX213928 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Oth.05.AllAg.Urinary_Bladder.bed ...

  7. File list: NoD.Oth.05.AllAg.Urinary_Bladder [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Oth.05.AllAg.Urinary_Bladder hg19 No description Others Urinary Bladder SRX3422...81,SRX190770,SRX213919,SRX213928 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Oth.05.AllAg.Urinary_Bladder.bed ...

  8. File list: NoD.Oth.20.AllAg.Urinary_Bladder [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Oth.20.AllAg.Urinary_Bladder hg19 No description Others Urinary Bladder SRX1907...70,SRX213919,SRX342281,SRX213928 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Oth.20.AllAg.Urinary_Bladder.bed ...

  9. A urinary bladder fibrosarcoma in a young dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olausson, A; Stieger, S M; Loefgren, S; Gillingstam, M

    2005-01-01

    A 14-month-old female dog, Gos d'Atura Catala was presented for a 7-month-history of reoccurring urinary tract infection. Using sonography, a focal multilobulated thickening of the urinary bladder wall was discovered. The solid mass was arising from the area of the ureteral papllDae and bulging into the lumen of the bladder neck. The wall of the urethra was uniformly thickened. These findings were not considered typical for a generalized urinary tract infection but more indicative of local severe inflammation, neoplasia or hyperplasia in the area of the ureteral openings. The thickening of the urethra was suggestive of urethritis or neoplastic infiltration. Signs of metastasis were not detected on the thoracic radiographs or in the remainder of the abdominal ultrasound examination. A surgical excision of the multilobulated mass was performed and histologic examination was conducted. A fibrosarcoma in the lamina propria of the urinary bladder wall was diagnosed. Because of reoccurence of hematuria and unresponsiveness to therapy the dog was euthanized. Postmortem examination confirmed the diagnosis of fiborsarcoma in the urinary bladder. Additionally, neoplastic infiltration of the urethral wall and metastasis in the lungs and liver were detected histopathologically.

  10. Neuroendocrine tumors in the urinary bladder: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Ulamec

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs can be found in most organs, as well as in the urinary bladder. Some of the clinical and pathologic features of these tumors may be characteristic of the organ of origin, but most of the properties are shared by neuroendocrine neoplasms regardless of their anatomic site. In the bladder, NETs comprise less than 1% of all bladder tumors and can be found in a pure form or intermixed with urothelial carcinoma and its variants. Bladder NETs are classified into 2 subtypes: carcinoid tumor and neuroendocrine carcinoma, which is further subdivided into small cell and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Characteristics of bladder NETs and its differential diagnosis are discussed herein.

  11. Macroscopic electrical propagation in the guinea pig urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, F T; Stephen, B; Lubbad, L; Morrison, J F B; Lammers, W J

    2014-07-15

    There is little knowledge about macroscopic electrical propagation in the wall of the urinary bladder. Recording simultaneously from a large number of extracellular electrodes is one technology that could be used to study the patterns of macroscopic electrical propagations. The urinary bladders from 14 guinea pigs were isolated and placed in an organ bath. A 16 × 4-electrode array was positioned at various sites on the serosal bladder surface, and recordings were performed at different intravesical volumes. In four experiments, carbachol (CCH; 10(-6) M), nifedipine (10 mM), or tetrodotoxin (TTX; 10(-6) M) was added to the superfusing fluid. After the experiments, the extracellular signals were analyzed and propagation maps were constructed. Electrical waves were detected at all sites on the bladder surface and propagated for a limited distance before terminating spontaneously. The majority of waves (>90%) propagated in the axial direction (i.e., from dome to base or vice versa). An increase in vesicle volume significantly decreased the conduction velocity (from 4.9 ± 1.5 to 2.7 ± 0.7 cm/s; P bladder surface. Two types of electrical activities were detected on the bladder surface: 1) electrical waves propagating preferentially in the axial direction and 2) electrical patches. The propagating electrical waves could form the basis for local spontaneous contractions in the bladder during the filling phase. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Urinary Bladder Leiomyosarcoma: Primary Surgical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakim Slaoui

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cases of bladder leiomyosarcoma represent 0.1% of all nonurothelial tumors. We present a case report of a 73-year-old man who underwent a radical cystoprostatectomy for a high-grade bladder leiomyosarcoma with an ileal diversion. The patient recovered uneventfully and no surgical margins were verified in final pathology. Early follow-up at 3 months shows no signs of computed tomography recurrence and adequate adaptation to ileal diversion. Although bladder sarcomas were once thought to have a grim prognosis, recent studies suggest that adequate surgical treatment is able to achieve optimal cancer control outcomes.

  13. Urinary Bladder Dysfunction in Transgenic Sickle Cell Disease Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudino, Mário Angelo; Leiria, Luiz Osório Silveira; da Silva, Fábio Henrique; Alexandre, Eduardo Costa; Renno, Andre; Mónica, Fabiola Zakia; de Nucci, Gilberto; Fertrin, Kleber Yotsumoto; Antunes, Edson; Costa, Fernando Ferreira; Franco-Penteado, Carla Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Urological complications associated with sickle cell disease (SCD), include nocturia, enuresis, urinary infections and urinary incontinence. However, scientific evidence to ascertain the underlying cause of the lower urinary tract symptoms in SCD is lacking. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate urinary function, in vivo and ex vivo, in the Berkeley SCD murine model (SS). Urine output was measured in metabolic cage for both wild type and SS mice (25-30 g). Bladder strips and urethra rings were dissected free and mounted in organ baths. In isolated detrusor smooth muscle (DSM), relaxant response to mirabegron and isoproterenol (1nM-10μM) and contractile response to (carbachol (CCh; 1 nM-100μM), KCl (1 mM-300mM), CaCl2 (1μM-100mM), α,β-methylene ATP (1, 3 and 10 μM) and electrical field stimulation (EFS; 1-32 Hz) were measured. Phenylephrine (Phe; 10nM-100μM) was used to evaluate the contraction mechanism in the urethra rings. Cystometry and histomorphometry were also performed in the urinary bladder. SS mice present a reduced urine output and incapacity to produce typical bladder contractions and bladder emptying (ex vivo), compared to control animals. In DSM, relaxation in response to a selective β3-adrenergic agonist (mirabegron) and to a non-selective β-adrenergic (isoproterenol) agonist were lower in SS mice. Additionally, carbachol, α, β-methylene ATP, KCl, extracellular Ca2+ and electrical-field stimulation promoted smaller bladder contractions in SS group. Urethra contraction induced by phenylephrine was markedly reduced in SS mice. Histological analyses of SS mice bladder revealed severe structural abnormalities, such as reductions in detrusor thickness and bladder volume, and cell infiltration. Taken together, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that SS mice display features of urinary bladder dysfunction, leading to impairment in urinary continence, which may have an important role in the pathogenesis of the enuresis and infections

  14. Urinary Bladder Dysfunction in Transgenic Sickle Cell Disease Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Angelo Claudino

    Full Text Available Urological complications associated with sickle cell disease (SCD, include nocturia, enuresis, urinary infections and urinary incontinence. However, scientific evidence to ascertain the underlying cause of the lower urinary tract symptoms in SCD is lacking.Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate urinary function, in vivo and ex vivo, in the Berkeley SCD murine model (SS.Urine output was measured in metabolic cage for both wild type and SS mice (25-30 g. Bladder strips and urethra rings were dissected free and mounted in organ baths. In isolated detrusor smooth muscle (DSM, relaxant response to mirabegron and isoproterenol (1nM-10μM and contractile response to (carbachol (CCh; 1 nM-100μM, KCl (1 mM-300mM, CaCl2 (1μM-100mM, α,β-methylene ATP (1, 3 and 10 μM and electrical field stimulation (EFS; 1-32 Hz were measured. Phenylephrine (Phe; 10nM-100μM was used to evaluate the contraction mechanism in the urethra rings. Cystometry and histomorphometry were also performed in the urinary bladder.SS mice present a reduced urine output and incapacity to produce typical bladder contractions and bladder emptying (ex vivo, compared to control animals. In DSM, relaxation in response to a selective β3-adrenergic agonist (mirabegron and to a non-selective β-adrenergic (isoproterenol agonist were lower in SS mice. Additionally, carbachol, α, β-methylene ATP, KCl, extracellular Ca2+ and electrical-field stimulation promoted smaller bladder contractions in SS group. Urethra contraction induced by phenylephrine was markedly reduced in SS mice. Histological analyses of SS mice bladder revealed severe structural abnormalities, such as reductions in detrusor thickness and bladder volume, and cell infiltration.Taken together, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that SS mice display features of urinary bladder dysfunction, leading to impairment in urinary continence, which may have an important role in the pathogenesis of the enuresis and infections

  15. Leiomyoma of Urinary Bladder Presenting with Febrile Urinary Tract Infection: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Ra'ed Ghassan; Murshidi, Mujalli Mhailan; Abu Shahin, Nisreen; Murshidi, Muayyad Mujalli

    2016-01-01

    Leiomyomas of urinary bladder constitute only about 0.43% of all bladder tumors. Only about 250 cases were reported in English literature. This is the first reported case of bladder leiomyoma to present with febrile urinary tract infection. We report a case of a 37- year old male who presented with febrile urinary tract infection. Imaging showed a bladder lesion. This lesion was managed by transurethral resection. Pathologic diagnosis was bladder leiomyoma. Although bladder leiomyomas are benign, they can cause serious sequelae, including serious urinary tract infections as the case we present here shows. This is why it is important to early diagnose and treat this condition. This case highlights the importance of early introduction of imaging in patients presenting with severe urinary tract infections. Failure to diagnose this lesion as the underlying cause of infection may have easily led to recurrence of similar severe life-threatening infections. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Granular cell tumor of the urinary bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Bedir, Recep; Yılmaz, Rukiye; Özdemir, Oğuzhan; Uzun, Hakkı

    2017-01-01

    Granular cell tumors (GCTs) are extremely rare neoplasms of the bladder. In the literature, there are only a few reported cases. We present a GCT case with clinical, radiological, histomorphological, immünohistochemical findings and its differential diagnosis.

  17. Urinary bladder cancer and the petroleum industry: a quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena, Antonio Varo; Allam, Mohamed Farouk; Díaz-Molina, Carmen; Del Castillo, Amparo Serrano; Abdel-Rahman, Amira Gamal; Navajas, Rafael Fernández-Crehuet

    2006-12-01

    To estimate the pooled risk of petroleum industry for urinary bladder cancer. All observational studies that evaluated the association between urinary bladder risk and the petroleum industry were reviewed. We have only identified eight case-control studies. These studies were carried out between 1989 and 1995. Of the eight localized studies six were exclusively for males. The other two studies included both males and females, but none reported separately the risk among men and women. There was an obvious risk of petroleum industry in the pooled risk (odds ratio 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27-1.54). Also, Q test was not significant (P>0.1), denoting homogeneity across the pooled studies. Pooled analysis applying the random effect model was 1.50 (95% CI 1.29-1.75). Although our pooled estimate shows that the petroleum industry is associated with the risk of urinary bladder cancer, the eight studies were based on retrospective data from case-control studies. Further prospective studies evaluating the association between petroleum industry and urinary bladder cancer risk are strongly needed.

  18. Pattern and Risk Factors of Urinary Bladder Neoplasms in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Urinary bladder neoplasm (UBN) is associated with high morbidity and mortality rate. It poses biologic and clinical challenges. Objectives: To evaluate the pattern as regards frequency, age, sex, occupation, local geographical distribution, clinical presentations and risk factors of UBN in. Sudanese patients in ...

  19. Donepezil-induced response of Spirulina supplemented rat urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurullahoglu-Atalik, K E; Okudan, N; Gokbel, H; Nurullahoglu, Z U

    2013-01-01

    At present, very little is known about the effects of donepezil on vascular reactivity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the responses of rat urinary bladder to donepezil (10-10-3x10-4 M) and the role of Spirulina supplementation in these effects. Animals were divided into the two groups of six animals in each group. The first group received only distilled water daily as vehicle for six weeks and served as the control. The second group received Spirulina 750 mg kg -1 orally, daily for six weeks and served as the spirulina group. Preparations of rat urinary bladder were used from both groups. Donepezil produced concentration dependent relaxation of rat urinary bladder preparations pre-contracted with KCl.The pIC50 value, but not the maximal response of donepezil, was significantly lower (pSpirulina supplemented group. These results demonstrated for the first time that spirulina treatment can affect urinary bladder activity (Fig. 1, Ref. 20).

  20. (Ciliophora: Peritrichia) from the urinary bladder of Bufo gutturalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-09-07

    Sep 7, 1988 ... described trichodinids from amphibians in southern. Africa, i.e. Trichodina xenopodos Fantham, 1924 from the urinary bladder of the African clawed toad, Xenopus laevis and T. bufonis Fantham, 1924 from Bufo regularis. Although both these descriptions did not make use of silver-impregnation and the ...

  1. RARE CASE OF DESMOID TUMOR OF URINARY BLADDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalapathy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Desmoid tumor is a benign soft tissue tumor which belongs to a family of myofibroblastic fibromatoses. Occasionally, desmoid tumors have an unusual site of occurrence . We describe a case of incisional hernia in postmenopausal women with an intra operative incidental finding of a desmoid tumor from anterior wall of urinary bladder for which a wide excision was performed

  2. Iatrogenic granulomas of the prostate and the urinary bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Marcussen, N

    1987-01-01

    In 1059 patients who had transurethral resections (TUR) of the prostate 8 cases (0.8%) with nonspecific granulomas were found. In another group of 280 patients treated by TUR for tumours of the urinary bladder 5 cases (1.8%) had granulomatous lesions in the resectates. The granulomas were observed...... was observed in the granulomas. The findings are compared to previously reported cases of iatrogenic granulomas in the prostate, the urinary bladder and other organs. It is concluded that the granulomas arise as a local reaction to previous surgery, maybe involving hypersensitivity to locally altered collagen....... only in patients with prior surgical trauma of the prostate and the bladder with an incidence of 14% and 6.5%, respectively. None of the patients had systemic diseases. Morphologically, two types of granulomas were observed, foreign-body-type and necrotizing. Carbonization rests were frequently noticed...

  3. Adenocarcinoma of urinary bladder: A report of two patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitu Kumari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenocarcinoma of the bladder is a rare tumor. Primary and metastatic adenocarcinomas of urinary bladder are morphologically similar, but histogenetically different. We present two cases, a signet ring cell adenocarcinoma with follow-up and another of glandular adenocarcinoma of urinary bladder. Pathological evaluation and immunohistochemical panel of eight markers (E-cadherin, CK20, CK7, CDX2, estrogen receptor (ER, gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 (GCDFP15, 34bE12, and prostate specific antigen (PSA provides a diagnostic confirmation of primary adenocarcinoma with the positive expression of E-cadherin and CK20 in case 1 and metastatic adenocarcinoma of prostate with profile of E-cadherin+, CK20-, GCDFP15+, 34bE12+, and PSA+ in case 2.

  4. A rare case of malignant paraganglioma of urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vinaya B; Bhandare, Amit T

    2015-01-01

    Paraganglioma of the urinary bladder is a rare pathologic entity with no definitive histological, immunohistochemical or molecular features to determine its malignant potential. Malignancy is essentially determined by the presence of deep local invasion, invasion of adjacent structures and lymph node or distant metastases. So far, up to 180 cases of paraganglioma have been reported, with bladder mass was given as invasive urothelial carcinoma. Patient underwent radical cystectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy. The gross morphological brown discoloration of mass on formalin fixation was suspicious of paraganglioma and was confirmed on immunohistochemistry. The diagnosis of malignant paraganglioma was made based on regional lymph node metastases. We describe a rare case of a patient with malignant urinary bladder paraganglioma with main differential diagnostic considerations on the histomorphology.

  5. Anoctamin-1 in the juvenile rat urinary bladder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika A Bijos

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate presence, location and functional role of calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC Anoctamin-1 (Ano1 in rat urinary bladder. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bladders from 3 week old Wistar rats were studied. End-point PCR on total mRNA was used to assess the expression of Ano1. Immunofluorescent labelling of whole mount bladder tissue imaged with confocal microscope allowed localization of Ano1 and vimentin immunopositive cells. The effects of CaCC blockers: niflumic acid (NFA (3,10,30 µM and 5-Nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylaminobenzoic acid (NPPB (10, 30 µM on spontaneous phasic contractile activity of intact (with mucosa and denuded (without mucosa detrusor strips were measured under isometric tension in organ baths (n = 141, N = 60. RESULTS: Ano1 expression was found at mRNA level in mucosa and detrusor layers. Confocal microscopy revealed presence of Ano1 immunopositive cells in mucosa and in detrusor layers; a subpopulation of vimentin positive cells expressed Ano1. Both chloride channel blockers reduced the amplitude and frequency of phasic contractions in denuded and intact strips. CONCLUSIONS: Ano1 is expressed in rat urinary bladder and is present in cells sharing markers with interstitial cells. CaCC blockers reduced phasic activity of the bladder tissue. Ano1 is expressed in the bladder and plays a role in its spontaneous phasic contractile activity.

  6. Deep Sequencing of Urinary RNAs for Bladder Cancer Molecular Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Mandy L Y; Mach, Kathleen E; Sinha, Rahul; Wu, Fan; Trivedi, Dharati R; Altobelli, Emanuela; Jensen, Kristin C; Sahoo, Debashis; Lu, Ying; Liao, Joseph C

    2017-07-15

    Purpose: The majority of bladder cancer patients present with localized disease and are managed by transurethral resection. However, the high rate of recurrence necessitates lifetime cystoscopic surveillance. Developing a sensitive and specific urine-based test would significantly improve bladder cancer screening, detection, and surveillance.Experimental Design: RNA-seq was used for biomarker discovery to directly assess the gene expression profile of exfoliated urothelial cells in urine derived from bladder cancer patients (n = 13) and controls (n = 10). Eight bladder cancer specific and 3 reference genes identified by RNA-seq were quantitated by qPCR in a training cohort of 102 urine samples. A diagnostic model based on the training cohort was constructed using multiple logistic regression. The model was further validated in an independent cohort of 101 urines.Results: A total of 418 genes were found to be differentially expressed between bladder cancer and controls. Validation of a subset of these genes was used to construct an equation for computing a probability of bladder cancer score (PBC) based on expression of three markers (ROBO1, WNT5A, and CDC42BPB). Setting PBC = 0.45 as the cutoff for a positive test, urine testing using the three-marker panel had overall 88% sensitivity and 92% specificity in the training cohort. The accuracy of the three-marker panel in the independent validation cohort yielded an AUC of 0.87 and overall 83% sensitivity and 89% specificity.Conclusions: Urine-based molecular diagnostics using this three-marker signature could provide a valuable adjunct to cystoscopy and may lead to a reduction of unnecessary procedures for bladder cancer diagnosis. Clin Cancer Res; 23(14); 3700-10. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Efficacy of voided urinary cytology and ultrasonography compared to cystoscopy in the detection of urinary bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Voided urinary cytology can be omitted as a screening test. Ultrasonography can be recommended as the initial imaging investigation for detection of bladder carcinoma in patients presenting with hematuria and for follow up of bladder carcinoma patients.

  8. Tumour expression of bladder cancer-associated urinary proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindén, Mårten; Segersten, Ulrika; Runeson, Marcus; Wester, Kenneth; Busch, Christer; Pettersson, Ulf; Lind, Sara Bergström; Malmström, Per-Uno

    2013-08-01

    WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: The current basis for diagnosis and prognosis in urinary bladder cancer is based on the pathologists' assessment of a biopsy of the tumour. Urinary biomarkers are preferable as they can be non-invasively sampled. Urinary cytology is the only test with widespread use but is hampered by poor reproducibility and low sensitivity. By studying the protein expression in bladder tumour tissue samples of proteins previously found in elevated levels in the urine of patients with bladder cancer, we have been able to show that these proteins originate from the tumour. The immunoreactivity of three of the investigated proteins increased with higher stage. Also a serine peptidase inhibitor was found to be predictive of progression from non-muscle-invasive to muscle-invasive tumours. To analyse the expression of five bladder cancer-associated urinary proteins and investigate if expression is related to the malignant phenotype of the tumour. To explore the possible prognostic value of these proteins. Urine samples, 16 from patients with bladder cancer and 26 from controls, were used in Western Blotting experiments. Tissue microarrays with bladder tissue from 344 patients diagnosed with bladder cancer between 1984 and 2005 was used in immunohistochemistry experiments. The proteins apolipoprotein E (APOE), fibrinogen β chain precursor (FGB), leucine-rich α2-glycoprotein (LRG1), polymerase (RNA) I polypeptide E (POLR1E), α1-antitrypsin (SERPINA1) and topoisomerase 2A (TOP2A) were probed with antibodies validated by the Human Protein Atlas. Increased expressions of APOE, FGB and POLR1E were correlated with increased tumour stage (P SERPINA1 in Ta and T1 tumours was found to increase the risk of tumour progression (hazard ratio 2.57, 95% confidence interval 1.13-5.87; P = 0.025) CONCLUSIONS: All proteins previously detected in urine from patients with bladder cancer were also expressed in bladder cancer tissue. The

  9. The urinary bladder of spontaneously hypertensive rat demonstrates bladder hypertrophy, inflammation, and fibrosis but not hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shanwei; Xia, Chun-Mei; Qiao, Li-Ya

    2015-01-15

    The present study aims to systemically characterize the factors that are associated with urinary bladder organ enlargement in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). We compared the SHR to age-matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) control rats in the levels of bladder pro-inflammatory factors, collagen expression (type I), and detrusor smooth muscle growth. Our results showed that enhanced inflammatory responses and fibrosis were key factors that were closely associated with bladder wall thickening in SHR. Specifically the mRNA levels of inflammatory factors interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6 and TNFα were significantly higher in SHR than those in WKY rats. The SHR also had a higher number of mast cells in the suburothelium space. Type I collagen production was also significantly higher in SHR when compared to that in control rats. However, the smooth muscle content stayed the same in SHR and WKY rats. This was shown by the results that the ratio of α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) to the nuclear protein histone H3 had no difference between these two rat strains. The mRNA and protein levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) also showed no change in the urinary bladder of SHR and WKY rats. Further study showed that the phosphorylation level of Akt in the urinary bladder was not changed in SHR when compared to WKY rats. In contrast, the phosphorylation level of ERK1/2 was significantly higher in SHR bladder when compared to that of WKY rats. These results suggest that inflammation and fibrosis are primary factors that may lead to urinary bladder hypertrophy in SHR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Genomic characterization of three urinary bladder cancer cell lines: understanding genomic types of urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Leite, Rosário; Carreira, Isabel; Melo, Joana; Ferreira, Susana Isabel; Ribeiro, Ilda; Ferreira, Jaqueline; Filipe, Marco; Bernardo, Carina; Arantes-Rodrigues, Regina; Oliveira, Paula; Santos, Lúcio

    2014-05-01

    Several genomic regions are frequently altered and associated with the type, stage and progression of urinary bladder cancer (UBC). We present the characterization of 5637, T24 and HT1376 UBC cell lines by karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis. Some cytogenetic anomalies present in UBC were found in the three cell lines, such as chromosome 20 aneuploidy and the loss of 9p21. Some gene loci losses (e.g. CDKN2A) and gains (e.g. HRAS, BCL2L1 and PTPN1) were coincident across all cell lines. Although some significant heterogeneity and complexity were detected between them, their genomic profiles exhibited a similar pattern to UBC. We suggest that 5637 and HT1376 represent the E2F3/RB1 pathway due to amplification of 6p22.3, concomitant with loss of one copy of RB1 and mutation of the remaining copy. The HT1376 presented a 10q deletion involving PTEN region and no alteration of PIK3CA region which, in combination with the inactivation of TP53, bears more invasive and metastatic properties than 5637. The T24 belongs to the alternative pathway of FGFR3/CCND1 by presenting mutated HRAS and over-represented CCND1. These cell lines cover the more frequent subtypes of UBC and are reliable models that can be used, as a group, in preclinical studies.

  11. Presumptive pseudohypoaldosteronism secondary to chronic urinary tract obstruction from sloughed urinary bladder mucosa and urinary tract infection in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlum, Lisa M; Rollings, Christopher; Basseches, Jessica; Bracker, Kiko

    2010-12-01

    To describe a case of presumptive secondary pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA) in a cat with urinary tract infection and chronic urethral obstruction. The obstruction was believed to have resulted from sloughed urinary bladder mucosa secondary to pressure necrosis. A 5-year-old, 4 kg, castrated male Siamese cat presented for vomiting and stranguria. Medical history included a perineal urethrostomy for urethral obstruction. Physical examination revealed a large, painful, nonexpressible urinary bladder. Point-of-care testing demonstrated electrolyte derangements consistent with a postrenal azotemia and metabolic acidosis. Results of urine culture was positive for bacterial growth. Diagnostic imaging revealed presence of retroperitoneal fluid, marked urinary bladder wall thickening, bilateral hydroureter, mild bilateral pyelectasia, and small nephroliths. The patient was treated for a urinary tract obstruction and infection. In the 3 weeks following initial discharge, the patient was evaluated on multiple occasions for lethargy, intermittent vomiting, inappropriate urination, and progressive polyuria and polydipsia. Although the urinary bladder was easily expressed during repeat examinations, it was persistently distended and subjectively thickened upon palpation. Repeat ultrasound of the urinary tract showed evidence of sloughed tissue in the bladder lumen, likely secondary to chronic urethral obstruction and pressure necrosis. A cystotomy was performed to remove the necrotic tissue, and a revised perineal urethrostomy was done due to a partial urethral stricture. Bladder biopsies were obtained at this time. Postoperatively, the cat was reported by the owners to be urinating normally but continued to be polyuric and polydipsic in the week following discharge. One week after surgery, the cat presented in hypovolemic shock with laboratory findings consistent with a presumptive diagnosis of secondary PHA. PHA has not been reported previously in a cat. This case report

  12. Superficial urinary bladder tumors treatment results: A 10-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Jablan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The most common urinary bladder tumors are superficial tumors. Due to their tension to relapse and progress towards deeper layers after surgical therapy, an adequate therapy significantly contributed to the improvement of the results of urinary bladder tumors treatment. Staging and gradus of the tumor, presence of the carcinoma in situ (CIS or relapses significantly influenced the choice of the therapy. The aim of this study was to ascertain the effectiveness of the intravesicelly applied BCG (Bacille Colmette - Guerin vaccine or chemiotherapy in the prevention of the relapses and further progression of superficial urinary bladder tumors. Methods. All of the diagnosed superficial tumors of bladder were removed by transurethral resection (TUR. After receiving the patohistological finding they were subjected to adjuvant therapy, immune BCG vaccine or chemiotherapy (epirubicin, doxorubicin, mitomycin-C. The third group did not accept adjuvant therapy, but had regularly scheduled cystoscopic controls. The appearance of relapses, progression of stage and grades of the tumor, as well as possible unwanted effects of adjuvant therapy were registered. Results. The applied immunotherapy (BCG influenced decreased tumor relapses (7% and statistically important difference between patients who had taken adjuvant chemotherapy (relapses 18.4% and those without this therapy was acknowledged. Grades of tumor did not show statistically significant difference on tumor relapse. A significantly longer period of time in the appearance of tumor relapse after BCG (29.33 months, had significant importance comparing to chemio (9.44 months or non-taken adjuvant therapy (9.84 months. Very small number of unwanted effects suggested an obligatory undertaking adjuvant therapy after TUR of superficial tumors. Conclusion. A significant decrease of relapses as well as avoidance of further progression of urinary bladder tumors, has introduced adjuvant therapy in

  13. Villous Tumor of the Urinary Bladder Resembling Low-grade Mucinous Neoplasm of the Appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ayako; Sakura, Yuma; Sugimoto, Mikio; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Kuroda, Naoto

    2016-05-01

    Mucinous neoplasms of the urinary tract are very rare. We present a 63-year-old-women who had a sessile papillary villous tumor in urinary bladder. Although transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) was performed, the villous tumor repetitively recurred and gradually spread to the entire surface of bladder lumen. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical examination showed that the lesion was very similar to low-grade mucinous neoplasm arising in appendix vermiformis. There are no reports on appendiceal metaplasia of urinary bladder mucosa. In this case, we describe this unprecedented neoplasm as "villous tumor of the urinary bladder resembling low-grade mucinous neoplasm of the appendix."

  14. Urinary ascites secondary to delayed diagnosis of laparoscopic bladder injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Mandeel Hazem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of urinary ascites in a young woman secondary to unrecognized bladder injury during gynaecologic laparoscopic surgery. Delayed diagnosis occurred due to the absence of expected changes in serum biochemistry, which made the diagnosis of urinoma less likely. High suspicion of bladder injury following laparoscopic surgery should be present in patients with ill-defined symptoms even if no biochemical changes are seen. The case demonstrates important points in relation to the consequences of delayed diagnosis as well as overview on detection and prevention of such injury.

  15. Transurethral laser coagulation for treatment of urinary bladder tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberger, K; Pensel, J; Hofstetter, A; Keiditsch, E; Frank, F

    1983-01-01

    Owing to the biophysical properties involved, the Nd:YAG laser is most suited for coagulation of even inhomogeneous tissue. We determined the optimal laser parameters for therapy of urinary bladder tumors. Deep homogeneous necroses can be obtained without perforation risk of the bladder wall, and the procedure does not cause dangerous damage to the intestinal loops. We have studied animal experiments by close examination and systematic inquiry, and thus we were able to determine sufficient laser parameters in dependence on tissue thickness. Clinical studies verified these results for living human tissue. After some years of clinical use of the Nd:YAG laser we can make the first statistical statements.

  16. OPIUM USE IN TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE URINARY BLADDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nourbakhsh

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Opium use is one of the most common forms of substance abuse in Iran and there are some evidence indicating it is a risk factor of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the urinary bladder. The majority of opium users are also cigarette smokers, so consideration of the high prevalence of smoking which is the most important risk factor of TCC of the urinary bladder among opium users is essential to assess the role of opium use as a possible risk factor of TCC. This study was done to evaluate the role of opium as a risk factor of TCC. A case-control study was performed on 255 individuals diagnosed with TCC of the urinary bladder by pathologic light microscopic examination of the tumor biopsies. Control population was chosen from individuals who had no history or presenting signs or symptoms of urinary problems. Case and control groups were matched by sex and age and also by cigarette smoking habits. Forty-one (18.1% of the cases and 12 (5% of controls were recognized to be opium users. Mantel-Haenszel analysis showed an odds ratio of 3.88, with 95% confidence interval of 1.99-7.57 and P value of < 0.001. Results indicate that opium use is a risk factor for TCC. The majority of opium users are also cigarette smokers, which is another important risk factor for TCC. Routine urine cytology and early evaluation in the patients presenting with any of the symptoms of urinary bladder malignancy by means of cystoscopy and urine cytology are highly recommended.

  17. Effect of coffee drinking on cell proliferation in rat urinary bladder epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lina, B A; Rutten, A A; Woutersen, R A

    1993-12-01

    A possible effect of freshly brewed drip coffee on urinary bladder carcinogenesis was investigated in male Wistar rats using cell proliferation in urinary bladder epithelium as the indicator of tumour promotion. Male rats were given either undiluted coffee brew (100% coffee), coffee diluted 10 times (10% coffee) or tap water (controls), as their only source of drinking fluid for 2 or 6 wk. Uracil, known to induce cell proliferation in urinary bladder epithelium, was included in the study as a positive control. In rats receiving 100% coffee, body weights, liquid intake and urinary volume were decreased. Neither histopathological examination of urinary bladder tissue nor the bromodeoxyuridine labelling index revealed biologically significant differences between rats receiving coffee and the tap water controls. Uracil increased the labelling index and induced hyperplasia of the urinary bladder epithelium, as expected. It was concluded that these results produced no evidence that drinking coffee predisposes to tumour development in the urinary bladder.

  18. PACAP/Receptor System in Urinary Bladder Dysfunction and Pelvic Pain Following Urinary Bladder Inflammation or Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Beatrice M.; Tooke, Katharine; Vizzard, Margaret A.

    2017-01-01

    Complex organization of CNS and PNS pathways is necessary for the coordinated and reciprocal functions of the urinary bladder, urethra and urethral sphincters. Injury, inflammation, psychogenic stress or diseases that affect these nerve pathways and target organs can produce lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction. Numerous neuropeptide/receptor systems are expressed in the neural pathways of the LUT and non-neural components of the LUT (e.g., urothelium) also express peptides. One such neuropeptide receptor system, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP; Adcyap1) and its cognate receptor, PAC1 (Adcyap1r1), have tissue-specific distributions in the LUT. Mice with a genetic deletion of PACAP exhibit bladder dysfunction and altered somatic sensation. PACAP and associated receptors are expressed in the LUT and exhibit neuroplastic changes with neural injury, inflammation, and diseases of the LUT as well as psychogenic stress. Blockade of the PACAP/PAC1 receptor system reduces voiding frequency in preclinical animal models and transgenic mouse models that mirror some clinical symptoms of bladder dysfunction. A change in the balance of the expression and resulting function of the PACAP/receptor system in CNS and PNS bladder reflex pathways may underlie LUT dysfunction including symptoms of urinary urgency, increased voiding frequency, and visceral pain. The PACAP/receptor system in micturition pathways may represent a potential target for therapeutic intervention to reduce LUT dysfunction. PMID:29255407

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of the urinary bladder: cancer staging and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haider, E.A. [McMaster Univ. Medical Centre, Dept. of Medical Imaging, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Jhaveri, K.S.; O' Malley, M.E.; Haider, M.A. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Medical Imaging, Univ. Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)], E-mail: Kartik.Jhaveri@uhn.on.ca; Jewett, M.A.; Rendon, R.A. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Urology Univ. Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2008-12-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a promising technique for imaging bladder tumours. It offers distinct benefits over other imaging modalities owing to its superior contrast, spatial resolution, multiplanar capabilities, and the availability of a nonnephrotoxic contrast agent. The main indication for MRI of the urinary bladder is local staging of bladder cancers. MRI may also be used to evaluate undiagnosed bladder lesions. In some cases MRI may play an important role in early detection and characterizing of certain bladder lesions. This article provides an overview of MRI's role in bladder imaging with emphasis on local tumour staging. MRI features of various urinary bladder lesions are described. (author)

  20. Radical radiotherapy for urinary bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fokdal, Lars; Høyer, Morten; von der Maase, Hans

    2006-01-01

    The exact value of radiotherapy in the treatment of muscle-invasive       bladder cancer is difficult to establish, as most studies exploring this       issue are retrospective with different procedures for selecting patients       for treatment, as well as varying treatment strategies. An estimate...... of the       5-year overall survival rate following radiotherapy is approximately 35%       in consecutive-selected patients and approximately 25% in       negative-selected patients...

  1. [Fall during dancing can lead to urinary bladder rupture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winck-Flyvholm, Lili

    2013-12-02

    The definition of dancing is body movements performed to music. It is hard to imagine any festive occasion without music and dancing. It is also a great exercise which helps you to stay in shape. As with any other form of sports, dancing can lead to injury. In this case report it is described how a fall during dancing resulted in urinary bladder rupture. This type of injury under these circumstances has never been described before in the literature.

  2. Functional role of cannabinoid receptors in urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Tyagi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa (marijuana, and their derivatives produce a wide spectrum of central and peripheral effects, some of which may have clinical applications. The discovery of specific cannabinoid receptors and a family of endogenous ligands of those receptors has attracted much attention to the general cannabinoid pharmacology. In recent years, studies on the functional role of cannabinoid receptors in bladder have been motivated by the therapeutic effects of cannabinoids on voiding dysfunction in multiple sclerosis patients. In this review, we shall summarize the literature on the expression of cannabinoid receptors in urinary bladder and the peripheral influence of locally and systemically administered cannabinoids in the bladder. The ongoing search for cannabinoid-based therapeutic strategies devoid of psychotropic effects can be complemented with local delivery into bladder by the intravesical route. A greater understanding of the role of the peripheral CB 1 and CB 2 receptor system in lower urinary tract is necessary to allow the development of new treatment for pelvic disorders.

  3. Pure Lymphoepithelioma-Like Carcinoma Originating from the Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Nagai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the urinary bladder (LELCB is a rare variant of infiltrating urothelial carcinoma. We report a case of LELCB in a 43-year-old man. Ultrasonography and cystoscopy revealed two bladder tumors, one on the left side of the trigone and the other on the right side of the trigone. Transurethral resection of the bladder tumors was performed and pathological analysis revealed undifferentiated carcinoma. We therefore performed radical cystectomy and urinary diversion. Immunohistochemically the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin, but negative for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA in situ hybridization as found for previous cases of LELCB. The final pathological diagnosis was a lymphoepithelioma-like variant of urothelial carcinoma with perivesical soft tissue invasion. For adjuvant systemic chemotherapy, three courses of cisplatin were administered. The patient subsequently became free of cancer 72 months postoperatively. Based on the literature, pure or predominant LELCB types show favorable prognoses due to their sensitivity to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. An analysis of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC values of bladder tumors examined in our institution revealed that the ADC value measured for this LELCB was relatively low compared to conventional urothelial carcinomas. This suggests that measuring the ADC value of a lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma prior to operation may be helpful in predicting LELCB.

  4. Functional role of cannabinoid receptors in urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Pradeep; Tyagi, Vikas; Yoshimura, Naoki; Chancellor, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa (maijuana), and their derivatives produce a wide spectrum of central and peripheral effects, some of which may have clinical applications. The discovery of specific cannabinoid receptors and a family of endogenous ligands of those receptors has attracted much attention to the general cannabinoid pharmacology. In recent years, studies on the functional role of cannabinoid receptors in bladder have been motivated by the therapeutic effects of cannabinoids on voiding dysfunction in multiple sclerosis patients. In this review, we shall summarize the literature on the expression of cannabinoid receptors in urinary bladder and the peripheral influence of locally and systemically administered cannabinoids in the bladder. The ongoing search for cannabinoid-based therapeutic strategies devoid of psychotropic effects can be complemented with local delivery into bladder by the intravesical route. A greater understanding of the role of the peripheral CB(1) and CB(2) receptor system in lower urinary tract is necessary to allow the development of new treatment for pelvic disorders.

  5. Incidentally discovered inverted papilloma of the urinary bladder in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hwan; Mah, Sang Yol; Chung, Byung Ha

    2010-02-01

    Inverted urothelial papilloma (IP) is an uncommon urothelial neoplasm. We aimed to determine the clinicopathologic characteristics of IP of the bladder and its association with prostate volume and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). From 1994 to 2008, 53 patients with urinary IP underwent transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) at our institution. We reviewed the clinicopathologic characteristics of IP of the bladder and its association with prostate volume and LUTS. The patient population consisted of 46 men and 7 women with a mean age of 56 years (male to female ratio 6.6:1). The most common presenting symptom was LUTS (33 men and 3 women). Of the 33 men with LUTS, the mean prostate volume before TURBT was 48.1 cc (range 21.8-109.3 cc). IP was found incidentally in 14 men on transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) and in 2 men during transurethral prostate resection. In IP located on the bladder neck of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), significantly higher obstructive symptoms and larger prostate volumes than that of other located IP with BPH were observed. This is the largest series of cases of urinary bladder IP reported from Korea. Despite the absence of agreement of its etiology, its presenting symptoms were related to LUTS and benign prostatic enlargement. TRUS may be helpful, especially in unresponsive patients with LUTS despite medical treatment.

  6. Application of Bladder Acellular Matrix in Urinary Bladder Regeneration: The State of the Art and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pokrywczynska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction of the urinary bladder de novo using tissue engineering technologies is the “holy grail” of reconstructive urology. The search for the ideal biomaterial for urinary bladder reconstruction has been ongoing for decades. One of the most promising biomaterials for this purpose seems to be bladder acellular matrix (BAM. In this review we determine the most important factors, which may affect biological and physical properties of BAM and its regeneration potential in tissue engineered urinary bladder. We also point out the directions in modification of BAM, which include incorporation of exogenous growth factors into the BAM structure. Finally, we discuss the results of the urinary bladder regeneration with cell seeded BAM.

  7. Stage of urinary bladder cancer at first presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bazzaz Pishtewan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The stage of urinary bladder cancer is an important factor in determining prognosis of the disease. This prospective study was performed to determine the stage of bladder cancer at first presentation at the Rizgary Hospital in the Erbil governorate in Iraqi Kurdistan. We evaluated 72 patients with bladder cancer. The grades and stages of bladder cancer of these patients were determined through physical examination and investigations. We found that 47.2% of patients had superficial cancer, 19.4% had tumor with invasion into the lamina propria and 30.6% of patients had tumor with invasion to muscle wall. Regional or distant metastases were found in 2.8% of patients. Well differentiated tumor was seen in 44.4% of the patients, moderately differentiated tumor was found in 38.9% and poorly differentiated tumor was found in 16.7% of the patients. Our study suggests that bladder cancer is diagnosed at a relatively early stage in the Erbil governorate. However, the situation can be further improved by adopting proper screening programs and performing appropriate investigations.

  8. The Urinary Bladder Transcriptome and Proteome Defined by Transcriptomics and Antibody-Based Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habuka, Masato; Fagerberg, Linn; Hallström, Björn M; Pontén, Fredrik; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Uhlen, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    To understand functions and diseases of urinary bladder, it is important to define its molecular constituents and their roles in urinary bladder biology. Here, we performed genome-wide deep RNA sequencing analysis of human urinary bladder samples and identified genes up-regulated in the urinary bladder by comparing the transcriptome data to those of all other major human tissue types. 90 protein-coding genes were elevated in the urinary bladder, either with enhanced expression uniquely in the urinary bladder or elevated expression together with at least one other tissue (group enriched). We further examined the localization of these proteins by immunohistochemistry and tissue microarrays and 20 of these 90 proteins were localized to the whole urothelium with a majority not yet described in the context of the urinary bladder. Four additional proteins were found specifically in the umbrella cells (Uroplakin 1a, 2, 3a, and 3b), and three in the intermediate/basal cells (KRT17, PCP4L1 and ATP1A4). 61 of the 90 elevated genes have not been previously described in the context of urinary bladder and the corresponding proteins are interesting targets for more in-depth studies. In summary, an integrated omics approach using transcriptomics and antibody-based profiling has been used to define a comprehensive list of proteins elevated in the urinary bladder.

  9. Stimulus-associated urinary urges in overactive bladder syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Kathleen A; Singer, Jonathan; Rajan, Sonali

    2017-05-02

    Although anecdotal reports of urinary urgency at one's front door are common in overactive bladder syndrome (OAB), little research has been done on how one's front door and other stimuli are related to urinary symptoms. We hypothesized that individuals with OAB would have higher scores on the Urinary Cues Questionnaire, developed for this study to assess stimulus-associated urinary urges, than those without OAB. Online surveys were administered to 328 women age 18-40 years recruited from a respondent panel maintained by CINT such that one-third of the sample reported a diagnosis of OAB. The survey assessed OAB symptoms and the frequency with which participants associated 42 stimuli with the urge to urinate. Psychometric analyses showed internal consistency estimates of the Urinary Cues Questionnaire of α = 0.97 and a test-retest correlation of 0.91. Women with OAB had significantly higher Urinary Cues Scores than those without OAB, with a t-test showing a large effect size of d = 1.49 (95%CI 1.24, 1.74), P research is needed on both treatment implications and on the trajectory of symptom development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Phosphodiesterase type 2 distribution in the guinea pig urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnama'i, M S; Hohnen, R; Van Kerrebroeck, Ph E V; van Koeveringe, G A

    2015-10-01

    Nitric oxide-stimulated cGMP synthesis represents an important signalling pathway in the urinary bladder. Inhibitors of the PDE1 and PDE5 enzyme have been studied to treat storage and voiding disorders in clinical settings. The distribution of PDE2 in the bladder is unknown. This study focuses on the distribution and site of action of PDE2 within the guinea pig urinary bladder wall. Six male guinea pig bladders were dissected and treated in 2 ml Krebs' solution and 10 µM of the specific PDE2 inhibitor, Bay 60-7550 at 36 °C for 30 min. After stimulating tissues with 100 µM of diethylamine-NONOate for 10 min, the tissues were snap frozen and cut in 10 µm sections which were examined for cGMP immune-reactivity, co-stained with either vimentin, synaptic vesicle protein 2, calcitonin gene-related protein and protein gene product 9.5. PDE2 inhibitor Bay 60-7550 inhibits cGMP breakdown the most in the urothelial and suburothelial layers, as well as on the nerve fibres. After inhibition by Bay 60-7550, cGMP was mainly expressed in the intermuscle interstitial cells and the nerve fibres of the outer muscle layers of lateral wall, indicating the presence of PDE2 activity. Our study is the first to show the distribution of PDE2 in the bladder which was shown to be present in the urothelium, mainly umbrella cells, the interstitial cells of the suburothelium and the outer muscle, as well as in nerve fibres.

  11. Synchronously detected secondary signet ring cell urinary bladder malignancy from the stomach masquerading as genitourinary tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sidhartha; Manikandan, Ramanitharan; Dorairajan, Lalgudi Narayanan; Badhe, Bhavana

    2015-01-01

    Secondary bladder neoplasms are very rare and represent 1% of all malignant bladder tumours. Among secondary bladder tumours, metastasis from the stomach accounts for about 4% of cases. These secondary tumours are generally detected during follow-up of patients already treated for gastric cancer. We report a case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder from an occult primary poorly differentiated signet ring cell type gastric carcinoma masquerading clinically as genitourinary tuberculosis. Our case illustrates the importance of obtaining a bladder biopsy in suspected chronic inflammatory conditions such as urinary tract tuberculosis before starting medical management to avoid the serious consequences of missing a bladder malignancy. PMID:25618874

  12. Two cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma of urinary bladder: Primary and secondary

    OpenAIRE

    Nischith D'Souza; Ashish Verma; Avinash Rai

    2017-01-01

    Lymphoma of urinary bladder is rare and can be primary (0.2% of all bladder neoplasms) or secondary (1.8% of secondary tumors of the bladder), the latter being more common. Here, we report a case each of primary and secondary lymphoma of the bladder who had undergone treatment at our hospital. Both patients underwent cystoscopy and resection of the bladder growth followed by immunohistochemical staining which revealed them to be lymphomas.

  13. [Tissue engineering of urinary bladder using acellular matrix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glybochko, P V; Olefir, Yu V; Alyaev, Yu G; Butnaru, D V; Bezrukov, E A; Chaplenko, A A; Zharikova, T M

    2017-04-01

    Tissue engineering has become a new promising strategy for repairing damaged organs of the urinary system, including the bladder. The basic idea of tissue engineering is to integrate cellular technology and advanced bio-compatible materials to replace or repair tissues and organs. of the study is the objective reflection of the current trends and advances in tissue engineering of the bladder using acellular matrix through a systematic search of preclinical and clinical studies of interest. Relevant studies, including those on methods of tissue engineering of urinary bladder, was retrieved from multiple databases, including Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Embase. The reference lists of the retrieved review articles were analyzed for the presence of the missing relevant publications. In addition, a manual search for registered clinical trials was conducted in clinicaltrials.gov. Following the above search strategy, a total of 77 eligible studies were selected for further analysis. Studies differed in the types of animal models, supporting structures, cells and growth factors. Among those, studies using cell-free matrix were selected for a more detailed analysis. Partial restoration of urothelium layer was observed in most studies where acellular grafts were used for cystoplasty, but no the growth of the muscle layer was observed. This is the main reason why cellular structures are more commonly used in clinical practice.

  14. Urine cytology of micropapillary carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Takahiko; Furuta, Michiko; Mimura, Akihiro; Tanigawa, Naoto; Takamizu, Ryuichi; Kawano, Kiyoshi

    2011-11-01

    A case of micropapillary carcinoma (MPC) of urinary bladder is presented, in which the urine smear was studied in detail in an attempt to better characterize the cytologic findings of MPC. When the voided urine was examined in low power, cancer cells were scattered in the specimens as compact papillary/spheroidal clusters composed of pleomorphic cancer cells. Solitary carcinoma cells were occasionally observed. High power view of the smear revealed that the papillae/spheroids consisted of high-grade urothelial carcinoma cells. The cancer cells had pleomorphic nuclei with coarsely granular chromatin and thickened, irregular nuclear membrane, and thick cytoplasm. Histologically, the tumor in the resected bladder appeared as small nests with surrounding hallo both in the luminal surface and in the site of wall involvement. These tightly bound papillary/spheroidal clusters comprised of highly atypical cancer cells were the most specific cytologic finding in the urine of MPC, which were considered as a key diagnostic clue of MPC. The background of the urine smear showed numerous granulocytes and bacilli compatible with cystitis, which is a previously known complication of MPC. Differential diagnoses of MPC from those with pertinent cytologic findings such as conventional UC (including glandular differentiation), and primary/secondary adenocarcinoma of urinary bladder are discussed with a brief review of literature. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Optogenetic Modulation of Urinary Bladder Contraction for Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hong; Hong, Jin Ki; Jang, Ja Yun; An, Jieun; Lee, Kyu-Sung; Kang, Tong Mook; Shin, Hyun Joon; Suh, Jun-Kyo Francis

    2017-01-01

    As current clinical approaches for lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction such as pharmacological and electrical stimulation treatments lack target specificity, thus resulting in suboptimal outcomes with various side effects, a better treatment modality with spatial and temporal target-specificity is necessary. In this study, we delivered optogenetic membrane proteins, such as channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and halorhodopsin (NpHR), to bladder smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of mice using either the Cre-loxp transgenic system or a viral transfection method. The results showed that depolarizing ChR2-SMCs with blue light induced bladder contraction, whereas hyperpolarizing NpHR-SMCs with yellow light suppressed PGE2-induced overactive contraction. We also confirmed that optogenetic contraction of bladder smooth muscles in this study is not neurogenic, but solely myogenic, and that optogenetic light stimulation can modulate the urination in vivo. This study thus demonstrated the utility of optogenetic modulation of smooth muscle as a means to actively control the urinary bladder contraction with spatial and temporal accuracy. These features would increase the efficacy of bladder control in LUT dysfunctions without the side effects of conventional clinical therapies.

  16. Recent Advances in Urinary Tract Reconstruction for Neuropathic Bladder in Children [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto I. Lopes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic bladder usually causes several limitations to patients’ quality of life, including urinary incontinence, recurrent urinary tract infections, and upper urinary tract damage. Its management has significantly changed over the last few years. The aim of our paper is to address some salient features of recent literature dealing with reconstructive procedures in pediatric and adolescent patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction.

  17. Osteoclast-like Giant Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pa-Jan Wu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Extraskeletal osteoclast-like giant cell (OGC tumors are uncommon and have mainly been found in the breast and pancreas. OGC neoplasms of the urinary tract are extremely rare, and their histogenesis and biologic behavior remain controversial. Gross hematuria is the most common presenting symptom, as in transitional cell carcinoma. The prognosis is poor in patients with extraskeletal OGC tumors. Here, we present the case of a 62-year-old man who received transurethral bladder tumor resection due to painless gross hematuria. Pathology showed OGC carcinoma. Abdominal computed tomography showed tumor invasion over the right lateral wall of the bladder and distal third of the ureter. The patient received radical cystectomy and partial distal ureterectomy with transureteroureterostomy. No local tumor recurrence or distant metastasis was found at the 5-month follow-up.

  18. Iatrogenic granulomas of the prostate and the urinary bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Marcussen, N

    1987-01-01

    In 1059 patients who had transurethral resections (TUR) of the prostate 8 cases (0.8%) with nonspecific granulomas were found. In another group of 280 patients treated by TUR for tumours of the urinary bladder 5 cases (1.8%) had granulomatous lesions in the resectates. The granulomas were observed...... only in patients with prior surgical trauma of the prostate and the bladder with an incidence of 14% and 6.5%, respectively. None of the patients had systemic diseases. Morphologically, two types of granulomas were observed, foreign-body-type and necrotizing. Carbonization rests were frequently noticed...... in the granulomatous lesions and the configurations and anatomical distribution of the granulomas suggest a common pathogenesis by electrocauterization. Immunohistochemically, histiocytic cells were stained by antibodies against lysozyme. In the prostate, no reaction by antibodies against prostate specific antigen...

  19. Immunoglobulin G4-related disease in the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dropkin, Benjamin M; Ingimarsson, Johann P; Jones, Jonathan D; Pettus, Jason R; Seigne, John D

    2015-06-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease is a fibroinflammatory condition of unclear etiology that can present with inflammatory changes and enlargement of a wide variety of organs, most commonly in the gastrointestinal tract. A diagnosis requires an elevated serum immunoglobulin G4 concentration and a tissue biopsy showing a dense plasma cell infiltrate with an increased percentage of immunoglobulin G4+ plasma cells. This disease infrequently presents in the genitourinary tract, and as such might be unfamiliar to and potentially overlooked by urologists. Here we present the third reported case of immunoglobulin G4-related disease manifesting as a mass in the urinary bladder. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  20. Urothelial Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder in Young Adults — Clinical Experience at Taipei Veterans General Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ching Wen

    2005-06-01

    Conclusion: Urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder in young adults is usually associated with low grade and low stage. Invasive bladder cancer had no worse a survival rate than superficial bladder cancer.

  1. Bacterial flora in the Urinary bladder of apparently healthy cattle in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty apparently healthy adult cattle presented for slaughter at the Maiduguri Metropolitan Abattoir were examined to determine the bacterial flora in the urinary bladder. Isolation and identification of the isolates in the aseptic urine samples from the urinary bladder were done according to standard bacteriological techniques.

  2. [A case of sigmoid colon cancer invading urinary bladder treated with preoperative mFOLFOX6 and urinary bladder conserving surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Takeshi; Katayama, Kazuhisa; Takahashi, Yuji; Tanaka, Takashi

    2012-02-01

    A 69-year-old man visited our hospital because of melena and anemia. Colonoscopy revealed a type 3 tumor at sigmoid colon, and by abdominal CT, we detected a sigmoid colon cancer invading the urinary bladder with a single liver metastasis. The patient required sigmoidectomy with partial hepatectomy and total urinary bladder resection. Preoperative chemotherapy with mFOLFOX6 was initiated as a part of multidisciplinary therapy. After the 6th course was completed, CT revealed a reduction in the primary tumor's size and the disappearance of liver metastasis. After the 8th course was completed, we performed urinary bladder conserving sigmoidectomy. The pathological diagnosis of the surgical specimen was tub1, pSS, ly0, v0, pN0, and pStage II. Down-sizing chemotherapy might improve the quality of life(QOL)of colon cancer patients with extensive invasion of the urinary bladder.

  3. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder: A case series among more than 2,000 urinary bladder tumor cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M Elawdy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available “Inflammatory pseudotumor” (IPT has infrequently been reported in the medical journals. A retrospective analysis was conducted among more than 2,000 bladder tumor cases from January 1999 to December 2012 looking for patients with IPT in the final diagnosis. Six patients were found with median tumor size of 3.5 cm (range: 3–8 cm; computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging was used to diagnose the tumor. All patients had complete resection of the tumors. On a median follow-up of 6 years (range: 2–10 years, no recurrences for IPT have been observed in all patients. We concluded that IPT is a rare disease of the urinary bladder and should be regarded with a high degree of suspicion. Although an extensive workup may be needed for definite diagnosis, it is worth to avoid unnecessary chemoradiotherapy or radical surgeries.

  4. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder: A case series among more than 2,000 urinary bladder tumor cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elawdy, Mohamed M.; Harraz, Ahmed M.; Zahran, Mohamed H.; Abdelraheem; El-Baz, Mahmoud; El-Hefnawy, Ahmed S.

    2016-01-01

    “Inflammatory pseudotumor” (IPT) has infrequently been reported in the medical journals. A retrospective analysis was conducted among more than 2,000 bladder tumor cases from January 1999 to December 2012 looking for patients with IPT in the final diagnosis. Six patients were found with median tumor size of 3.5 cm (range: 3–8 cm); computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging was used to diagnose the tumor. All patients had complete resection of the tumors. On a median follow-up of 6 years (range: 2–10 years), no recurrences for IPT have been observed in all patients. We concluded that IPT is a rare disease of the urinary bladder and should be regarded with a high degree of suspicion. Although an extensive workup may be needed for definite diagnosis, it is worth to avoid unnecessary chemoradiotherapy or radical surgeries. PMID:26834412

  5. Diagnostic value of urinary CK-20 RNA and VEGF in bladder cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the diagnostic value of urinary cytokeratin 20 (CK-20) RNA and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in comparison with urine cytology in the detection of bladder cancer. This study included 80 patients with bladder cancer, 20 patients with bilharzial bladder lesions and 20 ...

  6. Pure primary small cell carcinoma of urinary bladder: A rare diagnostic entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small cell carcinoma of the bladder is a rare, aggressive, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasm accounting for only 0.3-0.7% of all bladder tumors. Since the tumor is very rare, pathogenesis is uncertain. Small cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder are mixed with classic urothelial carcinomas or adenocarcinomas of the bladder in 68% cases, making pure primary small cell carcinoma even a rarer entity. The unknown etiology and natural history of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder represent a challenge both to the pathologist and urologists for its diagnosis and treatment, respectively.

  7. Paraganglioma of the Urinary Bladder: A Rare Cause of Hypertension and Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaya, Gerard; Morales, Jorge; Castiglioni, Analia; Subhani, Noman; Asmar, Abdo

    2018-02-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a neoplasm, which develops from cells of the chromaffin tissues that are derived from the ectodermic neural system and mostly situated within the adrenal medulla. Approximately 15% of pheochromocytoma cases arise from extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue. Pheochromocytoma of the bladder is rare and accounts for less than 0.06% of all bladder neoplasms and less than 1% of all pheochromocytomas. We report a case of a young woman who presented with uncontrolled hypertension, recurrent urinary tract infections and micturition attacks and was found to have a metastatic bladder paraganglioma. In addition, we provide a summary table of the clinical manifestations of paragangliomas based on anatomic locations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Villous Tumor of the Urinary Bladder Resembling Low-grade Mucinous Neoplasm of the Appendix

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Ayako; Sakura, Yuma; Sugimoto, Mikio; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Kuroda, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    Mucinous neoplasms of the urinary tract are very rare. We present a 63-year-old-women who had a sessile papillary villous tumor in urinary bladder. Although transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) was performed, the villous tumor repetitively recurred and gradually spread to the entire surface of bladder lumen. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical examination showed that the lesion was very similar to low-grade mucinous neoplasm arising in appendix vermiformis. There are no re...

  9. Explosion of the urinary bladder during transurethral resection of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldvinsdóttir, Bryndís; Gíslason, Thornorsteinn; Jónsson, Eiríkur

    2014-12-01

    Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) remains the gold standard for the surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Complications during the procedure are rare. An extremely rare complication is a rupture of the urinary bladder. This article reports a case where an explosion occurred during TURP, resulting in a large intraperitoneal rupture of the urinary bladder. The patient underwent emergency laparotomy to repair the bladder.

  10. Sonography of tumors and tumor-like lesions that mimic carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopiński, Tomasz; Gołąbek, Tomasz; Ostasz, Oksana; Bojko, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    One of the basic abdominal organs that is assessed during transabdominal ultrasound examination for urological reasons is the urinary bladder. The bladder must be filled with urine. This is a prerequisite for a reliable assessment and, at the same time, an acoustic window in examining adjacent structures and organs, for instance the prostate gland. In some cases, doubts occur with respect to the nature of lesions detected. The paper presents anatomic lesions, defects and pathologies which might be erroneously interpreted as tumors of the urinary bladder, i.e. transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. The following lesions are discussed: 1) anatomic defects (including urachus remnants, ligaments that stabilize the bladder or cyst in the opening of the ureter into the bladder – ureterocele); 2) tumor- like lesions in the lumen of the urinary bladder (such as blood clots, fungus balls, stones or foreign bodies); 3) bladder wall pathologies (i.e. cystitis or endometriosis), focal decidual transformation of stromal cells or inflammatory pseudotumor; 4) lesions impressing on the bladder from the outside (the mesentery of the sigmoid colon, the bowel, pathological lesions in organs adjacent to the urinary bladder, inflammatory infiltration, vasogenic compression of the bladder, pelvic lipomatosis, pathological lesions of the pubic symphysis); 5) postoperative lesions. All these lesions may mimic carcinoma of the urinary bladder in sonography. Bearing this fact in mind is significant in establishing a diagnosis. Due to the malignant character of carcinoma of the urinary bladder and the need for aggressive surgical treatment, a correct diagnosis of this disease is essential for patients, particularly because the lack of adequate treatment and delayed treatment considerably affect prognosis. PMID:26672732

  11. Sonography of tumors and tumor-like lesions that mimic carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Smereczyński

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic abdominal organs that is assessed during transabdominal ultrasound examination for urological reasons is the urinary bladder. The bladder must be filled with urine. This is a prerequisite for a reliable assessment and, at the same time, an acoustic window in examining adjacent structures and organs, for instance the prostate gland. In some cases, doubts occur with respect to the nature of lesions detected. The paper presents anatomic lesions, defects and pathologies which might be erroneously interpreted as tumors of the urinary bladder, i.e. transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. The following lesions are discussed: 1 anatomic defects (including urachus remnants, ligaments that stabilize the bladder or cyst in the opening of the ureter into the bladder – ureterocele; 2 tumorlike lesions in the lumen of the urinary bladder (such as blood clots, fungus balls, stones or foreign bodies; 3 bladder wall pathologies (i.e. cystitis or endometriosis, focal decidual transformation of stromal cells or inflammatory pseudotumor; 4 lesions impressing on the bladder from the outside (the mesentery of the sigmoid colon, the bowel, pathological lesions in organs adjacent to the urinary bladder, inflammatory infiltration, vasogenic compression of the bladder, pelvic lipomatosis, pathological lesions of the pubic symphysis; 5 postoperative lesions. All these lesions may mimic carcinoma of the urinary bladder in sonography. Bearing this fact in mind is significant in establishing a diagnosis. Due to the malignant character of carcinoma of the urinary bladder and the need for aggressive surgical treatment, a correct diagnosis of this disease is essential for patients, particularly because the lack of adequate treatment and delayed treatment considerably affect prognosis.

  12. Improved estimates of the radiation absorbed dose to the urinary bladder wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Martin; Minarik, David; Johansson, Lennart; Mattsson, Sören; Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid

    2014-05-07

    Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) have been calculated as a function of the content in the urinary bladder in order to allow more realistic calculations of the absorbed dose to the bladder wall. The SAFs were calculated using the urinary bladder anatomy from the ICRP male and female adult reference computational phantoms. The urinary bladder and its content were approximated by a sphere with a wall of constant mass, where the thickness of the wall depended on the amount of urine in the bladder. SAFs were calculated for males and females with 17 different urinary bladder volumes from 10 to 800 mL, using the Monte Carlo computer program MCNP5, at 25 energies of mono-energetic photons and electrons ranging from 10 KeV to 10 MeV. The decay was assumed to be homogeneously distributed in the urinary bladder content and the urinary bladder wall, and the mean absorbed dose to the urinary bladder wall was calculated. The Monte Carlo simulations were validated against measurements made with thermoluminescent dosimeters. The SAFs obtained for a urine volume of 200 mL were compared to the values calculated for the urinary bladder wall using the adult reference computational phantoms. The mean absorbed dose to the urinary wall from (18)F-FDG was found to be 77 µGy/MBq formales and 86 µGy/MBq for females, while for (99m)Tc-DTPA the mean absorbed doses were 80 µGy/MBq for males and 86 µGy/MBq for females. Compared to calculations using a constant value of the SAF from the adult reference computational phantoms, the mean absorbed doses to the bladder wall were 60% higher for (18)F-FDG and 30% higher for (99m)Tc-DTPA using the new SAFs.

  13. A novel bioreactor to simulate urinary bladder mechanical properties and compliance for bladder functional tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xin; Li, Dao-bing; Xu, Feng; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Yu-chun; Li, Hong; Wang, Kun-jie

    2011-02-01

    Bioreactors are pivotal tools for generating mechanical stimulation in functional tissue engineering study. This study aimed to create a bioreactor that can simulate urinary bladder mechanical properties, and to investigate the effects of a mechanically stimulated culture on urothelial cells and bladder smooth muscle cells. We designed a bioreactor to simulate the mechanical properties of bladder. A pressure-record system was used to evaluate the mechanical properties of the bioreactor by measuring the pressure in culture chambers. To test the biocompatibility of the bioreactor, viabilities of urothelial cells and smooth muscle cells cultured in the bioreactor under static and mechanically changed conditions were measured after 7-day culture. To evaluate the effect of mechanical stimulations on the vital cells, urethral cells and smooth muscle cells were cultured in the simulated mechanical conditions. After that, the viability and the distribution pattern of the cells were observed and compared with cells cultured in non-mechanical stimulated condition. The bioreactor system successfully generated waveforms similar to the intended programmed model while maintaining a cell-seeded elastic membrane between the chambers. There were no differences between viabilities of urothelial cells ((91.90 ± 1.22)% vs. (93.14 ± 1.78)%, P > 0.05) and bladder smooth muscle cells ((93.41 ± 1.49)% vs. (92.61 ± 1.34)%, P > 0.05). The viability of cells and tissue structure observation after cultured in simulated condition showed that mechanical stimulation was the only factor affected cells in the bioreactor and improved the arrangement of cells on silastic membrane. This bioreactor can effectively simulate the physiological and mechanical properties of the bladder. Mechanical stimulation is the only factor that affected the viability of cells cultured in the bioreactor. The bioreactor can change the growth behavior of urothelial cells and bladder smooth muscle cells, resulting in

  14. Implementation of adaptive radiation therapy for urinary bladder carcinoma - Imaging, planning and image guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomikoski, Laura; Collan, Juhani; Keyrilaeinen, Jani; Saarilahti, Kauko; Tenhunen, Mikko [Dept. of Oncology, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)], e-mail: laura.tuomikoski@hus.fi; Korhonen, Juha [Dept. of Oncology, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Clinical Research Inst. Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital Ltd, Helsinki (Finland); Visapaeae, Harri [Dept. of Oncology, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Dept. of Urology, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Sairanen, Jukka [Dept. of Urology, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-10-15

    Background: Adaptive radiation therapy (ART) for urinary bladder cancer has emerged as a promising alternative to conventional RT with potential to minimize radiation-induced toxicity to healthy tissues. In this work we have studied bladder volume variations and their effect on healthy bladder dose sparing and intra fractional margins, in order to refine our ART strategy. Material and methods: An online ART treatment strategy was followed for five patients with urinary bladder cancer with the tumors demarcated using Lipiodol. A library of 3-4 predefined treatment plans for each patient was created based on four successive computed tomography (CT) scans. Cone beam CT (CBCT) images were acquired before each treatment fraction and after the treatment at least weekly. In partial bladder treatment the sparing of the healthy part of the bladder was investigated. The bladder wall displacements due to bladder filling were determined in three orthogonal directions (CC, AP, DEX-SIN) using the treatment planning CT scans. An ellipsoidal model was applied in order to find the theoretical maximum values for the bladder wall displacements. Moreover, the actual bladder filling rate during treatment was evaluated using the CBCT images. Results: In partial bladder treatment the volume of the bladder receiving high absorbed doses was generally smaller with a full than empty bladder. The estimation of the bladder volume and the upper limit for the intra fractional movement of the bladder wall could be represented with an ellipsoidal model with a reasonable accuracy. Observed maximum growth of bladder dimensions was less than 10 mm in all three orthogonal directions during 15 minute interval. Conclusion: The use of Lipiodol contrast agent enables partial bladder treatment with reduced irradiation of the healthy bladder volume. The ellipsoidal bladder model can be used for the estimation of the bladder volume changes and the upper limit of the bladder wall movement during the treatment

  15. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in urinary bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayalu S.L. Naik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate the expression pattern of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR in urinary bladder cancer and its association with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, epidermal growth factor (EGF, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and high risk human papilloma virus (HPV types 16 and 18. Materials and Methods : Thirty cases of urothelial carcinoma were analyzed. EGFR, HER2, EGF, and IL-6 expressions in the tissue were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. For HPV, DNA from tissue samples was extracted and detection of HPV was done by PCR technique. Furthermore, evaluation of different intracellular molecules associated with EGFR signaling pathways was performed by the western blot method using lysates from various cells and tissues. Results : In this study, the frequencies of immunopositivity for EGFR, HER2, EGF, and IL-6 were 23%, 60%, 47%, and 80%, respectively. No cases were positive for HPV-18, whereas HPV-16 was detected in 10% cases. Overall, expression of EGFR did not show any statistically significant association with the studied parameters. However, among male patients, a significant association was found only between EGFR and HER2. Conclusions : Overexpression of EGFR and/or HER2, two important members of the same family of growth factor receptors, was observed in a considerable proportion of cases. Precise knowledge in this subject would be helpful to formulate a rational treatment strategy in patients with urinary bladder cancer.

  16. [Disseminated BCG infection in patients with urinary bladder carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korać, Milos; Milosević, Branko; Lavadinović, Lidija; Janjić, Aleksandar; Brmbolić, Branko

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus Calmette-Guërin--a live, attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis has been used in immunotherapy of patients with superficial urinary bladder carcinoma. Some patients develop complications after intravesical instillation of BCG: high temperature followed by hematuria or granulomatous prostatits, epidydimoorchitis, urethral obstruction, and less than 1% have a systemic disease followed by dissemination of bacteria into other organs. A 50-year-old man underwent transurethral resection of a bladder tumor. One month after the operation BCG intravesical installations were administered for three weeks. After the fourth installation, our patient developed high fever, fatigue, vomiting, dark urine, light stools, and jaundice. On admission he was jaundiced with a high fever, enlarged liver and spleen and laboratory findings which included high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, pancytopenia, elevated liver enzymes, especially alkaline phosphatase and aminotranspherases. The bone-marrow biopsy showed granulomatous inflamation suggesting mycobacterial spread in the bone marrow, liver and spleen and sepsis. The patient was initially treated with antituberculous therapy, but his state did not improve until corticosteroids were added to the antituberculous treatment regimen. Although dissemination of BCG is a rare complication of intravesical BCG treatment of the bladder carcinoma, it may result in prolonged fever and granulomatous inflamation of the liver, spleen, lungs, bone marrow and BCG sepsis. Antituberclous agents in combination with corticosteroids comprise the treatment of choice for disseminated BCG infection.

  17. Trends in cancer of the urinary bladder and urinary tract in elderly in Denmark, 2008-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thor Knak; Jensen, Niels Viggo; Jørgensen, Simon Møller

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the trends in incidence, mortality, survival, and prevalence of cancers of the urinary bladder and urinary tract in Denmark from 1980 to 2012 with particular focus on elderly patients over age 70 years. Design Cancer of the urinary bladder and urinary...... tract was defined as ICD-10 codes C67.9, D09.0, D41.4. Data were derived from the NORDCAN database with comparable data on cancer incidence, mortality, prevalence and relative survival in the Nordic countries, where the Danish data were delivered from the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Cause...

  18. Synchronously detected secondary signet ring cell urinary bladder malignancy from the stomach masquerading as genitourinary tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Sidhartha; Manikandan, Ramanitharan; Dorairajan, Lalgudi Narayanan; Badhe, Bhavana

    2015-01-01

    Secondary bladder neoplasms are very rare and represent 1% of all malignant bladder tumours. Among secondary bladder tumours, metastasis from the stomach accounts for about 4% of cases. These secondary tumours are generally detected during follow-up of patients already treated for gastric cancer. We report a case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder from an occult primary poorly differentiated signet ring cell type gastric carcinoma masquerading clinically as genitourinary tube...

  19. Expression and function of phosphodiesterases (PDEs) in the rat urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaofei; Zhai, Kui; Mi, Yue; Ji, Guangju

    2017-07-07

    It has been shown that hosphodiesterases (PDEs) play an important role in mediating the smooth muscle tone of rat urinary bladder. However, the gene expression profiles of them were still unknown. Urinary bladder Strips were obtained from both neonatal and adult Sprague-Dawley rats. RT-PCR/western blot and organ bath were used to measure the expression and function of PDEs. Adult rat urinary bladder expressed various PDE mRNA with the following rank order: PDE5A ≈ PDE9A ≈ PDE10A > PDE2A ≈ PDE4A ≈ PDE4D > PDE4B ≈ PDE3B ≈ PDE8B ≈ PDE7A ≈ PDE7B > PDE1A. PDE1B, PDE1C, PDE3A, PDE4C, PDE8A, and PDE11A were not detected. Of interest, the mRNA and protein of PDE3A were significantly decreased in adult rat urinary bladder compared to neonatal rat urinary bladder. Cilostamide, a specific inhibitor for PDE3, significantly inhibited the amplitude and frequency of carbachol-enhanced phasic contractions of neonatal rat bladder strips by 38.8% and 12.1%, respectively. Compared to the neonatal rat bladder, the effect of cilostamide was significantly blunted in adult rat urinary bladder: the amplitude and frequency of carbachol-enhanced phasic contractions were decreased by 13.4% (P bladder) and 4.4%, respectively. However, the mRNA and the protein levels of PDE3B were similar between neonatal and adult rat bladder. We found that several PDE isoforms were expressed in the rat urinary bladder with distinct levels. Moreover, we showed that the function of PDE3 was blunted in adult rat bladder likely due to the decreased expression of PDE3A.

  20. Giant Urinary Bladder and Bilateral Giant Hydronephrosis due to Bladder Neck Obstruction: One Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Fadl Tazi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral hydronephrosis secondary to urinary obstruction leads to a buildup of back pressure in the urinary tract and may lead to impairment of renal function. Cases of giant hydronephrosis are rare and usually contain no more than 1-2 litres of fluid in the collecting system. Here, we report a rarely seen case with giant urinary bladder and bilateral giant hydronephrosis due to bladder neck obstruction which contains 4000 mL fluid in the collecting system of the kidney mimicking an ascites in an adult male.

  1. Human urinary bladder regeneration through tissue engineering - an analysis of 131 clinical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrywczynska, Marta; Adamowicz, Jan; Sharma, Arun K; Drewa, Tomasz

    2014-03-01

    Replacement of urinary bladder tissue with functional equivalents remains one of the most challenging problems of reconstructive urology over the last several decades. The gold standard treatment for urinary diversion after radical cystectomy is the ileal conduit or neobladder; however, this technique is associated with numerous complications including electrolyte imbalances, mucus production, and the potential for malignant transformation. Tissue engineering techniques provide the impetus to construct functional bladder substitutes de novo. Within this review, we have thoroughly perused the literature utilizing PubMed in order to identify clinical studies involving bladder reconstruction utilizing tissue engineering methodologies. The idea of urinary bladder regeneration through tissue engineering dates back to the 1950s. Many natural and synthetic biomaterials such as plastic mold, gelatin sponge, Japanese paper, preserved dog bladder, lyophilized human dura, bovine pericardium, small intestinal submucosa, bladder acellular matrix, or composite of collagen and polyglycolic acid were used for urinary bladder regeneration with a wide range of outcomes. Recent progress in the tissue engineering field suggest that in vitro engineered bladder wall substitutes may have expanded clinical applicability in near future but preclinical investigations on large animal models with defective bladders are necessary to optimize the methods of bladder reconstruction by tissue engineering in humans.

  2. Partial cystectomy in a 76 year old patient suffering from small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Starownik, Radosław; Korolczuk, Agnieszka; Bar, Krzysztof; Płaza, Paweł; Kiś, Jacek; Muc, Kamil; Bar, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Small cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder originating from the neuroendocrine cells are extremely rare. We present a case of a 76–year–old patient with small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. The patient had hematuria and cystoscopy revealed a tumor located in a urinary bladder diverticulum. Partial resection of the bladder wall with diverticulectomy was performed. Microscopic examination established the diagnosis of neuroendocrine carcinoma, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistr...

  3. Bioimpedance based monitoring system for people with neurogenic dysfunction of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla, Alessandro; Rossi, Stefano; Fanucci, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Patients with impaired bladder volume sensation have the necessity to monitor bladder level in order to avoid urinary tract infections and urinary reflux that can lead to renal failure. In this paper the the effectiveness of an embedded and wearable solution for bladder volume monitoring using the bioimpedance measurement is tested. Data are streamed real-time using Bluetooth wireless technology. The bioimpedance measurements on a healthy subject prove the effectiveness of the proposed solution. In the future the system will be evaluated in real world scenarios with patients affected by spinal paralysis and bladder neurogenic dysfunction.

  4. Implantation of artificial urinary sphincter in patients with post-prostatectomy incontinence, and preoperative overactive bladder and mixed symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, H Henry; Boone, Timothy B

    2011-06-01

    We assessed the impact of preoperative overactive bladder on the continence results of artificial urinary sphincter implantation, and describe the rates and risk factors associated with the development of de novo and persistent overactive bladder after artificial urinary sphincter surgery. A total of 129 consecutive patients treated with radical prostatectomy who had preoperative videourodynamics and virgin artificial urinary sphincter implantation were included in the study. During preoperative and postoperative visits patients were specifically queried about overactive bladder symptoms, anticholinergic medication use and continence status. The presence of concomitant overactive bladder symptoms before artificial urinary sphincter surgery did not negatively impact the overall continence results of the artificial urinary sphincter. De novo overactive bladder developed after artificial urinary sphincter surgery in up to a fourth (23%) of patients with pure stress incontinence (no overactive bladder). Most patients (71%) with preoperative mixed stress urinary incontinence plus overactive bladder symptoms continued to have persistent overactive bladder after artificial urinary sphincter surgery despite marked improvement of incontinence. Patients with a low preoperative cystometric capacity of 200 ml or less were more likely to have overactive bladder after artificial urinary sphincter surgery. Other clinical and urodynamic factors (eg the presence of detrusor overactivity) were not predictive. No risk factors predicted the development of de novo overactive bladder after artificial urinary sphincter surgery. The presence of preoperative overactive bladder does not adversely impact the overall continence results of the artificial urinary sphincter. Patients with mixed stress urinary incontinence plus overactive bladder symptoms preoperatively should not be denied the male incontinence surgery (artificial urinary sphincter) unless the overactive bladder symptoms are

  5. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor of the Urinary Bladder with Benign Pelvic Lymph Node Enlargement: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuaki Machioka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs rarely occur in the urinary bladder. It is apparently difficult to distinguish these tumors from other malignant spindle cell proliferations. Herein, we report a case of IMT of the urinary bladder with enlarged pelvic lymph nodes. The definitive pathological diagnosis could not be established by biopsy. Instead, the diagnosis of IMT of the urinary bladder was determined by a positive reaction to anaplastic lymphoma kinase by immunohistochemistry after radical cystectomy. No malignant findings were observed on histopathological evaluations of the enlarged lymph nodes.

  6. A case of spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder followed by pneumomediastinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Takashi; Ukimura, Satoshi; Sato, Nodoka; Mizutani, Youichi; Nakao, Masahiro; Miki, Tsuneharu [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    A 67-year-old male admitted to our hospital with a complaint of gross hematuria and lower abdominal pain. He was being followed up at our hospital for prostate cancer with multiple bone metastases. He was diagnosed with spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder by abdominal computed tomography. Chest X-ray and chest computed tomography also showed pneumomediastinum. An urgent operation revealed a rupture of the urinary bladder 3 cm in length. We briefly reviewed 122 cases of spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder reported in the Japanese literature. (author)

  7. Unexpected Small Urinary Bladder Pheochromocytoma: A Nonspecific Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faouzi Mallat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Pheochromocytoma of the urinary bladder is an extremely rare tumor that typically presents with a hypertensive crisis during micturition. Preoperatively, it may be misdiagnosed due to nonspecific symptomatology, physical, and radiologic findings. Method. We report a case of unsuspected small pheochromocytoma which was incidentally found by CT scan and confirmed by the histological aspects after transurethral resection in a 63-year-old woman. Here, we have described the clinical presentation, physical findings, laboratory investigations, and treatment provided in our case. We have also included radiological images and histopathology slides with input from both radiologists and pathologists. Surgical management and postoperative follow-up are discussed, as are details of previous published data. Results. After undergoing surgical treatment (transurethral resection, our patient is asymptomatic, with complete resolution of her pathology. Conclusion. Diagnosis is difficult before histopathological examination and should be considered in patients with no risk factors for usual bladder tumor. Our purpose is to raise clinician's awareness for this condition so that they will be more likely to diagnose it. This will facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment and especially prevent complications due to pheochromocytoma which may be severe.

  8. [High oncogenic risk human papillomavirus and urinary bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loran, O B; Sinyakova, L A; Gundorova, L V; Kosov, V A; Kosova, I V; Pogodina, I E; Kolbasov, D N

    2017-07-01

    To determine the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) of high oncogenic risk in the development of urinary bladder cancer. 100 patients (72 men and 28 women) aged 38 to 90 years (mean age 65+/-10 years) diagnosed with bladder cancer were examined and underwent treatment. Clinical assessment was complemented by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the presence of antiviral antibodies to herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and type 2, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), urethra scraping for detecting high oncogenic risk HPV. Tumor tissue was sampled for PCR virus detection. Semi-quantitative analysis was used to evaluate the components of lymphocyte-plasmocyte and leukocyte infiltrates and cytopathic changes in tumor tissue. There were positive correlations between cytopathic cell changes (koylocytosis and intranuclear inclusions, as manifestations of HPV) and the level of antiviral antibodies, the presence of viruses in the tumor, as well as with the components of the lymphoid-plasmocyte infiltrate. Negative correlations were found between the presence of papillomatosis and the above changes. Human papillomavirus is believed to be a trigger for the initiation of a tumor in young patients with a latent infection (CMV and EBV, HSV, HPV). Cytopathic changes (kylocytosis and intranuclear inclusions) were associated with the activity and morphological features of herpes-viral infections. Their degree varied depending on the stage of the process, but not on the anaplasia degree. Papillomatosis is associated with a more favorable course of the tumor process.

  9. Bladder neck needle suspension for urinary incontinence in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazener, Cathryn Ma; Cooper, Kevin; Mashayekhi, Atefeh

    2017-07-25

    Bladder neck needle suspension is an operation traditionally used for moderate or severe stress urinary incontinence in women. About a third of adult women experience some urinary incontinence, and about a third of these have moderate or severe symptoms. Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) imposes significant health and economic burdens on society and the women affected. To determine the effects of needle suspension on stress or mixed urinary incontinence in comparison with other management options. We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Register, which contains trials identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, MEDLINE in process, ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO ICTRP and handsearching of journals and conference proceedings (searched 12 November 2014), and the reference lists of relevant articles. Randomised or quasi-randomised trials that included needle suspension for the treatment of urinary incontinence. At least two authors assessed trials and extracted data independently. Two trial investigators provided additional information. We identified 10 trials, which included 375 women having six different types of needle suspension procedures and 489 who received comparison interventions. Needle suspensions were more likely to fail than open abdominal retropubic suspension. There was a higher subjective failure rate after the first year (91/313 (29%) failed versus 47/297 (16%) failed after open abdominal retropubic suspension). The risk ratio (RR) was 2.00 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47 to 2.72), although the difference in peri-operative complications was not significant (17/75 (23%) versus 12/77 (16%); RR 1.44, 95% CI 0.73 to 2.83). There were no significant differences for the other outcome measures. This effect was seen in both women with primary incontinence and women with recurrent incontinence after failed primary operations. Needle suspensions may be as effective as anterior vaginal repair (50/156 (32

  10. Size-Based Enrichment of Exfoliated Tumor Cells in Urine Increases the Sensitivity for DNA-Based Detection of Bladder Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Elin; Steven, Kenneth; Guldberg, Per

    2014-01-01

    fractions and small numbers of tumor cells exfoliated into the urine from low-grade tumors. The purpose of this study was to improve the sensitivity for non-invasive detection of bladder cancer by size-based capture and enrichment of tumor cells in urine. In a split-sample set-up, urine from a consecutive......Bladder cancer is diagnosed by cystoscopy, a costly and invasive procedure that is associated with patient discomfort. Analysis of tumor-specific markers in DNA from sediments of voided urine has the potential for non-invasive detection of bladder cancer; however, the sensitivity is limited by low...... series of patients with primary or recurrent bladder tumors (N = 189) was processed by microfiltration using a membrane filter with a defined pore-size, and sedimentation by centrifugation, respectively. DNA from the samples was analyzed for seven bladder tumor-associated methylation markers using Methy...

  11. Multiparametric-MRI as a comprehensive study in evaluation, characterization & local staging of urinary bladder carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hafez Afifi

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Mp-MRI is comprehensive & effective tool for determining local T stages, and the histological grades of urinary bladder cancers. Also, it predicts nature & stages of local lymph nodes, exhibiting high diagnostic performance with excellent objectivity.

  12. Health-Related Quality of Life after Cystectomy and Urinary Diversion for Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Shih

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With multiple options for urinary diversion after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer that have comparable cancer control and complication rates, health-related quality of life (HRQOL has become an important consideration. This article reviews the methods for defining HRQOL, the challenges in measuring HRQOL in bladder cancer, and the literature comparing HRQOL after various methods of urinary diversion. Recent contributions include the validation of HRQOL instruments specific to bladder cancer and the publication of several prospective studies measuring HRQOL outcomes after cystectomy and urinary diversion. There is no convincing evidence from existing literature that any particular method of urinary diversion offers superior HRQOL outcomes. Rather, there is growing evidence that good HRQOL can be achieved with patient education and consideration of each patient's clinical and psychosocial situation. Future research should utilize the validated bladder cancer specific HRQOL instruments and perhaps explore the impact of preoperative counseling on postoperative HRQOL.

  13. Urinary bladder radiotherapy-related chondroblastic osteosarcoma: Rare case report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Almadani, Noorah; Alsaad, Khaled O.; Al-Matrafi, Hamoud; Al Hadab, Abdulrahman; Abdullah, Nouf; AlKushi, Abdulmohsen

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-related osteosarcomas are well described malignant mesenchymal neoplasms, yet their pathogenesis is not fully understood. They are generally classified into either skeletal osteosarcomas, or their and rare soft tissue counterpart. The occurrence of osteosarcoma in the urinary bladder (UB) following radiotherapy is exceedingly rare. To the best of our knowledge, only two cases of radiation-related urinary bladder osteosarcoma have been published; we herein describe another case of an...

  14. Mucinous cystadenoma of the dome of urinary bladder: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bapuji S Gedam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucinous cystadenoma of the urinary bladder is a very rare tumor and only a handful of cases have been described in the literature. It can easily be missed on cystoscopic examination as the lesion is not intramucosal. In addition, extensive workup is required to rule out borderline or frank malignant neoplasm elsewhere in the body. Due to its scarcity and diagnostic challenges, we report a mucinous benign cystic lesion arising in the dome of the urinary bladder.

  15. Aging and recurrent urinary tract infections are associated with bladder dysfunction in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Li Lin

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: The urodynamic study revealed a temporal effect on bladder function, and women with diabetic voiding dysfunction were found to have had a longer duration of DM than women with an overactive detrusor. However, aging and recurrent urinary tract infections are the two independent factors that contribute to impaired voiding function and diabetic bladder dysfunction.

  16. G-protein-coupled receptor 137 accelerates proliferation of urinary bladder cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yiheng; Bi, Wenhuan; Zhang, Fei; Wu, Wenbo; Xia, Shujie; Liu, Haitao

    2015-01-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is a worldwide concern because of its level of incidence and recurrence. To search an effective therapeutic strategy for urinary bladder cancer, it is important to identify proteins involved in tumorigenesis that could serve as potential targets for diagnosis and treatment. G-protein-coupled receptors (GPRs) constitute a large protein family of receptors that sense molecules outside the cell and activate signal transduction pathways and cellular responses inside the cell. GPR137 is a newly discovered human gene encoding orphan GPRs. In this study, we aimed to investigate the physiological role of GPR137 in urinary bladder cancer. The effect of GPR137 on cell growth was examined via an RNA interference (RNAi) lentivirus system in two human urinary bladder cancer cell lines BT5637 and T24. Lentivirus-mediated RNAi could specifically suppressed GPR137 expression in vitro, resulting in alleviated cell viability and impaired colony formation, as well as blocks G0/G1 and S phases of the cell cycle. These results suggested GPR137 as an essential player in urinary bladder cancer cell growth, and it may serve as a potential target for gene therapy in the treatment of urinary bladder cancer. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. The urinary bladder carcinogen propoxur does not produce genotoxic effects in the urinary bladder of Wistar male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatropoulos, M J; Duan, J-D; Schmuck, G; Williams, G M

    2015-09-01

    Propoxur (PPX) is a carbamate insecticide which induced urinary bladder cancer in Wistar rats when fed at 5000ppm in Altromin 1321 diet (1321). In the present investigation, PPX was studied for induction of several key events related to modes of action (MOA) of carcinogenicity in urinary bladders (UBs). Wistar rats were administered the compound for 28 days at 8000ppm in Provini Liba SA 3883 diet, which is similar to the 1321 diet. o-Anisidine HCl (AH) was used as a genotoxic UB carcinogenic comparator, and trisodium nitrilotriacetate (NTA) as an epigenetic UB carcinogen comparator. Along with the non-dosed control and three test substance groups (PPX, AH, NTA), four more groups were additionally fed 2% ammonium chloride (AC) in the diet to acidify the urine, since 1321 was reported to increase urinary pH. AC did acidify the urine, as expected, although the 3883 diet itself did not increase pH values above 8. In the alkaline comet assay, AH produced DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) in the UB urothelium (UBU) irrespective of AC administration, whereas PPX and NTA did not. In the nucleotide (32)P-postlabeling assay (NPL), AH produced DNA adducts irrespective of AC administration, whereas PPX and NTA did not. Routine (H&E) histopathology evaluation of the UBU did not reveal any hyperplasia or evidence of luminal microprecipitates or calculi in any of the groups. Assessment of UBU proliferation as measured by immunohistochemistry of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, revealed that NTA and NTA plus AC increased the replicating fraction (RF). Also AH plus AC, but not AH alone, increased the RF of UBU, whereas PPX groups were not significantly different from controls. Thus, the results reveal no evidence for DNA SSBs, binding, or alteration of DNA synthesis in the UBU by PPX, while demonstrating UBU DNA damage by AH and showing that NTA does not damage DNA, but causes increased UBU proliferation. The findings are in accord with a genotoxic MOA for AH, and an epigenetic

  18. The Impact of Bladder Volume on Acute Urinary Toxicity during Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Hae; Suh, Hyun Suk; Lee, Kyung Ja; Lee, Re Na; Kim, Myung Soo [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) were found to reduce the incidence of acute and late rectal toxicity compared with conventional radiation therapy (RT), although acute and late urinary toxicities were not reduced significantly. Acute urinary toxicity, even at a low-grade, not only has an impact on a patient's quality of life, but also can be used as a predictor for chronic urinary toxicity. With bladder filling, part of the bladder moves away from the radiation field, resulting in a small irradiated bladder volume; hence, urinary toxicity can be decreased. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of bladder volume on acute urinary toxicity during RT in patients with prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Forty two patients diagnosed with prostate cancer were treated by 3DCRT and of these, 21 patients made up a control group treated without any instruction to control the bladder volume. The remaining 21 patients in the experimental group were treated with a full bladder after drinking 450 mL of water an hour before treatment. We measured the bladder volume by CT and ultrasound at simulation to validate the accuracy of ultrasound. During the treatment period, we measured bladder volume weekly by ultrasound, for the experimental group, to evaluate the variation of the bladder volume. Results: A significant correlation between the bladder volume measured by CT and ultrasound was observed. The bladder volume in the experimental group varied with each patient despite drinking the same amount of water. Although weekly variations of the bladder volume were very high, larger initial CT volumes were associated with larger mean weekly bladder volumes. The mean bladder volume was 299{+-}155 mL in the experimental group, as opposed to 187{+-}155 mL in the control group. Patients in experimental group experienced less acute urinary toxicities than in control group, but the difference was not

  19. Small-cell Carcinomas of the Urinary Bladder and Prostate: TERT Promoter Mutation Status Differentiates Sites of Malignancy and Provides Evidence of Common Clonality Between Small-cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder and Urothelial Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priemer, David S; Wang, Mingsheng; Zhang, Shaobo; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Kouba, Erik; Montironi, Rodolfo; Davidson, Darrell D; MacLennan, Gregory T; Wang, Lisha; Osunkoya, Adeboye O; Deng, Youping; Emerson, Robert E; Cheng, Liang

    2017-03-31

    Small-cell carcinoma (SCC) of the urinary bladder frequently appears alongside urothelial carcinoma, suggesting common clonality. TERT promoter mutations have been recently implicated in urothelial carcinogenesis. To investigate the degree to which TERT promoter mutations are involved in SCC of the urinary bladder, the linked tumorigenesis between urothelial carcinoma and SCC of the urinary bladder, and the molecular distinctions between SCC of the urinary bladder and of the prostate. We investigated TERT promoter mutations in 53 cases of SCC of the urinary bladder and in 26 cases of SCC of the prostate using laboratory-based studies of tissue samples and clinical data. We measured the frequency of TERT promoter mutations in SCCs of the urinary bladder and prostate, and concordance of the mutation status between concurrent urinary bladder SCC and urothelial carcinoma. TERT promoter mutations were detected in 29/53 (55%) cases of urinary bladder and 0/26 (0%) cases of prostate SCC. Of 25 cases with concurrent urinary bladder SCC and non-small-cell components, all cases harbored identical TERT promoter mutation status in both phenotypes. TERT promoter mutations are found in more than half of urinary bladder SCCs. Mutation status is also identical in urothelial carcinoma and SCC components of concomitant malignancies, providing evidence of a common clonality. TERT promoter mutation status can differentiate SCC of the urinary bladder from prostate SCC, suggesting potential diagnostic use. Small-cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder shares a common clonal origin with conventional urothelial carcinoma and may arise from a heterogeneous subclone. TERT promoter mutations may have utility as a differential biomarker for determining the primary site of a genitourinary small-cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Secondary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder from a primary gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Mirna H; Moumneh, Ghada; Jalloul, Rahif; El Hout, Yaser

    2007-01-01

    Primary bladder tumor is a frequent urological malignancy, whereas the incidence of secondary bladder tumor from a distant organ is quite rare. Secondary bladder neoplasms represent no more than 3% of all malignant bladder tumors in surgical specimens, of which distant metastases from stomach account for about 4%. The signs of bladder neoplasm in a patient with malignancy elsewhere should alarm the clinician for a possible metastatic origin. We present a patient with primary adenocarcinoma of the stomach, who underwent total gastrectomy and received adjuvant chemotherapy, and was diagnosed with metastasis to the urinary bladder 15 months later. We review the epidemiology of secondary adenocarcinoma of the bladder, mechanisms of metastasis, associated common primaries with focus on gastric malignancies, radiological findings, and role of immunohistochemical staining.

  1. [Leiomyosarcoma of the urinary bladder treated using laparoscopic cystectomy and bladder replacement by enterocystoplasty: about a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbethe, Dimitri; Moudouni, Said; Dahami, Zacharia; Lakmichi, Mohamed Amine; Sarf, Ismael

    2017-01-01

    Our study aims to report a new case of leiomyosarcoma of the urinary bladder, a rare tumor, and to propose a new therapeutic approach, given the non-consensual nature of its treatment. A 31-year old patient, with no particular previous history, presented with total haematuria with clot formation. The clinical and paraclinical assessment showed a voluminous solid tumor mass occupying the apex of urinary bladder and extending to the right lateral wall, with infiltrating appearance, without lymph node involvement or invasion of local or distal organs. Surgical management was based on total laparoscopic cystectomy and bladder replacement by enterocystoplasty. The postoperative course was uneventful. Radiological examinations at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months showed no recurrence. Thus, adaptive surgery should be proposed on a case-by-case basis, to improve the quality of life of patients suffering from this condition.

  2. Appraisal of diagnostic ability of UCA1 as a biomarker of carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, A K; Singh, P K; Rath, S K; Dalela, D; Goel, M M; Bhatt, M L B

    2014-11-01

    Initial diagnosis of carcinoma of the urinary bladder remains to be a challenge. Urine cytology, as an adjunct to cystoscopy, is less sensitive for low-grade tumors. Urothelial cancer associated 1 (UCA1) is a novel non-coding RNA gene, which plays a pivotal role in bladder cancer progression. Our aim is to investigate the significance of urinary UCA1 for the non-invasive diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder. We examined UCA1 expression in a bladder cancer cell line (T24) and in urine of 28 healthy individuals, 46 patients of non-malignant disorders, and 117 cases (69 primary and 48 recurrent cases) of histologically proven TCC prior to transurethral resection by using real-time PCR and compared it with voided urinary cytology. UCA1 expression was found in T24 cell line and also found to be significantly higher in the cancer group as compared to the controls (p0.05). UCA1 can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for TCC bladder as an adjunct to cytology in the early diagnosis of primary urinary bladder cancer.

  3. Respiration and sodium transport in rabbit urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverthorn, S U; Eaton, D C

    1982-07-28

    Respiration of rabbit urinary bladder was measured in free-floating pieces and in short-circuited pieces mounted in an Ussing chamber. Ouabain, amiloride, and potassium-free saline inhibited respiration approx. 20%; sodium-free saline depressed respiration approx. 40-50%. The coupling ratio between respiration and transport in short-circuited tissues was about two sodium ions per molecule O2. Chloride-free saline depressed mean oxygen consumption 21% in free-floating tissue pieces; 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (SITS) and furosemide had no effect. The effect of chloride-free saline in short-circuited tissues was variable; in tissues with low transport rates, respiration was stimulated about 21% while in tissue with high transport rates respiration was reduced about 24%. Nystatin and monensin, both of which markedly increase the conductance of cell membranes with a concomitant increase in sodium entry, stimulated respiration. These data indicate that 50-60% of the total oxygen consumption is not influenced by sodium, 20-25% is linked to (Na+ +K+)-ATPase transport, while the remaining 25-30% is sodium-dependent but not ouabain-inhibitable.

  4. Characterization of the basolateral membrane conductance of Necturus urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarest, J R; Finn, A L

    1987-04-01

    Necturus urinary bladders stripped of serosal muscle and connective tissue were impaled through their basolateral membranes with microelectrodes in experiments that permitted rapid changes in the ion composition of the serosal solution. The transepithelial electrical properties exhibited a marked seasonal variation that could be attributed to variations in the conductance of the shunt pathway, apical membrane selectivity, and basolateral Na+ transport. In contrast, the passive electrical properties of the basolateral membrane remained constant throughout the year. The apparent transference numbers (Ti) of the basolateral membrane for K+ and Cl- were determined from the effect on the basolateral membrane equivalent electromotive force of a sudden increase in the serosal K+ concentration from 2.5 to 50 mM/liter or a decrease in the Cl- concentration from 101 to 10 mM/liter. TK and TCl were 0.71 +/- 0.05 and 0.04 +/- 0.01, respectively. The basolateral K+ conductance could be blocked by Ba2+ (0.5 mM), Cs+ (10 mM), or Rb+ (10 mM), but was unaffected by 3,4-diaminopyridine (100 microM), decamethonium (100 microM), or tetraethylammonium (10 mM). We conclude that a highly selective K+ conductance dominates the electrical properties of the basolateral membrane and that this conductance is different from those found in nerve and muscle membranes.

  5. Interesting Layering of Excreted 18F-FDG in the Urinary Bladder in Patients with Urinary Tract Infection and Distended Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guohua; Zhang, Wenjie; Jia, Zhiyun; Deng, Houfu

    2015-09-01

    Settling of (18)F-FDG in the bladder is often noted on whole-body PET/CT images, but this phenomenon has never received any careful attention and the mechanism has been unclear. The 2 patients described in this report, one with a T1 pathologic fracture and another with widespread bone and lymph node metastases from an unknown primary tumor, underwent PET/CT. Both had urinary tract infection and a distended bladder during scanning. The interesting layering of (18)F-FDG in the urinary bladder was observed in both patients. The presence of this phenomenon demands careful evaluation of the urine by the clinician, and the mechanism is hypothesized to be slow (18)F-FDG excretion in patients with a distended urinary bladder, resulting in delayed mixing with urine. In addition, urinary tract infection may be a potential cause. Images showing this interesting layering should be interpreted with care. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  6. Bladder Control Problems: Medications for Treating Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... begin taking mirabegron. How it works Injections of Botox into the bladder muscle might benefit people who have an overactive bladder. Botox blocks the actions of acetylcholine and paralyzes the ...

  7. p16 expression is not associated with human papillomavirus in urinary bladder squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Riley E; Hu, Yingchuan; Kum, Jennifer B; Montironi, Rodolfo; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Maclennan, Gregory T; Idrees, Muhammad T; Emerson, Robert E; Ulbright, Thomas M; Grignon, David G; Eble, John N; Cheng, Liang

    2012-11-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is unusual and of unknown etiology. There is a well-established association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the development of cervical and head/neck squamous cell carcinomas. However, the role of HPV in the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is uncertain. The purposes of this study were to investigate the possible role of HPV in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and to determine if p16 expression could serve as a surrogate marker for HPV in this malignancy. In all, 42 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and 27 cases of urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation were investigated. HPV infection was analyzed by both in situ hybridization at the DNA level and immunohistochemistry at the protein level. p16 protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. HPV DNA and protein were not detected in 42 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (0%, 0/42) or 27 cases of urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation (0%, 0/15). p16 expression was detected in 13 cases (31%, 13/42) of squamous cell carcinoma and 9 cases (33%, 9/27) of urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation. There was no correlation between p16 expression and the presence of HPV infection in squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder or urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation. Our data suggest that HPV does not play a role in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder or urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation. p16 expression should not be used as a surrogate marker for evidence of HVP infection in either squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder or urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation as neither HVP DNA nor protein is detectable in these neoplasms.

  8. Feasibility and effectiveness of image-guided percutaneous biopsy of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butros, Selim Reha; McCarthy, Colin James; Karaosmanoğlu, Ali Devrim; Shenoy-Bhangle, Anuradha S; Arellano, Ronald S

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the indications, technique, results, and complications of image-guided percutaneous biopsy of the urinary bladder. This retrospective study included 15 patients (10 male, 5 female) who underwent image-guided percutaneous biopsy of the urinary bladder between January 1999 and December 2013. The medical records, imaging studies, procedural details, and long-term follow-up of each patient were reviewed in detail to assess the feasibility of percutaneous bladder biopsy. Ten patients had focal bladder masses and 5 patients had asymmetric or diffuse bladder wall thickening. Eleven patients had either negative or unsatisfactory cystoscopies prior to the biopsy. Percutaneous biopsies were performed under computed tomography guidance in 12 patients and ultrasound in 3 patients. All procedures were technically successful and there were no procedural complications. Malignancy was confirmed in 8 patients, among whom 6 had transitional cell carcinoma, 1 cervical cancer, and 1 prostate cancer metastasis. Seven patients had a benign diagnosis, including 3 that were later confirmed by pathology following surgery and 2 patients with a false-negative result. The overall sensitivity was 80% and accuracy was 87%. Image-guided percutaneous biopsy of the urinary bladder is a safe and technically feasible procedure with a high sensitivity and accuracy rate. Although image-guided bladder biopsy is an uncommon procedure, it should be considered in selected cases when more traditional methods of tissue sampling are either not possible or fail to identify abnormalities detected by cross-sectional imaging.

  9. Importance of contraction history on muscle force of porcine urinary bladder smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Robin; Böl, Markus; Siebert, Tobias

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive dataset of porcine urinary bladder smooth muscle properties. Particularly, the history dependence of force production, namely force depression (FD) following shortening and force enhancement (FE) following stretch, was analysed. During active micturition, the circumference of the urinary bladder changes enormously. Thus, FD might be an important phenomenon during smooth muscle contraction. Electrically stimulated, intact urinary bladder strips from pigs (n = 10) were suspended in an aerated-filled organ bath, and different isometric, isotonic, and isokinetic contraction protocols were performed to determine the force-length and the force-velocity relation. FD and FE were assessed in concentric and eccentric contractions with different ramp lengths and ramp velocities. Bladder smooth muscles exhibit considerable amounts of FD and FE. The amount of FD increased significantly with ramp length, while FE did not change. However, FE and FD were independent of ramp velocity. The results imply that smooth muscle bladder strips exhibit similar muscle properties and history-dependent behaviour compared to striated muscles. The provided dataset of muscle properties is important for bladder modelling as well as for the analyses and interpretation of dynamic bladder filling and voiding.

  10. Urinary cytokines reflecting the immunological response in the urinary bladder to biological response modifiers: their practical use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schamhart, D. H.; de Boer, E. C.; de Reijke, T. M.; Kurth, K.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy is currently the most effective treatment for superficial transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder. In recent years, the substantial number of patients not responding to BCG or experiencing considerable toxicities

  11. Overactive bladder syndrome and lower urinary tract symptoms after prostate cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biers, Suzanne; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich; Thiruchelvam, Nikesh

    2017-05-01

    To assess the contemporary literature on the prevalence, cause and management of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and bladder overactivity following treatment of prostate cancer with radical surgery, radiotherapy and minimally invasive therapies for localized prostate cancer, including cryotherapy and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Generally, the highest risk of urinary incontinence is after open radical prostatectomy (7-40%), although not all contemporary studies demonstrate a difference between open and laparoscopic techniques. An increased incidence of bladder overactivity is seen with radiotherapy (as compared to radical prostatectomy). Bladder outlet obstruction is most commonly encountered after radical prostatectomy and radiotherapy combination therapy (up to 26%). It manifests as voiding LUTS or urinary retention, and the risk can accumulate over time. Cryotherapy and HIFU provide effective cancer treatment with lower risks of urinary incontinence, but have fewer published studies and shorter follow-up. Medical treatment options for LUTS include alpha blockers, anticholinergics, and potentially intravesical glycosaminoglycan analogue instillations. Stress urinary incontinence requires surgical correction with artificial urinary sphincter or suburethral slings. Patients who have undertaken successful prostate cancer treatment have a good prognosis, and commonly present for further interventions to optimise quality of life if bothersome urinary symptoms are experienced. It is important to be vigilant for and treat any adverse urinary consequences.

  12. A comparison of bladder neck preservation and bladder neck reconstruction for urinary incontinence after radical retro pubic prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Izadpanahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prostate cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and will include about 30% of all malignancies in men. Since the initial report of the anatomic radical prostatectomy, refinements in the surgical technique have been made. Several studies show that bladder neck preservation (BNP during radical prostatectomy makes improve early return of urinary continence, erectile function or both. However, some clinical trials have suggested little difference between the return of continence while using modifications. In this study, we compared outcomes of BNP and bladder neck reconstruction (BNR during radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was performed on 60 patients at a referral university hospital from March 2010 to March 2012. Study population was all patients candidate for RRP (RRP in this period. All patients divided into two groups, A and B (30 patients in each group. Group A (n = 30 who preserved bladder neck (BNP and Group B (n = 30 who had BNR. Prostate specific antigen (PSA before and at 2, 6, 9, 12 and18 months after surgery, anastomotic stricture symptoms, positive bladder neck margin, Gleason score and urine incontinence were compared between two groups. Also, we compared bladder neck contracture, urinary continence and positive surgical margin rates after BNP and BNR while retropubic prostatectomy in 24 months period follow-up. Results: The mean age of the patients was 61.81 ± 7.15 years (range, 50-74 years. After a follow-up period of 24 months, the PSA rising was not different between the two groups. After 2 months, 19 (63.33% of patients in A group and the same number in B group were continent (P = 0.78. Stricture of the bladder neck at the anastomosis site requiring transurethral dilation occurred in 7 (23.33% and 3 (10.0% patients in groups A and B, respectively (P = 0.04. Conclusion: Although there was no difference in prevalence and duration of return of urinary

  13. Genetic variants in urinary bladder cancer: collective power of the "wimp SNPs".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golka, Klaus; Selinski, Silvia; Lehmann, Marie-Louise; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Marchan, Rosemarie; Ickstadt, Katja; Schwender, Holger; Bolt, Hermann M; Hengstler, Jan G

    2011-06-01

    In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 300 validated associations between genetic variants and risk of approximately 70 common diseases. A small number of rare variants with a frequency of usually less than 1% are associated with a strongly enhanced risk, such as genetic variants of TP53, RB1, BRCA1, and BRCA2. Only a very small number of SNPs (with a frequency of more that 1% of the rare allele) have effects of a factor of two or higher. Examples include APOE4 in Alzheimer's disease, LOXL1 in exfoliative glaucoma, and CFH in age-related macular degeneration. However, the majority of all identified SNPs have odds ratios between 1.1 and 1.5. In the case of urinary bladder cancer, all known SNPs that have been validated in sufficiently large populations are associated with odds ratios smaller than 1.5. These SNPs are located next to the following genes: MYC, TP63, PSCA, the TERT-CLPTM1L locus, FGFR3, TACC3, NAT2, CBX6, APOBEC3A, CCNE1, and UGT1A. It is likely that these moderate risk or "wimp SNPs" interact, and because of their high number, collectively have a strong influence on whether an individual will develop cancer or not. It should be considered that variants identified so far explain only approximately 5-10% of the overall inherited risk. Possibly, the remaining variance is due to an even higher number of SNPs with odds ratios smaller than 1.1. Recent studies have provided the following information: (1) The functions of genes identified as relevant for bladder cancer focus on detoxification of carcinogens, control of the cell cycle and apoptosis, as well as maintenance of DNA integrity. (2) Many novel SNPs are far away from the protein coding regions, suggesting that these SNPs are located on distant-acting transcriptional enhancers. (3) The low odds ratio of each individual bladder cancer-associated SNP is too low to justify reasonable preventive measures. However, if the recently identified SNPs interact, they may

  14. Construction and evaluation of urinary bladder bioreactor for urologic tissue-engineering purposes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davis, Niall F

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: To design and construct a urinary bladder bioreactor for urologic tissue-engineering purposes and to compare the viability and proliferative activity of cell-seeded extracellular matrix scaffolds cultured in the bioreactor with conventional static growth conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A urinary bladder bioreactor was designed and constructed to replicate physiologic bladder dynamics. The bioreactor mimicked the filling pressures of the human bladder by way of a cyclical low-delivery pressure regulator. In addition, cell growth was evaluated by culturing human urothelial cells (UCs) on porcine extracellular matrix scaffolds in the bioreactor and in static growth conditions for 5 consecutive days. The attachment, viability, and proliferative potential were assessed and compared with quantitative viability indicators and by fluorescent markers for intracellular esterase activity and plasma membrane integrity. Scaffold integrity was characterized with scanning electron microscopy and 4\\

  15. Pelvic Pheochromocytoma Mimicking as Urinary Bladder Pheochromocytoma: Looking Beyond the Obvious

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pheochromocytomas located outside the adrenal glands are called paragangliomas. A pelvic location is rare, the most common location for a paraganglioma being the retroperitoneal space. Paragangliomas arise from neural crest cells. Pelvic pheochromocytomas may mimic urinary bladder pheochromocytomas on imaging studies. Patients may present with hypertensive crisis during micturition. We present a 26-year-old female who presented to us with accelerated hypertension with episodes of severe headache and palpitation during micturition. Based on imaging studies, she was diagnosed to have a urinary bladder pheochromocytoma. However, on exploration, the patient was found to have an extravesical pheochromocytoma arising from the left posterolateral pelvic wall, which was excised while preserving the bladder. We present this case report as pelvic pheochromocytomas can mimic bladder pheochromocytomas and are difficult to differentiate on radiological imaging and can lead to inadvertent cystectomy.

  16. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder diverticulum: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xu Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is very rare. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a mass with swiftly aggressive and metastatic, and with a poor prognosis. Due to its scarcity, no forward-looking researches assessing the most effective treatment have been issued in the medical literature. It can happen either in connection with urothelial (transitional cell carcinoma or in a pure form. Its treatment should include surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this article,we report a case occurring in a mixed form in the urinary bladder diverticulum and we concisely review the published literature with respect to the clinical manifestation, pathology,differential diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.

  17. Primary enteric-type adenocarcinomas of the urinary bladder are histogenetically analogous to colorectal carcinomas: Immunohistochemical evaluation of 109 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad S. Eissa

    2010-04-01

    In conclusion, primary non-urachal enteric-type adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder is morphologically and immunophenotypically similar – if not identical – to colonic adenocarcinoma. The frequent association of enteric carcinomas of the urinary bladder with intestinal metaplasia and/or colonic-type adenomas with dysplasia suggests possible carcinogenetic pathways similar to that observed in colorectal carcinomas.

  18. Horseradish extract promotes urinary bladder carcinogenesis when administered to F344 rats in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Man; Hasumura, Mai; Imai, Toshio; Takami, Shigeaki; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Ogawa, Kumiko

    2017-07-01

    Horseradish extract (HRE), consisting mainly of a mixture of allyl isothiocyanate and other isothiocyanates, has been used as a food additive. To evaluate the potential hazards of HRE, a 104-week chronic study, a 2-week analysis of cell proliferation in the urinary bladder and a medium-term promotion bioassay of HRE were conducted with administration at concentrations of up to 0.04% HRE in the drinking water to male F344 rats. In the 104-week chronic study with 32 male rats per group, no treatment-related increases in the incidences of neoplastic lesions in any organ, including urinary bladder, were observed, except for simple hyperplasia in the urinary bladder in rats treated with HRE at concentrations of more than 0.01% (5.0 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) ). In the promotion study, HRE treatment after N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine initiation caused a clear increase in papillary or nodular hyperplasia, papilloma, and urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder in the groups given HRE for 13 weeks at doses higher than 0.005%, 0.01%, and 0.04% (2.7, 5.4 and 20.5 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) ), respectively. In the 2-week cell proliferation analysis, treatment with HRE at concentrations greater than 0.005% (3.9 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) ) caused transient increases in 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling indices in the urothelium. Although clear tumor induction was not observed, administration of relatively low-dose HRE increased cell proliferation in the urothelium and exerted obvious promoting effects on rat urinary bladder carcinogenesis. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mode of action of HRE in the rat urinary bladder to facilitate data extrapolation from the present study and provide insights into risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CARTp): distribution and function in rat urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvarova, K; Herrera, G M; May, V; Vizzard, M A

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the distribution of CARTp(55-102) in rat lower urinary tract and evaluated its effect on urinary bladder function in vitro. Immunohistochemistry and a vertical isolated tissue bath system were used. Neurons, clusters of nonneuronal endocrine cells, and nerve fibers stained positive for CARTp(55-102) in young adult rat urinary bladder. The CARTp-expressing neuronal elements were nitric oxide synthase (NOS)- and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-IR, whereas all nonneuronal CARTp-IR elements stained positively only for TH (100 %). In isolated bladder strips, CARTp significantly increased the amplitude of electric field stimulation (EFS)-induced detrusor contractions at stimulation frequencies ≤12.5 Hz (p ≤ 0.001) as well as amplitude and frequency of spontaneous phasic urinary bladder smooth muscle (UBSM) contractions (p ≤ 0.05). The responses to CARTp stimulation were dose-dependent and increased in the presence of the urothelium. To determine if the CARTp increase in nerve-mediated contractions may involve an action of CARTp on specific neural pathways, we blocked cholinergic, purinergic, and adrenergic pathways and determined CARTp actions on EFS-medicated contractions. CARTp enhancement of EFS-mediated contractions does not involve alteration in purinergic, adrenergic, or cholinergic pathways. The study demonstrates that CARTp(55-102) is highly expressed in rat urinary bladder. CARTp increased the amplitude of EFS-induced detrusor contractions as well as the amplitude and frequency of spontaneous phasic urinary bladder smooth muscle contractions. We conclude that CARTp may alter the release of compounds from the urothelium that leads to an enhancement of UBSM contractility/excitability.

  20. The macro-microscopic peculiarities of the human urinary bladder glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseynova, G

    2010-01-01

    We studied the glands of the 130 persons, victims from the casual reasons (a trauma, an asphyxia, etc.) from newborn to senile age; we investigated different variants of a bladder glands forms, the changes in different parts of the organs wall (proximal, average, distal thirds) from the newborn period to senile age by the method of macro-microsopy and morphometry on the total preparations of urinary bladder. Glands preliminary have been stained by a solution 0,05% methylene dark blue with Sinelnicov's method and by hematoxilin and eozin. The glands were investigated with the application of stereo binocular microscope MBS-9. Statistical data processing included calculation of arithmetic-mean values, their errors, confidential intervals (excel). The view of the human urinary bladder glands in the macro-microscopy investigation is different. The glands have roundish, oval, ribbon forms. The form of the glands in the different parts of human urinary bladder (proximal, middle and distal) is difference. In the microtopography the glands have been proximal-distal changes; the quantity of glands increase from the proximal to distal portion. The human urinary bladder have many complex glands (the glands with 3, 4 and more beginnings parts) to the quantity in the distal part.

  1. Urinary Bladder Rupture In An Elderly Man From Abdominal Massage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bladder rupture is a serious urological injury. Because symptoms are often atypical among elderly patients, this condition is often undetected especially when there is little or no trauma. Aims and Objective: We report a rare case of bladder rupture, secondary to abdominal massage. Patient and Method: A case ...

  2. non absorbable sutures in the urinary bladder resulting in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    contain components such as calcium, ammonium, phosphate, oxalate, and uric acid. These components mostly exist as mixtures. The bladder stone in our patient was made of carbonate, i.e., apatite, which is not uncommon. We report a case of bladder calculi formed around suture material following colposuspension.

  3. Roles of urinary sodium ion concentration and pH in promotion by ascorbic acid of urinary bladder carcinogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, S; Shibata, M A; Shirai, T; Tamano, S; Ito, N

    1986-04-01

    Since the sodium salt of ascorbic acid (AA) promoted two-stage urinary bladder carcinogenesis in rats, whereas AA itself did not, the roles of the urinary sodium ion concentration and pH on urinary bladder carcinogenesis were investigated. Male F344 rats were given 0.05% N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine in their drinking water for 4 weeks and then treated with basal diet containing 5% AA plus 3% sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), 5% AA, 3% NaHCO3 or 5% sodium L-ascorbate (SA), 5% SA plus 1% ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) or 1% NH4Cl, or no added chemical for 32 weeks. NaHCO3 significantly increased the induction of neoplastic and preneoplastic lesions of the urinary bladder. Like SA, AA plus NaHCO3 induced high incidences of neoplastic and preneoplastic lesions of the urinary bladder, whereas AA alone did not. NH4Cl reduced the promoting activity of SA in urinary bladder carcinogenesis. These results suggest important roles for urinary sodium ion concentration and pH in modulating urinary bladder carcinogenesis. Moreover, AA was found to act as a copromoter under conditions of increased urinary pH and sodium ion concentration.

  4. Urinary diversion and bladder reconstruction/replacement using intestinal segments for intractable incontinence or following cystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, June D; Nabi, Ghulam; Dublin, Norman; McClinton, Samuel; Neal, David E; Pickard, Robert; Yong, Sze M

    2012-02-15

    Surgery performed to improve or replace the function of the diseased urinary bladder has been carried out for over a century. Main reasons for improving or replacing the function of the urinary bladder are bladder cancer, neurogenic bladder dysfunction, detrusor overactivity and chronic inflammatory diseases of the bladder (such as interstitial cystitis, tuberculosis and schistosomiasis). There is still much uncertainty about the best surgical approach. Options available at the present time include: (1) conduit diversion (the creation of various intestinal conduits to the skin) or continent diversion (which includes either a rectal reservoir or continent cutaneous diversion), (2) bladder reconstruction and (3) replacement of the bladder with various intestinal segments. To determine the best way of improving or replacing the function of the lower urinary tract using intestinal segments when the bladder has to be removed or when it has been rendered useless or dangerous by disease. We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Trials Register (searched 28 October 2011), which contains trials identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and CINAHL, and handsearching of journals and conference proceedings, and the reference lists of relevant articles. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials of surgery involving transposition of an intestinal segment into the urinary tract. Trials were evaluated for appropriateness for inclusion and for risk of bias by the review authors. Three review authors were involved in the data extraction. Data were combined in a meta-analysis when appropriate. Five trials met the inclusion criteria with a total of 355 participants. These trials addressed only five of the 14 comparisons pre-specified in the protocol. One trial reported no statistically significant differences in the incidence of upper urinary tract infection, uretero-intestinal stenosis and renal deterioration in

  5. Multiple hemangiomas of the urinary bladder in a child with gross hematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeun Yoon Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of multiple hemangiomas involving the urinary bladder in a 4-year-old boy who presented with recurrent episodes of gross hematuria. On ultrasonography, compared with the bladder wall, the lesions presented as multiple isoechoic polypoid intraluminal masses with mildly increased vascularity on color Doppler exam. Cavernous hemangioma was confirmed by cold-cup biopsy, and the all lesions were coagulated with a Holmium laser. Despite their rarity, bladder hemangiomas should be included in the differential diagnosis of multiple intravesical masses in children with gross hematuria.

  6. Generalized peritonitis caused by spontaneous intraperitoneal rupture of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaru, A; Endou, M; Miura, Y; Otsuki, M

    1996-11-01

    We report a case of generalized peritonitis caused by spontaneous intraperitoneal rupture of the urinary bladder. A 74-year-old female was admitted with abdominal pain and biochemical findings of acute renal failure (ARF). She had recently complained of macrohematuria. She had a past history of radiotherapy for uterine cervical cancer and Parkinson's disease treated with levodopa and amantadine. We diagnosed this case as intraperitoneal rupture of the bladder by cystogram. Biochemical findings of ARF might have resulted from urine reabsorption. Intraperitoneal rupture of the bladder should be considered in all cases of peritonitis, especially in patients with urological symptoms and features of ARF.

  7. Monitoring of the upper urinary tract in patients with bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajinikanth Ayyathurai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Upper urinary tract (UUT transitional cell carcinoma (TCC is relatively rare tumor. Approximately 0.7-4% of patients with primary bladder cancer develops UUT-TCC. The symptoms related to an UUT-TCC often occur with an advanced stage which leads one to emphasize a surveillance strategy to monitor the UUT to allow for an earlier diagnosis. Although the risk of UUT-TCC after bladder cancer is well established, there is a paucity of recommendations suggesting the optimal method and frequency of monitoring the UUT and there is no consensus among them. This article reviews the recommendations on monitoring the UUT in patients with bladder cancer.

  8. Spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder in a woman with radiation cystitis. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurizaki, Yoshiki; Ishizuka, Osamu [Kofu Municipal Hospital, Yamanashi (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    A 79-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with gross hematuria and abdominal pain. She had had a uterine cancer 11 years previously and received 56 Gy {sup 60}Co external irradiation combined with 129 Gy {sup 137}Cs internal irradiation. She had a sign of pan-peritonitis. An emergency operation revealed an intraperitoneal rupture of the dome of the urinary bladder 8 cm in length. Because a primary suturing of the bladder wall was unsuccessful, bilateral cutaneous ureterostomy was performed. Histologically, the ruptured bladder wall showed a mucosal erosion and fibrosis of the muscle layer. (author)

  9. Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma in a defunctionalized urinary bladder: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mode Donald G

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Malignancies are rare in defunctionalized bladders and are thought to arise from metaplasia secondary to chronic inflammation. Transitional cell and squamous cell carcinomas are the most common but there are three reported cases of mucinous adenocarcinoma. Case presentation We report a 57-year-old Caucasian man presenting with penile discharge for 30 years following ileal conduit surgery for neurogenic bladder, and who was found to have primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of his defunctionalized bladder. Conclusion Although urinary diversion without cystectomy is less common in current urologic practice, there are many patients with longstanding defunctionalized bladders. While there are no established surveillance protocols, defunctionalized bladder patients with urethral discharge should be evaluated.

  10. Relationship between nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration, urinary symptoms, and bladder control in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winge, K; Friberg, L; Werdelin, L

    2005-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) often have lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Studies have indicated a correlation between dopaminergic degeneration and LUTS and presence of overactive bladder. We evaluated 18 patients with Parkinson's disease using single-photon emission computerized...... tomography (SPECT) imaging of the dopamine transporter with [(123)I]-FP-CIT, and bladder symptoms were assessed using questionnaires and full urodynamic evaluation both in medicated state and after cessation. Bladder symptoms correlated with age, stage and severity of disease but not with uptake...... of the ligand in the striatum. Patients with bladder symptoms had a significant lower uptake in the striatum compared with patients without LUTS. In patients with severe bladder dysfunction, LUTS correlated with putamen/caudate ratio. The specific binding of the ligand did not correlate with urodynamics...

  11. Bladder hamartoma: a unique cause of urinary retention in a child with Goldenhar syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Ahmed; Gayaparsad, Keshree; Engelbrecht, Matthys J; Moshokoa, Evelyn M

    2013-01-01

    The bladder hamartoma is an extremely rare entity. We report on its presence in a 5-year-old boy with Goldenhar syndrome. Most probably, this is the first report of a bladder hamartoma presenting with obstruction of the bladder outlet resulting in urinary retention. The obstructive lesion was resected endoscopically. This proved to be curative for the lesion, since the follow-up voiding cysto-urethrogram revealed only a negligible post-void residual volume. Although urogenital anomalies have a well-known correlation with the Goldenhar syndrome, the existence of the bladder hamartoma found in association with this syndrome, according to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously reported in the world literature. With this report being only the 11 th described case of bladder hamartoma, we highlight on the management options for this exceptional histological finding. The incidence, screening, treatment decisions and important urogenital associations of the Goldenhar syndrome are also discussed.

  12. Bladder hamartoma: A unique cause of urinary retention in a child with goldenhar syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Adam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The bladder hamartoma is an extremely rare entity. We report on its presence in a 5-year-old boy with Goldenhar syndrome. Most probably, this is the first report of a bladder hamartoma presenting with obstruction of the bladder outlet resulting in urinary retention. The obstructive lesion was resected endoscopically. This proved to be curative for the lesion, since the follow-up voiding cysto-urethrogram revealed only a negligible post-void residual volume. Although urogenital anomalies have a well-known correlation with the Goldenhar syndrome, the existence of the bladder hamartoma found in association with this syndrome, according to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously reported in the world literature. With this report being only the 11 th described case of bladder hamartoma, we highlight on the management options for this exceptional histological finding. The incidence, screening, treatment decisions and important urogenital associations of the Goldenhar syndrome are also discussed.

  13. Are you experienced? Understanding bladder innate immunity in the context of recurrent urinary tract infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brien, Valerie P.; Hannan, Thomas J.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Recurrent urinary tract infection (rUTI) is a serious clinical problem, yet effective therapeutic options are limited, especially against multidrug-resistant uropathogens. In this review, we explore the development of a clinically relevant model of rUTI in previously infected mice and review recent developments in bladder innate immunity that may affect susceptibility to rUTI. Recent findings Chronic bladder inflammation during prolonged bacterial cystitis in mice causes bladder mucosal remodelling that sensitizes the host to rUTI. Although constitutive defenses help prevent bacterial colonization of the urinary bladder, once infection occurs, induced cytokine and myeloid cell responses predominate and the balance of immune cell defense and bladder immunopathology is critical for determining disease outcome, in both naïve and experienced mice. In particular, the maintenance of the epithelial barrier appears to be essential for preventing severe infection. Summary The innate immune response plays a key role in determining susceptibility to rUTI. Future studies should be directed towards understanding how the innate immune response changes as a result of bladder mucosal remodelling in previously infected mice, and validating these findings in human clinical specimens. New therapeutics targeting the immune response should selectively target the induced innate responses that cause bladder immunopathology, while leaving protective defenses intact. PMID:25517222

  14. Cohort profile: The Swedish National Register of Urinary Bladder Cancer (SNRUBC) and the Bladder Cancer Data Base Sweden (BladderBaSe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggström, Christel; Liedberg, Fredrik; Hagberg, Oskar; Aljabery, Firas; Ströck, Viveka; Hosseini, Abolfazl; Gårdmark, Truls; Sherif, Amir; Malmström, Per-Uno; Garmo, Hans; Jahnson, Staffan; Holmberg, Lars

    2017-09-27

    To monitor the quality of bladder cancer care, the Swedish National Register of Urinary Bladder Cancer (SNRUBC) was initiated in 1997. During 2015, in order to study trends in incidence, effects of treatment and survival of men and women with bladder cancer, we linked the SNRUBC to other national healthcare and demographic registers and constructed the Bladder Cancer Data Base Sweden (BladderBaSe). The SNRUBC is a nationwide register with detailed information on 97% of bladder cancer cases in Sweden as compared with the Swedish Cancer Register. Participants in the SNRUBC have registered data on tumour characteristics at diagnosis, and for 98% of these treatment data have been captured. From 2009, the SNRUBC holds data on 88% of eligible participants for follow-up 5 years after diagnosis of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer, and from 2011, data on surgery details and complications for 85% of participants treated with radical cystectomy. The BladderBaSe includes all data in the SNRUBC from 1997 to 2014, and additional covariates and follow-up data from linked national register sources on comorbidity, socioeconomic factors, detailed information on readmissions and treatment side effects, and causes of death. Studies based on data in the SNRUBC have shown inequalities in survival and treatment indication by gender, regions and hospital volume. The BladderBaSe includes 38 658 participants registered in SNRUBC with bladder cancer diagnosed from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2014. The BladderBaSe initiators are currently in collaboration with researchers from the SNRUBC investigating different aspects of bladder cancer survival. The SNRUBC and the BladderBaSe project are open for collaborations with national and international research teams. Collaborators can submit proposals for studies and study files can be uploaded to servers for remote access and analysis. For more information, please contact the corresponding author. © Article author(s) (or their employer

  15. Urinary bladder segmentation in CT urography (CTU) using CLASS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Chan, Heang-Ping; Cohan, Richard H; Caoili, Elaine M; Law, Yuen; Cha, Kenny; Zhou, Chuan; Wei, Jun

    2013-11-01

    The authors are developing a computerized system for bladder segmentation on CTU, as a critical component for computer aided diagnosis of bladder cancer. A challenge for bladder segmentation is the presence of regions without contrast (NC) and filled with intravenous contrast (C). The authors have designed a Conjoint Level set Analysis and Segmentation System (CLASS) specifically for this application. CLASS performs a series of image processing tasks: preprocessing, initial segmentation, 3D and 2D level set segmentation, and postprocessing, designed according to the characteristics of the bladder in CTU. The NC and the C regions of the bladder were segmented separately in CLASS. The final contour is obtained in the postprocessing stage by the union of the NC and C contours. With Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, the authors retrospectively collected 81 CTU scans, in which 40 bladders contained lesions, 26 contained diffuse wall thickening, and 15 were considered to be normal. The bladders were segmented by CLASS and the performance was assessed by rating the quality of the contours on a 10-point scale (1 = "very poor," 5 = "fair," 10 = "perfect"). For 30 bladders, 3D hand-segmented contours were obtained and the segmentation accuracy of CLASS was evaluated and compared to that of a single level set method in terms of the average minimum distance, average volume intersection ratio, average volume error and Jaccard index. Of the 81 bladders, the average quality rating for CLASS was 6.5 ± 1.3. Thirty nine bladders were given quality ratings of 7 or above. Only five bladders had ratings under 5. The average minimum distance, average volume intersection ratio, average volume error, and average Jaccard index for CLASS were 3.5 ± 1.3 mm, (79.0 ± 8.2)%, (16.1 ± 16.3)%, and (75.7 ± 8.4)%, respectively, and for the single level set method were 5.2 ± 2.6 mm, (78.8 ± 16.3)%, (8.3 ± 33.1)%, (71.0 ± 15.4)%, respectively. The results demonstrate the potential of

  16. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: CT and MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Chul [Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kie Hwan [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seungeun [Catholic University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-01

    Primary small cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare aggressive malignancy of the urinary bladder, with identical histopathology to that of the lung. The treatment and prognosis of bladder SCC are somewhat different from those of more frequent transitional cell carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to analyze the CT and MR imaging findings of bladder SCC. Six adult patients (five males and one female) with pathologically proven SCC of the urinary bladder who had undergone pelvic CT and/or MR imaging were included in this study. The radiologic findings were retrospectively evaluated in terms of tumor location, texture, calcification, depth of invasion, perivesical extension, lymph node involvement, and local or distant metastasis, by two radiologists, who established a consensus. CT and MR images depicted all tumors as large, ill-defined, relatively well enhancing, broad-based polypoid intramural masses with (n=3) or without (n=3) cystic portions. Their frequent location was posterior and trigonal (n=3). Calcification was found within one tumor, and lymphadenopathy in four. At T2- weighted MR images, the solid portion of the tumor was relatively hypointense. The stage at the time of diagnosis was C in three patients, and D1 in three. Follow-up imaging showed brain metastasis in one patient and liver metastasis in two. On CT and MR images, SCC of the urinary bladder appeared as a large, enhancing, broad-based polypoid mass. It was stage C or higher, and lymph nodes and distant metastasis were frequent. T2-weighted MR images showed that the solid portion of the tumor was relatively hypointense. When radiologic examinations demonstrate a bladder tumor of this kind in adults, SCC of the urinary bladder should be included in the differential diagnosis.

  17. High expression of HEF1 is associated with poor prognosis in urinary bladder carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Q

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Qi Zhang,1 Hui-Ju Wang,2 Da-Hong Zhang,1 Guo-Qing Ru,3 Xu-Jun He,2 Ying-Yu Ma2 1Department of Urology, 2Key Laboratory of Gastroenterology of Zhejiang Province, 3Department of Pathology, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Human enhancer of filamentation 1 (HEF1 is a multidomain scaffolding protein that has been thought to play an important role in the tumor progression of various cancers. HEF1 expression has not previously been reported in urinary bladder carcinoma, and little is known about its prognostic significance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression patterns of HEF1 in urinary bladder carcinoma and to investigate its prognostic significance. HEF1 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarray. A significant relationship between HEF1 expression and sex, tumor size, number of tumors, invasion depth, lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis was found, and high expression of HEF1 was associated with worse overall survival when compared to low expression of HEF1. Multivariate analysis showed that HEF1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in urinary bladder carcinoma. We investigated HEF1 expression in urinary bladder carcinoma and found that high HEF1 expression was associated with advanced stage, large tumor size, and shortened progression-free survival. Although the biologic function of HEF1 in urinary bladder carcinoma remains unknown, the expression of HEF1 can provide new prognostic information for disease progression. Keywords: human enhancer of filamentation 1, progression-free survival, immunohistochemistry, metastasis, bladder cancer

  18. Development of contractile properties in the fetal porcine urinary bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lotte K; Trelborg, Karina F; Simonsen, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    completely blocked by atropine.ConclusionSpontaneous myogenic contractions become irregular and contractile responses to muscarinic receptor stimulation increase during gestation, as the bladder reservoir and voiding functions develop.Pediatric Research advance online publication, 4 October 2017; doi:10...

  19. Diagnosis of urinary bladder diseases in dogs by using two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Dehmiwal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to obtain and compare two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D ultrasonographic images of the urinary bladder in different disease conditions. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducting on total 10clinical cases of the urinary bladder in dogs. The ultrasound (US machine used for this study was 3D US machine (Nemio-XG: Toshiba, Japan having a four-dimensional volumetric probe. Results: In the present study, the inflamed thickened wall was clearly visible with the distinction of different layers of the urinary bladder wall in some of the cases of cystitis using 2D ultrasonography. In 3D sonogram, the urinary bladder was visualized as a large anechoic structure with no distinction of different layers of the bladder wall. The cystoliths were clearly visible as hyperechoic structures with distal acoustic shadow in 2D sonogram and appeared as a bright echogenic area in 3D sonogram. In case of urinary bladder neoplasia in 2D ultrasonogram, the bladder lumen was found to be occluded with a large growth imaged as focal anechoic areas in the tissue of mixed echogenicity with small hyperechoic dots in this tissue parenchyma. In 3D ultrasonogram, a tissue of mixed echogenicity of pus was also observed. Conclusion: From the present study it was concluded that 2D and 3D ultrasonography is very helpful for diagnosis of different clinical conditions of the urinary bladder such as cystitis, cystoliths, and urinary bladder neoplasia. The cavity of urinary bladder was more clearly visualized in 3D ultrasonography, but the distinction of different layers of the bladder wall was visualized only in 2D ultrasonography. The distinct shadow of pus and cystoliths were visible in 2D ultrasonogram. The visualization of pus in 3D ultrasonography was done for the first time in present study.

  20. Impaired M3 and enhanced M2 muscarinic receptor contractile function in a streptozotocin model of mouse diabetic urinary bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, K. J.; Ostrom, R. S.; Matsui, M.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the contractile roles of M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors in urinary bladder from streptozotocin-treated mice. Wild-type and M2 muscarinic receptor knockout (M2 KO) mice were given a single injection of vehicle or streptozotocin (125 mg kg−1) 2–24 weeks prior to bladder assays. The effect of forskolin on contractions elicited to the muscarinic agonist, oxotremorine-M, was measured in isolated urinary bladder (intact or denuded of urothelium). Denuded urinary bladder from vehicle-treated wild-type and M2 KO mice exhibited similar contractile responses to oxotremorine-M, when contraction was normalized relative to that elicited by KCl (50 mM). Eight to 9 weeks after streptozotocin treatment, the EC50 value of oxotremorine-M increased 3.1-fold in urinary bladder from the M2 KO mouse (N = 5) compared to wild type (N = 6; P bladder. In denuded urinary bladder from vehicle-treated mice, forskolin (5 µM) caused a much greater inhibition of contraction in M2 KO bladder compared to wild type. Following streptozotocin treatment, this forskolin effect increased 1.6-fold (P = 0.032). At the 20- to 24-week time point, the forskolin effect increased 1.7-fold for denuded as well as intact bladders (P = 0.036, 0.01, respectively). Although streptozotocin treatment inhibits M3 receptor-mediated contraction in denuded urinary bladder, muscarinic contractile function is maintained in wild-type bladder by enhanced M2 contractile function. M2 receptor activation opposes forskolin-induced relaxation of the urinary bladder, and this M2 function is enhanced following streptozotocin treatment. PMID:20349044

  1. Multiple urinary bladder masses from metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Choo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We present an unusual case of metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma that manifested with multiple exophytic intravesical masses, mimicking a multifocal primary bladder tumor. Biopsy with immunohistochemical analysis confirmed metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma. The patient was treated palliatively with external beam radiotherapy to prevent possible symptoms from local tumor progression. This case illustrates that when a patient with known prostate cancer presents with multifocal bladder tumors, the possibility of metastatic prostate cancer should be considered.

  2. Cool and menthol receptor TRPM8 in human urinary bladder disorders and clinical correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benham Christopher D

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent identification of the cold-menthol sensory receptor (TRPM8; CMR1, provides us with an opportunity to advance our understanding of its role in the pathophysiology of bladder dysfunction, and its potential mediation of the bladder cooling reflex. In this study, we report the distribution of the cool and menthol receptor TRPM8 in the urinary bladder in patients with overactive and painful bladder syndromes, and its relationship with clinical symptoms. Methods Bladder specimens obtained from patients with painful bladder syndrome (PBS, n = 16, idiopathic detrusor overactivity (IDO, n = 14, and asymptomatic microscopic hematuria (controls, n = 17, were immunostained using specific antibodies to TRPM8; nerve fibre and urothelial immunostaining were analysed using fibre counts and computerized image analysis respectively. The results of immunohistochemistry were compared between the groups and correlated with the Pain, Frequency and Urgency scores. Results TRPM8-immunoreactive staining was observed in the urothelium and nerve fibres scattered in the suburothelium. The nerve fibre staining was seen in fine-calibre axons and thick (myelinated fibres. There was marked increase of TRPM8-immunoreactive nerve fibres in IDO (P = 0.0249 and PBS (P Conclusion This study demonstrates increased TRPM8 in nerve fibres of overactive and painful bladders, and its relationship with clinical symptoms. TRPM8 may play a role in the symptomatology and pathophysiology of these disorders, and may provide an additional target for future overactive and painful bladder pharmacotherapy.

  3. Meloxicam in the treatment of in vitro and in vivo models of urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes-Rodrigues, Regina; Pinto-Leite, Rosário; Ferreira, Rita; Neuparth, Maria João; Pires, Maria João; Gaivão, Isabel; Palmeira, Carlos; Santos, Lúcio; Colaço, Aura; Oliveira, Paula

    2013-05-01

    To assess the efficacy of meloxicam, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), on three human urinary bladder-cancer cell lines (HT1376, T24 and 5637) and on mice urinary bladder cancer chemically induced by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN). The in vitro effects of meloxicam were assessed by optical microscopy, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method, flow cytometry and comet assay. In vivo, Hsd:ICR male mice were exposed to BBN in drinking water, over the course of 12 weeks. Subsequently, animals were treated with meloxicam by intraperitoneal route, for 6 consecutively weeks. Tumour development was evaluated by haematoxylin and eosin staining. Renal and hepatic functions, interleucin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumour necrosis factor (TNFα) were also evaluated. In vitro, meloxicam induced a significant (Pmeloxicam-treated cells. In vivo, the incidence of pre-neoplastic lesions induced by BBN was not affected by meloxicam treatment. However, although not statistically significant, the development of neoplastic lesions was inhibited by meloxicam treatment without significant alterations of renal or hepatic parameters. Meloxicam is effective on in vitro and in vivo models of urinary bladder cancer. These findings support that meloxicam deserves more attention on urinary bladder cancer study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. The pathology of urinary bladder lesions with an inverted growth pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aijun; Teng, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Inverted lesions in the urinary bladder have been the source of some difficulty in urological pathology. The two common ones are von Brunn’s nests and cystitis cystic/cystitis glandularis, which are considered normal variants of urothelium. Apart from them, a number of other rare urothelial lesions with inverted growth pattern occur in the urinary bladder. Some of them are only reactive conditions, just as pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia. Some are benign tumors, namely inverted papilloma. Whereas others are malignant neoplasms, including inverted papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP), non-invasive inverted papillary urothelial carcinoma (low-grade and high-grade), and invasive urothelial carcinoma (inverted, nested and big nested variants). Because of the overlapping morphological features of all the inverted lesions mentioned above, even between high-grade invasive carcinoma and pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia which are only a kind of reactive conditions, it is very important for the surgical pathologist to recognize and be familiar with these inverted lesions in urinary bladder. In this article, we review these spectrums of inverted lesions of the urinary bladder. Emphasis is placed on histogenesis, morphology, differential diagnosis of these lesions, and the pathologic grading of the non-invasive inverted neoplasms, such as inverted papilloma, inverted PUNLMP, non-invasive inverted papillary urothelial carcinoma with low-grade, and non-invasive inverted papillary urothelial carcinoma with high-grade. PMID:27041933

  5. Primary Calcified T-Cell Lymphoma of the Urinary Bladder: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun Ho; Shin, Sang Soo; Lim, Hyo Soon; Kang, Heoung Keun

    2003-01-01

    Primary malignant lymphoma of the urinary bladder is extremely rare, and to our knowledge, no case described in the radiologic literature has been accompanied by calcification. We report a case in which the condition was associated with calcification, and describe the pelvic CT and MR imaging findings. PMID:14726643

  6. Pattern of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder as seen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To highlight the pattern of patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder with regards to age, sex, ethnic origin and histopathological classification. Design: A ten year retrospective study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Fifty two patients who presented at Kenyatta ...

  7. Saudi oncology society and Saudi urology association combined clinical management guidelines for urothelial urinary bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubarak Al-mansour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report, updated guidelines for the evaluation, medical, and surgical management of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder are resented. They are categorized according the stage of the disease using the TNM staging system 7 th edition. The recommendations are presented with supporting level of evidence.

  8. Signal transduction underlying carbachol-induced contraction of rat urinary bladder. II. Protein kinases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleichman, Marina; Schneider, Tim; Fetscher, Charlotte; Michel, Martin C.

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the role of several protein kinases in carbachol-stimulated, M-3 muscarinic receptor-mediated contraction of rat urinary bladder. Concentration-response curves for the muscarinic receptor agonist carbachol were generated in the presence of multiple concentrations of inhibitors

  9. The effect of urinary incontinence and overactive bladder symptoms on quality of life in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, CH; de Leeuw, JRJ; Roovers, JPWR; Heintz, APM

    2002-01-01

    Objective To assess the consequences that the symptoms of urinary incontinence and an overactive bladder have on the quality of life in young, community-dwelling women. Subjects and methods A population-based, cross-sectional cohort study was conducted in women aged 20-45 years. Urogenital symptoms

  10. The effect of urinary incontinence and overactive bladder symptoms on quality of life in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, C. H.; de Leeuw, J. R. J.; Roovers, J. P. W. R.; Heintz, A. P. M.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the consequences that the symptoms of urinary incontinence and an overactive bladder have on the quality of life in young, community-dwelling women. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A population-based, cross-sectional cohort study was conducted in women aged 20-45 years. Urogenital

  11. A biological modeling based comparison of two strategies for adaptive radiotherapy of urinary bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutkenhaus, L. J.; Vestergaard, A.; Bel, A.; Høyer, M.; Hulshof, M. C. C. M.; van Leeuwen, C. M.; Casares-Magaz, O.; Petersen, J. B.; Søndergaard, J.; Muren, L. P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Adaptive radiotherapy is introduced in the management of urinary bladder cancer to account for day-to-day anatomical changes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an adaptive plan selection strategy using either the first four cone beam computed tomography scans (CBCT-based

  12. An unusual foreign body in the urinary bladder mimicking a parasitic worm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Bryan H; Feder, Marc T; Rokke, Denise L; Moyer, Thomas P; Pritt, Bobbi S

    2012-07-01

    We report an unusual case of a foreign body removed from the urinary bladder of a 63-year-old male which mimicked a parasitic worm. The foreign body was identified as an artificial fishing worm by morphological comparison to a similar commercially produced product and by infrared spectrum analysis.

  13. Cell length measurements in longitudinal smooth muscle strips of the pig urinary bladder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van Asselt (Els); R. Schot (Rachel); R. van Mastrigt (Ron)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractIn this study the length of smooth muscle cells in muscle bundles of pig urinary bladder wall was determined after dissection in Tyrode buffers with different calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]). Previous studies have shown that the length of isolated smooth muscle cells decreases with an

  14. Expression of FGFR3 Protein and Gene Amplification in Urinary Bladder Lesions in Relation to Schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammam, Olfat; Aboushousha, Tarek; El-Hindawi, Ali; Khairy, Hosni; Khalil, Heba; Kamel, Amira; Akl, Maha; Abdel-Hady, Ahmed; Magdy, Mona; Badawy, Mohamed; Kholy, Amr El; Osili, Khalid Al; Kamel, Nora; Anis, Shady; Leithy, Tarek El

    2017-04-15

    Bladder cancer represents the fifth most common malignancy worldwide and a major cause of cancer-related morbidity and death. Incidence and mortality rates have remained relatively constant over the past four decades. Urothelial bladder cancers have identified multiple risk factors. We aimed at evaluating the expression of the FGFR3 protein and gene amplification in the urothelial cells of neoplastic and non-neoplastic urothelial lesions of the urinary bladder, and correlation with tumour grade, stage and associated bilharziasis. One hundred and five different urinary bladder lesions were studied, including 15 cystitis cases (9 bilharzial and 6 non-bilharzial cystitides), 75 urothelial carcinoma cases (18 bilharzial associated and 57 non-bilharzial associated) and 15 squamous cell carcinoma associated with bilharziasis, beside 5 control cases. Data concerning age, sex, tumour grade, stage, and associated bilharziasis were obtained. Each case was studied for FGFR3 expression, and FISH technique was applied on forty malignant cases that show high protein expression. The highest incidence of cystitis was in the fourth decade while of bladder cancer was in the seventh decade. Tumour grade was correlated significantly with tumour stage. FGFR3 correlates significantly with tumour grade, stage and with a bilharzial infestation. FGFR3 gene amplification was reported mainly in low grade and NNMBIC tumours. FGFR3 overexpression in malignant cases was significantly higher than in chronic cystitis. FGFR3 gene amplification was reported mainly in low grade and NNMBIC tumours. FGFR3 may be further studied as a subject for target therapy of bladder cancer.

  15. The urinary bladder as a physiological reservoir that moderates dehydration in a large desert lizard, the Gila monster Heloderma suspectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jon R; DeNardo, Dale F

    2007-04-01

    Animals inhabiting xeric environments use a variety of behavioral and physiological strategies to balance water budgets. We studied the potential contribution of the urinary bladder to osmoregulation in a large desert lizard, the Gila monster Heloderma suspectum. Here we present results of a series of in vivo laboratory experiments which tested the hypothesis that the Gila monster urinary bladder serves as a physiological reservoir, as in amphibians and chelonians, providing water that buffers increases in plasma osmolality when food and water are unavailable. Adult Gila monsters absorbed water from the urinary bladder into circulation and absorption of water from the urinary bladder and drinking water provided similar osmoregulatory benefits within 24 h, although drinking water provided a more immediate osmotic benefit. During food and water deprivation, plasma osmolality increased 2.5 times faster in lizards with an empty urinary bladder compared with those with a full bladder. During rehydration, stereotyped binge drinking behavior increased body mass nearly 22%, which resulted in a 24% reduction in plasma osmolality and a substantial increase in bladder water within 24 h. These results support our hypothesis and demonstrate for the first time in an adult lizard that the urinary bladder can function as a long-term physiological water reservoir. This trait can provide a critical benefit to osmoregulation during the 2- to 3-month summer dry season characteristic of the deserts that Gila monsters inhabit.

  16. Rb deficiency accelerates progression of carcinoma of the urinary bladder in vivo and in vitro through inhibiting autophagy and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Yuan; Xu, Zhi-Bin; Wang, Jiang-Ping; Jiao, Yong; Zhang, Bo

    2017-04-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is known as a common cancer diagnosed across the world and results in significant mortality and morbidity rates among patients. The retinoblastoma (Rb) protein, as a main tumor suppressor, controls cellular responses to potentially oncogenic stimulation. Rb phosphorylation could disrupt E2F complex formation, resulting in diverse transcription factor dysfunction. In our study, we investigated how Rb is involved in controlling urinary bladder cancer progression. The results indicate that Rb expression is reduced in mice with urinary bladder tumor, and its suppression leads to urinary bladder cancer progression in vivo and in vitro. Rb mutation directly results in tumor size with lower survival rate in vivo. Rb knockdown in vitro promoted bladder tumor cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Interestingly, Rb knockout and knockdown result in autophagy and apoptosis inhibition via suppressing p53 and caspase-3 signaling pathways, enhancing bladder cancer development in vitro and in vivo. These findings reveal that Rb deficiency accelerated urinary bladder cancer progression, exposing an important role of Rb in suppressing urinary bladder cancer for treatment in the future.

  17. Focus on urinary bladder cancer markers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecke, T H

    2008-12-01

    Finding and development of new bladder cancer markers is still a very dynamic field. Because of the mass of all these markers it is impossible to report all of them. This paper reviews the role of bladder cancer markers in diagnosis and highlights the most important biomarkers studied and reported recently. A medline based literature search was performed to examine the field of bladder cancer markers. Major topics focus on selected bladder cancer markers from nearly all categories of the wide field of bladder cancer markers: Hematuria, FISH, FGFR3, SURVIVIN, u-PAR, TP53 mutation, HER-2/neu, TPA, NMP22, CK-19, CK-20, CYFRA 21-1. The use and clinical importance as diagnostic help are discussed. In this review a highlight to some of the most important markers was made. Further determination of recurrence and progression marker will contribute to establish better treatments for the individual patient. Molecular staging of urological tumors will allow selecting cases that will require systemic treatment. It is necessary and important to integrate under the same objectives basic and clinical research.

  18. The use of intravesicular alteplase for thrombolysis in a dog with urinary bladder thrombi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooi, Kimberly S; Lemetayer, Julie D

    2017-09-01

    To describe the use of alteplase for intravesicular thrombolysis in a dog after development of urinary tract obstruction from a blood clot in the urinary bladder. A 5.8 kg, 6.5-year-old female neutered Bichon Frise was presented for signs of acute hematuria. A complete blood count (CBC) revealed marked thrombocytopenia and leukopenia, and nonregenerative anemia. Bone marrow aspirate cytology revealed mild hypercellularity, mild megakaryocytic hyperplasia, mildly left-shifted erythroid maturation, and moderately left-shifted myeloid maturation, suggesting ongoing recovery from an acute bone marrow insult. Thrombocytopenia and hematuria resolved concurrently; however, stranguria and oliguria developed acutely. Ultrasonography identified two large presumed thrombi within the urinary bladder. A urinary catheter was placed and 4 doses of 0.5 mg of alteplase diluted in 10 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride were instilled into the bladder with a 4-hour dwell time at 12-hour intervals. Prothombin and activated partial thromboplastin times were monitored during therapy and remained within normal limits. One thrombus was successfully dissolved after 48 hours of therapy and the remaining thrombus was reduced in size and was voided upon removal of the urinary catheter. This report describes the use of alteplase in a dog for thrombolysis of intravesicular thrombi. In patients that develop intravesicular thrombi, intravesical instillation of alteplase can be considered as a method for dissolution of these thrombi. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  19. Effects of seven chemicals on DNA damage in the rat urinary bladder: a comet assay study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Kunio; Yoshida, Toshinori; Takahashi, Naofumi; Matsumoto, Kyomu

    2014-07-15

    The in vivo comet assay has been used for the evaluation of DNA damage and repair in various tissues of rodents. However, it can give false-positive results due to non-specific DNA damage associated with cell death. In this study, we examined whether the in vivo comet assay can distinguish between genotoxic and non-genotoxic DNA damage in urinary bladder cells, by using the following seven chemicals related to urinary bladder carcinogenesis in rodents: N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN), glycidol, 2,2-bis(bromomethyl)-1,3-propanediol (BMP), 2-nitroanisole (2-NA), benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), uracil, and melamine. BBN, glycidol, BMP, and 2-NA are known to be Ames test-positive and they are expected to produce DNA damage in the absence of cytotoxicity. BITC, uracil, and melamine are Ames test-negative with metabolic activation but have the potential to induce non-specific DNA damage due to cytotoxicity. The test chemicals were administered orally to male Sprague-Dawley rats (five per group) for each of two consecutive days. Urinary bladders were sampled 3h after the second administration and urothelial cells were analyzed by the comet assay and subjected to histopathological examination to evaluate cytotoxicity. In the urinary bladders of rats treated with BBN, glycidol, and BMP, DNA damage was detected. In contrast, 2-NA induced neither DNA damage nor cytotoxicity. The non-genotoxic chemicals (BITC, uracil, and melamine) did not induce DNA damage in the urinary bladders under conditions where some histopathological changes were observed. The results indicate that the comet assay could distinguish between genotoxic and non-genotoxic chemicals and that no false-positive responses were obtained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression and functional role of Rho-kinase in rat urinary bladder smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibberley, Alexandra; Chen, Zunxuan; Hu, Erding; Hieble, J Paul; Westfall, Timothy D

    2003-03-01

    (1) The involvement of Rho-kinase (ROCK) in the contractile mechanisms mediating smooth muscle contraction of the rat urinary bladder was investigated using expression studies and the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632. (2) Both isoforms of ROCK (ROCK I and ROCK II) were detected in high levels in rat urinary bladder. (3) Y-27632 (10 micro M) significantly attenuated contractions of rat urinary bladder strips evoked by the G-protein coupled receptor agonists carbachol (58.1+/-10.5% at 0.3 micro M) and neurokinin A (68.6+/-12.7% at 1 micro M) without affecting contractions to potassium chloride (10-100 mM). In addition, basal tone was reduced by 47.8+/-2.0% by 10 micro M Y-27632 in the absence of stimulation. (4) Contractions of urinary bladder strips evoked by the P2X receptor agonist alpha,beta-methylene ATP (alpha,beta-mATP; 10 micro M) were also attenuated by Y-27632 (30.0+/-7.2% at 10 micro M). (5) Y-27632 (10 micro M) significantly attenuated contractions evoked by electrical field stimulation (2-16 Hz). The effect of Y-27632 on the tonic portion of the neurogenic response (4-16 Hz) was not significantly different from the effect of atropine (1 micro M) alone. (6) While the mechanism underlying the ability of Y-27632 to inhibit alpha,beta-mATP-evoked contractions remains undetermined, the results of the present study clearly demonstrate a role for ROCK in the regulation of rat urinary bladder smooth muscle contraction and tone.

  1. Clinical guidelines for male lower urinary tract symptoms associated with non-neurogenic overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Cheng Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this guideline is to direct urologists and patients regarding how to identify overactive bladder (OAB in male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS and to make an accurate diagnosis and establish treatment goals to improve the patients' quality of life (QoL. LUTS are commonly divided into storage, voiding, and postmicturition symptoms, and are highly prevalent in elderly men. LUTS can result from a complex interplay of pathophysiologic features that can include bladder dysfunction and bladder outlet dysfunction such as benign prostatic obstruction (BPO or poor relaxation of the urethral sphincter. Diagnosis of OAB in male LUTS leads to accurate diagnosis of pure OAB and bladder outlet-related OAB, and appropriate treatment in men with residual storage symptoms after treatment for LUTS.

  2. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the urinary bladder with synchronous rectum invasion: A rare case report

    OpenAIRE

    AKTIMUR, Sude Hatun; ALAYVAZ ASLAN, Nevin; ONEM, Soner; BUYUKKAYA, Piltan; CETIN, Hasan; OZDEN, Ender; ATAY, Memis Hilmi

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) are a heterogeneous group of malignant neoplasms appeared in the lymphocyte cell lines, accounting for approximately 25-30% of lymphoma cases. The occurrence of primary urinary bladder or rectal lymphomas synchronously is uncommon, also first presenting sign of disseminated disease in bladder or rectum are considerably rare. Here, we report the first case of extensive DLBCL in bladder and rectum synchronously mimicking primary urinary bladder lymphoma i...

  3. 2-Nitroanisole-induced oxidative DNA damage in Salmonella typhimurium and in rat urinary bladder cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Kunio; Katoh, Yoshitaka; Ohnuma-Koyama, Aya; Takahashi, Naofumi; Yamada, Masami; Matsumoto, Kyomu

    2017-04-01

    2-Nitroanisole (2-NA) is used in the manufacturing of azo dyes and causes cancer, mainly in the urinary bladder. Previous in vivo genotoxic data seems to be insufficient to explain the mechanism through which 2-NA induces carcinogenesis, and several bladder carcinogens were reported to induce oxidative DNA damage. Thus, we examined the potential induction of oxidative DNA damage by 2-NA using bacterial strain YG3008, a mutMST-deficient derivative of strain TA100. Consequently, strain YG3008, when compared with strain TA100, was found to be more sensitive to 2-NA, indicating oxidative DNA damage in bacterial cells. For further investigation, we performed the comet assay using the urinary bladder and liver of rats, with and without human 8-oxoguanine DNA-glycosylase 1 (hOGG1), to confirm the potential of 2-NA for inducing oxidative DNA damage. Simultaneously, we conducted a micronucleus test using bone marrow from rats to assess the genotoxicity of 2-NA in vivo. 2-NA was administered orally to male Fischer 344 rats for 3 consecutive days. The rats were divided into 6 treatment groups: 3 groups treated with 2-NA at doses of 125, 250, and 500mg/kg; a group treated with the combination of 2-NA and glutathione-SH (GSH); a negative control group; and a positive control group. The comet assay without hOGG1 detected no DNA damage in the liver or urinary bladder, and the micronucleus test did not show clastogenic effects in bone marrow cells. However, the comet assay with hOGG1 was positive in the urinary bladder samples, indicating the induction of oxidative DNA damage in the urinary bladder for the group treated with 2-NA at 500mg/kg. Moreover, an antioxidant of GSH significantly reduced oxidative DNA damage caused by 2-NA. These results indicate that oxidative DNA damage is a possible mode of action for carcinogenesis in the urinary bladder of rats treated with 2-NA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of bladder lithiasis on lower urinary tract dynamics in patients with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vírseda-Chamorro, M; Salinas-Casado, J; Barroso-Manso, Á; Gutiérrez-Martín, P; Fuertes, M E

    2017-08-01

    A prospective and a case-matched control study. To study the lower urinary tract dysfunction associated with bladder lithiasis in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Toledo (Spain). We have carried out a urodynamic study in 30 patients with SCI with lithiasis in their bladder before and 3 months after bladder endoscopic lithotripsy. This second study was compared with the urodynamic findings of a different group of 30 patients with SCI, without a history of bladder lithiasis, paired with cases by gender and date of urodynamic study. We have found that the prevalence of neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) was significantly different after bladder lithotripsy, although the cystomanometric capacity was significantly increased. A group of patients with lithiasis showed a maximum flow rate, a voiding maximum detrusor pressure and the detrusor contractility parameter Wmax lower than that in controls. On the other hand, a voiding abdominal straining was found to be significantly greater than that in controls. Bladder lithiasis affects the presence of NDO in patients with SCI. Patients with SCI who develop bladder lithiasis present a lower detrusor contractility power compared with those who do not.

  5. The urinary diversion in children with bladder exstrophy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    range. No cases of pyelonephritis or urolithiasis were recorded. One female clild with incontinent epispadias who had undergone ureterosigmoidostom~~ developed stenosis at the ureteral implantation site. T l i s cMd had a solitary Iudney; she was undiverted and simultaneously underwent Marshal Marchet bladder neck ...

  6. Foreign Body (Metallic Flashlight Cover) in the Urinary Bladder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ra

    Jimenez Cruz JF. Unusual foreign bodies in the urethra and bladder. Br.J.Urol. 1991; Nov;68(5):510-2. Coronel Sanchez B, Sanchez Sanchis MJ, Carrascosa. 4. Lloret V, Beltran Armada JR, Rodrigo Guanter V, Tarin. Planes M, et al. Migración intravesical de un dispositivo intrauterino: Presentación de un caso. [Migration of.

  7. A radiologic study on the urinary bladder following dorsal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pneumocystography and positive contrast cystography using solutrast® were carried out immediately after surgery and on the second operative day following dorsal and ventral cystotomy in 22 adult mongrel dogs. In all the radiographs, there was no contrast observed in the abdominal cavity and the apex of the bladder had ...

  8. Reduction of bladder activity on FDG PET/CT scan in patients with urinary bladder carcinoma. A prospective study with a patient-friendly protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S-C; Ou, Y-C; Cheng, C-L; Li, J-R; Lin, Y-C; Ho, H-C; Chiu, K-Y; Su, C-K; Lin, W-Y

    2015-01-01

    Oral hydration with large volume of fluid, high dose of diuretics and maximum bladder distension are frequently required to achieve an adequate urinary FDG clearance in an FDG PET/CT protocol for bladder cancer or pelvic tumour evaluation. Although most patients tolerated these procedures for eliminating urinary FDG activity, these procedures may be still unpleasant. Is there a more patient-friendly protocol which is less burdensome and yet provides a satisfactory FDG clearance in urine? In this study, we established a patient-friendly FDG PET/CT protocol without compromising urinary FDG clearance. 23 patients with biopsy-proven urinary bladder cancers were recruited to evaluate the effectiveness of this patient-friendly protocol on reducing urinary bladder FDG activity. The patient-friendly protocol includes encouraging patients to take a tolerable amount of fluid, delaying the administration of low dose diuretic, shortening the urine holding time and using delayed imaging. All of the patients tolerated this patient-friendly procedure well. In addition, the patient-friendly protocol was effective in reducing FDG activity in the urine. One hundred percent of primary bladder cancer were visualized on the FDG PET/CT images using this patient-friendly protocol. This patient-friendly FDG PET/CT protocol is less intrusive yet effective in reducing urinary FDG activity.

  9. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours of the urinary bladder: multi-centre 18-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Jeremy Yuen Chun; Chan, Ning Hong; Mak, Siu Ming; Lo, Anthony Wing Ip; Leung, Chung Ying; Hui, Yin; Law, In Chak; Fan, Chi Wai; Cheung, Fu Keung; Chan, Steve Wai Hee; Yiu, Ming Kwong; Man, Chi Wai; So, Hing Shing; Cheung, Ho Yuen; Hou, Simon See Ming; Ng, Chi Fai

    2015-01-01

    To review a series of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours (IMTs) of the urinary bladder in 10 hospitals in Hong Kong. A database search in the pathology archives of 10 hospitals in Hong Kong from 1995 to 2013 was performed using the key words 'inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour', 'inflammatory pseudotumour' and 'spindle cell lesion'. Patient characteristics, clinical features, histological features, immunohistochemical staining results and treatment outcomes were reviewed. Nine cases of IMT of the urinary bladder were retrieved. The mean age was 45.4 ± 22.8 years (range 11-78). Eight patients (88.9%) presented with haematuria and 5 patients (55.6%) had anaemia with a mean haemoglobin level of 6.8 ± 1.3 g/dl. Histologically, the majority of patients (77.8%) had a compact spindle cell pattern. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase staining was positive in 75% of cases. During a mean follow-up period of 43.4 months (range 8-94), none of them developed any local recurrence or distant metastasis. A high index of suspicion of IMT should be maintained for young patients presenting with bleeding bladder tumours and significant anaemia. IMTs of the urinary bladder run a benign disease course, and good prognosis can be achieved after surgical resection. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. A Case Report of Primary B–Cell Lymphoma of the Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abbasi

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary malignant lymphoma of the urinary bladder is very rare. Less than 100 cases have been reported. The best treatment approach for this disease remained unknown.In this article we reported a 41-year-old-female who was admitted to Sina hospital with the chief complaint of macrohematuria that was followed by dysuria , frequency , noturia and urgency. Other examinations were normal and there was no organomegaly and lymphadenopathy.In ultrasonography the thickening of trigone zone of the urinary bladder was reported. The patient underwent a transurethral biopsy of the bladder that revealed malignant lymphoma , intermediate grade , diffuse mixed small and large cell type ( B-cell lymphoma. The reports of computed tomography scan of the thorax , abdomen and pelvis and bonemarrow biopsy were normal and results of metastatic work up were negative.Primary lymphoma of the urinary bladder was diagnosed and a combination of systemic chemotherapy and relatively low dose irradiation were done for the patient. The patient is in complete remission with this kind of treatment now.

  11. Ruptured urinary bladder attributable to urethral compression by a haematoma after vertebral fracture in a bull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Ueli; Trösch, Luzia; Sydler, Titus

    2014-03-26

    In male cattle, rupture of the urinary bladder is usually associated with urethral obstruction by uroliths. Less common causes include urethral compression or stricture. This case report describes the findings in a young Limousion breeding bull with rupture of the urinary bladder because of urethral compression by a haematoma after coccygeal fracture. The bull had been introduced into a 40-head Red-Holstein herd one week before being injured. One week after introduction to the herd, the bull had an acute onset of anorexia and he was referred to the clinic. There was marked abdominal distension, reduced skin turgor and enophthalmus. The serum concentration of urea and creatinine was increased. Ultrasonographic examination revealed severe ascites and abdominocentesis yielded clear yellow fluid with high urea and creatinine concentrations, which supported a diagnosis of uroperitoneum. The bull was euthanatized because of a poor prognosis. Postmortem examination revealed a comminuted fracture of the first two coccygeal vertebrae associated with a massive haematoma that obstructed entire pelvic cavity. The haematoma compressed the urethra thereby preventing outflow of urine, which resulted in a 5-cm tear ventrally at the neck of the bladder. It was assumed that the newly-introduced bull had sustained the vertebral fractures when he was mounted by a cow. The present case study serves to expand the differential diagnosis of urinary bladder rupture. Therefore, in addition to obstructive urolithiasis, compression and stricture of the urethra might be considered in male cattle with uroperitoneum.

  12. Influence of bladder fullness on the detection of urinary tract obstruction by dynamic renal scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosenza, Nathalia Novaes; Lau, Fabio; Lima, Mariana Cunha Lopes; Amorim, Barbara Juarez; Mosci, Camila; Lima, Marcelo Lopes; Ramos, Celso Dario, E-mail: nathalia_cosenza@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FCM/UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    2017-07-15

    Objective: To investigate the influence of bladder fullness on the diagnosis of urinary tract obstruction during dynamic renal scintigraphy with a diuretic stimulator. Materials and Methods: We studied 82 kidneys in 82 patients submitted to dynamic renal scintigraphy with a diuretic stimulator. We compared the proportional elimination of the radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA from the kidneys before and after bladder emptying in post-diuretic images, classifying each image as representing an obstructed, indeterminate, or unobstructed kidney. Results: The overall elimination of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA from the kidneys was 10.4% greater after bladder emptying than before. When the analysis was performed with a full bladder, we classified 40 kidneys as obstructed, 16 as indeterminate, and 26 as unobstructed. When the 40 kidneys classified as obstructed were analyzed after voiding, 11 were reclassified as indeterminate and 3 were reclassified as unobstructed. Of the 16 kidneys classified as indeterminate on the full-bladder images, 13 were reclassified as unobstructed after voiding. Conclusion: In dynamic renal scintigraphy with a diuretic stimulator, it is important to obtain images after voiding, in order to perform a reliable analysis of the proportional excretion of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA from the kidneys, avoiding possible false-positive results for urinary tract obstruction. (author)

  13. [Using of cell biocomposite material in tissue engineering of the urinary bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glybochko, P V; Olefir, Yu V; Alyaev, Yu G; Butnaru, D V; Bezrukov, E A; Chaplenko, A A; Zharikova, T M

    2017-06-01

    In a systematic review, to present an overview of the current situation in the field of tissue engineering of urinary bladder related to the use of cell lines pre-cultured on matrices. The selection of eligible publications was conducted according to the method described in the article Glybochko P.V. et al. "Tissue engineering of urinary bladder using acellular matrix." At the final stage, studies investigating the application of matrices with human and animal cell lines were analyzed. Contemporary approaches to using cell-based tissue engineering of the bladder were analyzed, including the formation of 3D structures from several types of cells, cell layers and genetic modification of injected cells. The most commonly used cell lines are urothelial cells, mesenchymal stem cells and fibroblasts. The safety and efficacy of any types of composite cell structures used in the cell-based bladder tissue engineering has not been proven sufficiently to warrant clinical studies of their usefulness. The results of cystoplasty of rat bladder are almost impossible to extrapolate to humans; besides, it is difficult to predict possible side effects. For the transition to clinical trials, additional studies on relevant animal models are needed.

  14. Surgical implantation of the new FlowSecure artificial urinary sphincter in the female bladder neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Montes, Fernando; Vicens-Vicens, Antoni; Ozonas-Moragues, Mariano; Oleza-Simo, Jaime; Mora-Salvá, Antonia

    2007-01-01

    To report implantation of the new FlowSecure artificial urinary sphincter with conditional occlusion in a female bladder neck, describe surgical technique and suggest minor modifications to accommodate the device for universal female implantation. A spina bifida female patient with urodynamically proven stress incontinence due to sphincteric incompetence associated to atonic detrusor was implanted with the new artificial sphincter. Operating time was one and a half hours. The cuff was adjusted to the bladder neck with no problems. Excess belt removed from the cuff was preserved and used for loose fixation of tubing and reservoirs in the right paravesical space. The control pump was placed in the right labia. The prosthesis was implanted at atmospheric pressure zero. The device was easily implanted. There were no perioperative complications. Catheter was removed 24 h post-implantation and patient achieved immediate total continence. There was no need for device pressurization at subsequent follow-up. The patient needed intermittent self-catheterization for emptying her bladder because of impaired detrusor contractility. Despite that the new FlowSecure artificial urinary sphincter has only been used for bulbar urethral implantation, we have successfully implanted the device in a female bladder neck with excellent clinical results. Cuff lengthening and connecting tubes shortening would probably enable all female patients to be suitable for implantation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time the device has been implanted in a bladder neck. 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. Artificial urinary sphincter: 11-year experience in adolescents with congenital neuropathic bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Pereira, Pedro; Somoza Ariba, Ivan; Martínez Urrutia, M Jose; Lobato Romero, Roberto; Jaureguizar Monroe, Enrique

    2006-11-01

    We assess our experience over the last 11 years in the use of an artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) to treat urinary incontinence in children with neuropathic bladders. Between 1994 and 2005 an AUS was implanted in 35 patients (mean age 14.4; range 11.5-18). Upper urinary tract (UUT) evaluations and urodynamic studies were performed in all patients pre- and post-AUS implantation. Thirteen patients underwent enterocystoplasty combined with AUS placement and 22 underwent AUS implantation alone. An AUS was implanted in 35 patients. Mean follow-up is 5.5 years (range 0.4-11 years). Nine mechanical malfunctions occurred in seven patients (20%). Of the 22 patients who underwent AUS implantation alone, seven (31.2%) eventually required an enterocystoplasty because of unexpected bladder behaviour changes, usually within three years of AUS implantation. In seven patients (20%), a continent catheterisable stoma was made (before or during the follow-up) because of problems with clean intermittent catheterisation (CIC) through the urethra. Three AUS (8.6%) were removed because of sphincter erosion at the bladder neck. All 32 patients (91.4%) with the AUS currently in place are dry, three void their bladders spontaneously, and 29 need CIC. AUS must be considered as an elective treatment in the surgical management of these patients because it produces better continence rates than other methods. However, these patients need long-term follow-up because their bladder behaviour may undergo unexpected clinically asymptomatic changes that could negatively affect their UUT and require bladder augmentation.

  16. Pathology of spontaneous tubular proteinuria evaluated by renal scintigraphy {sup 99m}-Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Second report. Evaluation of urinary excretion and urinary bladder uptake images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, Takeshi; Hosaki, Tomoko; Shimizu, Mariko [Fussa Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    2000-03-01

    The significance of DMSA uptake in the urinary bladder and %uptake in renal scintigrams with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA in spontaneous tubular proteinuria was reassessed. The subjects were 10 patients in whom DMSA uptake in the urinary bladder could be clearly evaluated among 15 cases that were tentatively diagnosed as having spontaneous tubular proteinuria and in which renal scintigraphy was performed with DMSA. All of the patients were male children and their mean age was 9 years 11 months. No morphological abnormalities in the kidneys could be detected in any of the cases, and %uptake of DMSA was very low. Urinary excretion and uptake of the nuclide in the urinary bladder was significantly increased. In view of the pharmacokinetics of DMSA, the patients' disease appeared to be complicated by failure of the proximal tubule epithelial cells to resorb low-molecular-weight proteins, and the failure of active transport on the vascular lumen side of the cells. As a result, urinary excretion was increased and marked uptake in the urinary bladder was induced. Accordingly, when %uptake of DMSA cannot be measured, it is necessary to determine the extent of uptake in the urinary bladder. When images showing abnormal uptake are obtained, the possibility of diseases associated with functional failure at the proximal tubular level, such as spontaneous tubular proteinuria, is quite high. (K.H.)

  17. [Giant lithiasis due to urinary stasis related to ileo-caecal bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dergamoun, Hamza; El Makhoukhi, Zayd El Boukili

    2017-01-01

    Bladder exstrophy is a malformation characterized by subumbilical anterior abdominal wall and anterior bladder wall deishence. It affects nearly 30.000-40.000 births per year, with a higher prevalence in boys. External continent urinary diversion creates a long-term outcome. However, it is not devoid of complications. We report the case of a 30-year old female patient who had undergone cystectomy with bladder replaced with ileo-caecal segment for bladder exstrophy 13 years earlier. She was followed up for 5 years and then lost to follow up. In March 2017 she presented with painful abdominal heaviness as well as constipation evolving in a context of apyrexy and good general condition. Clinical examination showed good general health, midline laparotomy scar, continent uninvaginated urinary pouch valve. Pelvic examination was unremarkable. Hypogastric palpation showed nonpainful stony-hard mass. Urinary tract without preparation showed calcic opacity 130*110 mm as well as symphysis disjunction. Renal and pelvic ultrasound showed several hyperechogen images with posterior shadow cone occupying the pelvis, two well differentiated kidneys of normal size without ureteric hydronephrosis. CT urography showed 5 big calcium stones with an average density of 730 UH, the most voluminous of which measured 112*101 mm, in the neobladder. Renal function was normal and cytobacteriological examination of urine showed ESBL-producing E coli urinary tract infection sensitive to carbapenems. Treatment was based on suitable antibiotic therapy associated with entero-cystolithotomy involving laborious extraction of 5 big stones. Spectrophotometric examination revealed phospho-ammonium-magnesium stones. The postoperative course was uneventful, post operative urinary tract without preparation showed no stones.

  18. Correlation of bladder base elevation with pelvic floor hypertonicity in women with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Fei-Chi; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2007-01-01

    To determine whether the bladder base elevation as revealed by cystogram under fluoroscopy is associated with pelvic floor hypertonicity or bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in women. Sixty-two women who were referred to our videourodynamic laboratory for assessment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) were included in this retrospective analysis. Thirty-one of these women with bladder base elevation-revealed by cystogram under fluoroscopy during videourodynamic study-served as the experimental group, and another group of 31 women without bladder base elevation served as control. None of the patients had neuropathy, previous pelvic surgery or chronic urinary retention. The clinical symptoms, urodynamic diagnosis, and parameters were compared between the two groups. The mean voiding pressure (Pdet.Qmax) and postvoid residual (PVR) were significantly greater, and maximum flow rate (Qmax) and voided volume were significantly lower in the bladder base elevation group. When a Pdet.Qmax of >or=35 cmH2O combined with a Qmax of elevation group had BOO than controls (51.6% vs. 9.7%, P=0.0003). Pelvic floor muscle electromyogram (EMG) was dyscoordinated during the voiding phase in 18 (58.1%) and 9 (29%) of the patients with and without bladder base elevation, respectively (P=0.0212). Women with LUTS and bladder base elevation revealed in the filling phase of videourodynamic study had significantly higher voiding pressure and incidence of dyscoordinated pelvic floor EMG activities during voiding, suggesting a higher incidence of BOO and pelvic floor hypertonicity. Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Impaired Excitatory Neurotransmission in the Urinary Bladder from the Obese Zucker Rat: Role of Cannabinoid Receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Blaha

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MS is a known risk factor for lower urinary tract symptoms. This study investigates whether functional and expression changes of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors are involved in the bladder dysfunction in an obese rat model with insulin resistance. Bladder samples from obese Zucker rat (OZR and their respective controls lean Zucker rat (LZR were processed for immunohistochemistry and western blot for studying the cannabinoid receptors expression. Detrusor smooth muscle (DSM strips from LZR and OZR were also mounted in myographs for isometric force recordings. Neuronal and smooth muscle CB1 and CB2 receptor expression and the nerve fiber density was diminished in the OZR bladder. Electrical field stimulation (EFS and acetylcholine (ACh induced frequency- and concentration-dependent contractions of LZR and OZR DSM. ACh contractile responses were similar in LZR and OZR. EFS-elicited contractions, however, were reduced in OZR bladder. Cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists failed to modify the DSM basal tension in LZR and OZR In LZR bladder, EFS responses were inhibited by ACEA and SER-601, CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists, respectively, these effects being reversed by ACEA plus the CB1 antagonist, AM-251 or SER-601 plus the CB2 antagonist, AM-630. In OZR bladder, the inhibitory action of ACEA on nerve-evoked contractions was diminished, whereas that SER-601 did not change EFS responses. These results suggest that a diminished function and expression of neuronal cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, as well as a lower nerve fiber density is involved in the impaired excitatory neurotransmission of the urinary bladder from the OZR.

  20. Central role of the BK channel in urinary bladder smooth muscle physiology and pathophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The physiological functions of the urinary bladder are to store and periodically expel urine. These tasks are facilitated by the contraction and relaxation of the urinary bladder smooth muscle (UBSM), also known as detrusor smooth muscle, which comprises the bladder wall. The large-conductance voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ (BK, BKCa, MaxiK, Slo1, or KCa1.1) channel is highly expressed in UBSM and is arguably the most important physiologically relevant K+ channel that regulates UBSM function. Its significance arises from the fact that the BK channel is the only K+ channel that is activated by increases in both voltage and intracellular Ca2+. The BK channels control UBSM excitability and contractility by maintaining the resting membrane potential and shaping the repolarization phase of the spontaneous action potentials that determine UBSM spontaneous rhythmic contractility. In UBSM, these channels have complex regulatory mechanisms involving integrated intracellular Ca2+ signals, protein kinases, phosphodiesterases, and close functional interactions with muscarinic and β-adrenergic receptors. BK channel dysfunction is implicated in some forms of bladder pathologies, such as detrusor overactivity, and related overactive bladder. This review article summarizes the current state of knowledge of the functional role of UBSM BK channels under normal and pathophysiological conditions and provides new insight toward the BK channels as targets for pharmacological or genetic control of UBSM function. Modulation of UBSM BK channels can occur by directly or indirectly targeting their regulatory mechanisms, which has the potential to provide novel therapeutic approaches for bladder dysfunction, such as overactive bladder and detrusor underactivity. PMID:24990859

  1. Implications of a 5-liter urinary bladder: inferior vena cava syndrome leading to bilateral pulmonary artery emboli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vidit; McGuire, Barry B; Nadler, Robert B

    2014-06-01

    Compression of the inferior vena cava by the distended urinary bladder is rare but is usually found in the presence of lower extremity edema. Here, we present the case of a 68-year-old man found to have multiple pulmonary emboli as the first manifestation of inferior vena cava compression from a distended urinary bladder 5 L in capacity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Static postural stability in women with stress urinary incontinence: Effects of vision and bladder filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewska, Daria; Stania, Magdalena; Słomka, Kajetan; Błaszczak, Edward; Taradaj, Jakub; Dolibog, Patrycja; Juras, Grzegorz

    2017-11-01

    This case-control study was designed to compare static postural stability between women with stress urinary incontinence and continent women and it was hypothesized that women with incontinence aged around 50 years also have balance disorders. Eighteen women with incontinence and twelve women without incontinence aged 50-55 years participated in two 60-s trials of each of four different testing conditions: eyes open/full bladder, eyes open/empty bladder, eyes closed/full bladder, eyes closed/empty bladder. The center of foot pressure (COP): sway range, root mean square, velocity (in the antero-posterior and medio-lateral directions), and COP area were recorded. The stabilograms were decomposed into rambling and trembling components. The groups of women with and without incontinence differed during the full bladder condition in antero-posterior COP sway range, COP area, and rambling trajectory (range in the antero-posterior and medio-lateral directions, root mean square in the antero-posterior and medio-lateral directions and velocity in the antero-posterior direction). The women with incontinence had more difficulty controlling their postural balance than continent women while standing with a full bladder. Therefore, developing therapeutic management focused on strengthening the women's core muscles and improving their postural balance seems advisable. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. β3-Adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation of rat and human urinary bladder : roles of BKCa channels and Rho kinase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cernecka, Hana; Kersten, Kim; Maarsingh, Harm; Elzinga, Carolina R.; de Jong, Igle Jan; Korstanje, Cees; Michel, Martin C.; Schmidt, Martina

    Previous studies suggest that the large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channel and Rho-kinase play major roles in the control of urinary bladder tone. Here, we investigated their involvement in beta-adrenoceptor (AR)-mediated relaxation of rat and human bladder. Concentration-response curves

  4. IMAGING DIAGNOSIS-A LUMINAL LAMINATED DEBRIS BALL IN THE URINARY BLADDER OF A DOG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hakyoung; Kim, Hanjin; Jung, Uook; Eom, Kidong

    2017-05-01

    A 5-year-old dog presented with pollakiuria and urinary incontinence. Abdominal radiographs revealed an oval, multilayered structure with soft tissue opacity and gas lucency in the urinary bladder. Ultrasonography showed an oval luminal structure with hyper- and hypoechoic layers and internal reverberation artifacts. Following cystotomy, the hemisected plane showed a layered, pale whitish matrix with a gas layer around the core. Histopathological examination showed no evidence of cells, bacteria, or fungi. The core and laminae comprised fibrinous and mineral debris. A final diagnosis of a freely floating, gas-filled laminated debris ball was made. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  5. Cytopathological features of villous adenoma of the urinary bladder in urine: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Ryou; Kadota, Kyuichi; Hayashi, Toshitetsu; Motoyama, Mutsumi; Matsunaga, Toru; Miyai, Yumi; Katsuki, Naomi; Kushida, Yoshio; Haba, Reiji

    2016-07-01

    Villous adenoma of the urinary bladder is a rare tumor that histologically mimics its enteric counterpart. Patients with an isolated villous adenoma have an excellent prognosis, but associated adenocarcinomas can frequently be identified in them as well. There is no literature that discusses the cytopathologic features of villous adenoma. Here we report a case which was diagnosed as villous adenoma histologically, which has been followed up with urine cytology. In urine cytology, many mucin producing cells are recognized. Few cell clusters show glandular formation or arrangement along the basement membrane. When glandular cells with columnar mucin-filled goblet cells are seen in urine cytology, the presence of a primary glandular lesion of the urinary bladder, such as villous adenoma, should be considered possible. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:632-635. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder (SRUB): Recovery from cardiopulmonary arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kohei; Iida, Ryo; Ota, Koshi; Nitta, Masahiko; Tsujino, Takuya; Komura, Kazumasa; Inamoto, Teruo; Azuma, Haruhito; Uchiyama, Kazuhisa; Takasu, Akira

    2017-10-01

    Spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder (SRUB) is rare and results in a lethal condition, i.e., pan peritonitis. However, early and accurate diagnosis of SRUB is very difficult. A 54-year-old woman was transported to our hospital with suspicion of pan peritonitis after spontaneous return of circulation with pulseless electrical activity. Laboratory investigation seemed to indicate acute renal failure. Namely, her serum urea and creatinine levels were grossly elevated. Exploratory laparotomy showed unexpected rupture of urinary bladder. Her recovery after surgery was relatively smooth. SRUB should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pan peritonitis, because urgent appropriate surgical intervention can rescue patients from this rare lethal disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Urinary bladder cancer risk factors: a Lebanese case- control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobeissi, Loulou Hassan; Yassine, Ibrahim Adnan; Jabbour, Michel Elias; Moussa, Mohamad Ahmad; Dhaini, Hassan Rida

    2013-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the second most incident malignancy among Lebanese men. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential risk factors associated with this observed high incidence. A case-control study (54 cases and 105 hospital-based controls) was conducted in two major hospitals in Beirut. Cases were randomly selected from patients diagnosed in the period of 2002-2008. Controls were conveniently selected from the same settings. Data were collected using interview questionnaire and blood analysis. Exposure data were collected using a structured face-to-face interview questionnaire. Blood samples were collected to determine N-acetyltransferase1 (NAT1) genotype by PCR-RFLP. Analyses revolved around univariate, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression, along with checks for effect modification. The odds of having bladder cancer among smokers was 1.02 times significantly higher in cases vs. controls. The odds of exposure to occupational diesel or fuel combustion fumes were 4.1 times significantly higher in cases vs controls. The odds of prostate-related morbidity were 5.6 times significantly higher in cases vs controls. Cases and controls showed different clustering patterns of NAT1 alleles. No significant differences between cases and controls were found for consumption of alcohol, coffee, tea, or artificial sweeteners. This is the first case-control study investigating bladder cancer risk factors in the Lebanese context. Results confirmed established risk factors in the literature, particularly smoking and occupational exposure to diesel. The herein observed associations should be used to develop appropriate prevention policies and intervention strategies, in order to control this alarming disease in Lebanon.

  8. Metastatic Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Urinary Bladder with Radiation-induced Hemorrhagic Cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Dong Chung

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC to the urinary bladder is very rare. We present the case of a 58-year-old female patient who was diagnosed to have both HCC and cervical cancer. She developed hemorrhagic cystitis 2 years after radiation therapy for cervical cancer. During endoscopic electrocauterization for hemorrhagic cystitis, three small reddish tumors measuring less than 1 cm in diameter and with a raspberry-like appearance were found. Transurethral bladder tumor resection was performed. Pathology confirmed metastatic HCC to the bladder. Due to the similar appearance, these tumors are liable to be misinterpreted as engorged vessels secondary to irradiation if biopsies are not taken. Differential diagnosis by pathology is mandatory for such patients.

  9. Overexpression of UHRF1 gene correlates with the major clinicopathological parameters in urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Skender; Popov, Zivko; Janevska, Vesna; Panov, Sasho

    2017-01-01

    Recently, expression of the UHRF1 gene was found to be up-regulated in numerous neoplasms, including the urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). The aim of our study was to determine if the expression levels of UHRF1 gene correlates with the major pathological characteristics of the tumor and patients' clinical outcome. In our study, we have analyzed the tissue samples derived from group of 70 patients with histologically confirmed TCC of the urinary bladder, while normal urinary bladder mucosa obtained from 40 patients with nonmalignant diseases was used as a negative control group. Expression of UHRF1 gene in each patient sample was determined using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. UHRF1 gene expression was found to be app. 2.5 times higher in samples from patients with TCC in comparison with normal epithelium derived from control group patients. Analysis show that gene expression correlates with the malignancy of the tumor. A highly significant differences were found between the expression values of samples from low and high grade TCC, as well as between the high grade and control group. UHRF1 expression was higher in patients with non-muscle invasive disease than in those with muscle invasive disease. The result of this study indicates that UHRF1 gene expression levels correlates with the major pathological characteristics of TCC samples and with the clinical outcome of those patients. Determination of UHRF1 gene expression could have a potential to be used as a sensitive molecular marker in patients with urinary bladder cancer. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  10. The Progression of Nephrogenic Metaplasia of the Urinary Bladder to Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaliwal, Catharine A.; Fineron, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Nephrogenic metaplasia (or nephrogenic adenoma) and clear cell adenocarcinoma of the bladder are uncommon lesions that cause diagnostic dilemmas for pathologists due to their similar morphologic features. Nephrogenic metaplasia describes a lesion in the lower urinary tract that is composed of small tubules resembling renal medullary tubules. It has been suggested that nephrogenic metaplasia may progress to clear cell adenocarcinoma but this possibility is not widely accepted. We present a cas...

  11. Immunohistochemical Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 in Urinary Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Niki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC is the most common type of urinary bladder cancer. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, a key enzyme in prostaglandins biosynthesis, has been introduced as a new candidate for targeted therapy in this cancer. In this study, we investigated the expression of COX-2 in urinary bladder TCCs and its relationship with clinicopathological parameters such as tumor grade and stage. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in the Pathology department of Sina Hospital in Tehran, Iran during 2006-2011. Pathology reports of patients with definite diagnosis of urinary bladder TCCs who had undergone Transurethral Resection (TUR were reviewed and 40 cases were selected. Subsequently, COX-2 expression was assessed immunohistochemically by the examination of paraffin embedded tissue blocks. Staining in more than 5% of tumor cells was considered as positive expression. Results: COX-2 was expressed in 52.5% of the patients. High-grade tumors revealed a higher (87.5% COX-2 expression versus other grades of the lesions and there was a statistically significant difference in COX-2 expression between them (P<0.001. Patients age was also related to the expression of this marker (P=0.03. In contrast, this marker did not correlate with other characteristics including gender, lymphatic invasion or tumor stage. In addition, perineurial or vascular invasions were not detected in any of the patients. Conclusion: COX-2 expression was seen in more than half of our patients and it had a marked relation to tumor differentiation. Accordingly, this molecule may be a useful tumor marker in the assessment of urinary bladder cancers.

  12. Fesoterodine for the treatment of urinary incontinence and overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Ellsworth

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Pamela EllsworthThe Alpert School of Medicine at Brown University Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Overactive bladder (OAB is a highly prevalent condition, affecting males and females. The prevalence increases with age. Behavioral therapy and antimuscarinic therapy remain the first-line therapies for management of OAB. Despite improvements in symptoms, persistence with antimuscarinic therapy has remained low. Multiple factors including patient expectations, adverse effects and cost may affect persistence. Fesoterodine is one of the newest antimuscarinic agent approved for the management of OAB. It is unique in that it shares the same active metabolite as tolterodine, 5-hydoxymethyltolterodine (5-HMT; however, this conversion is established via ubiquitous esterases and not via the cytochrome P450 system, thus providing a faster and more efficient conversion to 5-HMT. Fesoterodine is available in 2 doses, 4 mg and 8 mg. Clinical trials have established a dose response relationship in efficacy parameters as well as improvements in quality of life. As with all antimuscarinics, dry mouth and constipation are the more common side effects. A combination of medical therapy and behavioral therapy improves the overall outcome in management of OAB. Dose flexibility may help improve efficacy outcomes and patient education on the management of common adverse effects may improve tolerability with these agents.Keywords: overactive bladder, antimuscarinic agent, esterase, 5-HMT, fesoterodine

  13. Digital Mapping of the Urinary Bladder: Potential for Standardized Cystoscopy Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegmair, Maximilian C; Bergen, Tobias; Ritter, Manuel; Mandel, Philipp; Michel, Maurice S; Wittenberg, Thomas; Bolenz, Christian

    2017-06-01

    To develop a standardized digital reporting tool for cystoscopy of the urinary bladder using panoramic imaging. An image processing and stitching software (Endorama) was developed to generate panoramic images from cystoscopy data. In a processing phase, algorithms were modulated and refined by reference to cystoscopy sequences (n = 30). Subsequently, standard systematic cystoscopies (n = 12) were recorded in patients undergoing transurethral resection of a bladder tumor to create panoramic images. All sequences were applicable for the development and refinements of the software. Processing increasingly allowed the creation of images illustrating large parts of the bladder and relevant anatomic landmarks in different locations. The pathway covered by the endoscope during the intervention was illustrated as a route in the respective digital image. During the application phase, panoramic images were successfully created in 10 out of 12 cases. The resolution of the images was 4096 × 2048 pixels and the images required a median digital memory of 3.9 MB (3.4-5.7). The panoramic images illustrated 22 relevant findings of which 7 were papillary tumors. High-quality digital panoramic maps of the urinary bladder were created using specifically processed data of videocystoscopy. In this preliminary series, relevant findings were illustrated in the respective image. Our tool may help improve standardization of cystoscopy reports and reduce interobserver variability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sustained response of adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder to FOLFOX plus bevacizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Minyuen; Swan, Niall C; McDermott, Ray S

    2011-05-01

    A 44-year-old patient presented with intermittent macroscopic hematuria on a background of chronic left-sided hydronephrosis and intestinal metaplasia of the bladder. Cystoscopic examination revealed a mass at the dome of the urinary bladder, which was resected. Histopathologic analysis of the specimen confirmed the presence of muscle-invasive adenocarcinoma. Radical cystectomy with curative intent was planned, but review of systems and subsequent CT demonstrated pleural effusion with positive cytology, confirming metastatic disease. Owing to the histologic similarity between this patient's tumor and colorectal cancer, palliative FOLFOX6 (folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin) chemotherapy plus bevacizumab was administered. After 3 months of treatment the patient showed a good response, which was sustained for more than 10 months after diagnosis. However, his disease subsequently relapsed, and the patient died shortly thereafter. Physical examination, cystoscopy, transurethral resection of bladder tissue, CT, histopathologic, cytopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis. Metastatic adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder. 12 cycles of infused and bolus 5-fluorouracil, folinic acid and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX6) plus bevacizumab.

  15. Tissue Engineering of Urinary Bladder and Urethra: Advances from Bench to Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem Orabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract is subjected to many varieties of pathologies since birth including congenital anomalies, trauma, inflammatory lesions, and malignancy. These diseases necessitate the replacement of involved organs and tissues. Shortage of organ donation, problems of immunosuppression, and complications associated with the use of nonnative tissues have urged clinicians and scientists to investigate new therapies, namely, tissue engineering. Tissue engineering follows principles of cell transplantation, materials science, and engineering. Epithelial and muscle cells can be harvested and used for reconstruction of the engineered grafts. These cells must be delivered in a well-organized and differentiated condition because water-seal epithelium and well-oriented muscle layer are needed for proper function of the substitute tissues. Synthetic or natural scaffolds have been used for engineering lower urinary tract. Harnessing autologous cells to produce their own matrix and form scaffolds is a new strategy for engineering bladder and urethra. This self-assembly technique avoids the biosafety and immunological reactions related to the use of biodegradable scaffolds. Autologous equivalents have already been produced for pigs (bladder and human (urethra and bladder. The purpose of this paper is to present a review for the existing methods of engineering bladder and urethra and to point toward perspectives for their replacement.

  16. Massive Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding Secondary to Duodenal Metastasis of Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H.F. Chan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute upper gastrointestinal (UGI bleeding is a common problem in our clinical practice and is often due to peptic ulcer diseases. Occasionally, malignancy may be implicated in these situations. Here we report a rare case of UGI bleeding secondary to metastatic transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the urinary bladder. A 62-year-old man with a history of stage IIIb TCC of the urinary bladder presented with hematemesis. Endoscopy showed a large tumor in the second stage of the duodenum that occupied 40% of the duodenal circumference, over 7 cm in length. Biopsies revealed a poorly differentiated malignant neoplasm consistent with metastasis from urothelial carcinoma that was identical to the previous surgical specimen of the urinary bladder. He was treated with supportive therapy and intravenous proton pump inhibitor and was discharged home 2 weeks later. Two weeks after discharge, the patient returned to the hospital with a painful swelling of the floor of his mouth. Biopsy again showed the same cancer type. He had unremitting bleeding from his mouth requiring multiple transfusions and a course of palliative radiation therapy. He progressively deteriorated in his cardiopulmonary and neurological functions and expired with cardiopulmonary arrest one month later.

  17. High frequency of the HRAS oncogene codon 12 mutation in Macedonian patients with urinary bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasho Panov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Point mutations at codon 12 of the HRAS (v-Ha-ras Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog oncogene are one of the best defined and widely studied molecular genetic events in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the urinary bladder. The aim of this study was to use the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis of paraffin-embedded tissue-derived DNA to determine the frequency of the HRAS oncogene G ->T codon 12 mutation in TCC patients being treated at the University Urology Clinic in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. DNA isolated from paraffin-embedded tissue (PET surgically removed TCC specimens of 62 (81.58% out of 76 patients were successfully amplified, the remaining 14 (18.42% showing compromised DNA integrity. The codon 12 mutation of the HRAS oncogene was found in 24 (38.71% out of 62 successfully tested TCC urinary bladder samples. No significant relationship between the mutation frequency and the histopathological grade of tumor differentiation was detected (chi² = 0.044; p = 0.978. The relatively high frequency of mutations found in our study was comparable with some of the previously reported data obtained by this and/or other PCR-based methods. This highly sensitive and specific PCR-RFLP analysis was demonstrated to be a suitable method for the detection of mutations at codon 12 of the HRAS oncogene in PET samples of urinary bladder TCC.

  18. Bladder Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Catheterization • Urinary Tract Infections: Indwelling (Foley) Catheter Bladder Management [ Download this pamphlet: "Bladder Management" - (PDF, 499KB) ] The ... and medication or surgery may be helpful. Bladder Management Foley or Suprapubic Catheter A tube is inserted ...

  19. Urinary Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Incontinence) Bladder Control Problems in Women (Urinary Incontinence) Kegel Exercises Cystocele (Prolapsed Bladder) Bladder Infection (Urinary Tract ... muscles is provided in the NIDDK health topic, Kegel Exercise Tips . Eating, Diet, and Nutrition Researchers have ...

  20. Computed tomographic retrograde positive contrast cystography and computed tomographic excretory urography characterization of a urinary bladder diverticulum in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, Agustina; Strohmayer, Carina; Larrinaga, Jose M; Iglesias, Esteban; Almela, Ramon; Ramírez, Gustavo; Cervera, Vicente

    2018-01-14

    A one-year-old intact male German shepherd dog was referred with a 3-month history of dysuria and pollakiuria. Physical examination revealed a large firm mass in the caudal abdomen. Findings from survey radiography, negative contrast cystography, computed tomographic (CT) retrograde positive contrast cystography, and CT excretory urography were consistent with a large urinary bladder diverticulum. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a normal wall appearance in the ventral compartment (true bladder) and marked thinning of the wall in the dorsal compartment (diverticulum). Both ureters inserted into the ventral compartment. The dorsal compartment was excised and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of urinary bladder diverticulum. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  1. AB308. SPR-35 Sympathetic reinnervation of the urinary bladder using somatic donor nerves in a canine model of lower motoneuron lesioned bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Barbe, Mary F.; Gomez-Amaya, Sandra; Lewis, Jennifer K.; Dachert, Stephen R.; Wood, Matthew W.; Braverman, Alan S.; Ruggieri, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Preganglionic sympathetic axons to pelvic viscera originate from lumbar preganglionic neurons and contribute to sympathetic chain ganglia and lumbar splanchnic nerves to the inferior mesenteric ganglia (many via the hypogastric nerve). Postganglionic sympathetic axons to the urinary bladder originate mostly from L7?S2 sympathetic chain ganglia and inferior mesenteric ganglion. We tested if after bladder decentralization and transfer of a lumbar originating nerve, postganglionic symp...

  2. [Physics of materials and female stress urinary continence: New concepts: I) Elasticity under bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerquin, B

    2015-09-01

    Improving the understanding of the adaptation to stress of urinary continence. A transversal analysis between physics of materials and the female anatomy. Laws of physics of the materials and of their viscoelastic behavior are applied to the anatomy of the anterior vaginal wall. The anterior vaginal wall may be divided into two segments of different viscoelastic behavior, the vertical segment below the urethra and the horizontal segment below the bladder. If the urethra gets crushed on the first segment according to the hammock theory, the crushing of the bladder on the second segment is, on the other hand, damped by its important elasticity. The importance of this elasticity evokes an unknown function: damping under the bladder that moderates and delays the increase of intravesical pressure. This damping function below the bladder is increased in the cystocele, which is therefore a continence factor; on the other hand, it is impaired in obesity, which is therefore a factor of SUI. It is necessary to include in the theory of stress continence, the notion of a damping function below the bladder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Bladder Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the upper abdomen.Bladder Training for Urinary IncontinenceRead Article >>Family HealthBladder Training for Urinary IncontinenceBladder training is a way of learning to manage urinary incontinence. It helps you change your urination habits.Kidney ...

  4. Clinical significance of serum and urinary HER2/neu protein levels in primary non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Arikan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to compare serum and urinary HER2/neu levels between healthy control group and patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Additionally, we evaluated relationship of HER2/neu levels with tumor stage, grade, recurrence and progression. Materials and Methods: Fourty-four patients with primary non-muscle invasive bladder tumors (Group 2 and 40 healthy control group (Group 1 were included the study. Blood and urinary samples were collected from all patients and HER2/neu levels were measured by ELISA method. Blood and urinary HER2/neu levels and additionally, ratio of urinary HER2/neu levels to urinary creatinine levels were recorded. Demographic data and tumor characteristics were recorded. Results: Mean serum HER2/neu levels were similar between two groups and statistically significant difference wasn't observed. Urinary HER2/neu levels were significantly higher in group 2 than group 1. Ratio of urinary HER2/neu to urinary creatinine was significantly higher in group 2 than group 1, (p=0,021. Serum and urinary HER2/ neu levels were not associated with tumor stage, grade, recurrence and progression while ratio of urinary HER2/neu to urinary creatinin levels were significantly higher in high-grade tumors. HER2/neu, the sensitivity of the test was found to be 20.5%, and the specificity was 97.5%, also for the urinary HER2/neu/urinary creatinine ratio, the sensitivity and specificity of the test were found to be 31.8% and 87.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Urinary HER2/neu and ratio of urinary creatinine urine were significantly higher in patients with bladder cancer compared to healthy subjects. Large series and controlled studies are needed for use as a tumor marker.

  5. A contribution to improved radiotherapy for muscle invading urinary bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muren, Ludvig PAul

    2002-07-01

    Cystectomy has traditionally been regarded the treatment of choice for muscle invading urinary bladder cancer in most countries. Radiotherapy has been offered patients considered unfit for cystectomy. Since the contraindications of surgery are frequent among bladder cancer patients, a substantial amount of patients with muscle invading bladder cancer (typically 50%) are still managed primarily with radiation. Recently, a tri-modality, organsparing treatment (trans-urethral resection and radio-chemotherapy) has been proposed for bladder cancer, like in the management of a range of other common malignancies. This approach may provide as high control rates as cystectomy yet maintain a higher quality of life for selected patient groups. In both the radical radiotherapy and the combined modality approach, high radiation doses are needed to improve local disease control. Radiation dose escalation requires improved conformation of dose distributions. This PhD programme aimed to develop improved conformal radiotherapy procedures in the management of patients with muscle invading urinary bladder cancer. In the initial phase of this work, computer-controlled movement of the linear accelerator collimator jaws during beam delivery was applied to shape so-called partially wedged beams (PWBs), that were designed specifically to tailor the dose distribution in bladder irradiation closer to the defined bladder target. The dosimetric verification and treatment planning implementation of this beam delivery concept were addressed, and we documented that these dynamic beams were delivered as accurately as standard beams. Particular attention was given to the BMS-96 diode array system, as it was adapted to dynamic beam dosimetry. Next, the potential clinical impact of these beams was analysed. In a retrospectively study of a set of urinary bladder treatment plans, the PWBs were seen to improve the dose homogeneity inside the bladder target as well as to reduce normal tissue (small

  6. Mitomycin C Intravesical Chemotherapy in Conjunction With Synergo® Radiofrequency-Induced Hyperthermia for Treatment of Carcinoma in Situ Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer Patients Unresponsive to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, With or Without Papillary Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-04

    Bladder Cancer; Bladder Neoplasm; Bladder Tumors; Cancer of Bladder; Cancer of the Bladder; Malignant Tumor of Urinary Bladder; Neoplasms, Bladder; Urinary Bladder Cancer; Carcinoma in Situ of Bladder; Papillary Carcinoma of Bladder (Diagnosis); BCG-Unresponsive Bladder Cancer

  7. Identification and replication of the interplay of four genetic high risk variants for urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinski, Silvia; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Ickstadt, Katja; Gerullis, Holger; Otto, Thomas; Roth, Emanuel; Volkert, Frank; Ovsiannikov, Daniel; Moormann, Oliver; Banfi, Gergely; Nyirady, Peter; Vermeulen, Sita H; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine D; Johnson, Alison; Karagas, Margaret R; Kogevinas, Manolis; Malats, Nuria; Schwenn, Molly; Silverman, Debra T; Koutros, Stella; Rothman, Nathaniel; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus

    2017-09-27

    Little is known whether genetic variants identified in genome-wide association studies interact to increase bladder cancer risk. Recently, we identified two- and three-variant combinations associated with a particular increase of bladder cancer risk in a urinary bladder cancer case-control series (IfADo, 1501 cases, 1565 controls). In an independent case-control series (Nijmegen Bladder Cancer Study, NBCS, 1468 cases, 1720 controls) we confirmed these two- and three-variant combinations. Pooled analysis of the two studies as discovery group (IfADo-NBCS) resulted in sufficient statistical power to test up to four-variant combinations by a logistic regression approach. The New England and Spanish Bladder Cancer Studies (2080 cases and 2167 controls) were used as a replication series. Twelve previously identified risk variants were considered.The strongest four-variant combination was obtained in never smokers. The combination of rs1014971[AA] near APOBEC3A and CBX6, SLC14A1 exon SNP rs1058396[AG,GG], UGT1A intron SNP rs11892031[AA], and rs8102137[CC,CT] near CCNE resulted in an unadjusted odds ratio of 2.59 (95% CI = 1.93-3.47; P = 1.87×10-10), while the individual variant odds ratios ranged only between 1.11-1.30. The combination replicated in the New England and Spanish bladder Cancer Studies (ORunadjusted=1.60, 95% CI = 1.10-2.33; P = 0.013). The four-variant combination is relatively frequent, with 25% in never smoking cases and 11% in never smoking controls (total study group: 19% cases, 14% controls). In conclusion, we show that four high risk variants can statistically interact to confer increased bladder cancer risk particularly in never smokers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Bladder management in individuals with chronic neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, J; Wöllner, J; Pannek, J

    2016-08-01

    Retrospective investigation. To investigate the association of patient and injury characteristics with bladder evacuation by indwelling catheterization in patients with chronic neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD). Tertiary urologic referral center. The patient database was screened for patients with chronic (>12 months) NLUTD. Patient characteristics and bladder management details were collected. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the effects of the investigated factors on bladder evacuation by indwelling catheterization. The data of 1263 patients with a median age of 47 years (range 11-89 years) and a median NLTUD duration of 15.2 years (range 1.0-63.4 years) were investigated. The most common bladder evacuation method was intermittent catheterization (IC; 41.3%) followed by triggered reflex voiding (25.7%), suprapubic catheterization (11.8%), sacral anterior root stimulation (7.3%), spontaneous voiding (7.0%), abdominal straining (5.7%) and transurethral catheterization (1.3%). Female gender, tetraplegia, an age older than 45 years and injury duration were significant (<0.001) predictors of indwelling catheterization. The odds of bladder evacuation by indwelling catheterization were increased ~2.5, 3 and 4 times in women, patients older than 45 years and tetraplegics, respectively. IC is the most common bladder evacuation method. However, the majority of individuals with NLUTD are using other evacuation methods, because factors such as functional deficiencies, mental impairment or the social situation are relevant for choosing a bladder evacuation method. Individuals at risk of indwelling catheterization can be identified based on female gender, age, injury severity and injury duration.

  9. Expression of β-Adrenoceptor Subtypes in Urothelium, Interstitial Cells and Detrusor of the Human Urinary Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Hideya; Matsumoto, Rikiya; Shinbo, Hitoshi; Kurita, Yutaka; Iwashita, Toshihide; Ozono, Seiichiro

    2013-09-01

    We examined whether interstitial cells (ICs) of the human urinary bladder expressed β-adrenoceptor (AR) subtypes, and semiquantitatively compared the staining intensity among urothelium, ICs and detrusor muscles. Paraffin sections of the human urinary bladder were obtained from histologically normal areas of formalin-fixed specimens removed for bladder carcinoma. Double-labeling immunohistochemical methods using antibodies against each β-AR subtype and vimentin were performed to identify ICs of the human urinary bladder. The staining intensity of β-ARs was semiquantitatively compared among urothelium, ICs and detrusor muscles. Further, gender-related difference or age-related correlation in the staining intensity of β-ARs was compared in the same cell types. The expression of β1 -, β2 -, and β3 -AR was observed in vimentin-positive ICs localized in suburothelium, between detrusor muscle bundles, and within these bundles of the human urinary bladder. The rank order of the staining intensity was urothelium > ICs = detrusor muscles in β1 -AR, urothelium > ICs > detrusor muscles in β2 -AR, whereas its order was ICs = detrusor muscles > urothelium in β3 -AR. Except for urothelial β1 -AR, there was no gender-related difference in the signal intensity of β-ARs in the urothelium, ICs or detrusor muscles. Age negatively correlated with the signal intensity of all β-AR subtypes. β-ARs were expressed in vimentin-positive ICs of the human urinary bladder. As for β2 - and β3 -AR, there was no gender-related difference or age-related correlation in urothelium, ICs and detrusor muscles. In the human urinary bladder, β-ARs expressed in ICs may play a role in bladder physiology. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Bladder training and Kegel exercises for women with urinary complaints living in a rest home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Ergul; Komurcu, Nuran; Beji, Nezihe Kizilkaya; Yalcin, Onay

    2008-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is an annoying, uncomfortable and unpleasant condition affecting the elderly. The problem of bedwetting and other urinary complaints are common in rest homes. Our study aimed to determine the efficiency of bladder training and Kegel exercises for older women living in a rest home. This is an experimental prospective research study. Through a randomization process, 25 women were included in the treatment group, and another 25 were included in the control group. Participants were living in a rest home for women aged older than 65 years with urinary complaints. The pretreatment interview form, Quality of Life Scale, Mini-Mental Test, Rankin Scale, daily urinary forms and pad tests were administered to the treatment and control groups. Bladder training and Kegel exercises were given to the treatment group for 6-8 weeks. The second evaluation was performed 8 weeks after treatment, and the last evaluation was carried out 6 months after treatment. The average age of the treatment group was 78.88 +/- 4.80 years, and the average age of the control group 79.44 +/- 5.32 years. Urgency, frequency and nocturia were common complaints. Pretreatment, 8-week and 6-month evaluations revealed that the amount of urinary incontinence with urgency, frequency and nocturia complaints statistically and significantly decreased in the treatment group compared to the control group. In the pad test results, a statistically significant decrease was observed in the treatment group compared to the control group. A significant increase in pelvic floor strength was observed in the treatment group compared to the control group upon all evaluations. Behavioral therapy can be used easily as an effective treatment for urinary incontinence in elderly women living at a rest home. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Correlation of bladder wall thickness and treatment success in types of urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akselim, Burak; Doğanay, Melike; Özcan, Nilay; Akselim, Sinem; Cavkaytar, Sabri

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between mean bladder wall thickness (BWT) and treatment success in patients diagnosed with urinary incontinence, based on urodynamic test results. In this prospective study, patient urinary incontinence type was identified using urodynamic tests. Patients (N = 125) were categorized into three groups: urodynamic stress incontinence (SUI), detrusor over-activity (DO) and mixed urinary incontinence. Measurements from the bladder dome, anterior wall and trigone were averaged to calculate BWT. Student's t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare pre-treatment BWT. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine optimal cut-off values for BWT to predict treatment success. Mean pre-treatment BWT significantly differed between success and non-success groups for each urinary incontinence type (p value for the SUI, DO and MUI groups was 0.043, 0.001 and 0.002 respectively). Using ROC curves to anticipate the treatment success, a threshold was calculated for mean pre-treatment BWT; 5.05 mm for SUI (sensitivity 74 %, specificity 66 %, positive predictive value [PPV] 85 %, negative predictive value [NPV] 50 %), 4.98 mm for DO (sensitivity 73 %, specificity 92 %, PPV 95 %, NPV 63 %) and 5.31 mm for mixed type (sensitivity 88 %, specificity 73 %, PPV 79 %, NPV 85 %). The study results suggest a significant relationship between the pre-treatment BWT and the success of urinary incontinence treatment. The mean BWT may be used as a benchmark in assessing the responsiveness to treatment of urinary incontinence types.

  12. Development of a wearable microwave bladder monitor for the management and treatment of urinary incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krewer, F.; Morgan, F.; Jones, E.; Glavin, M.; O'Halloran, M.

    2014-05-01

    Urinary incontinence is defined as the inability to stop the flow of urine from the bladder. In the US alone, the annual societal cost of incontinence-related care is estimated at 12.6 billion dollars. Clinicians agree that those suffering from urinary incontinence would greatly benefit from a wearable system that could continually monitor the bladder, providing continuous feedback to the patient. While existing ultrasound-based solutions are highly accurate, they are severely limited by form-factor, battery size, cost and ease of use. In this study the authors propose an alternative bladder-state sensing system, based on Ultra Wideband (UWB) Radar. As part of an initial proof-of-concept, the authors developed one of the first dielectrically and anatomically-representative Finite Difference Time Domain models of the pelvis. These models (one male and one female) are derived from Magnetic Resonance images provided by the IT'IS Foundation. These IT'IS models provide the foundation upon which an anatomically-plausible bladder growth model was constructed. The authors employed accurate multi-pole Debye models to simulate the dielectric properties of each of the pelvic tissues. Two-dimensional Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations were completed for a range of bladder volumes. Relevant features were extracted from the FDTD-derived signals using Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and then classified using a k-Nearest-Neighbour and Support Vector Machine algorithms (incorporating the Leave-one-out cross-validation approach). Additionally the authors investigated the effects of signal fidelity, noise and antenna movement relative to the target as potential sources of error. The results of this initial study provide strong motivation for further research into this timely application, particularly in the context of an ageing population.

  13. The protective effect of Moringa oleifera leaves against cyclophosphamide-induced urinary bladder toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Nevine R; Amin, Hanan Ali; Sultan, Asrar A

    2015-02-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP), an alkylating antineoplastic agent is widely used in the treatment of solid tumors and B-cell malignant disease. It is known to cause urinary bladder damage due to inducing oxidative stress. Moringa oleifera (Mof) is commonly known as drumstick tree. Moringa leaves have been reported to be a rich source of β-carotene, protein, vitamin C, calcium, and potassium. It acts as a good source of natural antioxidants; due to the presence of various types of antioxidant compounds such as ascorbic acid, flavonoids, phenolics and carotenoids. The aim of this work was to test the possible antioxidant protective effects of M. oleifera leaves against CP induced urinary bladder toxicity in rats. Female Wister albino rats were divided into 4 groups. Group I served as control, received orally normal saline, group II received a single dose CP 100mg/kg intraperitoneally, group III and VI both received orally hydroethanolic extract of Mof; 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg respectively daily for a week, 1h before and 4h after CP administration. Rats were sacrificed 24h after CP injection. The bladder was removed, sectioned, and subjected to light, transition electron microscopic studies, and biochemical studies (measuring the parameter of lipid peroxidation; malondialdehyde along with the activities of the antioxidant enzyme reduced glutathione). The bladders of CP treated rats showed ulcered mucosa, edematous, hemorrhagic, and fibrotic submucosa by light microscopy. Ultrastructure observation showed; losing large areas of uroepithelium, extended intercellular gaps, junction complexes were affected as well as damage of mitochondria in the form of swelling and destruction of cristae. Biochemical analysis showed significant elevation of malondialdhyde, while reduced glutathione activity was significantly lowered. From the results obtained in this work, we can say that Moringa leaves play an important role in ameliorating and protecting the bladder from CP toxicity

  14. Independent predictors of metachronous bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) after nephroureterectomy for TCC of the upper urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Giacomo; De Marco, Vincenzo; Dalpiaz, Orietta; Gottardo, Fedra; Bouygues, Vianney; Galfano, Antonio; Martignoni, Guido; Patard, Jean Jacques; Artibani, Walter; Ficarra, Vincenzo

    2008-06-01

    To identify the prognostic factors predictive of metachronous bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) in a multi-institutional dataset of patients who had undergone nephroureterectomy (NU) for nonmetastatic upper urinary tract (UUT) TCC. The clinical and pathological data of 231 patients who had had NU for UUT-TCC from 1989 to 2005 in three European centres were collected retrospectively, and analysed for clinical and pathological variables. The median follow-up was 38 months; during the follow-up, bladder TCC was detected in 109 patients (47.2%), and was significantly more common in patients who had UUT-TCC after previous bladder TCC (P TCC (P = 0.017). On multivariate analysis, a previous history of bladder TCC was the only independent predictor of metachronous bladder TCC (hazard ratio 2.825; P TCC was 45.5%. A history of bladder TCC (P TCC (hazard ratio 2.226; P TCC (1.562; P = 0.036) were independent predictors of the probabilities of being free from metachronous bladder TCC. In this multi-institutional study of patients who had had NU for UUT-TCC, a history of bladder TCC was the only independent predictor of metachronous bladder TCC, while both a history of bladder TCC and the presence of ureteric tumours were predictive of the probabilities of being free from metachronous bladder TCC.

  15. Molecular fingerprint of high fat diet induced urinary bladder metabolic dysfunction in a rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Oberbach

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Diabetic voiding dysfunction has been reported in epidemiological dimension of individuals with diabetes mellitus. Animal models might provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of this dysfunction to facilitate early diagnosis and to identify new drug targets for therapeutic interventions. METHODS: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats received either chow or high-fat diet for eleven weeks. Proteomic alterations were comparatively monitored in both groups to discover a molecular fingerprinting of the urinary bladder remodelling/dysfunction. Results were validated by ELISA, Western blotting and immunohistology. RESULTS: In the proteome analysis 383 proteins were identified and canonical pathway analysis revealed a significant up-regulation of acute phase reaction, hypoxia, glycolysis, β-oxidation, and proteins related to mitochondrial dysfunction in high-fat diet rats. In contrast, calcium signalling, cytoskeletal proteins, calpain, 14-3-3η and eNOS signalling were down-regulated in this group. Interestingly, we found increased ubiquitin proteasome activity in the high-fat diet group that might explain the significant down-regulation of eNOS, 14-3-3η and calpain. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Thus, high-fat diet is sufficient to induce significant remodelling of the urinary bladder and alterations of the molecular fingerprint. Our findings give new insights into obesity related bladder dysfunction and identified proteins that may indicate novel pathophysiological mechanisms and therefore constitute new drug targets.

  16. Molecular fingerprint of high fat diet induced urinary bladder metabolic dysfunction in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbach, Andreas; Jehmlich, Nico; Schlichting, Nadine; Heinrich, Marco; Lehmann, Stefanie; Wirth, Henry; Till, Holger; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Völker, Uwe; Adams, Volker; Neuhaus, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic voiding dysfunction has been reported in epidemiological dimension of individuals with diabetes mellitus. Animal models might provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of this dysfunction to facilitate early diagnosis and to identify new drug targets for therapeutic interventions. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats received either chow or high-fat diet for eleven weeks. Proteomic alterations were comparatively monitored in both groups to discover a molecular fingerprinting of the urinary bladder remodelling/dysfunction. Results were validated by ELISA, Western blotting and immunohistology. In the proteome analysis 383 proteins were identified and canonical pathway analysis revealed a significant up-regulation of acute phase reaction, hypoxia, glycolysis, β-oxidation, and proteins related to mitochondrial dysfunction in high-fat diet rats. In contrast, calcium signalling, cytoskeletal proteins, calpain, 14-3-3η and eNOS signalling were down-regulated in this group. Interestingly, we found increased ubiquitin proteasome activity in the high-fat diet group that might explain the significant down-regulation of eNOS, 14-3-3η and calpain. Thus, high-fat diet is sufficient to induce significant remodelling of the urinary bladder and alterations of the molecular fingerprint. Our findings give new insights into obesity related bladder dysfunction and identified proteins that may indicate novel pathophysiological mechanisms and therefore constitute new drug targets.

  17. Coordinated Increased Expression of Cyclooxygenase2 and Nuclear Factor B Is a Steady Feature of Urinary Bladder Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stylianos Kontos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The inescapable relationship between chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis has long been established. Our objective was to investigate COX-2 and NF-B immunohistochemical expression in a large series of normal epithelium and bladder carcinomas. Methods. Immunohistochemical methodology was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections from urinary bladder carcinomas of 140 patients (94 males and 46 females with bladder carcinomas. Results. COX-2 expression is increased in the cytoplasm of bladder cells, during loss of cell differentiation (s=0.61, -value<.001 and in muscle invasive carcinomas (-value<.001. A strong positive association between tumor grade and nuclear expression of NFB has been established. A positive correlation between COX-2 and nuclear NFB immunoreactivity was observed. Conclusions. The possible coordinated upregulation of NFB and COX-2, during bladder carcinogenesis, indicates that agents inhibitors of these two molecules may represent a possible new treatment strategy, by virtue of their role in bladder carcinogenesis.

  18. Clinical experience of MRI in two dogs with muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEE, Kija; CHOI, Sooyoung; CHOI, Hojung; LEE, Youngwon

    2016-01-01

    This study described high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) characteristics of muscle-invasive bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) in two dogs. Ultrasonography revealed a urinary bladder mass with ambiguous result about invasion to the muscular layer. Contrast-enhanced CT showed that the bladder wall in which the mass was attached was more intensely enhanced than the normal bladder walls, supporting invasion to the muscular layer. The mass revealed an intermediate signal intensity with interruption of the hypointense muscular layer on T2-weighted MRI and showed greater enhancement compared with the normal bladder wall on postcontrast T1-weighted images. T2-weighted MRI, postcontrast T1-weighted MRI and contrast-enhanced dual-phasic CT were useful for evaluating muscle-invasive bladder TCC in dogs. PMID:27149892

  19. Contrast-enhanced multislice pneumo-CT-cystography in the evaluation of urinary bladder neoplasms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scardapane, Arnaldo [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital ' Policlinico' , Bari (Italy)], E-mail: scardapane@aruba.it; Pagliarulo, Vincenzo [Institute of Urology, University Hospital ' Policlinico' , Bari (Italy); Ianora, Amato A. Stabile [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital ' Policlinico' , Bari (Italy); Pagliarulo, Arcangelo [Institute of Urology, University Hospital ' Policlinico' , Bari (Italy); Angelelli, Giuseppe [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital ' Policlinico' , Bari (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of contrast-enhanced multislice CT (MSCT) in the study of urothelial tumors after distension of the bladder with air. Materials and methods: We evaluated 43 consecutive patients with endoscopically proven bladder lesions. After air distension of the bladder, unenhanced pelvic and enhanced abdomino-pelvic scans were obtained with the following protocol: thickness 2.5 mm x 4 mm, increment 1 mm, scan delay 40'' and 7-10 min. For each patient we considered the number, size, aspect (papillary or sessile) and contrast enhancement of lesions. Ureteral involvement and the presence of synchronous lesions in the excretory scan were also evaluated. MPR and virtual endoscopy images were reviewed in all cases. Results: Bladder lesions were visualized in 39/43 cases. Compared to conventional cystoscopy, MSCT recognized single lesions in 31/33 patients, two lesions in 4/6, three in 2/2 and more than five foci in 2/2 patients. A papillary aspect was described in 44 cases while 11 lesions were sessile. Conventional Cystoscopy recognized six more lesions as compared with MSCT (four flat and two small papillary lesions). The detection rate for protruding lesions was 100% (52/52) for lesions > 5 mm and 60% (3/5%) for lesions < 5 mm. In four patients hydronephrosis was present, while in one case a synchronous lesion was evident in the renal pelvis. Conclusion: Contrast-enhanced MSCT with air distension of the urinary bladder is a safe and complete investigation to evaluate the local stage of bladder cancer and to evaluate the ureteral extension of the tumor, as well as the presence of synchronous lesions.

  20. [THE SOMATIC MUTATIONS AND ABERRANT METHYLATION AS POTENTIAL GENETIC MARKERS OF URINARY BLADDER CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailenko, D S; Kushlinskii, N E

    2016-02-01

    All around the world, more than 330 thousands cases of bladder cancer are registered annually hence representing actual problem of modern oncology. Still in demand are search and characteristic of new molecular markers of bladder cancer detecting in tumor cells from urinary sediment and having high diagnostic accuracy. The studies of last decade, especially using methods of genome-wide sequencing, permitted to receive a large amount of experimental data concerning development and progression of bladder cancer The review presents systematic analysis of publications available in PubMed data base mainly of last five years. The original studies of molecular genetic disorders under bladder cancer and meta-analyzes were considered This approach permitted to detected the most common local alterations of DNA under bladder cancer which can be detected using routine genetic methods indifferent clinical material and present prospective interest for development of test-systems. The molecular genetic markers of disease can be activating missense mutations in 7 and 10 exons of gene of receptor of growth factor of fibroblasts 3 (FGFR3), 9 and 20 exons of gene of Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bi-phosphate-3-kinase (PIK3CA) and mutation in -124 and -146 nucleotides in promoter of gene of catalytic subunit telomerase (TERT). The development of test-systems on the basis of aberrant methylation of CpG-islets of genes-suppressors still is seemed as a difficult task because of differences in pattern of methylation of different primary tumors at various stages of clonal evolution of bladder cancer though they can be considered as potential markers.

  1. Urinary bladder cancer in dogs, a naturally occurring model for cancer biology and drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Deborah W; Ramos-Vara, José A; Moore, George E; Dhawan, Deepika; Bonney, Patty L; Young, Kirsten E

    2014-01-01

    Each year more than 65,000 people are diagnosed with urinary bladder cancer, and more than 14,000 people die from the disease in the United States. Studies in relevant animal models are essential to improve the management of bladder cancer. Naturally occurring bladder cancer in dogs very closely mimics human invasive bladder cancer, specifically high-grade invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC; also referred to as invasive urothelial carcinoma) in cellular and molecular features; biological behavior, including sites and frequency of metastasis; and response to therapy. Canine bladder cancer complements experimentally induced rodent tumors in regard to animal models of bladder cancer. Results of cellular and molecular studies and -omics analyses in dogs are expected to lead to improved detection of TCC and preneoplastic lesions, earlier intervention, better prediction of patient outcome, and more effective TCC management overall. Studies in dogs are being used to help define heritable risks (through very strong breed-associated risk) and environment risks and to evaluate prevention and treatment approaches that benefit humans as well as dogs. Clinical treatment trials in pet dogs with TCC are considered a win-win scenario by clinician scientists and pet owners. The individual dog benefits from effective treatment, the results are expected to help other dogs, and the findings are expected to ultimately help humans with TCC. This article provides an overview of canine TCC, a summary of the similarities and differences between canine and human invasive TCC, and examples of the types of valuable translational research that can be done using dogs with naturally occurring TCC. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Protein kinase C activation of a blebbistatin sensitive contractile component in the wall of hypertrophying mouse urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boberg, Lena; Rahman, Awahan; Poljakovic, Mirjana; Arner, Anders

    2015-02-01

    To examine the role of protein kinase C (PKC) and non-muscle myosin in regulation of wall tension in the hypertrophied urinary bladder. A partial urinary outflow obstruction was induced in the mouse. Tissue strips from sham operated controls and obstructed bladders were examined in vitro with quantitative gel electrophoresis, immunohistochemistry, and in vitro force recordings. Outlet obstruction (14-18 days) induced a significant growth of the bladder, 73 ± 6.13 mg compared to 19 ± 1 13 mg in sham operated controls. The hypertrophying bladder tissue had increased expression of non-muscle myosin B (SMemb) mainly localized to serosa and suburothelium. Direct activation of PKC with PDBu did not alter force in the control urinary bladder. In contrast, PDBu initiated a prominent and sustained contraction which had an increased sensitivity to the myosin type II inhibitor blebbistatin. PKC activates a significant contractile response in the wall of the hypertrophying urinary bladder, possibly supported by non-muscle myosin. This contractile component is not contributing to the physiological response to muscarinic stimulation, but might be separately regulated by other, yet unknown, mechanisms. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Obesity and the Incidence of Bladder Injury and Urinary Retention Following Tension-Free Vaginal Tape Procedure: Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Revicky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Aim of the study was to establish an effect of obesity on the incidence of bladder injury or urinary retention following tension-free vaginal tape (TVT procedure. Methods. This was a retrospective cohort study based at the Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital in the UK. Study population included 342 cases of TVT procedures. Incidence of bladder injury was 4.7% (16/342. Rate of urinary retention was 9% (31/342. Body mass index (BMI, age, type of analgesia, concomitant prolapse repair, and previous surgery were factors studied. Univariate analysis was performed to establish a relationship between BMI and complications, followed by a multivariable regression analysis to adjust for age, concomitant surgery, type of analgesia, and previous surgery. Results. Neither univariate analysis nor multivariate regression analysis revealed any statistically significant influence of obesity on the incidence of bladder injury or urinary retention. Unadjusted odds ratios and adjusted odds ratios for bladder injury and urinary retention by BMI groups were OR 1.7296 CI 0.4818–6.2097; OR 1.3745 CI 0.5718–3.3043 and adj. OR 2.885 CI 0.603–13.8; adj. OR 1.299 CI 0.502–3.365. Conclusion. Obesity does not appear to influence the rate of bladder injury or urinary retention following TVT procedure.

  4. Tissue Reaction of the Rat Urinary Bladder to Synthetic Mesh Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Atis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess urinary bladder histopathology induced by the sling materials tension-free vaginal tape (TVT, vypro mesh, and intravaginal slingplasty (IVS. Thirty rats were studied: sham-operated controls, TVT, vypro, and IVS groups. After laparotomy, a 0.5- x 1-cm piece of mesh was implanted on the anterior bladder wall. The bladder was examined histopathologically after 12 weeks. Inflammation, foreign-body reaction, subserosal fibrosis, necrosis, and collagen deposition were graded. The Kruskal-Wallis and posthoc Dunn tests were used. The sham-operated rats showed no tissue reactions. The TVT, vypro, and IVS groups showed increased inflammation (p = 0.006, p = 0.031, p = 0.001, subserosal fibrosis (p = 0.0001, foreign-body reaction (p = 0.0001, and collagen deposition (p = 0.0001 as compared to sham. Inflammation was more intense in the IVS group as compared to the TVT and vypro groups (p = 0.041, p = 0.028. The bladder presented more increased inflammatory response to IVS than the other meshs. This may play a role in the ultimate outcomes or complications from slings.

  5. Neurogenic bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the cause. They often include symptoms of urinary incontinence . Symptoms of overactive bladder may include: Having to ... urinary diversion) Support Groups If you are having urinary incontinence, organizations are available for further information and support. ...

  6. Emphysematous pyelonephritis: A consequence of adenocarcinoma of urinary bladder in a nondiabetic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh I

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EP is a life threatening condition of acute necrotising renal parenchymal infection that encompasses a much wider spectrum of complicated urinary tract infections such as renal abscesses, emphysematous pyelitis, pyelonephritis, acute renal papillary necrosis, and sepsis. We report an unusual case of adenocarcinoma bladder in a middle aged nondiabetic patient, presenting with EP. Emphysematous pyelonephritis was the initial symptom in this case with an underlying carcinoma of the bladder. The role of imaging is prime in management of such cases, if an early diagnosis is to be made and a potentially devastating outcome is to be avoided. The literature regarding EP has been reviewed and discussed. The goals of managing EP should be (1 early institution of parenteral antibiotics and a (2 a staged nephrectomy (preceded by a temporary percutaneous drainage particularly with antibiotic resistant septicemia so as to maximize survival rather than proceeding directly to emergency nephrectomy.

  7. Organotypic and 3D reconstructed cultures of the human bladder and urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, Claire L; Southgate, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional organotypic cultures of human urinary tract tissue have been established as intact and reconstituted tissues, with the latter generated by combining cultured normal human urothelial (NHU) cells with an appropriate stroma. Organoids may be maintained at an air-liquid interface in static culture for periods of up to 20 weeks, with analysis by immunohistology for expression of urothelial differentiation-associated markers providing a qualitative, but objective assessment criterion. Where reconstructed using bladder cancer cell lines, the resultant organoids recapitulate the invasive characteristics of the originating tumour, but the need to use authenticated cell line stocks is emphasised. The organoid approach represents an important tool for investigating urothelial-stromal cell interactions during homeostasis and disease, and for testing bladder tissue engineering and reconstructive strategies. Potential future developments of the technique are discussed and include genetic manipulation of the urothelial cells to generate disease models and incorporation of biomaterial scaffolds to support artificial stroma development.

  8. Involvement of Seladin-1 in goniothalamin-induced apoptosis in urinary bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Heng Kai; Fauzi, Afifah-Radiah; Din, Laily Bin; McKelvey-Martin, Valerie J; Meng, Chan Kok; Inayat-Hussain, Salmaan Hussain; Rajab, Nor Fadilah

    2014-08-09

    Selective Alzheimer Disease Indicator-1 (or Seladin-1) is a multifunctional protein first discovered by downregulation of its expression in Alzheimer's disease. Interestingly, the expression of this protein is upregulated in several cancers, including primary bladder cancer. However, its role in cancer formation has yet to be discovered. Goniothalamin is a natural product that has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. In this study, we have elucidated the role of Seladin-1 in goniothalamin-induced cytotoxicity towards human urinary bladder cancer cell line RT4. The cytotoxicity of goniothalamin in human urinary bladder cancer cell line RT4 was assessed using MTT assay and the mode of cell death was determined by Annexin V-FITC/PI labeling assay. Finally, the expression of Seladin-1 protein in goniothalamin-treated RT4 cells was determined by Western blot. MTT assay showed that the cytotoxicity of goniothalamin on RT4 cells was concentration and time dependent with IC50 values of 61 μM (24 hr), 38 μM (48 hr) and 31 μM for 72 hr, respectively. Cell death induced was confirmed through apoptosis; as assessed using the Annexin V-FITC/PI labeling assay. Furthermore, the involvement of Seladin-1 in goniothalamin-induced apoptosis was evidenced through the cleavage of 60 kDa protein to 40 kDa and 20 kDa. This was followed by a gradual increase of 20 kDa fragment suggesting the involvement of Seladin-1 in goniothalamin-induced apoptosis on RT4 cells. This study demonstrates that goniothalamin induce cytotoxicity and apoptosis on RT4 cells. The involvement of Seladin-1 in goniothalamin-induced apoptosis further suggested that Seladin-1 may play a role in the formation of primary bladder cancer.

  9. Allicin ameliorates kidney function and urinary bladder sensitivity in cyclosporine A-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kashef, D H; El-Kenawi, A E; Suddek, G M; Salem, H A

    2017-07-01

    Cyclosporine-A (CsA) is an immunosuppressive drug which has been used to prevent rejection after organ transplantation and to treat certain autoimmune diseases. However, its therapeutic use is limited by nephrotoxicity. In this study, the modulator effect of allicin on the oxidative nephrotoxicity of CsA in rats was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of allicin on CsA-induced hypersensitivity of urinary bladder rings to acetylcholine (ACh) was estimated. Rats were divided into three groups, control, CsA (15 mg/kg, subcutaneously), and CsA/allicin (50 mg/kg, orally). At the end of the study, all rats were killed and then blood, urine samples, and kidneys were taken. CsA administration caused a severe nephrotoxicity which was evidenced by elevated kidney/body weight ratio, serum creatinine (Cr), blood urea nitrogen, lactate dehydrogenase, and urinary protein with a concomitant reduction in serum albumin and Cr clearance as compared with control. A significant increase in renal contents of malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha with a significant decrease in renal reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase activities, and nitric oxide (NOx) content was detected upon CsA administration. Exposure to CsA increased the sensitivity of isolated urinary bladder rings to ACh. Histological analysis revealed that CsA caused tubular necrosis and moderate diffuse tubular atrophy. Allicin protected kidney tissue against the oxidative damage and the nephrotoxic effect of CsA and significantly reduced the responses of isolated bladder rings to ACh. Our study indicates that allicin administration has the potential to protect against CsA-induced renal injury by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation and restoring NOx level.

  10. The Role of Genetically Modified Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Urinary Bladder Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow-Lisy, Devon C; Diaz, Edward C; Bury, Matthew I; Fuller, Natalie J; Hannick, Jessica H; Ahmad, Nida; Sharma, Arun K

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) combined with CD34+ hematopoietic/stem progenitor cells (HSPCs) can function as surrogate urinary bladder cells to synergistically promote multi-faceted bladder tissue regeneration. However, the molecular pathways governing these events are unknown. The pleiotropic effects of Wnt5a and Cyr61 are known to affect aspects of hematopoiesis, angiogenesis, and muscle and nerve regeneration. Within this study, the effects of Cyr61 and Wnt5a on bladder tissue regeneration were evaluated by grafting scaffolds containing modified human bone marrow derived MSCs. These cell lines were engineered to independently over-express Wnt5a or Cyr61, or to exhibit reduced expression of Cyr61 within the context of a nude rat bladder augmentation model. At 4 weeks post-surgery, data demonstrated increased vessel number (~250 vs ~109 vessels/mm2) and bladder smooth muscle content (~42% vs ~36%) in Cyr61OX (over-expressing) vs Cyr61KD (knock-down) groups. Muscle content decreased to ~25% at 10 weeks in Cyr61KD groups. Wnt5aOX resulted in high numbers of vessels and muscle content (~206 vessels/mm2 and ~51%, respectively) at 4 weeks. Over-expressing cell constructs resulted in peripheral nerve regeneration while Cyr61KD animals were devoid of peripheral nerve regeneration at 4 weeks. At 10 weeks post-grafting, peripheral nerve regeneration was at a minimal level for both Cyr61OX and Wnt5aOX cell lines. Blood vessel and bladder functionality were evident at both time-points in all animals. Results from this study indicate that MSC-based Cyr61OX and Wnt5aOX cell lines play pivotal roles with regards to increasing the levels of functional vasculature, influencing muscle regeneration, and the regeneration of peripheral nerves in a model of bladder augmentation. Wnt5aOX constructs closely approximated the outcomes previously observed with the co-transplantation of MSCs with CD34+ HSPCs and may be specifically targeted as an

  11. Cystogram with dumbbell shaped urinary bladder in a sliding inguinal hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sliding inguinal hernias present with various symptoms and these are usually direct inguinal hernias containing various abdominal viscera.  Case reports and series have been published with various organs and rare organs being part of the hernia.  Urinary bladder is a known content of sliding hernias.  This case report emphasizes this aspect in a picturesque manner and the importance of radiological investigations for pre-surgical evaluation.

  12. Effect of urinary pH on the progression of urinary bladder tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lina, B.A.R.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van

    1999-01-01

    Systemic alkalosis has been postulated to enhance tumorigenesis, whereas systemic acidosis has been implicated to exert a favourable influence on tumour control and regression. In the present study the urinary pH was influenced by feeding acid-forming or base-forming diets, and the effect of

  13. Health information quality on the internet for bladder cancer and urinary diversion: a multi-lingual analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corfield, Julia M; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2017-07-12

    Bladder cancer patients undergoing radical cystectomy and urinary diversion are faced with difficult decisions regarding mode of urinary diversion. Although these patients may use the Internet as a guide to diagnosis and treatment options, online resources remain largely unregulated leading to a great variation in quality of medical information. Further variation in quality is seen between languages. Fortunately, tools such as an automated toolbar developed by the World Health Organization Health on the Net (HON) Foundation exist to assist physicians in recommending quality online health information to patients. We set out to compare and assess the quality of Bladder cancer, Ileal conduit and Orthotopic Neobladder Web sites in 2016 on the basis of the HON principles for English language. The Google search engine imbedded with the HON toolbar was used to assess 1350 Web sites using the keywords "bladder cancer", "ileal conduit" and "orthotopic neobladder" in English, Italian and Spanish. The first 150 results of each search were identified and screened. A further analysis was completed comparing results between 2009 and 2016. Less than 20% of English, Italian and Spanish "bladder cancer" and urinary diversion ("ileal conduit" and "orthotopic neobladder") web sites are HON- accredited. HON-accredited web sites featured preferentially in the first 50 search results for bladder cancer (p=0.0001) and ileal conduit (p=0.03) web sites. Comparing 2016 results to 2009, percentage of HON-accreditation has not shown statistically significant change (-13%, p=0.23), while overall number of search results has increased (+44%). A lack of validation of bladder cancer sites is present, which is consistent across modes of urinary diversion (orthotopic neobladder and ileal conduit) and languages. It is important that physicians involved in the care of bladder cancer patients undergoing radical cystectomy and urinary diversion participate in the development of informative, ethical

  14. An updated review on primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and report of a case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lendorf, Maria Elisabeth; Dohn, Line Hammer; Á Dunga, Bara

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to emphasize the critical importance of the clinician's awareness of signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) of the urinary bladder, a rare and aggressive disease entity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of the current literature was conducted and a classic case...... and international cooperation are mandatory to improve survival for patients with primary SRCC of the bladder....

  15. The role of bladder-to-urethral reflexes in urinary continence mechanisms in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamo, Izumi; Cannon, Tracy W; Conway, Deirdre A; Torimoto, Kazumasa; Chancellor, Michael B; de Groat, William C; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2004-09-01

    Urethral closure mechanisms during passive increments in intravesicular pressure (P(ves)) were investigated using microtip transducer catheters in urethane-anesthetized female rats. After a block of reflex bladder contractions by spinal cord transection at T8-T9, abruptly raising P(ves) to 20, 40, or 60 cmH(2)O for 2 min induced a bladder pressure-dependent contractile response in a restricted portion of the middle urethra (12.5-15 mm from the urethral orifice) that was abolished by cutting the pelvic nerves bilaterally. In pelvic nerve-intact rats, the bilateral transection of either the pudendal nerves, the nerves to the iliococcygeous/pubococcygeous muscles, or the hypogastric nerves significantly reduced (49-74%) the urethral reflex response induced by passive P(ves) increases, and combined transection of these three sets of nerves totally abolished the urethra-closing responses. In spinal cord-intact rats, similar urethral contractile responses were elicited during P(ves) elevation (20 or 40 cmH(2)O) and were also eliminated by bilateral pelvic nerve transection. After spinal cord and pelvic nerve transection, leak point pressures, defined as the pressure inducing fluid leakage from the urethral orifice during passive P(ves) elevation by either bladder pressure clamping in 2.5-cmH(2)O steps or direct compression of the bladder, were significantly lowered by 30-35% compared with sham-operated (spinal cord-transected and pelvic nerve-intact) rats. These results indicate that 1) passive elevation of P(ves) can elicit pelvic afferent nerve-mediated contractile reflexes in the restricted portion of the urethra mediated by activation of sympathetic and somatic nerves and 2) bladder-to-urethral reflexes induced by passive P(ves) elevation significantly contribute to the prevention of stress urinary incontinence.

  16. Dietary flavonoid luteolin attenuates uropathogenic Escherichia. Coli invasion of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Fei; Teng, Yan; Sha, Kai-Hui; Wang, Xin-Yuan; Yang, Xiao-Long; Guo, Xiao-Juan; Ren, Lai-Bin; Wang, Xiao-Ying; Li, Jingyu; Huang, Ning

    2016-11-12

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the primary uropathogen, adhere to and invade bladder epithelial cells (BECs) to establish a successful urinary tract infection (UTI). Emerging antibiotic resistance requires novel nonantibiotic strategies. Our previous study indicated that luteolin attenuated adhesive and invasive abilities as well as cytotoxicity of UPEC on T24 BECs through down-regulating UPEC virulence factors. The aims of this study were to investigate the possible function of the flavonoid luteolin and the mechanisms by which luteolin functions in UPEC-induced bladder infection. Firstly, obvious reduction of UPEC invasion but not adhesion were observed in luteolin-pretreated 5637 and T24 BECs sa well as mice bladder via colony counting. The luteolin-mediated suppression of UPEC invasion was linked to elevated levels of intracellular cAMP induced by inhibiting the activity of cAMP-phosphodiesterases (cAMP-PDEs), which resulting activation of protein kinase A, thereby negatively regulating Rac1-GTPase-mediated actin polymerization. Furthermore, p38 MAPK was primarily and ERK1/2 was partially involved in luteolin-mediated suppression of UPEC invasion and actin polymerization, as confirmed with chemical activators of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2. These data suggest that luteolin can protect bladder epithelial cells against UPEC invasion. Therefore, luteolin or luteolin-rich products as dietary supplement may be beneficial to control the UPEC-related bladder infections, and cAMP-PDEs may be a therapy target for UTIs treatment. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(6):674-685, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  17. Urothelial Tumours of the Urinary Bladder: A Histopathological Study of Cystoscopic Biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujan Vaidya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Bladder tumours constitute one of the most common urological conditions. Urothelial (transitional cell carcinoma accounts for 90% of all primary tumours of the bladder. These tumours are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to present the histopathological patterns of urothelial tumours and to determine the grade and stage of these tumours. Methods: This is a 3 year retrospective study of urothelial tumours carried out in the Department of Pathology, Patan Academy of Health Sciences (PAHS, Lalitpur, Nepal. Data of all cystoscopic biopsies collected during this period were analyzed. Results: Urothelial (transitional cell tumours accounted for 97.59% (81 cases of all bladder tumours. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC was the most common tumour which was present in 67 cases (80.72%. Of these, 32 (47.76% were low grade TCC while 35 (52.24% were high grade TCC. Maximum number of tumours (70.37% were superficial (pTa and pT1 while (29.63% were muscle invasive (pT2. Sixteen percent of low grade and 76.92% of high grade tumours showed muscle invasion. Detrusor muscle was absent in 23.88% cases (16/67. Conclusion: Transitional cell carcinoma was the most common bladder cancer. Most of these tumours were high grade. A large percentage of high grade carcinomas presented with muscle invasion. Pathological grade and muscle invasion are the most valuable prognostic predictors of survival. The importance of including smooth muscle in the biopsy specimens needs to be emphasized Key words: cancer, high grade, low grade, transitional, tumour, urinary bladder.

  18. Post Prostatectomy Vesicourethral Stenosis or Bladder Neck Contracture with Concomitant Urinary Incontinence: Our Experience and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Shieh L; Yallappa, Sachin; Dalal, Fatima; Almallah, Yahia Z

    2017-04-01

    To present our experience in the management of bladder neck contracture with concomitant post prostatectomy incontinence and to provide our recommendations based on the updated literature. Between Jan 2010 and June 2015, 37 patients from our cohort of 341 patients with post prostatectomy incontinence were evaluated. Patient data were retrospectively collected. Patients with bladder neck contracture confirmed on flexible cystoscopy underwent subsequent rigid cystoscopy and deep endoscopic bladder neck incision (BNI). A follow up flexible cystoscopy would be performed 3 months later. If there was no recurrence of the bladder neck contracture, an artificial urethral sphincter (AUS) or a male sling was recommended. The mean age of patients was 68 years (range 59-77) and the mean BMI was 31 (range 21-41) kg/m(2). Twenty-five (67.7%) patients had open prostatectomy and 12 (32.4%) patients had laparoscopic prostatectomy. Fourteen patients (37.8%) underwent adjuvant radiotherapy. Twenty-four (64.8%) patients had one BNI procedure, 8 (21.6%) patients had two procedures and 5 (13.5%) patients had more than 2 procedures. Twenty-one (91.3%) patients had AUS implantation and 2 (8.7%) patients had male sling placement. Besides, 85.7% of AUS and 50% of male sling patients managed to achieve successful outcomes with a mean follow up period of 13.1 months (range 2-33 months). Initial management with aggressive BNI followed by implantation of an AUS or male sling when bladder neck is stable is essential to achieve a satisfactory urinary continence outcome.

  19. Suburothelial and extrinsic lesions of the urinary bladder: radiologic and pathologic features with emphasis on MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Andrew D; Schieda, Nicola; Flood, Trevor A; Cagiannos, Ilias; Kielar, Ania Z; McInnes, Matthew D F; Siegelman, Evan S

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a contemporary review of the imaging appearance of diseases which affect the deeper layers of the urinary bladder, including both suburothelial and extrinsic pathologies, using radiologic-pathologic correlation. Compared to the more common urothelial lesions, at cystoscopy, suburothelial and extrinsic diseases of the urinary bladder wall often have a non-specific appearance or may be occult. Cross-sectional imaging, in particular MRI, plays an integral role in diagnosis. Mesenchymal tumors have distinct imaging features on MRI. Leiomyomas are characteristically low signal intensity on T2-weighted (T2W) imaging and progressively enhance. Lipomas and lipomatous hypertrophy are diagnosed by the presence of macroscopic fat. Neurofibromas, hemangiomas, and paragangliomas are hyperintense on T2W sequences and hypervascular. Reactive lesions occur in the setting of chronic inflammation and include: nephrogenic adenoma, cystitis cystica, and cystitis glandularis. Imaging findings are commonly non-specific; however, a mass with internal cystic spaces in association with pelvic lipomatosis is suggestive of cystitis glandularis. Urachal anomalies may be complicated by infection or malignancy. Urachal mucinous adenocarcinoma has a poor prognosis and may present as a T2-hyperintense suburothelial/extrinsic mass centered in the bladder dome. Other diseases may extrinsically involve the urinary bladder by hematogenous and peritoneal spread, including infection, endometriosis, and malignancy. A familiarity with suburothelial and extrinsic pathologies of the urinary bladder is critical for the radiologist, who may be the first to suggest these diagnoses.

  20. Clinical usefulness of urine cytology in the detection of bladder tumors in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pannek J

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Jürgen Pannek, Franziska Rademacher, Jens Wöllner Neuro-Urology, Swiss Paraplegic Center, Nottwil, Switzerland Introduction: Screening for bladder cancer in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction is a challenge. Cystoscopy alone is not sufficient to detect bladder tumors in this patient group. We investigated the usefulness of combined cystoscopy and urine cytology.Materials and methods: By a systematic chart review, we identified all patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction who underwent combined cystoscopy and urine cytology testing. In patients with suspicious findings either in cytology or cystoscopy, transurethral resection was performed.Results: Seventy-nine patients (age 54.8±14.3 years, 38 female, 41 male were identified; 44 of these used indwelling catheters. Cystoscopy was suspicious in 25 patients and cytology was suspicious in 17 patients. Histologically, no tumor was found in 15 patients and bladder cancer was found in 6 patients. Sensitivity for both cytology and cystoscopy was 83.3%; specificity was 43.7% for cytology and 31.2% for cystoscopy. One bladder tumor was missed by cytology and three tumors were missed by cystoscopy. If a biopsy was taken only if both findings were suspicious, four patients would have been spared the procedure, and one tumor would not have been diagnosed.Conclusion: A combination of cystoscopy and urine cytology can improve bladder tumor detection rates and lower the number of unnecessary biopsies. Keywords: bladder cancer, neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction, urine cytology, cystoscopy

  1. POSSIBILITIES OF USING RADIODIAGNOSTIC METHODS IN THE STAGING OF URINARY BLADDER CANCER AND IN THE DETERMINATION OF ITS TREATMENT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Khudyashev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of the study was determined by the unsolved problems in the radiation evaluation of the local extent (stage of a tumor and related surgical treatment policy. The results of a preoperative complex radiation study of 217 patients with urinary bladder cancer, including 134 men and 83 women, are presented. Based on the data of comprehensive preoperative examination, the authors define clear criteria for choosing a surgical treatment. A functional procedure for ultrasonography in varying urinary bladder filling is proposed to evaluate the degree of tumor invasion.

  2. Metastatic Melanoma to the Urinary Bladder of Ocular Origin Accompanied with Primary Cutaneous Melanoma: Diagnostic Challenge—A Report of a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantine Theocharides

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastases of melanoma to the urinary bladder are infrequent. Even rarer are metastases to the urinary bladder from uveal melanoma, with only 3 cases published in the literature so far. Herein we present a case of a 77-year-old male patient who presented with metastatic melanoma to the urinary bladder. The patient’s history included the diagnoses of uveal melanoma treated with radiation 25 years ago, as well as that of cutaneous melanoma diagnosed 7 years ago. The molecular study of the urinary bladder tumor specimen identified mutation of the GNAQ gene, which has been suggested to be an early molecular event in the pathogenetic course of over 80% of uveal melanomas. Therefore, the diagnosis of uveal melanoma metastatic to the urinary bladder was made.

  3. Urothelial atypia and survival rate of 500 unselected patients with primary transitional-cell tumour of the urinary bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde Olsen, P; Wolf, H; Schroeder, T

    1988-01-01

    In a consecutive series of 500 unselected patients with primary urinary bladder tumours the influence of urothelial atypia on the 5 years survival-rate was examined. All tumours were transitional-cell tumours categorized according to the T-classification. Mucosal biopsies from 7 pre-selected sites...... worse than those with normal bladder mucosa (5 years survival 42% versus 62%). This difference in survival-rate became apparent first after two years of observation. Grade II atypia in the bladder mucosa and grade III (carcinoma in situ) had equal significance assessed by the survival-rates....

  4. Laparoscopic management of mesh erosion into small bowel and urinary bladder following total extra-peritoneal repair of inguinal hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Aggarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesh erosion into visceral organs is a rare complication following laparoscopic mesh repair for inguinal hernia with only 15 cases reported in English literature. We report the first case of complete laparoscopic management of mesh erosion into small bowel and urinary bladder. A 62-year-male underwent laparoscopic total extra-peritoneal repair of left inguinal hernia at another centre in April 2012. He presented to our centre 21 months later with persistent lower urinary tract infection (UTI. On evaluation mesh erosion into bowel and urinary bladder was suspected. At laparoscopy, a small bowel loop was adhered to the area of inflammation in the left lower abdomen. After adhesiolysis, mesh was seen to be eroding into small bowel. The entire infected mesh was pulled out from the pre-peritoneal space and urinary bladder wall using gentle traction. The involved small bowel segment was resected, and bowel continuity restored using endoscopic linear cutter. The resected bowel along with the mesh was extracted in a plastic bag. Intra-operative test for leak from urinary bladder was found to be negative. The patient recovered uneventfully and is doing well at 12 months follow-up with resolution of UTI. Laparoscopic approach to mesh erosion is feasible as the plane of mesh placement during laparoscopic hernia repair is closer to peritoneum than during open hernia repair.

  5. Emerging Utility of Urinary Cell-free Nucleic Acid Biomarkers for Prostate, Bladder, and Renal Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Selena Y; Linehan, Jennifer A; Wilson, Timothy G; Hoon, Dave S B

    2017-04-01

    By 2020 the estimated incidence of genitourinary (GU) cancers (prostate, bladder, and kidney) will be over 2 million worldwide and responsible for ∼800 000 deaths. Current diagnosis and monitoring methods of GU cancer patients are often invasive and/or lack sensitivity and specificity. Given the utility of blood-based cell-free nucleic acid (cfNA) biomarkers, the development of urinary cfNA biomarkers may improve the sensitivity of urine assays utilizing urine sediment for GU cancers. This review of urinary cfNA in GU cancers identifies the current stage of research, potential clinical utility, and the next steps needed to enter clinical use. To critically evaluate the literature of urinary cfNA in GU cancers for clinical utility in diagnosis, screening, and precision medicine. Furthermore, the strategy for future efforts to discover potential new urinary cfNA biomarkers will be described. A PubMed database (2006 to current) search was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Review and Meta-analysis using key Medical Subject Headings terms. Additional studies were obtained by cross-referencing from the literature. The collective research publications in urinary cfNA of GU cancers present a promising alternative liquid biopsy approach compared with blood biopsies and urine sediment, particularly for early-stage GU diseases. Urinary cfNA as a liquid biopsy holds potential for a more sensitive alternative to blood biopsies and urine sediment-based tests for clinical use in GU cancers. Not only does urinary cfNA offer advantages including the potential for more frequent testing, monitoring, and home use, but also has applications in early-stage GU cancers. In this review, we evaluated the current status of urinary cell-free nucleic acid in genitourinary cancers. We identified the potential advantages of urinary cell-free nucleic acid over blood and urine sediment and its clinical use in genitourinary cancer. Copyright © 2017 European

  6. Synergistic Effect between Cisplatin and Sunitinib Malate on Human Urinary Bladder-Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Arantes-Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse sunitinib malate in vitro ability to enhance cisplatin cytotoxicity in T24, 5637, and HT1376 human urinary bladder-cancer cell lines. Cells were treated with cisplatin (3, 6, 13, and 18 μM and sunitinib malate (1, 2, 4, 6, and 20 μM, either in isolation or combined, over the course of 72 hours. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay, acridine orange, and monodansylcadaverine staining and flow cytometry were performed. The combination index (CI was calculated based on the Chou and Talalay method. In isolation, cisplatin and sunitinib malate statistically (. Autophagy and apoptosis studies showed a greater incidence when the combined treatment was put into use. This hints at the possibility of a new combined therapeutic approach. If confirmed in vivo, this conjugation may provide a means of new perspectives in muscle-invasive urinary bladder cancer treatment.

  7. Usefulness of the UBC{sup TM} (urinary bladder cancer) test compared to urinary cytology for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in patients with hematuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Myung Cheol; Kang, Do Young; Seong, Youl Koon [School of Medicine, Donaga Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    2001-06-01

    Urinary cytology and cystoscopic exam are effective methods for diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). But the former shows drawbacks such as the need for a well-trained examiner, and wide imprecision related to the variability of microscopic exam; the latter is a invasive method. UBC{sup TM} test detects the epitope on specific cytokeratin fragments released from epithelium of bladder cancer by immunoradiometric assay. We compared UBC{sup TM} test with urinary cytology for diagnosis of TCC to evaluate the utility of UBC{sup TM} test. Eighty-four patients with hematuria were included in our study, UBC{sup TM} tests (IDL Biotech, Sweden) were assayed in mid-stream urine according to the ordinary assay protocol. Nineteen patients were confirmed as TCC by cystoscopic examination and underwent transurethral resection (Group A). Other patients had various benign urinary tract conditions (Group B). Samples were considered positive as the UBC{sup TM} concentration was greater than 12 {mu}g/L. UBC{sup TM} levels were significantly different between group A (95.9 {+-}166.4 {mu}g/L) and group B (19.2 {+-} 85.6 {mu}g/L)(p<0.001). Sensitivity for diagnosis of TCC was 89.5% (17/19) in UBC test and 47.4% (9/19) in cytology (p<0.05). Specificity for diagnosis of TCC was 81.5% (53/65) in UBC{sup TM} test and 100% (65/65) in cytology. UBC{sup TM} test was significantly more sensitive in stage Ta, T{sub 1} tumors (84.6 vs 38.5%, p<0.05) and in grade I (83.3% vs 16.7%, p<005) than cytology. UBC{sup TM} test showed a tendency to be more sensitive as the grade was higher (83.3% in Grade 1, 90% in Grade II and 100% in Grade III). UBC{sup TM} test could be a useful method in distinguishing TCC from other benign genitourinary diseases. Moreover, UBC{sup TM} test could be an especially valuable marker for diagnosis of TCC in patients with early TCC of low grade TCC compared to urinary cytology. Therefore, mbined use of UBC{sup TM} test in association with cytology is helpful to

  8. Urinary tract infection-like symptom is associated with worse bladder cancer outcomes in the Medicare population: Implications for sex disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Kyle A; Ham, Sandra; Cohn, Joshua A; Steinberg, Gary D

    2016-01-01

    To determine the time to bladder cancer diagnosis from initial infection-like symptoms and its impact on cancer outcomes. Using Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare, we designed a retrospective cohort study identifying beneficiaries aged ≥ 66 years diagnosed with bladder cancer from 2007 to 2009. Patients were required to have a hematuria or urinary tract infection claim within 1 year of bladder cancer diagnosis (n = 21 216), and have 2 years of prior Medicare data (n = 18 956) without any precedent hematuria, bladder cancer or urinary tract infection claims (n = 12 195). The number of days to bladder cancer diagnosis was measured, as well as the impact of sex and presenting symptom on time to diagnosis, pathology, and oncological outcomes. The mean time to bladder cancer diagnosis was 72.2 days in women versus 58.9 days in men (P urinary tract infection. Cox proportional hazards analysis identified an increased risk of mortality from bladder cancer and all causes in women presenting with urinary tract infection (hazard ratio 1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.10-1.71, and hazard ratio 1.47, 95% confidence interval 1.28-1.69) compared with women with hematuria. Women have a longer interval from urinary tract infection to diagnosis of bladder cancer. Urinary tract infection presentation can adversely affect time to diagnosis, pathology and survival. Time to diagnosis seems not to be an independent predictor of bladder cancer outcomes. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  9. Spectrum of genetic mutations in de novo PUNLMP of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Pena, Maria Del Carmen; Tregnago, Aline C; Eich, Marie-Lisa; Springer, Simeon; Wang, Yuxuan; Taheri, Diana; Ertoy, Dilek; Fujita, Kazutoshi; Bezerra, Stephania M; Cunha, Isabela W; Raspollini, Maria Rosaria; Yu, Lijia; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Kinzler, Kenneth W; Vogelstein, Bert; Netto, George J

    2017-06-08

    Our group and others have previously demonstrated the presence of TERT promoter mutations (TERT-mut) in 60-80% of urothelial carcinomas and some of their histologic variants. Five other genes have been frequently implicated in bladder cancer: FGRF3, TP53, PIK3CA, HRAS, and CDKN2A. In the current study, we sought to determine the prevalence of mutations in TERT and these five other genes in de novo papillary urothelial neoplasms of low malignant potential (PUNLMP) of the urinary bladder. A retrospective search of our archives for PUNLMP was performed and 30 de novo cases were identified and included in the study. We found mutations in TERT (TERT-mut) and FGFR3 (FGFR3-mut) to be the most common alterations in the cohort (63 and 60%, respectively). The majority of the TERT-mut-positive tumors (84%) had a g.1295228C > T alteration with the remaining tumors demonstrating g.1295250C > T. Approximately one fourth of tumors had TP53 mutations. These findings support the potential utility of a uniform genetic mutation panel to detect bladder cancers of various subtypes.

  10. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: KIT and PDGFRA gene mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuket Eliyakin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is very rare. A 72-year-old was admitted to our hospital because of hematuria and dysuria. Cystoscopy revealed a bladder full of multiple, solid and papillary tumors. Biopsies from the deep and papillary tumors were taken. Histologically, tumor was pure small cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin, chromogranin, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, CD56, CD117 and Ki67 (labeling 70%. The tumor cells were negative for CK7, CK20, CD3, CD20, LCA, CDX2, uroplakin, thyroid transcription factor 1, PSA and p63. Metastatic workup was performed an no primary or metastatic lung lesions were noted. Due to the clinical, radiologic and immunohistochemical findings, the patient was diagnosed as primary small cell carcinoma of bladder. A molecular genetic analysis for KIT (exons 9, 11, 13 and 17 and PDGFRA (exons 12 and 18 genes was performed, in paraffin micro dissection specimens, by the PCR-direct sequencing method. According to the sequencing analyses, two mutations were found at positions 558 (p.K558N and 562 (p.E562D in KIT gene exon 11 in our case. The another hand the same case presented two mutations in PDGFRA gene exon 14 at position 631 (p.P631A and 638 (p.638Q_639AinsC. The disease process was fulminant and the patient was lost due to several complications prior to any chemotherapy.

  11. Management of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in dogs: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Christopher M; Knapp, Deborah W

    2015-08-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), also referred to as urothelial carcinoma, is the most common form of urinary bladder cancer in dogs, affecting tens of thousands of dogs worldwide each year. Canine TCC is usually a high grade invasive cancer. Problems associated with TCC include urinary tract obstruction, distant metastases in >50% of affected dogs, and clinical signs that are troubling both to the dogs and to their owners. Risk factors for TCC include exposure to older types of flea control products and lawn chemicals, obesity, female sex, and a very strong breed-associated risk. This knowledge is allowing pet owners to take steps to reduce the risk of TCC in their dog. The diagnosis of TCC is made by histopathology of tissue biopsies obtained by cystoscopy, surgery, or catheter. Percutaneous aspirates and biopsies should be avoided due to the risk of tumor seeding. TCC is most commonly located in the trigone region of the bladder precluding complete surgical resection. Medical treatment is the mainstay for TCC therapy in dogs. Although TCC is not usually curable in dogs, multiple drugs have activity against it. Approximately 75% of dogs respond favorably to TCC treatment and can enjoy several months to a year or more of good quality life. Many promising new therapies for TCC are emerging and with the close similarity between TCC in dogs and high grade invasive bladder cancer in humans, new treatment strategies found to be successful in canine studies are expected to help dogs and to be subsequently translated to humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bladder catheterization, male (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with and inflatable balloon tip) into the urinary bladder. This procedure is performed for urinary obstruction, following ... or for any other problem in which the bladder needs to be kept empty (decompressed) and urinary ...

  13. Role of SATB2 in distinguishing the site of origin in glandular lesions of the bladder/urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannico, Giovanna Angela; Gown, Allen M; Epstein, Jonathan I; Revetta, Frank; Bishop, Justin A

    2017-09-01

    The differential diagnosis of glandular lesions of the bladder/urinary tract can be challenging because of significant morphologic and immunohistochemical overlap between primary lesions and metastasis/direct extension from adjacent organs. Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2), encoded on chromosome 2q32-33, is a recently described DNA-binding protein involved in osteoblast lineage commitment and expressed in colorectal and appendiceal neoplasms. In this study, we hypothesized that immunohistochemistry for SATB2 may be of value in distinguishing primary adenocarcinoma of the bladder/urinary tract and urothelial carcinoma with glandular differentiation from gastrointestinal and endocervical primaries. Intensity and distribution of SATB2 nuclear labeling were semiquantitatively scored and compared with those of CDX2. The study included 43 primary adenocarcinomas of the bladder/urinary tract, 20 urothelial carcinomas with glandular differentiation, 26 adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix, and 22 colorectal adenocarcinomas involving the bladder. Positive SATB2 immunostaining was observed in 21 of 43 (49%) primary bladder/urinary tract adenocarcinomas, in 17 of 22 (77%) colorectal adenocarcinomas, and in the glandular component of 4 of 18 (22%) urothelial carcinomas with glandular differentiation. SATB2 was negative in 25 of 26 endocervical adenocarcinomas and showed focal weak immunostaining (1+) in 1 of 26 (4%). The results were not significantly different from those seen with CDX2. We conclude that SATB2 immunohistochemistry is not useful in supporting urothelial versus gastrointestinal or endocervical origin in the differential diagnosis of glandular lesions of the bladder/urinary tract. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms, overactive bladder and urinary incontinence in western Turkey: results of a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumrutbas, Ali E; Bozkurt, Ali I; Tas, Erdogan; Acar, Cenk I; Alkis, Okan; Coban, Kazim; Cetinel, Bulent; Aybek, Zafer

    2014-10-01

    To estimate the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms, urinary incontinence and overactive bladder in western Turkey. This cross-sectional, population-based survey was carried out between May and October 2012. A random sample of 2128 women and men aged ≥18 years was selected from the health registries. A questionnaire including sociodemographic data, comorbid conditions, lower urinary tract symptoms, overactive bladder and urinary incontinence symptoms, body mass index, vital signs, and dipstick urinalysis was developed. The questions were answered by the participants, and remaining data were provided by the site staff. International Continence Society definitions were used. A total of 1571 (74%) individuals agreed to participate, and analysis were carried out on 1555 people (636 men [40.9%] and 919 women [59.1%]) after 16 individuals with a nitrite-positive dipstick test were excluded. Lower urinary tract symptoms were reported by 71.0% of the study population. The prevalence of storage, voiding and post-micturition symptoms were 56.1% (44.2% men, 64.1% women), 39.3% (40.9% men, 37.8% women) and 30.7% (38.6% men, 28.7% women), respectively. The most prevalent storage symptom was urgency, which was reported by 29.3% of the study population (20.1% men, 35.6% women). The prevalence of urge, stress and mixed urinary incontinence were: 6.5% (3.9% men, 8.2% women), 14.1% (3.9% men, 21.2% women) and 5.6% (0.8% men, 9.0% women), respectively. The present study is the first and largest population-based survey evaluating the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms, urinary incontinence and overactive bladder in Turkey. Our findings show these symptoms are highly prevalent in western Turkey. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  15. Impact of benign prostatic hyperplasia surgical treatment on voiding and urinary bladder filling symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milićević Snježana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BHP is one of the most common diseases of elderly men. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia to voiding and urinary bladder filling symptoms. Quantification of voiding and filling symptoms was done with the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS. Method. The study included 80 patients with BHP, of whom 40 were treated with open prostatectomy (group A, and other 40 with transurethral resection of prostate gland (group B. All the patients were under 80 years old (average age in the group A was 70.23 years with a variation interval of 21 years, and in the group B 69.37 years with a variation interval of 22 years, with a value of IPSS > 19 points, quantity of residual urine higher than 150 mL, the weight of benign prostatic gland hyperplasia tissue over 30 grams for the method of prostate transurethral resection, and over 80 grams for the method of open prostatectomy. To all patients, for two times, the value of IPSS was determined, and then in a postoperative period in time intervals of 4 and 12 weeks. Results. Arithmetic mean of IPSS preoperatively was 32.05 points in the group A and 31.75 points in the group B. During the postoperative check-ups in time intervals of 4 and 12 weeks, arithmetic means of IPSS in the group A were 5.4 and 1.85 points, respectively, and in the group B 11.425 and 9.025 points, respectively. Surgical treatment had better effect on voiding symptoms than on urinary bladder filling ones. Conclusion. After the mentioned surgical procedures a significant reduction of the lower urinary tract symptoms quantified by the IPSS was observed. Surgical treatment of BHP had a more pronounced effect on the voiding symptoms in relation to filling ones.

  16. Quantitative Changes in Cerebral Perfusion during Urinary Urgency in Women with Overactive Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha G. Arya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To quantitatively measure changes in cerebral perfusion in select regions of interest in the brain during urinary urgency in women with overactive bladder (OAB using arterial spin labeling (ASL. Methods. Twelve women with OAB and 10 controls underwent bladder filling and rated urinary urgency (scale 0–10. ASL fMRI scans were performed (1 in the low urgency state after voiding and (2 high urgency state after drinking oral fluids. Absolute regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF in select regions of interest was compared between the low and high urgency states. Results. There were no significant differences in rCBF between the low and high urgency states in the control group. In the OAB group, rCBF (mean ± SE, ml/100 g/min increased by 10–14% from the low to the high urgency state in the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC (44.56±0.59 versus 49.52±1.49, p<0.05, left ACC (49.29±0.85 versus 54.02±1.46, p<0.05, and left insula (50.46±1.72 versus 54.99±1.09, p<0.05. Whole-brain analysis identified additional areas of activation in the right insula, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and pons/midbrain area. Conclusions. Urinary urgency is associated with quantitative increase in cerebral perfusion in regions of the brain associated with processing emotional response to discomfort.

  17. Structured behavioral treatment research protocol for women with mixed urinary incontinence and overactive bladder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Diane K; Borello-France, Diane; Sung, Vivian W

    2018-01-01

    The primary aim is to provide detailed rationale and methodology for the development and implementation of a perioperative behavioral/pelvic floor exercise research protocol for women who self-chose surgical intervention and who may or may not have been offered behavioral treatments initially. This protocol is part of the ESTEEM trial (Effects of Surgical Treatment Enhanced with Exercise for Mixed Urinary Incontinence Trial) which was designed to determine the effect of a combined surgical and perioperative behavioral/pelvic floor exercise intervention versus surgery alone on improving mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) and overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. As part of a multi-site, prospective, randomized trial of women with MUI electing midurethral sling (MUS) surgical treatment, participants were randomized to a standardized perioperative behavioral/pelvic floor exercise intervention + MUS versus MUS alone. The specific behavioral intervention included: education on voiding habits, pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT), bladder training (BT), strategies to control urgency and reduce/prevent urinary symptoms, and monitoring/promoting adherence to behavioral recommendations. To ensure consistency across all eight research sites in the pelvic floor disorders network (PFDN), selective behavioral treatments sessions were audiotaped and audited for protocol adherence. The behavioral intervention protocol includes individualization of interventions using an algorithm based on pelvic floor muscle (PFM) assessment, participant symptoms, and findings from the study visits. We present, here, the specific perioperative behavioral/pelvic floor exercise interventions administered by study interventionists. This paper details a perioperative behavioral/pelvic floor exercise intervention research study protocol developed for women undergoing surgery for MUI. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The use of ultrasound-estimated bladder weight in diagnosing bladder outlet obstruction and detrusor overactivity in men with lower urinary tract symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi Housami

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Measurement of bladder weight using ultrasound estimates of bladder wall thickness and bladder volume is an emerging clinical measurement technique that may have a role in the diagnosis of lower urinary tract dysfunction. We have reviewed available literature on this technique to assess current clinical status. Methods: A systematic literature search was carried out within PubMed and MedLine to identify relevant publications. These were then screened for relevance. Preliminary results from our clinical experiments using the technique are also included. Results: We identified 17 published papers concerning the technique which covered clinical studies relating ultrasound-estimated bladder wall thickness to urodynamic diagnosis in men, women, and children together with change in response to treatment of bladder outlet obstruction. The original manual technique has been challenged by a commercially available automated technique. Conclusion: Ultrasound-estimated bladder weight is a promising non-invasive technique for the categorization of storage and voiding disorders in both men and women. Further studies are needed to validate the technique and assess accuracy of diagnosis.

  19. No Evidence of Human Polyomavirus 9, WU and KI DNA in Kidney and Urinary Bladder Tumour Tissue Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csoma, Eszter; Bidiga, László; Méhes, Gábor; Gergely, Lajos

    2016-01-01

    The oncogenic potential of human polyomaviruses (HPyVs) has been proposed, but so far only Merkel cell carcinoma polyomavirus seems to be associated with a human tumour. The role of BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) in human tumourigenesis remains controversial. BKPyV establishes persistent infection in the urinary tract, and renal and bladder neoplasms have been studied extensively, but conflicting prevalence data are reported. KI, WU and HPyV9 were detected in urine samples suggesting that these viruses may also infect the urinary tract, but their presence in urinary tract tumours has not been studied. The aim of this work was to examine the prevalence of KIPyV, WUPyV, HPyV9 and BKPyV by PCR in renal and bladder neoplasms. A total of 190 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded renal neoplasms, bladder cancer and kidney biopsy samples were analysed for the presence of BKPyV, KIPyV, WUPyV and HPyV9 DNA by real-time and nested PCR. Amplifiable DNA was extracted from all the samples, but none of the studied viruses were detected in benign renal neoplasia (0/23), malignant renal tumours (0/89) or bladder cancer (0/76). Our study did not find any evidence that BKPyV, KIPyV, WUPyV or HPyV9 are associated with bladder and renal tumours. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Defect in lectin-induced interleukin 2 production by peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with invasive urinary bladder carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubeník, J; Kieler, J; Tromholt, V

    1988-01-01

    The production of interleukin 2 (IL-2) by phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 21 patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (BTCC) and 16 control blood donors was measured with a solid phase enzyme immunoassay based on the dual...

  1. DIFFERENTIAL MODULATION OF CANCER-RELATED MOLECULAR NETWORKS IN HUMAN AND RAT URINARY BLADDER CELLS EXPOSED TO TRIVALENT ARSENICALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic (As) is classified as a known human carcinogen with primary targets of urinary bladder (UB), skin and lung. The most prevalent source of As exposure in humans is drinking water contaminated with inorganic As (iAs), and millions of people worldwide are exposed to drinking ...

  2. Combined intra- and extraperitoneal urinary bladder rupture – a rare seat-belt injury: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisanne Grünherz

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Despite the rarity of traumatic urinary bladder injuries, and especially in the absence of an underlying fracture, physicians should maintain a high level of suspicion for urologic injuries in the presence of nonspecific lower abdominal pain, gross haematuria and the inability to urinate.

  3. [Effect of cw laser YAG: Nd laser beam on the wall of the urinary bladder taken from cadavers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzaka, B; Mindak, M; Pykało, R

    The results of irradiation of the urinary bladder wall with cw YAG:Nd laser beam are presented. The use of irradiation times ranging from 02, and 0.8 second destroyed irradiated tissues up to a half of the muscular laser.

  4. Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence Microscopy of Gallium in Bladder Tissue following Gallium Maltolate Administration during Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Francesca; Chirino, Manuel; Hamilton, Don L.; Blyth, Robert I. R.; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Dowling, Patricia M.; Thompson, Julie

    2013-01-01

    A mouse model of cystitis caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli was used to study the distribution of gallium in bladder tissue following oral administration of gallium maltolate during urinary tract infection. The median concentration of gallium in homogenized bladder tissue from infected mice was 1.93 μg/g after daily administration of gallium maltolate for 5 days. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy of bladder sections confirmed that gallium arrived at the transitional epithelium, a potential site of uropathogenic E. coli infection. Gallium and iron were similarly but not identically distributed in the tissues, suggesting that at least some distribution mechanisms are not common between the two elements. The results of this study indicate that gallium maltolate may be a suitable candidate for further development as a novel antimicrobial therapy for urinary tract infections caused by uropathogenic E. coli. PMID:23877680

  5. Clinical value of FDG PET or PET/CT in urinary bladder cancer: A systemic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yu-Yu, E-mail: yuoyuolu@vghtc.gov.tw [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jin-Hua, E-mail: chenjh99@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Biostatistics Center and Graduate Institute of Biostatistics, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Liang, Ji-An, E-mail: hope.jal@msa.hinet.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wang, Hsin-Yi, E-mail: hywang@vghtc.gov.tw [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Cheng-Chieh, E-mail: cclin@mail.cmuh.org.tw [School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Community Medicine and Health Examination Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Wan-Yu, E-mail: wylin@vghtc.gov.tw [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Kao, Chia-Hung, E-mail: d10040@mail.cmuh.org.tw [School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2012-09-15

    Aim: The purpose of the current study was to conduct a systemic review and meta-analysis of the published literature to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of FDG PET or PET/CT in urinary bladder cancer. Materials and methods: The authors conducted a systematic MEDLINE search of articles published between January 2000 and December 2010. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of each study. We conducted a meta-analysis of pooled sensitivity and specificity in detecting primary and metastatic lesions of bladder cancer. Results: Six studies met the inclusion criteria. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of PET/CT for primary lesion detection of bladder cancer were 0.90 (95% CI: 0.70–0.99) and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.74–1.00), respectively. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of FDG PET or PET/CT for staging or restaging (metastatic lesions) of bladder cancer were 0.82 (95% CI: 0.72–0.89) and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.81–0.95), respectively. Conclusion: The diagnostic accuracy of FDG PET or PET/CT is good in metastatic lesions of urinary bladder cancer. Due to the small number of patients and limited number of studies analyzed, the diagnostic capability of FDG PET or PET/CT in detection of primary bladder wall lesions could not be assessed.

  6. Opacification of urinary bladder and ureter at CT urography: effect of a log-rolling procedure and postvoiding residual bladder urine volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooah; Wang, Lihuan L; Heiken, Jay P; Siegel, Cary L; Hildebolt, Charles F; Bae, Kyongtae T

    2008-06-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the effect of a log-rolling procedure and postvoiding residual (PVR) bladder urine volume on opacification of urinary bladder and ureters at multi-detector row computed tomographic (CT) urography. Institutional review board approval was obtained, and informed consent was waived for this retrospective HIPAA-compliant study. Triple-phase 16- or 64-detector row CT urographic images in 166 patients (88 men, 78 women; mean age, 58.9 years; range, 22-89 years) were evaluated retrospectively. Immediately prior to excretory phase scanning, 67 patients did and 99 did not undergo a log-rolling procedure on the CT table. PVR bladder urine volume was quantified as the largest cross-sectional area of the bladder measured on unenhanced images (PVR values). The degree of bladder opacification was quantified as the percentage of the total cross-sectional area of the bladder that was opacified on excretory phase images. Ureteral opacification was quantified as the percentage of ureteral length that contained enhanced urine. On the basis of PVR values, patients were stratified into four subgroups (2000 to 3000 to 4000 mm(2)). The Wilcoxon rank sum and Student t tests were used to evaluate differences. Median degree of bladder opacification of the log-rolling versus non-log-rolling group was 100% versus 78% for PVR values of 2000 mm(2) or less (P .05). Use of a log-rolling procedure prior to excretory phase CT urography increases the percentage of bladder opacification in patients with PVR values of 4000 mm(2) or less. No difference in ureteral opacification was observed between the log-rolling and non-log-rolling groups. (c) RSNA, 2008.

  7. Increased expression of interleukin (IL-6 family members and receptors in urinary bladder with cyclophosphamide (CYP-induced bladder inflammation in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice eGirard

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that JAK-STAT signaling pathways contribute to increased voiding frequency and referred pain of CYP-induced cystitis in rats. Potential upstream chemical mediator(s that may be activated by CYP-induced cystitis to stimulate JAK/STAT signaling are not known in detail. In these studies, members of the interleukin (IL-6 family of cytokines including, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF, IL-6 and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF and associated receptors, IL-6 receptor (R α, LIFR and gp130 were examined in the urinary bladder in control and CYP-treated rats. Cytokine and receptor transcript and protein expression and distribution were determined in urinary bladder after cyclophosphamide (CYP-induced cystitis using quantitative, real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Acute (4 hr; 150 mg/kg; i.p., intermediate (48 hr; 150 mg/kg; i.p. or chronic (75 mg/kg; i.p., once every 3 days for 10 days cystitis was induced in adult, female Wistar rats with CYP treatment. Q-PCR analyses revealed significant (p ≤ 0.01 CYP duration- and tissue- (e.g., urothelium, detrusor dependent increases in LIF, IL-6, IL-6Rα, LIFR and gp130 mRNA expression. Western blotting demonstrated significant (p ≤ 0.01 increases in IL-6, LIF and gp130 protein expression in whole urinary bladder with CYP treatment. CYP-induced cystitis significantly (p ≤ 0.01 increased LIF-immunoreactivity (IR in urothelium, detrusor, and suburothelial plexus whereas increased gp130-IR was only observed in urothelium and detrusor. These studies suggest that IL-6 and LIF may be potential upstream chemical mediators that activate JAK/STAT signaling in urinary bladder pathways.

  8. Impact of density of schistosomal antigen expression in urinary bladder tissue on the stratification, cell type, and staging, and prognosis of carcinoma of the bladder in Egyptian patients

    OpenAIRE

    Wishahi, Mohamed; Zakarya, Ahmed; Hamamm, Olfat; Abdel-Rasol, Mohamed; Badawy, Hisham; Elganzoury, Hossam; Ismail, Mohamed; Elkhouly, Amr; Meheina, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Background Infection with urinary schistosomiasis and its severity are oncogenic factors for developing carcinoma of the bladder, whether it is urothelial carcinoma (UC) of a transitional cell type (TCC) or non-urothelial of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In UC it is not defined whether it is schistosomal or not. This led to controversial results in expression of tumour markers, tumour prognosis, and response to therapy. Objectives We assessed the application by immunohistochemistry method (I...

  9. Rabdomiosarcoma de vejiga: Presentación de un caso Urinary bladder rhabdomyosarcoma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Simón Barroso de la Cruz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 52 años de edad que acudió a la consulta de Ginecología por un aumento de volumen en el abdomen. Se le indicó ingreso, se estudió y se diagnosticó un tumor gigante de víscera ginecológica. Se decide tratamiento quirúrgico mediante laparatomía. Durante el acto quirúrgico se demuestra que la tumoración corresponde a la vejiga, por lo que se solicita la presencia de un urólogo. Continuamos la intervención y encontramos una tumoración grande, de base ancha, que ocupa la parte posterior y lateral izquierda de la vejiga, con áreas de necrosis de color blanquecino y consistencia algo blanda. Se cateteriza el meato ureteral derecho, el izquierdo no es visible y se realiza la exéresis del tumor. Se deja una sonda Foley No. 20 por cistostomía y uretral, se cierra la vejiga en dos planos y se revisa la cavidad abdominal. Se encontraron útero y ovarios normales; colón, intestino e hígado normales. En el estudio histológico se demostró que la tumoración es un rabdomiosarcoma pleomórfico. Se siguió su evolución y se realizaron interconsultas con el servicio de oncología para el tratamiento posteriorThe case of a 52-year-old female patient that was seen at the Gynecology office due to an increase of volume in the abdomen, is reported. She was admitted, studied and diagnosed a giant tumor of gynecological viscus. It was decided to perform laparotomy. During surgery, it was observed that the tumor corresponded to the urinary bladder, so an urologist was requested. The operation continued and a big tumor of wide base was found that occupied the posterior and lateral left part of the urinary bladder, with necrosis areas of whitish color and a little soft consistency. The right ureteral meatus was catheterized, the left was not visible, and exeresis of the tumor was performed. A Foley catheter no. 20 was left by cystotomy. The urinary bladder was closed in 2 planes, and the abdominal cavity was

  10. Bladder stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the base of the bladder Enlarged prostate (BPH) Neurogenic bladder Urinary tract infection (UTI) Incomplete emptying of ... of the urine stream Pain, discomfort in the penis Signs of UTI (such as fever, pain when ...

  11. Urodynamic parameters evolution after artificial urinary sphincter implantation for post-radical prostatectomy incontinence with concomitant bladder dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afraa, Tala Al; Campeau, Lysanne; Mahfouz, Wally; Corcos, Jacques

    2011-06-01

    Urodynamic assessment is strongly recommended before artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) implantation. Detrusor overactivity (DO) and/or hypersensitivity and/or mild loss of compliance are frequently demonstrated in post prostatectomy incontinence. The aim of this study was to evaluate urodynamic parameter changes before and after AUS implantation in patients with urinary incontinence post-radical prostatectomy (RP) and concomitant urodynamic bladder abnormalities. We performed a retrospective review of charts pre- and post-AUS implantation. Sixteen out of a cohort of 52 patients met our inclusion criteria: stress urinary incontinence (SUI) due to RP and bladder dysfunction (early bladder sensation and/or low compliance and/or small bladder capacity and/or the presence of DO). The mean age of these 16 patients was 68 ± 6.3 years, and the duration of incontinence was 3 ± 2.7 years. The number of pads/day was 5.7 ± 2.3 before AUS implantation, and 1 ± 0.7 after implantation. Average time for the last post-implantation UDS was 43 months (range 7 to 73 months). Comparison of pre- and post-AUS implantation urodynamic parameters revealed statistically significant improvement in bladder capacity from 271 ± 117 to 295.6 ± 151 mL (p = 0.05), bladder compliance from 7.6 ± 3.95 to 12.5 ± 10.3 mL/cmH2O (p = 0.03), and decrease in DO from 50% to 25% on cystometrograms. Preoperative urodynamic abnormalities improved after AUS implantation. Thus, mild bladder dysfunction should not be a contraindication to AUS placement for SUI post-RP.

  12. Recurrence of childhood nephrogenic adenoma in urinary bladder developed four years after previous surgery despite intravesical sodium hyaluronate therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özçift, Burak; Kaçar, Ayper; Tiryaki, Hüseyin Tuğrul

    2016-12-01

    Nephrogenic adenoma (NA) is a rarely seen benign metaplastic lesion of the urinary tract. Its etiology is uncertain, but induced by chronic inflammation, irritation, and trauma. NA is located in the urinary tract, most commonly in the bladder. NA usually presents with hematuria and lower urinary tract symptoms. In the literature it is mostly seen in adults but about 30 cases of NA's have been reported in children. Treatment of intravesical lesions consists of transurethral resection (TUR) and fulguration and rarely partial or total cystectomy may be required in ineffective TUR. Recurrence rate is high during long-term follow-up. The intravesical application of sodium hyaluronate produces a protective effect on the glycosaminoglycan layer and delays or prevents its recurrence. We report a case of recurrent NA of the bladder in a pediatric male patient who was presented four years after previous surgery despite intravesical sodium hyaluronate therapy.

  13. Vector Flow Visualization of Urinary Flow Dynamics in a Bladder Outlet Obstruction Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Takuro; Yiu, Billy Y S; Yu, Alfred C H

    2017-11-01

    Voiding dysfunction that results from bladder outlet (BO) obstruction is known to alter significantly the dynamics of urine passage through the urinary tract. To non-invasively image this phenomenon on a time-resolved basis, we pursued the first application of a recently developed flow visualization technique called vector projectile imaging (VPI) that can track the spatiotemporal dynamics of flow vector fields at a frame rate of 10,000 fps (based on plane wave excitation and least-squares Doppler vector estimation principles). For this investigation, we designed a new anthropomorphic urethral tract phantom to reconstruct urinary flow dynamics under controlled conditions (300 mm H2O inlet pressure and atmospheric outlet pressure). Both a normal model and a diseased model with BO obstruction were developed for experimentation. VPI cine loops were derived from these urinary flow phantoms. Results show that VPI is capable of depicting differences in the flow dynamics of normal and diseased urinary tracts. In the case with BO obstruction, VPI depicted the presence of BO flow jet and vortices in the prostatic urethra. The corresponding spatial-maximum flow velocity magnitude was estimated to be 2.43 m/s, and it is significantly faster than that for the normal model (1.52 m/s) and is in line with values derived from computational fluid dynamics simulations. Overall, this investigation demonstrates the feasibility of using vector flow visualization techniques to non-invasively examine internal flow characteristics related to voiding dysfunction in the urethral tract. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantitative evaluation of CART-containing cells in urinary bladder of rats with renovascular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Janiuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent biological advances make it possible to discover new peptides associated with hypertension. The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART is a known factor in appetite and feeding behaviour. Various lines of evidence suggest that this peptide participates not only in control of feeding behaviour but also in the regulation of the cardiovascular and sympathetic systems and blood pressure. The role of CART in blood pressure regulation led us to undertake a study aimed at analysing quantitative changes in CART-containing cells in urinary bladders (UB of rats with renovascular hypertension. We used the Goldblatt model of arterial hypertension (two-kidney, one clip to evaluate quantitative changes. This model provides researchers with a commonly used tool to analyse the renin-angiotensin system of blood pressure control and, eventually, to develop drugs for the treatment of chronic hypertension. The study was performed on sections of urinary bladders of rats after 3-, 14-, 28-, 42 and 91 days from hypertension induction. Immunohistochemical identification of CART cells was performed on paraffin for the UBs of all the study animals. CART was detected in the endocrine cells, especially numerous in the submucosa and muscularis layers, with a few found in the transitional epithelium and only occasionally in serosa. Hypertension significantly increased the number of CART-positive cells in the rat UBs. After 3 and 42 days following the procedure, statistically significantly higher numbers of CART-positive cells were identified in comparison with the control animals. The differences between the hypertensive rats and the control animals concerned not only the number density of CART-immunoreactive cells but also their localization. After a 6-week period, each of the rats subjected to the renal artery clipping procedure developed stable hypertension. CART appeared in numerous transitional epithelium cells. As this study provides novel findings

  15. Types of indwelling urinary catheters for long-term bladder drainage in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Patrick; Beutner, Katrin; Langer, Gero

    2012-10-17

    Prolonged urinary catheterization is common amongst people in long-term care settings and this carries a high risk of developing a catheter-related urinary tract infection and associated complications. A variety of different kinds of urethral catheters are available. Some have been developed specifically to lower the risk of catheter-associated infection, for example antiseptic or antibiotic impregnated catheters. Ease of use, comfort and handling for the caregivers and patients, and cost-effectiveness are also important factors influencing choice. The primary objective was to determine which type of indwelling urinary catheter is best to use for long-term bladder drainage in adults. We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Register (last searched 31 March 2011), which includes searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE and handsearching of journals and conference proceedings, and the reference lists of relevant articles. All randomised trials comparing types of indwelling urinary catheters for long-term catheterization in adults. Long-term catheterization was defined as more than 30 days. Data extraction has been undertaken by two review authors working independently and simultaneously. Any disagreement has been resolved by a third review author. The included trial data were handled according to the methods of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Three trials were included, involving 102 adults in various settings. Two trials had a parallel group design and one was a randomised cross-over trial.Only two of the six targeted comparisons were assessed by these trials: antiseptic impregnated catheters versus standard catheters (one trial) and one type of standard catheter versus another standard catheter (two trials).The single small cross-over trial was inadequate to assess the value of silver alloy (antiseptic) impregnated catheters. In the two trials comparing different types of standard catheters, estimates of differences were all

  16. Quantitative histopathology in the prognostic evaluation of patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, M; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Fukuzawa, S

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morphologic grading of malignancy is considered to be of prognostic value in patients with transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder (TCC). This qualitative approach is, however, associated with low reproducibility. Grading of malignancy can be carried out on a reproducible......, quantitative scale.METHODS: A retrospective, prognostic study of 110 patients treated for TCC in clinical Stages Ta-T4 (median follow-up time, 6 years) was performed, evaluating various grading techniques. Unbiased estimates of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume (nuclear vV), nuclear volume fraction...... of nuclear vV are prognostically superior to morphologic grading of malignancy in noninvasive TCC, whereas both morphologically and quantitatively based malignancy grading are without prognostic value in invasive TCC....

  17. Quantitative histopathology in the prognostic evaluation of patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, M; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Fukuzawa, S

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morphologic grading of malignancy is considered to be of prognostic value in patients with transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder (TCC). This qualitative approach is, however, associated with low reproducibility. Grading of malignancy can be carried out on a reproducible......, quantitative scale. METHODS: A retrospective, prognostic study of 110 patients treated for TCC in clinical Stages Ta-T4 (median follow-up time, 6 years) was performed, evaluating various grading techniques. Unbiased estimates of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume (nuclear vV), nuclear volume fraction...... of nuclear vV are prognostically superior to morphologic grading of malignancy in noninvasive TCC, whereas both morphologically and quantitatively based malignancy grading are without prognostic value in invasive TCC....

  18. Functional polymorphisms in the IL6 gene promoter and the risk of urinary bladder cancer in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Kirti Amresh; Muktanand, Tripathi; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Goel, Apul; Sankhwar, Pushp Lata; Rajender, Singh

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-6 is a multifunctional cytokine, which plays a key role in tumor proliferation and differentiation. Variations in its gene (IL6) sequence may affect the risk of developing various cancers, including urinary bladder cancer. The present study was done to find the association of functional polymorphisms in the IL6 promoter with urinary bladder cancer. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in histologically confirmed 232 cases of urinary bladder cancer and 250 healthy controls. The controls subjects were matched to the cases by age, sex, and ethnicity. Genotyping of the polymorphisms (-174G>C; -572G>C, -596A>G) was undertaken by direct DNA sequencing. The level of association between the genotypes and urinary bladder cancer risk was estimated by odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals generated by applying the chi-square test. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) between SNPs and haplotype analysis were performed using Haploview software. Significantly higher number of smokers (p=0.047), tobacco chewers (p=food habits (p=0.016) were seen in the case group. The distribution of genotypes at -174G>C locus differed significantly between cases and controls and the variant genotypes GC+CC were significantly rarer in the cases (p=0.00073; OR=0.52 95% CI 0.35-0.75). Variant genotypes (GC+CC) were more common in grade I than grade III tumors (p=0.032), further suggesting a protective effect. No LD was found between the SNPs; however, the frequency of haplotype AGC was significantly lesser in the cases than controls (p=0.0103), suggesting a protective effect. Genotype distribution at the other two loci (-572G>C and -596A>G) did not show association with bladder cancer. IL6 (-174G>C) substitution confers significant protection against the risk of urinary bladder cancer in the study population, while other substitutions in this gene (-572G>C and -596A>G) do not affect the risk. In general, there is a lack of studies on the cytokine gene polymorphisms in urinary

  19. Warty gastric cancer with polypoid metastases to the gallbladder and urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuyama M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mutsushi Matsuyama,1,2 Kazuo Kato,3 Seiichi Goto,4 Suzuko Moritani,5 Kazuhiro Sentani,6 Makoto Kuroda7 1Clinical Laboratory, Hekinan Municipal Hospital, Hekinan, Aichi, 2Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, 3Clinical Laboratory, Rousai Hospital, Nagoya, Aichi, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Hekinan Municipal Hospital, Hekinan, Aichi, 5Department of Advanced Diagnosis, Division of Pathology, National Hospital Organization, Nagoya Medical Center, Nagoya, Aichi, 6Department of Molecular Pathology, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima, 7Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan Abstract: An 80-year-old man had severe lumbago that was diagnosed as multiple myeloma. He was treated with melphalan, prednisone, and zoledronic acid, with a good response. However, he had severe anemia, and endoscopic examination revealed gastric cancer. He died 3 months later. Autopsy revealed verrucous gastric cancer consisting of numerous polypoid mucosal excrescences that had metastasized to the gallbladder and urinary bladder, showing similar polypoid mucosal lesions. The cancer consisted of poorly differentiated cells (about 85% and signet ring cells (15% in the stomach. The cancerous tissue was not associated with a desmoplastic reaction, and the signet ring cells showed a positive reaction to cytokeratin 7 and regenerating islet-derived family member 4 antibodies. The cancer cells had a propensity to proliferate on the mucosal surface of the stomach, gallbladder, and urinary bladder. Keywords: warty gastric cancer, polypoid metastases, signet ring cells, cytokeratin 7, regenerating islet-derived family member 4

  20. Survival Analysis in Patients with Non- metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Abdel-Rahim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate overall survival(OAS and disease free survival (DFS rates in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder according to different prognostic factors. Methods: This retrospective study analyzed the medical records of patients with non-metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. All men underwent radical cystectomy and women underwent anterior pelvic exentration. Most patients had postoperative radiation therapy. The log-rank test examined differences in OASand DFS rates. Results: The medical records of 106 patients were analyzed. The median follow-up from the date of enrollment was 30 months and ranged from 2 to 73 months. For the entire group, three-year OAS rates were 46.9% and DFS rates were 44%. For patients with P2 (tumor invasion into the muscularis propria the three-year OAS rate was 53%, for P3 (tumor invasion into perivesical fat it was 45% and 9% for P4 (tumor invasion into adjacent organs, pelvic wall or abdominal wall The OAS rate was statistically significant in favor of P2 disease (P=0.0041. The three-year DFS rate was 50% for P2, 45% for P3 and 9% for P4 disease (P=0.0125. Administration of post-operative radiotherapy did not result in statistically significant improvement in three-year OASand DFS rates. Conclusion: Survival rates were statistically significant and higher in patients with P2 and P3 disease compared to P4 disease. Adjuvant radiotherapy did not result in statistically significant survival improvement.

  1. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy versus cystectomy in management of stages II, and III urinary bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Osman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This phase III trial was de - signed to compare the survival benefit, surgical respectability, and toxicities among patients treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical cystectomy (arm A, with those treated by radical cystectomy (arm B in the management of stage II, III urinary bladder cancer. Patients and Methods: For inclusion, patients should have pathologically proven urothelial carcinoma in urinary bladder, clinical stages from T2N0M0 to T4aN0M0, patient age less than 65 years, and performance state ≤ 2. Additionally, patients should have adequate hematological, renal, and liver functions. Arm A patients underwent 3 cycles of neoadjuvant cisplatin and gemcitabine followed by radical cystectomy, while arm B patients underwent radical cystectomy directly. Results: Thirty patients had been enrolled in each arm between September 2009 and April 2014 in 3 educational institutes in Egypt. The 3 year OS (overall survival for arm A, and B were 60% and 50% respectively. The median OS for arm A was 36+ months and that for arm B was 32.5 months. The 3 year progression-free survival (PFS for arm A, and B were 57% and 43% respectively. The median PFS for arm A was 36+ months and for arm B was 28 months. A subgroup analysis was performed to correlate between 3 year OS and predetermined prognostic factors including age, tumor size, pathological stage, and the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The later was performed only in arm A. Both treatment arms were tolerated well with mild toxicities profiles. Conclusion: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy achieved better survival, surgical respectability, with nearly equivalent toxicities when compared with radical cystectomy.

  2. Investigation of bladder deformability within the development process of the artificial urinary diversion system - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchleitner, Daniel; Roth, Matthias; Wassermann, Helmut; Jocham, Dieter

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate changes in the dimensions of human bladders in different body positions to determine the required deformability of an artificial urinary diversion system (AUDS). This entirely artificial organ is comparable in size to the maximum capacity of natural bladders and is a replacement for diseased bladders, such those damaged by cancer. The full bladders (determined by the individual's perception) of 5 healthy adult volunteers were imaged using a fully opened magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) device in different body positions: standing, maximum flexion, and seated. Dimensional changes were measured in four directions (ventral, dorsal, cranial and caudal) using a custom graphical method based on midsagittal images; the standing position was used as the reference position. The maximum flexed position was compared to the reference position, and the largest change was found in the cranial extension of the bladders: 6±4.2 mm (mean±SD). The seated and reference positions were compared; the maximum change was in the cranial extension and was measured to be 18±2.8 mm. The results indicate the requirement for a highly deformable artificial bladder in specific directions, such as the cranial and dorsal directions, which influences the positions of the technical components within the artificial organ. In a future development stage, artificial bladders will be designed using a computer-aided design system based on the results from this study and possibly a subsequent similar study.

  3. Distribution and chemical coding of neurons in intramural ganglia of the porcine urinary bladder trigone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenon Pidsudko

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the distribution and chemical coding of neurons in the porcine intramural ganglia of the urinary bladder trigone (IG-UBT demonstrated using combined retrograde tracing and double-labelling immunohistochemistry. Retrograde fluorescent tracer Fast Blue (FB was injected into the wall of both the left and right side of the bladder trigone during laparotomy performed under pentobarbital anaesthesia. Ten-microm-thick cryostat sections were processed for double-labelling immunofluorescence with antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH, neuropeptide Y (NPY, somatostatin (SOM, galanin (GAL, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP, nitric oxide synthase (NOS, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, substance P (SP, Leu5-enkephalin (LENK and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT. IG-UBT neurons formed characteristic clusters (from a few to tens neuronal cells found under visceral peritoneum or in the outer muscular layer. Immunohistochemistry revealed four main populations of IG-UBT neurons: SOM- (ca. 35%, SP- (ca. 32%, ChAT- and NPY- immunoreactive (-IR (ca. 23% as well as non-adrenergic non-cholinergic nerve cells (ca. 6%. This study has demonstrated a relatively large population of differently coded IG-UBT neurons, which constitute an important element of the complex neuro-endocrine system involved in the regulation of the porcine urogenital organ function.

  4. Development of Urinary Bladder Pre-Neoplasia by Schistosoma haematobium Eggs and Chemical Carcinogen in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chala, Bayissa; Choi, Min-Ho; Moon, Kyung Chul; Kim, Hyung Suk; Kwak, Cheol; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2017-02-01

    Schistosoma haematobium is a biocarcinogen of human urinary bladder (UB). The present study investigated developing UB cancer mouse model by injecting S. haematobium eggs into the bladder wall and introduction of chemical carcinogens. Histopathological findings showed mild hyperplasia to epithelial vacuolar change, and high grade dysplasia. Squamous metaplasia was observed in the S. haematobium eggs+NDMA group at week 12 but not in other groups. Immunohistochemistry revealed significantly high expression of Ki-67 in urothelial epithelial cells of the S. haematobium eggs+BBN group at week 20. The qRT-PCR showed high expression of p53 gene in S. haematobium eggs group at week 4 and S. haematobium eggs+BBN group at week 20. E-cadherin and vimentin showed contrasting expression in S. haematobium eggs+BBN group. Such inverse expression of E-cadherin and vimentin may indicate epithelial mesenchymal transition in the UB tissue. In conclusion, S. haematobium eggs and nitrosamines may transform UB cells into squamous metaplasia and dysplasia in correlation with increased expression of Ki-67. Marked decrease in E-cadherin and increase in p53 and vimentin expressions may support the transformation. The present study introduces a promising modified animal model for UB cancer study using S. haematobium eggs.

  5. [Diagnosis and treatment of recurrent surface cancer of the urinary bladder (early repeated cystoscopy and biopsy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatkin, N A; Martov, A G; Gushchin, B L; Gnatiuk, A P; Ergakov, D V; Serebrianyĭ, S A

    2003-01-01

    In spite of some achievements in the field of oncourology, the problem of diagnosis and treatment of surface cancer of the urinary bladder (SCUB) remains urgent because of early recurrence and progression after TUR (50 and 30%, respectively). Repeated cystoscopy and biopsy early after surgery enable the physician to establish a real stage of SCUB (invasion into the bladder wall--criterion T and cell differentiation--criterion G). Early accurate staging of the disease allows design further policy of treatment. Early repeated cystoscopy and biopsy detected recurrence of transient cell SCUB in 51 (24.75%) patients. In 20 (9.7%) patients recurrent tumor located at the site of the previous operation. In other places recurrences were detected in 31 (15.05%) patients. Recurrent tumor was found in 23 (11.16%) cases at stage Ta and 28 (13.6%) patients at stage T1; in 15, 30 and 6 patients with high, moderate and low malignancy grade (22.06, 24.79 and 35.29%, respectively). SCUB progression developed in a total of 15 (7.28%) patients: by T criterion (T1-T2a) in 9 (4.37%) patients and by criterion G (G2-G3) in 6 (2.91%) patients. Thus, early repeated cystoscopy and biopsy detect early residual and recurrent SCUB facilitating design of further treatment policy.

  6. Ba2+-inhibitable /sup 86/Rb+ fluxes across membranes of vesicles from toad urinary bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garty, H.; Civan, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    /sup 86/Rb+ fluxes have been measured in suspensions of vesicles prepared from the epithelium of toad urinary bladder. A readily measurable barium-sensitive, ouabain-insensitive component has been identified; the concentration of external Ba2+ required for half-maximal inhibition was 0.6 mM. The effects of externally added cations on /sup 86/Rb+ influx and efflux have established that this pathway is conductive, with a selectivity for K+, Rb+ and Cs+ over Na+ and Li+. The Rb+ uptake is inversely dependent on external pH, but not significantly affected by internal Ca2+ or external amiloride, quinine, quinidine or lidocaine. It is likely, albeit not yet certain, that the conductive Rb+ pathway is incorporated in basolateral vesicles oriented right-side-out. It is also not yet clear whether this pathway comprises the principle basolateral K+ channel in vivo, and that its properties have been unchanged during the preparative procedures. Subject to these caveats, the data suggest that the inhibition by quinidine of Na+ transport across toad bladder does not arise primarily from membrane depolarization produced by a direct blockage of the basolateral channels. It now seems more likely that the quinidine-induced elevation of intracellular Ca2+ activity directly blocks apical Na+ entry.

  7. Urinary incontinence self-report questions: reproducibility and agreement with bladder diary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeanette S.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Schembri, Michael; Ragins, Arona; Thom, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis This study aims to measure self-report urinary incontinence questions' reproducibility and agreement with bladder diary. Methods Data were analyzed from the Reproductive Risk of Incontinence Study at Kaiser. Participating women reporting at least weekly incontinence completed self-report incontinence questions and a 7-day bladder diary. Self-report question reproducibility was assessed and agreement between self-reported and diary-recorded voiding and incontinence frequency was measured. Test characteristics and area under the curve were calculated for self-reported incontinence types using diary as the gold standard. Results Five hundred ninety-one women were included and 425 completed a diary. The self-report questions had moderate reproducibility and self-reported and diary-recorded incontinence and voiding frequencies had moderate to good agreement. Self-reported incontinence types identified stress and urgency incontinence more accurately than mixed incontinence. Conclusions Self-report incontinence questions have moderate reproducibility and agreement with diary, and considering their minimal burden, are acceptable research tools in epidemiologic studies. PMID:21796472

  8. Total retroperitoneal laparoscopic nephroureterectomy with bladder-cuff resection for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhenqiang; Li, Longkun; Wang, Xiangwei; Chen, Wei; Jia, Weisheng; He, Fan; Shen, Chongxing; Ye, Gang

    2014-12-01

    Open nephroureterectomy (ONU) and bladder cuff resection (ONU-BCR) has been the gold standard of surgical treatment for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (UUT-TCC). The aim of this study is to introduce a modified total retroperitoneal laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (LNU) with bladder-cuff resection (LNU-BCR) method for treating UUT-TCC and compare its clinical efficacy with ONU-BCR. Sixty-five patients with UUT-TCC, who underwent ONU-BCR (n = 36) or LNU-BCR (n = 29) between January 2008 and June 2012, were analyzed in this retrospective study. Perioperative data as well as incidence of disease recurrence at the primary site or distant metastasis was compared in patients with at least 6 months follow-up. As compared with patients with ONU-BCR, the patients with LNU-BCR had significantly shorter operative time, lower estimated blood loss, shorter time to oral intake, lower analgesic dose, shorter duration of analgesic use, shorter duration of incision drainage tube, shorter time to ambulation out of bed and reduced postoperative hospital stay (all, p ONU-BCR with the advantages of reduced invasiveness, bleeding and hospitalization.

  9. Intravesical gentamicin for recurrent urinary tract infection in patients with intermittent bladder catheterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieuwkoop, C; den Exter, P L; Elzevier, H W; den Hartigh, J; van Dissel, J T

    2010-12-01

    Clean intermittent catheterisation (CIC) of the bladder is used to imitate normal bladder emptying in patients with bladder dysfunction. CIC is associated with urinary tract infection (UTI) that may be difficult to treat in the case of antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this study was to establish the effect and safety of intravesical gentamicin treatment in such settings. In 2009, intravesical gentamicin treatment was started in selected patients. Here we describe our experience with two patients treated until March 2010. Two patients using CIC suffering recurrent UTI with multiresistant Escherichia coli were treated with daily administration of 80 mg intravesical gentamicin. On treatment they appeared asymptomatic. During 8- and 9-month follow-up they were free of UTI, urine cultures were negative and there were no side effects. A systematic review was conducted through searches of PubMed and other databases. Clinical trials that met the eligibility criteria and displayed the efficacy or safety of intravesical aminoglycoside treatment in patients using CIC were studied. Study selection was performed by two independent reviewers. Eight studies were included for review. Owing to study heterogeneity, a meta-analysis could not be performed. Of four controlled studies using neomycin or kanamycin, two demonstrated a significant reduction in bacteriuria, whilst two other trials did not. One case series on neomycin/polymyxin showed that the majority of patients still developed bacteriuria. Three case series using gentamicin all pointed towards a significant reduction in bacteriuria and UTIs. There were no clinically relevant side effects reported but follow-up in all studies was limited. Although data are limited, intravesical treatment with gentamicin might be a reasonable treatment option in selected patients practicing CIC who suffer recurrent UTIs with highly resistant microorganisms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy

  10. Probiotics for preventing urinary tract infection in people with neuropathic bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Swee-Ling; Boswell-Ruys, Claire L; Lee, Bon San B; Simpson, Judy M; Clezy, Kate R

    2017-09-08

    Neuropathic or neurogenic bladder describes a process of dysfunctional voiding as the result of injury in the brain, spinal cord or nerves innervating the bladder. People with neuropathic bladder, such as from spinal cord injury (SCI), are at significant risk of morbidity from urinary tract infections (UTI). Effective methods to prevent UTI in people with SCI have been sought for many years. Probiotics (micro-organisms that exert beneficial health effects in the host) have been recommended for bacterial interference of the urological tract to reduce colonisation by uropathogen and to manage the dual problems of infection and antibiotic resistance. This review looked at the benefits and harms of probiotics in preventing symptomatic UTI in people with neuropathic bladder compared with placebo, no therapy, or non-antibiotic prophylaxis (cranberry juice, methenamine hippurate, topical oestrogen). We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Specialised Register up to 10 March 2017 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. Studies in the Specialised Register are identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International Clinical Trials Register (ICTRP) Search Portal, and ClinicalTrials.gov. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs and cross-over RCTs looking at the use of probiotics for the prophylaxis of UTI in people with neuropathic bladders was considered for inclusion. Men, women and children of all ages with neuropathic bladders from neurological injury such as suprapontine, supra sacral and sacral aetiologies was included. All bladder management types, including reflex voiding, time voiding, indwelling and intermittent catheterization were eligible for this review.Studies comparing probiotics to placebo, no treatment or other non-antibiotic prophylaxis was included. Studies comparing probiotics with antibiotics or in combination with antibiotics were

  11. Morphologic changes in the urinary bladder and stomach after long-term administration of sodium saccharin in F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibino, T; Hirasawa, Y; Arai, M

    1985-12-01

    The effects of long-term administration of sodium saccharin on the urinary bladder and stomach of F344 rats were investigated. Sixty-eight male F344 rats, aged 7 weeks at the beginning of the experiment, were maintained on diet supplemented with 5% sodium saccharin for 112 weeks. Animals were killed periodically and investigated for gross and microscopic lesions in the urinary bladder and stomach. Papillary or nodular hyperplasia was evident in the urinary bladder epithelium from 8 weeks onwards although no papillomas or transitional cell carcinomas developed. Lesions observed in the bladders of control animals fed the basal diet without the saccharin supplement were limited throughout the experiment to a few areas of simple hyperplasia. While no changes were apparent in the stomach of control animals, a 100% incidence of hyperkeratosis at the limiting ridge of the forestomach was observed after 80 weeks administration of saccharin, 5 of 20 animals also having papillomas. Furthermore, erosion was pronounced in the glandular stomach of saccharin-treated animals with 4 cases of atypical gland being observed. No histopathological lesions were apparent in the liver, kidneys or spleen of either control or experimental groups.

  12. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF TUMOR GROWTH MARKERS AND ANGIOGENESIS IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF URINARY BLADDER CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Glybochko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Examinations were made in 121 patients, including 76 patients with urinary bladder cancer (UBC (superficial (T1N0M (n = 16 and invasive (T2N0M0 and T3aN0M0 (n = 39 carcinomas, carcinoma invading into and out of the bladder wall (n = 21, including T3bN0M0 (n = 14, T3bN1M0 (n = 6, and with T4N1M1 (n = 1, 10 patients with cystitis, 10 with urolithiasis, and 25 apparently healthy individuals who made up a control group. The patients with UBC were additionally divided into the following groups according to the degree of tumor cell differentiation: 27 with a low-grade tumor (G1, 24 with a moderate-grade tumor (G2, and 25 with a high-grade tumor (G3. The levels of oncomarkers (urinary bladder carcinoma antigen (UBCA, tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA, tissue-specific polypeptide antigen (TSPA, cytokines (interleukin (IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α, and angiogenetic factors (vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, transforming growth factor-α (TGFα, fibroblast growth factor (FGF, and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I were studied by solid-phase enzyme immunoassay. It has been established that measuring the level of cytokeratin oncomarkers (UBC II, TPA, TPS in the serum, urine, and washings can be, along with cystoscopy, used in the early diagnosis of UBC. A combination of UBC II, TPA, and TPS contents allows speci- fication of the stage of UBC and the grade of tumor cells. The increased levels of TNF-α and IL-12 in patients with UBC confirm the development of a proinflammatory cytokine shift and activation of angiogenesis. The ratio of proangiogenic TNF-α to anti-angiogenic IL12 rises with UBC progression. This may be considered to cause increased vascular permeability and a proneness to bleedings from tumor tissues in patients with UBC. Tumor growth and UBC progression are accompanied by a pronounced increase in the serum levels of growth and angiogenetic factors (VEGF, TGF-α, b-FGF, and IGF-1 as compared to the normal values and to

  13. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF TUMOR GROWTH MARKERS AND ANGIOGENESIS IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF URINARY BLADDER CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Glybochko

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Examinations were made in 121 patients, including 76 patients with urinary bladder cancer (UBC (superficial (T1N0M (n = 16 and invasive (T2N0M0 and T3aN0M0 (n = 39 carcinomas, carcinoma invading into and out of the bladder wall (n = 21, including T3bN0M0 (n = 14, T3bN1M0 (n = 6, and with T4N1M1 (n = 1, 10 patients with cystitis, 10 with urolithiasis, and 25 apparently healthy individuals who made up a control group. The patients with UBC were additionally divided into the following groups according to the degree of tumor cell differentiation: 27 with a low-grade tumor (G1, 24 with a moderate-grade tumor (G2, and 25 with a high-grade tumor (G3. The levels of oncomarkers (urinary bladder carcinoma antigen (UBCA, tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA, tissue-specific polypeptide antigen (TSPA, cytokines (interleukin (IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α, and angiogenetic factors (vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, transforming growth factor-α (TGFα, fibroblast growth factor (FGF, and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I were studied by solid-phase enzyme immunoassay. It has been established that measuring the level of cytokeratin oncomarkers (UBC II, TPA, TPS in the serum, urine, and washings can be, along with cystoscopy, used in the early diagnosis of UBC. A combination of UBC II, TPA, and TPS contents allows speci- fication of the stage of UBC and the grade of tumor cells. The increased levels of TNF-α and IL-12 in patients with UBC confirm the development of a proinflammatory cytokine shift and activation of angiogenesis. The ratio of proangiogenic TNF-α to anti-angiogenic IL12 rises with UBC progression. This may be considered to cause increased vascular permeability and a proneness to bleedings from tumor tissues in patients with UBC. Tumor growth and UBC progression are accompanied by a pronounced increase in the serum levels of growth and angiogenetic factors (VEGF, TGF-α, b-FGF, and IGF-1 as compared to the normal values and to

  14. Effects of promoters on N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine-induced urinary bladder carcinogenesis in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, N; Fukushima, S; Shirai, T; Nakanishi, K

    1983-01-01

    It has been shown that the occurrence of the preneoplastic lesion, papillary or nodular hyperplasia (PN hyperplasia) in rat urinary bladder induced by carcinogens is correlated with that of cancer. Therefore, the promoting effects of chemicals in two-stage bladder carcinogenesis were judged by measuring their ability to induce PN hyperplasia in rats. Male rats were given N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) for 4 weeks and then one of 16 test chemicals for 32 to 34 weeks. Saccharin, ascorbate, DL-tryptophan, allopurinol, and diphenyl promoted development of PN hyperplasia. The dose-response of the promoters were examined in both sexes of rats by administration of saccharin at doses of 0.04, 0.2, 1.0 and 5.0% for 32 weeks after BBN treatment. The occurrence of PN hyperplasia was significantly increased in the group given 5% saccharin. Dose-response curves showed enhanced hyperplastic responses in both sexes given 0.2 to 5% saccharin. The organ specificities of promoters were studied in rats initiated with BBN or 2-acetylamino-fluorene (2-AAF) followed by phenobarbital or saccharin for 32 weeks. Phenobarbital greatly enhanced hepatocarcinogenesis. Saccharin significantly enhanced the occurrence of both BBN-induced and 2-AAF-induced PN hyperplasia. However, there was no effect of phenobarbital on the urinary bladder or of saccharin on the liver. The rats showed a strain difference in susceptibility of the urinary bladder to saccharin; ACI rats were most susceptible and Sprague Dawley rats were most resistant to saccharin. The membrane potential of superficial epithelial cells in the urinary bladder of rats treated with saccharin was measured with an intracellular microelectrode and found to be higher than that of controls. PMID:6873032

  15. Urodynamic assessment of bladder and urethral function among men with lower urinary tract symptoms after radical prostatectomy: A comparison between men with and without urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hansol; Kim, Ki Bom; Lee, Sangchul; Lee, Sang Wook; Kim, Myong; Cho, Sung Yong; Oh, Seung-June; Jeong, Seong Jin

    2015-12-01

    We compared bladder and urethral functions following radical prostatectomy (RP) between men with and without urinary incontinence (UI), using a large-scale database from SNU-experts-of-urodynamics-leading (SEOUL) Study Group. Since July 2004, we have prospectively collected data on urodynamics from 303 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) following RP at three affiliated hospitals of SEOUL Study Group. After excluding 35 patients with neurogenic abnormality, pelvic irradiation after surgery, or a history of surgery on the lower urinary tract, 268 men were evaluated. We compared the urodynamic findings between men who had LUTS with UI (postprostatectomy incontinence [PPI] group) and those who had LUTS without UI (non-PPI group). The mean age at an urodynamic study was 68.2 years. Overall, a reduced bladder compliance (≤20 mL/cmH2O) was shown in 27.2% of patients; and 31.3% patients had idiopathic detrusor overactivity. The patients in the PPI group were older (p=0.001) at an urodynamic study and had a lower maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP) (p<0.001), as compared with those in the non-PPI group. Bladder capacity and detrusor pressure during voiding were also significantly lower in the PPI group. In the logistic regression, only MUCP and maximum cystometric capacity were identified as the related factor with the presence of PPI. In our study, significant number of patients with LUTS following RP showed a reduced bladder compliance and detrusor overactivity. PPI is associated with both impairment of the urethral closuring mechanism and bladder storage dysfunction.

  16. Cyclooxygenase-2 contributes to functional changes seen on experimental hemorrhagic cystitis induced by ifosfamide in rat urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Francisco Y B; Mourão, Lívia T C; Palheta, Raimundo C; Jucá, Davi M; Lima, Roberto C P; Neto, José de Sá C; Magalhães, Pedro J C; Santos, Armênio A; Souza, Marcellus H L P; Brito, Gerly A C; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A

    2011-04-01

    Ifosfamide (IFS) is often involved in the occurrence of hemorrhagic cystitis due to direct contact of its metabolite acrolein with uroepithelium. It has been shown that COX-2 is involved in this pathogenesis. Thus, we aimed to study the functional changes on the urinary bladder in the putative modifications induced by IFS, as well as the COX-2 role in this process. IFS-treated rats were evaluated by cystometrography in absence or presence of COX inhibitors indomethacin or etoricoxib or in the presence of mesna. Experiments with isolated strips of urinary bladder obtained from animals with IFS-induced cystitis, either treated or not treated with COX inhibitors or mesna, were performed. Histological analyses, immunohistochemistry for COX-2, and measurement of plasma PGE(2) were also performed. IFS treatment caused severe inflammation of the bladder tissue. Cystometrography recordings of IFS-treated rats revealed bladder with increased micturition frequency and enhanced filling intravesical pressure. Contractility of the isolated smooth muscle from the rat's bladder with IFS-induced cystitis showed decreased force development in response to KCl and CCh. Almost all effects induced by IFS were ameliorated by the use of COX inhibitors or mesna. Enzyme expression in the urinary bladder tissue was positive, and plasma concentration of PGE(2) was increased in IFS-treated animals and decreased significantly in etoricoxib-treated animals. IFS causes important changes in the micturition physiology in rats, and the inhibition of the isoenzyme COX-2 could be an important event that could prevent the detrimental effects elicited by IFS-induced hemorrhagic cystitis.

  17. Management of urinary tract infections in patients with neurogenic bladder: challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannek, Jürgen; Wöllner, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common morbidities in persons with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD). They are associated with a significant morbidity and mortality, and they affect the quality of life of the affected patients. Diagnosis and treatment of UTI in this group of patients are challenging. In this review, the current strategies regarding diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are summarized. it is important to correctly diagnose a UTI, as treatment of bacteriuria should strictly be avoided. A UTI is defined as a combination of laboratory findings (leukocyturia and bacteriuria) and symptoms. Laboratory findings without symptoms are classified as asymptomatic bacteriuria. Routine urine screening is not advised. Only UTI should be treated; treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria is not indicated. Prior to treatment, urine for a urine culture should be obtained. Antibiotic treatment for ~7 days is advised. In recurrent UTI, bladder management should be optimized and morphologic causes for UTI should be excluded. If UTIs persist, medical prophylaxis should be considered. Currently, no prophylactic measure with evidence-based efficacy exists. Long-term antibiotic prophylaxis should be used merely as an ultimate measure. Among the various mentioned innovative approaches for UTI prevention, bacteriophages, intravesical instillations, complementary and alternative medicine techniques, and probiotics seem to be most promising. Recently, several promising innovative options for UTI prophylaxis have been developed which may help overcome the current therapeutic dilemma. However, further well designed studies are necessary to evaluate the safety and efficacy of these approaches.

  18. SU-F-J-05: The Effect of Air Pockets in the Urinary Bladder During Bladder Hyperthermia Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schooneveldt, G.; Kok, H.P.; Bakker, A.; Geijsen, E.D.; Reijke, T.M. de; Crezee, J. [Academisch Medisch Centrum / Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Hyperthermia combined with Mitomycin C is used for the treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), using a phased array system of microwave antennas for bladder heating. Often some air is present in the bladder, which effectively blocks the microwave radiation, potentially preventing proper treatment of that part of the bladder. Air can be a relevant fraction of the bladder content and large air pockets are expected to have a noticeable influence on achieved temperatures. Methods: We analysed 14 NMIBC patients treated at our institute with our AMC-4 hyperthermia device with four 70MHz antennas around the pelvis. A CT scan was made after treatment and a physician delineated the bladder on the CT scan. On the same scan, the amount of air present in the bladder was delineated. Using our in-house developed hyperthermia treatment planning system, we simulated the treatment using the clinically applied device settings. We did this once with the air pocket delineated on the CT scan, and once with the same volume filled with bladder tissue. Results: The patients had on average 4.2ml (range 0.8–10.1ml) air in the bladder. The bladder volume was delineated by the physician, that is including air pocket and bladder wall, was on average 253ml (range 93–452ml). The average volume in which changes exceeded 0.25°C was 22ml (range 0–108 ml), with the bladder being up to 2°C cooler when an air pocket was present. Except for extreme cases, there was no evident relation between the quantity of air and the difference in temperature. Conclusion: The effect of an air pocket in the bladder during bladder hyperthermia treatment varies strongly between patients. Generally, this leads to lower temperatures in the bladder, potentially affecting treatment quality, and suggesting that care need be taken to minimise the size of air pockets during hyperthermia treatments. The KWF Dutch Cancer Society financially supported this work, grant UVA 2012-5539.

  19. Follicular Thyroid Cancer Metastasis to the Urinary Bladder: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Grivas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer metastasis to the urinary bladder is a very rear condition. To the authors’ knowledge there have been only 2 cases reported in the literature. Herein a case is reported of a metastatic bladder tumor in a 73-year-old woman with history of thyroid and breast cancer. Gross hematuria was the initial symptom of her metastatic disease. Pathology of the resected mass revealed a follicular thyroid cancer metastasis. This case illustrates that follicular carcinoma of the thyroid may have a variable presentation, including hematuria.

  20. Effects of promoters on N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine-induced urinary bladder carcinogenesis in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, N; Fukushima, S; Shirai, T; Nakanishi, K

    1983-01-01

    It has been shown that the occurrence of the preneoplastic lesion, papillary or nodular hyperplasia (PN hyperplasia) in rat urinary bladder induced by carcinogens is correlated with that of cancer. Therefore, the promoting effects of chemicals in two-stage bladder carcinogenesis were judged by measuring their ability to induce PN hyperplasia in rats. Male rats were given N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) for 4 weeks and then one of 16 test chemicals for 32 to 34 weeks. Saccharin, as...

  1. Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society – update. Ultrasound examination of the kidneys, ureters and urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz F. Tyloch

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the principles of performing proper ultrasound examinations of the urinary tract. The following are discussed: preparation of patients, type of optimal apparatus, technique of examination and conditions which its description should fulfill. Urinary track examination in adults and in children constitutes an integral part of each abdominal examination. Such examinations should be performed with fasting patients or several hours after the last meal, with filled urinary bladder. Apparatus: Ultrasound examinations in children and infants are performed using transducers with the frequency of 5.0–9.0 MHz and in adults – with the frequency of 2.0–6.0 MHz. Doppler options are desirable since they improve diagnostic capacity of sonography in terms of differentiation between renal focal lesions. Scanning technique: Renal examinations are performed with the patients in the supine position. The right kidney is examined in the right hypochondriac region using the liver as the ultrasound “window.” The left kidney is examined in the left hypochondriac region, preferably in the posterior axillary line. Ultrasound examinations of the upper segment of the ureters are performed after renal examination when the pelvicalyceal system is dilated. A condition necessary for a proper examination of the perivesical portion of the ureter is full urinary bladder. The scans of the urinary bladder are performed in transverse, longitudinal and oblique planes when the bladder is filled. Description of the examination: The description should include patient’s personal details, details of the referring unit, of the unit in which the examination is performed, examining physician’s details, type of ultrasound apparatus and transducers as well as the description proper.

  2. The UBC{sup TM} test may be useful for diagnosis of recurred urinary bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Do Young; Jung, Se Il; Hwang, Joon Seong; Gil, Myung Cheol; Yoon, Jin Han; Kim, Duk Kyu [College of Medicine, Donga Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Previously we reported the usefulness of UBC{sup TM} test compared to urinary cytology for diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder in patients with hematuria. Now we evaluated the usefulness of the UBC{sup TM} test for diagnosis of recurred urinary bladder cancer. 146 patients with hematuria were included in our study. UNC{sup TM} test (IDL Biotech, Sweden) were assayed in mid-stream urine according to the ordinary assay protocol. 33 patients were confirmed as TCC by cystoscopic examination and underwent transurethral resection (Group A). Other patients had various benign urinary tract conditions (Group B). Samples were considered positive as the UBC concentration was greater than 12 {mu} g/L. We compared UBC{sup TM} level with previous value 6 months later in patients whom diagnosed with TCC. UBC levels were significantly different between group A (95.9{+-}166.4 {mu} g/L) and group B (19.2{+-}85.6 {mu} g/L) (p<0.001). Sensitivity for diagnosis of TCC was 78.8% (26/33) in UBC test and 39.4% (13/33) in cytology (p<0.05). Specificity for diagnosis of TCC was 82.5% (80/97) in UBC{sup TM} test and 100% (97/97) in cytology. UBC{sup TM} test was significantly more sensitive in stage Ta. T{sub 1} tumors (80 vs 20 %, p<0.05) ad in grade I (80% vs 10%, p<0.05) than cytology, UBC{sup TM} test showed tendency to be more sensitive as the stage and grade was higher (80% in Ta, 83.3% in T1 and 100% in T2, 80% in Grade I, 85.7% in Grade II and 100% in Grade III). We follow-up UBC{sup TM} test in 5 patients after 6 months. UBC{sup TM} levels and recurrence were correlated in 4 patient (80%). Follow-up levels of UBC{sup TM} were increased in two recurred patients and normalized in non-recurred patients. One patient showed increased level of UBC{sup TM} test but clinically no evidence of recurrence. Although Also our patients were small, UBC{sup TM} test may be useful method for detecting the recurrence of TCC and further follow-up is necessary.

  3. Wild cane toads (Rhinella marina expel foreign matter from the coelom via the urinary bladder in response to internal injury, endoparasites and disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal Kelehear

    Full Text Available Dissections of >1,200 wild-caught cane toads (Rhinella marina in tropical Australia confirm a laboratory report that anurans can expel foreign objects from the coelom by incorporating them into the urinary bladder. The foreign objects that we found inside bladders included a diverse array of items (e.g., grass seeds, twigs, insect prey, parasites, many of which may have entered the coelom via rupture of the gut wall. In some cases, the urinary bladder was fused to other organs including liver, fat bodies, ovaries, Bidder's organs, lungs, mesentery, stomach wall, gall bladder, and the abdominal wall. Acanthocephalan parasites (of a range of developmental stages were identified from the walls of the urinary bladders of three cane toads. This organ may play a significant role in destroying or excreting metazoan parasites, as well as inanimate objects.

  4. Wild cane toads (Rhinella marina) expel foreign matter from the coelom via the urinary bladder in response to internal injury, endoparasites and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelehear, Crystal; Jones, Hugh I; Wood, Benjamin A; Shine, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Dissections of >1,200 wild-caught cane toads (Rhinella marina) in tropical Australia confirm a laboratory report that anurans can expel foreign objects from the coelom by incorporating them into the urinary bladder. The foreign objects that we found inside bladders included a diverse array of items (e.g., grass seeds, twigs, insect prey, parasites), many of which may have entered the coelom via rupture of the gut wall. In some cases, the urinary bladder was fused to other organs including liver, fat bodies, ovaries, Bidder's organs, lungs, mesentery, stomach wall, gall bladder, and the abdominal wall. Acanthocephalan parasites (of a range of developmental stages) were identified from the walls of the urinary bladders of three cane toads. This organ may play a significant role in destroying or excreting metazoan parasites, as well as inanimate objects.

  5. A STUDY OF P53 EXPRESSION IN UROTHELIAL NEOPLASMS OF URINARY BLADDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sathish Kumar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Urothelial Cell Carcinoma (UCC of urinary bladder is the seventh commonest cancer wordwide.1 At initial diagnosis, 30% of UCC display solid and invasive growth patterns and are locally advanced or metastatic at the time of diagnosis. 70% of tumours are noninvasive papillary UCC confined to the epithelium and subepithelial connective tissue,2 which can be managed by endoscopic resection. A significant number of post-resected cases, progress for recurrence of tumour and infiltration to muscle layers. Invasive bladder cancer has high morbidity and uniform mortality when it is metastatic. There are no effective tools to predict aggressiveness of tumour, so that these cases can be managed more successfully. Mutated Tp53/p53 is the genetic abnormality most frequently associated with UCC and related to cell transformation, malignancy and high recurrence rates.2 MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a descriptive study conducted in the departments of urology and pathology and during the period of March 2014 to February 2015. All consecutive cystoscopic biopsies, Trans urethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT and radical cystectomy specimens histopathologically diagnosed as UCC were included in the study. p53 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Positive and negative controls were used. Bivariate analysis was done using Chi-square test in all cases. RESULTS A total of 80 cases were analysed. Significant association of p53 expression was found in higher grades of tumour. Also, noted relation of p53 mutation with tumour size, multifocality, multiplicity, muscle invasion and tumour stage, which were statistically not significant. CONCLUSION Bladder tumour grade shows significant association to p53 expression. Papillary neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP tumours are negative for p53, and in the present study, there was significant difference in p53 over expression low-grade papillary UCC compared with PUNLMP. 90% of low

  6. IL-8 as a urinary biomarker for the detection of bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urquidi Virginia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current urine-based assays for bladder cancer (BCa diagnosis lack accuracy, so the search for improved biomarkers continues. Through genomic and proteomic profiling of urine, we have identified a panel of biomarkers associated with the presence of BCa. In this study, we evaluated the utility of three of these biomarkers, interleukin 8 (IL-8, Matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9 and Syndecan in the diagnosis of BCa through urinalysis. Methods Voided urines from 127 subjects, cancer subjects (n = 64, non-cancer subjects (n = 63 were analyzed. The protein concentrations of IL-8, MMP-9, and Syndecan were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Data were also compared to a commercial ELISA-based BCa detection assay (BTA-Trak© and urinary cytology. We used the area under the curve of a receiver operating characteristic (AUROC to compare the performance of each biomarker. Results Urinary protein concentrations of IL-8, MMP-9 and BTA were significantly elevated in BCa subjects. Of the experimental markers compared to BTA-Trak©, IL-8 was the most prominent marker (AUC; 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72-0.86. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that only IL-8 (OR; 1.51; 95% CI, 1.16-1.97, p = 0.002 was an independent factor for the detection of BCa. Conclusions These results suggest that the measurement of IL-8 in voided urinary samples may have utility for urine-based detection of BCa. These findings need to be confirmed in a larger, prospective cohort.

  7. Management of urinary tract infections in patients with neurogenic bladder: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pannek J

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Jürgen Pannek, Jens Wöllner Neuro-Urology, Swiss Paraplegic Center, Nottwil, Switzerland Introduction: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are one of the most common morbidities in persons with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD. They are associated with a significant morbidity and mortality, and they affect the quality of life of the affected patients. Diagnosis and treatment of UTI in this group of patients are challenging. In this review, the current strategies regarding diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are summarized. Diagnostics: it is important to correctly diagnose a UTI, as treatment of bacteriuria should strictly be avoided. A UTI is defined as a combination of laboratory findings (leukocyturia and bacteriuria and symptoms. Laboratory findings without symptoms are classified as asymptomatic bacteriuria. Routine urine screening is not advised. Treatment: Only UTI should be treated; treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria is not indicated. Prior to treatment, urine for a urine culture should be obtained. Antibiotic treatment for ~7 days is advised. Prevention: In recurrent UTI, bladder management should be optimized and morphologic causes for UTI should be excluded. If UTIs persist, medical prophylaxis should be considered. Currently, no prophylactic measure with evidence-based efficacy exists. Long-term antibiotic prophylaxis should be used merely as an ultimate measure. Among the various mentioned innovative approaches for UTI prevention, bacteriophages, intravesical instillations, complementary and alternative medicine techniques, and probiotics seem to be most promising. Conclusion: Recently, several promising innovative options for UTI prophylaxis have been developed which may help overcome the current therapeutic dilemma. However, further well designed studies are necessary to evaluate the safety and efficacy of these approaches. Keywords: neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction, spinal cord injury, prophylaxis

  8. Neurogenic Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T. Dorsher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomalies such as meningomyelocele and diseases/damage of the central, peripheral, or autonomic nervous systems may produce neurogenic bladder dysfunction, which untreated can result in progressive renal damage, adverse physical effects including decubiti and urinary tract infections, and psychological and social sequelae related to urinary incontinence. A comprehensive bladder-retraining program that incorporates appropriate education, training, medication, and surgical interventions can mitigate the adverse consequences of neurogenic bladder dysfunction and improve both quantity and quality of life. The goals of bladder retraining for neurogenic bladder dysfunction are prevention of urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, detrusor overdistension, and progressive upper urinary tract damage due to chronic, excessive detrusor pressures. Understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of micturition is essential to select appropriate pharmacologic and surgical interventions to achieve these goals. Future perspectives on potential pharmacological, surgical, and regenerative medicine options for treating neurogenic bladder dysfunction are also presented.

  9. Bladder outlet obstruction in a 6-month-old alpaca secondary to pelvic displacement of the urinary bladder

    OpenAIRE

    McClanahan, Susan L.; Malone, Erin D.; Anderson, Kari L.

    2005-01-01

    A 6-month-old female alpaca was presented for stranguria. Based on the history, physical examination findings, and radiographic studies, the alpaca was diagnosed with bladder outlet obstruction, secondary to pelvic displacement of the bladder, a condition previously unreported in camelids. Cystopexy was performed and the alpaca recovered unremarkably.

  10. Wild Cane Toads (Rhinella marina) Expel Foreign Matter from the Coelom via the Urinary Bladder in Response to Internal Injury, Endoparasites and Disease: e0134036

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crystal Kelehear; Hugh I Jones; Benjamin A Wood; Richard Shine

    2015-01-01

      Dissections of >1,200 wild-caught cane toads (Rhinella marina) in tropical Australia confirm a laboratory report that anurans can expel foreign objects from the coelom by incorporating them into the urinary bladder...

  11. Wild cane toads (Rhinella marina) expel foreign matter from the coelom via the urinary bladder in response to internal injury, endoparasites and disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelehear, Crystal; Jones, Hugh I; Wood, Benjamin A; Shine, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Dissections of >1,200 wild-caught cane toads (Rhinella marina) in tropical Australia confirm a laboratory report that anurans can expel foreign objects from the coelom by incorporating them into the urinary bladder...

  12. [Urinary bladder substitution using combined membrane based on secretions of human mesenchymal stem cells and type I collagen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpatovckii, V I; Kamalov, D M; Efimenko, A Yu; Makarevich, P I; Sagaradze, G D; Makarevich, O A; Nimiritskii, P P; Osidak, E O; Domogatskii, S P; Karpov, V K; Akopyan, Z H A; Tkachuk, V A; Kamalov, A A

    2016-12-01

    Despite the widespread use of intestinal cystoplasty, urinary bladder substitution remains a challenging problem due to the complexity of operations and the potentially high risk of complications. A promising alternative may be bio-engineered collagen-based matrices containing stem cells or their secretions. To evaluate the effectiveness of this bladder substitution modality, an experiment was conducted on 14 male rabbits. The animals underwent resection of urinary bladder, and the formed defect was substituted with a membrane of type I collagen (series 1, 5 rabbits) or a membrane of the same composition containing a conditioned medium with secretion of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells derived from human adipose tissue (series 2, 5 rabbits). In the comparison group (4 rabbits) resection of the bladder and the closure of the defect was carried out without bladder substitution (series 3). At 1 month after surgery, there was a complete epithelization of the inner surface of the implant, and body tissues replaced the collagen matrix. In series 1, the collagen implant was replaced mainly by connective tissue ingrown with occasional solitary smooth muscle cells. In series 2, the newly formed bladder wall contained numerous smooth muscle cells, growing into the collagen matrix and forming the muscular coat. In series 3, the muscular layer regeneration at the scar site was also noted, but it was less intense, which was confirmed by morphometry. In series 2, more active vascularization of the collagen implant occurred due to neo-angiogenesis, which was more intense than that in series 3, and especially in series 1. Functional studies revealed a reduced bladder functional capacity in series 1 and 3, while in series 2 it was close to normal. During filling cystometry, changes in intra-vesical pressure profile in series 2 were close to normal, while in series 1 and 3 infusion of a small volume of saline resulted in a marked increase in intra-vesical pressure, showing a reduced

  13. Evaluation of lower urinary system symptoms and neurogenic bladder in children with cerebral palsy: relationships with the severity of cerebral palsy and mental status

    OpenAIRE

    DELİALİOĞLU, Sibel ÜNSAL

    2009-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to evaluate lower urinary system symptoms, to determine bladder type in children with cerebral palsy (CP), and to determine the relationship between bladder type, and the severity of CP and mental status of the children. Materials and Methods: The study included 41 children with CP. Subjects were first asked to provide information concerning lower urinary system symptoms. Urodynamic examination was performed in 41 children with CP. The severity of CP was determined acc...

  14. Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder successfully managed with cisplatin and gemcitabine: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Ammari Jalal Eddine

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare variant of mucus-producing adenocarcinoma constituting approximately 0.5% to 2.0% of all primary carcinomas of the bladder. This tumor initially presents as a high-grade, high-stage lesion and diffusely invades the bladder wall without forming intraluminal growth. The patients have no specific symptoms, which leads to delayed diagnosis and poor prognosis. Case presentation We report the case of a 51-year-old Moroccan Berber man consulting for gross hematuria. Ultrasonography and a computed tomography scan found a bladder tumor diffusely invading the bladder wall. A histopathological examination of the tumor chips from a transurethral resection of the bladder revealed signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma. The gastrointestinal tract exploration did not reveal any other tumor localization. A radical cystectomy and adjuvant cisplatin and gemcitabine chemotherapy were therefore performed resulting in 18 months of survival without metastasis and a good quality of life within that time. Conclusion The rarity and the successful management with carboplatin and gemcitabine as adjuvant chemotherapy of this entity, which is rarely reported in the literature, are two remarkable characteristics described in this case report.

  15. Expression of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in human, mouse, and rat urinary bladder and effects of FAAH inhibition on bladder function in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strittmatter, Frank; Gandaglia, Giorgio; Benigni, Fabio; Bettiga, Arianna; Rigatti, Patrizio; Montorsi, Francesco; Gratzke, Christian; Stief, Christian; Colciago, Giorgia; Hedlund, Petter

    2012-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptor (CB)-mediated functions may be involved in the regulation of bladder function, but information on endocannabinoid signals during micturition is scarce. Investigate the expression of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in human, rat, and mouse bladders and study the effects of inhibition of FAAH during urodynamics in awake rats. Bladder tissue from humans, mice, and rats was used for measurements. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered the FAAH inhibitor oleoyl ethyl amide (OEtA) or vehicle intravenously (IV) or intravesically (IVES) with or without rimonabant (CB1 antagonist) or SR144528 (CB2 antagonist). Real-time transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and cystometry in awake rats. Messenger RNA and protein for FAAH was expressed in the mucosa of human, mouse, and rat urinary bladders. Immunoreactivities for FAAH and CB2 were codistributed in rat and human urothelium. IV OEtA (0.3mg/kg) to rats increased intercontraction intervals (ICIs), micturition volume (MV), bladder capacity (BC), and threshold pressure (TP) by 17±1%, 16±1%, 17±1%, and 19±5%, respectively (all prats dose-dependently increased (pRat and human urothelium coexpressed FAAH and CB2. The FAAH inhibitor OEtA altered urodynamic parameters that reflect sensory functions of micturition in rats. Suggesting a role for the endocannabinoid system in bladder mechanoafferent functions of rats, effects of IVES OEtA were abolished by an IVES CB2 antagonist and partly counteracted by an IVES CB1 antagonist. Copyright © 2011 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Bladder Control Problems in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Incontinence) Bladder Control Problems in Women (Urinary Incontinence) Kegel Exercises Cystocele (Prolapsed Bladder) Bladder Infection (Urinary Tract ... Pelvic floor muscle exercises. Pelvic floor muscle, or Kegel, exercises involve strengthening pelvic floor muscles. Strong pelvic ...

  17. Bladder Control Problems in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Incontinence) Bladder Control Problems in Women (Urinary Incontinence) Kegel Exercises Cystocele (Prolapsed Bladder) Bladder Infection (Urinary Tract ... Pelvic floor muscle exercises. Pelvic floor muscle, or Kegel, exercises involve strengthening pelvic floor muscles. Strong pelvic ...

  18. Multi-center randomized controlled trial of cognitive treatment, placebo, oxybutynin, bladder training, and pelvic floor training in children with functional urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gool, Jan D.; de Jong, Tom P. V. M.; Winkler-Seinstra, Pauline; Tamminen-Moebius, Tytti; Lax, Hildegard; Hirche, Herbert; Nijman, Rien J. M.; Hjalmas, Kelm; Jodal, Ulf; Bachmann, Hannsjoerg; Hoebeke, Piet; Vande Walle, Johan; Misselwitz, Joachim; John, Ulrike; Bael, An

    Objective Functional urinary incontinence causes considerable morbidity in 8.4% of school-age children, mainly girls. To compare oxybutynin, placebo, and bladder training in overactive bladder (OAB), and cognitive treatment and pelvic floor training in dysfunctional voiding (DV), a multi-center

  19. Local activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the urinary bladder reduces the inflammation-induced sensitization of bladder afferents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cervero Fernando

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic administration of cannabinoid agonists is known to reduce pain induced by bladder inflammation and to modulate cystometric parameters in vivo. We have previously reported that intravesical administration of a cannabinoid agonist reduces the electrical activity of bladder afferents under normal conditions. However, the effects of local activation of bladder cannabinoid receptors on afferent activity during inflammation are unknown. This study was aimed to assess the effects of intravesical administration of a cannabinoid agonist on the discharges of afferent fibers in inflamed bladders ex vivo. We also characterized the expression of CB1 receptors in the bladder and their localization and co-expression with TRPV1, a marker of nociceptive afferents. Results Compared to untreated animals, afferent fiber activity in inflamed bladders was increased for intravesical pressures between 10 and 40 mmHg. Local treatment with a non selective cannabinoid agonist (AZ12646915 significantly reduced the afferent activity at intravesical pressures above 20 mmHg. This effect was blocked by AM251 but not by AM630 (selective for CB1 and CB2 respectively. Finally, CB1 was co-expressed with TRPV1 in control and inflamed bladders. Conclusion These results demonstrate that sensitization of bladder afferents induced by inflammation is partly suppressed by intravesical activation of cannabinoid receptors, an effect that appears to be mediated by CB1 receptors. Also, TRPV1 positive fibers were found to co-express CB1, supporting the hypothesis of a direct action of the cannabinoid agonist on nociceptive afferents. Taken together, these results indicate a peripheral modulation by the cannabinoid system of bladder hypersensitivity during inflammation.

  20. Intraoperative radiotherapy in gynaecological and genito-urinary malignancies: focus on endometrial, cervical, renal, bladder and prostate cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krengli, Marco; Pisani, Carla; Deantonio, Letizia; Surico, Daniela; Volpe, Alessandro; Surico, Nicola; Terrone, Carlo

    2017-01-19

    Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) refers to the delivery of a single radiation dose to a limited volume of tissue during a surgical procedure. A literature review was performed to analyze the role of IORT in gynaecological and genito-urinary cancer including endometrial, cervical, renal, bladder and prostate cancers.Literature search was performed by Pubmed and Scopus, using the words "intraoperative radiotherapy/IORT", "gynaecological cancer", "uterine/endometrial cancer", "cervical/cervix cancer", "renal/kidney cancer", "bladder cancer" and "prostate cancer". Forty-seven articles were selected from the search databases, analyzed and briefly described.Literature data show that IORT has been used to optimize local control rate in genito-urinary tumours mainly in retrospective studies. The results suggest that IORT could be advantageous in the setting of locally advanced and recurrent disease although further prospective trials are needed to confirm this findings.

  1. Urinary bladder botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma with widespread metastases in an 8-month-old Labrador cross dog : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gerber

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available An 8-month-old crossbred Labrador retriever was presented with a history and clinical signs suggestive of lower urinary tract obstruction. Laboratory results revealed azotaemia and hyperphosphataemia. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the urinary tract showed a mass at the bladder trigone, hydronephrosis, hyrodureter, and suspected metastases to lymph nodes and the liver. Pulmonary metastasis was identified on thoracic radiographs. A post mortem confirmed metastases to the liver, lungs and regional lymph nodes, as well as to the mesenteric lymph nodes, mediastinum, heart, subcutaneous tissue and several muscle groups. A histopathological diagnosis of metastatic botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma (sarcoma botryoides was made. A review of the literature shows that, although the bladder trigone is a well documented location for this tumour, this case was unique with its widespread metastases to previously undocumented organs. The incidence, embryology, ultrasonographic appearance and treatment of this tumour are discussed.

  2. Molecular typing for detection of high-risk human papillomavirus is a useful tool for distinguishing primary bladder carcinoma from secondary involvement of uterine cervical carcinoma in the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Hua-Lin; Lai, Chiung-Ru; Ho, Hsiang-Ling; Pan, Chin-Chen

    2016-03-01

    For patients with carcinoma of the urinary bladder and uterine cervix, distinguishing between metastasis and a second primary carcinoma has significant prognostic and therapeutic implications. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) in cervical carcinoma with secondary involvement of the bladder and primary bladder carcinoma, in order to explore whether the detection of HR-HPV could help to differentiate between the two. Paired bladder and cervix carcinoma specimens from 37 patients with cervical carcinoma with bladder involvement, four patients with bladder carcinoma with uterine cervical involvement and two patients with double primaries were studied with quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction and chromogenic in-situ hybridization. Three hundred and seventy-five bladder carcinomas and 220 cervical carcinomas were analysed as controls. All cases of cervical carcinoma with bladder involvement showed concordant HR-HPV-positive patterns. The four cases of bladder carcinoma with uterine involvement were negative for HR-HPV. HR-HPV was detected in the cervical carcinoma but not in the bladder carcinoma of the patients with double primaries. HR-HPV was detected in 91.9% of cervical carcinomas but in none of the bladder carcinomas in the control group. Molecular typing for HR-HPV detection is useful to distinguish bladder carcinoma from secondary involvement of cervical carcinoma. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Urinary bladder blood flow. I. Comparison of clearance of locally injected 99mtechnetium pertechnate and radioactive microsphere technique in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøyer, Kristian; Bülow, J; Nielsen, S L

    1990-01-01

    The blood flow of the dog urinary bladder measured by radioactive microsphere technique was compared to the clearance of locally injected 99mTechnetium pertechnate (99mTc) in the bladder wall. In semilogarithmic plots the 99mTc washout curves showed a multiexponential course. From the initial...... slopes (median 5.7 min) the bladder blood flow was calculated to be only 30-62% of the results obtained from the radioactive microsphere technique (blood flow in the muscular layer 21.7-44.8 ml/100 g/min). These lower values imply that the rate of removal of the hydrophilic tracer 99mTc at these flow...... blood flow....

  4. Stereological estimates of nuclear volume in the prognostic evaluation of primary flat carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Jacobsen, F

    1991-01-01

    Primary, flat carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder is rare and its behaviour is unpredictable. The aim of this retrospective study was to obtain base-line data and investigate the prognostic value of unbiased, stereological estimates of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume, nuclear vv, in 78...... bladder biopsies from 22 patients with primary flat carcinoma in situ (Bergkvist grades III-IV). On average, nuclear vv was 77 microns 3 in nine biopsies with morphologically normal urothelium, 292 microns 3 in 56 isolated primary lesions and 266 microns 3 in lesions of luminal urothelium in 13 biopsies......, quantitative information, but their prognostic value in patients with primary flat carcinoma in situ of the bladder needs further clarification in larger data bases....

  5. Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the urinary bladder: A case report and review of systemic treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M Pantelides

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC of the urinary bladder is a rare variant, which can occur in a pure form or in conjunction with transitional cell carcinoma. Owing to the scarcity of reported cases, the optimum treatment is yet to be defined, although the benefits of chemotherapy are increasingly recognised. We present a case of a 64-year-old man with pure LELC, treated with trans-urethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT and primary gemcitabine and platinum-based chemotherapy. He remained free of disease at six-month follow-up cystoscopy. The case adds to the growing evidence for the efficacy of chemotherapy, coupled with TUR, as part of a bladder-preserving treatment option for LELC.

  6. Management of postoperative radiation injury of the urinary bladder by hyperbaric oxygen (HBO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peusch-Dreyer, D.; Dreyer, K.H. [Zentrum fuer Tauch- und Ueberdruckmedizin (ZETUeM), Bremen (Germany); Mueller, C.D. [Druckkammerzentrum Magdeburg (Germany); Carl, U. [Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Universitaet Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Aim: In many case reports the success of treatment of late complications of radiotherapy with hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) has been shown. This synopsis attempts to review HBO in the treatment of chronic radiation injury of the bladder. Patients and methods: Three female patients who had developed urge-incontinence after a Wertheim operation and combined brachy-teletherapy with cobalt-60 and afterloading and did not respond to various drug therapies, were treated with HBO to a maximum of 40 applications. Results: In all patients HBO haltered and inverted the dynamic process underlying chronic bladder changes after irradiation. Rationales for the HBO are the reduction of tissue hypoxia and the induction of neoangiogenesis. Conclusions: There are no prospective trials up to date showing the benefit of HBO to urinary disorders caused by radiation cystitis. The positive results of our retrospective study should encourage clinicians to initiate prospective studies with the use of HBO in the treatment of radiation cystitis. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Ueber die erfolgreiche Anwendung der hyperbaren Sauerstofftherapie (HBO) zur Behandlung von Strahlenspaetkomplikationen ist in zahlreichen Publikationen berichtet worden. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, den Einsatz der HBO bei der Behandlung von Miktionsbeschwerden bei chronisch radiogenen Harnblasenschaeden zu bewerten. Patienten und Methode: Drei Patientinnen, die nach einer kombinierten Brachyteletherapie mit Kobalt 60 und Afterloading nach Wertheim-Operation unter einer medikamentoes nicht zu beeinflussenden Urge-Inkontinenz litten, wurden der HBO mit maximal 40 Behandlungen zugefuehrt. Ergebnisse: Die HBO war bei allen Patientinnen in der Lage, den dynamischen Krankheitsprozess der Strahlenzystitis aufzuhalten und teilweise umzukehren. Grundlage hierfuer ist die Beseitigung der Gewebshypoxie. Dieses wiederum stellt die Voraussetzung fuer eine Neovaskularisation im bestrahlten Gewebe dar. Schlussfolgerung: Prospektive Studien

  7. Effects of sodium ascorbate, sodium saccharin and ammonium chloride on the male rat urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S M; Garland, E M; Cano, M; St John, M K; Khachab, M; Wehner, J M; Arnold, L L

    1995-11-01

    Sodium saccharin administered at high doses to male rats beginning after 5 weeks of age produces mild urothelial hyperplasia but does not result in a significant increase in incidence of bladder cancer unless it is administered after an initiating agent. However, if it is administered in a two-generation bioassay, a significant incidence of bladder tumors is produced. The hyperplastic and tumorigenic effects are inhibited by co-administration with high doses of NH4Cl. The present experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of another sodium salt, sodium ascorbate, administered through the neonatal time period. Sodium saccharin administered as 5% of the diet produced urothelial hyperplasia and increased labeling index, and this was inhibited by co-administration with 1.23% NH4Cl. Four doses of sodium ascorbate was evaluated. The lowest dose, 0.91%, was without effect on the urinary tract. A slight effect (not statistically significant) was observed at a dose of 2.73%, and a significant proliferative response was detected at 4.56 and 6.84%. Recent studies suggest that a calcium phosphate-containing amorphous precipitate forms in the urine of rats fed high doses of sodium saccharin, producing cytotoxicity of the urothelium and consequent regenerative hyperplasia. This precipitate was observed in the present experiment in the rats administered the high dose of sodium saccharin or the higher doses of sodium ascorbate. Formation of this precipitate and induction of urothelial proliferation were inhibited by co-administration of NH4Cl, but somewhat higher doses of ammonium chloride were required for doses of sodium ascorbate compared to sodium saccharin. These results demonstrate that sodium ascorbate administered through the neonatal time period of the male rat produces urothelial hyperplasia in the dose responsive manner, with a no-effect level of 0.91% of the diet. The formation of the calcium phosphate-containing amorphous precipitate and urothelial proliferation

  8. Lipocalin 2 Imparts Selective Pressure on Bacterial Growth in the Bladder and Is Elevated in Women with Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigedal, Magnus; Marstad, Anne; Haug, Markus; Damås, Jan K.; Strong, Roland K.; Roberts, Pacita L.; Himpsl, Stephanie D.; Stapleton, Ann; Hooton, Thomas M.; Mobley, Harry L. T.; Hawn, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    Competition for iron is a critical component of successful bacterial infections, but the underlying in vivo mechanisms are poorly understood. We have previously demonstrated that lipocalin 2 (LCN2) is an innate immunity protein that binds to bacterial siderophores and starves them for iron, thus representing a novel host defense mechanism to infection. In the present study we show that LCN2 is secreted by the urinary tract mucosa and protects against urinary tract infection (UTI). We found that LCN2 was expressed in the bladder, ureters, and kidneys of mice subject to UTI. LCN2 was protective with higher bacterial numbers retrieved from bladders of Lcn2-deficient mice than from wild-type mice infected with the LCN2-sensitive Escherichia coli strain H9049. Uropathogenic E. coli mutants in siderophore receptors for salmochelin, aerobactin, or yersiniabactin displayed reduced fitness in wild-type mice, but not in mice deficient of LCN2, demonstrating that LCN2 imparts a selective pressure on bacterial growth in the bladder. In a human cohort of women with recurrent E. coli UTIs, urine LCN2 levels were associated with UTI episodes and with levels of bacteriuria. The number of siderophore systems was associated with increasing bacteriuria during cystitis. Our data demonstrate that LCN2 is secreted by the urinary tract mucosa in response to uropathogenic E. coli challenge and acts in innate immune defenses as a colonization barrier that pathogens must overcome to establish infection. PMID:25398327

  9. Giant inguinoscrotal hernia containing intestinal segments and urinary bladder successfully repaired by simple hernioplasty technique: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarchouli, Mohamed; Ratbi, Moulay-Brahim; Bouzroud, Mohamed; Aitidir, Badr; Ait-Ali, Abdelmounaim; Bounaim, Ahmed; Sair, Khalid

    2015-11-28

    Giant inguinoscrotal hernias are extremely rare nowadays, but they may still be encountered after years or even decades of neglect. Such hernias containing both bowel loops and urinary bladder have not been reported in the medical literature to date, to the best of our knowledge. We report a case of a 65-year-old Moroccan man who presented with giant right-sided and long-standing inguinoscrotal hernia with compromised quality of life due to walking difficulties and sexual discomfort. Computed tomography revealed a voluminous hernia sac containing small and large bowel loops, greater omentum, and urinary bladder. Surgical repair was done through the classical inguinal incision using the Lichtenstein tension-free hernioplasty technique. No debulking or abdominal enlargement procedure had to be performed, apart from a partial omentectomy. Giant inguinoscrotal hernia containing intestinal segments and urinary bladder is a challenging surgical disease. A Lichtenstein tension-free technique seems to be the best surgical procedure for both the patient and the operating surgeon. It should be used whenever possible in such cases.

  10. Wild Cane Toads (Rhinella marina) Expel Foreign Matter from the Coelom via the Urinary Bladder in Response to Internal Injury, Endoparasites and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Crystal Kelehear; Hugh I. Jones; Wood, Benjamin A.; Richard Shine

    2015-01-01

    Dissections of >1,200 wild-caught cane toads (Rhinella marina) in tropical Australia confirm a laboratory report that anurans can expel foreign objects from the coelom by incorporating them into the urinary bladder. The foreign objects that we found inside bladders included a diverse array of items (e.g., grass seeds, twigs, insect prey, parasites), many of which may have entered the coelom via rupture of the gut wall. In some cases, the urinary bladder was fused to other organs including liv...

  11. Cystocele (Prolapsed Bladder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bladder Control Problems in Women (Urinary Incontinence) Kegel Exercises Cystocele (Prolapsed Bladder) Cystocele (Prolapsed Bladder) What ... a vaginal pessary, or surgery. Pelvic floor, or Kegel, exercises involve strengthening pelvic floor muscles. Strong pelvic ...

  12. Clinical Experiences of Korean Medicine Treatment against Urinary Bladder Cancer in General Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeyeol Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary bladder cancer (UBC is one of the most common cancers, with 1 out of every 26 men and 1 out of every 80 women worldwide developing the disease during their lifetime. Moreover, it is a disease that predominantly affects the elderly and is becoming a major health problem as the elderly population continues to rapidly increase. In spite of the rapid development of medical science, the 5-year survival rate has remained around 75% since the 1990s, and the FDA has approved no new drugs for UBC over the last 10 years. In addition, most patients experience frequent recurrence and poor quality of life after diagnosis. Therefore, in order to solve unmet needs by alternative methods, we present our clinical cases of UBC where we observed outstanding results including regression and recurrence prevention exclusively through Traditional Korean Medicine such as (1 herbal therapy, (2 acupuncture, (3 pharmacopuncture and needle-embedding therapy, (4 moxibustion, and (5 cupping therapy. From our experience, it appears that multimodal strategies for synergistic efficiency are more effective than single Korean Medicine treatment. We hope this will encourage investigation of the efficacy of Korean Medicine treatment in clinical trials for UBC patients.

  13. A Novel Strain of Porcine Adenovirus Detected in Urinary Bladder Urothelial Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Dragin Jerman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of cell cultures is the most common problem encountered in cell culture laboratories. Besides the secondary cell contaminations often occurring in the cell laboratories, the contaminations originating from donor animal or human tissue are equally as common, but usually harder to recognize and as such require special attention. The present study describes the detection of porcine adenovirus (PAdV, strain PAdV-SVN1 in cultures of normal porcine urothelial (NPU cells isolated from urinary bladders of domestic pigs. NPU cell cultures were evaluated by light microscopy (LM, polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and additionally assessed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Characteristic ultrastructure of virions revealed the infection with adenovirus. The adenoviral contamination was further identified by the sequence analysis, which showed the highest similarity to recently described PAdV strain PAdV-WI. Additionally, the cell ultrastructural analysis confirmed the life-cycle characteristic for adenoviruses. To closely mimic the in vivo situation, the majority of research on in vitro models uses cell cultures isolated from human or animal tissue and their subsequent passages. Since the donor tissue could be a potential source of contamination, the microbiological screening of the excised tissue and harvested cell cultures is highly recommended.

  14. Wound repair in rat urinary bladder following electrocautery or holmium laser incision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venzi, Giordano; Schmidlin, Franz R.; Gabbiani, Giulio; Delacretaz, Guy P.; Pittet, Brigitte; Leisinger, Hans-Juerg; Iselin, Christoph E.

    1999-06-01

    Woundhealing is a complex phenomenon which varies according the type of tissue but is also depending from the type of tissue injury. Electrocautery mainly induces coagulation necrosis while thermal damages induced by the Holmium laser primarily lead to tissue vaporization which may induce less tissue injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the healing process of the Holmium laser induced lesions compared to electrocautery induced lesions in urothelial tissue by assessing the inflammatory response and myofibroblast behavior in sequential healing phases. A surgical wound was created in the urinary rat bladder of 32 rats either by electrocautery or by laser (N=16). The inflammatory response, the total lesion depth and the myofibroblast activity during woundhealing was then analyzed on a qualitative basis on days 0/2/4/8. The overall inflammatory response was comparable in both groups up to days two and four. However, at day eight less cellular inflammatory reaction and less myofibroblast activity was found in the specimen of lesions created by the Holmium laser. These results suggest that wound repair may be a less invasive process after Holmium laser than electrocautery.

  15. A Real-Time Non-invasive Auto-bioluminescent Urinary Bladder Cancer Xenograft Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Bincy Anu; Xu, Tingting; Ripp, Steven; Wang, Hwa-Chain Robert

    2017-02-01

    The study was to develop an auto-bioluminescent urinary bladder cancer (UBC) xenograft animal model for pre-clinical research. The study used a humanized, bacteria-originated lux reporter system consisting of six (luxCDABEfrp) genes to express components required for producing bioluminescent signals in human UBC J82, J82-Ras, and SW780 cells without exogenous substrates. Immune-deficient nude mice were inoculated with Lux-expressing UBC cells to develop auto-bioluminescent xenograft tumors that were monitored by imaging and physical examination. Lux-expressing auto-bioluminescent J82-Lux, J82-Ras-Lux, and SW780-Lux cell lines were established. Xenograft tumors derived from tumorigenic Lux-expressing auto-bioluminescent J82-Ras-Lux cells allowed a serial, non-invasive, real-time monitoring by imaging of tumor development prior to the presence of palpable tumors in animals. Using Lux-expressing auto-bioluminescent tumorigenic cells enabled us to monitor the entire course of xenograft tumor development through tumor cell implantation, adaptation, and growth to visible/palpable tumors in animals.

  16. A sequence variant at 4p16.3 confers susceptibility to urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Sulem, Patrick; Besenbacher, Soren; Vermeulen, Sita H; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Stacey, Simon N; Gudmundsson, Julius; Zanon, Carlo; Kostic, Jelena; Masson, Gisli; Bjarnason, Hjordis; Palsson, Stefan T; Skarphedinsson, Oskar B; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A; Witjes, J Alfred; Grotenhuis, Anne J; Verhaegh, Gerald W; Bishop, D Timothy; Sak, Sei Chung; Choudhury, Ananya; Elliott, Faye; Barrett, Jennifer H; Hurst, Carolyn D; de Verdier, Petra J; Ryk, Charlotta; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Vineis, Paolo; Polidoro, Silvia; Guarrera, Simonetta; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Campagna, Marcello; Placidi, Donatella; Arici, Cecilia; Zeegers, Maurice P; Kellen, Eliane; Gutierrez, Berta Saez; Sanz-Velez, José I; Sanchez-Zalabardo, Manuel; Valdivia, Gabriel; Garcia-Prats, Maria D; Hengstler, Jan G; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Dietrich, Holger; Ophoff, Roel A; van den Berg, Leonard H; Alexiusdottir, Kristin; Kristjansson, Kristleifur; Geirsson, Gudmundur; Nikulasson, Sigfus; Petursdottir, Vigdis; Kong, Augustine; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir; Mungan, N Aydin; Lindblom, Annika; van Es, Michael A; Porru, Stefano; Buntinx, Frank; Golka, Klaus; Mayordomo, José I; Kumar, Rajiv; Matullo, Giuseppe; Steineck, Gunnar; Kiltie, Anne E; Aben, Katja K H; Jonsson, Eirikur; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Knowles, Margaret A; Rafnar, Thorunn; Stefansson, Kari

    2010-05-01

    Previously, we reported germline DNA variants associated with risk of urinary bladder cancer (UBC) in Dutch and Icelandic subjects. Here we expanded the Icelandic sample set and tested the top 20 markers from the combined analysis in several European case-control sample sets, with a total of 4,739 cases and 45,549 controls. The T allele of rs798766 on 4p16.3 was found to associate with UBC (odds ratio = 1.24, P = 9.9 x 10(-12)). rs798766 is located in an intron of TACC3, 70 kb from FGFR3, which often harbors activating somatic mutations in low-grade, noninvasive UBC. Notably, rs798766[T] shows stronger association with low-grade and low-stage UBC than with more aggressive forms of the disease and is associated with higher risk of recurrence in low-grade stage Ta tumors. The frequency of rs798766[T] is higher in Ta tumors that carry an activating mutation in FGFR3 than in Ta tumors with wild-type FGFR3. Our results show a link between germline variants, somatic mutations of FGFR3 and risk of UBC.

  17. Rat Urinary Bladder Carcinogenesis by Dual-Acting PPARα+γ Agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin B. Oleksiewicz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite clinical promise, dual-acting activators of PPARα and γ (here termed PPARα+γ agonists have experienced high attrition rates in preclinical and early clinical development, due to toxicity. In some cases, discontinuation was due to carcinogenic effect in the rat urothelium, the epithelial layer lining the urinary bladder, ureters, and kidney pelvis. Chronic pharmacological activation of PPARα is invariably associated with cancer in rats and mice. Chronic pharmacological activation of PPARγ can in some cases also cause cancer in rats and mice. Urothelial cells coexpress PPARα as well as PPARγ, making it plausible that the urothelial carcinogenicity of PPARα+γ agonists may be caused by receptor-mediated effects (exaggerated pharmacology. Based on previously published mode of action data for the PPARα+γ agonist ragaglitazar, and the available literature about the role of PPARα and γ in rodent carcinogenesis, we propose a mode of action hypothesis for the carcinogenic effect of PPARα+γ agonists in the rat urothelium, which combines receptor-mediated and off-target cytotoxic effects. The proposed mode of action hypothesis is being explored in our laboratories, towards understanding the human relevance of the rat cancer findings, and developing rapid in vitro or short-term in vivo screening approaches to faciliate development of new dual-acting PPAR agonist compounds.

  18. Hybrid nanofibrous scaffolds from electrospinning of a synthetic biodegradable elastomer and urinary bladder matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankus, John J.; Freytes, Donald O.; Badylak, Stephen F.; Wagner, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic materials can be electrospun into submicron or nanofibrous scaffolds to mimic extracellular matrix (ECM) scale and architecture with reproducible composition and adaptable mechanical properties. However, these materials lack the bioactivity present in natural ECM. ECM-derived scaffolds contain bioactive molecules that exert in vivo mimicking effects as applied for soft tissue engineering, yet do not possess the same flexibility in mechanical property control as some synthetics. The objective of the present study was to combine the controllable properties of a synthetic, biodegradable elastomer with the inherent bioactivity of an ECM derived scaffold. A hybrid electrospun scaffold composed of a biodegradable poly(ester-urethane)urea (PEUU) and a porcine ECM scaffold (urinary bladder matrix, UBM) was fabricated and characterized for its bioactive and physical properties both in vitro and in vivo. Increasing amounts of PEUU led to linear increases in both tensile strength and breaking strain while UBM incorporation led to increased in vitro smooth muscle cell adhesion and proliferation and in vitro mass loss. Subcutaneous implantation of the hybrid scaffolds resulted in increased scaffold degradation and a large cellular infiltrate when compared with electrospun PEUU alone. Electrospun UBM/PEUU combined the attractive bioactivity and mechanical features of its individual components to result in scaffolds with considerable potential for soft tissue engineering applications. PMID:18419942

  19. Identification of a novel human deoxynivalenol metabolite enhancing proliferation of intestinal and urinary bladder cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warth, Benedikt; Del Favero, Giorgia; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Puntscher, Hannes; Woelflingseder, Lydia; Fruhmann, Philipp; Sarkanj, Bojan; Krska, Rudolf; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Adam, Gerhard; Marko, Doris

    2016-09-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is an abundant contaminant of cereal based food and a severe issue for global food safety. We report the discovery of DON-3-sulfate as a novel human metabolite and potential new biomarker of DON exposure. The conjugate was detectable in 70% of urine samples obtained from pregnant women in Croatia. For the measurement of urinary metabolites, a highly sensitive and selective LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated. The method was also used to investigate samples from a duplicate diet survey for studying the toxicokinetics of DON-3-sulfate. To get a preliminary insight into the biological relevance of the newly discovered DON-sulfates, in vitroexperiments were performed. In contrast to DON, sulfate conjugates lacked potency to suppress protein translation. However, surprisingly we found that DON-sulfates enhanced proliferation of human HT-29 colon carcinoma cells, primary human colon epithelial cells (HCEC-1CT) and, to some extent, also T24 bladder cancer cells. A proliferative stimulus, especially in tumorigenic cells raises concern on the potential impact of DON-sulfates on consumer health. Thus, a further characterization of their toxicological relevance should be of high priority.

  20. Clinical Experiences of Korean Medicine Treatment against Urinary Bladder Cancer in General Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Taeyeol; Lee, Sanghun

    2016-01-01

    Urinary bladder cancer (UBC) is one of the most common cancers, with 1 out of every 26 men and 1 out of every 80 women worldwide developing the disease during their lifetime. Moreover, it is a disease that predominantly affects the elderly and is becoming a major health problem as the elderly population continues to rapidly increase. In spite of the rapid development of medical science, the 5-year survival rate has remained around 75% since the 1990s, and the FDA has approved no new drugs for UBC over the last 10 years. In addition, most patients experience frequent recurrence and poor quality of life after diagnosis. Therefore, in order to solve unmet needs by alternative methods, we present our clinical cases of UBC where we observed outstanding results including regression and recurrence prevention exclusively through Traditional Korean Medicine such as (1) herbal therapy, (2) acupuncture, (3) pharmacopuncture and needle-embedding therapy, (4) moxibustion, and (5) cupping therapy. From our experience, it appears that multimodal strategies for synergistic efficiency are more effective than single Korean Medicine treatment. We hope this will encourage investigation of the efficacy of Korean Medicine treatment in clinical trials for UBC patients. PMID:27190532

  1. Inhibition of vascular smooth muscle inward-rectifier K(+) channels restores myogenic tone in mouse urinary bladder arterioles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tykocki, Nathan R; Bonev, Adrian D; Longden, Thomas A; Heppner, Thomas J; Nelson, Mark T

    2017-05-01

    Prolonged decreases in urinary bladder blood flow are linked to overactive and underactive bladder pathologies. However, the mechanisms regulating bladder vascular reactivity are largely unknown. To investigate these mechanisms, we examined myogenic and vasoactive properties of mouse bladder feed arterioles (BFAs). Unlike similar-sized arterioles from other vascular beds, BFAs failed to constrict in response to increases in intraluminal pressure (5-80 mmHg). Consistent with this lack of myogenic tone, arteriolar smooth muscle cell membrane potential was hyperpolarized (-72.8 ± 1.4 mV) at 20 mmHg and unaffected by increasing pressure to 80 mmHg (-74.3 ± 2.2 mV). In contrast, BFAs constricted to the thromboxane analog U-46619 (100 nM), the adrenergic agonist phenylephrine (10 µM), and KCl (60 mM). Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase or intermediate- and small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels did not alter arteriolar diameter, indicating that the dilated state of BFAs is not attributable to overactive endothelium-dependent dilatory influences. Myocytes isolated from BFAs exhibited BaCl2 (100 µM)-sensitive K(+) currents consistent with strong inward-rectifier K(+) (KIR) channels. Notably, block of these KIR channels "restored" pressure-induced constriction and membrane depolarization. This suggests that these channels, in part, account for hyperpolarization and associated absence of tone in BFAs. Furthermore, smooth muscle-specific knockout of KIR2.1 caused significant myogenic tone to develop at physiological pressures. This suggests that 1) the regulation of vascular tone in the bladder is independent of pressure, insofar as pressure-induced depolarizing conductances cannot overcome KIR2.1-mediated hyperpolarization; and 2) maintenance of bladder blood flow during bladder filling is likely controlled by neurohumoral influences. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Stress proteins and cytokines are urinary biomarkers for diagnosis and staging of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margel, David; Pevsner-Fischer, Meirav; Pesvner-Fischer, Meirav; Baniel, Jack; Yossepowitch, Ofer; Cohen, Irun R

    2011-01-01

    Cancer often involves inflammatory processes. We hypothesized that immune mediators in urine may serve as biomarkers for bladder cancer (BCa). To investigate whether BCa might be marked by urinary levels of heat shock proteins (HSPs; HSP60, HSP70, or HSP90) or cytokines (interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, tumor growth factor [TGF]-β, interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, or IL-13). This was a case-control study with a discovery and validation phase. We examined urine from 106 consecutive patients: healthy controls (n=18); hematuria with no evidence of BCa (n=20); non-muscle-invasive BCa (n=50); and muscle-invasive BCa (n=18). The concentrations of HSPs and cytokines were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the validation phase, independent urine samples from 40 patients were analyzed (controls [n=19] and BCa [n=21]). We used the area under the curve (AUC) of a receiver operating characteristic analysis to determine the ability of HSPs and cytokines to mark BCa and applied a multivariate logistic regression to create a formula able to diagnose BCa. The formula was applied to the validation set without recalculation, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. Urinary concentrations of IL-8, IL-10, and IL-13 were significantly elevated in BCa; IL-13 was the most prominent marker (AUC: 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85-0.99). The multivariate regression analysis highlighted HSP60 (odds ratio [OR]: 1.206; 95% CI, 1.041-1.397, p=0.003) and IL-13 (OR: 1.020; 95% CI: 1.007-1.033, p=0.012). The validation assay was performed using HSP60 and IL-13. The overall positive predictive value was 74% (95% CI, 64-84%); and the negative predictive value was 76% (95% CI, 66-86%). Since we examined a small number of patients, the results need to be confirmed in a larger cohort. These results suggest that it might be possible to develop a urinary biomarker for BCa and raise the possibility that expression of

  3. Late Effects on the Urinary Bladder in Patients Treated for Cancer in Childhood: A Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Michael; Ferrer, Fernando; Shearer, Patricia; Spunt, Sheri L.

    2010-01-01

    Childhood cancer survivors who have had pelvic or central nervous system surgery or have received alkylator-containing chemotherapy or pelvic radiotherapy as part of their cancer therapy may experience urinary bladder late effects. This article reviews the medical literature on long-term bladder complications in survivors of childhood cancer and outlines the Children’s Oncology Group Long Term Followup (COG LTFU) Guidelines related to bladder function. An overview of the treatment of bladder late effects and recommended counseling for survivors with these complications are presented. PMID:18985721

  4. Urinary bladder irritation alters efficacy of vagal stimulation on rostral medullary neurons in chronic T8 spinalized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddumi, Ezidin G; Hubscher, Charles H

    2007-07-01

    The presence of pelvic visceral inputs to neurons in the rostral medulla that are responsive to electrical stimulation of the abdominal branches of the vagus nerve (VAG-abd) was investigated in a complete chronic T8 spinal transection rat model. Using extracellular electrophysiological recordings from single medullary reticular formation (MRF) neurons, 371 neurons in 15 rats responsive to pinching the ear (search stimulus) were tested for somato-visceral and viscero-visceral convergent responses to stimulation of the following nerves/territories: VAG-abd, dorsal nerve of the penis, pelvic nerve, distention of urinary bladder and colon, penile stimulation, urethral infusion, and touch/pinch of the entire body surface. In addition to these mechanical and electrical stimuli, a chemical stimulus applied to the bladder was assessed as well. Of the total neurons examined, 205 were tested before and 166 tested beginning 20 min after application of a chemical irritant (2% acetic acid) to the urinary bladder (same rats used pre/post irritation). As with intact controls, many ear-responsive MRF neurons responded to the electrical stimulation of VAG-abd. Although MRF neuron responses failed to be evoked with direct (mechanical and electrical nerve) pelvic visceral stimuli, acute chemical irritation of the urinary bladder produced a significant increase in the number of MRF neurons responsive to stimulation of VAG-abd. The results of this study indicate a central effect that potentially relates to some of the generalized below level pelvic visceral sensations that have been documented in patients with complete spinal cord injury.

  5. Rhythmic Calcium Events in the Lamina Propria Network of the Urinary Bladder of Rat Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Heppner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The lamina propria contains a dense network of cells, including interstitial cells (ICs, that may play a role in bladder function by modulating communication between urothelium, nerve fibers and smooth muscle or acting as pacemakers. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4 channels allow cation influx and may be involved in sensing stretch or chemical irritation in urinary bladder. Urothelium was removed from rats (P0-Adult, cut into strips, and loaded with a Ca2+ fluorescent dye (Fluo-2 AM leak resistant or Cal 520 for 90 min (35–37°C to measure Ca2+ events. Ca2+ events were recorded for a period of 60 seconds (s in control and after drug treatment. A heterogeneous network of cells was identified at the interface of the urothelium and lamina propria of postnatal rat pups, aged ≤ postnatal (P day 21, with diverse morphology (round, fusiform, stellate with numerous projections and expressing platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα- and TRPV4-immunoreactivity (IR. Ca2+ transients occurred at a slow frequency with an average interval of 30 ± 8.6 s. Waveform analyses of Ca2+ transients in cells in the lamina propria network revealed long duration Ca2+ events with slow upstrokes. We observed slow propagating waves of activity in the lamina propria network that displayed varying degrees of coupling. Application of the TRPV4 agonist, GSK1016790 (100 nM, increased the duration of Ca2+ events, the number of cells with Ca2+ events and the integrated Ca2+ activity corresponding to propagation of activity among cells in the lamina propria network. However, GSK2193874 (1 μM, a potent antagonist of TRPV4 channels, was without effect. ATP (1 μM perfusion increased the number of cells in the lamina propria exhibiting Ca2+ events and produced tightly coupled network activity. These findings indicate that ATP and TRPV4 can activate cells in the laminar propria network, leading to the appearance of organized propagating wavefronts.

  6. Is benign prostatic obstruction surgery indicated for improving overactive bladder symptoms in men with lower urinary tract symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornu, Jean-Nicolas; Grise, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men are highly prevalent, and include both storage and voiding symptoms in many cases. The effect of benign prostatic obstruction (BPO) relief on storage symptoms remains unclear. The present review summarizes data about the relation between overactive bladder (OAB), voiding symptoms, and urodynamic characteristics in men with LUTS. Pathomechanisms of OAB in a context of BPO are reviewed. Rates of persistent bladder dysfunction after BPO relief are described along with predictive factors of persisting OAB. OAB is a common clinical feature in a population of male LUTS, often concomitant with voiding symptoms. Although detrusor overactivity is found in some patients with OAB and BPO, there is no absolute correspondence between clinical symptoms and urodynamic findings. In the context of BPO, OAB pathophysiology implicates nitric oxide pathway, bladder ischemia, ageing of the urinary tract, and calcium-activated potassium channels activity. BPO relief can be followed in the medium term by persistence of OAB symptoms, and preoperative detrusor overactivity has been identified as the main predictive factor. However, preoperative urodynamics remain only indicated in specific cases, when it could directly influence clinical decision-making. Antimuscarinics may be the treatment of choice for persistent symptoms after surgery, but there is no firm recommendation in this clinical setting.

  7. Bovine Papillomavirus Type 2 Infection and Microscopic Patterns of Urothelial Tumors of the Urinary Bladder in Water Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Maiolino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic patterns of thirty-four urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder of water buffaloes from the Marmara and Black Sea Regions of Turkey are here described. All the animals grazed on lands rich in bracken fern. Histological diagnosis was assessed using morphological parameters recently suggested for the urinary bladder tumors of cattle. Papillary carcinoma was the most common neoplastic lesion (22/34 observed in this study, and low-grade carcinoma was more common (seventeen cases than high-grade carcinoma (five cases. Papilloma, papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP, and invasive carcinomas were less frequently seen. Carcinoma in situ (CIS was often detected associated with some papillary and invasive carcinomas. De novo (primary CIS was rare representing 3% of tumors of this series. A peculiar feature of the most urothelial tumors was the presence in the tumor stroma of immune cells anatomically organized in tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs. Bovine papillomavirus type-2 (PV-2 E5 oncoprotein was detected by molecular and immunohistochemistry procedures. Early protein, E2, and late protein, L1, were also detected by immunohistochemical studies. Morphological and molecular findings show that BPV-2 infection contributes to the development of urothelial bladder carcinogenesis also in water buffaloes.

  8. IDENTIFICATION AND THE RELATIONSHIP OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF SPONTANEOUS ACTIVITY IN THE RAT URINARY TRACT: URETER, URINARY BLADDER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazaryan, K V; Simonyan, L G; Chibukhchyan, R G

    2015-04-01

    Simultaneous recording of spontaneous electrical activity was conducted from the ending areas of the ureter (the zone bordered with pyeloureteral anastomosis and bladder, respectively), as well as of the proximal part of the bladder. Normally the activity of the distal ureter zone is a propagating from the perirenal area action potentials with increased amplitude (100 microV). In these conditions from the bladder were recorded action potentials with relatively lower values of amplitude and frequency rhythm (31.9 microV and 17 min(-1), respectively). Isolation of investigating ureter areas from each other and from the bladder leads to the emergence of spike activity in the peribladder area different from that in norm: in the background of oscillating waves arises the action potential. Isolation of the ureter from the bladder also affects the nature of the initial activity. Of all analyzed parameters of activity change (decrease) only the amplitude and the frequency of action potentials reaching respectively 24.5 microV and 14.2 min(-1). The results indicate the presence of different types of autonomous spontaneous activity in the extreme zones of the ureter and bladder. The adjustment of these activity parameters in the areas can be provided by their relationship with each other.

  9. Time course of late rectal- and urinary bladder side effects after MRI-guided adaptive brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georg, P.; Georg, D.; Poetter, R.; Doerr, W. [Medical University Vienna/ AKH Wien (Austria). Dept. of Radiooncology; Medical University Vienna (Austria). Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology; Medical University Vienna/ AKH Wien (Austria). Comprehensive Cancer Centre; Boni, A.; Ghabuous, A. [Medical University Vienna/ AKH Wien (Austria). Dept. of Radiooncology; Goldner, G.; Schmid, M.P. [Medical University Vienna/ AKH Wien (Austria). Dept. of Radiooncology; Medical University Vienna/ AKH Wien (Austria). Comprehensive Cancer Centre

    2013-07-15

    Background and purpose: To analyze the time course of late rectal- and urinary bladder complications after brachytherapy for cervical cancer and to compare the incidence- and prevalence rates thereof. Patients and methods: A total of 225 patients were treated with external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided brachytherapy with or without chemotherapy. Late side effects were assessed prospectively using the Late Effects in Normal Tissue - Subjective, Objective, Management and Analytic (LENT/SOMA) scale. The parameters analyzed were time to onset, duration, actuarial incidence- (occurrence of new side effects during a defined time period) and prevalence rates (side effects existing at a defined time point). Results: Median follow-up was 44 months. Side effects (grade 1-4) in rectum and bladder were present in 31 and 49 patients, 14 and 27 months (mean time to onset) after treatment, respectively. All rectal and 76 % of bladder side effects occurred within 3 years after radiotherapy. Mean duration of rectal events was 19 months; 81 % resolved within 3 years of their initial diagnosis. Mean duration of bladder side effects was 20 months; 61 % resolved within 3 years. The 3- and 5-year actuarial complication rates were 16 and 19 % in rectum and 18 and 28 % in bladder, respectively. The corresponding prevalence rates were 9 and 2 % (rectum) and 18 and 21 % (bladder), respectively. Conclusion: Late side effects after cervical cancer radiotherapy are partially reversible, but their time course is organ-dependent. The combined presentation of incidence- and prevalence rates provides the most comprehensive information. (orig.)

  10. Significance of overexpression of metallothionein in mouse urinary bladder focal lesions induced by treatment with N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, Makoto; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Morimura, Keiichirou; Doi, Ken'ichiro; Wei, Min; Wada, Seiji; Nakatani, Tatsuya; Fukushima, Shoji

    2003-12-01

    Metallothionein (MT) is expressed in various types of human tumors, including transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder, but its biological significance remains unclear. In the present study, the role of MT in urinary bladder carcinogenesis induced by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) treatment was investigated using C57BL/6 mice. One hundred 5-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups, which were given drinking water with or without 0.05% BBN throughout the experimental period. Subgroups of ten animals from each group were sacrificed at weeks 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25, and urinary bladder samples were examined immunohistochemically for MT, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and apoptosis. MT was found to be abundant in normal-looking mucosa, but decreased with progression from precancerous lesions to invasive carcinoma in the urinary bladder obtained from BBN-treated mice. Lesions could be divided into MT-positive and negative. There was a tendency for greater MT expression in PCNA-positive lesions, while apoptosis was rather associated with MT-negativity. These data suggest that the overexpression of MT may play a role in mouse urinary bladder carcinogenesis.

  11. Transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder with metastasis in lumbar vertebrae and spinal cord compression in an ocelot(Leopardus pardalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Y.R. Nakagaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a case of nonpapillary and infiltrative transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the urinary bladder with metastasis of lumbar vertebrae and spinal cord compression in an adult female ocelot (Leopardus pardalis, from the Mato Grosso state, Brazil. The ocelot had pelvic limb paralysis and skin ulcers in the posterior region of the body and was submitted to euthanasia procedure. At necropsy was observed a multilobulated and irregular shaped, yellowish to white nodule in the urinary bladder. The nodule had a soft consistency and arised from the mucosa of the urinary bladder extending throughout the muscular layers and the serosa. Nodules of similar appearance infiltrating the vertebral column the at L6 and L7 vertebrae with corresponding spinal canal invasion were also observed. The histological evaluation showed epithelial neoplastic proliferation in the urinary bladder with characteristics of nonpapillary and infiltrative TCC, with positive immunohistochemical staining for pancytokeratin, and strong immunostaining for cytokeratin of low molecular weight, and weak or absent labeling for high molecular weight cytokeratin. This is the first report of TCC of urinary bladder in ocelot in Brazil.

  12. Cyclophosphamide-induced Down-Regulation of Uroplakin II in the Mouse Urinary Bladder Epithelium is Prevented by S-Allyl Cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Sayed Aliul Hasan; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Raisuddin, Sheikh

    2016-12-01

    The alkylating anticancer drug, cyclophosphamide (CP), induces a number of toxic effects including haemorrhagic cystitis (HC) in the urinary bladder. Uroplakins are unique urinary transmembrane proteins of urothelium, which may become potential targets of CP metabolites and reactive free radicals. Natural compounds, especially those rich in thiols, have shown protective effects against CP-induced HC. In this study, we studied the modulatory effect of the thiol-rich compound S-allyl cysteine (SAC) on the mRNA level of uroplakin II by real-time polymerase chain reaction and expression of uroplakin II protein by immunoblotting. SAC (150 mg/kg) showed significant (p bladder. When compared with mercaptoethane sulphonic acid (mesna) (40 mg/kg), a known thiol-rich drug used in clinical application, SAC was found to be more efficacious in affording protection in urinary bladder tissues. Role of uroplakins in CP-induced urinary bladder toxicity has not been well investigated. This study demonstrated that uroplakins may be the potential target of toxic metabolites of CP and natural compounds such as SAC have the capacity to modulate their expression leading to reduced toxicity burden on the urinary bladder epithelium. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  13. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the urinary bladder as a post-radiation secondary cancer: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimmanon Thirayost

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Malignant fibrous histiocytomas have been periodically reported as the primary tumor in various organs including the urinary bladder, and is the second most frequent sarcoma of the urinary tract in adults. This report discusses a case of the well established diagnosis of a malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the bladder occurring as a post-radiation cancer after the treatment of a cervical carcinoma. Our findings support those of many previous studies and make the view of the nature of the disease clearer. Case presentation We report the case of a 54-year-old Thai woman who had been treated with radiation therapy for cervical cancer, who presented to our facility with urinary incontinence. Initially, our patient was diagnosed as having a high-grade urothelial carcinoma. Subsequent radical surgery rendered the final pathological diagnosis, confirmed histologically and immunohistochemically as malignant fibrous histiocytoma, with clinical and pathological staging of T4b N0 M0. Adjuvant chemotherapy was provided for our patient. Conclusions This type of malignancy is very aggressive and easily misdiagnosed due to its rarity. Therefore, in a patient with a prior history of irradiation in the pelvic area, this should be considered as a differential diagnosis to ensure early correct diagnosis and treatment.

  14. Functional and structural changes of the urinary bladder following spinal cord injury; treatment with alpha lipoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiz, Arif; Özdemir-Kumral, Zarife Nigâr; Erşahin, Mehmet; Tuğtepe, Halil; Öğünç, Ayliz Velioğlu; Akakın, Dilek; Kıran, Demir; Özsavcı, Derya; Biber, Necat; Hakan, Tayfun; Yeğen, Berrak Ç; Şener, Göksel; Toklu, Hale Z

    2017-04-01

    Alpha lipoic acid (LA) was shown to exert neuroprotection in trauma-induced spinal cord injury (SCI), which is frequently associated with urinary bladder complaints in patients with SCI. Accordingly, the protective effects of LA on biochemical and histological changes in bladder as well as functional studies were assessed. Wistar albino rats were divided as control, SCI, and LA (50 mg/kg/day, ip) treated SCI groups (SCI+LA). The standard weight-drop (100 g/cm force at T10) method was used to induce a moderately severe SCI. One week after the injury, neurological examination was performed and the rats were decapitated. Bladder samples were taken for histological examination, functional (isolated tissue bath) studies, and for the measurement of biochemical parameters (malondialdehyde, MDA; gluthathione, GSH; nerve growth factor, NGF; caspase-3, luminol and lucigenin chemiluminescences). SCI caused a significant (P bladder tonus via its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions following SCI. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The Diagnostic Significance of Serum Alcohol Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity in Urinary Bladder Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orywal, Karolina; Jelski, Wojciech; Werel, Tadeusz; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a potential role of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase as tumor markers for urinary bladder cancer. Serum samples were obtained from 41 patients with bladder cancer and 52 healthy individuals. Class III and IV of ADH and total ADH activity were measured by the photometric method. For measurement of class I and II ADH and ALDH activity, the fluorometric method was employed. Significantly higher total activity of ADH was found in sera of both, low-grade and high-grade bladder cancer patients. The diagnostic sensitivity for total ADH activity was 81.5%, specificity 98.1%, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were 97.4% and 92.3% respectively. Area under ROC curve for total ADH activity was 0.848. A potential role of total ADH activity as a marker for bladder cancer, is herein proposed. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  16. The voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.9 is required for inflammation-based urinary bladder dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Amy M; Martin, William J; Thorneloe, Kevin S

    2009-03-06

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant sodium channels are found in small diameter primary sensory neurons and are thought to be important in the maintenance of inflammatory pain. Here we examined bladder urodynamics of Nav1.9 voltage-gated sodium channel knock out (KO) mice, and the contribution of Nav1.9 to the development of inflammation-based bladder dysfunction. Basal urodynamics were not different between wildtype (WT) mice and those lacking Nav1.9. Peripheral nerve recordings from pelvic afferents in Nav1.9 KO mice revealed a lack of sensitization to intravesicularly applied prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Consistent with this, cyclophosphamide treatment in vivo, which is associated with an enhancement of PGE2 production, evoked a reduction in bladder capacity of WT, but not Nav1.9 KO mice. We conclude that the Nav1.9 sodium channel provides an important link between inflammatory processes and changes in urodynamic properties that occur during urinary bladder inflammation.

  17. Transurethral resection versus open bladder cuff excision in patients undergoing nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract carcinoma: Operative and oncological results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkoulis, Charalampos; Pappas, Athanasios; Papadopoulos, Georgios I; Stathouros, Georgios; Fragkoulis, Aristodimos; Ntoumas, Konstantinos

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the impact of distal ureter management on oncological results after open nephroureterectomy (ONU) comparing transurethral resection of the intramural ureter to conventional open excision, as controversy still exists about the method of choice for managing the distal ureter and bladder cuff during ONU. We retrospectively collected data from 378 patients who underwent ONU for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (UUT-TCC) from 1988 to 2009. Patients were divided into two subgroups according to the type of operation performed. Group A comprised 192 patients who had ONU with open resection of the bladder cuff from 1988 to 1997. Group B comprised 186 patients in whom transurethral resection of the intramural ureter plus single incision ONU was performed between 1998 and 2009. The mean operative time, hospital stay, duration of catheterisation, bladder recurrence rates, and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were assessed. The total operative time was statistically significantly less in the endoscopic group (Group B). For catheterisation, patients treated with an open approach (Group A) had a statistically significantly shorter duration of postoperative catheterisation. There was no statistical difference between Groups A and B for the bladder recurrence rate (Group A 24% vs 27% in Group B, P = 0.51). There was no difference in CSS at the 5-year follow-up. ONU with transurethral resection of the intramural ureter up to the extravesical fat followed by ureter extraction is an oncologically safe and technically feasible operation.

  18. Molecular Characterization of Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder and Upper Urinary Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yun Lee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: A better understanding of the molecular basis of urothelial carcinoma (UC is needed to refine the clinical decision-making process. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We performed next-generation sequencing to investigate the mutational and transcriptional profiles of commonly mutated genes in UC using Ampliseq v2. Copy number variations (CNVs were detected with nCounter assay. Genetic alterations between upper tract UC (UTUC and urinary bladder UC (UBUC were compared. RESULTS: Tumor samples from 31 UTUC and 61 UBUC patients were included in analysis. The two groups showed similar clinicopathologic features including tumor grade and stage. Median survival was longer in UTUC than UBUC patients, though this was statistically nonsignificant (59 vs 41 months, P = .137. In total, we found 982 genetic alterations from 92 samples: single nucleotide variants were the most common type of somatic mutation (479/508, 94.3%. Frequently detected somatic mutations included TP53 (68.5%, KDR (41.3%, and PIK3CA (17.4%. Notably, RB1 mutations were the only mutations significantly different between the UBUC and UTUC groups (19.7% vs. 0%, P = .020. The most common types of CNVs included amplifications (56/62, 90.3%: 17.7% of patients identified amplifications in NOTCH1. We also identified five translocations in the entire study population, including one case with FGFR3-TACC3 (Chr4 fusion. CONCLUSION: Within a small study population, we identified similar genetic alterations in both UTUC and UBUC patients, indicating a basis for similar management strategies.

  19. Impact of daily number of urgency urinary incontinence episodes on overactive bladder patient reported outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, J C; Brenes, F J; Lizarraga, I; Rejas, J; Trillo, S; Ochayta, D; Arumi, D

    2016-04-01

    To explore the impact of urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) on well-being in non-institutionalized patients with overactive bladder (OAB) in a community sample. A cross-sectional web-based study was conducted in the general population, including males and females, >18 years of age. Patients with probable OAB were identified using a validated algorithm together with a score ≥8 on the OAB-V8 scale. Presence of coping behavior was considered determinant for the clinical diagnosis of OAB. Individual well-being was determined through a battery of patient-reported outcomes (PRO) measurements including assessment of health-related quality of life (EQ-5D), sleep disturbances (MOS Sleep), and life satisfaction (LISAT-8). Patients were grouped according to the number of daily UUI episodes (UUI severity): 0 (dry OAB),1, 2-3, or ≥4. Multivariate analysis to evaluate factors independently affecting quality of life was undertaken. A total of 396 patients (52.5% women, mean age: 55.3 [11.1] years, OAB-V8 mean score: 14.5 [7.9]) out of 2035 subjects participating from the general population met the criteria for OAB: 203 (51.3%) with 0episodes, 119 (30.1%) with 1, 52 (13.1%) with 2 or 3, and 22 (5.6%) with ≥4 episodes. A statistically significant linear adjusted association was found between number of UUI episodes and PRO scores. Participants with more episodes had poorer health profiles and self-evaluated quality of life, worse life satisfaction, and more sleep disturbances and fewer hours of sleep per night. Number of incontinence episodes was independent factor to affect quality of life using both LISAT-8 and MOS questionnaires. Severity of UUI was significantly associated with poorer individual well-being in subjects with OAB in a community sample in Spain. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Active and passive Na+ fluxes across the basolateral membrane of rabbit urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, D C; Frace, A M; Silverthorn, S U

    1982-01-01

    The apical membrane of rabbit urinary bladder can be functionally removed by application of nystatin at high concentration if the mucosal surface of the tissue is bathed in a saline which mimics intracellular ion concentrations. Under these conditions, the tissue is as far as the movement of univalent ions no more than a sheet of basolateral membrane with some tight junctional membrane in parallel. In this manner the Na+ concentration at the inner surface of the basolateral membrane can be varied by altering the concentration in the mucosal bulk solution. When this was done both mucosal-to-serosal 22Na flux and net change in basolateral current were measured. The flux and the current could be further divided into the components of each that were either blocked by ouabain or insensitive to ouabain. Ouabain-insensitive mucosal-to-serosal Na+ flux was a linear function of mucosal Na+ concentration. Ouabain-sensitive Na+ flux and ouabain-sensitive, Na+-induced current both display a saturating relationship which cannot be accounted for by the presence of unstirred layers. If the interaction of Na+ with the basolateral transport process is assumed to involve the interaction of some number of Na+ ions, n, with a maximal flux, MMAX, then the data can be fit by assuming 3.2 equivalent sites for interaction and a value for MMAX of 287.8 pM cm-2 sec-1 with an intracellular Na concentration of 2.0 mM Na+ at half-maximal saturation. By comparing these values with the ouabain-sensitive, Na+-induced current, we calculate a Na+ to K+ coupling ratio of 1.40 +/- 0.07 for the transport process.

  1. Controlling urinary tract infections associated with intermittent bladder catheterization in geriatric hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, R; Gaujard, S; Pergay, V; Pornon, P; Martin Gaujard, G; Vieux, C; Bourguignon, L

    2015-07-01

    Controlling urinary tract infections (UTIs) associated with intermittent catheterization in geriatric patients. After a local epidemiological study identified high rates of UTI, a multi-disciplinary working group implemented and evaluated corrective measures. In 2009, a one-month prospective study measured the incidence of UTI, controlled for risk factors and exposure, in six geriatric hospitals. In 2010, a self-administered questionnaire on practices was administered to physicians and nurses working in these geriatric units. In 2011, the working group developed a multi-modal programme to: improve understanding of micturition, measurement of bladder volume and indications for catheter drainage; limit available medical devices; and improve prescription and traceability procedures. Detailed training was provided to all personnel on all sites. The epidemiological study was repeated in 2012 to assess the impact of the programme. Over 1500 patients were included in the 2009 study. The incidence of acquired infection was 4.8%. The infection rate was higher in patients with intermittent catheters than in patients with indwelling catheters (29.7 vs 9.9 UTI per 100 patients, P = 0.1013) which contradicts the literature. In 2010, the 269 responses to the questionnaire showed that staff did not consider catheterization to place patients at risk of infection, staff had poor knowledge of the recommended indications and techniques, and the equipment varied widely between units. Following implementation of the programme, the study was repeated in 2012 with over 1500 patients. The frequency of UTI in patients with intermittent catheters fell to rates in the published literature. Multi-modal programmes are an effective means to control UTI. Copyright © 2015 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Epidemiology and impact of urinary incontinence, overactive bladder, and other lower urinary tract symptoms: results of the EPIC survey in Russia, Czech Republic, and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Mikhail Iosifovich; Zachoval, Roman; Ozyurt, Ceyhun; Schäfer, Thomas; Christensen, Nicola

    2014-10-01

    To estimate the prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI), overactive bladder (OAB), and other lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in the Czech Republic, Russia, and Turkey. Stage one of this population-based survey consisted of computer-assisted telephone interviews to obtain prevalence estimates of storage, voiding, and post-micturition LUTS. Stage two face-to-face interviews evaluated subjects with mixed urinary incontinence (MUI), stress urinary incontinence (SUI) or OAB (case group) and a control group (subjects with other incontinence or LUTS complaints, or no symptoms). Prevalence of LUTS categories were determined for each country based on International Continence Society (ICS) criteria. A total of 3130 individuals agreed to participate in the survey, which found high rates of LUTS (men 80%; women 84%) and OAB (men 18%; women 28%). Duration of urinary symptoms was relatively brief (approximately 60% ≤ 3 years) and was associated with relatively modest effects on quality of life and work performance in the majority of individuals. Forty percent had consulted with a healthcare provider about their urinary symptoms, of whom 37% had consulted with a physician and 34% with an urologist, and 12% had been treated with a prescription medication. Drug therapy, while uncommon, was associated with a high degree of self-reported improvement (96%). Because of between-country population differences, aggregate results may not always be representative of results for each of the three countries individually. Study limitations include reliance on patient self-report, and potential bias introduced by patients who declined to participate in the survey. The results of this epidemiologic survey found high rates of LUTS and OAB, but low levels of medical consultation and very low use of medication treatment, despite high levels of improvement when medications were used.

  3. In vivo fluorescence imaging of an orthotopic rat bladder tumor model indicates differential uptake of intravesically instilled near-infrared labeled 2-deoxyglucose analog by neoplastic urinary bladder tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Daqing; Davis, Carole A.; Hurst, Robert E.; Slaton, Joel W.

    2017-02-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most expensive cancers to manage due to frequent recurrences requiring life-long surveillance and treatment. A near-infrared labeled 2-deoxy-d-glucose probe IRDye800CW-DG targeting glucose metabolism pathway has shown to enhance the sensitivity of diagnosing several types of cancers as tested on tumor models not including bladder tumor. This pilot study has explored differential uptake of intravesically administered IRDye800CW-DG in an orthotopic rat bladder tumor model. Twenty-five female Fischer rats were randomly grouped to four conditions: no-tumor-control (n=3), no-tumor-control intravesically instilled with IRDye800CWDG (n=6), rats bearing GFP-labeled AY-27 rat bladder urothelial cell carcinoma cells and washed with saline (n=5), and rats bearing AY-27 tumors and intravesically instilled with IRDye800CW-DG (n=11). Near-infrared fluorescence was measured from the opened bladder wall of anesthetized rat at an excitation wavelength of 750nm and an emission wavelength of 776nm, by using an in-house fluorescence imaging system. There is no statistically significant difference of the peak fluorescence intensity among the no-tumor-control bladders (n=3), the no-tumorcontrol bladders instilled with IRDye800CW-DG (n=6), and the GFP-labeled AY-27 treated bladders washed by saline (n=5). When compared to that of the no-tumor-control bladders instilled with IRDye800CW-DG (n=6), the fluorescence intensity of GFP-labeled AY-27 treated bladders instilled with IRDye800CW-DG and with histology confirmed neoplastic bladder tissue (n=11) was remarkably more intense (3.34 fold of over the former) and was also statistically significant (purinary bladder tissues suggests the potential for cystoscopy-adaptation to enhance diagnosis and guiding surgical management of flat urinary bladder cancer.

  4. Management of urinary tract infection with intravesical amikacin may increase the risk of bladder oxidative stress in children with neurogenic bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amasyali, Akin Soner; Yilmaz, Dilek; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Kucukdurmaz, Faruk; Sonmez, Ferah; Erol, Haluk

    2017-12-01

    We evaluated the bladder oxidative stress in neurogenic bladder children treated with intravesical amikacin for recurrent UTI and whether urinary isoprostane f2 alpha (F2-IsoP) is a good biomarker in this particular condition. This prospectively designed controlled study was approved by the Adnan Menderes University institutional ethics committee (Adnan Menderes University, 2015/649). Between January 2016 and January 2017, twenty-six children with meningomyelocele who had been doing CIC were recruited. Serum and urine samples were collected during urinary tract infection (UTI) (group 1) and after management of UTI with intravesical amikacin (group 2) besides standard oral antibiotic treatment. While oxidative stress parameters SOD, GSH, GPX, MDA, F2-IsoP and NO were analyzed in the serum samples, only F2-IsoP was analyzed in the urine. All data were compared with 23 normal healthy control children (group 3). Median age, CIC duration and number of CIC per day of patients' group were 84 (60-147) months, 60 (30-90) months and 4 (4-6), respectively. Male-to-female ratio was 1:16. There was no statistical difference between groups in terms of serum oxidative stress parameters (p > 0.05). However, statistically significant urine F2-IsoP changes exist between groups (p = 0.011) (Fig. 1). But there were no correlations between urine F2-IsoP and disease clinical data such as CIC duration or number of CIC per day. Serum glutathione levels in group 2 were higher than group 1 and 3, as well (p = 0.023, Kruskal-Wallis test). Fig. 1 Comparison of median urinary isoprostane f2 alpha levels CONCLUSION: Higher urine F2-IsoP levels after management of UTI with intravesical amikacin may reflect increased lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in children with NB. This detrimental effect on bladder should be considered in the long-term treatment period.

  5. Different distribution of c-kit positive interstitial cells of Cajal-like in children’s urinary bladders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Danilewicz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the presence of c-kit positive interstitial cells of Cajal-like (ICCs-like in the walls of the urinary bladders of children. An immunohistochemical study of specimens, obtained at autopsy from either the trigonum (Group A or the corpus (Group B, was performed using antibodies against c-kit (CD 117. Histological morphometry of the immunoexpression of c-kit positive ICCs-like was performed by means of image analysis system. The c-kit positive ICCs-like were identified by their morphology and counted in the vesical muscle layer in ten adjacent high power fields, each of 0.0479 mm2. The areas of the epithelial and subepithelial layers containing c-kit positive mast cells (rounded body with no dendritic processes were neglected. The results were expressed as the number of ICCs-like cells per mm2. Differences between groups were tested using unpaired Student’s t-test preceded by evaluation of normality and Levene’s test. Results were considered statistically significant if p < 0.05. In Group A, the mean number of ICCs-like cells was statistically significantly higher (41.5 cells/mm2 than in Group B (30.4 cells/mm2, p < 0.05. ICCs-like cells were found within the smooth muscle layer of the urinary bladder. There was a different distribution of these cells in particular parts of the bladder, which was probably due to the different roles of the trigonum and the corpus in the bladders of children. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 431–435

  6. Thymidylate synthase inhibition induces p53-dependent and p53-independent apoptotic responses in human urinary bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stravopodis, Dimitrios J; Karkoulis, Panagiotis K; Konstantakou, Eumorphia G; Melachroinou, Sophia; Thanasopoulou, Angeliki; Aravantinos, Gerasimos; Margaritis, Lukas H; Anastasiadou, Ema; Voutsinas, Gerassimos E

    2011-02-01

    In search for more effective clinical protocols, the antimetabolite drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) has been successfully included in new regimens of bladder cancer combination chemotherapy. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of 5-FU treatment on apoptosis induction in wild-type and mutant p53 urinary bladder cancer cells. We have used MTT-based assays, FACS analysis, Western blotting and semi-quantitative RT-PCR in RT4 and RT112 (grade I, wild-type p53), as well as in T24 (grade III, mutant p53) and TCCSUP (grade IV, mutant p53) human urinary bladder cancer cell lines. In the urothelial bladder cancer cell lines RT4 and T24, 5-FU-induced TS inhibition proved to be associated with cell type-dependent (a) sensitivity to the drug, (b) Caspase-mediated apoptosis, (c) p53 stabilization and activation, as well as Rb phosphorylation and E2F1 expression and (d) transcriptional regulation of p53 target genes and their cognate proteins, while an E2F-dependent transcriptional network did not seem to be critically engaged in such type of responses. We have shown that in the wild-type p53 context of RT4 cells, 5-FU-triggered apoptosis was prominently efficient and mainly regulated by p53-dependent mechanisms, whereas the mutant p53 environment of T24 cells was able to provide notable levels of resistance to apoptosis, basically ascribed to E2F-independent, and still unidentified, pathways. Nevertheless, the differential vulnerability of RT4 and T24 cells to 5-FU administration could also be associated with cell-type-specific transcriptional expression patterns of certain genes critically involved in 5-FU metabolism.

  7. Acacia Senegal gum exudate offers protection against cyclophosphamide-induced urinary bladder cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yahya, Abdulaziz A; Al-Majed, Abdulhakeem A; Gado, Ali M; Daba, Mohammad H; Al-Shabanah, Othman A; Abd-Allah, Adel R A

    2009-01-01

    Cylophosphamide (CYCL) is a strong anticancer and immunosuppressive agent but its urotoxicity presents one of the major toxic effects that limit its wide usage particularly in high dose regimens. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate Acacia Senegal gum exudate ,Gum Arabic (GA), for its possible role as a natural, nontoxic agent against CYCL-induced urotoxicity. Male Swiss albino rats were exposed to CYCL (150 mg/kg BW, once i.p) with or without GA oral supplementation (7.5 g/kg/day for 6 days) through drinking water. Glutathione (GSH), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Nitric oxide (NO) bladder contents were assessed. Responsiveness of the bladder rings to acetylcholine (ACh) in vitro, microscopic and macroscopic features are also investigated. CYCL produced pronounced harmful effects on bladder urothelial lining with significant increases in (MDA) and NO levels in the tissue homogenates. Bladder-GSH content is dropped by over 60% following CYCL injection. Bladder contractility, as measured by its responsiveness to ACh, recorded a marked reduction. The isolated bladders exhibited such macroscopic changes as severe edema, inflammation and extravasation. The bladder weight increased as well. Histological changes were evident in the form of severe congestion, petechial hemorrhage and chronic inflammatory reaction in the lamina propria accompanied with desquamated epithelia. GA, a potential protective agent, produced an almost complete reversal of NO induction, lipid peroxidation or cellular GSH bladder contents in the GA+CYCL-treated group. Likewise, bladder inflammation and edema were reduced. Bladder rings showed a remarkable recovery in their responsiveness to ACh. Bladder histological examination showed a near normal configuration and structural integrity, with a significant reduction in inflammation and disappearance of focal erosions. These remarkable effects of GA may be attributed to its ability to neutralize acrolein, the reactive metabolite of CYCL and/or the

  8. Solitary second metatarsal metastasis as the first site of distant spread in TCC urinary bladder: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Siddharth; Kumar, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis to the skeleton is uncommon in muscle-invasive carcinoma of the urinary bladder. When present, it most commonly involves the axial and proximal appendicular skeleton, and acrometastasis (metastasis to hand and foot) is very rare. We report a patient who developed a solitary metastatic lesion of the left metatarsal 2 weeks after radical cystectomy. The lack of suspicion and magnetic resonance imaging findings suggestive of inflammation led to a diagnosis of tubercular osteomyelitis and antitubercular therapy was started. The patient developed nodal metastasis and, because the foot lesion did not respond to treatment, fine needle aspiration cytology from it revealed poorly differentiated metastatic cancer.

  9. You are what you eat: the impact of diet on overactive bladder and lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Dudley; Giarenis, Ilias; Cardozo, Linda

    2014-09-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a clinical syndrome describing the symptom complex of urgency, with or without urgency incontinence and is usually associated with frequency and nocturia. The symptoms associated with OAB are common and whilst not life threatening are known to have a significant impact on the quality of life (QoL). There is increasing evidence that diet may have a significant role in the development of OAB symptoms. Whilst fluid in-take is known to affect lower urinary tract function the effects of caffeine, carbonated drinks and artificial sweeteners are less well understood. Consequently the aim of this paper is to review the evidence and investigate the effect of diet on lower urinary tract function and dysfunction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Oncogenic role of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 in tumorigenesis of urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandith, Arshad A; Shah, Zafar A; Siddiqi, Mushtaq A

    2013-05-01

    Bladder cancer is the second most common genitourinary tumor and constitutes a very heterogeneous disease. Molecular and pathologic studies suggest that low-grade noninvasive and high-grade invasive urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) arise via distinct pathways. Low-grade noninvasive UCC represent the majority of tumors at presentation. A high proportion of patients with low-grade UCC develop recurrences but usually with no progression to invasive disease. At presentation, a majority of the bladder tumors (70%-80%) are low-grade noninvasive (pTa). Several genetic changes may occur in bladder cancer, but activating mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) genes are the most common and most specific genetic abnormality in bladder cancer. Interestingly, these mutations are associated with bladder tumors of low stage and grade, which makes the FGFR3 mutation the first marker that can be used for diagnosis of noninvasive bladder tumors. Since the first report of FGFR3 involvement in bladder tumors, numerous studies have been conducted to understand its function and thereby confirm the oncogenic role of this receptor particularly in noninvasive groups. Efforts are on to exploit this receptor as a therapeutic target, which holds much promise in the treatment of bladder cancer, particularly low-grade noninvasive tumors. Further studies need to explore the potential use of FGFR3 mutations in bladder cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and in surveillance of patients with bladder cancer. This review focuses on the role of FGFR3 in bladder tumors in the backdrop of various studies published. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The therapeutic effects of R8-liposome-BCG-CWS on BBN-induced rat urinary bladder carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Jun; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Yano, Ikuya; Nakaya, Akihiro; Kohama, Hideyasu; Kawai, Koji; Joraku, Akira; Nakamura, Takashi; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Akaza, Hideyuki

    2011-06-01

    The present gold standard for bladder cancer is Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy, but serious side-effects are common. We previously reported that C3H/HeN mice vaccinated with a mixture of MBT-2 cells and artificial BCG, octaarginine-modified liposomes incorporating the cell wall of BCG (R8-liposome-BCG-CW), significantly inhibited growth of R8-liposome-BCG-CW pretreated MBT-2 cells. Our aim was to determine if a non-live bacterial agent could be as efficacious as live BCG in a model of bladder cancer. We investigated the suppressive effect of liposome-incorporating cell wall skeleton (BCG-CWS) on N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN)-induced urinary bladder carcinogenesis in rats. F344 rats were fed with BBN and sodium ascorbate for 8 weeks, after which all rats were confirmed to have excreted atypical epithelial cells in the urine. Rats were administered BCG-CW(1.0 mg/rat) or R8-liposome-BCG-CWS (0.1 or 1.0 mg/rat) intravesically once/week for 8 weeks from week 28 to 35 of the experimental protocol. Rats receiving R8-liposome-BCG-CWS intravesically showed significantly inhibited numbers of tumors, especially those of simple hyperplasia, in comparison with the control rats. R8-liposome-BCG-CWS administration had inhibitory effects on rat bladder carcinogenesis. These results may indicate a novel adoptive immunotherapy against bladder cancers.

  12. Effect of extracorporeal magnetic energy stimulation on bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms and quality of life in female patients with stress urinary incontinence and overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Tsia-Shu; Tseng, Ling-Hong; Lin, Yi-Hao; Liang, Ching-Chung; Lu, Ching-Yi; Pue, Leng Boi

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of extracorporeal magnetic stimulation (EMS) for the treatment of bothersome and severe symptoms of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) in female patients. A retrospective review was conducted on patients with SUI and OAB who were referred to EMS therapy. Successful treatment for the bothersome symptoms of OAB and SUI was defined as score ≤1 for questions 2 and 3 on the Urodynamic Distress Inventory-6. The objective cure of SUI and OAB was defined as no urinary leakage during the cough stress test and any urgency, urge incontinence and voiding frequency of less than eight times per 24 h based on the 3-day bladder diary, after the 9 weeks of treatment, respectively. Ninety-three patients with SUI or OAB underwent a 9-week course of EMS at 20 min twice weekly. Seventy-two (77%) patients completed EMS treatment. Geographical factor and poor economic status were two main factors for dropout. A total of 94.1% (32 of 34) and 86.8% (33 of 38) of subjects had successful treatment for the bothersome symptoms of OAB and SUI, respectively. In contrast, the cure rate for OAB and SUI was only 61.7% and 42.1%, respectively. There was also a significant improvement in both Urogenital Distress Inventory Short Form (bothersome on lower urinary tract symptoms) and the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire Short Form (quality of life) total score in both groups after EMS. EMS is a safe and effective alternative method for treating SUI and OAB. Further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term efficacy. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Interplay between bladder microbiota and urinary antimicrobial peptides: mechanisms for human urinary tract infection risk and symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienhouse, Vanessa; Gao, Xiang; Dong, Qunfeng; Nelson, David E; Toh, Evelyn; McKinley, Kathleen; Schreckenberger, Paul; Shibata, Noriko; Fok, Cynthia S; Mueller, Elizabeth R; Brubaker, Linda; Wolfe, Alan J; Radek, Katherine A

    2014-01-01

    Resident bacterial communities (microbiota) and host antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are both essential components of normal host innate immune responses that limit infection and pathogen induced inflammation. However, their interdependence has not been investigated in the context of urinary tract infection (UTI) susceptibility. Here, we explored the interrelationship between the urinary microbiota and host AMP responses as mechanisms for UTI risk. Using prospectively collected day of surgery (DOS) urine specimens from female pelvic floor surgery participants, we report that the relative abundance and/or frequency of specific urinary microbiota distinguished between participants who did or did not develop a post-operative UTI. Furthermore, UTI risk significantly correlated with both specific urinary microbiota and β-defensin AMP levels. Finally, urinary AMP hydrophobicity and protease activity were greater in participants who developed UTI, and correlated positively with both UTI risk and pelvic floor symptoms. These data demonstrate an interdependency between the urinary microbiota, AMP responses and symptoms, and identify a potential mechanism for UTI risk. Assessment of bacterial microbiota and host innate immune AMP responses in parallel may identify increased risk of UTI in certain populations.

  14. Interplay between bladder microbiota and urinary antimicrobial peptides: mechanisms for human urinary tract infection risk and symptom severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Nienhouse

    Full Text Available Resident bacterial communities (microbiota and host antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are both essential components of normal host innate immune responses that limit infection and pathogen induced inflammation. However, their interdependence has not been investigated in the context of urinary tract infection (UTI susceptibility. Here, we explored the interrelationship between the urinary microbiota and host AMP responses as mechanisms for UTI risk. Using prospectively collected day of surgery (DOS urine specimens from female pelvic floor surgery participants, we report that the relative abundance and/or frequency of specific urinary microbiota distinguished between participants who did or did not develop a post-operative UTI. Furthermore, UTI risk significantly correlated with both specific urinary microbiota and β-defensin AMP levels. Finally, urinary AMP hydrophobicity and protease activity were greater in participants who developed UTI, and correlated positively with both UTI risk and pelvic floor symptoms. These data demonstrate an interdependency between the urinary microbiota, AMP responses and symptoms, and identify a potential mechanism for UTI risk. Assessment of bacterial microbiota and host innate immune AMP responses in parallel may identify increased risk of UTI in certain populations.

  15. MMP-1 and Pro-MMP-10 as potential urinary pharmacodynamic biomarkers of FGFR3-targeted therapy in patients with bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiangnan; Lin, Benjamin C; Wang, Qian-Rena; Li, Hao; Ingalla, Ellen; Tien, Janet; Rooney, Isabelle; Ashkenazi, Avi; Penuel, Elicia; Qing, Jing

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to identify noninvasive pharmacodynamic biomarkers of FGFR3-targeted therapies in bladder cancer to facilitate the clinical development of experimental agent targeting FGFR3. Potential soluble pharmacodynamic biomarkers of FGFR3 were identified using a combination of transcriptional profiling and biochemical analyses in preclinical models. Two matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), MMP-1 and MMP-10, were selected for further studies in human bladder cancer xenograft models treated with a specific anti-FGFR3 monoclonal antibody, R3Mab. Serum and urinary levels of MMP-1 and MMP-10 were determined in healthy donors and patients with bladder cancer. The modulation of MMP-1 and MMP-10 by R3Mab in patients with bladder cancer was further evaluated in a phase I dose-escalation study. MMP-1 and MMP-10 mRNA and protein were downmodulated by FGFR3 shRNA and R3Mab in bladder cancer cell lines. FGFR3 signaling promoted the expression and secretion of MMP-1 and pro-MMP-10 in a MEK-dependent fashion. In bladder cancer xenograft models, R3Mab substantially blocked tumor progression and reduced the protein levels of human MMP-1 and pro-MMP-10 in tumor tissues as well as in mouse serum. Furthermore, both MMP-1 and pro-MMP-10 were elevated in the urine of patients with advanced bladder cancer. In a phase I dose-escalation trial, R3Mab administration resulted in an acute reduction of urinary MMP-1 and pro-MMP-10 levels in patients with bladder cancer. These findings reveal a critical role of FGFR3 in regulating MMP-1 and pro-MMP-10 expression and secretion, and identify urinary MMP-1 and pro-MMP-10 as potential pharmacodynamic biomarkers for R3Mab in patients with bladder cancer. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Effect of sirolimus on urinary bladder cancer T24 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Leite, Rosario; Botelho, Pedro; Ribeiro, Eufemia; Oliveira, Paula A; Santos, Lucios

    2009-01-07

    Sirolimus is recently reported to have antitumour effects on a large variety of cancers. The present study was performed to investigate sirolimus's ability to inhibit growth in T24 bladder cancer cells. T24 bladder cancer cells were treated with various concentrations of sirolimus. MTT assay was used to evaluate the proliferation inhibitory effect on T24 cell line. The viability of T24 cell line was determined by Trypan blue exclusion analysis. Sirolimus inhibits the growth of bladder carcinoma cells and decreases their viability. Significant correlations were found between cell proliferation and sirolimus concentration (r = 0.830; p T24 bladder carcinoma cell line. The information from our results is useful for a better understanding sirolimus's anti-proliferative activity in the T24 bladder cancer cell line.

  17. Effect of sirolimus on urinary bladder cancer T24 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Paula A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sirolimus is recently reported to have antitumour effects on a large variety of cancers. The present study was performed to investigate sirolimus's ability to inhibit growth in T24 bladder cancer cells. Methods T24 bladder cancer cells were treated with various concentrations of sirolimus. MTT assay was used to evaluate the proliferation inhibitory effect on T24 cell line. The viability of T24 cell line was determined by Trypan blue exclusion analysis. Results Sirolimus inhibits the growth of bladder carcinoma cells and decreases their viability. Significant correlations were found between cell proliferation and sirolimus concentration (r = 0.830; p Conclusion Sirolimus has an anti-proliferation effect on the T24 bladder carcinoma cell line. The information from our results is useful for a better understanding sirolimus's anti-proliferative activity in the T24 bladder cancer cell line.

  18. Risk of urinary bladder cancer: a case-control analysis of industry and occupation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xifeng

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncertainty remains about urinary bladder cancer (UBC risk for many occupations. Here, we investigate the association between occupation, industry and UBC. Methods Lifetime occupational history was collected by in-person interview for 604 newly diagnosed UBC patients and 604 cancer-free controls. Each job title was assigned a two-digit industry code and a three-digit occupation code. Odds ratios (ORs for UBC associated with ever being employed in an industry or occupation were calculated by unconditional logistic regression adjusting for age, gender and smoking status. We also examined UBC risk by duration of employment (>0 to Results Significantly increased risk of UBC was observed among waiters and bartenders (OR 2.87; 95% CI 1.05 to 7.72 and occupations related to medicine and health (OR 2.17; 95% CI 1.21 to 3.92, agricultural production, livestock and animal specialties (OR 1.90; 95% CI 1.03 to 3.49, electrical assembly, installation and repair (OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.07 to 2.65, communications (OR 1.74; 95% CI 1.00 to 3.01, and health services (OR 1.58; 95% CI 1.02 to 2.44. For these occupations we also observed a significant excess risk of UBC for long-term work (i.e. ≥10 years, with the exception of waiters and bartenders. Employment for 10 years or more was associated with increased risk of UBC in general farmers (OR 9.58; 95% CI 2.18 to 42.05, agricultural production of crops (OR 3.36; 95% CI 1.10 to 10.27, occupations related to bench working (OR 4.76; 95% CI 1.74 to 13.01, agricultural, fishery, forestry & related (OR 4.58; 95% CI 1.97 to 10.65, transportation equipment (OR 2.68; 95% CI 1.03 to 6.97, and structural work (OR 1.85; 95% CI 1.16 to 2.95. Conclusions This study provides evidence of increased risk of UBC for occupations that were previously reported as at-risk. Workers in several occupation and industry groups have a significantly higher risk of UBC, particularly when duration of employment is 10 years or

  19. A Novel Cellular Senescence Gene, SENEX, Is Involved in Peripheral Regulatory T Cells Accumulation in Aged Urinary Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianping; Wang, Huiping; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Li, Qing; Yan, Kaili; Tao, Qianshan; Ye, Qianling; Xiong, Shudao; Wang, Yiping; Zhai, Zhimin

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an essential role in sustaining self-tolerance and immune homeostasis. Despite many studies on the correlation between Tregs accumulation and age, or malignancies, the related mechanism hasn’t been well explored. To find out the mechanism of Tregs accumulation in aged urinary bladder cancer, we examined the novel cellular senesence gene SENEX and relevant apoptosis gene mRNA expression in sorted CD4+CD25hi Tregs from aged UBC donors, evaluated serum cytokine profiles related to tumor immunopathology, and further explored the relationship between SENEX expression, apoptosis gene expression and cytokine secretion. After having silenced down SENEX gene expression with RNA interference, we also evaluated the cellular apoptosis of Tregs sorted from aged UBC patients in response to H2O2-mediated stress. Our data indicated that upregulated SENEX mRNA expression in Tregs of aged UBC patients was correlated with pro-apoptotic gene expression and cytokine concentration. Silencing SENEX gene expression increased cellular apoptosis and pro-apoptotic gene expression of Tregs, in response to H2O2-mediated stress. Upregulated SENEX mRNA expression together with decreased pro-apoptotic gene expression and disturbances in cytokines synthesis may contribute to the Tregs proliferation and promote tumorigenesis and metastasis. Overall, upregulation of cellular senescence gene SENEX, was associated to regulatory T cells accumulation in aged urinary bladder cancer. Our study provides a new insight into understanding of peripheral Tregs accumulation in aged malignancies. PMID:24505313

  20. The Prognostic Role of NEDD9 and P38 Protein Expression Levels in Urinary Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola A. Harb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The most common malignant tumor of the urinary bladder is transitional cell carcinoma (TCC. Neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally downregulated protein 9 (NEDD9 is found to be a cell adhesion mediator. P38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase is a serine/threonine kinases member which can mediate carcinogenesis through intracellular signaling. Methods. To assess their prognostic role; NEDD9 and p38 protein were evaluated in sections from 50 paraffin blocks of TCC. Results. The high expressions of NEDD9 and p38 protein were significantly associated with grade, stage, distant metastasis (p<0.001, number of tumors, lymph node metastasis, and tumor size (p<0.001, 0.002; 0.018, <0.001; and 0.004, 0.007, respectively. High NEDD9 and p38 detection had a worse 3-year OS (p=0.041 and <0.001, respectively. By multivariate analysis the NEDD9 and p38 protein expression levels and various clinicopathological criteria including gender, grade, stage of the tumor, and regional lymph node involvement were independent prognostic parameters of TCC of the urinary bladder patients’ outcome. Conclusion. NEDD9 and p38 protein expressions were poor prognostic markers of TCC.

  1. Differences in expression of uroplakin III, cytokeratin 7, and cyclooxygenase-2 in canine proliferative urothelial lesions of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledge, D G; Patrick, D J; Fitzgerald, S D; Xie, Y; Kiupel, M

    2015-01-01

    The expression of immunohistochemical markers that have been used in diagnosis and/or prognostication of urothelial tumors in humans (uroplakin III [UPIII], cytokeratin 7 [CK7], cyclooxygenase-2 [COX-2], and activated caspase 3) was evaluated in a series of 99 canine proliferative urothelial lesions of the urinary bladder and compared to the lesion classification and grade as defined by the World Health Organization / International Society of Urologic Pathology consensus system. There were significant associations between tumor classification and overall UPIII pattern (P = 1.49 × 10(-18)), loss of UPIII (P = 1.27 × 10(-4)), overall CK7 pattern (P = 4.34 × 10(-18)), and COX-2 pattern (P = 8.12 × 10(-25)). In addition, there were significant associations between depth of neoplastic cell infiltration into the urinary bladder wall and overall UPIII pattern (P = 1.54 × 10(-14)), loss of UPIII (P = 2.07 × 10(-4)), overall CK7 pattern (P = 1.17 × 10(-13)), loss of CK7 expression (P = .0485), and COX-2 pattern (P = 8.23 × 10(-21)). There were no significant associations between tumor classification or infiltration and caspase 3 expression pattern. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Application of data mining techniques to explore predictors of upper urinary tract damage in patients with neurogenic bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, H; Lu, B; Wang, X; Zheng, L; Sun, K; Cai, W

    2017-08-17

    This study proposed a decision tree model to screen upper urinary tract damage (UUTD) for patients with neurogenic bladder (NGB). Thirty-four NGB patients with UUTD were recruited in the case group, while 78 without UUTD were included in the control group. A decision tree method, classification and regression tree (CART), was then applied to develop the model in which UUTD was used as a dependent variable and history of urinary tract infections, bladder management, conservative treatment, and urodynamic findings were used as independent variables. The urethra function factor was found to be the primary screening information of patients and treated as the root node of the tree; Pabd max (maximum abdominal pressure, >14 cmH2O), Pves max (maximum intravesical pressure, ≤89 cmH2O), and gender (female) were also variables associated with UUTD. The accuracy of the proposed model was 84.8%, and the area under curve was 0.901 (95%CI=0.844-0.958), suggesting that the decision tree model might provide a new and convenient way to screen UUTD for NGB patients in both undeveloped and developing areas.

  3. Urinary levels of Hepatocarcinoma-intestine-pancreas/Pancreatitis-associated protein as a diagnostic biomarker in patients with bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitta Yujiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the possibility of hepatocarcinoma-intestine-pancreas/pancreatitis-associated protein (HIP/PAP as a biological marker for detecting Bladder cancer (BCa, we examined the expression of HIP/PAP in both BCa specimens and BCa cell lines and measured HIP/PAP levels in urine from patients with BCa. Methods HIP/PAP expression in BCa samples was evaluated by western blot analysis, and urinary levels of HIP/PAP in patients with BCa were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Urine samples were collected from 10 healthy volunteers and 109 with benign urological disorders as controls, and from 101 patients who were diagnosed with BCa. Results HIP/PAP was highly expressed in BCa samples as compared with control bladder. Urinary HIP/PAP concentrations were significantly higher in BCa patients than in controls (median value; 3.184 pg/mL vs. 55.200 pg/mL, P U test. Urinary HIP/PAP levels in BCa patients correlated positively with pathological T stages and progression-risk groups among non-muscle invasive BCa (P = 0.0008, by Kruskal-Wallis test. Regarding the recurrence-risk classifications of non-muscle invasive BCa, the urinary levels of HIP/PAP were significantly higher in the intermediate than in the low risk group (P = 0.0002, by Mann–Whitney U test. Based on a cut-off of 8.5 pg/mL, the ability of urinary HIP/PAP levels to detect BCa had a sensitivity of 80.2%, specificity of 78.2%, positive predictive value (PPV of 75.7%, and negative predictive value (NPV of 82.3%. Conclusions HIP/PAP was abundantly expressed in BCa, and the urinary levels of HIP/PAP could be a novel and potent biomarker for detection of BCa, and also for predicting the risks of recurrence- and progression-risk of non-muscle invasive BCa. A large scale study will be needed to establish the usefulness of this biomarker.

  4. Modulation of nerve-evoked contractions by β3-adrenoceptor agonism in human and rat isolated urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouget, Céline; Rekik, Moèz; Camparo, Philippe; Botto, Henry; Rischmann, Pascal; Lluel, Philippe; Palea, Stefano; Westfall, Timothy D

    2014-02-01

    Activation of β3-adrenoceptors has been shown to have a direct relaxant effect on urinary bladder smooth muscle from both rats and humans, however there are very few studies investigating the effects of β3-adrenoceptor agonists on nerve-evoked bladder contractions. Therefore in the current study, the role of β3-adrenoceptors in modulating efferent neurotransmission was evaluated. The effects of β3-adrenoceptor agonism on neurogenic contractions induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS) were compared with effects on contractions induced by exogenous acetylcholine (Ach) and αβ-methylene adenosine triphosphate (αβ-meATP) in order to determine the site of action. Isoproterenol inhibited EFS-induced neurogenic contractions of human bladder (pD2=6.79; Emax=65%). The effect of isoproterenol was selectively inhibited by the β3-adrenoceptor antagonist L-748,337 (pKB=7.34). Contractions induced by exogenous Ach (0.5-1μM) were inhibited 25% by isoproterenol (3μM) while contractions to 10Hz in the same strip were inhibited 67%. The selective β3-adrenoceptor agonist CL-316,243 inhibited EFS-induced neurogenic contractions of rat bladder (pD2=7.83; Emax=65%). The effects of CL-316,243 were inhibited in a concentration dependent manner by L-748,337 (pA2=6.42). Contractions induced by exogenous Ach and αβ-meATP were significantly inhibited by CL-316,243, 29% and 40%, respectively. These results demonstrate that the activation of β3-adrenoceptors inhibits neurogenic contractions of both rat and human urinary bladder. Contractions induced by exogenously applied parasympathetic neurotransmitters are also inhibited by β3-agonism however the effect is clearly less than on neurogenic contractions (particularly in human), suggesting that in addition to a direct effect on smooth muscle, activation of prejunctional β3-adrenoceptors may inhibit neurotransmitter release. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Acacia Senegal Gum Exudate Offers Protection Against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Urinary Bladder Cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz A. Al-Yahya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cylophosphamide (CYCL is a strong anticancer and immunosuppressive agent but its urotoxicity presents one of the major toxic effects that limit its wide usage particularly in high dose regimens. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate Acacia Senegal gum exudate, Gum Arabic (GA, for its possible role as a natural, nontoxic agent against CYCL-induced urotoxicity. Male Swiss albino rats were exposed to CYCL (150 mg/kg BW, once i.p with or without GA oral supplementation (7.5 g/kg/day for 6 days through drinking water. Glutathione (GSH, Malondialdehyde (MDA and Nitric oxide (NO bladder contents were assessed. Responsiveness of the bladder rings to acetylcholine (ACh in vitro, microscopic and macroscopic features are also investigated. CYCL produced pronounced harmful effects on bladder urothelial lining with significant increases in (MDA and NO levels in the tissue homogenates. Bladder-GSH content is dropped by over 60% following CYCL injection. Bladder contractility, as measured by its responsiveness to ACh, recorded a marked reduction. The isolated bladders exhibited such macroscopic changes as severe edema, inflammation and extravasation. The bladder weight increased as well. Histological changes were evident in the form of severe congestion, petechial hemorrhage and chronic inflammatory reaction in the lamina propria accompanied with desquamated epithelia. GA, a potential protective agent, produced an almost complete reversal of NO induction, lipid peroxidation or cellular GSH bladder contents in the GA + CYCL-treated group. Likewise, bladder inflammation and edema were reduced. Bladder rings showed a remarkable recovery in their responsiveness to ACh. Bladder histological examination showed a near normal configuration and structural integrity, with a significant reduction in inflammation and disappearance of focal erosions. These remarkable effects of GA may be attributed to its ability to neutralize acrolein, the reactive metabolite of CYCL

  6. The impact of bladder neck sparing on urinary continence during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy; Results from a high volume centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Serdar Gozen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of bladder neck reconstruction techniques on early continence after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP. Materials and methods: This non-randomized retrospective study analyzed prospectively collected data concerning LRP. In total, 3107 patients underwent LRP between March 1999 and December 2016. Exclusion criteria were preoperative urinary incontinence, previous history of external beam radiotherapy, co-morbities which may affect urinary continence such as diabetes mellitus and/or neurogenic disorders, irregular followup, and follow-up shorter than 24 months. All patients were divided into one of three groups, posterior reconstruction being performed in Group 1 (n = 112, anterior reconstruction in Group 2 (n = 762, and bladder neck sparing (BNS in Group 3 (n = 987. Demographic and pre-, peri-, and postoperative data were collected. Multivariate analyses were performed to determine factors affecting early continence after LRP. Results: 1861 patients were enrolled in the study. The mean follow-up period was 48.12 ± 29.8 months, and subjects’ mean age was 63.6 ± 6.2 years. There was no significant difference among the groups in terms of demographic or preoperative data. Postoperative data, including oncological outcomes, were similar among the groups. The level of early continence was higher in Group 3 than in the other groups (p < 0.001. Multivariate analyses identified BNS and age as parameters significantly affecting early continence levels after LRP (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively. Bladder neck reconstruction provided less earlier continence than BNS.

  7. Accuracy of three-dimensional and two-dimensional ultrasonography for measurement of tumor volume in dogs with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, James F; Widmer, William R; Constable, Peter D; Knapp, Deborah W

    2012-12-01

    To determine the accuracy of 3-D and 2-D ultrasonography for quantification of tumor volume in dogs with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder. 10 dogs with biopsy-confirmed TCC. The urinary bladder of each dog was distended with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (5.0 mL/kg), and masses were measured via 3-D and 2-D ultrasonography. Masses were also measured via 3-D ultrasonography after bladders were distended with 2.5 and 1.0 mL of saline solution/kg. Subsequently, the bladder was deflated and distended with CO(2) (5.0 mL/kg); CT was performed after IV contrast medium administration. Tumor volumes were calculated via 3-D ultrasonography, 2-D ultrasonography, and CT (reference method) and compared via ANOVA, Deming regression, and Bland-Altman plots. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess effects of bladder distension on 3-D tumor volume measurements. Repeatability of measurements was estimated via the coefficient of variation for each method. Repeatability was considered good for all 3 methods. There was no significant difference in tumor volume measurements obtained via 3-D ultrasonography at different degrees of urinary bladder distension. Results of Deming regression and Bland-Altman plots indicated excellent agreement between tumor volume measurement with 3-D ultrasonography and CT, but not between 2-D ultrasonography and CT. Tumor volume in dogs with TCC of the urinary bladder was accurately measured via 3-D ultrasonography. Use of 3-D ultrasonography can provide a less expensive and more practical method for monitoring response to treatment than CT and was more accurate than 2-D ultrasonography.

  8. Urine carcinoembryonic antigen levels are more useful than serum levels for early detection of Bilharzial and non-Bilharzial urinary bladder carcinoma: Observations of 43 Egyptian cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwan Mohamed S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both urinary bilharziasis and urothelial neoplasia are associated with increased production of tissue carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA. Patients and methods Urine and serum CEA were determined in 43 patients with urinary bladder carcinoma including 22 post bilharzial and 21 nonbiharzial cases, in addition to 10 normal control cases. Results A significant increase was detected in both urine and serum CEA levels with bladder carcinoma compared to control cases. Urinary CEA was significantly elevated in 86% of bilharzial, versus 62% in nonbilharzial bladder carcinoma. Only 10.5% of control cases had urinary CEA elevation. The mean urinary CEA in bilharzial, was higher than that of nonbilharzial carcinoma, but the difference was not statistically significant. There was a definite relationship between urine CEA and the stage of malignancy; the higher the stage, the higher the level of urine CEA. No relationship could be detected between the stage of malignancy and serum CEA, or between the grades of malignancy and urine or serum CEA levels. Conclusion Urinary CEA is more useful than serum CEA in the early detection of urotherlial carcinoma particularly if provoked by bilharziasis. Its level is also correlated with the tumor stage.

  9. Lack of induction of epithelial cell proliferation by sodium saccharin and sodium L-ascorbate in the urinary bladder of NCI-black-Reiter (NBR) male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwagawa, S; Saito, K; Okuno, Y; Kawasaki, H; Yoshitake, A; Yamada, H; Fukushima, S

    1994-08-01

    The susceptibility to induction of epithelial cell proliferation by three urinary bladder cancer promoters was investigated in NCI-Black-Reiter (NBR) rats, which lack alpha 2u-globulin-synthesizing ability. Six-week-old male NBR and F344 rats were given 5% sodium saccharin (Na-Sac), 5% sodium L-ascorbate (Na-AsA), or 3% uracil in the basal diet for 8 weeks. Administration of uracil evoked a marked cell proliferation response and papillomatosis associated with calculus formation in NBR as well as F344 rats. This result indicates that NBR rats are also susceptible to direct mechanical stimulation. In contrast, both strains of rats given Na-Sac or Na-AsA demonstrated an alkalization of urinary pH and an increase in urinary Na ion concentration, but increase in cell proliferation in the urinary bladder transitional epithelium was only observed in F344 rats. Since previous studies revealed that elevation of urinary pH and Na ion concentration are essential factors for exertion of promotion activity by Na-Sac and Na-AsA, the results of the present investigation suggest that alpha 2u-globulin might also be a necessary component of the mechanisms of their promotion of male rat urinary bladder carcinogenesis.

  10. Increased oxidative stress with gene alteration in urinary bladder urothelium after the Chernobyl accident

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Romanenko, Alina; Morimura, Keiichirou; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Salim, Elsayed I; Kinoshita, Anna; Kaneko, Masahiro; Vozianov, Alexander; Fukushima, Shoji

    2000-01-01

    We have previously shown that bladder urothelium of people living in the cesium‐137 ( 137 Cs)–contaminated areas of Ukraine demonstrates accumulation of stable p53 and p53 mutational inactivation, preferentially...

  11. Identification of differentially expressed proteins during human urinary bladder cancer progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Ashfaque Ahmed; chang, Jong. w; Oh, Bong R.

    2005-01-01

    Comparative proteome analysis was performed between RT4 (grade-1) and T24 (grade-3) bladder cancer cell lines, in an attempt to identify differentially expressed proteins during bladder cancer progression. Among those relatively abundant proteins, seven spots changed more than two-fold reproducibly...... and identified by peptide mass fingerprinting using mass spectrometry and database search. We found most extensive and reproducible down-regulation of NADP dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase cytoplasmic (IDPc) and peroxiredoxin-II (Prx-II), in poorly differentiated T24 compared to well-differentiated RT4 bladder...... cancer cell line. Subsequent Western blotting analysis of human biopsy samples from bladder cancer patient revealed significant loss of IDPc and Prx-II in more advance tumor samples, in agreement with data on cell lines. These results suggest that loss of IDPc and Prx-II during tumor development may...

  12. Serotonin Enhances Urinary Bladder Nociceptive Processing Via a 5-HT3 Receptor Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Jason D.; DeWitte, Cary; Ness, Timothy J; Robbins, Meredith T.

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin from the descending pain modulatory pathway is critical to nociceptive processing. Its effects on pain modulation may either be inhibitory or facilitatory, depending on the type of pain and which receptors are involved. Little is known about the role of serotonergic systems in bladder nociceptive processing. These studies examined the effect of systemic administration of the serotonin precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), on normal bladder and somatic sensation in rats. ELISA was ...

  13. Next-generation sequencing-based molecular characterization of primary urinary bladder adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Somak; Pradhan, Dinesh; Ernst, Wayne L; Mercurio, Stephanie; Najjar, Yana; Parikh, Rahul; Parwani, Anil V; Pai, Reetesh K; Dhir, Rajiv; Nikiforova, Marina N

    2017-08-01

    Primary bladder adenocarcinoma is a rare and aggressive tumor with poor clinical outcomes and no standard of care therapy. Molecular biology of this tumor is unknown due to the lack of comprehensive molecular profiling studies. The study aimed to identify genomic alterations of clinical and therapeutic significance using next-generation sequencing and compare genomic profile of primary bladder adenocarcinoma with that of high-grade urothelial carcinoma and colorectal adenocarcinoma. A cohort of 15 well-characterized primary bladder adenocarcinoma was subjected to targeted next-generation sequencing for the identification of mutations and copy-number changes in 51 cancer-related genes. Genomic profiles of 25 HGUCs and 25 colorectal adenocarcinomas using next-generation sequencing of 50 genes were compared with primary bladder adenocarcinoma. Genomic profiles were visualized using JavaScript library D3.js. A striking finding was the distinct lack of genomic alterations across the 51 genes assessed in mucinous subtype of primary bladder adenocarcinoma. Eleven of 15 primary bladder adenocarcinoma harbored at least one genomic alteration in TP53, KRAS, PIK3CA, CTNNB1, APC, TERT, FBXW7, IDH2 and RB1, many of which are novel findings and of potential therapeutic significance. CTNNB1 and APC mutations were restricted to enteric subtype only. While genomic alterations of primary bladder adenocarcinoma showed substantial overlap with colorectal adenocarcinoma, FGFR3 and HRAS mutations and APC, CTNNB1 and IDH2 alterations were mutually exclusive between primary bladder adenocarcinoma and high-grade urothelial carcinoma. These alterations affecting the MAP kinase, PI3K/Akt, Wnt, IDH (metabolic) and Tp53/Rb1 signaling pathways may provide the opportunity for defining targeted therapeutic approaches.

  14. Promoting effect of saccharin and DL-tryptophan in urinary bladder carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S M; Arai, M; Jacobs, J B; Friedell, G H

    1979-04-01

    The existence of at least two stages in bladder carcinogenesis was evaluated in male Fischer rats using N-[14-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolyl]formamide (FANFT) fed for six weeks at a level of 0.2% of the diet as the initiator. Sodium saccharin and DL-tryptophan were fed at levels of 5 and 2% of the diet, respectively, as possible promoting chemicals, and they were fed either immediately after FANFT administration or after six weeks of FANFT plus six weeks of control diet. All surviving rats were killed at the end of two years. Both chemicals significantly increased the incidence of bladder tumors following FANFT feeding compared to six weeks of FANFT feeding followed by control diet, and the results were similar whether saccharin or tryptophan feeding was started immediately after FANFT feeding was concluded or after a six-week delay. Saccharin was considerably more potent as a promoting agent than was tryptophan, inducing higher incidences of bladder tumors and having a shorter latent period. Long-term administration of FANFT induced a 100% incidence of bladder cancer. Sequential epithelial changes were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as by light microscopy. Pleomorphic microvilli were present on the superficial cells of all tumors examined and on the surface cells of hyperplastic bladder epithelium after six weeks of FANFT plus six weeks of saccharin, but not after six weeks of FANFT and six weeks of control diet. Rats fed only saccharin tryptophan, or control diet did not have bladder tumors or pleomorphic microvilli on bladder epithelium. These data suggest that saccharin and tryptophan might act as tumor-promoting agents during bladder carcinogenesis.

  15. Effect of sirolimus on urinary bladder cancer T24 cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Paula A; Ribeiro Eufemia; Botelho Pedro; Pinto-Leite Rosario; Santos Lucios

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Sirolimus is recently reported to have antitumour effects on a large variety of cancers. The present study was performed to investigate sirolimus's ability to inhibit growth in T24 bladder cancer cells. Methods T24 bladder cancer cells were treated with various concentrations of sirolimus. MTT assay was used to evaluate the proliferation inhibitory effect on T24 cell line. The viability of T24 cell line was determined by Trypan blue exclusion analysis. Results Sirolimus in...

  16. Simultaneous Uterine and Urinary Bladder Rupture in an Otherwise Successful Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Ying Ho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Uterine rupture is the primary concern when a patient chooses a trial of labor after a cesarean section. Bladder rupture accompanied by uterine rupture should be taken into consideration if gross hematuria occurs. We report the case of a patient with uterine rupture during a trial of labor after cesarean delivery. She had a normal course of labor and no classic signs of uterine rupture. However, gross hematuria was noted after repair of the episiotomy. The patient began to complain of progressive abdominal pain, gross hematuria and oliguria. Cystoscopy revealed a direct communication between the bladder and the uterus. When opening the bladder peritoneum, rupture sites over the anterior uterus and posterior wall of the bladder were noted. Following primary repair of both wounds, a Foley catheter was left in place for 12 days. The patient had achieved a full recovery by the 2-year follow-up examination. Bladder injury and uterine rupture can occur at any time during labor. Gross hematuria immediately after delivery is the most common presentation. Cystoscopy is a good tool to identify the severity of bladder injury.

  17. Urinary long noncoding RNAs in nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer: new architects in cancer prognostic biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Daniela; Ferro, Matteo; Terreri, Sara; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; D'Elia, Carolina; Musi, Gennaro; de Cobelli, Ottavio; Mirone, Vincenzo; Cimmino, Amelia

    2017-06-01

    Several reports over the last 10 years provided evidence that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are often altered in bladder cancers. lncRNAs are longer than 200 nucleotides and function as important regulators of gene expression, interacting with the major pathways of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. A large number of lncRNAs has oncogenic function and is more expressed in tumor compared with normal tissues. Their overexpression may be associated with tumor formation, progression, and metastasis in a variety of tumors including bladder cancer. Although lncRNAs have been shown to have critical regulatory roles in cancer biology, the biological functions and prognostic values in nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer remain largely unknown. Nevertheless, a growing body of evidence suggests that several lncRNAs expression profiles in bladder malignancies are associated with poor prognosis, and they can be detected in biological fluids, such as urines. Here, we review current progress in the biology and the implication of lncRNAs associated with bladder cancer, and we discuss their potential use as diagnosis and prognosis biomarkers in bladder malignancies with a focus on their role in high-risk nonmuscle-invasive tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Antiproliferative effects of mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extract in urinary bladder carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urech, Konrad; Buessing, Arndt; Thalmann, George; Schaefermeyer, Heinrich; Heusser, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antiproliferative potency of Viscum album extract (VA-E) in human bladder carcinoma cell lines with regard to its possible use for intravesical therapy of superficial bladder cancer. Proliferation (MTT-test or 3H-thymidine incorporation), necrotic disintegration (3H-thymidine release of prelabelled cells) and portions of apoptotic and/or necrotic cells (Annexin-V binding, propidium iodide (PI) labelling and DNA-fluorescence profiles by flow cytometry) were measured in four different human bladder carcinoma cell lines (T24, TCCSUP, J82 and UM-UC3) cultured in vitro. Antiproliferative effects of VA-E were observed in the four bladder carcinoma cell lines tested. Metabolic activity could also be completely abrogated by short-time contact of the cells with VA-E. Apoptosis and necrosis, as underlying mechanisms of action, were differentially expressed by the different cell lines. VA-E and cytotoxic proteins, i.e., mistletoe lectins (ML) and viscotoxins (VT), were able to block the growth of bladder carcinoma cells. Together with the immunomodulating properties of VA-E, the observed antiproliferative potency might give a rationale for the topical intravesical application of VA-E for the treatment of superficial bladder cancer.

  19. Membrane-like structure in the urinary bladder neck of a young cat: diagnosis and treatment using balloon dilatation and a balloon-expandable metallic stent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Ruiz-Drebing

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 33-month-old, spayed female domestic shorthair cat was referred to the Animal Health Trust for the investigation of urinary incontinence and straining to urinate. A membrane-like structure was detected in the bladder neck, which caused partial obstruction of the urinary bladder. A combination of different imaging techniques, including ultrasonography, radiography, CT and fluoroscopy, was essential in the diagnosis, surgical planning and treatment of this intravesicular stricture. During retrograde vaginourethrocystogram, unexpected subcapsular accumulation of contrast medium was seen around both kidneys on radiographs and confirmed with CT. Three different treatments were performed, including surgical debridement, balloon dilatation and placement of a self-expanding metallic stent across the stricture. Histopathology of the membrane was unable to differentiate whether the lesion was congenital or acquired. No urinary incontinence was observed 5 months after placement of the metallic stent. Relevance and novel information This is the first reported case using fluoroscopic-guided balloon dilatation of the bladder neck for the treatment of a bladder neck stricture. Presence of renal subcapsular contrast medium secondary to a retrograde vaginourethrocystogram due to partial obstruction at the bladder neck in a cat has not been previously described.

  20. The Ethanol Extract of the Inner Bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul. Reduces Urinary Bladder Damage during Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cystitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína P. Moraes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC is a common side effect of cyclophosphamide therapy, which deserves new therapeutic strategies, such as those based on natural products. The ethanol extract of the inner bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul. (EECp possesses anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antioxidant activities as previously showed by our group. We have investigated the effect of EECp on the cyclophosphamide-induced HC. Cystitis was induced in male Wistar rats by the injection of cyclophosphamide. These animals were pretreated with EECp (100–400 mg/kg, vehicle, or mesna. Myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde formation were measured in urinary bladder and other tissues. Bladder edema and histopathological alterations and serum nitric oxide metabolites concentration NOx- were also evaluated. Treatment with EECp (100–400 mg/kg or mesna impaired the increase of myeloperoxidase activity in urinary bladder and the serum NOx- induced by cyclophosphamide but did not reduce edema in this tissue, as did mesna. Total histological score was reduced by EECp (100 mg/kg. Lung myeloperoxidase activity, which was increased by cyclophosphamide, was decreased significantly by EECp (400 mg/kg. EECp also diminished the malondialdehyde formation in bladder, lung, and spleen, although these parameters were not affected by cyclophosphamide. These results indicate that EECp reduced urinary bladder damage during cyclophosphamide-induced HC in rats.

  1. The Ethanol Extract of the Inner Bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul.) Reduces Urinary Bladder Damage during Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cystitis in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Janaína P.; Pereira, Denyson S.; Matos, Alexandre S.; Santana, Danielle G.; Santos, Cliomar A.; Estevam, Charles S.; Fakhouri, Ricardo; de Lucca Junior, Waldecy; Camargo, Enilton A.

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a common side effect of cyclophosphamide therapy, which deserves new therapeutic strategies, such as those based on natural products. The ethanol extract of the inner bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul.) (EECp) possesses anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antioxidant activities as previously showed by our group. We have investigated the effect of EECp on the cyclophosphamide-induced HC. Cystitis was induced in male Wistar rats by the injection of cyclophosphamide. These animals were pretreated with EECp (100–400 mg/kg), vehicle, or mesna. Myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde formation were measured in urinary bladder and other tissues. Bladder edema and histopathological alterations and serum nitric oxide metabolites concentration NOx − were also evaluated. Treatment with EECp (100–400 mg/kg) or mesna impaired the increase of myeloperoxidase activity in urinary bladder and the serum NOx − induced by cyclophosphamide but did not reduce edema in this tissue, as did mesna. Total histological score was reduced by EECp (100 mg/kg). Lung myeloperoxidase activity, which was increased by cyclophosphamide, was decreased significantly by EECp (400 mg/kg). EECp also diminished the malondialdehyde formation in bladder, lung, and spleen, although these parameters were not affected by cyclophosphamide. These results indicate that EECp reduced urinary bladder damage during cyclophosphamide-induced HC in rats. PMID:24348180

  2. Uric Acid or 1-Methyl Uric Acid in the Urinary Bladder Increases Serum Glucose, Insulin, True Triglyceride, and Total Cholesterol Levels in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Balasubramanian

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In animals deprived of food for a long period, a drop in the fat mass below 5% of the total body mass results in an increase in blood glucocorticoids and uric acid levels, followed by foraging activity. Since the glucocorticoids increase the uric acid excretion, an increase in the level of uric acid in the bladder urine could be the signal for this feeding behaviour and subsequent fat storage. Accumulation of fat is associated with hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, and hypercholesterolaemia as seen in the metabolic syndrome or hibernation. It is hypothesized that uric acid or its structurally related compound, 1-methyl uric acid (one of the metabolites of the methyl xanthines namely caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine present in coffee, tea, cocoa, and some drugs, can act on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels. In rats, perfusion of the urinary bladder with saturated aqueous solution of uric acid or 1-methyl uric acid results in a significant increase in the serum levels of glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol in comparison with perfusion of the bladder with distilled water at 20, 40, and 80 min. The uric acid or the 1-methyl uric acid acts on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the serum glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels.

  3. FGFR3, TERT and OTX1 as a Urinary Biomarker Combination for Surveillance of Patients with Bladder Cancer in a Large Prospective Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukers, Willemien; van der Keur, Kirstin A; Kandimalla, Raju; Vergouwe, Yvonne; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Boormans, Joost L; Jensen, Jorgen B; Lorente, José A; Real, Francisco X; Segersten, Ulrike; Orntoft, Torben F; Malats, Nuria; Malmström, Per-Uno; Dyrskjot, Lars; Zwarthoff, Ellen C

    2017-06-01

    Patients with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer are followed with frequent cystoscopies. In this study FGFR3, TERT and OTX1 were investigated as a diagnostic urinary marker combination during followup of patients with primary nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. In this international, multicenter, prospective study 977 patients with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer were included. A total of 2,496 urine samples were collected prior to cystoscopy during regular visits. Sensitivity was estimated to detect concomitant recurrences. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to estimate the development of future recurrences after urinalysis and a negative cystoscopy. Sensitivity of the assay combination for recurrence detection was 57% in patients with primary low grade, nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. However, sensitivity was 83% for recurrences that were pT1 or muscle invasive bladder cancer. Of the cases 2% progressed to muscle invasive bladder cancer. Sensitivity for recurrence detection in patients with primary high grade disease was 72% and 7% of them had progression to muscle invasive bladder cancer. When no concomitant tumor was found by cystoscopy, positive urine samples were more frequently followed by a recurrence over time compared to a negative urine sample (58% vs 36%, p bladder cancer can be detected by a combination of urine assays. This study supports the value of urinalysis as an alternative diagnostic tool in patients presenting with low grade tumors and as a means to identify high stage tumors earlier. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Usefulness of classical homoeopathy for the prevention of urinary tract infections in patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Pannek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: In patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction due to Spinal Cord Injury (SCI, recurrent Urinary Tract Infections (UTI, is a frequently encountered clinical problem. Often, conventional preventive measures are not successful. Aims: To treat the patients of SCI suffering from recurrent UTI with classical homoeopathy as add-on to standard urologic care. Materials and Methods: After exclusion of morphological abnormalities and initiation of a standard regime for prophylaxis, all patients with a neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction due to SCI, with more than three symptomatic UTI/year, were offered additional homoeopathic care. Symptoms were fever, incontinence, increased spasticity, decreased bladder capacity or pain/decreased general health combined with significant bacteriuria. Descriptive statistics was used for analysis. Results: Eight patients were followed up for a median period of 15 months. Five patients remained free of UTI, whereas UTI frequency was reduced in three patients. Conclusion: Our initial experience with homoeopathic prevention of UTI as add on to standard urologic prophylactic measures is encouraging. For an evidence-based evaluation of this concept, prospective studies are required. Keys for the positive outcome of this case series are co-operation of well-qualified partners, mutual respect and the motivation to co-operate closely.

  5. Giant cell tumor-like lesion of the urinary bladder: a report of two cases and literature review; giant cell tumor or undifferentiated carcinoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oznur Meltem

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary Giant cell tumor, excluding its prototype in bone, is usually a benign but local aggressive neoplasm originating from tendon sheath or soft tissue. Malignant behavior is uncommon. Visceral organ involvement including urinary bladder is rare. Giant cell tumors in visceral organs usually accompany epithelial tumors and the clinical behavior of giant cell tumor in urinary bladder is similar to its bone counterpart. Here, we report two cases of giant cell tumor located in urinary bladder in comparison with nine reported cases in the English literature. Concurrent noninvasive urothelial carcinoma was also described in all these previous reports and only one patient with follow-up died of disease. One of the two cases we present had no concurrent urothelial tumor at the time of diagnosis but had a history of a low grade noninvasive urothelial carcinoma with three recurrences. The histology of these two cases was similar to the giant cell tumor of bone and composed of oval to spindle mononuclear cells with evenly spaced osteoclast-like giant cells. Immunohistochemically, the giant cells showed staining with osteoclastic markers including CD68, TRAP, and LCA. Immunohistochemical expression of vimentin, CD68, LCA, and smooth muscle actin in mononuclear cells supported a mesenchymal origin with histiocytic lineage. The histologic and immunohistochemical properties in our cases as well as their clinical courses were consistent with a giant cell tumor. Consequently, tumors in urinary bladder showing features of giant cell tumor of bone may also be considered and termed "giant cell tumor".

  6. Urinary bladder stone extraction and instruments compared in textbooks of Abul-Qasim Khalaf Ibn Abbas Alzahrawi (Albucasis) (930-1013) and Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu (1385-1470).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elcioglu, Omur; Ozden, Hilmi; Guven, Gul; Kabay, Sahin

    2010-09-01

    We investigated urinary bladder stone, surgical tools, and procedures in urologic sections of textbooks of Abul-Qasim Khalaf Ibn Abbas Alzahrawi (Albucasis) and Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu. In addition, we compared the relation of their textbooks with urologic surgery. Al-Tasreef Liman Aajaz Aan Al-Taaleef (Al-Tasreef), a surgery textbook written by Alzahrawi (who lived in Endulus between 930 and 1013) and Cerrahiyyetu'l-Haniyye, written by Sabuncuoglu (who lived in Turkey between 1385 and 1470) were evaluated with regard to urinary bladder stone and surgical instruments. The textbooks give information about urinary bladder stones. They include definitions of diseases, etiologies, and surgical techniques, and describe surgical tools. Cerrahiyyetu'l Haniyye is a colorful miniaturized textbook. The urinary bladder stone section in Cerrahiyyetu'l Haniyye is the translation of Al-Tasreef with some additional information and illustrations. Surgical tools and procedures described by the two physicians have reached to our century. Tools and procedures invented by Alzahrawi come to the present day in similar or developed styles.

  7. Urinary catheter - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladder catheter - infants; Foley catheter - infants; Urinary catheter - neonatal ... A urinary catheter is a small, soft tube placed in the bladder. This ... are not making much urine. Babies can have low urine output ...

  8. Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an infection in any part of your urinary system — your kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Most infections ... begin to multiply in the bladder. Although the urinary system is designed to keep out such microscopic invaders, ...

  9. Nitrative DNA damage and Oct3/4 expression in urinary bladder cancer with Schistosomahaematobium infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ning [Faculty of Health Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, Mie (Japan); Thanan, Raynoo [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, Mie (Japan); Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie (Japan); Kobayashi, Hatasu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie (Japan); Hammam, Olfat; Wishahi, Mohamed; Leithy, Tarek El [Departments of Pathology and Urology, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Giza (Egypt); Hiraku, Yusuke [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie (Japan); Amro, EL-Karef [Department of Pathology and Matrix Biology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie (Japan); Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt); Oikawa, Shinji [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie (Japan); Ohnishi, Shiho [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, Mie (Japan); Murata, Mariko [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie (Japan); Kawanishi, Shosuke, E-mail: kawanisi@suzuka-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, Mie (Japan); Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie (Japan)

    2011-10-22

    Highlights: {yields} Oct3/4-positive cells increase in Schistosoma haematobium (SH)-associated bladder cancer. {yields} iNOS-dependent DNA lesion, 8-nitroguanine, was formed in Oct3/4-positive cells. {yields} 8-Nitroguanine formed in stem-like cells plays a role in SH-induced carcinogenesis. {yields} Mutant stem cells may participate in inflammation-related carcinogenesis. -- Abstract: To investigate whether mutant stem cells participate in inflammation-related carcinogenesis, we performed immunohistochemical analysis to examine nitrative and oxidative DNA lesions (8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG) and a stem cell marker Oct3/4 in bladder tissues obtained from cystitis and bladder cancer patients infected with Schistosomahaematobium (S. haematobium). We also detected the expression of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which lead to 8-nitroguanine formation. The staining intensity of 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG was significantly higher in bladder cancer and cystitis tissues than in normal tissues. iNOS expression was colocalized with NF-{kappa}B in 8-nitroguanine-positive tumor cells from bladder cancer patients. Oct3/4 expression was significantly increased in cells from S. haematobium-associated bladder cancer tissues in comparison to normal bladder and cancer tissues without infection. Oct3/4 was also expressed in epithelial cells of cystitis patients. Moreover, 8-nitroguanine was formed in Oct3/4-positive stem cells in S. haematobium-associated cystitis and cancer tissues. In conclusion, inflammation by S.haematobium infection may increase the number of mutant stem cells, in which iNOS-dependent DNA damage occurs via NF-{kappa}B activation, leading to tumor development.

  10. Selective bilateral internal iliac artery embolization for controlling refractory hematuria due to the metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Mokhtari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bladder squamous cell carcinoma (SCC may lead to gross hematuria. However, the metastasis of head and neck cutaneous SCC to the urinary bladder has not been described in literature. Nowadays, noninvasive methods such as embolization, are considered as an appropriate choice for controlling life-threatening hematuria in patients with high operative risk. However, few reports exist on the effectiveness of this approach in managing the hematuria secondary to metastatic bladder SCC. Here we report a case of bladder SCC originating from the forehead cutaneous SCC. An 83-year-old man, a known case of forehead cutaneous SCC with distant metastasis, referred to our clinic with a chief complaint of hematuria. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic urinary bladder SCC. Angiography and embolization were undertaken and resulted in complete alleviation of the symptoms. The recurrence of hematuria or embolization-related complications were not observed during 3-month follow-up. Selective embolization of the bilateral internal iliac artery is a safe and efficient procedure for controlling severe hematuria in patients with primary or metastatic bladder SCC.

  11. Clinical Outcomes With Dose-Escalated Adaptive Radiation Therapy for Urinary Bladder Cancer: A Prospective Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, Vedang, E-mail: vmurthy@actrec.gov.in [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Centre, Parel, Mumbai (India); Masodkar, Renuka; Kalyani, Nikhil; Mahantshetty, Umesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Centre, Parel, Mumbai (India); Bakshi, Ganesh; Prakash, Gagan [Department of Surgical Oncology, Tata Memorial Centre, Parel, Mumbai (India); Joshi, Amit; Prabhash, Kumar [Department of Medical Oncology, Tata Memorial Centre, Parel, Mumbai (India); Ghonge, Sujata; Shrivastava, Shyamkishore [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Centre, Parel, Mumbai (India)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess feasibility, clinical outcomes, and toxicity in patients with bladder cancer treated with adaptive, image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for bladder preservation as a part of trimodality treatment. The role of dose escalation was also studied. Methods and Materials: Forty-four patients with localized bladder cancer were enrolled in a prospective study. They underwent maximal safe resection of bladder tumor and concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients with large tumors were offered induction chemotherapy. Radiation therapy planning was done using either 3 (n=34) or 6 (n=10) concentrically grown planning target volumes (PTV). Patients received 64 Gy in 32 fractions to the whole bladder and 55 Gy to the pelvic nodes and, if appropriate, a simultaneous integrated boost to the tumor bed to 68 Gy (equivalent dose for 2-Gy fractions assuming α/β of 10 [EQD2]{sub 10} = 68.7 Gy). Daily megavoltage (MV) imaging helped to choose the most appropriate PTV encompassing bladder for the particular day (using plan-of-the-day approach). Results: Most patients (88%) had T2 disease. Sixteen patients (36%) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. A majority of the patients (73%) received prophylactic nodal irradiation, whereas 55% of the patients received escalated dose to the tumor bed. With a median follow-up of 30 months, the 3-year locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival, and overall survival (OS) were 78%, 66%, and 67%, respectively. The bladder preservation rate was 83%. LRC (87% vs 68%, respectively, P=.748) and OS (74% vs 60%, respectively, P=.36) rates were better in patients receiving dose escalation. Instances of acute and late Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade 3 genitourinary toxicity was seen in 5 (11%) and 2 (4%) patients, respectively. There was no acute or late RTOG grade 3 or higher gastrointestinal toxicity. Conclusions: Adaptive IGRT using plan-of-the-day approach for bladder

  12. Serotonin enhances urinary bladder nociceptive processing via a 5-HT3 receptor mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jason D; DeWitte, Cary; Ness, Timothy J; Robbins, Meredith T

    2015-09-14

    Serotonin from the descending pain modulatory pathway is critical to nociceptive processing. Its effects on pain modulation may either be inhibitory or facilitatory, depending on the type of pain and which receptors are involved. Little is known about the role of serotonergic systems in bladder nociceptive processing. These studies examined the effect of systemic administration of the serotonin precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), on normal bladder and somatic sensation in rats. ELISA was used to quantify peripheral and central changes in serotonin and its major metabolite following 5-HTP administration, and the potential role of the 5-HT3 receptor on changes in bladder sensation elicited by 5-HTP was investigated. 5-HTP produced bladder hypersensitivity and somatic analgesia. The pro-nociceptive effect of 5-HTP was attenuated by intrathecal, but not systemic, ondansetron. Peripheral increases in serotonin, its metabolism and rate of turnover were detectable within 30min of 5-HTP administration. Significant enhancement of serotonin metabolism was observed centrally. These findings suggest that 5-HTP increases serotonin, which may then affect descending facilitatory systems to produce bladder hypersensitivity via activation of spinal 5-HT3 receptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Outcome of coexistent overactive bladder symptoms in women with urodynamic urinary incontinence following anti-incontinence surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ching-Chung; Hsieh, Wu-Chiao; Huang, LuLu

    2017-04-01

    The objective was to investigate the outcome of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms in women with urodynamic stress incontinence (USI) after transobturator sling procedures (TOTs). We evaluated 109 consecutive patients with USI, who had undergone TOT in a tertiary hospital between 2012 and 2014. All patients received evaluations, including structured urogynecological questionnaires and pelvic organ prolapse quantification examination before, and 3 and 12 months after surgery. One-hour pad test and urodynamic testing were performed before and 3-6 months postoperatively. Patient demographics, lower urinary tract symptoms, and urodynamic results were analyzed between pure USI and USI with OAB symptoms. Persistent SUI occurred in 8 patients at 3 months (7.3 %) and 7 patients at 12 months (6.4 %) postoperatively. The most common OAB symptom was frequency (54.1 %), followed by urgency urinary incontinence (52.3 %), urinary urgency (42.2 %), and nocturia (33 %). Most of these OAB symptoms were resolved at the 3-month and 12-month follow-ups both in patients treated with TOT only and in those treated with TOT combined with other pelvic surgeries. There was no significant difference in the preoperative urodynamic changes between patients with pure USI and USI without OAB groups. However, postoperative urodynamic results showed a significant decrease in the maximal urethral closure pressure in the group of patients with USI and OAB symptoms, but no significant urodynamic changes in the group with pure USI. Coexistent OAB symptoms are common in women who were diagnosed with USI and most of these symptoms may resolve 3 and 12 months after TOT.

  14. Genetic diversity of urinary bladder cancer and the risk of recurrence based on mutation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traczyk-Borszynska, M; Borkowska, E; Jablonowski, Z; Jedrzejczyk, A; Pietrusinski, M; Kaluzewski, B; Sosnowski, M; Borowiec, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the genetic diversity of bladder cancer and determine the suitability of a proposed molecular marker panel to monitor the course of bladder cancer patients. The study involved 185 patients with diagnosed bladder cancer. The genetic diversity of the bladder cancer was evaluated by the prevalence of mutations in the TP53, HRAS, FGFR3 and WWOX genes. Mutations were detected in 62.2% of the tumor samples. The most frequently mutated genes were FGFR3 (49.7%) and TP53 (16.2%). No mutation was observed in the WWOX gene. FGFR3 mutations, contrary to TP53, correlated with lower tumor stage and grade, and the presence of multiple tumors. The risk of death was significantly higher in patients with TP53 mutant tumors (HR=3.12; 95%CI: 1.14-7.27; p=0.006) but lower in patients with FGFR3 mutations (HR=0.36; 95%CI: 0.15-0.87; p=0.002). None of the investigated genes was an independent predictor of disease-specific survival, recurrence-free survival or progression-free survival. The results confirm the existence of two alternative pathways of bladder cancer. However the presence of a high percentage of wild type variants in the higher stages of the disease suggest the existence of another pathway of molecular changes leading to the development of bladder cancer. Molecular analysis may have prognostic value and may facilitate the assignment of patients to appropriate forms of treatment - especially in the case of patients with a T1 tumor, where different mutational patterns were observed in each grade.

  15. Urinary bladder metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma: A rare cause of hematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Wai Man Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We presented an unusual case of hematuria caused by a solitary bladder metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma. A confident diagnosis of secondary adenocarcinoma of the bladder was made by clinical suspicion based on patient′s past history, careful examination of tumor morphology, and a directed panel (cytokeratin [CK] 7/CK20/thyroid transcription factor 1 of immunohistochemistry. We sought, through sharing our experience in the investigative and diagnostic process, to contribute to the better understanding of this unusual cause of hematuria.

  16. Qualitative and quantitative histopathology in transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder. An international investigation of intra- and interobserver reproducibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Sasaki, M; Fukuzawa, S

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Histopathologic, prognosis-related grading of malignancy by means of morphologic examination in transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder (TCC) may be subject to observer variation, resulting in a reduced level of reproducibility. This may confound comparisons of treatment...... of both qualitative and quantitative grading methods. Grading of malignancy was performed by one observer in Japan (using the World Health Organization scheme), and by two observers in Denmark (using the Bergkvist system). A "translation" between the systems, grade for grade, and kappa statistics were...... a random, systematic sampling scheme. RESULTS: The results were compared by bivariate correlation analyses and Kendall's tau. The international interobserver reproducibility of qualitative gradings was rather poor (kappa = 0.51), especially for grade 2 tumors (kappa = 0.28). Likewise, the interobserver...

  17. Qualitative and quantitative histopathology in transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder. An international investigation of intra- and interobserver reproducibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Sasaki, M; Fukuzawa, S

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Histopathologic, prognosis-related grading of malignancy by means of morphologic examination in transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder (TCC) may be subject to observer variation, resulting in a reduced level of reproducibility. This may confound comparisons of treatment...... of both qualitative and quantitative grading methods. Grading of malignancy was performed by one observer in Japan (using the World Health Organization scheme), and by two observers in Denmark (using the Bergkvist system). A "translation" between the systems, grade for grade, and kappa statistics were...... a random, systematic sampling scheme.RESULTS: The results were compared by bivariate correlation analyses and Kendall's tau. The international interobserver reproducibility of qualitative gradings was rather poor (kappa = 0.51), especially for grade 2 tumors (kappa = 0.28). Likewise, the interobserver...

  18. Gene expression in the urinary bladder: a common carcinoma in situ gene expression signature exists disregarding histopathological classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Kruhøffer, Mogens; Andersen, Thomas Thykjær

    2004-01-01

    The presence of carcinoma in situ (CIS) lesions in the urinary bladder is associated with a high risk of disease progression to a muscle invasive stage. In this study, we used microarray expression profiling to examine the gene expression patterns in superficial transitional cell carcinoma (sTCC......) with surrounding CIS (13 patients), without surrounding CIS lesions (15 patients), and in muscle invasive carcinomas (mTCC; 13 patients). Hierarchical cluster analysis separated the sTCC samples according to the presence or absence of CIS in the surrounding urothelium. We identified a few gene clusters...... that contained genes with similar expression levels in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) with surrounding CIS and invasive TCC. However, no close relationship between TCC with adjacent CIS and invasive TCC was observed using hierarchical cluster analysis. Expression profiling of a series of biopsies from normal...

  19. Two differentially structured collagen scaffolds for potential urinary bladder augmentation: proof of concept study in a Göttingen minipig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhäuser, Dorothea; Stollenwerk, Katja; Seifarth, Volker; Zraik, Isabella M; Vogt, Michael; Srinivasan, Pramod K; Tolba, Rene H; Grosse, Joachim O

    2017-01-04

    The repair of urinary bladder tissue is a necessity for tissue loss due to cancer, trauma, or congenital abnormalities. Use of intestinal tissue is still the gold standard in the urological clinic, which leads to new problems and dysfunctions like mucus production, stone formation, and finally malignancies. Therefore, the use of artificial, biologically derived materials is a promising step towards the augmentation of this specialised tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate potential bladder wall repair by two collagen scaffold prototypes, OptiMaix 2D and 3D, naïve and seeded with autologous vesical cells, as potential bladder wall substitute material in a large animal model. Six Göttingen minipigs underwent cystoplastic surgery for tissue biopsy and cell isolation followed by implantation of unseeded scaffolds. Six weeks after the first operation, scaffolds seeded with the tissue cultured autologous urothelial and detrusor smooth muscle cells were implanted into the bladder together with additional unseeded scaffolds for comparison. Cystography and bladder ultrasound were performed to demonstrate structural integrity and as leakage test of the implantation sites. Eighteen, 22, and 32 weeks after the first operation, two minipigs respectively were sacrificed and the urinary tract was examined via different (immunohistochemical) staining procedures and the usage of two-photon laser scanning microscopy. Both collagen scaffold prototypes in vivo had good ingrowth capacity into the bladder wall including a quick lining with urothelial cells. The ingrowth of detrusor muscle tissue, along with the degradation of the scaffolds, could also be observed throughout the study period. We could show that the investigated collagen scaffolds OptiMaix 2D and 3D are a potential material for bladder wall substitution. The material has good biocompatible properties, shows a good cell growth of autologous cells in vitro, and a good integration into the present bladder

  20. Octodon degus, a new model to study the agonist and plexus-induced response in the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Cano, Francisco Eduardo; Caso-Agundez, Mercedes; Camello-Almaraz, Cristina; Santos, Francisco Juan; Espin, María Teresa; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Camello, Pedro Javier; Pozo, Maria Jose

    2017-02-01

    Urinary bladder function consists in the storage and controlled voiding of urine. Translational studies require animal models that match human characteristics, such as Octodon degus, a diurnal rodent. This study aims to characterize the contractility of the detrusor muscle and the morphology and code of the vesical plexus from O. degus. Body temperature was measured by an intra-abdominal sensor, the contractility of detrusor strips was evaluated by isometric tension recording, and the vesical plexus was studied by electrical field stimulation (EFS) and immunofluorescence. The animals showed a diurnal chronotype as judged from core temperature. The myogenic contractile response of the detrusor muscle to increasing doses of KCl reached its maximum (31.04 mN/mm(2)) at 60 mM. In the case of cumulative dose-response of bethanecol, the maximum response (37.42 mN/mm(2)) was reached at 3.2 × 10(-4) M. The response to ATP was clearly smaller (3.8 mN/mm(2)). The pharmacological dissection of the EFS-induced contraction identified ACh and sensory fibers as the main contributors to this response. The neurons of the vesical plexus were located mainly in the trigone area, grouped in big and small ganglia. Out of them, 48.1 % of the neurons were nitrergic and 62.7 % cholinergic. Our results show functional and morphological similarities between the urinary bladder of O. degus and that of humans.

  1. Correlation between overactive bladder symptom score and neuropsychological parameters in Alzheimer’s disease patients with lower urinary tract symptom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ha Bum; Choi, Don Kyoung; Lee, Seong Ho; Cho, Sung Tae; Na, Hae Ri; Park, Moon Ho

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To examine an association between the overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS) and neuropsychological parameters. Moreover, we investigate the factors that affect each item in the questionnaire. Materials and Methods A total of 376 patients (males: 184; females: 192) with probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD) were recruited. Cognitive testing was conducted using the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale, Global Deterioration Scale (GDS), and Barthel Activities of Daily Living (ADL). Lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS) was assessed using OABSS and voiding diary. Results The prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) (defined as OABSS ≥3 with an urgency score of ≥2) in patients with AD was 72.6%. Among the OAB subjects, the most common severity of symptom was moderate (72.6%), followed by mild (21.2%), and severe (5.8%). It was found that OABSS had a very high correlation with aging (r=0.75; p<0.001). When compared with neuropsychological parameters, it was found that OABSS was highly correlated with the CDR scores (r=0.446; p<0.001). However, no significant correlation was found between the changes in OABSS scores and those in other neuropsychological parameters. Based on the individual symptom scores, urgency incontinence was highly correlated with the CDR scores (r=0.43; p<0.001). Conclusions OABSS is a useful tool in assessing AD patients with LUTS. There was a consistent positive association between OABSS severity, including urgency incontinence, and CDR scores. PMID:27802001

  2. Loss of muscarinic and purinergic receptors in urinary bladder of rats with hydrochloric acid-induced cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Akira; Kageyama, Aiko; Fujino, Tomomi; Nozawa, Yoshihisa; Yamada, Shizuo

    2010-10-01

    To clarify the basic mechanism involved in the pathophysiology of cystitis by characterizing the urodynamic parameters, pharmacologically relevant (muscarinic and purinergic) receptors, and the in vivo release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the bladder of hydrochloric acid (HCl)-treated rats. The muscarinic and purinergic receptors in rat tissue were measured by radioreceptor assays using (N-methyl-³H) scopolamine methyl chloride ([³H]NMS) and αβ-methylene-ATP (2,8-³H) tetrasodium salt ([³H]αβ-MeATP), respectively. The urodynamic parameters and ATP levels were measured using a cystometric method and the luciferin-luciferase assay, respectively. In the HCl-treated rats, the micturition interval and micturition volume were significantly (48% and 55%, respectively, P acid tetrasodium, and MRS2273 was significantly (5.5, 11, and 7.6-fold, respectively, P <.001) increased. Furthermore, the in vivo release of ATP was significantly (P <.05) enhanced in the HCl-treated rat bladder. Both muscarinic and purinergic mechanisms might be, at least in part, associated with the urinary dysfunction due to cystitis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Association of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis with urinary calculus: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Joseph; Chen, Yi-Kuang; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2013-04-01

    Although one prior study reported an association between bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) and urinary calculi (UC), no population-based study to date has been conducted to explore this relationship. Therefore, using a population-based data set in Taiwan, this study set out to investigate the association between BPS/IC and a prior diagnosis of UC. This study included 9,269 cases who had received their first-time diagnosis of BPS/IC between 2006 and 2007 and 46,345 randomly selected controls. We used conditional logistic regression analysis to compute the odds ratio (OR) and its corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI) for having been previously diagnosed with UC between cases and controls. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of prior UC between cases and controls (8.1 vs 4.3 %, p calculus, ureter calculus, bladder calculus, and unspecified calculus when compared to controls were 1.58 (95 % CI = 1.38-1.81), 1.73 (95 % CI = 1.45-2.05), 3.80 (95 % CI = 2.18-6.62), and 1.83 (95 % CI = 1.59-2.11), respectively. This work generates the hypothesis that UC may be associated with BPS/IC.

  4. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interactions in Urinary Bladder and Small Intestine and How to Apply Them in Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerman, Urška Dragin; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Veranič, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Reciprocal interactions between the epithelium and mesenchyme are essential for the establishment of proper tissue morphology during organogenesis and tissue regeneration as well as for the maintenance of cell differentiation. With this review, we highlight the importance of epithelial-mesenchymal cross talk in healthy tissue and further discuss its significance in engineering functional tissues in vitro. We focus on the urinary bladder and small intestine, organs that are often compromised by disease and are as such in need of research that would advance effective treatment or tissue replacement. To date, the understanding of epithelial-mesenchymal reciprocal interactions has enabled the development of in vitro biomimetic tissue equivalents that have provided many possibilities in treating defective, damaged, or even cancerous tissues. Although research of the past several years has advanced the field of bladder and small intestine tissue engineering, one must be aware of its current limitations in successfully and above all safely introducing tissue-engineered constructs into clinical practice. Special attention is in particular needed when treating cancerous tissues, as initially successful tumor excision and tissue reconstruction may later on result in cancer recurrence due to oncogenic signals originating from an altered stroma. Recent rather poor outcomes in pioneering clinical trials of bladder reconstructions should serve as a reminder that recreating a functional organ to replace a dysfunctional one is an objective far more difficult to reach than initially foreseen. When considering effective tissue engineering approaches for diseased tissues in humans, it is imperative to introduce animal models with dysfunctional or, even more importantly, cancerous organs, which would greatly contribute to predicting possible complications and, hence, reducing risks when translating to the clinic.

  5. Expression of FGFR3 Protein and Gene Amplification in Urinary Bladder Lesions in Relation to Schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfat Hammam

    2017-04-01

    CONCLUSIONS: FGFR3 overexpression in malignant cases was significantly higher than in chronic cystitis. FGFR3 gene amplification was reported mainly in low grade and NNMBIC tumours. FGFR3 may be further studied as a subject for target therapy of bladder cancer.

  6. Spontaneous Transitional Cell Carcinoma in the Urinary Bladder of a Strain 13 Guinea Pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    less than I of all canine neoplasms. In the feline , the extremely low incidence of bladder tumors observed may well be due to a difference in...Intracisternal virus-like particles in two guinea pig mammary adenocarcinomas . Lab Anim Sci 1976;26:607-9. 17.. Yoshida A, Iqbal Z M, Epstein. S S

  7. Age-Related Alterations in Regeneration of the Urinary Bladder after Subtotal Cystectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    MacDonald J, Macoska JA: The inflammatory microenvironment of the aging prostate facilitates cellular proliferation and hypertrophy . Cytokine 2008...of, for example, skeletal muscle and the prostate .39,40 Although time-dependent changes in inflammatory leuko- cytes have been shown in a rat bladder

  8. Detection of tumorigenesis in urinary bladder with optical coherence tomography: optical characterization of morphological changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, T.-Q.; Zeidel, M. L.; Pan, Yingtian

    2002-12-01

    Most transitional cell tumorigenesis involves three stages of subcellular morphological changes: hyperplasia, dysplasia and neoplasia. Previous studies demonstrated that owing to its high spatial resolution and intermediate penetration depth, current OCT technology including endoscopic OCT could delineate the urothelium, submucosa and the upper muscular layers of the bladder wall. In this paper, we will discuss the sensitivity and limitations of OCT in diagnosing and staging bladder cancer. Based on histomorphometric evaluations of nuclear morphology, we modeled the resultant backscattering changes and the characteristic changes in OCT image contrast. In the theoretical modeling, we assumed that nuclei were the primary sources of scattering and were uniformly distributed in the uroepithelium, and compared with the results of the corresponding prior OCT measurements. According to our theoretical modeling, normal bladder shows a thin, uniform and low scattering urothelium, so does an inflammatory lesion except thickening in the submucosa. Compared with a normal bladder, a hyperplastic lesion exhibits a thickened, low scattering urothelium whereas a neoplastic lesion shows a thickened urothelium with increased backscattering. These results support our previous animal study that OCT has the potential to differentiate inflammation, hyperplasia, and neoplasia by quantifying the changes in urothelial thickening and backscattering. The results also suggest that OCT might not have the sensitivity to differentiate the subtle morphological changes between hyperplasia and dysplasia based on minor backscattering differences.

  9. Response of the rat to saccharin with particular reference to the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowaniec, J; Hicks, R M

    1979-04-01

    Male and female Wistar rats were administered sodium saccharin for life (2 yr) either in the drinking water or diet. The maximum palatable dose of saccharin in the drinking water was found to be 2 g/kg/day and, even then, there was some voluntary restriction of fluid intake in the males. By contrast, double this dose--namely 4 g/kg/day, was palatable in the diet. A control group of rats of both sexes received saccharin-free diet and drinking water. Mild urothelial hyperplasias developed from 85 weeks in rats of both sexes receiving saccharin either in the drinking water or diet; the incidence was statistically significant in both the bladders and kidneys of rats receiving the higher dose of saccharin in the diet, but in the kidneys only of rats receiving the lower dose of saccharin in the drinking water. Telangiectasia of the vasa recta was significant in saccharin-treated rats of both sexes at both doses. A very low incidence of bladder tumours, exclusively in males receiving the higher saccharin dose in the diet was seen from 95 weeks. No consistent relationship between bladder epithelial hyperplasias and crystalluria could be demonstrated, although all 3 bladder tumours were associated with some form of mineralisation. Results suggest a particular susceptibility of males to saccharin treatment. The possibility that saccharin may promote, or enhance, the development of latent tumour cells already present in the experimental population, rather than initiate carcinogenesis per se is considered.

  10. Functional effects of the KCNQ modulators retigabine and XE991 in the rat urinary