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Sample records for exercised african catfish

  1. Effects of exercise on l-carnitine and lipid metabolism in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed different dietary l-carnitine and lipid levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozorio, R.O.A.; Ginneken, van V.J.T.; Bessa, R.J.B.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Huisman, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed four isonitrogenous diets (34 % crude protein), each containing one of two lipid (100 or 180 g/kg) and two l-carnitine (15 or 1000 mg/kg) levels. After 81 d of feeding, thirty-two fish (body weight 32 g) from each dietary group were randomly selected,

  2. Effects of exercise on L-carnitine and lipid metabolism in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed different dietary L-carnitine and lipid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozorio, Rodrigo O A; Van Ginneken, Vincent J T; Bessa, Rui J B; Verstegen, Martin W A; Verreth, Johan A J; Huisman, Elbertus A

    2010-04-01

    African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed four isonitrogenous diets (34 % crude protein), each containing one of two lipid (100 or 180 g/kg) and two L-carnitine (15 or 1000 mg/kg) levels. After 81 d of feeding, thirty-two fish (body weight 32 g) from each dietary group were randomly selected, sixteen fish were induced to a 3-h swim (speed of 1.5 body length (BL)/s), while the other sixteen fish were kept under resting condition. Fish fed 1000 mg L-carnitine accumulated 3.5 and 5 times more L-carnitine in plasma and muscle, respectively, than fish fed the 15 mg L-carnitine. Muscle L-carnitine content was significantly lower in exercised fish than in rested fish. High dietary lipid level (fish oil) led to an increase in muscle n-3 PUFA content and a decrease in SFA and MUFA content. In liver, the increase in dietary lipid level resulted in an increased levels of both n-6 and n-3 PUFA. L-carnitine supplementation significantly decreased n-3 PUFA content. Exercise decreased n-3 PUFA in both muscle and liver. Plasma lactate and lactate dehydrogenase, normally associated with increased glycolytic processes, were positively correlated with exercise and inversely correlated with dietary L-carnitine level. L-carnitine supplementation reduced significantly the RQ from 0.72 to 0.63, and an interaction between dietary L-carnitine and lipid was observed (P < 0.03). Our results indicate that an increase in fatty acids (FA) intake may promote FA oxidation, and both carnitine and exercise might influence the regulation of FA oxidation selectivity.

  3. Fibrosarcoma in Pond-Cultured African Catfish ( Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is dearth of information in literature about the occurrence and pathology of fibrosarcoma in the African catfish. However, there are a few reports of fibrosarcoma in other fish species and most have been virally associated. Twelve moribund and dead African catfishes with ages ranging from two months to one year were ...

  4. Growth Rates of Two African Catfishes Osteichthys: ( Clariidae ) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yields of two African catfishes, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) and Heterobranchus longifilis (Valenciennes) in polyculture with Sarotherodon nilotica (Artedi) as trash fish were investigated over a 10 month period. The growth rate of H. longifilis was siginificantly higher (P < 0.05) than of C. gariepinus under identical culture ...

  5. Semen collection and preservation in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveiros, A.

    2002-01-01

    Stock improvement using quantitative and molecular genetics is an essential part of nowadays production of farm animals and fish. To achieve this in aquaculture, germplasm of both parental sexes should be obtained in a life-saving manner. In captivity, male African catfish,

  6. Acute toxicity of diazinon to the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... in water. The effect of diazinon (LC50) 6.6 ppm was further studied to determine the effect on behavioural, blood parameters and plasma biochemistry. The fish in the ... Key words: African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, acute toxicity, lethal dose. .... Application of whole effluent toxicity test procedures to ambient ...

  7. Haematological responses of the African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematological responses of the African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of an oilfield wastewater in Nigeria. ... 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60%) of the wastewater for 28 days. Parameters investigated ... Keywords: Blood parameters, oilfield wastewater, toxicity, Clarias gariepinus ...

  8. Lip histology of the adult farmed African Catfish ( Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lip histology of the adult farmed African catfish was investigated to fill the knowledge gap in available literature especially those from commercial concrete tanks. This microanatomy is important as the lip is the principal organ involved in prehension. The lip epidermis was lined by stratified squamous epithelium ...

  9. Growth performance of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus , fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy of treated Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal as an ingredient in diet of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, of mean weight 40.18±0.51g was evaluated over a 90-day growth period. Four experimental diets were formulated at 0% (control), 10%, 20% and 30% inclusion levels of treated Leucaena leaf meal.

  10. Growth Performance and Blood Chemistry of African Catfish, Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance and blood chemistry of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus post juveniles (154.60 ± 0.55 g mean weight) fed boiled layer chickens that are unfit for human consumption was investigated over a 28-weeks period. Control fish were fed commercial fish feed alone while the test fish were fed equal mixture of ...

  11. Stress in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) following overland transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Remy; Boerrigter, Jeroen; Roques, Jonathan; van der Heul, Jan; van den Bos, Ruud; Flik, Gert; van de Vis, Hans

    2014-02-01

    Of the many stressors in aquaculture, transportation of fish has remained poorly studied. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the effects of a (simulated) commercial transportation on stress physiology of market-size African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Catfish weighing approximately 1.25 kg were returned to the farm after 3 h of truck-transportation, and stress-related parameters were measured for up to 72 h following return. Recovery from transportation was assessed through blood samples measuring plasma cortisol, glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and gill histology. Also, the number of skin lesions was compared before and after transport. Pre-transport handling and sorting elevated plasma cortisol levels compared to unhandled animals (before fasting). Plasma cortisol levels were further increased due to transportation. In control fish, plasma cortisol levels returned to baseline values within 6 h, whereas it took 48 h to reach baseline values in transported catfish. Plasma glucose and NEFA levels remained stable and were similar across all groups. Transported catfish did not, on average, have more skin lesions than the handling group, but the number of skin lesions had increased compared to unhandled animals. The macroscopic condition of the gills was similar in control, transported and unhandled catfish; however, light microscopy and immunohistochemistry revealed atypical morphology and chloride cell migration normally associated with adverse water conditions. From our data, we conclude that transportation may be considered a strong stressor to catfish that may add to other stressors and thus inflict upon the welfare of the fish.

  12. Effect of Stocking Density on Growth and Survival of African Catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1882) fry were cultured at three different stocking densities in net hapas (submerged volume 0.75 m3) suspended in an outdoor concrete tank of the Aquaculture and Fisheries Department, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Catfish fry (mean weight 0.12 ± 0.10 g) were ...

  13. Reduced cannibalistic behavior of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, larvae under dark and dim conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Yukinori; Sanudin, Noorsyarinah; Firdaus, Rian Freddie; Saad, Shahbudin

    2013-06-01

    In general, African catfish shows higher survival rates in the dark conditions than in the light conditions. In this study, larval behavior of African catfish was observed under 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 lx using a CCD camera to investigate the reason why African catfish larvae show higher survival rates in dark conditions. The larvae showed significantly higher swimming activity under 0, 0.01, and 0.1 lx than that under 10 and 100 lx. The larvae also showed significantly increased aggressive behavior under 10 and 100 lx; the swimming larvae attacked resting individuals more frequently under 10 and 100 lx than under 0, 0.01, and 0.1 lx. The aggressive behavior and sharp teeth of the attacking larvae appeared to induce skin surface lesions on injured larvae. Chemical substances were then generated from the injured skin surface, and these chemical stimuli triggered cannibalistic behavior in other fish near the injured fish. The results of this study demonstrate that the higher survival rates of African catfish larvae under dark conditions are a result of inactivity and subsequent increase in chemical releasing stimuli concentrations around inactive individuals that triggers feeding behavior in nearby active catfish. Therefore, we recommend larval rearing of African catfish in dark or dim conditions, as it improves catfish survival rates.

  14. PREY SELECTIVITY IN WELS (Silurus glanis AND AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Adamek

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiments aimed at prey selectivity in two Siluriformes predators. African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, and wels, Silurus glanis, were performed under laboratory conditions. Prey fish (12-22% TL of predator were submitted to one.year.old African catfish (~220 g and wels (~150 g originating from intensive culture, ie with no previous experience with live fish food. In African catfish, negative selectivity (avoidance was shown for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva whilst rudd(Scardinius erythrophthalmus and sunbleak (Leucaspius delineatus were preferred (positive selectivity. The intensity and efficiency of African catfish predation were quite low because its feeding strategy is based rather on prey searching than hunting. Prey fish, wounded and/or dead from its clumsy attacks, were sonsumed preferably overnight. Not one successful attack of African catfish on healthy prey fish was registered. The SGR and FCR of clarias fed live fish were 0.39%. day-1 and 4.73 respectively. In wels, strong negative selectivity (avoidance was proved for roach (Rutilus rutilus and topmouth gungeon, and lower avoidance for Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio and chub (Leuciscus cephalus. Asp (Aspius aspius were found to be low preferred but high preference was shown for sunbleak, rudd and bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus. Both catfishes preferred smaller prey fish during the 10.day experimental period whilst those which remained non-consumed belonged to the mean or above-mean size categories.

  15. The impact of elevated water nitrate concentration on physiology, growth and feed intake of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, E.; Roques, J.A.C.; Abbink, W.; Vries, de P.; Bierman, S.M.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The nitrate threshold concentration in rearing water of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) was assessed. Female African catfish with an initial mean (SD) weight of 154.3 (7.5) g were exposed to 0.4 (Control), 1.5, 4.2, 9.7 and 27.0 mM nitrate for 42 days. Mean (SD) plasma concentrations of nitrate

  16. The impact of elevated water nitrite concentration on physiology, growth and feed intake of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roques, J.A.C.; Schram, E.; Spanings, T.; Schaik, van T.; Abbink, W.; Boerrigter, J.; Vries, de P.; Vis, van de J.W.; Flik, G.

    2015-01-01

    The nitrite threshold concentration in rearing water of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) was assessed. African catfish with an initial mean (SD) weight of 219.7 (57.8) g were exposed to an increasing range of water nitrite from 6 (Control) to 928 µM nitrite for 28 days. Mean (SD) plasma nitrite

  17. Mitochondrial phylogeny and phylogeography of East African squeaker catfishes (Siluriformes: Synodontis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblmüller, Stephan; Sturmbauer, Christian; Verheyen, Erik; Meyer, Axel; Salzburger, Walter

    2006-06-19

    Squeaker catfishes (Pisces, Mochokidae, Synodontis) are widely distributed throughout Africa and inhabit a biogeographic range similar to that of the exceptionally diverse cichlid fishes, including the three East African Great Lakes and their surrounding rivers. Since squeaker catfishes also prefer the same types of habitats as many of the cichlid species, we hypothesized that the East African Synodontis species provide an excellent model group for comparative evolutionary and phylogeographic analyses. Our analyses reveal the existence of six major lineages of Synodontis in East Africa that diversified about 20 MYA from a Central and/or West African ancestor. The six lineages show a clear geographic patterning. Two lineages are endemic to Lake Tanganyika (plus one non-endemic representative), and these are the only two Synodontis lineages that diversified further into a small array of species. One of these species is the cuckoo catfish (S. multipunctatus), a unique brood parasite of mouthbrooding haplochromine cichlids, which seems to have evolved in parallel with the radiation of its cichlid host lineage, the Tropheini. We also detect an accelerated rate of molecular evolution in S. multipunctatus, which might be the consequence of co-evolutionary dynamics. We conclude that the ancestral lineage of today's East African squeaker catfish fauna has colonized the area before the Great Lakes have formed. This ancestor diversified rapidly into at least six lineages that inhabit lakes and rivers in East Africa. Lake Tanganyika is the only lake harboring a small species flock of squeaker catfishes.

  18. Antibacterial Resistance in African Catfish Aquaculture: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madubuike U. ANYANWU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial resistance (AR is currently one of the greatest threats to mankind as it constitutes health crisis. Extensive use of antibacterial agents in human and veterinary medicine, and farm crops have resulted in emergence of antibacterial-resistant organisms in different environmental settings including aquaculture. Antibacterial resistance in aquaculture is a serious global concern because antibacterial resistance genes (ARGs can be transferred easily from aquaculture setting to other ecosystems and the food chain. African catfish (ACF aquaculture has increased at a phenomenal rate through a continuous process of intensification, expansion and diversification. Risk of bacterial diseases has also increased and consequently there is increased use of antibacterial agents for treatment. Antibacterial resistance in ACF aquaculture has huge impact on the food chain and thus represents risk to public and animal health. In “one health” approach of curbing AR, knowledge of the sources, mechanisms and magnitude of AR in ACF aquaculture and its potential impact on the food chain is important in designing and prioritizing monitoring programs that may generate data that would be relevant for performing quantitative risk assessments, implementation of antibacterial stewardship plans, and developing effective treatment strategies for the control of ACF disease and reducing risk to public health. This review provides insight on the sources, mechanisms, prevalence and impact of antibacterial resistance in ACF aquaculture environment, a setting where the impact of AR is neglected or underestimated.

  19. Provisional clinical chemistry parameters in the African Sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G. Myburgh

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a reprint of Myburgh, J.G. Botha, C.J. Booyse, D.G. & Reyers, F., 2008, 'Provisional clinical chemistry parameters in the African Sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus', Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 79(4, 156-160. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jsava.v79i4.265:Pollution affects aquatic systems worldwide and there is an urgent need for efficient monitoring. Fish are generally sensitive to their environment and are thus considered to be valuable bioindicator species. The African Sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus is particularly important in this respect because of its very wide distribution. In order to use C. gariepinus as a bioindicator species its baseline clinical chemistry must be defined. Existing data are scarce, and the objective of this work was therefore to establish clinical chemistry parameters for C. gariepinus. Blood was collected from male and female catfish and a number of clinical chemistry parameters were determined. Plasma protein values, but particularly those of plasma albumin, were found to be very low, approximately half the value for dogs, but similar to the values in Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus. Plasma urea values in Sharptooth catfish were found to be much lower than in dogs, but only marginally lower than in Channel catfish. Plasma creatinine in Sharptooth catfish, however, was only a quarter of that of dogs and one third of that found in Channel catfish. These findings may have implications for using urea and / or creatinine as an index of renal glomerular filtration, as is done in mammals. Plasma enzyme activity ranges were much lower in Sharptooth catfish than in dogs, particularly for alkaline phosphatase (ALP and alanine aminotransferase (ALT. By comparison, Channel catfish have an even lower ALT activity range but an ALP range that is very similar to dogs. The implications for using these enzymes as markers for liver disease are not clear from these data, as factors such as

  20. The potential for using red claw crayfish and hybrid African catfish as biological control agents for Schistosoma host snails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monde, C.; Syampungani, S.; Rico, A.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2017-01-01

    The potential of red claw crayfish and hybrid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus and Clarias ngamensis) as predators for Schistosoma host snails was evaluated in 2014 by monitoring the consumption of snails by crayfish and catfish in experimental tanks over time under laboratory conditions. After

  1. [FINDING OF PARALECITHODENDRIUM CHILOSTOMUM (TREMATODA: LECITHODENDRIIDAE) IN A ROUNDLEAF BAT AND IN THE AFRICAN SHARPTOOTH CATFISH FROM ETHIOPIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, D A; Zhokhov, A E

    2016-01-01

    Adult trematodes Paralecithodendrium chilostomum (Mehlis, 1831) were detected in the roundleaf bat Hipposideros sp. and in the African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus from Tana Lake, Ethiopia. The catfish is an accidental host for P. chilostomum. This is the first record of P. chilostomum from Ethiopia. The description and figures of P. chilostomum from both host species, Hipposideros sp. and Clarias gariepinus are given.

  2. Changes in health beneficial components during ice storage of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, R.; Mierke-Klemeyer, S.; Maehre, H.; Schram, E.; Luten, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Ice-storage is the most common method of preserving fresh fish. The aim of this work was to study whether ice storage had an effect on contents at selenium, taurine and fatty acid composition in farmed African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Gutted fish (n = 40) were stored in melting ice for 21 days,

  3. A note on alarm cues in juvenile African catfish, Clarias gariepinus: Indications for opposing behavioural strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwegiessen, van de P.G.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Following exposure of African catfish to alarm cues, a relationship (rp=0.60, N=10, P=0.07) between feed efficiency (measured as residual feed intake) and the change in percentage of time spent swimming in response to damage-released alarm cues was observed. Feed-efficient animals responded with a

  4. Filter-feeding habit of the African catfish Burchell, 1822 (Pisces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feeding habit of the African catfishClarias gariepinus (Burchell) was studied by assessing the stomach contents of 419 fish (287 juveniles - 17.1-44.7 cm TL and 132 adults - 55.2-109.0 cm TL) collected between February 2003 and January 2004 in Lake Chamo. Different kinds of food items were found in the stomachs ...

  5. A dynamic simulation model for growth of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machiels, M.A.M.

    1987-01-01

    In the early '70 it was tried to identify new fish species for aquaculture in Africa. Amongst the most promising candidates was the African catfish. Clariasgariepinus (Burchell 1822). It is an omnivorous fish. which means a wide feeding spectrum. The

  6. The use of cold shock in inducing triploidy in African mud catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study was conducted to induce triploidy in African mud catfish Clarias gariepinus using cold shock. The fertilized eggs were exposed at one temperature regime of 0°C with varied shock treatments of 0, 15, 25 and 30 min. Some 3 min after fertilization, the success of triploidy was determined by the presence or absence of ...

  7. Annual correlative changes in gonads and pituitary gonadotropes of feral African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oordt, P.G.W.J. van; Peute, J.; Hurk, R. van den; Viveen, W.J.A.R.

    1987-01-01

    The reproductive cycle of male and female African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) can be divided into a breeding period (May–August), a resting period (September–February) and a period of full gametogenesis (March–April). The pituitary gonadotropin (GTH) content and the ultrastructure of the

  8. Size distribution in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) affects feeding behaviour but not growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matos Martins, de C.I.; Aanyu, M.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of size distribution on growth performance and feeding behaviour in juveniles of African catfish. Two thousand sibling fish were grown for 8 weeks until the start of the experiment. Afterwards fish were individually weighed, manually selected and

  9. Comparison of feed intake behaviour and stress response in isolated and non-isolated African catfish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.I.; Trenovski, M.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    This study shows that in African catfish Clarias gariepinus feed intake (IF) is stimulated by the presence of conspecifics resulting in higher IF and growth rate. The feeding duration and the frequency of feeding acts were lower in isolated fish as compared with non-isolated fish, indicating a

  10. Use of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) leaf powder as feed additive in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dada, Adekunle Ayokanmi

    2017-01-01

    The effect of dietary Telfairia occidentalis leaf meal on growth, haematological profile, and body composition was investigated in African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Fingerlings of (5.12 ± 0.06 g...

  11. The impact of elevated water ammonia concentration on physiology, growth and feed intake of African catfish (Clarius gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, E.; Roques, J.A.C.; Abbink, W.; Spanings, T.; Vries, de P.; Bierman, S.M.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2010-01-01

    The threshold concentration for NH3 in rearing water of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) was assessed. African catfish with an initial mean (SD) weight of 141.0 (24) g were exposed to five different Tamm [sum of NH3 and NH4+] concentrations: 0.37 (Control), 1.06, 2.12, 5.16 and 19.7 mM, which

  12. growth performance and nutrient utilization of african catfish (clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. Four isocarloric and isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain 0%, 33.3%, 66.7% and. 100% cassava leaves to replace equal weight of maize meal. All the four treatment diets were fed to catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings in replicate for 16 weeks. The best growth response was obtained in fish fed ...

  13. Popularisation of amphibian tadpoles in nursing African catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of treatments showed that, consumption of tadpoles conferred significantly higher survivals (P < 0.05), number harvested / m2 (P < 0.05) and final average weights (P < 0.02), which were respectively 9.77, 9.02 and 31.96% higher. Therefore, use of tadpoles for catfish feeding could be a low-cost strategy to ...

  14. Performance of locally formulated feeds for rearing of African catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two feed types, namely TAF 1 and TAF 2, denoting TAFIRI feed type 1 and 2 were formulated from fish meal (Rastrineobola argentea) and soybean (Glycine max L.), respectively. Nine concrete tanks of 12 m3 each were stocked with 320 catfish fry each, and fed with formulated feeds at 5% of their mean body weight for four ...

  15. Aspects of the fishery and biology of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) amidst environmental changes in Lake Wamala (Uganda)

    OpenAIRE

    Olokotum, M.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental changes are some of the factors that affect fisheries and biological characteristics of fishes. The African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) has biological characteristics that enable it to persist under various stressful environmental conditions. However, few studies have examined how the African catfish responds to conditions created by a changing climate. The study examined some of the fishery and biological characteristics of African catfish in Lake Wamala (Uganda...

  16. Chlorella vulgaris as Protein Source in the Diets of African Catfish Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchechukwu D. Enyidi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant proteins substitutes of fishmeal in aquafeed are usually lacking in some essential amino acids and fatty acids. The microalgae Chlorella vulgaris has good-quality protein with amino acids rich in methionine, lysine and alanine. Four novel diets having C. vulgaris as the main source of protein were produced for African catfish Clarias gariepinus with an initial average weight of 1.09 ± 0.05 g. The diets were labeled Feed 1 (F1 to feed 4 (F4. The treatment diets were included 25% (F1, 15% (F2, 5% (F3 and 0% (F4 green algae meal. The basal ingredients of the feed were corn (maize included as F1, 40%, F2, 43%, F3, 53% and F4, 43%; and millet meal, which varied in F1 as 23%, F2, 30%, F3, 30% and F4, 30%. The ingredients were preconditioned at 110 °C and pelleted. Post-fingerling African catfish were stocked at 10 fish per aquarium. There were three replicate aquariums for each feed type and the fish were fed for 60 d. The specific growth rate was best for the catfish fed with 25% C. vulgaris diet 7.86 ± 0% day−1, and worst at 6.77 ± 0.07% day−1 for the control group F4, 0% algal meal. The food conversion ratio (FCR was lowest (1.88 ± 0.02 for 25% algal meal diet (F1 and highest (2.98 ± 0.01 for the 0% algal meal diet F4. Similarly, catfish had average weight gain of 121.02 ± 0.04 g for those fed with F1 compared to 62.50 ± 0.0 g for those fed with 0% algae F4. Protein efficiency ratio was highest for the F1-fed fish (2.46 ± 0.22 and lowest for those fed with F4 (2.02 ± 0.09. The hepatosomatic index was lowest for F1-fed fish (1.48 ± 0.01 and highest for catfish fed with F4 (2.50 ± 0.59. Based on the results, C. vulgaris is a good protein source for African catfish and can also substitute fishmeal in the catfish diets.

  17. A dynamic simulation model for growth of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822)

    OpenAIRE

    Machiels, M.A.M.

    1987-01-01

    In the early '70 it was tried to identify new fish species for aquaculture in Africa. Amongst the most promising candidates was the African catfish. Clariasgariepinus (Burchell 1822). It is an omnivorous fish. which means a wide feeding spectrum. The fish is a partial air breather, so the oxygen concentration in the water is no strongly limiting factor, which facilitates high density culture.

    To provide the basis for a production programm...

  18. Histopathology of the gill and liver tissues of the African catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation on the effect of the heavy metal, lead (Pb) on the gill and liver of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus was carried out in the laboratory. One hundred and sixty (160) fingerlings of the fish were exposed to continuous exposure to sub-lethal concentrations (0.006 mg/l and 0.008 mg/l) of lead for a period of ...

  19. Prey Selection by African Catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) Larvae Fed Different Feeding Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Erdal; Bozkurt, Ahmet; GÖKÇEK, Kaya

    2006-01-01

    Live prey selection by African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, larvae was examined under laboratory conditions. Larvae were offered plankton, plankton + trout starter (TS) and plankton + betaine supplemented trout diet (BTS) for 7 days after exogenous feeding. Five larvae were sampled to determine their gut contents and selectivity index for each treatment 15 min after the feeding. It was observed that dry diets (TS and BTS) improved the growth (P < 0.05), but did not significantly influe...

  20. Effect of feeding and fasting on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption in juvenile southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis Chen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shi-Jian; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Peng, Jiang-Lan

    2007-03-01

    The impact of feeding (fed to satiation, 13.85% body mass) on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC, chasing for 2.5 min) was investigated in juvenile southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis Chen) (38.62-57.55 g) at 25. Cutlets of freshly killed loach species without viscera, head and tail were used as the test meal, and oxygen consumption (VO(2)) was adjusted to a standard body mass of 1 kg using a mass exponent of 0.75. Resting VO(2) increased significantly above fasting levels (49.89 versus 148.25 mg O(2) h(-)(1)) in 12 h postprandial catfish. VO(2) and ventilation frequency (V(f)) both increased immediately after exhaustive exercise and slowly returned to pre-exercise values in all experimental groups. The times taken for post-exercise VO(2) to return to the pre-exercise value were 20, 25 and 30 min in 12 h, 60 h and 120 h postprandial catfish, respectively. Peak VO(2) levels were 257.36+/-6.06, 219.32+/-6.32 and 200.91+/-5.50 mg O(2) h(-1) in 12 h, 60 h and 120 h postprandial catfish and EPOC values were 13.85+/-4.50, 27.24+/-3.15 and 41.91+/-3.02 mg O(2) in 12 h, 60 h and 120 h postprandial southern catfish, respectively. There were significant differences in both EPOC and peak VO(2) during the post-exercise recovery process among three experimental groups (pcatfish, (2) both the digestive process and exercise (also the post-exercise recovery process) were curtailed under postprandial exercise, (3) the change of V(f) was smaller than that of VO(2) during the exhaustive exercise recovery process, (4) for a similar increment in VO(2), the change in V(f) was larger during the post-exercise process than during the digestive process.

  1. Toxicity of Copper (11) Tetraoxo Sulphate to African Catfish (Clarias Gariepinus) Fingerlings

    OpenAIRE

    F.O. Agbebi; Owoeye, O.

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the toxicity of copper sulphate to African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus). The range – finding test was conducted twice in order to get reliable values that could be used for the definitive test. The toxicant (copper sulphate) was introduced at varying concentrations of 10g/l, 20g/l, 30g/l and 40g/l in the first range- finding test, while it was introduced at concentrations of 2g/l, 4g/l, 6g/l and 8g/l in the second range- finding test. However, in the de...

  2. THE ABILITY OF FAST-GROWING TRANSGENIC AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus ON PREDATOR AVOIDANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huria Marnis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Institute for Fish Breeding has produced transgenic African catfish (Clarias gariepinus containing stripped catfish growth hormone gene (PccBA-PhGH with growth 19.86% faster than that of non-transgenic fish. This fish has high potential to be released and utilized for fish farming sector to increase national production. However, there is not yet information about environmental risk of this fish. One of the major fitness traits determining potential environmental risk is predator avoidance. This study aimed to determine the predator avoidance ability of transgenic African catfish in an experimental laboratory condition. In this study, thirty five individuals each of transgenic and non-transgenic with body weight of about 0.1 ± 0.019 g were communally stocked in 60 cm x 40 cm x 40 cm aquarium with limited feeding frequency (ad libitum twice a day. One day after the fish were stocked, the predators were added to each aquarium. The non-transgenic and transgenic with body weight of 1.0 ± 0.024 g were stocked as predators as many as five individual in each aquarium. After approximately two weeks of predation, all remaining fish were collected for transgenic verification by PCR method. Genomic DNA was isolated from fin tissue of individually survivors. The results of this study showed that the transgenic fish had worse predator avoidance and lower cannibal than non-transgenic (P0.05 in limited food. The transgenic fish may have lower fitness than non-transgenic.

  3. Metabolic costs of changing the cation-anion difference in the diet of juvenile African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dersjant-Li, Y.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Tijssen, P.A.T.; Booms, R.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Huisman, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of dietary cation-anion difference (CAD, Na K - Cl, mEq kg1) on energy metabolism and nitrogen losses in juvenile African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) was examined in fish exposed to different dietary CAD levels (-146, 116, 497, 713 and 828 mEq kg1 diet). The experiment was

  4. Retention of health beneficial components during hot- and cold-smoking of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fillets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, R.; Mierke-Klemeyer, S.; Maehre, H.; Elvevoll, E.O.; Bandarra, N.M.; Cordiero, A.R.; Nunes, M.L.; Schram, E.; Luten, J.B.; Oehlenschlaeger, J.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in content of selenium and taurine, and the alteration of fatty acid profile have been studied in African catfish fillets subjected to a commercial cold- or hot smoking process. Selenium content and the fatty acid profile did not change significantly during neither of the smoking procedures.

  5. Retention of health-related beneficial components during household preparation of selenium-enriched African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fillets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierke-Klemeyer, S.; Larsen, R.; Oehlenschlaeger, J.; Nunes, M.L.; Schram, E.; Luten, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Industrial processing and heat treatment of fish muscle generally lead to losses of water-soluble components, some of which may have beneficial health effects. The aim of this work was to determine the retention of taurine, selenium and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids when preparing African catfish

  6. Cloning and functional characterization of a testicular TSH receptor cDNA from the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vischer, H F; Bogerd, J.

    A cDNA encoding a putative thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (cfTSH-R) was cloned from the testis of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). The cfTSH-R showed the highest amino acid sequence identity with the TSH-Rs of other fish species. In addition, an insertion of approximately 50 amino

  7. Post-prandial protease activity in the digestive tract of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, larvae fed decapsulated cysts of Artemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García Ortega, A.; Verreth, J.; Segner, H.

    2000-01-01

    The alkaline proteolytic activity in the gut of African catfish larvae was studied during short time ranges from 30 min to 4 h after ingestion of decapsulated Artemia cysts. The variation in total protease and trypsin activities during the day was monitored during starvation, after one single meal

  8. The dopaminergic regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor binding in the pituitary of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, R.; van 't Veer, C.; Goos, H. J.; van Oordt, P. G.

    1988-01-01

    In several teleost species, including the African catfish, dopamine acts as an endogenous inhibitor of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-stimulated gonadotropin (GTH) release. The present in vivo study was carried out to investigate whether this inhibitory action of dopamine can be explained by

  9. Partial and total fish meal replacement by agricultural products in the diets improve sperm quality in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyina-wamwiza, L.; Milla, S.; Pierrard, M.A.; Rurangwa, E.; Mandiki, S.N.M.; Look, van K.J.W.; Kestemont, P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term effects of total and partial replacement of dietary fish meal (FM) by a mixture of agricultural products on sperm quality of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated containing graded levels of either 50% FM

  10. Selenium speciation in different organs of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) enriched through a selenium-enriched garlic based diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedrero, Z.; Murillo, S.; Camara, C.; Schram, E.; Luten, J.B.; Feldmann, I.; Jakubowski, N.; Madrid, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Speciation of Se in fish is needed to elucidate the metabolism of this element in living organisms in the marine environment. In this paper, selenium concentration and its species distribution in several organs and tissues (liver, gills, kidney, muscle and gastrointestinal tract) of African catfish

  11. Steroidogenesis in the testes and seminal vesicles of spawning and non-spawning African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, W.G.E.J.; Granneman, J.C.M.; Lambert, J.G.D.; Oordt, P.G.W.J. van

    1987-01-01

    The in vitro biosynthesis of steroids was studied in testes as well as seminal vesicles of non-spawning pond and spawning feral African catfish, collected during the breeding season. In testes of non-spawners the conversion of [3H]-pregnenolone was directed towards 11-oxygenated androgens and

  12. The impact of changing dietary Na/K ratio's in growth and nutrient utilisation in juvenile African Catfish Clarias Gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dersjant-Li, Y.; Sheng Wu, W.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of dietary Na/K ratios on feed intake, growth, nutrient utilisation, plasma and body mineral concentration in juvenile African catfish were investigated. Four Na/K ratios, 0.2, 0.7, 1.5, 2.5 (mmol/mmol), were tested in a randomised experimental design with three replications in each

  13. Effects of density, PVC-tubes and feeding time on growth, stress and aggression in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerrigter, J.G.J.; Bos, van den R.; Vis, van de J.W.; Spanings, T.; Flik, G.

    2016-01-01

    Successive exposure to aquaculture-related stressors may compromise the allostatic capacity of African catfish and lead to allostatic overload and poor welfare. Therefore, we tested the effect of (i) feeding during the light or dark phase, (ii) density (51 fish per 140 L versus 51 fish per 43 L) and

  14. Laboratory investigation of daily food intake and gut evacuation in larvae of African catfish Clarias gariepinus under different feeding conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García-Ortega, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Vermis, K.; Nelis, H.J.; Sorgeloos, P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Temporary accumulation of ascorbic acid 2-sulfate (AAS) was measured to estimate food intake and gut evacuation in larvae of African catfish. Fish larvae were fed decapsulated cysts of Artemia containing AAS. In a first experiment it was found that no biosynthesis of AAS occurs in the

  15. Physiological effects of paraquat in juvenile African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchel 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Didigwu Nwani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the physiological effects of paraquat in African freshwater catfish Clarias gariepinus. Methods: Two sublethal test concentrations of paraquat (1.37 and 2.75 mg/L were chosen based on the 96 h LC50 value (27.46 mg/L. Some experimental fish were exposed to these concentrations and control group for 15 d. Peripheral blood samplings were taken at intervals for assessment of haematological and biochemical parameters. Results: Exposure to paraquat affected behaviour and morphology of Clarias gariepinus. There were significant decreases (P<0.05 in the mean values of hemoglobin, red blood cells, packed cell volume, cellular hemoglobin, and cellular hemoglobin concentration. The levels of white blood cells, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase significantly increased (P<0.05 while protein levels declined. However, no definite pattern of changes was observed in the number and type of leucocytes. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that paraquat is toxic and has the potential to impair on the physiological activities in African catfish Clarias gariepinus. The use of paraquat should be strongly controlled and carefully monitored to avoid the possible damage done to the environment.

  16. Natural and Non-natural distribution of African Catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda TURAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 is a widespread freshwater species found in the Middle East, and throughout Central and South Africa. C. gariepinus, inhabits natural lakes, fishponds, streams, and natural ponds in both deep and shallow waters. C. gariepinus is naturally found in the Asi, Seyhan, Ceyhan, Goksu Rivers. It was reported that C. gariepinus was translocated to the Aksu River by General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works. African catfish has increasing commercial importance in fisheries and aquaculture in Turkey. A recently introduced population of C. gariepinus has established in the Sakarya River (Eskişehir due to aquaculture purposes in the north part of the Turkey. C. gariepinus introduction has negative effects on macro invertebrate community that was reflected by decrease in diversity, richness and biomass. There is also community-level impact of introduction that results variation in macro invertebrate composition in the rivers. Stomach contents of C. gariepinus basically rely on Pisces, Arthropod, Mollusca and plant materials to a considerable extent. Therefore, introduction of C. gariepinus in dams, rivers and lakes can cause food competitions with native fish and make irreversible changes in the fish community and cause loses of native fish. The present paper reviews published literature, reports and working papers about distribution and management of C. gariepinus in Turkey’s reservoirs.

  17. Growth performance and feed utilization of African catfish Clarias gariepinus fed a commercial diet and reared in the biofloc system enhanced with probiotic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Putra Iskandar; Rusliadi Rusliadi; Fauzi Muhammad; Tang Usman M; Muchlisin Zainal A

    2017-01-01

    Background The objective of the present study was to evaluate the growth performance and feed utilization of African catfish Clarias gariepinus fed a commercial diet and reared in the biofloc system...

  18. Effect of temperature on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption in juvenile southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis Chen) following exhaustive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ling-Qing; Zhang, Yao-Guang; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian

    2010-12-01

    The effects of temperature on resting oxygen consumption rate (MO2rest) and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) after exhaustive exercise (chasing) were measured in juvenile southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis) (8.40±0.30 g, n=40) to test whether temperature has a significant influence on MO2rest, maximum post-exercise oxygen consumption rate (MO2peak) and EPOC and to investigate how metabolic scope (MS: MO2peak - MO2rest) varies with acclimation temperature. The MO2rest increased from 64.7 (10°C) to 160.3 mg O2 h(-1) kg(-1) (25°C) (PEPOC varied from 32.9 min at 10°C to 345 min at 20°C, depending on the acclimation temperatures. The MS values of the lower temperature groups (10 and 15°C) were significantly smaller than those of the higher temperature groups (20, 25 and 30°C) (PEPOC varied ninefold among all of the temperature groups and was the largest for the 20°C temperature group (about 422.4 mg O2 kg(-1)). These results suggested that (1) the acclimation temperature had a significant effect on maintenance metabolism (as indicated by MO2rest) and the post-exercise metabolic recovery process (as indicated by MO2peak, duration and magnitude of EPOC), and (2) the change of the MS as a function of acclimation temperature in juvenile southern catfish might be related to their high degree of physiological flexibility, which allows them to adapt to changes in environmental conditions in their habitat in the Yangtze River and the Jialing River.

  19. Optimization of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Fish Oil from Viscera of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Zaidul Islam Sarker

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil was extracted from the viscera of African Catfish using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2. A Central Composite Design of Response Surface methodology (RSM was employed to optimize the SC-CO2 extraction parameters. The oil yield (Y as response variable was executed against the four independent variables, namely pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. The oil yield varied with the linear, quadratic and interaction of pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. Optimum points were observed within the variables of temperature from 35 °C to 80 °C, pressure from 10 MPa to 40 MPa, flow rate from 1 mL/min to 3 mL/min and soaking time from 1 h to 4 h. However, the extraction parameters were found to be optimized at temperature 57.5 °C, pressure 40 MPa, flow rate 2.0 mL/min and soaking time 2.5 h. At this optimized condition, the highest oil yields were found to be 67.0% (g oil/100 g sample on dry basis in the viscera of catfish which was reasonable to the yields of 78.0% extracted using the Soxhlet method.

  20. Stages in the early and larval development of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei, Clariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniyi, Wasiu Adekunle; Omitogun, Ofelia Galman

    2014-08-01

    The African catfish Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822 is a favourite aquaculture fish in many parts of Africa and Asia because of its hardiness and fast growth rate. In this study, early, post-embryonic and larval developmental stages of C. gariepinus were examined chronologically and described. Photomicrographs of unfertilized matured oocytes from 0 min of fertilization through all cell stages to alevin, to complete yolk absorption, to free swimming larval stages are shown and documented live from lateral and top views, with the aid of a light microscope. Extruded oocytes had a mean diameter of 1 ± 0.1 mm, and possessed a thin perivitelline membrane whose space was filled with a protoplasmic layer. Heartbeat was in the range of 115-160/min prior to hatching. Hatchability rate was 85% and hatching occurred at 17 h at a controlled temperature of 28.5 ± 0.5°C, while ontogeny of the eyes and other organs were discernible. At day 4, larvae mean length was 9.3 ± 0.5 mm, exogenous feeding had commenced fully and melanophores spread cephalocaudally but were concentrated significantly on the head parts. This paper, for the first time, presents the significant chronological developmental stages of C. gariepinus embryology that will have significant implications for genetic manipulation and catfish seed production for aquaculture.

  1. Dietary canitine maintains energy reserves and delays fatigue of exercised african catfish (Clarias gariepinus fed high fat diets Carnitina dietética mantem reservas energéticas e evita a fatiga de bagre-africano durante exercício

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ozório

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipids, together with proteins, are traditionally considered as primary fuels during aerobic swimming. The effects of dietary fat and carnitine supplements and exercise on the energy metabolism of juvenile fish were investigated. One hundred African catfish (Clarias gariepinus were fed four isonitrogenous diets containing a fat level of 100 or 190 g kg-1 diet and one of the two levels of carnitine (15 and 1000 mg kg-1. Fish grew from 61 to 162 g in 10 wk. Thereafter, 6 fish per group swam vigorously for 3 h and the results were compared with unexercised groups. Fish receiving 1,000 mg carnitine accumulated 2- to 3-fold more carnitine than fish receiving 15 mg carnitine. Plasma acyl-carnitine level was affected by an interaction between dietary treatment and exercise (P Lipídios e proteínas são tradicionalmente considerados combustíveis primários durante natação aeróbica. Nesse ensaio foi investigado o efeito da suplementação de vários níveis de gordura e carnitina no metabolismo de 100 bagres africanos juvenis (Clarias gariepinus. Os peixes foram arraçoados com quatro dietas isoprotéicas, cada uma contendo 100 ou 190 g gordura kg-1 dieta, e um dos dois níveis de carnitina (15 e 1000 mg kg-1. Os peixes cresceram de 61 a 162 g em 10 semanas. No final do ensaio de alimentação, grupos de seis peixes por tratamento foram induzidos a nadar vigorosamente por 3 h e em seguida vários parâmetros foram determinados no tecido muscular e plasma, e os resultados observados nos grupos exercitados foram comparados com grupos controles (não exercitados. Os peixes arraçoados com 1,000 mg carnitina acumularam de duas a três vezes mais carnitina que os peixes arraçoados com 15 mg carnitina. O nível de acyl-carnitina no plasma foi influenciado pela interação entre os tratamentos dietéticos e exercício físico (P < 0.05. As concentrações de adenosina trifosfato (ATP e fosfocreatina no tecido muscular branco (WM foram mais elevadas em

  2. Comparative Histomorphological and Histochemical Studies on the Oesophagus of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and African Catfish Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Sayed Awaad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to describe and compare both gross and microscopic structure of the oesophagus of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus. For this purpose, 60 specimens of oesophagus of Nile tilapia (omnivorous fish and African catfish (carnivorous fish were collected and processed. Anatomically, the oesophagus of both species appeared as a short tube with longitudinal mucosal folds. Using scanning electron microscope, the epithelial surface of the esophagus showed primary and secondary mucosal folds in both species while tertiary folds were observed in that of tilapia only. Histologically, the oesophagus consisted of four distinct layers: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and serosa. The oesophageal mucosa consisted of stratified epithelium with few mucous secreting cells in catfish and many mucous secreting cells in tilapia. Two types of mucous secreting cells reacted positively with both periodic acid shiff (PAS and alcian blue (AB; rounded and elongated cells that were recognized in the esophageal epithelium of tilapia and only elongated oval cells were observed in that of catfish. In conclusion, the obtained histomorphological differences in esophagus of both fish species may be attributed to their different feeding habits and type of food.

  3. Evaluation of Local Feed Ingredients Based Diets on Growth Performance of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahiyah, I. J.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Formulating the right feed based on the requirements of the fish species is the main solver to reduce the high cost of aquaculture production. In formulating suitable diet, factors such as the sustainability or availability of the feed sources used, quality of the feeds and price of raw materials, need to be taken into account as well so that the diets can be formulated at least cost. Low cost diets using local feed ingredients were formulated in pelleted and extruded forms and fed to juvenile African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, to determine their effect on the growth performance of the fish. Two formulations were tested: Diet A - Formula 1 MARDI and Diet B - Formula 2 MARDI, which were formulated to be iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous with 32 % digestible protein and energy value of 14 MJ/kg. A commercial diet (Diet C was included as a control. At 15 wk of culture, fish fed diet C showed the highest growth performance in terms of weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR and specific growth rate (SGR. There were no significant differences (P>0.05 found among diets for weight gain and feed intake. However, FCR and SGR of Diet C were significantly better (P<0.05 compared to the experimental diets. The best FCR was recorded in Diet C at 1.17, followed by Diet A (1.42 and Diet B (1.46. Diet C also had the highest SGR with 1.99%/day followed by Diet B (1.70 and Diet A (1.67. Cost of both diets, A and B, was RM 2.50/kg compared to RM 3.50/kg for Diet C. Although the FCR of the commercial feed was lower than the experimental diets, the production cost of fish was RM4.11/kg for the commercial feed compared to RM 3.54-3.65/kg for the experimental diets. It is concluded that local feed ingredients can be used in formulating diets for catfish and they have no detrimental effect on the growth of African catfish.

  4. Therapeutic Exercise and Hypertension | Sikiru | African Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension implies chronic elevation in SBP and DBP above levels considered desirable or healthy for the person\\'s age and size. The focus of this review is to discuss the therapeutic efficacy of exercise on human hypertension. The paper revealed that hypertension is common among African, also that acute exercise ...

  5. The effect of exercise training on the metabolic interaction between digestion and locomotion in juvenile darkbarbel catfish (Peltebagrus vachelli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-Ming; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Peng, Jiang-Lan; Fu, Shi-Jian

    2010-05-01

    To examine the effects of exercise training on the metabolic interaction between digestion and locomotion in juvenile darkbarbel catfish (Peltebagrus vachelli) (5.58+/-0.04 g), the postprandial metabolic response, critical swimming speeds (U(crit)) and oxygen consumption rates (VO(2)) during swimming were measured on fish held at a constant temperature (25 degrees C). Fish were fed a diet of cutlets of freshly killed loach. Fish in the trained group were forced to swim at 60% U(crit) for 50 min followed by an exhaustive 10-min chase once daily for 21 days. Exercise training did not produce significant differences in resting VO(2) (VO(2rest)) and postprandial peak VO(2) (VO(2peak)) compared to the non-trained groups. However, exercise training elicited a significant decrease in both the duration and energy expenditure of digestion when fed with similar food (PFeeding had no significant effect on U(crit) of non-trained fish, while it caused a significantly lower U(crit) (compared to fasting fish) in trained fish (Pfeeding fish. Our results suggest that: (1) the central cardio-respiratory systems of non-trained darkbarbel catfish can support the oxygen demands of both digestion and the locomotion simultaneously; (2) the metabolic mode of competition in darkbarbel catfish is flexible; it changed from an additive model to a digestion-priority model after exercise training; (3) training may be accounted for cardio-respiratory capacity increase and following improvement of swimming performance during fasting in darkbarbel catfish, although, the swimming capacity was sacrificed to digestion in the situation of postprandial locomotion. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary administration of Bacillus thuringiensis on the cellular innate immune response of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reneshwary, C; Rajalakshmi, M; Marimuthu, K; Xavier, R

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) as a probiotic to enhance the cellular innate immune response of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) challenged with a bacterial fish pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila. The bacterium (Bt) was administered orally at three different dietary doses of 0.5 x 10(7) (T2), 1.0 x 10(7) (T3) and 1.5 x 107 (T4) cfu/g feed to the fingerlings of African catfish twice daily for 15 days. The positive control group (T1) and negative control group (T5) was fed without Bt for the same period. On the 16th day, blood and serum samples were withdrawn to determine the differential leukocyte count (DLC) and serum bactericidal activity. After 15 days feeding, the treatment groups (T2, T3 and T4) and positive control (T1) were challenged intraperitoneally with the bacterial suspension of 0.2 ml (1 x 10(8) cfu/ml). The negative control group (T5) was injected intraperitoneally with phosphate buffered saline (PBS). On the 3rd day of post challenge, the DLC was assessed in all the treatment groups. The fish fed with Bt incorporated diet showed significantly higher (P catfish.

  7. Discovering the African freshwater "torpedo": legendary Ethiopia, religious controversies, and a catfish capable of reanimating dead fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolino, Marco; Finger, Stanley; Barbara, Jean-Gaël

    2011-07-01

    The electric catfishes of African rivers and lakes, once depicted on Egyptian tomb art, have been largely overlooked in histories and reviews of electric fish biology and animal electricity. This article examines how Westerners, especially Dominican and Jesuit missionaries, discovered them in Ethiopia and other parts of Africa at the beginning of the seventeenth century. What transpired took place against the backdrop of tales involving the Bible, Prester John's mythical empire, and imaginary animals with fabulous powers. In effect, how they were found is related to attempts to convert Ethiopian Christians to true Catholicism, hopes of discovering great riches, and opportunities to trade, and not with the efforts of skilled natural philosophers to document and conduct experiments on the wildlife of this continent. Nevertheless, the early descriptions by Europeans circulated, and during the next century these catfishes began to be used in experiments that helped to make animal electricity a reality.

  8. Stress and Welfare of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822 in a Coupled Aquaponic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Baßmann

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available African catfish (Clarias gariepinus were investigated for physiological stress parameters to assess the influence of different cultivation techniques on fish welfare. The fish were reared in two conceptually identical recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS constructed in a greenhouse. One system was combined with a floating raft hydroponic unit to culture cucumbers (Cucumis sativus only using the process water. The second system remained without the plant cultivation unit and functioned as the control. Water quality was monitored regularly by measuring dissolved nutrients and physical water parameters. During 87 days, a total of 71 fish from each system (n = 142 were studied, with a final sampling of all fish (n = 107 at the end of the experiment. Blood from the caudal vein was analyzed for the stress hormone cortisol and the glucose concentration. In addition, fish were investigated for external injuries on their skin, fins and barbels. The results demonstrate that the system design had no influence on fish mortalities and growth rates. Furthermore, cortisol and blood glucose levels did not differ significantly between the two systems. However, the number of external injuries was significantly lower in the aquaponics, providing evidence that co-cultivation of fish and plants might offer benefits to the welfare of the fish.

  9. Coping strategies in farmed African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Does it affect their welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Nieuwegiessen, P G; Ramli, N M; Knegtel, B P F J M; Verreth, J A J; Schrama, J W

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess whether and how coping strategies affect the welfare of African catfish Clarias gariepinus housed at low and high densities. Group composition influenced feed intake; re-active groups (comprised of 100% re-active fish) had a lower specific growth rate (G) and feed intake and a higher feed conversion ratio (R(FC)) than pro-active groups. Furthermore, re-active groups had a lower energy retention than pro-active groups. The latter was fully due to differences in feed intake, since energy partitioning (on % total gross energy intake basis) was similar among the group composition treatments. Fish held at high stocking density showed a higher R(FC) and feeding speed and a lower energy retention and agonistic behaviour. None of the measured variables was influenced by the interaction effect. In mixed groups, G and number of skin lesions seemed to be affected by different behavioural phenotypes at low stocking density, but not at high density. These results indicate that both stocking density and group composition affect physical and behavioural responses of C. gariepinus. Furthermore, physical and behavioural data of individual fish housed in mixed groups suggest that coping strategy affects the fitness of different behavioural phenotypes at low, but not at high, stocking density.

  10. Ontogenetic Development of Weberian Ossicles and Hearing Abilities in the African Bullhead Catfish

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Lechner; Egon Heiss; Thomas Schwaha; Martin Glösmann; Friedrich Ladich

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The weberian apparatus of otophysine fishes facilitates sound transmission from the swimbladder to the inner ear to increase hearing sensitivity. It has been of great interest to biologists since the 19(th) century. No studies, however, are available on the development of the weberian ossicles and its effect on the development of hearing in catfishes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the development of the weberian apparatus and auditory sensitivity in the catfish L...

  11. Embryonic Developmental Stages of African Giant Catfish Heterobranchus longifilis (Valenciennes, 1840) (Teleostei, Clariidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfred-Ekprikpo, P. C.

    2016-02-01

    One of the major challenges confronting the globe is the issue of food insecurity. This problem results from inadequate protein intake by humans especially those people from the third world countries. In order to arrest this ugly situation, there is the need to increase protein production by intensifying aquaculture. In sub-saharan Africa, particularly Nigeria, the major aquaculture species is African mud catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and its production has increase protein output but the protein deficit is still wide. Thus, necessitating the need to develop other aquaculture species endemic to the region. One of these species is Heterobranchus and there successful breeding depending on a good understanding of their biology. The embryonic developmental stages of Heterobranchus longifilis in freshwater tanks were determined. The first cleavage cell division occurred 30 minutes after fertilization of eggs while, the morula stage was observed within 2 hours. The blastula stage occurred between 2 and 8 hours, while the gastrula stage occurred between 12 and 18 hours. Thereafter, neurulation period, and embryonic body formation appeared. The optical vesicle and auditory vesicle formed. Finally muscular contraction, tail formation, heartbeat and hatching occurred. The embryonic developmental stage of H. longifilis started immediately the oocyte (egg) was fertilized and terminated when the embryo hatched from the chorion membranous wall. The young larva emerged from the embryonic membrane at 24.46 hrs with vigorous lashing of the caudal region against the chorion membrane. The average weight and length of the yolk larvae were 0.005g and 0.43 cm respectively. The percentage fertilization and hatchability rates were 82.50 and 65.10% respectively. The experiment revealed that Heterobranchus longifilis could be a good aquaculture species.

  12. The metabolic responses and acid-base status after feeding, exhaustive exercise, and both feeding and exhaustive exercise in Chinese catfish (Silurus asotus Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke-Gui; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Peng, Jiang-Lan; Fu, Shi-Jian

    2010-06-01

    Feeding and exhaustive exercise are known to elevate metabolism. However, acid-base status may be oppositely affected by the two processes. In this study, we first investigated the acid-base response of Chinese catfish to feeding (the meal size was about 8% of body mass) to test whether an alkaline tide (a metabolic alkalosis created by gastric HCl secretion after feeding) would occur. We then determined the combined effects of feeding and exhaustive exercise on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption and acid-base status to determine whether the alkaline tide induced by feeding protects against acid-base disturbance during exhaustive exercise and affects subsequent recovery. Arterial blood pH increased from 7.74 +/- 0.02 before feeding to 7.88 +/- 0.02 and plasma [HCO(3)(-)](pl) increased from 5.42 +/- 0.29 to 7.83 +/- 0.37 mmol L(-1) 6 h after feeding, while feeding had no significant effect on PCO2. Exhaustive exercise led to a significant reduction in pH by 0.46 units and a reduction of [HCO(3)(-)](pl) by approximately 3 mmol L(-1). Lactate concentrations in white muscle and plasma increased by 2.4 mmol L(-1) and 13.4 micromol g(-1), respectively. Fed fish had a higher pH and [HCO(3)(-)](pl) than fasting fish at rest, and the reductions in pH (0.36 units) and [HCO(3)(-)](pl) (approximately 2 mmol L(-1)) were thus lower after exhaustive exercise. However, the recovery of acid-base status and metabolites were similar in digesting and fasting fish. Overall, a significant alkaline tide was found in Chinese catfish after feeding. The alkaline tide elicited by feeding significantly prevented the decreases in pH and [HCO(3)(-)](pl) immediately after exhaustive exercise, but recovery from exhaustive exercise was not affected by digestion.

  13. Industrial dry electro-stunning followed by chilling and decapitation as a slaughter method in Claresse (Heteroclarias sp.) and African catfish (Clarius gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sattari, A.; Lambooij, E.; Sharifi, H.; Abbink, W.; Reimert, H.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the industrial application of dry electro-stunning for Claresse® and African catfish via monitoring of brain and heart activities, behavioral responses to noxious stimuli and meat quality. Dry electro-stunning (150 V, AC + DC, 100 Hz) of Claresse® for 0.7 ± 0.2 s (mean ± SD)

  14. Isoenergetic Replacement of Fat by Starch in Diets for African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus): Effect on Water Fluxes in the Gastro Intestinal Tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harter, T.S.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Schrama, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of an isoenergetic replacement of dietary fat by starch, on chyme characteristics and water fluxes in the gastro intestinal tract (GIT) was assessed. Adult African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed a starch (SD) or fat (FD) diet and groups of fish were dissected at 2, 5 and 8 h after

  15. Enrichment of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) with functional selenium originating from garlic: effect of enrichment period and depuration on total selenium level and sensory properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, E.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.; Heul, van der J.W.; Luten, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    We wanted to optimize the procedure for the selenium enrichment of farmed African catfish, using garlic as dietary selenium source. In the first experiment we established the relation between the length of the selenium enrichment period and the resulting total selenium level in the fillet of the

  16. Determination of quarantine period in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed with pig (Sus sp.) offal to assure compliance with halal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Norhana, M N; Dykes, G A; Padilah, B; Ahmad Hazizi, A A; Masazurah, A R

    2012-12-01

    Pig (Sus sp.) and pig by-products are considered as najasa (impurities) in Islam and forbidden in Muslim consumer products. Animals fed on najasa are categorised as al-jallālah (contaminated animals) which are allowed to be consumed as long as they have been quarantined for a certain period of time. During this quarantine period the animals will have undergone a natural purification process or istihālah. African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) are commonly consumed in Malaysia and may be fed on najasa. This study was carried out to estimate the istihālah period for catfish after feeding with pig offal, based on the absence of pig DNA in catfish gut and to suggest the quarantine period in catfish fed with pig offal. The results indicated that the maximum istihālah period could reach 36h in the stomach, 6h in the midgut and less than 2h in the hindgut although in many cases shorter periods were observed. Based on these results it is estimated that the minimum quarantine period for catfish fed with pig offal is 1.5days. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of bleeding on the quality of farmed African catfish in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    the rinsing effect of melting ice reduced. Point of rejection. Figure 1. The variation of keeping quality of C. gariepinus fillets held at ambient temperatures (28°C) for 28 hours as determined by organoleptic assessment: illustration ofthe benefits of fish bleeding. Table 2. Variation of iron content in muscle of catfish held at ...

  18. Effect Of Different Dietary Items On The Growth Of African Catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the growth response of the developmental stages of hybrid catish resulting rom the crossing of Heterobranchus bidorsalis (male) and Clarias gariepinus (female), fed with different feed rations. Hatchlings of the hybrid catfish were cultured in plastic aquaria set up at thefish hatchery complex, Nnamdi ...

  19. Bio-accumulation of selected metals in African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus from the lower Olifants River, Mpumalanga, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.H. Du Preez

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of metal (Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn bio- accumulation in tissues (muscle, gill, kidney, liver and gonads and bile of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus, from the lower Olifants River was investigated. These metals were detected in all the tissues as well as in the bile, with the highest concentration found in either the gills, liver or gonadal tissue. The lowest concentration was usually detected in the muscle tissue. Although statistic comparisons revealed no significant differences between the localities, fish from the Selati River (Locality 1 generally had higher metal levels than fish from the localities along the Olifants River inside the Kruger National Park. The higher levels in the fish from the Selati River may be attributed to anthropogenic activities resulting in point and/or diffuse sources of metal pollution. These sources should be identified and reduced.

  20. Scaling of suction-feeding kinematics and dynamics in the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Aerts, Peter; Herrel, Anthony

    2005-06-01

    Scaling effects on the kinematics of suction feeding in fish remain poorly understood, at least partly because of the inconsistency of the results of the existing experimental studies. Suction feeding is mechanically distinct from most other type of movements in that negative pressure inside the buccal cavity is thought to be the most important speed-limiting factor during suction. However, how buccal pressure changes with size and how this influences the speed of buccal expansion is unknown. In this paper, the effects of changes in body size on kinematics of suction feeding are studied in the catfish Clarias gariepinus. Video recordings of prey-capturing C. gariepinus ranging in total length from 111 to 923 mm were made, from which maximal displacements, velocities and accelerations of several elements of the cranial system were determined. By modelling the observed expanding head of C. gariepinus as a series of expanding hollow elliptical cylinders, buccal pressure and power requirement for the expansive phase of prey capture were calculated for an ontogenetic sequence of catfish. We found that angular velocities decrease approximately proportional with increasing cranial size, while linear velocities remain more or less constant. Although a decreasing (angular) speed of buccal expansion with increasing size could be predicted (based on calculations of power requirement and the expected mass-proportional scaling of available muscular power in C. gariepinus), the observed drop in (angular) speed during growth exceeds these predictions. The calculated muscle-mass-specific power output decreases significantly with size, suggesting a relatively lower suction effort in the larger catfish compared with the smaller catfish.

  1. Potential use of green macroalgae Ulva lactuca as a feed supplement in diets on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A; Younis, El-Sayed M I; Al-Asgah, Nasser A

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of diet containing the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca, on the growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four experimental diets were formulated: D1 as a control group and D2, D3 and D4 which included 10%, 20% and 30% U. lactuca meal, respectively. 180 African catfish, weighing 9.59 ± 0.43 g, and with an average length of 11.26 ± 0.21, (mean ± SE) were divided into four groups corresponding to the different feeding regimes. The final body weight of the fish showed insignificant differences (P > 0.05) between the control and fish fed D2, whereas, there was a significant difference (P feed utilization. Fish fed with a diet containing 20% or 30% U. lactuca meal had poorer growth performance and feed utilization. Protein productive value, protein efficiency ratio, daily dry feed intake and total feed intake were also significantly lower in fish fed with D3 and D4 than in the control D1 and D2. Overall, the results of the experiment revealed that African catfish fed a diet with U. lactuca included at 20% and 30% levels showed poorer growth and feed utilization than the control group and fish fed diets containing 10% of U. lactuca.

  2. Ontogenetic development of weberian ossicles and hearing abilities in the African bullhead catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Walter; Heiss, Egon; Schwaha, Thomas; Glösmann, Martin; Ladich, Friedrich

    2011-04-12

    The weberian apparatus of otophysine fishes facilitates sound transmission from the swimbladder to the inner ear to increase hearing sensitivity. It has been of great interest to biologists since the 19(th) century. No studies, however, are available on the development of the weberian ossicles and its effect on the development of hearing in catfishes. We investigated the development of the weberian apparatus and auditory sensitivity in the catfish Lophiobagrus cyclurus. Specimens from 11.3 mm to 85.5 mm in standard length were studied. Morphology was assessed using sectioning, histology, and X-ray computed tomography, along with 3D reconstruction. Hearing thresholds were measured utilizing the auditory evoked potentials recording technique. Weberian ossicles and interossicular ligaments were fully developed in all stages investigated except in the smallest size group. In the smallest catfish, the intercalarium and the interossicular ligaments were still missing and the tripus was not yet fully developed. Smallest juveniles revealed lowest auditory sensitivity and were unable to detect frequencies higher than 2 or 3 kHz; sensitivity increased in larger specimens by up to 40 dB, and frequency detection up to 6 kHz. In the size groups capable of perceiving frequencies up to 6 kHz, larger individuals had better hearing abilities at low frequencies (0.05-2 kHz), whereas smaller individuals showed better hearing at the highest frequencies (4-6 kHz). Our data indicate that the ability of otophysine fish to detect sounds at low levels and high frequencies largely depends on the development of the weberian apparatus. A significant increase in auditory sensitivity was observed as soon as all weberian ossicles and interossicular ligaments are present and the chain for transmitting sounds from the swimbladder to the inner ear is complete. This contrasts with findings in another otophysine, the zebrafish, where no threshold changes have been observed.

  3. Ontogenetic development of weberian ossicles and hearing abilities in the African bullhead catfish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Lechner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The weberian apparatus of otophysine fishes facilitates sound transmission from the swimbladder to the inner ear to increase hearing sensitivity. It has been of great interest to biologists since the 19(th century. No studies, however, are available on the development of the weberian ossicles and its effect on the development of hearing in catfishes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the development of the weberian apparatus and auditory sensitivity in the catfish Lophiobagrus cyclurus. Specimens from 11.3 mm to 85.5 mm in standard length were studied. Morphology was assessed using sectioning, histology, and X-ray computed tomography, along with 3D reconstruction. Hearing thresholds were measured utilizing the auditory evoked potentials recording technique. Weberian ossicles and interossicular ligaments were fully developed in all stages investigated except in the smallest size group. In the smallest catfish, the intercalarium and the interossicular ligaments were still missing and the tripus was not yet fully developed. Smallest juveniles revealed lowest auditory sensitivity and were unable to detect frequencies higher than 2 or 3 kHz; sensitivity increased in larger specimens by up to 40 dB, and frequency detection up to 6 kHz. In the size groups capable of perceiving frequencies up to 6 kHz, larger individuals had better hearing abilities at low frequencies (0.05-2 kHz, whereas smaller individuals showed better hearing at the highest frequencies (4-6 kHz. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data indicate that the ability of otophysine fish to detect sounds at low levels and high frequencies largely depends on the development of the weberian apparatus. A significant increase in auditory sensitivity was observed as soon as all weberian ossicles and interossicular ligaments are present and the chain for transmitting sounds from the swimbladder to the inner ear is complete. This contrasts with findings in another otophysine

  4. Pathology of Edwardsiella tarda infection in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822, fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Thangapalam Jawahar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Edwardsiella tarda is one of the serious fish pathogens infecting both cultured and wild fish species. This study aimed to assess the phenotypic characterization and pathogenicity of E. tarda isolated from Clarias gariepinus (Burchell with dropsy and histopathological alterations. The causative agent was identified with Vitek 2, and its pathogenicity was determined by intramuscular injection. The challenged catfish exhibited vertical hanging, frothing, excess mucus production, listing, swollen abdomen, anorexia, fin and tail rot, and reddish operculum. The LD50 of E. tarda PBB and PBP strains was found to be 8.52 × 106 and 1.68 × 107 cells fish-1, respectively. Histopathological observations on catfish infected naturally revealed lymphocyte infiltration in muscle and focal necrosis, hyperplasia, edema, and swelling of the gill lamellar epithelium. The kidney of diseased fish exhibited ischemic type tubulopathy, necrosis of nephritic tubules, hyperplastic hematopoietic tissue, rupture of the tubular basement membrane, hydropic dystrophy of nephritic cells, neutrophil infiltration, fibrinoid necrosis of nephretic tubules, hemosiderin deposition, and edema. The liver sections revealed lymphocyte infiltration, dilation of hepatic sinusoids, expansion of space between hepatic sinusoids, and focal necrosis. The inflammatory responses observed in kidney and liver in the present study were presumably suppuration and were attributed to the potential virulence factors of E. tarda.

  5. Growth performance of African catfish (Clarias sp. juvenile fed on the diets containing various chromium content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Aryansyah

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different dietary chromium level on the growth performance of catfish (Clarias sp. juvenile. Five experimental diets contain different chromium level, namely diet A (as a control diet 0.01; B 1.30; C 2.60; D 3.90 and E 5.20 mg/kg diet were used in this experiment. Fish with body weight of  5.57 ± 0.01 g/ind, fed on the experimental diet, twice a day, at satiation. Feeding trial was conducted for 60 days. Based on the evaluation of protein level of the whole body, protein and lipid retention, daily growth rate and feed efficiency, it was concluded that the optimum dietary chromium level for catfish  juvenile was 2.60 mg/kg diet. Keywords: chromium, growth, Clarias sp.   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian kromium dengan level berbeda terhadap pertumbuhan ikan lele (Clarias sp. juvenil.  Lima jenis pakan yang mengandung kromium berbeda, yaitu pakan A  (kontrol 0,01; B 1,30; C 2,60; D 3,90 dan pakan E 5,20 mg/kg digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Ikan dengan bobot 5,57 ± 0,01 g/ind., diberi pakan 2 kali sehari secara satiasi.  Pemeliharaan ikan dilakukan selama 60 hari.  Berdasarkan analisa retensi protein, kandungan protein dan retensi lemak dalam tubuh ikan lele, disimpulkan bahwa kadar kromium yang optimum untuk juvenil ikan lele adalah 2,60 mg/kg pakan. Kata kunci: kromium, pertumbuhan, Clarias sp.

  6. Fuzzy logic and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for characterization of contaminant exposure through selected biomarkers in African catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Ali; Keiter, Steffen; Hollert, Henner; Courtenay, Simon C

    2013-03-01

    This study represents a first attempt at applying a fuzzy inference system (FIS) and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to the field of aquatic biomonitoring for classification of the dosage and time of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) injection through selected biomarkers in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were injected either intramuscularly (i.m.) or intraperitoneally (i.p.) with BaP. Hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, relative visceral fat weights (LSI), and four biliary fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) concentrations were used as the inputs in the modeling study. Contradictory rules in FIS and ANFIS models appeared after conversion of bioassay results into human language (rule-based system). A "data trimming" approach was proposed to eliminate the conflicts prior to fuzzification. However, the model produced was relevant only to relatively low exposures to BaP, especially through the i.m. route of exposure. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis was unable to raise the classification rate to an acceptable level. In conclusion, FIS and ANFIS models have limited applications in the field of fish biomarker studies.

  7. Oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes activities in the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, experimentally challenged with Escherichia coli and Vibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Joseph A

    2014-04-01

    The impacts of bacterial infection on cultivated fish species, African catfish, were investigated using oxidative stress biomarkers [lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonylation] and the activities of important antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes [catalase and glutathione S-transferase (GST)]. Fish were inoculated via oral gavage with one of the following treatments: 1 × 10(5) CFU/ml of Escherichia coli (EC1), 2 × 10(5) CFU/ml of E. coli (EC2), 1 × 10(5) CFU/ml of Vibrio fischeri (V1), 2 × 10(5) CFU/ml of V. fischeri (V2), gavaged with distilled water and not gavaged. Fish were maintained in the laboratory for 7 days after the bacterial inoculation, and the levels of LPO, protein carbonylation, GST, and catalase activities were determined in the muscle, gills, and liver of fish. Fish inoculated with bacteria (either E. coli or V. fischeri) had a significant higher levels of tissue LPO, protein carbonylation, and GST activities in a tissue-specific pattern (liver > muscle > gills). This appears to be related with the levels of bacterial inoculation, with effects more pronounced in fish inoculated with either EC2 or V2. The catalase activity did not differ significantly between the inoculated and fish that were not inoculated. The results of this study indicate that bacterial inoculation could result in oxidative stress in fish, and liver has a higher rate of oxidative stress per mg tissue compared to the gills and the muscle.

  8. White Mulberry (Morus alba Foliage Methanolic Extract Can Alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila Infection in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Sheikhlar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry foliage extract (MFE as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp. in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus. In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7 g/Kg DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC, albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7 g/Kg DM. Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish.

  9. Effects of Tank Background Colour on Growth Performance and Feed Utilization of African Catfish Clarias Gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 Fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okomoda Victor Tosin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 fingerlings reared in white, green, blue, black and red coloured tanks was investigated. Each colour was tested in triplicate 1 m3 tanks with an initial stocking density of 100 fingerlings per tank (1.07 g. Fish were fed a commercial diet at 5% body weight per day for eight weeks. Fish weights were sampled every 2 weeks to adjust feeding rates. Tank colour had a significant effect (P < 0.05 on the overall performance of the fingerlings. Rearing in black tanks resulted in a higher daily feed intake (0.44 g and better growth performance when compared to other tank colours, while the poorest performance was observed in blue and green tanks. Carcass protein and fat content at 8 weeks revealed a trend similar to that observed for growth. Also, serum glucose tests showed higher levels in light background tanks and were thought to be an indication of stress. Survival was not affected by tank colour. It was concluded that dark-coloured tanks such as black or red were better in comparison to light-coloured tanks for the rearing of African catfish fingerlings

  10. The potency of curing fish waste pellet for growth and protein level of African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, Awik Puji Dyah; Febiyani, Asti R.

    2017-06-01

    Fish curing in Kenjeran, Surabaya produces waste such as fish offal, tail and fins which still has some nutrients, especially protein content, so it can be used as fish feed. Fish feed is an important factor in fish growth. Farmers usually use commercial fish pellets, but the price is relatively more expensive. Curing fish waste which is less expensive can be used as materials for pellets. The purpose of this study is to utilize curing fish waste as a material fish pellets for growth African catfish. Experimental design of this research is Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 1 factorial. The pellets varieties were of K.0, K.1, K.2, K.3, and K.4. The pellets were given to the fish for 30 days. Data of growth rate, survival rate and FCR and protein level data of the pellet and the fish flesh were analyzed by one-way ANOVA statistical method. The analysis shows that the K.4 treatment has a best result of relatively growth of length (72.64%)and relatively growth of weight (488,97%). Protein level of fish flesh is 20.97%. The survival rate of 98%, FCR most efficient pellets exist is K.4.

  11. Experimental exposure of African catfish Clarias Gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 to phenol: Clinical evaluation, tissue alterations and residue assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai D. Ibrahem

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There is lack of information regarding; the toxicological and pathological consequences of phenol stressed Clarias gariepinus; as well as; the susceptibility of the stressed fish to disease occurrence. Static renewal bioassay was experimentally conducted to evaluate the toxic effects of phenol on the African catfish C. gariepinus. Ninety-six-hour acute toxicity tests revealed that the median lethal concentration of phenol (LC50 is 35 mg/L by immersion. Four experimental fish groups were assigned for 3 weeks exposure test; three were exposed 20%, 50% and 70% LC50, the fourth control fish group received a vehicle of dechlorinated water. Abnormal signs including cessation of feeding, nervous manifestations; skin expressed perfuses mucous, black patches with skin erosion and ulcerations in the later stages. All observations were correlated to the time and dose of exposure. Post mortem examination revealed adhesion of the internal organs. For tissue alterations; Skin, gills, brain, liver and kidney showed variable degrees of degenerative changes and necrosis. Muscle residues shown in mean ± SE were 4.3 ± 0.05 and 6.65 ± 0.05 ppm in groups that received 20 and 50% LD50, respectively. Infection with Aeromonas hydrophila resulted in high percent of mortalities with a non significant difference between the challenged fish groups. The study cleared that phenol is toxic to C. gariepinus under experimental conditions.

  12. Virgin microplastics cause toxicity and modulate the impacts of phenanthrene on biomarker responses in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Ali; Romano, Nicholas; Galloway, Tamara; Hamzah, Hazilawati

    2016-11-01

    Despite the ubiquity of microplastics (MPs) in aquatic environments and their proven ability to carry a wide variety of chemicals, very little is known about the impacts of virgin or contaminant-loaded MPs on organisms. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of virgin or phenanthrene (Phe)-loaded low-density polyethylene (LDPE) fragments on a suite of biomarker responses in juvenile African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Virgin LDPE (50 or 500µg/L) were preloaded with one of two nominal Phe concentrations (10 or 100µg/L) and were exposed to the fish for 96h. Our findings showed one or both Phe treatments significantly increased the degree of tissue change (DTC) in the liver while decreased the transcription levels of forkhead box L2 (foxl2) and tryptophan hydroxylase2 (tph2) in the brain of C. gariepinus. Exposure to either levels of virgin MPs increased the DTC in the liver and plasma albumin: globulin ratio while decreased the transcription levels of tph2. Moreover, MPs modulated (interacted with) the impact of Phe on the DTC in the gill, plasma concentrations of cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), total protein (TP), albumin, and globulin, and the transcription levels of fushi tarazu-factor 1 (ftz-f1), gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-hsd2), and liver glycogen stores. Results of this study highlight the ability of virgin LDPE fragments to cause toxicity and to modulate the adverse impacts of Phe in C. gariepinus. Due to the wide distribution of MPs and other classes of contaminants in aquatic environments, further studies are urgently needed to elucidate the toxicity of virgin or contaminant-loaded MPs on organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A functional morphological approach to the scaling of the feeding system in the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrel, Anthony; Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Wouters, Sarah; Adriaens, Dominique; Aerts, Peter

    2005-06-01

    Effects of size are pervasive and affect nearly all aspects of the biology of animals and plants. Theoretical scaling models have been developed to predict the effects of size on the functioning of musculo-skeletal systems. Although numerous experimental studies have investigated the effects of size on the movements of skeletal elements during locomotion and feeding in vertebrates, relatively little is known about the scaling of the muscles and bones responsible for the actual movements. Here, we examine the scaling of external morphology, skeletal elements of the feeding system, and a number of cranial muscles to understand how this may affect the movements observed during suction feeding in the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. The results show that neither the head nor the cranial elements themselves scale according to geometric similarity models. Relative to head size, distinct changes in the mass and configuration of the feeding structures takes place. Unexpectedly, different cranial muscles show different scaling patterns that ultimately all lead to a positive allometry of muscle cross-sectional area relative to fish head size. This suggests that (1) the scaling of the cranial elements cannot be predicted a priori based on the scaling of external head dimensions and (2) the scaling of the feeding system is optimised towards high force output in the larger animals. An analysis of the consequences of the observed changes in morphology with size on performance traits, including bite force and jaw closing velocity, suggests a tight link between the scaling of the feeding system and the natural diet of these fish. Whereas for smaller size classes the system is tuned towards high bite forces, for animals with cranial lengths greater than 65 mm the scaling of the feeding system appears to be dictated by the hydrodynamic constraints on suction feeding.

  14. Influence of Locally Available Trees or Tree Products (Acacia, Prosopis, Neem and Coconut Husks) on Quality and Post Harvest Losses of Smoked Marine and African Catfish In Kipini and Tana Delta

    OpenAIRE

    Odote, P.M.O.

    2009-01-01

    The study evaluated the properties and relative effect of 4 tree species or products- Acacia raddiana, Prosopis julifora, Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Coconut husks from Cocos nicifera on smoking the African and marine catfish and to monitor insect infestation in the fish smoked with Neem tree during storage.

  15. The effect of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa) in combination with different drugs with anti-dopamine and anti-serotonin properties on gonadotropin release and ovulation in the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goos, H.J.Th.; Joy, K.P.; Leeuw, R. de; Oordt, P.G.W.J. van; Delft, A.M.L. van; Gielen, J.Th.

    1987-01-01

    Under hatchery conditions the reproduction of the African catfish depends on artificial induction of egg maturation and ovulation. In this study the effect of a number of potential psychotropic drugs with variable anti-dopamine and/or anti-serotonin properties in combination with LHRHa on

  16. Screening of selenium containing proteins in the Tris-buffer soluble fraction of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fillets by laser ablation-ICP-MS after SDS-PAGE and electroblotting onto membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedrero, Z.; Madrid, Y.; Camara, C.; Schram, E.; Luten, J.B.; Feldmann, I.; Waentig, L.; Hayen, H.; Jakubowski, N.

    2009-01-01

    The anti-carcinogenic properties of selenium against certain types of cancer when present in organic forms justify the increasing interest in development of selenium fortified food. In this particular study, African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed with a Se-enriched diet in order to enhance

  17. The significance of photoperiodicity, water temperature and an inherent endogenous rhythm for the production of viable eggs by the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, kept in subtropical ponds in Israel and under Israeli and Dutch hatchery conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richter, C.J.J.; Viveen, W.J.A.R.; Eding, E.H.; Sukkel, M.; Rothuis, A.J.; Hoof, M.F.P.M. van; Berg, F.G.J. van den; Oordt, P.G.W.J. van

    1987-01-01

    A comparison was made between the fecundity of female African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, transferred from their natural habitat in Northern Israel to nearby fish ponds and an indoor hatchery respectively, and conspecifics reared and kept in an indoor hatchery in The Netherlands. The results

  18. Effect of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) extracts as a feed additive on growth and hematological parameters of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soosean, C; Marimuthu, K; Sudhakaran, S; Xavier, R

    2010-07-01

    The efficacy of dietary inclusion of various parts of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) extract on growth and hematological parameters of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings were investigated. Ninety six fingerlings were randomly distributed into each of ten 20L plastic aquaria. Each treatment groups consists of three replicates. Four experimental diets were prepared: controls, leaf extract, shoot extract and rind extract. The 0.5% of various parts (leaf, rind and shoot extract) of mangosteen were included in the experimental diets at the expense of 0.5% rice bran. The fingerlings were fed with experimental diets at satiation for five weeks. The results showed that no significant difference on growth, specific growth rate, average daily growth, feed conversion ratio and condition factors of the dietary inclusion of the different mangosteen extract treatment when compared to control groups except leaf extract. Significantly higher red blood cells (RBC) count and white blood cells (WBC) count were recorded in fish fed with shoot extract incorporated diet fed groups than the other groups. However, no significant impact on hemoglobin content between the experimental groups and control groups. Based on the results of the present study, it is suggested that feeding fish with 0.5 % of mangosteen extracts for 35 days has no adverse effect on growth and enhanced the hematological parameters of African catfish fingerlings.

  19. The Effects of Rosemary Extract (Rosemaria officinalis as a Feed Additive on Growth and Whole-body Composition of the African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822

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    Funda Turan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the Rosemary extract (Rosemaria officinalis on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus, Burchell, 1822. Fish with an average body weight of 10.59±0.31 g were fed with different concentrations (0, 0.25 and 0.5 % of Rosemary extract at dietary for 60 days. At the end of experiment, the highest values of weight gain, specific growth rate and food conversion rate were 17.23±0.08 g, 1.93±0.07 and 1.16±0.06 at 0.5% Rosemary extract dosage group respectively. The highest survival rates were 100% at 0.25% Rosemary extract dosage groups. No significant differences were shown in whole body protein and lipid content among the dietary treatments. These results indicate that treatment of Rosemary extract has positive effect on growth in African catfish with no apparent effects on health status.

  20. Prevalence of pansteatitis in African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

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    K. David A. Huchzermeyer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pansteatitis was confirmed in sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, from three main locations within the Kruger National Park (KNP; the Olifants River Gorge, Engelhard Dam on the Letaba River and from the Sabie River in the Sabiepoort. An increasing prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish during repeated samplings from the Olifants Gorge from 2009 to 2011 and co-existence of old and recent lesions indicated on-going incitement of pansteatitis. Only a low prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from the Olifants River upstream of the Gorge in the KNP and no pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from a rain-filled dam not connected to the Olifants River. Common to both the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort is the damming of the rivers in Mozambique to form lakes Massingir and Corumana respectively. Anthropogenic activities resulting in potential pollution of the rivers differ greatly between these two catchments, providing argument against a primary pollution-related aetiology of the pansteatitis found at these two sites. Compared with other sites, analysis of stomach contents of catfish from the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort strongly suggested that consumption of a predominantly fish diet was associated with the development of pansteatitis in these fish. In a farmed population of catfish used as positive control, development of pansteatitis could be ascribed to consumption of rancid fish waste from a trout slaughterhouse. In the Olifants Gorge, alien invasive silver carp, Hypophthalmychthys molitrix (Valenciennes, seasonally migrate upstream out of Lake Massingir to spawn. This schooling species is an obligate phytoplankton feeder with consequent high levels of adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the Olifants Gorge, at least, this may explain seasonal exposure to levels of polyunsaturated fats in the diets of catfish and crocodiles to which these animals are not adapted. The

  1. Therapeutic Exercise and Hypertension | Sikiru | African Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Research Review. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 3 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web ...

  2. African Tobacco Control Research Initiative Scoping Exercise ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The African Tobacco Situational Analysis (ATSA) supported by IDRC and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation investigated the critical determinants of success for tobacco control in 12 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. As the initiative evolved an additional goal was added, that of identifying, implementing and enforcing ...

  3. Exercise, Health, and Falls Risks among Older African American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kosma

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background of Study: Although exercise has many benefits, older African American (AA women are less active than older Caucasian women and older AA men. Balance and muscle-strengthening activities are typically recommended for decreased falls, whereas the role of aerobic training alone on falls prevention is controversial. Objective: This was a mixed methods phronetic (pragmatic study – without an intervention – including quantitative data (falls risks and qualitative data on exercise behavior and its importance to health and falls prevention; therefore, the studied phenomenon was thoroughly and pragmatically investigated. The first purpose of the study was to examine differences in falls risks based on exercise type (aerobics vs. combination of aerobics, muscle training, and balance activities and exercise level (active people vs. somewhat active people. Secondly, participants’ exercise values were examined in relation to their health, falls-risk prevention, exercise behavior, and falls risks. Method: Interviews and falls risk assessments were conducted among 12 older AA women in an inner-city community center. Results: ANCOVA and ANOVA showed that the aerobics group performed better in Dynamic Gait Index (DGI and Timed Up and Go than the combination group (d =0.85, -0.97; the latter surpassed the former in Functional Reach (d = 2.27. The active group (met the 150 minutes/week exercise recommendation performed better in DGI and Six-Minute Walk than the somewhat active group (d =0.62.,50; the latter outperformed the former in balance-eyes open (d = -0.52. Emerging themes about lifestyle values included: a reasons for health conditions and staying healthy and b falls prevention. Conclusion: Exercise programs for fall risk reduction should include not only muscle strengthening and balance activities, but also aerobic exercises. Meeting minimum exercise recommendations is key to falls risk reduction. Beyond healthy diet, the role of exercise

  4. EXPRESSION OF GROWTH HORMONE (PhGH GENE AND ANALYSIS OF INSULINE-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I (IGF-I PRODUCTION IN AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus TRANSGENIC F-1

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    Huria Marnis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have previously produced F-1 transgenic of African catfish from crosses between founder transgenic female and non transgenic male. The aim of this study was to evaluate distribution and expression PhGH growth hormone gene transgenic African catfish organs and to measure the concentration of IGF-I in plasma. Transgene was detected using the PCR method in various organs, namely pituitary, brain, liver, heart, spleen, kidney, intestine, stomach, muscle, gill, and eye. Transgene expression levels were analyzed using the method of quantitative Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR. Plasma samples were analyzed for Insuline-like Growth Factor (IGF-I using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA method. The results showed that the PhGH was detected and expressed in all organs of the transgenic African catfish (F-1. Liver exhibited the highest level of PhGH mRNA (23 x 106 copies. The plasma IGF-I levels in transgenic individuals were not significant than non transgenic. The higher level of exogenous PhGH gene expression may not represent the production of IGF-1.

  5. The effect of exercise training on the metabolic interaction between feeding and locomotion in the juvenile southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis Chen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-Ming; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian

    2010-11-01

    The southern catfish exhibits the largest decrease in critical swimming speeds (U(crit)) during digestion among the fish species that have been investigated. To test whether the maximum metabolic capacity of the southern catfish was improved after exercise training to alleviate the competitive interaction between digestion and swimming, we measured postprandial metabolic responses, U(crit) and oxygen consumption rates (MO(2)) during swimming in both fasting and digesting fish. Twenty-one days of training (50 min swimming at 60% U(crit) followed by 10 min chasing) did not produce significant differences in resting MO(2) (MO(2rest)) or postprandial peak MO(2) (MO(2peak)). However, it did result in a significant decrease in energy expenditure during digestion. Feeding caused a significant decrease in U(crit) and an increase in active MO(2) (MO(2active)), whereas training caused a significant increase in U(crit) but no significant change in MO(2active). Neither digestion nor training had a significant effect on metabolic scope (MO(2active)-MO(2rest)). Training had no interactive effect on postprandial changes in any measured variable, so we conclude that training did not alleviate the competitive interaction between digestion and swimming. Our results suggest that: (1) the metabolic capacity of nontrained fish cannot support the metabolic demands of both digestion and locomotion simultaneously, and swimming metabolism, therefore, is sacrificed to sustain digestion when feeding and locomotion are combined (digestion-prioritization mode); (2) the metabolic capacity and metabolic mode of competition did not change after training, but trained fish did exhibit improved swimming performance, possibly due to their increased rate of O(2) extraction.

  6. Functional and evolutionary anatomy of the African suckermouth catfishes (Siluriformes: Mochokidae): convergent evolution in Afrotropical and Neotropical faunas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerinckx, Tom; De Kegel, Barbara

    2014-08-01

    Of those fishes scraping food off substrates and using head parts in substrate attachment for station-holding, the catfish families Loricariidae, Astroblepidae and Mochokidae display the most dramatically adapted morphologies. Loricariidae and Astroblepidae, living in the Neotropical freshwaters, exclusively contain suckermouth catfish species, and their anatomy and head kinematics have already been studied into detail. Among Mochokidae, living in the tropical freshwaters of Africa, only the chiloglanidine subfamily has a sucker mouth, and occupies similar niches in Africa as both Neotropical families do in South America. Having derived from relatively unrelated catfish ancestors, their anatomy is poorly known, and the nature of their scraping and station-holding capabilities is not known at all. This paper provides details on the chiloglanidine head anatomy and function (relating their anatomy to that of the non-suckermouth Mochokidae), and compares this Afrotropical suckermouth taxon with both Neotropical suckermouth families. It identifies both convergences and differing anatomical and kinematic solutions to the same key needs of food-scraping and station-holding suckermouth fishes. Chiloglanidine mochokids differ from both Neotropical families in having less mobile jaws, with an upper jaw assisting more in station-holding than in feeding. They share the highly mobile lower lip with both Neotropical taxa, although the configuration of the intermandibular/protractor hyoidei muscle system, changing the volume of the sucker-disc cavity, differs in all three taxa. Chiloglanidines have a single, posterior inflow opening into this cavity, whereas Loricariidae have two lateral openings, and Astroblepidae have none, using an opercular incurrent opening instead. The chiloglanidine buccal valve system consists of two passive valves, as in Astroblepidae. Although less diverse in number of genera and species, this Afrotropical suckermouth taxon possesses the anatomical and

  7. Electric discharges and electrogenesis peculiarity in two African upside-down catfishes, Synodontis caudovittatus and S. eupterus (Mochokidae, Siluriformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, A A; Baron, V D; Golubtsov, A S

    2017-05-01

    The paper reports spontaneous generation of weak electric discharges with an amplitude of 0.4-1.0 mV and a frequency of 3-9 min(-1) by solitary Synodontis caudovittatus fish. When fish individuals were tested in pairs, their aggressive-defense interactions were associated with an increase in the amplitude of the discharges (up to 30-45 mV) compared to the discharges of individual fish, while the duration of the pulses increased up to 20-25 ms due to the prolongation of the second phase. In S. eupterus, electric activity was recorded only in the course of aggression-defense interactions, while spontaneous generation of discharges was not observed at all. The paper discusses the different aspects of electrocummunication between the catfish including the role of the reversion of polarity of the merged summated discharges with increased duration.

  8. Metallothionein from Wild Populations of the African Catfish Clarias gariepinus: From Sequence, Protein Expression and Metal Binding Properties to Transcriptional Biomarker of Metal Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    M’kandawire, Ethel; Mierek-Adamska, Agnieszka; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R.; Choongo, Kennedy; Yabe, John; Mwase, Maxwell; Saasa, Ngonda; Blindauer, Claudia A.

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic pollution with heavy metals is an on-going concern throughout the world, and methods to monitor release and impact of heavy metals are of high importance. With a view to probe its suitability as molecular biomarker of metal pollution, this study has determined a coding sequence for metallothionein of the African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus. The gene product was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli in presence of Zn(II), Cd(II), or Cu, and characterised by Electrospray Ionisation Mass Spectrometry and elemental analysis. C. gariepinus MT displays typical features of fish MTs, including 20 conserved cysteines, and seven bound divalent cations (Zn(II) or Cd(II)) when saturated. Livers from wild C. gariepinus fish collected in all three seasons from four different sites on the Kafue River of Zambia were analysed for their metal contents and for MT expression levels by quantitative PCR. Significant correlations were found between Zn and Cu levels and MT expression in livers, with MT expression clearly highest at the most polluted site, Chililabombwe, which is situated in the Copperbelt region. Based on our findings, hepatic expression of MT from C. gariepinus may be further developed as a major molecular biomarker of heavy metal pollution resulting from mining activities in this region. PMID:28718783

  9. Metallothionein from Wild Populations of the African Catfish Clarias gariepinus: From Sequence, Protein Expression and Metal Binding Properties to Transcriptional Biomarker of Metal Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethel M’kandawire

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic pollution with heavy metals is an on-going concern throughout the world, and methods to monitor release and impact of heavy metals are of high importance. With a view to probe its suitability as molecular biomarker of metal pollution, this study has determined a coding sequence for metallothionein of the African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus. The gene product was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli in presence of Zn(II, Cd(II, or Cu, and characterised by Electrospray Ionisation Mass Spectrometry and elemental analysis. C. gariepinus MT displays typical features of fish MTs, including 20 conserved cysteines, and seven bound divalent cations (Zn(II or Cd(II when saturated. Livers from wild C. gariepinus fish collected in all three seasons from four different sites on the Kafue River of Zambia were analysed for their metal contents and for MT expression levels by quantitative PCR. Significant correlations were found between Zn and Cu levels and MT expression in livers, with MT expression clearly highest at the most polluted site, Chililabombwe, which is situated in the Copperbelt region. Based on our findings, hepatic expression of MT from C. gariepinus may be further developed as a major molecular biomarker of heavy metal pollution resulting from mining activities in this region.

  10. Use of Rendered Animal Protein Meals as Fish Meal Replacer in the Diets of the African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 Juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akegbejo-Samsons, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding trials were conducted to investigate the growth response, nutrient utilization and the flesh quality of the juveniles of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus fed with five different dietary protein sources. Five dry diets containing shrimp meal, blood meal, maggot meal, LT 94 fish meal and tilapia meal respectively were prepared and fed to duplicate groups of C. gariepinus juveniles (18.8 ± 0.7 g to satiation for 70 days. Weight gain, growth response and feed utilization indices, and carcass composition did not vary significantly (P> 0.05 between treatments. Average daily growth was highest (0.93 g in diet AM1 (fish meal, followed by diet AM5, 0.91 g (maggot meal and the least (0.83 g was recorded in diet AM2 (shrimp meal. The highest specific growth rate (SGR was recorded (0.93 in diet AM1, while the least (0.87 was from diet AM2. Results indicate that diet fortified with fish meal as protein source had the highest final body weight (83.36 g, followed by maggot meal (82.21 g. Diet with shrimp meal gave the poorest average daily growth. The most cost effective diet in terms of cost per unit gain in weight of fish was obtained from maggot meal.

  11. Electrosensory prey detection in the African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Clariidae), of a weakly electric mormyrid fish, the bulldog (Marcusenius macrolepidotus)

    OpenAIRE

    Hanika, Susanne; Kramer, Bernd

    2000-01-01

    During their seasonal runs in the Okavango and other freshwater bodies in southern Africa, the sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus, specialises on the bulldog, Marcusenius macrolepidotus, as its main prey. We examined whether the catfish can locate bulldogs by detecting their pulse-type electric organ discharges (EODs). The electrosensory threshold for single-cycle, monopolar square-wave pulses was exceedingly low (down to 13 µVp-p/cm for 4-ms pulses) in trained, food-rewarded sharptooth c...

  12. Efficacy of Andrographis paniculata, Psidium guajava and Piper betle as Prevention on Motile Aeromonad Septicaemia Infection in African Catfish (Clarias sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wahjuningrum

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available An effort to prevent Motile Aeromonad Septicaemia (MAS disease in African catfish (Clarias sp. performed using antibiotic was less safety and expensive ways.  An herbal medicine may be able to be a safety and cheap way to prevent of the MAS disease.  This study was conducted to determine efficacy of herbal medicine combination of sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata, daun jambu (Psidium guajava and daun sirih (Piper betle. Herbal medicines were mixed to diet and fish were fed on the diet containing the herbal medicine for 7 days of rearing.  The dosage of herbal medicine per 100 gram of diet was PI (1.0 g sambiloto, 0.75 g daun jambu and 0.25 g daun sirih, PII (1.0 g sambiloto,  0.50 g daun jambu,  0.50 g daun sirih, and PIII (1.0 g sambiloto, 0.25 g daun jambu, and 0.75 g daun sirih.  On 8th day, fish were injected intramuscularly with 1 ml of Aeromonas hydrophila (105 cfu/ml every 1 kg of fish.  Clinical symptom, feed response, fish weight, number of fish survive and visually changing of internal organs.  The results of study indicated that administration of herbal medicine A. paniculata, P. guajava and P. betle mixed into the diet effectively prevented A. hydrophila infection.  Combination of 1.0 gram A. paniculata, 0.75 gram P. guajava and 0.25 gram P. betle gave higher efficacy against A. hydrophila infection. Keywords: Andrographis paniculata, Psidium guajava, Piper betle, Motile Aeromonad septicaemia, African catfish   ABSTRAK Upaya penanggulangan penyakit MAS (Motil Aeromonad Septicaemia pada ikan lele dumbo (Clarias sp. yang dilakukan menggunakan antibiotik cenderung kurang aman dan mahal. Pencegahan menggunakan obat herbal diharapkan dapat mengatasi masalah tersebut secara aman dan murah.  Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui efektivitas obat herbal kombinasi sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata, daun jambu biji (Psidium guajava dan sirih (Piper betle dengan dosis berbeda yang diberikan melalui pakan selama 7 hari.

  13. Isoenergetic replacement of fat by starch in diets for African catfish (Clarias gariepinus: effect on water fluxes in the gastro intestinal tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till S Harter

    Full Text Available The effect of an isoenergetic replacement of dietary fat by starch, on chyme characteristics and water fluxes in the gastro intestinal tract (GIT was assessed. Adult African catfish (Clarias gariepinus were fed a starch (SD or fat (FD diet and groups of fish were dissected at 2, 5 and 8 h after the consumption of a single meal. Chyme was collected quantitatively and was analysed for osmolality and dry matter (DM content. Postprandial water fluxes were calculated, while using yttrium oxide (Y(2O(3 as an inert marker to account for the absorption of DM along the GIT. The largest differences in chyme characteristics between diets were observed in the stomach and decreased towards subsequent compartments. A high initial osmotic pressure was measured in the stomach for both diets (up to 498 ± 2 mOsm kg(-1 and was likely the driver for the endogeneous water influx to this compartment. Large additions of water were recorded to the stomach and proximal intestine for both diets and absorption of water took place in the mid- and distal intestine. Interestingly, the dietary treatment had an impact on water balance in the stomach and proximal intestine of the fish, but not in the mid- and distal intestine. A strong complementary relationship suggested that 59% of the water fluxes in the proximal intestine could be explained by previous additions to the stomach. Therefore, a higher dietary inclusion of starch led to a shift in water additions from the proximal intestine to the stomach. However, the sum of water additions to the GIT was not different between diets and was on average 6.52 ± 0.85 ml water g(-1 DM. The interactions between osmoregulation and digestion, in the GIT of fed freshwater fish, deserve further attention in future research.

  14. RESPONSE TO SELECTION FOR BODY WEIGHT IN THE THIRD GENERATION OF MASS SELECTION OF THE AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus AT RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR FISH BREEDING SUKAMANDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Iswanto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus in Indonesia for increasing growth performance has been conducted by Research Institute for Fish Breeding at Sukamandi through mass selection. Collection and characterizations of the founder populations, building the synthetic base population, first generation and second generation through mass selection were conducted during 2010-2013. Later, in 2014 it was followed by building the third generation. The present study aimed to find out the genetic gain in the third generation in term of response to selection for body weight. Fifty-two pairs of the selected (fast growing individuals from the second generation were mated to produce the third generation. As a comparison, five pairs of average-sized individuals were mated to produce the control population, as a second generation representative. Larval rearing, nursery and grow-out phases were respectively held for 25 days in the aquaria, 30 days in the concrete ponds and 60 days in the concrete ponds. At the end of each phase, individual samplings of body weight were undertaken. The results showed that mean body weight of the third generation was higher than that of control population at the end of larval rearing phase (0.21 ± 0.26 g versus 0.20 ± 0.15 g, nursery phase (6.12 ± 2.93 g versus 5.80 ± 3.50 g and grow-out phase (198.67 ± 82.82 g versus 165.22 ± 71.09 g. Those results revealed that response to selection for body weight of the third generation was positive, i.e. about 20.24% (33.45 g.

  15. Determining the safety and suitability of fluorescein dye for characterization of skin ulcerations in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus

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    Mai D. Ibrahem

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to identify the presence of lesions in fish skin as soon as they erupt. Fish skin lesions are either macroscopic (can be visualized by the naked eye or microscopic (difficult to detect with the naked eye. Skin wounds resulting in loss of the epithelium (superficial or deep ulcers are serious as they may interfere with osmoregulation and open portals for opportunistic pathogens. Herein, we report on the use of a fluorescein dye for the detection of skin ulcers that cannot be seen by the naked eye. Due to their importance in aquaculture endeavors in Egypt, this study focused on two indigenous species, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and the scale-less African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus. Fluorescein dye was tested for safety to fish without interfering with microbiological analysis. Parallel to the use of the flourescein dye, the detected ulcers were examined for the presence of bacteria or tissue alterations. Further, we experimentally induced the formation of skin ulcers in O. niloticus physically or by injecting Aeromons hydrophila, and then assessed the utility of fluorescein dye in detecting the induced skin lesions. Results obtained in this study demonstrated that fluorescein dye application is harmless to Nile tilapia at concentrations up to 0.5 mg fluorescein/ml water for up to 15 min. Indeed, a low dose of fluorescein (0.10 mg/ml for 5 min could identify very minute skin abrasions. We highly recommend the use of fluorescein dye for the evaluation of skin health in farmed fish species and the visualization of minute skin abrasions.

  16. Catfish Biology and Farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Rex A; Elaswad, Ahmed

    2017-11-06

    This article summarizes the biology and culture of ictalurid catfish, an important commercial, aquaculture, and sport fish family in the United States. The history of the propagation as well as spawning of common catfish species in this family is reviewed, with special emphasis on channel catfish and its hybridization with blue catfish. The importance of the channel catfish female × blue catfish male hybrid, including current and future methods of hybrid catfish production, and the potential role it plays in the recovery of the US catfish industry are discussed. Recent advances in catfish culture elements, including environment, management, nutrition, feeding, disease control, culture systems, genetic improvement programs, transgenics, and the application of genome-based approaches in catfish production and welfare, are reviewed. The current status, needs, and future projections are discussed, as well as genetically modified organism developments that are changing the futur Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Animal Biosciences Volume 6 is February 15, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  17. Differences in Exercise Performance and Leisure-Time Physical Activity in Older Caucasians and African-Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Andrew W.; Montgomery, Polly S.

    2008-01-01

    Purposes: (a) To compare exercise performance and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) between older Caucasians and African-Americans, (b) to assess the relationship between exercise performance and LTPA, and (c) to determine whether group differences in exercise performance persist after adjusting for differences in LTPA.Methods: A total of 207 Caucasians and 160 African-Americans who were 65 years of age and older participated in this study. Subjects were characterized on exercise perfor...

  18. Economic values of growth and feed efficiency for fish farming in recirculating aquaculture system with density and nitrogen output limitations: a case study with African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, M; Komen, H; Aubin, J; de Boer, I J M; Poelman, M; Quillet, E; Vancoillie, C; Vandeputte, M; van Arendonk, J A M

    2014-12-01

    In fish farming, economic values (EV) of breeding goal traits are lacking, even though they are key parameters when defining selection objectives. The aim of this study was to develop a bioeconomic model to estimate EV of 2 traits representing production performances in fish farming: the thermal growth coefficient (TGC) and the feed conversion ratio (FCR). This approach was applied to a farm producing African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). In the RAS, 2 factors could limit production level: the nitrogen treatment capacity of the biofilter or the fish density in rearing tanks at harvest. Profit calculation includes revenue from fish sales, cost of juveniles, cost of feed, cost of waste water treatment, and fixed costs. In the reference scenario, profit was modeled to zero. EV were calculated as the difference in profit per kilogram of fish between the current population mean for both traits (µt) and the next generation of selective breeding (µt+Δt) for either TGC or FCR. EV of TGC and FCR were calculated for three generations of hypothetical selection on either TGC or FCR (respectively 6.8% and 7.6% improvement per generation). The results show that changes in TGC and FCR can affect both the number of fish that can be stocked (number of batches per year and number of fish per batch) and the factor limiting production. The EV of TGC and FCR vary and depend on the limiting factors. When dissolved NH3-N is the limiting factor for both µt and µt+Δt, increasing TGC decreases the number of fish that can be stocked but increases the number of batches that can be grown. As a result, profit remains constant and EVTGC is zero. Increasing FCR, however, increases the number of fish stocked and the ratio of fish produced per kilogram of feed consumed ("economic efficiency"). The EVFCR is 0.14 €/kg of fish, and profit per kilogram of fish increases by about 10%. When density is the limiting factor for both µt and µt+Δt, the

  19. Effect of Butachlor on Antioxidant Enzyme Status and Lipid Peroxidation in Fresh Water African Catfish, (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Farombi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of butachlor, a widely used herbicide, on antioxidant enzyme system and lipid peroxidation formation in African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus. Fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of butachlor 1, 2, 2.5 ppm and sacrificed 24hrs after treatment. A significant increase in malondialdehyde formation was observed in the liver, kidney, gills and heart of the fish following exposure to different concentrations of butachlor. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities increased in the liver and kidney but decreased in the gills and heart in a concentration-dependent pattern. Glutathione level and glutathione-Stransferase activities increased (P<0.05 in the liver but decreased in the kidneys, gills and heart when fishes were exposed to the three concentrations of butachlor. The results suggest that butachlor induced oxidative stress in the various tissues of the fish particularly in the kidney and as such the organ may be subjected to severe oxidative toxicity due to depressed glutathione detoxification system.

  20. Chronic stress and decreased physical exercise: impact on weight for African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-Greene, Gracie M; Gross, Susan M; Silver, Kristi D; Perrino, Carrol S

    2012-01-01

    African American women continue to have the highest prevalence of obesity in the United States and in the state of Maryland they are disproportionately affected by overweight and obesity. There are many contributing factors including chronic stress and the use of health behaviors such as physical exercise that play a role in increased weight for African American women. We examined the relationship of stress to weight and the role of physical exercise in African American paraprofessional women. Cross-sectional study African American paraprofessionals were asked about their perspectives regarding association with chronic stress and physical exercise. The three most salient stressors for the women were finances (33%), work (28%) and family/friends (19%). Ninety percent of the women were overweight or obese. Significant predictors of increased BMI were lack of physical exercise (P = .004) and health compared to others (P = .006). Ethnic discrimination was a form of chronic stress (r = .319) but was not correlated with BMI (r = .095). Decreased physical exercise (P = .02) mediated the relationship between chronic stress and BMI. Findings regarding finance and work stress suggest the need for employers to consider the impact of job strain when implementing employee health programs to decrease stress and improve health. A focus on decreased physical exercise, unhealthy eating habits and misperceptions regarding increased risk for obesity related diseases with health status may be helpful to include in intervention strategies to decrease obesity for this population.

  1. The effect of calcium hardness on hatching success of channel catfish x blue catfish hybrid catfish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study was designed to determine the optimal level of calcium hardness in hatching waters to incubate channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus ' x blue catfish I. furcatus ' hybrid catfish eggs. Hatching success of hybrid catfish eggs was higher (phardness (C...

  2. Physical Activity, Exercise, and Nutrition Interventions for Weight Control in African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Matthew; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the physical activity, exercise, and nutrition related weight control interventions done with African American women that were published between 2006 and 2010 and suggest ways of enhancing these interventions. A total of 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. The review found significant results with regard…

  3. Do South African general practitioners believe that 'Exercise is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Physical activity (PA) has been described as medicine, owing to the clear evidence for its role in the prevention and management of various diseases. Objectives. To determine the knowledge, perceptions and attitudes of South African general practitioners (GPs) towards the promotion of PA. Methods. A total of ...

  4. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Exercise-Induced

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-04-02

    Apr 2, 2017 ... of the bronchi of asthmatic children to various challenge tests differentiate them from ... determine the current prevalence of asthma in childhood in a ... Abbreviations: EIB, Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm; ISAAC, International Study on Asthma and Allergy in Childhood; PEFR, Peak Expiratory. Flow Rate.

  5. Proximate and lipid profile analysis of cultured and wild African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The percentage of total saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was higher in the muscles of the cultured catfish (38.86% and 42.83% respectively) than in the muscles of the cultured catfish (36.96% and 41.57% respectively). The cultured African catfish also had more omega-6 polyunsaturated ...

  6. Histopathological changes in the Brain Tissue of Africa Catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... post juvenile African catfish C. gariepinus as characterized by severe degeneration of dark-stained purkinje neurons, oedema, vacuolar changes with empty spaces which appeared as moth eaten area and showed proliferation of glial cells. There is need for more research work on the histopathology of brain tissue of fish ...

  7. Liberia national disaster preparedness coordination exercise: Implementing lessons learned from the West African disaster preparedness initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Melinda J Morton; Reed, Paul L; Greulich, Jane D; Beadling, Charles W

    2017-01-01

    In light of the recent Ebola outbreak, there is a critical need for effective disaster management systems in Liberia and other West African nations. To this end, the West Africa Disaster Preparedness Initiative held a disaster management exercise in conjunction with the Liberian national government on November 24-25, 2015. During this tabletop exercise (TTX), interactions within and between the 15 counties and the Liberian national government were conducted and observed to refine and validate the county and national standard operating procedures (SOPs). The exercise took place in three regional locations throughout Liberia: Monrovia, Buchanan, and Bong. The TTX format allowed counties to collaborate utilizing open-source software platforms including Ushahidi, Sahana, QGIS, and KoBoCollect. Four hundred sixty-seven individuals (representing all 15 counties of Liberia) identified as key actors involved with emergency operations and disaster preparedness participated in the exercise. A qualitative survey with open-ended questions was administered to exercise participants to determine needed improvements in the disaster management system in Liberia. Key findings from the exercise and survey include the need for emergency management infrastructure to extend to the community level, establishment of a national disaster management agency and emergency operations center, customized local SOPs, ongoing surveillance, a disaster exercise program, and the need for effective data sharing and hazard maps. These regional exercises initiated the process of validating and refining Liberia's national and county-level SOPs. Liberia's participation in this exercise has provided a foundation for advancing its preparedness, response, and recovery capacities and could provide a template for other countries to use.

  8. Two new species of African suckermouth catfishes, genus Chiloglanis (Siluriformes: Mochokidae), from Kenya with remarks on other taxa from the area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ray C; Bart, Henry L; Nyingi, Wanja Dorothy

    2015-11-17

    Recent expeditions in Kenya and examination of existing collections confirmed the presence of two undescribed Chiloglanis species and revealed previously unknown diversity within the Athi River system. The two new species are easily distinguished from described congeners in the area by external morphology, allopatric distributions, and genetic markers. Chiloglanis kerioensis sp. nov., is restricted to the Kerio River system and is the only known suckermouth catfish from the Lake Turkana basin. Chiloglanis devosi sp. nov., is known only from the type locality, the Northern Ewaso Nyiro (Ng'iro) below Chanler's Falls. In addition to these two new species, this study confirmed the presence of an undescribed Chiloglanis sp. occurring sympatrically with Chiloglanis brevibarbis in the Tsavo River. A dichotomous key for identifying all described Chiloglanis species found within Kenya is presented along with comments.

  9. A faith-based and cultural approach to promoting self-efficacy and regular exercise in older African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Mary Ellen; Guion, W Kent

    2010-01-01

    The health benefits of regular exercise are well documented, yet there has been limited success in the promotion of regular exercise in older African American women. Based on theoretical and evidence-based findings, the authors recommend a behavioral self-efficacy approach to guide exercise interventions in this high-risk population. Interventions should be developed that are age appropriate, group delivered in the community, focused on a single behavior, and only include general health education as a secondary purpose. Suggested cultural tailoring of exercise interventions includes addressing beliefs about exercise, focusing on the "possible self," promoting participants as "cultural consultants," and spiritual and religious strategies.

  10. Physical Activity, Exercise, And Nutrition Interventions For Weight Control In African American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Asare

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to review the physical activity, exercise, and nutritionrelated weight control interventions done with African American women that were publishedbetween 2006 and 2010 and suggest ways of enhancing these interventions. A total of 13 studiesmet the inclusion criteria. The review found significant results with regard to impact ofintervention. Twelve of those studies revealed significant increase in physical activity and weightreduction behavior. In terms of use of theory in designing the interventions only five interventionsused a theory. In three of those cases social cognitive theory was used. Appropriate sample sizewas found to be the major strength of most of the interventions. Six interventions usedrandomized controlled design. Recommendations for enhancing the effectiveness of physicalactivity interventions in African American women are presented.

  11. Comparison of the lipid properties of healthy and pansteatitis-affected African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), and the role of diet in pansteatitis outbreaks in the Olifants River in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchzermeyer, K D A; Osthoff, G; Hugo, A; Govender, D

    2013-11-01

    Pansteatitis has been identified in wild populations of sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), and Nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti, inhabiting the same waters in the Olifants River Gorge in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Mesenteric and pectoral fat tissue was investigated microscopically and by fatty acid analysis in healthy and pansteatitis-affected catfish from both captive and wild populations. Variation in fatty acid composition between pectoral and mesenteric fat was noted. Composition of mesenteric fat differed between fish from various localities as a result of differences in diet. Pansteatitis in the captive population, resulting from ingestion of high amounts of dietary oxidized fat, reflected higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids within the mesenteric fat. Mesenteric fat of pansteatitis-affected wild catfish was characterized by an increase in moisture content, a decrease in fat content and a decrease in stearic and linoleic acids. The n-3 to n-6 fatty acid ratio of mesenteric fat was higher in pansteatitis-affected wild catfish than in healthy catfish from the same locality, reflecting higher polyunsaturated fat intake by pansteatitis-affected fish. The possible role of alien, invasive, phytoplankton-feeding silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes), in the aetiology of pansteatitis in both catfish and crocodiles in the Olifants Gorge is discussed. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effect of acute aerobic exercise and histamine receptor blockade on arterial stiffness in African Americans and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huimin; Ranadive, Sushant M; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Kappus, Rebecca M; Behun, Michael A; Cook, Marc D; Woods, Jeffrey A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Baynard, Tracy; Halliwill, John R; Fernhall, Bo

    2017-02-01

    African Americans (AA) exhibit exaggerated central blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) in response to an acute bout of maximal exercise compared with Caucasians (CA). However, whether potential racial differences exist in central BP, elastic, or muscular arterial distensibility after submaximal aerobic exercise remains unknown. Histamine receptor activation mediates sustained postexercise hyperemia in CA but the effect on arterial stiffness is unknown. This study sought to determine the effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on central BP and arterial stiffness and the role of histamine receptors, in AA and CA. Forty-nine (22 AA, 27 CA) young and healthy subjects completed the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to take either histamine receptor antagonist or control placebo. Central blood BP and arterial stiffness measurements were obtained at baseline, and at 30, 60, and 90 min after 45 min of moderate treadmill exercise. AA exhibited greater central diastolic BP, elevated brachial PWV, and local carotid arterial stiffness after an acute bout of submaximal exercise compared with CA, which may contribute to their higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Unexpectedly, histamine receptor blockade did not affect central BP or PWV in AA or CA after exercise, but it may play a role in mediating local carotid arterial stiffness. Furthermore, histamine may mediate postexercise carotid arterial dilation in CA but not in AA. These observations provide evidence that young and healthy AA exhibit an exaggerated hemodynamic response to exercise and attenuated vasodilator response compared with CA.NEW & NOTEWORTHY African Americans are at greater risk for developing cardiovascular disease than Caucasians. We are the first to show that young and healthy African Americans exhibit greater central blood pressure, elevated brachial stiffness, and local carotid arterial stiffness following an acute bout of submaximal exercise

  13. Eicosanoid Production following One Bout of Exercise in Middle-Aged African American Pre- and Stage 1 Hypertensives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheara Williamson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction and a sedentary lifestyle may be involved in the development of hypertension which is proliferative among middle-aged African Americans (AA. Signaling molecules derived from the oxidation of 20-carbon fatty acid molecules known as eicosanoids influence vascular tone. The relationship between aerobic fitness and eicosanoid formation following exercise in middle-aged African American hypertensives is unknown. Purpose. To determine the relationship between aerobic capacity and eicosanoid formation after a bout of moderate-intensity exercise in middle-aged AA hypertensives. Methods. Ten sedentary hypertensive AA underwent 50 min of aerobic exercise at 65% VO2max. Urine was collected for 24 hr on two occasions, prior to testing and immediately following the bout of exercise. Urinary metabolites of prostacyclin (6-keto PGF1α and thromboxane (11-dTXB2 were measured during the day and night periods by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results. 6-keto PGF1α levels significantly increased (=.04 following the bout of exercise compared to the control day. There was a significant relationship (=.49, <.05 between 6-keto PGF1α levels and VO2max during the exercise day. Conclusion. Based on this preliminary study, there appears to be a relationship between aerobic capacity and exercise-induced 6-keto PGF1α production in middle-aged hypertensive AAs. AAs with lower VO2max had lower 6-keto PGF1α formation.

  14. Family history of stroke among African Americans and its association with risk factors, knowledge, perceptions, and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycock, Dawn M; Kirkendoll, Kenya D; Coleman, Kisha C; Clark, Patricia C; Albright, Karen C; Alexandrov, Anne W

    2015-01-01

    African Americans are at greater risk for stroke than whites are; however, it is unclear what role family history of stroke (FHS) plays in the adoption of healthier lifestyles among African Americans. The aim of this study was to compare modifiable risk factors, knowledge of stroke risk factors, perceived threat of stroke, perceived control of stroke, and exercise behaviors and intentions in African Americans with a FHS and those without a FHS. A cross-sectional study was conducted with rural African Americans aged 19 to 54 years participating in a mobile health clinic. Participants' stroke knowledge, perceptions of risk, exercise history and intent, physiologic data, and health history were collected. Participants (N = 66) had a mean (SD) age of 43.3 (9.4) years and were mostly women, high school graduates, and unemployed. Participants with a FHS (n = 33) did not differ on average number of risk factors from those without a FHS. However, participants with a FHS were more likely to report a history of hypertension than were those without. There were no significant differences between groups in stroke knowledge, perceived threat and perceived control, or recent exercise performance, although participants with a FHS had significantly lower future intentions to exercise than did those without a FHS. Family history of stroke was common in this sample; however, it did not translate into better understanding of stroke or better exercise behaviors and intentions. More can be done to identify African Americans with a FHS, especially those with multiple risk factors, to educate them about the significance of FHS while promoting lifestyle change and self-management.

  15. Ethnic Identity Attachment and Motivation for Weight Loss and Exercise Among Rural, Overweight, African-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, K Bryant; Warren, Jacob C; McClendon, Sydney; Peacock, Wilburn; Caro, Marisol

    2016-01-01

    Rural and minority women are disproportionately impacted by the obesity epidemic; however, little research has studied the intersection of these disparity groups. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of racial identity on motivation for weight loss and exercise among rural, African-American women with an obesity-linked chronic disease. A total of 154 African-American women were recruited from the patient population of a Federally Qualified Health Center in the rural South to complete a questionnaire battery including the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and separate assessments of motivation for weight loss and exercise. Multivariate analyses, controlling for age, education status, insurance status, and body mass index revealed that attachment to ethnic identity was predictive of motivation for exercise but not for weight loss. Our findings suggest that attachment to ethnic identity may be an important factor in motivation for change among African-American women, particularly with respect to exercise, with direct implications for the development of culturally and geographically tailored weight loss interventions.

  16. Ethnic Identity Attachment and Motivation for Weight Loss and Exercise among Rural, Overweight, African-American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bryant Smalley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural and minority women are disproportionately impacted by the obesity epidemic; however, little research has studied the intersection of these disparity groups. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of racial identity on motivation for weight loss and exercise among rural, African-American women with an obesity-linked chronic disease. A total of 154 African-American women were recruited from the patient population of a Federally Qualified Health Center in the rural South to complete a questionnaire battery including the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and separate assessments of motivation for weight loss and exercise. Multivariate analyses, controlling for age, education status, insurance status, and body mass index revealed that attachment to ethnic identity was predictive of motivation for exercise but not for weight loss. Our findings suggest that attachment to ethnic identity may be an important factor in motivation for change among African-American women, particularly with respect to exercise, with direct implications for the development of culturally and geographically tailored weight loss interventions.

  17. Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exercising. Count out loud as you do the exercises. View Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Home Techniques to ... Intimacy Importance of Being Together Body Changes with Age Communicating with Your Partner Exercise and Sexual Activity Less Strenuous Positions for Sexual ...

  18. The use of trilene- as anesthesia and triquilizer for catfish Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The culture of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus is developing fast that more easier way of handling bigger fish is required both in the transportation and hypophysation/breeding. Such inputs like tranquilizer/anesthesia would help to reduce handling stress thereby reduce injury and death after operation. Trilene ...

  19. A phylogenetic analysis of the major groups of catfishes (Teleostei: Siluriformes) using rag1 and rag2 nuclear gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, John P; Lundberg, John G; Hardman, Michael

    2006-12-01

    Higher-level relationships among catfishes were investigated by parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of two nuclear genes across 110 catfish species representing 36 of 37 families and Conorhynchos (family incertae sedis). Analysis of 3660 aligned base pairs from the rag1 and rag2 genes confirms monophyly of Siluriformes, of most siluriform families and of a number of multifamily groups, some recognized, some novel. South American Loricarioidei are recovered as the sistergroup to other catfishes which are divided into Diplomystidae and Siluroidei. This result contrasts with the prevailing hypothesis that Diplomystidae is the sister to all other catfishes. Monophyly of Siluroidei is supported by rag data including a unique three-codon deletion from rag1. Deep within Siluroidei are 12 large, strongly supported groups with poorly resolved interrelationships. Five are single families: Cetopsidae, Plotosidae, Chacidae, Siluridae and Pangasiidae. Four others are monophyletic taxa ranked here as superfamilies: Clarioidea (Clariidae, Heteropneustidae), Arioidea (Ariidae, Anchariidae), Pimelodoidea (Pimelodidae, Pseudopimelodidae, Heptapteridae, Conorhynchos), Ictaluroidea (Ictaluridae, Cranoglanididae). South American Doradoidea (Doradidae, Auchenipteridae) and Aspredinidae are a sistergroup pair. Sisoroidea (without Aspredinidae), Ailia+Laides, Horabagridae, and Bagridae (without Rita) form a large, predominantly Asian clade, "Big Asia." Mochokidae, Malapteruridae, Amphiliidae, Claroteidae, and African schilbids are united as a species-rich African clade, "Big Africa." The three large continental clades, "Big Asia," "Big Africa" and Neotropical Loricarioidei suggest a prevalence of intracontinental diversification of catfishes. South America is the home of the Gymnotiformes, putative sistergroup of catfishes, plus two of the deepest siluriform clades, Loricarioidei and Diplomystidae, thus suggesting an ancient siluriform presence if not origin there. The rag

  20. Electric Organ Discharges of Mormyrid Fish as a Possible Cue for Predatory Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanika, S.; Kramer, B.

    During reproductive migration the electroreceptive African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Siluriformes), preys mainly on a weakly electric fish, the bulldog Marcusenius macrolepidotus (Mormyridae; Merron 1993). This is puzzling because the electric organ discharges of known Marcusenius species are pulses of a duration (<1ms) too short for being detected by the catfishes' low-frequency electroreceptive system (optimum sensitivity, 10-30Hz Peters and Bretschneider 1981). On the recent discovery that M. macrolepidotus males emit discharges lasting approximately ten times longer than those of females (Kramer 1997a) we determined behavioral thresholds for discharges of both sexes, using synthetic playbacks of field-recorded discharges. C. gariepinus detected M. macrolepidotus male discharges down to a field gradient of 103μVpeak-peak/cm and up to a distance of 1.5m at natural field conditions. In contrast, thresholds for female discharges were not reached with our setup, and we presume the bulldogs eaten by catfish are predominantly male.

  1. Induced propagation of African clariid catfish, Heterobranchus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-03

    Dec 3, 2007 ... number of dead eggs of 396.10 ± 19.15 and 194.90 ± 11.00, hatchability of 9,180.13 ± 343.37 and. 11,162.27 .... analysis was carried out using Microsoft Excel 2006 and the output is presented in tables. ... Effect of hormonal treatment on the number of dead eggs after fertilization in H. bidorsalis. Hormone.

  2. Microbial quality of catfish nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbiological quality of catfish nuggets is not known. Nuggets, purchased from local retailers in the northeast United States (NJ, NY, PA, and DE), were tested for aerobic plate count (APC) at 22 and 37 deg C, Enterobacteriacea, and Escherichia coli/coliform using Petrifilms**™. The BAX**™ ...

  3. Innate immune response of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) mannose-binding lectin to channel catfish virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The channel catfish virus (CCV) is a pathogenic herpesvirus that infects channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in pond aquaculture in the Southeast USA. The innate immune protein mannose-binding lectin (MBL) could play an important role in the innate response of channel catfish by binding to the CC...

  4. Growth and Survival of Catfish ( Clarias anguillaris ) Juveniles Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental diets were (i) live maggots, (ii) live tilapia fry, (iii) commercial catfish feed (NIFFR catfish artificial feed of 40% crude protein content) as control, (iv) live maggot + NIFFR catfish feed, (v) live tilapia + NIFFR catfish feed. The diets were fed at 3% of fish body weight per day. Feeding was twice daily, morning ...

  5. Water quality in hybrid catfish ponds after partial fish harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensification of United States catfish aquaculture involves hybrid catfish ('channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus x ' blue catfish I. furcatus) grown in ponds with abundant aeration and high feeding rates. High feeding rates cause water quality deterioration because most of the nitrogen, phosphorus...

  6. Blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) of walking catfishes (Siluriformes: Clariidae): new genus and species from the Mekong River (Vietnam) with comments on related catfish aporocotylids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Triet Nhat; Bullard, Stephen A

    2013-07-01

    Nomasanguinicola canthoensis gen. et sp. n. infects the branchial vessels of bighead catfish, Clarias macrocephalus Günther (Siluriformes: Clariidae), in the Mekong River near Can Tho, southern Vietnam. Nomasanguinicola differs from all other genera of fish blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) by the combination of lacking body spines and by having an anterior sucker with two flanking columns of large denticles, an intestine comprising several short papilla-like caeca, an inverse U-shaped uterus, and an ootype located near the separate genital pores. The new species has an ootype that is posterior to the level of the female genital pore. That feature most easily differentiates it from the only other putative aporocotylid species having an anterior sucker with two flanking columns of large denticles, Plehniella dentata Paperna, 1964 and Sanguinicola clarias Imam, Marzouk, Hassan et Itman, 1984, which have an ootype that is lateral (P. dentata) or anterior (S. clarias) to the level of the female genital pore. These two species apparently lack extant type materials, infect North African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), and herein are considered incertae sedis, but likely comprise species of Nomasanguinicola. An updated list of hosts, sites of infection and geographic localities for the six species and three genera of blood flukes that mature in catfishes is provided. The new species is the first fish blood fluke recorded from Vietnam and only the third reported from a walking catfish (Clariidae).

  7. An exercise trial targeting African-American women with metabolic syndrome and at high risk for breast cancer: Rationale, design, and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Chiranjeev; Makambi, Kepher; Wallington, Sherrie F; Sheppard, Vanessa; Taylor, Teletia R; Hicks, Jennifer S; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L

    2015-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome and obesity are known risk factors for breast cancers. Exercise interventions can potentially modify circulating biomarkers of breast cancer risk but evidence in African-Americans and women with metabolic syndrome is lacking. The Focused Intervention on Exercise to Reduce CancEr (FIERCE) trial is a prospective, 6-month, 3-arm, randomized controlled trial to examine the effect of exercise on obesity, metabolic syndrome components, and breast cancer biomarkers among African-American women at high risk of breast cancer. Two hundred-forty inactive women with metabolic syndrome and absolute risk of breast cancer ≥ 1.40 will be randomized to one of the three trial arms: 1) a supervised, facility-based exercise arm; 2) a home-based exercise arm; and 3) a control group that maintains physical activity levels through the course of the trial. Assessments will be conducted at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. The primary outcome variables are anthropometric indicators of obesity, metabolic syndrome components, and inflammatory, insulin-pathway, and hormonal biomarkers of breast cancer risk. The FIERCE trial will provide evidence on whether a short-term exercise intervention might be effective in reducing breast cancer risk among African-American women with comorbidities and high breast cancer risk--a group traditionally under-represented in non-therapeutic breast cancer trials. NCT02103140. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it can lead to weakness of muscles, decreased bone density with an increased risk of fracture, and shallow, inefficient breathing. An exercise program needs to fit the capabilities and limitations ...

  9. Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; thor Straten, Eivind Per

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that voluntary exercise leads to an influx of immune cells in tumors and a greater than 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across several mouse models. Improved immunological control of tumor progression may have important clinical implications in the prevention...... and treatment of cancer in humans....

  10. Using Collaborative Learning Exercises to Transfer Pervasive Skills: Some South African Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss-Keevy, Monique

    2015-01-01

    The Competency Framework, introduced by the South African Institute of Chartered Accountants (SAICA) details technical competencies, but also places emphasis on the pervasive skills that need to be attained by candidates for them to qualify as chartered accountants (CAs). Thus, an additional onus has been placed on academics to ensure that they…

  11. Promoting healthful diets and exercise: efficacy of a 12-week after-school program in urban African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Hermann-J; Gretebeck, Randall J; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A; Jiménez, Linda

    2005-03-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a unique extracurricular after-school initiative designed to promote healthy diets and exercise in urban African Americans. The Students and Parents Actively Involved in Being Fit after-school program was offered for 12 weeks to students and their parents/guardians at an urban middle school. Specific aims of the intervention were to increase participants' vegetable and fruit intake by using established 5 A Day for Better Health educational resource materials/activities and to affect their health-related fitness through dance, games, and fitness activities. Fifty-six children and 25 parents/guardians completed a standard battery of evaluations before and after the program. Pre-post pairwise t test revealed that both children and their parents/guardians showed an increase in fruit consumption and a reduction in diastolic blood pressure (P potato consumption while parents/guardians showed a decrease in body fat, body mass index, and endurance walk/run time (P <.05). Overall, findings indicate that children tended to gain more diet-related benefits while parents/guardians tended to derive more fitness-related benefits. After-school programs like the Students and Parents Actively Involved in Being Fit initiative can potentially contribute to improved health levels in urban African Americans.

  12. Exercise-induced asthma in a group of South African schoolchildren ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. The study was conducted to ascertain whether physical education teachers, using a peak flow meter, could reliably screen for exercise-induced asthma (EIA) in children during free running. Design, setting and subjects. The study was conducted using a convenience sample of male pupils between the ages of 12 ...

  13. The World Demand for Catfish Pangasius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien; Roth, Eva; Nielsen, Max

    2014-01-01

    in filleted form. The demand system includes seven equations representing for most important markets that are ASEAN & EAST ASIA, NORTH AMERICA, OCEANIA, RUSIAN & EASTERN EU, SOUTH & CENTRAL AMERICA, WESTERN EU, and ROW (rest of the world) markets. The monthly data are updating from January 2007 to March 2014....... Direct elasticity including own- and cross- price elasticity and income elasticity are calculated to show how consumers from different markets of the world prefer for the Pangasius catfish. We found that catfish products have big room of market demand, indicated by absolute values of own price......In this paper we present a world demand system for Pangasius catfish products. We use solely exporting data from Vietnam for estimating a non-linear Almost Ideal Demand System because Vietnam accounts for more than 90% catfish export value of the world and the products exported are mostly...

  14. Effect of meal size on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption in fishes with different locomotive and digestive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shi-Jian; Zeng, Ling-Qing; Li, Xiu-Ming; Pang, Xu; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Peng, Jiang-Lan; Wang, Yu-Xiang

    2009-05-01

    Effects of feeding on pre-exercise VO(2) and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) after exhaustive exercise were investigated in sedentary southern catfish, active herbivorous grass carp, omnivorous crucian carp, and sluggish omnivorous darkbarbel catfish to test whether feeding had different effects on EPOC and to compare EPOC in fishes with different ecological habits. For fasting fish, the pre-exercise and peak post-exercise VO(2) were higher and recovery rates were faster in crucian carp and grass carp compared to those of darkbarbel catfish and southern catfish. EPOC magnitudes of grass carp and southern catfish were significantly larger than those of crucian carp and darkbarbel catfish. Feeding had no significant effect on peak post-exercise VO(2), recovery rate, and EPOC magnitude in grass carp. Both the pre-exercise and peak post-exercise VO(2) increased with meal size, while the EPOC magnitude and duration decreased significantly in the larger meal size groups of crucian carp and southern catfish. In darkbarbel catfish, both the pre-exercise and peak post-exercise VO(2) increased with meal size, but the VO(2) increment elicited by exercise was larger in feeding groups compared with the fasting group. These results suggest that (1) the characteristics of the post-exercise VO(2) profile, such as peak post-exercise VO(2) and recovery rate, were closely related to the activity of fishes, whereas the EPOC magnitude was not and (2) the effects of feeding on EPOC were more closely related to the postprandial increase in VO(2).

  15. Catfish stings: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamali Dorooshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Venomous catfish stings are a common environment hazard worldwide. Although these stings are often innocuous, significant morbidity may result from stings, including severe pain, retained foreign bodies, infection, respiratory compromise, arterial hypotension, and cardiac dysrhythmias. Treatment included hot water immersion, analgesia, wound exploration, and prophylactic antibiotics. In this article, two cases of stings by catfish referred to the poison center of Noor Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and their treatments have been reported.

  16. Organoleptic Characteristics and Chemicals Ilabulo Catfish Fortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Marsuci Harmain

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Diversification of traditional food ilabulo made from raw catfish (Pangasius sp. has the potential to be developed in Gorontalo province to substitute chicken viscera. The research aimed to make ilabulo substitute the raw material of chicken viscera with the catfish fortified Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed and catfish bone meal and to determine the organoleptic and chemical characteristics of ilabulo catfish fortification. Fortified treatment is K. alvarezii  and catfish bone (5 dan 10% ,  B (10 and 15% and  C (15 dan 20%. The organoleptic analysis used a hedonic scale of favorite criteria on the appearance, texture, color, flavor, and taste. The results of organoleptic analysis continued with Bayes test. The chemical analysis used the Association of Official Analytical Chemist method. The result of the hedonic characteristic of ilabulo catfish fortification was on the appearance  neutral criteria – like (5.53–7.03, texture neutral criteria – rather like (5.8–7.1, aroma rather like (6.3–6.73, color neutral – like (6.1–7.03 and taste (6.07–6.53 neutral criteria – rather like. The result of Bayes test obtained by a texture of importance value 5, appearance importance value 5, aroma of importance value 4, color of interest value 3 and taste of importance value 2. Characteristic of ilabulo culture of selected fortified catfish that was the fortification of K. alvarezii seaweed 15% and catfish  bone flour (20% (fortification C obtained by water content 56.46%, ash 11.54%, protein 7.78%, fat 8.91%, coarse fiber 0.61%, carbohydrate 22.07% and calcium 0.315 %.

  17. The economics of catfish farming in central Thailand

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Panayotou, T; Wattanutchariya, S; Isvilanonda, S; Tokrisna, R

    1982-01-01

    A recall survey of 41 catfish farms in the central plain of Thailand during 1979 was undertaken to ascertain why production has been falling since 1974, despite high and rising market prices for catfish...

  18. Assessment of exercise capacity in African patients with chronic heart failure using six minutes walk test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rufus A Adedoyin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Rufus A Adedoyin1, Samuel A Adeyanju2, Michael O Balogun3, Anthony O Akintomide3, Rasaaq A Adebayo3, Patience O Akinwusi4, Taofeek O Awotidebe11Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria; 2Department of Physical and Health Education, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria; 3Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria; 4Department of Medicine, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo, NigeriaBackground: The purpose of this study was to assess the functional capacity during a 6-minute corridor walk and a 6-minute bicycle ergometry exercise in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF.Method: Thirty five patients with stable CHF were recruited for the study. Each subject performed six minutes corridor walk and 6-minute bicycle ergometry testing. The 6-minute walk required the subjects to walk at a self selected speed on a 20 meter marked level ground for 6-minute. All the subjects also performed a 6-minute exercise on a stationary bicycle ergometer with initial resistance of 20 watts and increased by 10 watts after 3-minutes. The perceived rate of exertion was assessed using a modified Borg Scale after each exercise mode. The maximum oxygen consumption was derived using American College of Sport Medicine equations.Results: Result showed high positive correlation between distance walked in the 6-minute and the maximum volume of oxygen (VO2 max (r = 0.65, P < 0.01. The average distance walked was 327 m ± 12.03 m. The VO2 max estimated during bicycle ergometry was higher (13.7 ± 1.9 L than during the six minutes walk (8.9 ± 1.2 L.Conclusion: Six minutes walk could be useful to evaluate exercise tolerance in patients with chronic heart failure, while the bicycle ergometer could be more appropriate in the assessment of maximum functional capacity in these patients.Keywords: 6-minute walk, CHF, bicycle ergometer

  19. Socio-economics of catfish production in Port Harcourt, Rivers State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The appraisal of profitability of catfish production in Port Harcourt metropolis Nigeria was carried out by identifying socio-economic characteristics of catfish farmers, cost and returns of catfish farming and the basic problems hindering effective catfish production. Thirty catfish farmers were randomly selected; administered a ...

  20. A new genus and species of proteocephalidean (Cestoda) from Clarias catfishes (Siluriformes: Clariidae) in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chambrier, Alain; Scholz, Tomás; Beletew, Moges; Mariaux, Jean

    2009-02-01

    A new proteocephalidean cestode is described from 2 catfishes, Clarias gariepinus (type host) and C. cf. anguillaris (Siluriformes: Clariidae), from Ethiopia (type locality), Sudan, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe, and a new genus, Barsonella, is proposed to accommodate it. The genus belongs to the Proteocephalinae because its genital organs (testes, ovary, vitellarium, and uterus) are situated in the medulla. Barsonella lafoni, the type and only species of the new genus, is characterized mainly by the possession of an additional opening of each sucker; circular musculature on the anterior margin of suckers, serving as a sphincter; a small thin-walled glandular apical organ; absence of well-developed osmoregulatory canals in mature, pregravid, and gravid proglottids; and a large strobila, up to 173 mm long and 3.2 mm wide. Species of Marsypocephalus Wedl, 1861 (Marsypocephalinae), other large-sized proteocephalidean tapeworms occurring sympatrically in African catfishes (Clarias and Heterobranchus) and also possessing a sphincter-like, circular musculature on the anterior part of suckers, differ from B. lafoni in the absence of an additional sucker opening and glandular apical organ, the cortical position of the testes, well-developed osmoregulatory canals throughout the strobila, and a large cirrus sac. Proteocephalus glanduligerus (Janicki, 1928), another cestode parasitic in Clarias spp. in Africa, is much smaller than B. lafoni (maximum length 15 mm), has suckers without additional opening and circular musculature on the suckers, a large-sized glandular organ, much larger than suckers, and well-developed osmoregulatory canals. Comparison of partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene for 7 samples of B. lafoni from 2 different hosts and 4 localities in Ethiopia, Sudan, and Tanzania has shown a very low genetic variability. In a limited phylogenetic analysis, B. lafoni formed a clade with Corallobothrium solidum Fritsch, 1886 (Proteocephalidae: Corallobothriinae), an African

  1. Molecular phylogeny of Neotropical monogeneans (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) from catfishes (Siluriformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos A; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Scholz, Tomáš

    2015-03-18

    The phylogenetic relationships of dactylogyrids (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) parasitising catfishes (Siluriformes) from the Neotropical region were investigated for the first time. Partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene of 40 specimens representing 25 dactylogyrid species were analysed together with sequences from GenBank using Bayesian inference, Maximum likelihood and Parsimony methods. Monophyly of dactylogyrids infecting catfishes and the Ancyrocephalinae was evaluated using the Approximately Unbiased test. The Ancyrocephalinae is a paraphyletic group of species clustering in three main clades as follows: (i) clade A comprising freshwater dactylogyrids from the Holarctic parasitising perciforms clustering together with species (Ameloblastella, Unibarra and Vancleaveus) parasitising Neotropical catfishes; (ii) clade B including species of Dactylogyrus (Dactylogyrinae) and Pseudodactylogyrus (Pseudodactylogyrinae) along with Ancyrocephalus mogurndae, and marine dactylogyrids with cosmopolitan distribution, parasites of scorpaeniforms and perciforms, along with the freshwater Cichlidogyrus and Scutogyrus (infecting African cichlids [Cichlidae]) and (iii) clade C containing exclusively dactylogyrids of siluriforms, freshwater and marine, with Palaearctic, Ethiopian, Oriental and Neotropical distributions; species of Aphanoblastella and Dactylogyridae gen. sp. 4 from the Neotropical region clustering together with species allocated in the Ancylodiscoidinae, along with species of Cosmetocleithrum, Demidospermus and Dactylogyridae gen. spp. The position of the Ancylodiscoidinae within a larger clade of dactylogyrids (ancyrocephalines) indicates that this subfamily does not represent a natural group. Instead, species allocated to this clade (dactylogyrids of siluriforms along with species of the Ancylodiscoidinae) should be considered as a separate subfamily within the Dactylogyridae. The erection of this taxon requires the search for morphological diagnostic characters

  2. Holding hormone-induced channel catfish females in hatchery pond improves efficiency and reduces the hatchery cost of producing channel X blue hybrid catfish fry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid catfish is a superior genotype and its superiority is witnessed in the performance of fingerlings and food fish in commercial catfish ponds. Hybrid catfish fry production has increased to 150 million in 2012 (300% increase in the last 5 years) and the demand for hybrid catfish fingerlings is...

  3. Scaling of contractile properties of catfish feeding muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Herrel, Anthony; James, Rob S; Aerts, Peter

    2007-04-01

    Biomechanical models are intrinsically limited in explaining the ontogenetic scaling relationships for prey capture kinematics in aquatic vertebrates because no data are available on the scaling of intrinsic contractile properties of the muscles that power feeding. However, functional insight into scaling relationships is fundamental to our understanding of the ecology, performance and evolution of animals. In this study, in vitro contractile properties of three feeding muscles were determined for a series of different sizes of African air-breathing catfishes (Clarias gariepinus). These muscles were the mouth closer musculus adductor mandibulae A2A3', the mouth opener m. protractor hyoidei and the hypaxial muscles responsible for pectoral girdle retraction. Tetanus and twitch activation rise times increased significantly with size, while latency time was size independent. In accordance with the decrease in feeding velocity with increasing size, the cycle frequency for maximal power output of the protractor hyoidei and the adductor mandibulae showed a negative scaling relationship. Theoretical modelling predicts a scaling relationship for in vivo muscle function during which these muscles always produced at least 80% of their maximal in vitro power. These findings suggest that the contractile properties of these feeding muscles are fine-tuned to the changes in biomechanical constraints of movement of the feeding apparatus during ontogeny. However, each muscle appears to have a unique set of contractile properties. The hypaxials, the most important muscle for powering suction feeding in clariid catfish, differed from the other muscles by generating higher maximal stress and mass-specific power output with increased size, whilst the optimum cycle frequency for maximal power output only decreased significantly with size in the larger adults (cranial lengths greater than 60 mm).

  4. Spine anatomy reveals the diversity of catfish through time: a case study of Synodontis (Siluriformes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinton, Aurélie; Fara, Emmanuel; Otero, Olga

    2006-01-01

    Synodontis (Mochokidae, Siluriformes) is a freshwater catfish endemic to Africa. The 118 extant species are present in almost all hydrographic basins. Some species are restricted to a single stream, whereas others have a vast distribution. Synodontis is known in the fossil record since the Miocene, and its history depends on the connections among African basins through time. The identification of species in the fossil record is essential to reconstruct this historical pattern. Catfish pectoral and dorsal spines are robust, they preserve well and they form most of the fossil remains for the genus Synodontis. Unfortunately, the criteria for the identification of extant Synodontis species are not applicable to fossil specimens. Here, we define 11 original morphological characters that permit to discriminate four extant species from the Chad-Chari hydrographic system. Six of these characters are defined on pectoral spines and five on dorsal spines. We then show that these characters can be used successfully for identifying fossil specimens. In particular, we present a case study in which we identify Synodontis cf. schall and Brachysynodontis cf. batensoda in the hominid-bearing sector Toros-Menalla (Late Miocene, northern Chad). We show that spine anatomy can be a powerful tool to recognise catfish species through time and thus to identify historical diversity pattern.

  5. Identification and characterization of full-length cDNAs in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus and blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome annotation projects, gene functional studies, and phylogenetic analyses for a given organism all greatly benefit from access to a validated full-length cDNA resource. While increasingly common in model species, full-length cDNA resources in aquaculture species are scarce. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Through in silico analysis of catfish (Ictalurus spp. ESTs, a total of 10,037 channel catfish and 7,382 blue catfish cDNA clones were identified as potentially encoding full-length cDNAs. Of this set, a total of 1,169 channel catfish and 933 blue catfish full-length cDNA clones were selected for re-sequencing to provide additional coverage and ensure sequence accuracy. A total of 1,745 unique gene transcripts were identified from the full-length cDNA set, including 1,064 gene transcripts from channel catfish and 681 gene transcripts from blue catfish, with 416 transcripts shared between the two closely related species. Full-length sequence characteristics (ortholog conservation, UTR length, Kozak sequence, and conserved motifs of the channel and blue catfish were examined in detail. Comparison of gene ontology composition between full-length cDNAs and all catfish ESTs revealed that the full-length cDNA set is representative of the gene diversity encoded in the catfish transcriptome. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the first catfish full-length cDNA set constructed from several cDNA libraries. The catfish full-length cDNA sequences, and data gleaned from sequence characteristics analysis, will be a valuable resource for ongoing catfish whole-genome sequencing and future gene-based studies of function and evolution in teleost fishes.

  6. Bacterial Bioaugmentation of Channel Catfish Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twelve, 0.1-ha earthen ponds at Stoneville, Mississippi were used in a 2-year, double-blind study of the effects of a Bacillus-based bacterial bioaugmentation product on water quality and production of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Each year, six ponds were treated weekly with the microbial ...

  7. The Organoleptic and Smoked Catfish Histology from Pre-cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venny Yuliastri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Catfish is one of the main commodities in fresh water aquaculture. Indonesia catfish production increased 37,49% in 2010 until 2014. Protein content of catfish is 17.7-26.7% and fat about 0.95 until 11.5%. The objective of this study was to determine the best organoleptic and to study the changes of tissue structure of catfish caused by process precooking and smoking process. Precooked Catfish with variation 5, 10 and 15 minute; temperature of 100oC, and smoked for 7 hours with a temperature of 90°C, analyzed in laboratory. The results organoleptic consumers is the favored smoke catfish without any pre – cooking and catfish-results of pre-cooking for 5 minutes i.e. ten successive sense 8.66; 7.66 smell 8.46; 7.8appearance 8.13;5.93 texture 6.86; 6.93. Organoleptic low on pre-cooked for 15 minutes the sense of 5.66 smell 7 appearance of 2.93 texture 5.53. Pre–cooked for 15 minutes has the highest water content of 26.33%. Pre–cooked for 5 minutes with the lowest value of 16.23%. smoked catfish without any pre–cooking has the highest value of aw 0.82. Pre–cooked for 15 minutes had the lowest value of 0.78. Observation on histology showed fresh catfish the structure of the connective tissue still compact. Precooked catfish, myomer begins damage, catfish smoke without pre-cooking is characterized by the formation of fibrils wafy fibers are separated from one another and pre-cooking smoked catfish, myoseptum damaged and lead to the distance inter myomer but myomer still intact.

  8. Comparative Histomorphological Studies on Oesophagus of Catfish and Grass Carp

    OpenAIRE

    Enas A. Abd El Hafez; Mokhtar, Doaa M.; Alaa Sayed Abou-Elhamd; Ahmed Hassan S. Hassan

    2013-01-01

    The present work was carried out on 40 specimens of oesophaguses of both sexes of catfish (carnivorous fish) and grass carp (herbivorous fish) in order to observe the morphological and histological differences between the two species. Oesophagus of catfish was divided into 2 parts: anterior and posterior ones. The anterior part of the oesophagus of catfish was characterized by the presence of numerous mucosal folds. It was lined by stratified epithelium with goblet cells. In addition to club ...

  9. The “Ticas” of “Matema” of an African People: An exercise for the Brazilian Classroom.

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane Costa Santos

    2008-01-01

    This article has as its central focus the examination of one of the ways that African culture can be introduced into the mathematics classroom, contributing to the transformation of this formal space of the classroom into an area in which culture is intertwined with scholarly knowledge through the transdisciplinarity of ethnomathematics. The thesis that permeates [this work] can be delineated as how African culture, through the representation of African Kente cloth looms, can contribute to th...

  10. The process associated with motivation of a home-based Wii Fit exercise program among sedentary African American women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Hon K; Breland, Hazel L; Vogtle, Laura K; Holthaus, Katy; Kamen, Diane L; Sword, David

    2013-01-01

    To explore the process associated with the motivation for playing Wii Fit among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Individual in-depth semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 14 sedentary African American women with SLE to explore their experiences and reflect on their motivation for playing Wii Fit after completing a 10-week home-based Wii Fit exercise program. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using the constant comparative method to identify categories related to participants' motivation. Three authors independently sorted, organized and coded transcript text into categories, then combined the categories into themes and subthemes. In addition to the two themes (Ethical principal of keeping a commitment, and Don't want to let anyone down) generic to home-based exercise trials, we identified five themes (Enjoyment, Health Benefits, Sense of Accomplishment, Convenience, and Personalized) that revealed why the participants were motivated to play the Wii Fit. Enjoyment had three subthemes: Interactive, Challenging, and Competitive with an embedded social element. However, several participants commented they were not able to do many activities, master certain games, or figure out how to play some; as a result, they were bored with the limited selection of activities that they could do. The motivational elements of the Wii Fit may contribute to improved exercise motivation and adherence in select sedentary African American women with SLE. Results provide a better understanding on the important elements to incorporate in the development of sustainable home-based exercise programs with interactive health video games for this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Short Communication Acute toxicity of cadmium against catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication Acute toxicity of cadmium against catfish Heteropneustes Fossilis (Siluriformes: Heteropneustidae) in static renewal bioassays. Rubi Rai, Diwakar Mishra, Sunil Kumar Srivastav, Ajai Kumar Srivastav ...

  12. Catfish science: Status and trends in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Thomas J.; Porath, Mark T.; Michaletz, Paul H.; Travnichek, Vincent H.

    2011-01-01

    Catfish science, the study of the fish order Siluriformes, is a diverse and expanding field in terms of advances and breadth of topics. We compiled literature from primary fisheries journals as an index of interest and advances in catfish science to examine temporal trends in the field. The number of catfish scientific publications varied over the past century with strong peaks during 1975–1979 and 2005–2010, which may be the result of interactive scientific and societal influences. Catfish biology was the predominant publication topic until the late 1990s, when ecology, techniques, and management publications became more prevalent. Articles on catfish ecology were most numerous in both the first and second international catfish symposia, but publications on techniques and conservation were more numerous in the second catfish symposium than the first. We summarize the state of knowledge, recent advances, and areas for future attention among topics in catfish science, including sampling and aging techniques, population dynamics, ecology, fisheries management, species diversity, nonnative catfish, and human dimensions, with an emphasis on the gains in this second symposium. Areas that we expect to be pursued in the future are development of new techniques and validation of existing methods; expansion of research to less-studied catfish species; broadening temporal, spatial, and organizational scales; interdisciplinary approaches; and research on societal views and constituent demands. Meeting these challenges will require scientists to span beyond their professional comfort zones to effectively reach higher standards. We look forward to the coming decade and the many advances in the conservation, ecology, and management of catfish that will be shared.

  13. Incubation water temperature and parental effects on the hatching success and progeny performance of Channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel x blue catfish are exclusively produced by hormone-induced spawning of channel catfish and the stripped eggs are fertilized with pooled blue catfish sperm in hatcheries. Even though hybrid fry production has increased in recent years, variable and inconsistent hybrid catfish fry production ...

  14. Profitability analysis of catfish production using fibre glass tank ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cost and returns of catfish farming using fibre glass tank technology in Ishiagu, Ivo LGA of Ebonyi State, was studied and analyzed in 2010. Purposively, thirty (30) catfish farmers were randomly selected from the pilot communities of the Agricultural Research Council of Nigeria (ARCN) extension outreach centres.

  15. Micronuclei in red blood cells of armored catfish Hypostomus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work aims to evaluate the impact of potassium dichromate in armored catfishes' (Hypostomus plecotomus) erythropoiesis, using piscine micronucleus test. Armored catfishes (n = 30) were subjected to 12 mg/L of potassium dichromate, with an equal control group (n = 30). For each 2,000 red blood cells of ...

  16. Identification of Bacillus Strains for Biological Control of Catfish Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Chao; Carrias, Abel; Williams, Malachi A.; Capps, Nancy; Dan, Bui C. T.; Newton, Joseph C.; Kloepper, Joseph W.; Ooi, Ei L.; Browdy, Craig L.; Terhune, Jeffery S.; Liles, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus strains isolated from soil or channel catfish intestine were screened for their antagonism against Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila, the causative agents of enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and motile aeromonad septicaemia (MAS), respectively. Twenty one strains were selected and their antagonistic activity against other aquatic pathogens was also tested. Each of the top 21 strains expressed antagonistic activity against multiple aquatic bacterial pathogens including Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, Yersinia ruckeri, Flavobacterium columnare, and/or the oomycete Saprolegnia ferax. Survival of the 21 Bacillus strains in the intestine of catfish was determined as Bacillus CFU/g of intestinal tissue of catfish after feeding Bacillus spore-supplemented feed for seven days followed by normal feed for three days. Five Bacillus strains that showed good antimicrobial activity and intestinal survival were incorporated into feed in spore form at a dose of 8×107 CFU/g and fed to channel catfish for 14 days before they were challenged by E. ictaluri in replicate. Two Bacillus subtilis strains conferred significant benefit in reducing catfish mortality (PBacillus strains also showed protective effects against E. ictaluri in striped catfish. Safety of the four strains exhibiting the strongest biological control in vivo was also investigated in terms of whether the strains contain plasmids or express resistance to clinically important antibiotics. The Bacillus strains identified from this study have good potential to mediate disease control as probiotic feed additives for catfish aquaculture. PMID:23029244

  17. Treating catfish diseases: walking the line between excess and moderation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cost savings by using a cheaper disease treatment will increase profitability of any catfish farm. This invited producer presentation will discuss costs savings using copper sulfate in catfish production and a summation of our research, specifically in the hatchery. Copper sulfate is not approved ...

  18. Profit efficiency among catfish farmers in Benue state, Nigeria | Tsue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The policy implication of these findings is that profit inefficiency in catfish production can be reduced significantly overtime as the farmers get more experienced and a more conducive environment is created, to encourage more aged farmers to be involved in catfish production in a bid to alleviate poverty and food insecurity ...

  19. Oral vaccination of channel catfish against enteric septicemia of catfish using a live attenuated Edwardsiella ictaluri isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri, is the most problematic bacterial disease affecting catfish aquaculture in the southeastern United States. Efforts to develop an effective ESC vaccine have had limited industrial success. In commercial settings, ESC vaccines are...

  20. Oral vaccination of channel catfish against enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) using a live attenuated Edwardsiella ictaluri isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri, is the most problematic bacterial disease affecting catfish aquaculture in the southeastern United States. Efforts to develop an effective ESC vaccine have had limited industrial success. In commercial settings, ESC vaccines are t...

  1. Diversity, phylogenetic distribution, and origins of venomous catfishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jeremy J

    2009-12-04

    The study of venomous fishes is in a state of relative infancy when compared to that of other groups of venomous organisms. Catfishes (Order Siluriformes) are a diverse group of bony fishes that have long been known to include venomous taxa, but the extent and phylogenetic distribution of this venomous species diversity has never been documented, while the nature of the venoms themselves also remains poorly understood. In this study, I used histological preparations from over 100 catfish genera, basic biochemical and toxicological analyses of fin spine extracts from several species, and previous systematic studies of catfishes to examine the distribution of venom glands in this group. These results also offer preliminary insights into the evolutionary history of venom glands in the Siluriformes. Histological examinations of 158 catfish species indicate that approximately 1250-1625+ catfish species should be presumed to be venomous, when viewed in conjunction with several hypotheses of siluriform phylogeny. Maximum parsimony character optimization analyses indicate two to three independent derivations of venom glands within the Siluriformes. A number of putative toxic peptides were identified in the venoms of catfish species from many of the families determined to contain venomous representatives. These peptides elicit a wide array of physiological effects in other fishes, though any one species examined produced no more than three distinct putative toxins in its venom. The molecular weights and effects produced by these putative toxic peptides show strong similarities to previously characterized toxins found in catfish epidermal secretions. Venom glands have evolved multiple times in catfishes (Order Siluriformes), and venomous catfishes may outnumber the combined diversity of all other venomous vertebrates. The toxic peptides found in catfish venoms may be derived from epidermal secretions that have been demonstrated to accelerate the healing of wounds, rather

  2. The “Ticas” of “Matema” of an African People: An exercise for the Brazilian Classroom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Costa Santos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This article has as its central focus the examination of one of the ways that African culture can be introduced into the mathematics classroom, contributing to the transformation of this formal space of the classroom into an area in which culture is intertwined with scholarly knowledge through the transdisciplinarity of ethnomathematics. The thesis that permeates [this work] can be delineated as how African culture, through the representation of African Kente cloth looms, can contribute to the processes of teaching and learning in a mathematics classroom. The wefts are the theoretical references of Stuart Hall on culture and multiculturalism; D'Ambrosio on transdisciplinarity and ethnomathematics; Dennis on Kente cloth; and the weavers of Ghana on the technologies of Kente cloth. To find a general understanding, we locate Ghana on the African Continent, we quote the myths of the Kente looms, and finally, we present a proposal on how to create a transcultural connection between the knowledge of African culture and a mathematics classroom in Brazil.

  3. A Review Of Reproduction And Gamete Management In The African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on the current status of reproduction and gamete management of the African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) a highly appreciated culturable fish species in Nigeria were reviewed. Natural and artificial reproductive behaviour as well as gonadal maturation rhythm in the highly fecund fish were documented.

  4. Effect of partial replacement of fishmeal with african yam bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve months old African catfish Clarias gariepinus broodstock (mean weight 634±0.45 g) were cultured for 96 days in twelve (12) 1 m x 1 m x 0.7 m outdoor concrete tanks. There were four treatments with three replicates each. Four isonitrogenous diets at 37% crude protein were formulated at different inclusion levels of ...

  5. Identification of Bacillus strains for biological control of catfish pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Chao; Carrias, Abel; Williams, Malachi A; Capps, Nancy; Dan, Bui C T; Newton, Joseph C; Kloepper, Joseph W; Ooi, Ei L; Browdy, Craig L; Terhune, Jeffery S; Liles, Mark R

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus strains isolated from soil or channel catfish intestine were screened for their antagonism against Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila, the causative agents of enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and motile aeromonad septicaemia (MAS), respectively. Twenty one strains were selected and their antagonistic activity against other aquatic pathogens was also tested. Each of the top 21 strains expressed antagonistic activity against multiple aquatic bacterial pathogens including Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, Yersinia ruckeri, Flavobacterium columnare, and/or the oomycete Saprolegnia ferax. Survival of the 21 Bacillus strains in the intestine of catfish was determined as Bacillus CFU/g of intestinal tissue of catfish after feeding Bacillus spore-supplemented feed for seven days followed by normal feed for three days. Five Bacillus strains that showed good antimicrobial activity and intestinal survival were incorporated into feed in spore form at a dose of 8×10(7) CFU/g and fed to channel catfish for 14 days before they were challenged by E. ictaluri in replicate. Two Bacillus subtilis strains conferred significant benefit in reducing catfish mortality (Pcatfish. Safety of the four strains exhibiting the strongest biological control in vivo was also investigated in terms of whether the strains contain plasmids or express resistance to clinically important antibiotics. The Bacillus strains identified from this study have good potential to mediate disease control as probiotic feed additives for catfish aquaculture.

  6. Comparative Histomorphological Studies on Oesophagus of Catfish and Grass Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas A. Abd El Hafez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out on 40 specimens of oesophaguses of both sexes of catfish (carnivorous fish and grass carp (herbivorous fish in order to observe the morphological and histological differences between the two species. Oesophagus of catfish was divided into 2 parts: anterior and posterior ones. The anterior part of the oesophagus of catfish was characterized by the presence of numerous mucosal folds. It was lined by stratified epithelium with goblet cells. In addition to club cells were observed in between the stratified epithelium. Scanning electron examination of the oesophageal epithelium of catfish demonstrated the presence of microvilli and fingerprint-like microridges in the superficial cell layer. The posterior part of the oesophagus of catfish was characterized by simple columnar mucus-secreting epithelium. The oesophagus of grass carp had shown the same structure along its entire length. It consisted of less folded mucosa than that observed in the oesophagus of catfish. The epithelium was characterized by the presence of taste buds. In conclusion, the present work revealed some differences in the structure of catfish oesophagus and grass carp oesophagus. These differences are related to type of food and feeding habits of each species.

  7. The cardiovascular health of urban African Americans: diet-related results from the Genes, Nutrition, Exercise, Wellness, and Spiritual Growth (GoodNEWS) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Jo Ann S; Michalsky, Linda; Latson, Bernadette; Banks, Kamakki; Tong, Liyue; Gimpel, Nora; Lee, Jenny J; Dehaven, Mark J

    2012-11-01

    African Americans have a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than Americans in general and are thus prime targets for efforts to reduce CVD risk. Dietary intake data were obtained from African Americans participating in the Genes, Nutrition, Exercise, Wellness, and Spiritual Growth (GoodNEWS) Trial. The 286 women and 75 men who participated had a mean age of 49 years; 53% had hypertension, 65% had dyslipidemia, and 51% met criteria for metabolic syndrome. Their dietary intakes were compared with American Heart Association and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute nutrition parameters to identify areas for improvement to reduce CVD risk in this group of urban church members in Dallas, TX. Results from administration of the Dietary History Questionnaire indicated median daily intakes of 33.6% of energy from total fat, 10.3% of energy from saturated fat, 171 mg cholesterol, 16.3 g dietary fiber, and 2,453 mg sodium. A beneficial median intake of 2.9 cups fruits and vegetables per day was coupled with only 2.7 oz fish/week and an excessive intake of 13 tsp added sugar/day. These data indicate several changes needed to bring the diets of these individuals--and likely many other urban African Americans--in line with national recommendations, including reduction of saturated fat, sodium, and sugar intake, in addition to increased intake of fatty fish and whole grains. The frequent inclusion of vegetables should be encouraged in ways that promote achievement of recommended intakes of energy, fat, fiber, and sodium. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Protein profile of breeding discrepancies of African catfish Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ninety juveniles were graded and selected for the top 10%, medium 10% and bottom 10% fish which represented fast, moderate and slow growing groups. ... proteins have contributed to the heterozygosity nature of the large size class which are most suitable for broodstock selection for future artificial propagation practices.

  9. Histological study of the pharyngeal pad of the african catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pharyngeal pad located dorsally on the oro-pharynx was processed for light microscopy. The epithelium was of stratified mucous type containing taste buds, club cells and teeth. The micromorphology revealed the co-localization of teeth and taste bud. Developing, erupting and erupted teeth were also seen. The thin ...

  10. Cost Characteristics of the African Catfish Culture in Recirculating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Applied Agriculture and Apiculture Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 1-2 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Haemoglobin polymorphism in wild and cultured African catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result shows that both wild and cultured C. gariepinus had AA, BB and CC genotypes in the males and females. However, BD genotype was observed only in the female wild C. gariepinus. The percentage AA and BB genotypes of wild male C. gariepinus was 6.6% each. Wild females had AA, BB, CC and BD genotype ...

  12. Selected egg parameters and hatching time of African catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egg weight, diameter and mean number per gram were determined for fertilized eggs from broodfish of Clarias gariepinus and Heterobranchus longifilis and F1, hybrid broodfish (C. gariepinus x H. longifilis). Mean egg weight was least in C. gariepinus (1.30 mg) followed by H. longifilis (1.80 mg) and highest in the F1 hybrid ...

  13. Does African catfish ( Clarias gariepinus ) affect rice in integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted for 98 days in the Lake Victoria Basin to investigate the interactions of fish and rice growth performance in rice paddies. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design, with rice cultivar as the main plot and method of rice-fish culture as the sub-plot. Treatments consisted of two levels of ...

  14. Induced spawning, survival and growth of an African catfish hybrid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clarias is a good candidate for aquaculture in Cameroon because of its high economic value but getting hardy and fast growing Clarias seed have been a major problem to fish farmers, especially in the Mount Cameroon Region. The objectives of this work are: to present the results of the experiments where a new Clarias ...

  15. Toxicity of cassava wastewater effluents to African catfish: Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative lethal and sublethal toxicity of cassava wastewater effluents from a local food factory were investigated on Clarias gariepinus fingerlings using a renewable static bioassay. The physico-chemical characteristics of the cassava wastewater effluents showed a number of deviations from the standards of the Federal ...

  16. Bacterial microflora of the african catfish ( Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacterial microflora of a fish cum pig integrated farming system was examined during the dry season months of November to March. Clarias gariepinus fingerlings of 9.2g mean weight were stocked at a density of 5 fingerling m-2 in three freshwater earthen ponds of 200m2 surface area each that were fed 175gm-1 fresh ...

  17. Acute toxicity of diazinon to the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... Pesticides and drugs used in agriculture and veterinary medicine may end up in aquatic environments and bioaccumulate in the food chain, thus posing serious problems for fauna and human health. The lethal concentrations of 50% of sample (LC50) and 25% (LC25) were determined using semi-static.

  18. Acute toxicity of copper sulphate to the African catfish ( Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the exposure period, the fish showed such signs as increased opercula movement, darkening of the skin, hyperventilation, secretion of mucus, quick jerky movement and no response to gentle prodding before death finally occurred. The results indicated that even though CuSO4.5H2O is an important fungicide for ...

  19. Enrichment of African catfish with functional selenium originating from garlic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, E.; Pedrero, Z.; Camara, C.; Heul, van der J.W.; Luten, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    We wanted to create functional seafood with high concentrations of organic selenium (seleno-methyl-selenocysteine and ¿-glutamyl-seleno-methyl-selenocysteine) with anti-carcinogenic properties for human consumers. Garlic containing high concentrations of these organic selenium compounds was used as

  20. Salinity tolerance of larvae of African catfish Clarias gariepinus ( ) X ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourteen and twenty one day larvae were exposed to abrupt stepwise change in salinity (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 ppt) for 96 hours to determine mortality, median lethal mortality, MLS and median lethal time, MLT. The fourteen day-old fry that were exposed to 0 – 6 ppt recorded 90%, 87.5% 77.5% and 10% survival at the end of ...

  1. Pheromones and ovarian growth in the African catfish Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd, van J.H.

    1990-01-01

    Pheromones are defined as 'substances which are secreted to the outside by an individual and received by a second individual of the same species, in which they release a specific reaction'. In teleost fish, pheromones play a role in a variety of social interactions. Sex pheromones are

  2. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to the African Freshwater Catfish Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10% were convulsive and motionless with a lot of mucous materials on the body to confer death. The 96-h LC50 value was 3.85 mg.l-1 while the threshold value was 3.80 mg.l-1. The fish fed vigorously at the initial introduction of food but the anxiety to feed declined as concentration and exposure time increased. Key words: ...

  3. Occurrence of Klebsiella Species in Cultured African Catfish in Oyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish is capable of habouring diseases and therefore, must be safe and free of infectious pathogens if aquaculture should fulfill its potential. Infectious disease has being one of the major causes of death worldwide in recent times. Klebsiella species in the family of enterobacteriacea causes urinary tract infections, pneumonia ...

  4. Distal Intestinal Caecum of Farmed African Catfish (Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lamina propria contained blood vessels, loose connective tissue and leukocytes. The muscularis mucosae of smooth muscle cells were observed. The submucosa contained loose connective tissue, smooth muscle cells, blood vessels and leukocytes. The tunica muscularis contained a myenteric plexus between the ...

  5. Non specific immune response in the African catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The blood leukocyte phagocytic activity was enhanced in fishes fed diet 2 and diet 3 from the 14th day while those fed diet 1 showed no significant(P>0.05) increase until the 28th day. Serum lysozyme activities were stimulated in fish fed diet 2 from the 14th day while significant increase were recorded from the 28th day in ...

  6. Response of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus; (Burchell, 1822) to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sphenostylis stenocarpa) (AYB) subjected to two processing methods was assessed. Mature AYB was boiled, fermented and processed into meals. Seven diets were formulated to contain 44.07 ±0.48% crude protein and 19.03±0.05 kJ g-1 gross energy ...

  7. Male organs of African catfish ( Clarias gariepinus ) in spawning and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All fish were sourced from Gamboru fish market, Maiduguri and transported live to the gross Anatomy laboratory, Department of Veterinary Anatomy University of Maiduguri. Each fish was euthanized using tricaine anaesthetic at 8 drops/litre of water. The reproductive organs were removed en mass using scalpel, forceps, ...

  8. Nasal cavity of the farmed african catfish Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher magnification revealed that these filaments were lined by olfactory neuroepithelium containing tall ciliated simple columnar cells, supporting cells occasional mucous cells. The roof of the cavity was lined by bi-stratified cuboidal caudally to low cuboidal cells rostrally. This histology suggests an organ actively involved ...

  9. Restricted Blood Flow Exercise in Sedentary, Overweight African-American Females May Increase Muscle Strength and Decrease Endothelial Function and Vascular Autoregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Bond

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Exercise with partially restricted blood flow is a low-load, low-intensity resistance training regimen which may have the potential to increase muscle strength in the obese, elderly and frail who are unable to do high-load training. Restricted blood flow exercise has also been shown to affect blood vessel function variably and can, therefore, contribute to blood vessel dysfunction. This pilot study tests the hypothesis that unilateral resistance training of the leg extensors with partially restricted blood flow increases muscle strength and decreases vascular autoregulation. Methods: The subjects were nine normotensive, overweight, young adult African-Americans with low cardiorespiratory fitness who underwent unilateral training of the quadriceps’ femoris muscles with partially restricted blood flow at 30% of the 1-repetition maximum (1-RM load for 3 weeks. The 1-RM load and post-occlusion blood flow to the lower leg (calf were measured during reactive hyperemia. Results: The 1-RM load increased in the trained legs from 77 ± 3 to 84 ± 4 kg (P 0.1. Post-occlusion blood flow decreased significantly in the trained legs from 19 ± 2 to 13 ± 2 mL· min-1· dL-1 (P < 0.05 and marginally in the contralateral untrained legs from 18 ± 2 to 16 ± 1 mL· min-1· dL-1 (P = 0.09. Changes in post-occlusion blood flow to the skin overlying the trained and the contralateral untrained muscles were not significant. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that restricted blood flow exercise, which results in significant gains in muscle strength, may produce decrements in endothelial dysfunction and vascular autoregulation. Future studies should determine whether pharmacopuncture plays a role in treatments for such blood vessel dysfunction.

  10. Respiration and hemoglobin function in the giant African bullfrog Pyxicephalus adspersus Tschudi (Anura: Pyxicephalidae) during rest, exercise and dormancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Aardt, W.J; Weber, Roy E.

    2010-01-01

    of dormancy in soil without forming cocoons. With virtually no information available on the associated respiratory adaptations, we measured oxygen consumption rates of resting and exercising bullfrogs together with haematological and gas-binding properties of blood and haemoglobin (Hb) solutions from non...

  11. Fungal chitosan and Lycium barbarum extract as anti-Listeria and quality preservatives in minced catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaggaf, Mohammed S; Moussa, Shaaban H; Elguindy, Nihal M; Tayel, Ahmed A

    2017-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne bacterial pathogen that causes serious health risks. Chitosan (Ch) is a bioactive polymer that could be effectively applied for foodstuffs biopreservation. Lycium barbarum (Goji berry) is ethnopharmaceutical fruit that have diverse health protecting benefits. Chitosan was produced from A. niger and employed with L. barbarum extract (LBE) as blends for Listeria control and quality biopreservation of African catfish mince (Clarias gariepinus). Chitosan could utterly control L. monocytogenes survival in fish mince and its efficacy was strengthened with added LBE at 0.2 and 0.4%. Blending of fish mince with Ch could effectively reduce the progress of chemical spoilage parameters and this protective effect was greatly enhanced with increased addition of LBE. The sensorial assessment of treated minces indicated panelists preferences for the entire attributes of blended samples with Ch and LBE, particularly with storage prolongation. Scanning micrographs elucidated the antibacterial action of Ch against L. monocytogenes. Results recommended the application of fungal Ch/LBE composites as biopreservatives and anti-listerial agents, through their blending with catfish mince, to eliminate bacterial growth, enhance sensory and storage attributes of preserved fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Water hardness influences Flavobacterium columnare pathogenesis in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to determine aspects of water chemistry responsible for large differences in pathogenesis and mortality rates in challenges of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus with Flavobacterium columnare; challenges were conducted in water supplying the Stuttgart National Aquaculture Res...

  13. The Effect of Addition Vitamin E on Catfish Oil Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara M. Kusharto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Unsaturated fatty acids contained oils which sensitive to oxidation caused by heat, light and oxygen. The oxidized oil known harmful to the body. One of the effort to prevent the oxidation process is by adding antioxidants stability of oil catfish and shelf life of the oil. The experimental study was applied by adding vitamin E to the oil as much as 0.67 mg / g PUFA compared with the control oil. Oil was stored with the Schaal Oven Test method, which are stored at a temperature of 600C. The study showed that, based on the parameters of oxidation (free fatty acids, peroxide value, anisidin numbers, and the number of total oxidation, catfish oil were added vitamin E more stabilized than the catfish oil without added vitamin E. The catfish fish oil in the form of soft gell capsules added vitamin E could maintain stability in appropriate with IFOS up to 23 months.

  14. Physiology and immunology of mucosal barriers in catfish (Ictalurus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mucosal barriers of catfish (Ictalurus spp.) constitute the first line of defense against pathogen invasion while simultaneously carrying out a diverse array of other critical physiological processes, including nutrient adsorption, osmoregulation, waste excretion, and environmental sensing. Catf...

  15. Growth of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), blue catfish (I. furcatus), and their F1, F2, F3, and F1 reciprocal backcross hybrids in earthen ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argue, Brad J; Kuhlers, Daryl L; Liu, Zhanjiang; Dunham, Rex A

    2014-10-01

    The F1 hybrid between a channel catfish female (Ictalurus punctatus) × a blue catfish (I. furcatus) male outperforms both parental species in most environments. However, reproductive isolating mechanisms between the species made it difficult to mass produce the F1 hybrid for commercialization until recent improvements in hormone usage. This study was undertaken to mix the genomes of the 2 species in an attempt to obtain faster-growing catfish that would eventually be easier to reproduce. Despite the recent improvements, it would still be advantageous to have an animal that does not require hormone dosing for reproduction and does not require the growing of 2 separate species by breeders. Additionally, a F1 backcross or a multigeneration backcross has the possibility of being an improvement compared to an F1 hybrid. At low density, there was no difference in growth between channel catfish and channel-blue F1 hybrids. At higher densities, the F1 hybrid grew faster (666 g) than channel catfish (577 g), blue catfish × F1 (520 g), F1 × F1 (508 g), F1 × channel catfish (436 g), blue catfish (396 g), F1 × blue catfish (379 g), channel catfish × F1 (359 g), and F2 × F2 (359 g; P F3 hybrids had high coefficients of variation. This gives a high amount of variation for selection, which might be used to select the faster-growing catfish.

  16. Identification of Bacillus strains for biological control of catfish pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Ran

    Full Text Available Bacillus strains isolated from soil or channel catfish intestine were screened for their antagonism against Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila, the causative agents of enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC and motile aeromonad septicaemia (MAS, respectively. Twenty one strains were selected and their antagonistic activity against other aquatic pathogens was also tested. Each of the top 21 strains expressed antagonistic activity against multiple aquatic bacterial pathogens including Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, Yersinia ruckeri, Flavobacterium columnare, and/or the oomycete Saprolegnia ferax. Survival of the 21 Bacillus strains in the intestine of catfish was determined as Bacillus CFU/g of intestinal tissue of catfish after feeding Bacillus spore-supplemented feed for seven days followed by normal feed for three days. Five Bacillus strains that showed good antimicrobial activity and intestinal survival were incorporated into feed in spore form at a dose of 8×10(7 CFU/g and fed to channel catfish for 14 days before they were challenged by E. ictaluri in replicate. Two Bacillus subtilis strains conferred significant benefit in reducing catfish mortality (P<0.05. A similar challenge experiment conducted in Vietnam with four of the five Bacillus strains also showed protective effects against E. ictaluri in striped catfish. Safety of the four strains exhibiting the strongest biological control in vivo was also investigated in terms of whether the strains contain plasmids or express resistance to clinically important antibiotics. The Bacillus strains identified from this study have good potential to mediate disease control as probiotic feed additives for catfish aquaculture.

  17. Trophic relations of introduced flathead catfish in an atlantic river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Jessica R.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    The flathead catfish Pylodictis olivaris is a large piscivore that is native to the Mississippi and Rio Grande river drainages but that has been widely introduced across the United States. River ecologists and fisheries managers are concerned about introduced flathead catfish populations because of the negative impacts on native fish communities or imperiled species associated with direct predation and indirect competition from this apex predator. We studied the trophic relations of introduced flathead catfish in an Atlantic river to further understand the effects on native fish communities. Crayfish (Astacidea) occurred most frequently in the flathead catfish diet, while sunfish Lepomis spp. comprised the greatest percentage by weight. Neither of two sympatric imperiled fish species (the federally endangered Cape Fear shiner Notropis mekistocholas and the Carolina redhorse Moxostoma sp., a federal species of concern) was found in any diet sample. An ontogenetic shift in diet was evident when flathead catfish reached about 300 mm, and length significantly explained the variation in the percent composition by weight of sunfish and darters Etheostoma and Percina spp. Flathead catfish showed positive prey selectivity for taxa that occupied similar benthic microhabitat, highlighting the importance of opportunistic feeding and prey encounter rates. Flathead catfish displayed a highly variable diel feeding chronology during July, when they had a mean stomach fullness of 0.32%, but then showed a single midday feeding peak during August (mean fullness = 0.52%). The gastric evacuation rate increased between July (0.40/h) and August (0.59/h), as did daily ration, which more than doubled between the 2 months (3.06% versus 7.37%). Our findings increase the understanding of introduced flathead catfish trophic relations and the degree of vulnerability among prey taxa, which resource managers may consider in fisheries management and conservation of native fish populations and

  18. Profitability analysis of catfish production in Kaduna state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gross farm income was N 1,172,000 per annum while the net farm income was N559, 950 per annum with a return on investment of 0.915 (91.5%). The result indicates that catfish production was profitable in the study are. This also indicates that there is enough employment opportunities in catfish farm in the area, thus ...

  19. DNA barcoding of catfish: species authentication and phylogenetic assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lian Wong

    Full Text Available As the global market for fisheries and aquaculture products expands, mislabeling of these products has become a growing concern in the food safety arena. Molecular species identification techniques hold the potential for rapid, accurate assessment of proper labeling. Here we developed and evaluated DNA barcodes for use in differentiating United States domestic and imported catfish species. First, we sequenced 651 base-pair barcodes from the cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene from individuals of 9 species (and an Ictalurid hybrid of domestic and imported catfish in accordance with standard DNA barcoding protocols. These included domestic Ictalurid catfish, and representative imported species from the families of Clariidae and Pangasiidae. Alignment of individual sequences from within a given species revealed highly consistent barcodes (98% similarity on average. These alignments allowed the development and analyses of consensus barcode sequences for each species and comparison with limited sequences in public databases (GenBank and Barcode of Life Data Systems. Validation tests carried out in blinded studies and with commercially purchased catfish samples (both frozen and fresh revealed the reliability of DNA barcoding for differentiating between these catfish species. The developed protocols and consensus barcodes are valuable resources as increasing market and governmental scrutiny is placed on catfish and other fisheries and aquaculture products labeling in the United States.

  20. Population characteristics of channel catfish near the northern edge of their distribution: implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Lynn, K. P.; Quist, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), populations in six lakes in northern Idaho, USA, were sampled to describe their population characteristics. During the summers of 2011 and 2012, 4864 channel catfish were sampled. Channel catfish populations had low to moderate catch rates, and length structure was dominated by fish Channel catfish were in good body condition. All populations were maintained by stocking age-1 or age-2 fish. Growth of fish reared in thermally enriched environments prior to stocking was fast compared to other North American channel catfish populations. After stocking, growth of channel catfish declined rapidly. Once stocked, cold water temperatures, prey resources and (or) genetic capabilities limited growth. Total annual mortality of age 2 and older channel catfish was generally channel catfish population dynamics and highlights important considerations associated with their ecology and management.

  1. Price Volatility Spillover in Agricultural Markets: An Examination of U.S. Catfish Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Buguk, Cumhur; Hudson, Darren; Hanson, Terrill R.

    2003-01-01

    Price volatility spillovers in the U.S. catfish supply chain are analyzed based on monthly price data from 1980 through 2000 for catfish feed, its ingredients, and farm- and wholesale-level catfish. The exponential generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (EGARCH) model was used to test univariate volatility spillovers for prices in the supply chain. Strong price volatility spillover from feeding material (corn, soybeans, menhaden) to catfish feed and farm- and wholesale-leve...

  2. Hydrogen peroxide treatments for channel catfish eggs infected with water molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungi, or water molds Saprolegnia spp., on channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus eggs can lower fry production. This requires the producer to spawn more catfish or face fingerling shortages. Few treatments have been tested against channel catfish eggs infested with an identified fungus. Hydrogen pe...

  3. Effects of calcium and magnesium hardness on the fertilization and hatching success of hybrid catfish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid catfish are exclusively produced by strip spawning of channel catfish females, fertilizing stripped eggs with blue catfish sperm, and hatching the fertilized eggs. As egg development takes outside the fish’s body, water hardness is one abioitic parameter, suggested to have a major effect on ...

  4. Proximate Composition and Collagen Concentration of Processing Residue of Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residues (including heads, skin, viscera, frames, and trimmings) from the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus processing industry have generally been made into catfish meal and catfish oil that are used in animal feeds. There may be more efficient uses for these materials, such as producing collagen...

  5. Evaluation of portable near infrared spectrophotometer to stage maturity in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonadal maturity of channel catfish varies within the same cohort of fish. Female channel catfish with superior maturity need to be identified and staged for higher success to induce spawn wit ovulating hormones to produce channel x blue hybrid catfish fry in hatcheries. Maturation is not synchron...

  6. Effects of Season, Strain and Body Weight on Testes Development and Quality in Three Strains of Blue Catfish, Ictalurus furcatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercial production of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) female x blue catfish (I. furcatus) male hybrids has increased dramatically in the U.S. during the last 10 years. Hybrid fry production requires fertilization of channel catfish eggs with blue catfish sperm obtained by surgical removal ...

  7. Pyrethroid toxicity in silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco P. Montanha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine both the lethal and sublethal concentrations of Cypermethrin in young Silver Catfish (Brazilian "Jundiá", Rhamdia quelen on aquatic environment during 96 hours, as well as to determine the Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin sublethal concentrations during the initial embryonic development period of Rhamdia quelen, and to verify their respective rates of fertilization, hatching and survival. Pyrethroid nowadays is a widely used insecticide, which presents a high toxicity to fish. In order to determine lethal and sublethal concentrations, 120 silver catfish were used; each one had an average weight of 59.58±4.50g and an average size of 20.33±2.34cm. Concentrations used were 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0mg of Cypermethrin per liter of water (mg/L. Fish were exposed to the product in 30-liter fish tanks. In each fish tank there were four fishes and the product was applied three times, i.e., a total of twelve fish were exposed to the product at each application, and a total of 120 fish during the entire experiment (n=120. In order to determine the Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin sublethal concentrations during the initial embryonic development, ovulation induction was performed on female fishes using hormones, and then and egg collection was performed. The eggs were then hydrated and fertilized in Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin in different concentrations: 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0mg/L of Cypermethrin and 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0mg/L of Deltamethrin, in addition to the control group (0mg/L. After fertilization, the eggs were kept in containers with the respective pesticides of Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin until hatching, when hatching rate was verified. Then the alevins, from the hatching, were kept on their respective concentrations of Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin so that the survival rate could be analyzed regarding the tested insecticides, during both 12-hour and 24-hour periods

  8. Feeding ecology and energetic relationships with habitat of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus, and flathead catfish, Pylodictis olivaris, in the lower Mississippi River, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleton, M.A.; Schramm, H.L.

    2004-01-01

    We examined feeding of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus, and flathead catfish, Pylodictis olivaris, collected from floodplain lake, secondary (side) river channel, and main river channel habitats in the lower Mississippi River (LMR), U.S.A. We described the feeding ecology of two large river catfish species within the context of whether off-channel habitats in the LMR (i.e., floodplain lakes and secondary channels) potentially provided energetic benefits to these fishes as purported in contemporary theory on the ecology of large rivers. We used diet composition and associated caloric densities of prey consumed as indicators of energetic benefit to catfishes. Differences in diet among habitats were strong for blue catfish, but weak for flathead catfish; consumed foods generally differed among habitats in caloric (energy) content. Caloric densities of consumed foods were generally greatest in floodplain lakes, least in the main river channel, and intermediate in secondary river channels. Strong between-year variation in diet was observed, but only for blue catfish. Blue catfish fed disproportionately on lower-energy zebra mussels in the main river channel during 1997, and higher-energy chironomids and oligochaetes in floodplain lakes during 1998. Results suggested that although off-channel habitats potentially provided greater energetic return to catfishes in terms of foods consumed, patterns of feeding and subsequent energy intake may vary annually. Energetic benefits associated with off-channel habitats as purported under contemporary theory (e.g., the 'flood-pulse concept') may not be accrued by catfishes every year in the LMR.

  9. Effect of type and concentration of water hardness on the fertilization and hatching success of channel X blue F1 hybrid catfish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consistent and improved performance of channel x blue F1 hybrid catfish fingerlings in production ponds in the US farm raised catfish industry has prompted an increase in demand of hybrid catfish fingerlings even at higher prices compared to commonly raised channel catfish. Hybrid catfish fry are e...

  10. Suspending mammalian LHRHa-injected channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus in individual nylon-mesh bag reduces stress and improves reproductive performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormone induced spawning of channel catfish held communally in tanks is a reliable method to produce channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus ' x blue catfish, I. furcatus ' F1 hybrid catfish fry. However, mature catfish are crowded, and repeatedly handled during the process of induced ovulation. Repe...

  11. Effects of Endosulfan on Predator-Prey Interactions Between Catfish and Schistosoma Host Snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monde, Concillia; Syampungani, Stephen; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2016-08-01

    The effect of the pesticide endosulfan on predator-prey interactions between catfish and Schistosoma host snails was assessed in static tank experiments. Hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus × C. ngamensis) and Bulinus globosus were subjected to various endosulfan concentrations including an untreated control. The 48- and 96-h LC50 values for catfish were 1.0 and Schistosoma host snails using fish may be affected in endosulfan-polluted aquatic systems of Southern Africa because it has been found present at concentrations that are indicated to cause lethal effects on the evaluated hybrid catfish and to inhibit the predation of snails by this hybrid catfish.

  12. The Effect of Addition of Spinach Flour (Amaranthus SP) on Consumer Acceptance of Catfish Ball

    OpenAIRE

    Naibaho, Mychael F; Buchari, Dewita; ', Sumarto

    2014-01-01

    The study was intended to examine the effect of spinach flour on consumer acceptance ofcatfish ball. About 36kg catfish was taken from a fish market in Pekanbaru. Four types of fishballs were prepared from catfish meat which was fortificated with 0%, 2,5%, 5%, and 7,5%spinach flour. The catfish balls were evaluated for consumer acceptance and chemicalcomposition. The results indicate that the catfish balls added with 2,5% spinach flour was themost preferable by consumers. The catfish balls co...

  13. THE ADDED VALUE OF SHREDDED LELE AND PATIN CATFISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristina Siti Sundari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fish is not only perishable product but also has segmented market. Consumption market such wants the fresh fish and certainty size. The problem is when the size of fish is too big for consumption, so that product is not wanted by consumer anymore. This research aimed at knowing the added value of shredded Lele and Patin catfish agribusiness and increasing prosperity of humanitarian society throughout processing the shredded catfishes. The data of this research was analyzed by Added Value Analysis of Hayami. The result showed that the shredded product of Lele catfish gave the added value IDR 14.295,00 per kilograms with the added value ratio was 25,53 percent and Conversion value was 0,35. Whereas, the shredded product of Patin catfish gave the added value IDR 18.295,00 per kilogram with the added value ratio was 29,04 percent and Conversion value was 0,35. The agribusiness toward processing and marketing of shredded Lele and Patin catfish was innovative agribusiness that could develop business opportunity so that it could move on the economical wheel and increasing humanitarian society prosperity actively. The market demand was still very wide either in town or out of town. The partnership among various not only government but also non government associations would be a good matter toward this agribusiness is running well.

  14. Water quality and plankton communities in hybrid catfish (female channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus x male blue catfish, I. furcatus) ponds after partial fish harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twelve, 0.4-ha ponds were stocked with 10,000 hybrid catfish fingerlings in March 2015. Six ponds were partially harvested in August to remove fish larger than ~ 0.57 kg. All remaining fish were removed in October and November. Partial harvest of faster-growing fish removed ~26% of fish initially st...

  15. Book review: Conservation, ecology, and management of catfish: The second international symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James M.

    2013-01-01

    This is the second publication in a series published by the American Fisheries Society devoted to catfish research, biology, and management, which was organized as a symposium held in St. Louis Missouri, in 2010 and builds upon the first symposium that was held in Davenport, Iowa, in 1998 (Irwin et al. 1999).  The organizations of the second symposium stated that this was to "serve as an addendum to Catfish 2000" and "to cover the four corners of catfish science: catfish biology, ecology, management, and conservation" (p. xi).  The book meets this standard easily.  With 64 pages organized into nine sections (plenary, catfishes as sport fish, non-game catfishes, nonnative catfishes, movement and habitat use, sampling and population assessment, age and growth, behavior, and future directions), this publication covers these four corners and more.

  16. Assessment of selected metals in the muscle and liver of the African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the level of manganese, zinc, copper, and nickel in the liver and muscle of the African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus from Ilushi River, Edo State, Nigeria with a view to determining the level of heavy metal contamination. The results showed that the muscles and the livers contained varying levels of the ...

  17. A stochastic analysis of tractor overturn costs on catfish farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibendahl, G A; Stephens, W B; Myers, M L

    2012-10-01

    An area of health and safety risk in agriculture that can be especially dangerous is catfish farming. One of the potential sources of injuries on catfish farms is tractor overturns that often result in crushing injuries. There is likely a higher probability of tractor overturns on a catfish farm than on a traditional crop farm due to the conditions that prevail on catfish farms. A catfish farm requires tractor movement near pond levees and water, and these levees have steep banks. Many of the activities on a catfish farm, such as mowing, feeding, and pond maintenance, require operating a tractor near a pond levee. Rollover protection structures (ROPS) on tractors can help to minimize the injuries caused by tractor overturns. ROPS do not lessen the probability of overturns, but ROPS mitigate the expected injury severity and lower the associated costs of an overturn. Despite the benefits of ROPS, not every tractor is so equipped. Some earlier work indicated that the cost to retrofit older tractors might outweigh the expected benefits. This article uses stochastic (i.e., randomly determined) analysis to determine if risk-averse farmers are more likely than risk-neutral farmers to retrofit tractors with ROPS. For this analysis, a distribution function of injury costs should an overturn occur was developed for both ROPS and non-ROPS tractors, and a Monte Carlo simulation was conducted. Results indicate that many risk-averse producers would be willing to retrofit older tractors with ROPS. However producers who are risk-neutral probably will not retrofit. These results might explain why not all tractors have been retrofitted despite the long-term availability of retrofit kits.

  18. The culture of sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus in Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hecht, T

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available LEGENDS FOR PLATES CHAPTER 1. SYSTEMATICS AND BIOLOGY OF CLARIID CATFISH M N Bruton Introduction Systematics Distribution and habitat preferences Breeding Feeding Growth Sensory systems Problems associated with the translocation of catfish...; the presence of an adipose f i n i n some species; strong. sharply pointed spines i n the pectoral (and i n some species. t he dorsal) f in: whiskerlike. sensory barbels around the mouth: a large and broad head and mouth; small eyes. A l l c a t f i...

  19. Effect of paternal blue catfish strain effects on hatchery fry production and performance of channel catfish X blue catfish F1 hybrid fry production and fingerling performance under commercial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four hundred four-year old mature Gold Kist strain channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus were induced to spawn with 10 mg common carp pituitary extract (CPE) /kg BW in 8 spawning trials. The stripped eggs were fertilized with sperm of either D&B or Rio Grande blue catfish, I.furcatus to produce D&B ...

  20. Designing Customer Education Activities to Change People’s Perception of Catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanus Pratama Suwito

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Most people see catfish as an unhygienic fish, so less people want to consume it. In fact, catfish has better nutrition compared to Gourami. Therefore, catfish producers need to educate people. The purpose of this research is to design customer education activities to change people’s perception towards catfish using marketing communication mix. This research is a qualitative research and it uses in-depth interview method in gathering the required data. Based on the preliminary survey conducted to 50 people in Surabaya, it is known that Surabaya people are considered novice customers. As such, catfish producers can conduct customer education activities until people want to taste the catfish. The company can add picture, video, and oral information about the benefits in consuming catfish or the nutrition and the certificate of hygienic cultivation system. The producers can provide tester for the catfish and show the customers the comparison between good and bad quality catfish. The producers can also add two more marketing communication activities i.e. events and experiences as well as public relations and publicity. The producers need to use reliable sources in informing the catfish’s nutrition facts such as the certificate of catfish breeder, and certification from BPOM.

  1. Occurrence and vulnerability of a giant sea catfish, Arius thalassinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution and some biological characteristics of commercially important giant sea catfish, Arius thalassinus (Rüppell, 1837) were studied in Mafia Island from October 2010 to October 2011. Samples were collected from artisanal fishing gear, mainly longlines, sharknets and ringnets, which yielded a total of 2,723 kg ...

  2. Performance of Catfish ( Clarias Gariepinus Burchell, 1822) Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of boiled mango seed kernel (MSK) as substitute for maize in diets of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings was investigated using four diets were formulated such that T2 , T3 and T4 contained boiled MSK as replacement for maize at 20%, 40% and 60% inclusion levels respectively, while T1 (control) contained ...

  3. Catfish Farmers Perception of Training Effectiveness of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed farmers' perception of the effectiveness of University of Nigeria Nsukka-West Africa Agricultural Productivity Programme (UNNWAAPP) training on catfish production around the University of Nigeria catchment area in Enugu State. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 42 respondents across ...

  4. Formulation, production and evaluation of floating catfish feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This trial was carried out to compare the performance of catfish fed with four experimental diets; a reference foreign diet (Multifeed) and three isonitrogenous and isoenergetic locally formulated diets with different palm oil contents (1, 2 and 3 liters) coded as Feed 1, Feed 2, Feed 3 and Feed 4 respectively. The growth trial ...

  5. Relationships between heavy metals in the catfish, Chrysicthys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationships between heavy metals in the catfish, Chrysicthys nigrodigitatus , water column and sediments of taylor creek, southern Nigeria. ... The best relationships were observed for Ni-Zn (r=0.72) and Cd-Pb (r=0.65). Partitioning coefficients (£d) of heavy metals between dissolved phase and SPM were generally low, ...

  6. Study on Feeding Habit of Clariid Catfish ( Clarias Gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted to investigate the feeding habit of catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) in Otamiri River, South-Eastern Nigeria. Stomach items analyzed include mainly algae, fish scales, annelids, benthic invertebrates, and detritus confirmed the fish as omnivorous species. However, few stomach contents ...

  7. Dissolved oxygen and aeration in ictalurid catfish aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feed-based production of ictalurid catfish in ponds is the largest aquaculture sector in the United States. The feed biochemical oxygen demand (FBOD) typically is 1.1-1.2 kg O2/kg feed. Feed also results in a substantial increase of carbon dioxide, ammonia nitrogen, and phosphate to ponds, and this ...

  8. Comparative study on the growth performance of the hybrid catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance of the hybrid catfish Heteroclarias reared in concrete and earthen pond systems were investigated in a 92-day experiment. Experiment was conducted using four rectangular ponds (2 concrete and 2 earthen) each measuring 14 × 6 × 1.5 metres in duplicates. The ponds were uniformly limed, fertilized ...

  9. Breeding seasonality and population dynamics of the catfish Schilbe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve consecutive months length frequency data (N = 6999) and FiSAT software were used in the study of the dynamics of exploited population the catfish Schilbe mystus in the Cross River Nigeria. Variation in monthly mean gonadosmtic index showed two peaks, March and September and this indicates that the species ...

  10. Monitoring quantity and quality of striped catfish pond effluent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der P.G.M.; Poelman, M.; Bosma, R.H.; Long, N.; Son, V.M.

    2012-01-01

    The production of striped catfish and other fish species in ponds has several possible impacts on the environment, one of which is caused by the discharge of pond waste water (effluent), which is enriched with nitrogen and phosphorous compounds as result of feeding and fish faeces. To restrict the

  11. Moringa, marinade, bacteria, fungi, catfish, smoke-dried

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-01-16

    Jan 16, 2013 ... Abstract. The study examined the antimicrobial effect of Moringa oleifera marinade on smoke-dried catfish stored at ambient temperature (37±20C) for two months. The experimental treatments are the control, 1%, 2% and 3% (w/v) Moringa oleifera Marinade (MOM) and 5% Brine (w/v) solutions.

  12. Anaemia in the freshwater catfish Clarias albopunctatus (Teleostei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematological changes were studied in freshwater catfish Clarias albopunctatus exposed for 20 days to 25%, 50% and 100% concentrations of brewery wastewater prepared by dilution using tap water. Haemoglobin, haematocrit and erythrocyte counts in fish exposed to wastewater were significantly lower than in a ...

  13. Behavioural and biochemical responses of juvenile catfish ( Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The behavioural and serum liver enzyme responses of juvenile catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were evaluated for 72 hours. Thirty-six (36) healthy fishes with standard weight, 20 ± 1.52 g and standard length, 18.25 ± 0.50 cm were used for the experiment in non-renewable bioassay system. The test fish exhibited stressful ...

  14. Evaluation of Zooplankton in Hatchery Diets for Channel Catfish Fry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of zooplankton as a supplemental hatchery diet for fry of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated. When a commercial diet is used as a reference, fry fed exclusively on zooplankton–either live or dried–performed poorly in their growth rate. However, when live or dried zooplan...

  15. Near infrared spectrometers determine stage maturity in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturation is not synchronized in channel catfish and hence, individual fish are frequently handled and manually stage for maturation based on a selective subjective method. Fully matured fish are more responsive to hormone-induced spawning, and often result in better egg quality, higher relative f...

  16. Estimates of age, growth and mortality of spotted catfish, Arius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-11-02

    Nov 2, 2011 ... assessment, and relative estimators are dependent on the growth parameters such as mortality. ... as input data for further stock assessment of the spotted catfish off the coast of southwestern of Taiwan. ... 10(ESP/ASP)/10, where the ESP (Explained Sum of Peaks) is computed by summing all the peaks and ...

  17. Growth Response of Juvenile Catfish ( Clarias gariepinus ) Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and nutrient utilization by catfish (Clarias gariepinus) through the inclusion of Lactobaccillus in either the feed or culture water were studied. A total of sixty three juvenile C. gariepinus average weight 17±1.2 g in a flow through system over a period of 42 days were fed with a conventional feed containing either ...

  18. Food and feeding habits of the catfish, Bagrus docmak (Forsskal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The natural food of the catfish Bagrus docmak was studied from February 1995 to February 1996 in Lake Chamo, Ethiopia. The stomach contents of a total of 534 fish samples, ranging in size from 33—99 cm fork length (LF) and 500—17400 g in total weight (WT) were investigated. The diet of B. docmak was composed of ...

  19. Estimates of age, growth and mortality of spotted catfish, Arius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-11-02

    Nov 2, 2011 ... inhabiting the bottom of estuaries, rivers and coasts. However, few studies have been conducted on the biology of spotted catfish (Mazlan et al., 2008). The age and growth of fish are an important basis for stock assessment, and relative estimators are dependent on the growth parameters such as mortality.

  20. Assessment of the nutritional quality of smoked catfish ( Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the nutritional quality of smoked Catfish Clarias gariepinus obtained in three different markets in Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria for a period of three months. Proximate compositions of smoked Clarias gariepinus were determined. The highest protein content (49.27 ± 2.59) was recorded in smoked fish ...

  1. Bioaccumulation Of Heavy Metals In The Catfish Chrysicthys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The discharge of liquid effluents either untreated or with only primary treatment into Etelebou Creek, a tributary of Taylor Creek has led to the extensive contamination of Taylor Creek by heavy metals. The catfish species, C. nigrodigitatus and other environmental segments were collected from five sites along Taylor Creek, ...

  2. Channel catfish polyculture with fathead minnows or threadfin shad effects on pond plankton communities and catfish fillet flavor, color, and fatty acid composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threadfin shad, Dorosoma petenense, or fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, were co-cultured with channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, in earthen ponds to determine the effects of planktivory on plankton community dynamics and catfish fillet quality. Fathead minnows had no effect on the plankton c...

  3. Iron status of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus affected by channel catfish anemia and response to parenteral iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Originally reported in 1983, channel catfish anemia (CCA), also ‘white lip’ or ‘no blood,’ is a major idiopathic disease affecting commercial production in the Mississippi Delta region of the USA. Affected individuals are characterized by lethargy, anorexia, extreme pallor, and packed cell volumes o...

  4. Heritable Targeted Inactivation of Myostatin Gene in Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) Using Engineered Zinc Finger Nucleases

    OpenAIRE

    Zhangji Dong; Jiachun Ge; Kui Li; Zhiqiang Xu; Dong Liang; Jingyun Li; Junbo Li; Wenshuang Jia; Yuehua Li; Xiaohua Dong; Shasha Cao; Xiaoxiao Wang; Jianlin Pan; Qingshun Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) is one of the most important freshwater aquaculture species in China. However, its small size and lower meat yield limit its edible value. Myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator of mammalian muscle growth. But, the function of Mstn in fish remains elusive. To explore roles of mstn gene in fish growth and create a strain of yellow catfish with high amount of muscle mass, we performed targeted disruption of mstn in yellow catfish using engineered zinc-...

  5. Protein digestibility and ammonia excretion in catfish Clarias gariepinus culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Gunadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A series of experiments was performed to analyze protein digestibility, ammonia excretion, and also heterothropic bacteria and phytoplankton dynamics in the catfish Clarias gariepinus culture. In the digestibility experiment, catfish with an individual initial size of 43.67±0.83 g were stocked into 120 L conical fiberglass tanks at a density of 20 fish per tank. Fish were fed on with commercial diet supplemented with Cr2O3 indicator at a concentration of 1%. In the ammonia excretion experiment, catfish with an individual size of 111.6±9.5 and 40.6±3.4 g, respectively,  were placed into a 10 L chamber filled with 8 L of water. Total ammonia nitrogen (TAN in the chambers were monitored every hour for six consecutive hours. In the bacteria and phytoplankton dynamics experiment, catfish were stocked in the 25 m2 concrete tanks which was divided into two compartments (catfish 10 m2, and heterotrof compartments 15 m2. Catfish with individual size of 42,5±0 g were stocked into the tanks at a density of 100 fish per tank. Water was recirculated from catfish compartments to heterotrophic compartments. Fish were fed with floating feed. Molasses as carbon source for heterotrophic bacteria was applied daily. The experiment was conducted for six weeks. The results showed that the protein digestibility was 61.97±7.24%. Larger fish (size of 111.6 g excreted ammonia at a rate of 0.008±0.003 mg TAN/g fish-weight/hour, which was lower than that of the smaller catfish (size of 40.6 g, i.e. 0.012±0.004 mg TAN/g fish-weight/hour. Keywords: protein digestibility, ammonia excretion, catfish  ABSTRAK Serangkaian penelitian telah dilakukan untuk menganalisis ketercernaan pakan dan protein, ekskresi amonia, serta dinamika bakteri dan fitoplankton pada budidaya ikan lele (Clarias gariepinus. Pada penelitian ketercernaan pakan, ikan lele berukuran 43,67±0,83 g/ekor dipelihara dalam bak fiberglas berbentuk corong berukuran 120 L dengan kepadatan 20

  6. Molecular phylogeny of thorny catfishes (Siluriformes: Doradidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce H, Mariangeles; Reis, Roberto E; Geneva, Anthony J; Sabaj Pérez, Mark H

    2013-06-01

    Doradidae is a monophyletic catfish family endemic to continental South America, and composed of 93 valid species here placed in 31 genera. Existing phylogenetic hypotheses for Doradidae are derived from comprehensive analyses of morphological data, and a single molecular-based study on a limited subset of taxa. To provide a robust molecular phylogeny commensurate with those based on morphology, we gathered original and published sequence data for 86 species-level taxa (at least 70 valid species plus 16 new or questionably nominal species) and all genera of Doradidae, as well as 10 species (nine genera) of Auchenipteridae and three species and genera of Aspredinidae as outgroups. 3011 base pairs were aligned for two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1, and 16S ribosomal RNA) and one nuclear gene (recombination activating gene 1), and analyzed for a total of 143 specimens (130 doradids, 10 auchenipterids and three aspredinids). Tree topologies generated by Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood, and Bayesian analyses were largely congruent, and are compared to existing phylogenies based on morphology and molecules. Although many of the relationships supported by our molecular analyses corroborated those based on morphology, others are newly hypothesized or remain in conflict. The monotypic Wertheimeria, Franciscodoras and Kalyptodoras, for example, form a newly proposed clade, and the subfamily Astrodoradinae is placed at the base of the doradid tree. The monotypic Doraops and Centrochir, endemic to Caribbean drainages north and west of the Andes, are sister to Pterodoras and Platydoras, respectively, two genera that are widely distributed in Atlantic drainages. Additional biogeographic implications are discussed for hypothesized relationships among doradids. Molecular evidence strongly supports synonymization of monotypic Merodoras with Amblydoras, and transfer of Amblydoras bolivarensis to genus Scorpiodoras. Furthermore, we consider Opsodoras

  7. Changes of serum myeloperoxidase and nitric oxide in the early stage of Edwardsiella ictaluri infection in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri, is an important farm-raised channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), disease. The development of a monitoring system for assessing the catfish health status in hatcheries and ponds is in great demanding. Because of the...

  8. Relative effectiveness of carp pituitary extract, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analog LHRHa injections and LHRHa implants for producing hybrid catfish fry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoption of the hybrid catfish (channel catfish, Ictalruus punctatus, female x blue catfish, I. furcatus, male) is increasing in the catfish industry. The most effective way to produce fry is hormone induced spawning of females coupled with hand stripping and in vitro fertilization. The success of...

  9. Production of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seniman, Maizatul Sarah Md; Yusop, Salma Mohamad; Babji, Abdul Salam

    2014-09-01

    Fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) was prepared from freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus) by using Alcalase® 2.4L and Papain. The effect of hydrolysis time (30, 60, 120, 180 min) with enzyme concentration of 1% (v/w substrate); pH = 8.0, 7.0 was studied to determine the degree of hydrolysis (DH), peptide content, proximate composition and amino acid profile. Results showed that the highest DH of Alcalase and Papain FPH were 58.79% and 53.48% after 180 min at 55°C incubation respectively. The peptide content of both FPH increased as hydrolysis time increases. FPH showed higher crude protein content and lower fat, moisture and ash content compared to raw catfish. The major amino acids of both hydrolysates were Glu, Lys and Asp. Content of essential amino acids of Alcalase and Papain hydrolysates were 44.05% and 43.31% respectively.

  10. Energy costs of catfish space use as determined by biotelemetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Slavík

    Full Text Available Animals use dispersed resources within their home range (HR during regular day-to-day activities. The high-quality area intensively used by an individual, where critical resources are concentrated, has been designated as the core area (CA. This study aimed to describe how animals utilize energy in the HR and CA assuming that changes would occur according to the size of the used areas. We observed energetic costs of space use in the largest European freshwater predator catfish, Silurus glanis, using physiological sensors. Catfish consumed significantly more energy within the CA compared to the rest of the HR area. In addition, energetic costs of space use within a large area were lower. These results generally indicate that utilization of larger areas is related to less demanding activities, such as patrolling and searching for new resources and mates. In contrast, fish occurrence in small areas appears to be related to energetically demanding use of spatially limited resources.

  11. Utilization of protein by fingerlings of a threatened freshwater catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial was made to evaluate the utilization of protein as a dietary energy source by the fingerlings of the threatened freshwater catfish Mystus montanus. Six different diets were formulated from semi-purified ingredients with six different levels of proteins (6.97, 24.77, 30.70, 36.64, 42.57 and 46.72%) and were fed to ...

  12. Salinity on artificial reproduction of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen)

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Bernardes Martins; Sérgio Renato Noguez Piedras; Juvêncio Luís Osório Fernandes Pouey; Denise Calisto Bongalhardo; Ricardo Berteaux Robaldo

    2015-01-01

    Attempting to improve reproduction performance and ichthyo prophylaxis, this study evaluated the effects of maintaining silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) broodstock in different saline concentrations (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8‰) on gametes quality and reproductive viability. The results showed that sperm percent motility did not change between 0 and 4‰, but it was reduced at 6‰, and sperm became immotile at 8‰ salinity. Sperm motility time was increased (almost five fold) at 6...

  13. Channel catfish virus: a new herpesvirus of ictalurid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, K; Darlington, R W

    1971-10-01

    Channel catfish virus was studied in ictalurid fish cell culture, the only system of fish, amphibian, avian, and mammalian cells found to be susceptible. Channel catfish virus infection resulted in intranuclear inclusions and extensive syncytium formation. Replication occurred from 10 to 33 C, but not higher. Best growth was from 25 to 33 C, and the amount of virus released nearly equalled the amount which remained cell-associated. The virus was labile to lipid solvents, and indirect determinations with labeled precursors and a metabolic inhibitor showed evidence of deoxyribonucleic acid. Electron microscopy showed progeny virus, about 100 nm in diameter, in various stages of development in cell nuclei by 4 hr. Present also were nuclear masses of exceptionally electron-dense lamellar material, with a unit dimension of 10 to 15 nm. Virus was enveloped at the nuclear membrane and in cytoplasmic vacuoles, resulting in virions having a diameter of 175 to 200 nm. Negative staining demonstrated icosehedral symmetry and 162 capsomeres. Our data indicate that channel catfish virus is a herpesvirus.

  14. Celioscopic liver biopsy in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P.S. Feranti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endosurgery has been used for assessment of fish celomatic cavity, as well as for obtaining biopsies for organic analysis. Such minimally invasive access may also be used for the analysis of environmental impact on biomarkers of pollution. In Brazil, studies and literature regarding the use of celioscopy in fish are sparse. The purpose of the current study was to develop a two-port celioscopy technique to obtain liver biopsy in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen. Six adult female silver catfish were used. The animals were anesthetized and the inspection of the celomatic cavity were performed using a telescope and celioscopic-guided liver biopsy were taken using laparoscopic Kelly forceps. On the early postoperative period, the animals were released in a confined water reservoir where mortality could be checked. The liver samples were sent for histological assessment. There were no complications during surgery on early postoperative period. It was possible to visualize meticulously several organs (liver, spleen, stomach, pancreas, swim bladder, ovaries, bowel and transverse septum. In conclusion, the surgical technique and the anesthetic protocol proposed were suitable to perform liver biopsies in silver catfish and provided low morbidity.

  15. Channel Catfish Virus: a New Herpesvirus of Ictalurid Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Ken; Darlington, Robert W.

    1971-01-01

    Channel catfish virus was studied in ictalurid fish cell culture, the only system of fish, amphibian, avian, and mammalian cells found to be susceptible. Channel catfish virus infection resulted in intranuclear inclusions and extensive syncytium formation. Replication occurred from 10 to 33 C, but not higher. Best growth was from 25 to 33 C, and the amount of virus released nearly equalled the amount which remained cell-associated. The virus was labile to lipid solvents, and indirect determinations with labeled precursors and a metabolic inhibitor showed evidence of deoxyribonucleic acid. Electron microscopy showed progeny virus, about 100 nm in diameter, in various stages of development in cell nuclei by 4 hr. Present also were nuclear masses of exceptionally electron-dense lamellar material, with a unit dimension of 10 to 15 nm. Virus was enveloped at the nuclear membrane and in cytoplasmic vacuoles, resulting in virions having a diameter of 175 to 200 nm. Negative staining demonstrated icosehedral symmetry and 162 capsomeres. Our data indicate that channel catfish virus is a herpesvirus. Images PMID:4108571

  16. Pectoral sound generation in the blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajer, Yasha; Ghahramani, Zachary; Fine, Michael L

    2015-03-01

    Catfishes produce pectoral stridulatory sounds by "jerk" movements that rub ridges on the dorsal process against the cleithrum. We recorded sound synchronized with high-speed video to investigate the hypothesis that blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus produce sounds by a slip-stick mechanism, previously described only in invertebrates. Blue catfish produce a variably paced series of sound pulses during abduction sweeps (pulsers) although some individuals (sliders) form longer duration sound units (slides) interspersed with pulses. Typical pulser sounds are evoked by short 1-2 ms movements with a rotation of 2°-3°. Jerks excite sounds that increase in amplitude after motion stops, suggesting constructive interference, which decays before the next jerk. Longer contact of the ridges produces a more steady-state sound in slides. Pulse pattern during stridulation is determined by pauses without movement: the spine moves during about 14 % of the abduction sweep in pulsers (~45 % in sliders) although movement appears continuous to the human eye. Spine rotation parameters do not predict pulse amplitude, but amplitude correlates with pause duration suggesting that force between the dorsal process and cleithrum increases with longer pauses. Sound production, stimulated by a series of rapid movements that set the pectoral girdle into resonance, is caused by a slip-stick mechanism.

  17. Plasma polar lipid profiles of channel catfish with different growth rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased growth in channel catfish is an economically important trait and has been used as a criterion for the selection and development of brood fish. Selection of channel catfish toward increased growth usually results in the accumulation of large amounts of fats in their abdomen rather than incr...

  18. Effects of Endosulfan on Predator–Prey Interactions Between Catfish and Schistosoma Host Snails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monde, Concillia; Syampungani, Stephen; Brink, van den Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the pesticide endosulfan on predator–prey interactions between catfish and Schistosoma host snails was assessed in static tank experiments. Hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus × C. ngamensis) and Bulinus globosus were subjected to various endosulfan concentrations including an

  19. Efficiency of resource-use and elasticity of production among catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study employed the use of the Stochastic Frontier Production Function in the empirical analysis of efficiency of resource-use and elasticity of production among catfish farmers in Kaduna, Nigeria. The simple random sampling technique was employed in selecting 60 catfish farmers drawn from the sampling frame ...

  20. The see-saw a vertical-lift incubator designed for channel catfish egg masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish egg masses are typically incubated in baskets that are suspended in water that is agitated with rotating or oscillating paddles. We designed and tested a new vertical-lift incubator (the “See-Saw”) to incubate channel catfish egg masses. Preliminary research in commercial hatcheries...

  1. Molecular Cloning and Sequencing of Hemoglobin-Beta Gene of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus Punctatus Rafinesque

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Hemoglobin-y gene of channel catfish , lctalurus punctatus, was cloned and sequenced . Total RNA from head kidneys was isolated, reverse transcribed and amplified . The sequence of the channel catfish hemoglobin-y gene consists of 600 nucleotides . Analysis of the nucleotide sequence reveals one o...

  2. Diseases, Pathology and Recent Developments in US Farm-Raised Catfish (Ictalurus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and now hybrid catfish (I. punctatus x I. furcatus) have been the most economically important aquaculture species in the United States for many years. As such, they continue to be of considerable research interest. The focus of this presentation concerns some re...

  3. Stomach Contents of the Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) in the River Asi (Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    YALÇIN, Şükran

    2014-01-01

    Natural food items of catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) were investigated in the River Asi from September 1996 to October 1998. Analyses of stomach contents showed that the catfish feed basically on Arthropoda, mostly Diptera larvae, and on plant materials to a considerable extent. A successful filter feeding was observed, especially during the summer period.

  4. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 13 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 13, No 3 (2007) ... Integrated approach to teaching African dance and music: Challenges and prospects ... Effects of exercise on visual performance of female rugby players · EMAIL ...

  5. Comparative analysis of catfish BAC end sequences with the zebrafish genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abernathy Jason

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative mapping is a powerful tool to transfer genomic information from sequenced genomes to closely related species for which whole genome sequence data are not yet available. However, such an approach is still very limited in catfish, the most important aquaculture species in the United States. This project was initiated to generate additional BAC end sequences and demonstrate their applications in comparative mapping in catfish. Results We reported the generation of 43,000 BAC end sequences and their applications for comparative genome analysis in catfish. Using these and the additional 20,000 existing BAC end sequences as a resource along with linkage mapping and existing physical map, conserved syntenic regions were identified between the catfish and zebrafish genomes. A total of 10,943 catfish BAC end sequences (17.3% had significant BLAST hits to the zebrafish genome (cutoff value ≤ e-5, of which 3,221 were unique gene hits, providing a platform for comparative mapping based on locations of these genes in catfish and zebrafish. Genetic linkage mapping of microsatellites associated with contigs allowed identification of large conserved genomic segments and construction of super scaffolds. Conclusion BAC end sequences and their associated polymorphic markers are great resources for comparative genome analysis in catfish. Highly conserved chromosomal regions were identified to exist between catfish and zebrafish. However, it appears that the level of conservation at local genomic regions are high while a high level of chromosomal shuffling and rearrangements exist between catfish and zebrafish genomes. Orthologous regions established through comparative analysis should facilitate both structural and functional genome analysis in catfish.

  6. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety ...

  7. DNA barcoding of commercially important catfishes in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilang, Jonas P; Yu, Shiny Cathlynne S

    2015-06-01

    Many species of catfish are important resources for human consumption, for sport fishing and for use in aquarium industry. In the Philippines, some species are cultivated and some are caught in the wild for food and a few introduced species have become invasive. In this study, DNA barcoding using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene was done on commercially and economically important Philippine catfishes. A total of 75 specimens belonging to 11 species and 5 families were DNA barcoded. The genetic distances were computed and Neighbor-Joining (NJ) trees were constructed based on the Kimura 2-Parameter (K2P) method. The average K2P distances within species, genus, family and order were 0.2, 8.2, 12.7 and 21.9%, respectively. COI sequences clustered according to their species designation for 7 of the 11 catfishes. DNA barcoding was not able to discriminate between Arius dispar and A. manillensis and between Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus and P. pardalis. The morphological characters that are used to distinguish between these species do not complement molecular identification through DNA barcoding. DNA barcoding also showed that Clarias batrachus from the Philippines is different from the species found in India and Thailand, which supports earlier suggestions based on morphology that those found in India should be designated as C. magur and those in mainland Southeast Asia as C. aff. batrachus "Indochina". This study has shown that DNA barcoding can be used for species delineation and for tagging some species for further taxonomic investigation, which has implications on proper management and conservation strategies.

  8. A Time-Calibrated Mitogenome Phylogeny of Catfish (Teleostei: Siluriformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappas, Ilias; Vittas, Spiros; Pantzartzi, Chrysoula N; Drosopoulou, Elena; Scouras, Zacharias G

    2016-01-01

    A very significant part of the world's freshwater ichthyofauna is represented by ancient, exceptionally diverse and cosmopolitan ray-finned teleosts of the order Siluriformes. Over the years, catfish have been established as an exemplary model for probing historical biogeography at various scales. Yet, several tantalizing gaps still exist in their phylogenetic history, timeline and mode of diversification. Here, we re-examine the phylogeny of catfish by assembling and analyzing almost all publicly available mitogenome data. We constructed an ingroup matrix of 62 full-length mitogenome sequences from 20 catfish families together with four cypriniform outgroups, spanning 15,557 positions in total. Partitioned maximum likelihood analyses and Bayesian relaxed clock dating using fossil age constraints provide some useful and novel insights into the evolutionary history of this group. Loricarioidei are recovered as the first siluriform group to diversify, rendering Neotropics the cradle of the order. The next deepest clade is the South American Diplomystoidei placed as a sister group to all the remaining Siluroidei. The two multifamilial clades of "Big Asia" and "Big Africa" are also recovered, albeit nodal support for the latter is poor. Within "Big Asia", Bagridae are clearly polyphyletic. Other interfamilial relationships, including Clariidae + Heteropneustidae, Doradidae + Auchenipteridae and Ictaluridae + Cranoglanididae are robustly resolved. Our chronogram shows that siluriforms have a Pangaean origin, at least as far back as the Early Cretaceous. The inferred timeline of the basal splits corroborates the "Out-of-South America" hypothesis and accords well with the fossil record. The divergence of Siluroidei most likely postdated the final separation of Africa and South America. An appealing case of phylogenetic affinity elaborated by biogeographic dispersal is exemplified by the Early Paleogene split between the Southeast Asian Cranoglanididae and Ictaluridae

  9. Hepatoprotective efficacy of Spirulina platensis against lead-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in catfish; Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Alaa El-Din H; El-Sayed, Yasser S; El-Far, Ali H

    2017-09-01

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic environmental pollutant that induces a broad range of biochemical and physiological hazards in living organisms. We investigated the possible hepatoprotective effects of Spirulina platensis (SP) in counteracting the Pb-induced oxidative damage. Ninety-six adult African catfish were allocated into four equal groups. The 1st group (control) fed basal diet while the 2nd group (Pb-treated) fed on basal diet and exposed to 1mg Pb(NO3)2/L. The 3rd and 4th groups fed SP-supplemented basal diets at levels of 0.25% and 0.5%, respectively and exposed to Pb. Serum samples were used to analyze hepatic function biomarkers, electrolytes, and oxidant and antioxidant status. Lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation were determined in the liver tissues. Pb exposure induced hepatic dysfunction, electrolytes (Na+, K+, Ca+2, and Cl-) imbalance, as well a significant decrease in GSH content, and LDH, AChE, SOD, CAT and GST enzymes activity. SP supplementation reverted these biochemical and genetic alterations close to control levels. This amelioration was higher with 0.5% SP and at the 4th week of exposure, showing concentration- and time-dependency. Thus, the current study suggests that SP could protect the catfish liver against lead-induced injury by scavenging ROS, sustaining the antioxidant status and diminishing DNA oxidative damage. The dietary inclusion of SP can be used as a promising protective agent to counteract oxidative stress-mediated diseases and toxicities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Studies on the nutrition of brackish water catfish - Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus

    OpenAIRE

    Igbinosun, J.E.; Talabi, S.O.

    1982-01-01

    Four groups of brackish water catfish were fed four diets: N. F. (NIOMR formula 1 feed). A. B. and C. for seven weeks. Feeds N.F., A., B. and C. contained 1.21% fish oil + 5.59% vegetable oil; 1.21% fish oil + 7.39% vegetable oil; 1.21% fish oil + 9.09% vegetable oil; 1.21% fish oil +10.89% vegetable oil respectively. The total amounts of vegetable oil in A., B. and C. included the supplementation of the residual oil in the ingredients with 2%, 4% and 6% respectively with ordinary cooking ...

  11. The Effect of Addition Vitamin E on Catfish Oil Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Maria Kusharto; Mia Srimiati; Ikeu Tanziha; Sugeng Heri Suseno

    2015-01-01

    Unsaturated fatty acids contained oils which sensitive to oxidation caused by heat, light andoxygen. The oxidized oil known harmful to the body. One of the effort to prevent the oxidationprocess is by adding antioxidants stability of oil catfish and shelf life of the oil. The experimentalstudy was applied by adding vitamin E to the oil as much as 0.67 mg / g PUFA compared with thecontrol oil. Oil was stored with the Schaal Oven Test method, which are stored at a temperatureof 600C. The study ...

  12. Quantitative trait loci map for growth and morphometric traits using a channel catfish x blue catfish interspecific hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, A M; Liu, Z; Kucuktas, H; Umali-Maceina, G; Su, B; Dunham, R A

    2014-05-01

    Head length, head depth, head width, body depth, body width, caudal depth, and caudal width and total length and BW were measured for 71 backcross full sibs between the interspecific backcross F1 (female channel catfish [Ictalurus punctatus] × male blue catfish [Ictalurus furcatus]) female × blue catfish male. Body measurements were corrected for both size and the relationship between relative body shape and size, which is critical but usually ignored in fish research. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis was used for construction of a QTL map with 44 linkage groups. Eleven of 44 linkage groups had at least 1 significant QTL (P ≤ 0.05) and 11 of 44 at P = 0.10. Linkage group 19 was unique as it had multiple QTL for every trait measured, except for caudal width for which no QTL was identified on any linkage group. Approximately half of the markers measured were associated with positive effects (increase in size) on the traits and half had negative effects (decrease in size). Linkage groups 5, 9, 18, 20, 39, and 40 were significant for multiple traits and always had a trait negative effect. Total length is represented on the map by the most linkage groups and the most markers. The linkage relationships found among BW, total length, and the 7 morphometric traits indicated that multiple trait marker-assisted selection to simultaneously increase BW body depth, body width, and caudal depth while decreasing the head traits with the goal to increase body weight and carcass yield would be very difficult. Multiple genetic enhancement approaches would likely be needed to simultaneously improve BW and body conformation.

  13. Plastic debris ingestion by marine catfish: an unexpected fisheries impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possatto, Fernanda E; Barletta, Mário; Costa, Monica F; do Sul, Juliana A Ivar; Dantas, David V

    2011-05-01

    Plastic marine debris is a pervasive type of pollution. River basins and estuaries are a source of plastics pollution for coastal waters and oceans. Estuarine fauna is therefore exposed to chronic plastic pollution. Three important catfish species [Cathorops spixii (N=60), Cathorops agassizii (N=60) and Sciades herzbergii (N=62)] from South Western Atlantic estuaries were investigated in a tropical estuary of the Brazilian Northeast in relation to their accidental ingestion of plastic marine debris. Individuals from all three species had ingested plastics. In C. spixii and C. agassizii, 18% and 33% of individuals had plastic debris in their stomachs, respectively. S. herzbergii showed 18% of individuals were contaminated. All ontogenetic phases (juveniles, sub-adults and adults) were contaminated. Nylon fragments from cables used in fishery activities (subsistence, artisanal and commercial) played a major role in this contamination. These catfish spend their entire life cycles within the estuary and are an important feeding resource for larger, economically important, species. It is not yet possible to quantify the scale and depth of the consequences of this type of pollution. However, plastics are well known threat to living resources in this and other estuaries. Conservation actions will need to from now onto take plastics pollution into consideration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Digestible energy of crude glycerol for pacu and silver catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ernesto Balen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in global biodiesel production is originating a glycerol surplus, which has no defined destination. An alternative to overcome this problem is its use as energy source in animal feeding. In Brazil, Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus is one of the most farmed native fish species, whereas Silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen is suitable for production in subtropical region. Considering little knowledge about crude glycerol utilization in feeds for Neotropical fish species, it was evaluated the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs for energy of crude glycerol for P. mesopotamicus and R. quelen. The digestibility and digestible energy content of crude glycerol can be considered excellent even when compared to energy of common ingredients such as maize and wheat, presenting 0.97 and 0.89 of energy ADCs, and 15.2 and 13.95MJ kg-1 of digestible energy for Pacu and Silver catfish, respectively. In conclusion, crude glycerol is an energetic ingredient with good potential in Brazilian native fish diets.

  15. Influence of corn oil and beef tallow on growth of channel catfish

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dupree, H.K

    1969-01-01

    Fingerling channel catfish were offered a series of 18 purified diets that contained liquid corn oil, solid corn oil, and beef tallow at 4, 8, and 16 percent of the dry diet, and white dextrin at 8...

  16. Improving sustainability of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) farming in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam through recirculation technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Nhut

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to document improvements in sustainability indicators of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, Sauvage, 1878) production through the application of recirculation and waste treatment techniques. To be able to document improvements in sustainability, in each system

  17. The fry patterns in the South-American catfish genus Corydoras (Pisces, Siluriformes, Callichthyidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuller, Ian

    1999-01-01

    The fry pattern of aquarium-bred species of the South-American catfish genus Corydoras, contribute to discriminate between species of the so-called ‘acutus’-group, showing a greyish adult colour pattern.

  18. Glyptothorax stocki, a new sisorid catfish from Pakistan and Azad Kashmir (Siluriformes, Sisoridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirza, M.R.; Nijssen, H.

    1978-01-01

    A new catfish, Glyptothorax stocki, belonging to the family Sisoridae, is described and figured. The new species from Pakistan and Azad Kashmir is compared with Glyptothorax platypogonoides from Sumatra, with which it was confused.

  19. Conspecific and heterospecific alarm substances induce behavioral responses in juvenile catfish Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Vogel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The recognition of chemical information indicating the presence of a predator is very important for prey survival. In this study we tested antipredator behavioral response of juvenile silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen against predator odor released by two different potential predators, Hoplias malabaricus and the snake Helicops infrataeniatus, and alarm cues and disturbance cues released by conspecifics and by non-predator species, Megaleporinus obtusidens and Astyanax lacustris. We used juvenile catfish that were naive to predators. The trials consisted of a 10-min prestimulus and a 10-min post-stimulus observation period. The behavioral response displayed by silver catfish exposed to alarm cues comprised a decrease in shelter use and an increase in locomotion, and also a longer latency period before feeding. Our results showed that juvenile silver catfish can perceive chemical cues released by predators, heterospecifics and conspecifics.

  20. Analysis Of Masamo Catfish Marketing By Analytical Approach At Farmer Group “Sumber Lancar”, Blimbing, Malang City

    OpenAIRE

    Abidin, Zainal; Handayani, Wahyu; Fattah, Mochammad

    2016-01-01

    Masamo as new variety of catfish cultivated by the farmer group "Sumber Lancar" in Blimbing, Malang currently has a lot of demand due to increasing consumers who like to eat fish to meet the need for protein for the body. Increasing of Masamo catfish demand followed by production and marketing efforts. This study wants to know whether the marketing efficient. Therefore, this study uses analytical approach approach in order to identify institutional and channel of Masamo Catfish marketing perf...

  1. A common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) prey handling technique for marine catfish (Ariidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronje, Errol I; Barry, Kevin P; Sinclair, Carrie; Grace, Mark A; Barros, Nélio; Allen, Jason; Balmer, Brian; Panike, Anna; Toms, Christina; Mullin, Keith D; Wells, Randall S

    2017-01-01

    Few accounts describe predator-prey interactions between common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus Montagu 1821) and marine catfish (Ariopsis felis Linnaeus 1766, Bagre marinus Mitchill 1815). Over the course of 50,167 sightings of bottlenose dolphin groups in Mississippi Sound and along the Florida coast of the Gulf of Mexico, severed catfish heads were found floating and exhibiting movements at the surface in close proximity to 13 dolphin groups that demonstrated feeding behavior. These observations prompted a multi-disciplinary approach to study the predator-prey relationship between bottlenose dolphins and marine catfish. A review was conducted of bottlenose dolphin visual survey data and dorsal fin photographs from sightings where severed catfish heads were observed. Recovered severed catfish heads were preserved and studied, whole marine catfish were collected and examined, and stranding network pathology reports were reviewed for references to injuries related to fish spines. Photographic identification analysis confirms eight dolphins associated with severed catfish heads were present in three such sightings across an approximately 350 km expanse of coast between the Mississippi Sound and Saint Joseph Bay, FL. An examination of the severed catfish heads indicated interaction with dolphins, and fresh-caught whole hardhead catfish (A. felis) were examined to estimate the presumed total length of the catfish before decapitation. Thirty-eight instances of significant trauma or death in dolphins attributed to ingesting whole marine catfish were documented in stranding records collected from the southeastern United States of America. Bottlenose dolphins typically adhere to a ram-feeding strategy for prey capture followed by whole prey ingestion; however, marine catfish skull morphology may pose a consumption hazard due to rigid spines that can puncture and migrate through soft tissue, prompting a prey handling technique for certain dolphins, facilitating

  2. A common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus prey handling technique for marine catfish (Ariidae in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Errol I Ronje

    Full Text Available Few accounts describe predator-prey interactions between common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus Montagu 1821 and marine catfish (Ariopsis felis Linnaeus 1766, Bagre marinus Mitchill 1815. Over the course of 50,167 sightings of bottlenose dolphin groups in Mississippi Sound and along the Florida coast of the Gulf of Mexico, severed catfish heads were found floating and exhibiting movements at the surface in close proximity to 13 dolphin groups that demonstrated feeding behavior. These observations prompted a multi-disciplinary approach to study the predator-prey relationship between bottlenose dolphins and marine catfish. A review was conducted of bottlenose dolphin visual survey data and dorsal fin photographs from sightings where severed catfish heads were observed. Recovered severed catfish heads were preserved and studied, whole marine catfish were collected and examined, and stranding network pathology reports were reviewed for references to injuries related to fish spines. Photographic identification analysis confirms eight dolphins associated with severed catfish heads were present in three such sightings across an approximately 350 km expanse of coast between the Mississippi Sound and Saint Joseph Bay, FL. An examination of the severed catfish heads indicated interaction with dolphins, and fresh-caught whole hardhead catfish (A. felis were examined to estimate the presumed total length of the catfish before decapitation. Thirty-eight instances of significant trauma or death in dolphins attributed to ingesting whole marine catfish were documented in stranding records collected from the southeastern United States of America. Bottlenose dolphins typically adhere to a ram-feeding strategy for prey capture followed by whole prey ingestion; however, marine catfish skull morphology may pose a consumption hazard due to rigid spines that can puncture and migrate through soft tissue, prompting a prey handling technique for certain dolphins

  3. A common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) prey handling technique for marine catfish (Ariidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Kevin P.; Sinclair, Carrie; Grace, Mark A.; Allen, Jason; Balmer, Brian; Panike, Anna; Toms, Christina; Mullin, Keith D.; Wells, Randall S.

    2017-01-01

    Few accounts describe predator-prey interactions between common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus Montagu 1821) and marine catfish (Ariopsis felis Linnaeus 1766, Bagre marinus Mitchill 1815). Over the course of 50,167 sightings of bottlenose dolphin groups in Mississippi Sound and along the Florida coast of the Gulf of Mexico, severed catfish heads were found floating and exhibiting movements at the surface in close proximity to 13 dolphin groups that demonstrated feeding behavior. These observations prompted a multi-disciplinary approach to study the predator-prey relationship between bottlenose dolphins and marine catfish. A review was conducted of bottlenose dolphin visual survey data and dorsal fin photographs from sightings where severed catfish heads were observed. Recovered severed catfish heads were preserved and studied, whole marine catfish were collected and examined, and stranding network pathology reports were reviewed for references to injuries related to fish spines. Photographic identification analysis confirms eight dolphins associated with severed catfish heads were present in three such sightings across an approximately 350 km expanse of coast between the Mississippi Sound and Saint Joseph Bay, FL. An examination of the severed catfish heads indicated interaction with dolphins, and fresh-caught whole hardhead catfish (A. felis) were examined to estimate the presumed total length of the catfish before decapitation. Thirty-eight instances of significant trauma or death in dolphins attributed to ingesting whole marine catfish were documented in stranding records collected from the southeastern United States of America. Bottlenose dolphins typically adhere to a ram-feeding strategy for prey capture followed by whole prey ingestion; however, marine catfish skull morphology may pose a consumption hazard due to rigid spines that can puncture and migrate through soft tissue, prompting a prey handling technique for certain dolphins, facilitating

  4. Characteristics Of Smoked Catfish (Hemibagrus Nemurus) Prepared Frompond Culture, Cage And Wild Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Maskilin, Jippo; Hasan, Bustari; Leksono, Tjipto

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the sensory quality, proximate composition, amino acids and fatty acids profiles of smoked catfish prepared from pond, cage culture and wild fish. Catfish samples 300-350 grams in weight wastaken respectualy from wild (Kampar river), pond and cage culture in Sungai Paku, Kampar. The fish was smoked using hot smoking method, and the smoked fish was evaluated for smoking yield, sensory quality, proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid profile.The smoking...

  5. Relative condition factor and food and feeding habits of two ariid catfish from Mumbai waters

    OpenAIRE

    Deo, A.D.; Venkateshvaran, K; Devaraj, M.

    2010-01-01

    Condition factor based on length-weight relationship and food and feeding habits of Arius dussumieri (Black lip sea catfish) and Osteogeneiosus militaris (Soldier catfish) from the Mumbai coast have been studied. Relative Condition Factor showed variations on a monthly basis, and appear to be influenced by feeding and breeding activities. Both the species studied are carnivorous bottom feeders, with crustaceans followed by other smaller fishes forming the major food item in the gut contents.

  6. Generation of Myostatin Gene-Edited Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) via Zygote Injection of CRISPR/Cas9 System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Karim; Elayat, Medhat; Khalifa, Elsayed; Daghash, Samer; Elaswad, Ahmed; Miller, Michael; Abdelrahman, Hisham; Ye, Zhi; Odin, Ramjie; Drescher, David; Vo, Khoi; Gosh, Kamal; Bugg, William; Robinson, Dalton; Dunham, Rex

    2017-08-04

    The myostatin (MSTN) gene is important because of its role in regulation of skeletal muscle growth in all vertebrates. In this study, CRISPR/Cas9 was utilized to successfully target the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, muscle suppressor gene MSTN. CRISPR/Cas9 induced high rates (88-100%) of mutagenesis in the target protein-encoding sites of MSTN. MSTN-edited fry had more muscle cells (p CRISPR/Cas9 is a highly efficient tool for editing the channel catfish genome, and opens ways for facilitating channel catfish genetic enhancement and functional genomics. This approach may produce growth-enhanced channel catfish and increase productivity.

  7. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  8. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy ...

  9. Exercise Physiologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SITE MAP | EN ESPAÑOL Occupational Outlook Handbook > Healthcare > Exercise Physiologists PRINTER-FRIENDLY EN ESPAÑOL Summary What They ... of workers and occupations. What They Do -> What Exercise Physiologists Do About this section Exercise physiologists analyze ...

  10. Preferential intracellular pH regulation represents a general pattern of pH homeostasis during acid-base disturbances in the armoured catfish, Pterygoplichthys pardalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T S; Shartau, R B; Baker, D W; Jackson, D C; Val, A L; Brauner, C J

    2014-08-01

    Preferential intracellular pH (pHi) regulation, where pHi is tightly regulated in the face of a blood acidosis, has been observed in a few species of fish, but only during elevated blood PCO2. To determine whether preferential pHi regulation may represent a general pattern for acid-base regulation during other pH disturbances we challenged the armoured catfish, Pterygoplichthys pardalis, with anoxia and exhaustive exercise, to induce a metabolic acidosis, and bicarbonate injections to induce a metabolic alkalosis. Fish were terminally sampled 2-3 h following the respective treatments and extracellular blood pH, pHi of red blood cells (RBC), brain, heart, liver and white muscle, and plasma lactate and total CO2 were measured. All treatments resulted in significant changes in extracellular pH and RBC pHi that likely cover a large portion of the pH tolerance limits of this species (pH 7.15-7.86). In all tissues other than RBC, pHi remained tightly regulated and did not differ significantly from control values, with the exception of a decrease in white muscle pHi after anoxia and an increase in liver pHi following a metabolic alkalosis. Thus preferential pHi regulation appears to be a general pattern for acid-base homeostasis in the armoured catfish and may be a common response in Amazonian fishes.

  11. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are described below. ... © 2017 North American Spine Society | ...

  12. Business Analysis Enlargement of Fish Pond of Green Catfish (Mystus Nemurus) in Sungai Paku Village, Sub-District of Kampar Kiri, District of Kampar, Riau Province

    OpenAIRE

    Yulianti, Sari; Yulinda, Eni; Amrifo, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    The research about business analysis enlargement of fish pond of green catfish (Mystus nemurus) was conducted on January, 2016 in Sungai Paku Village, Sub-District of Kampar Kiri, District of Kampar, Riau Province. This study aims to (1) determine the input-output business enlargement of fish pond of green catfish (Mystus nemurus), (2) analyzed the business enlargement of fish pond of green catfish (Mystus nemurus) and (3) the feasibility business of enlargement of fish pond of green catfish ...

  13. Effect of stocking biomass on solids, phytoplankton communities, common off-flavors, and production parameters in a channel catfish biofloc technology production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of initial channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Rafinesque, 1818) fingerling biomass (1.4, 1.8, or 2.3 kg m-3) on phytoplankton communities, common off-flavors, and stocker catfish production parameters was evaluated in biofloc technology production tanks. Stocker catfish size (145.5 – 1...

  14. The estimate of world demand for Pangasius catfish (Pangasiusianodon hypopthalmus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tien Thong, Nguyen; Nielsen, Max; Roth, Eva

    2017-01-01

    This research described in this article aimed to investigate international market potentials for Pangasius catfish (Pangasianodon hypopthalmus). The monthly export data from Vietnam, which accounts for more than 95% of the global export value, in the period 2007 to 2014, were used to estimate a non......-linear Inverse Almost Ideal Demand System of the seven market regions. Prices in all markets are found very inflexible, with own-price flexibilities on −0.200 to −0.917, or −0.419 on average, revealing the option of expanding global production and export without inducing a substantial price reduction. Consumers...... in all markets except Latin America evaluate Pangasius as a necessary good, indicating that the Pangasius industry is relatively little affected by recessions and booms in the world economy. The major markets are substitutes for each other; therefore, if demand at one market region is reduced...

  15. A new diminutive sisorid catfish (Actinopterygii: Siluriformes) from northeastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Heok Hee; Lalramliana, Lalramliana; Lalronunga, Samuel

    2016-04-26

    This study describes a new diminutive sisorid catfish from the upper reaches of the Karnaphuli River drainage in northeastern India. The new species can be distinguished from congeners in having a combination of: length of dorsal-fin spine 18.0-21.6% SL; 4-10 serrations on the anterior edge of the dorsal spine; length of pectoral-fin spine 20.7-26.1% SL; length of adipose-fin base 21.5-26.3% SL; body depth at anus 12.3-15.9% SL; caudal peduncle depth 7.5-9.8% SL; caudal peduncle length 17.0-20.5% SL; pale, y-shaped marking on dorsal surface of head; sides of body with pale yellowish patches and irregular bands.

  16. Salinity on artificial reproduction of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bernardes Martins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Attempting to improve reproduction performance and ichthyo prophylaxis, this study evaluated the effects of maintaining silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen broodstock in different saline concentrations (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8‰ on gametes quality and reproductive viability. The results showed that sperm percent motility did not change between 0 and 4‰, but it was reduced at 6‰, and sperm became immotile at 8‰ salinity. Sperm motility time was increased (almost five fold at 6‰. Salinities up to 4‰ prevented fertilization and hatching, proving their deleterious effects on oocytes and embryos. Therefore, media up to 4‰ salinity may be an alternative for icthyo prophylaxis, although fertilization and incubation must be done in freshwater medium

  17. Efficacy of hydrogen peroxide for treating saprolegniasis in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, G.E.; Gingerich, W.H.; Dawson, V.K.; Olson, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Hatchery-reared fish and their eggs are commonly afflicted with saprolegniasis, a fungal disease that can cause significant losses in production. Fish culturists need safe and effective fungicides to minimize losses and meet production demands. The efficacy of hydrogen peroxide was evaluated for preventing or controlling mortality associated with saprolegniasis in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Saprolegniasis was systematically induced in channel catfish so various therapies could be evaluated in a controlled laboratory environment. Both prophylactic and therapeutic hydrogen peroxide bath treatments of 50, 100, and 150 ??L/L for 1 h were administered every other day for seven total treatments. All untreated positive control fish died of saprolegniasis during the prophylactic and therapeutic tests. Hydrogen peroxide treatments of 150 ??L/L were harmful (relative to lower concentrations) to test fish and resulted in 73-95% mortality. Mortality was attributed to a combination of abrasion, temperature, chemical treatment, and disease stressors. Treatments of 100 ??L/L were less harmful (relatively) but also appeared to contribute to mortality (60-79%). These treatments, however, significantly reduced the incidence of mortality and infection compared with those observed for fish of the positive control or 150-??L/L treatment groups. Overall, treatments of 50 ??L/L were found to be the most safe and effective of those tested. Mortality with this concentration ranged from 16% in therapeutic tests to 41% in prophylactic tests. The statistical model employed estimated that the optimum treatment concentration for preventing or controlling mortality, reducing the incidence of infections, and enhancing the recovery of infected fish was 75 ??L H2O2/L.

  18. Exercise Prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Paul M.

    If exercise programs are to become effective in producing the desired results, then the correct exercise prescription must be applied. Four variables should be controlled in the prescription of exercise: (a) type of activity, (b) intensity, (c) duration, and (d) frequency. The long-term prescription of exercise involves the use of a (a) starter…

  19. Copper use and accumulation in catfish culture in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcussen, Helle; Løjmand, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders; Hai, Dao M; Holm, Peter E

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture of Pangasius hypophthalmus (striped catfish) in Vietnam reached 1.1 million tonnes in 2011 and catfish fillets are exported worldwide. The intensive cultures of catfish mainly in earth ponds have made it necessary to apply CuSO4 and other chemicals to control external parasites and other pathogens. However, accumulation of Cu in aquaculture ponds may pose a hazard to growth of fish or to the aquatic environment. The aim of this study was to determine accumulation of Cu in sediment, water and fish in a catfish pond with a history of repeated treatment with CuSO4 in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Copper concentrations in pond sediment were in the interval 21.3-45.7 mg kg(-1) dw and did not exceed the Vietnamese values for soil to be used for agricultural production (70 mg kg(-1) dw.). During three samplings the total mean concentration of Cu in pond water (4 μg L(-1)) did not exceed the LC50-value (70 μg L(-1)) for catfish and the mean dissolved concentration of Cu (0.986 μg L(-1)) did not seem to constitute a risk for the stability of the aquatic ecosystem. No significant variation in Cu concentrations between sampling sites in the pond and depth of sediment profile were determined. The accumulation of Cu in catfish was highest in the liver compared to the skin, gills and muscle tissue. With the current practice of removing pond sludge three to four times during a production cycle little if any Cu seems to accumulate in catfish ponds despite repeated anti-parasite treatments with CuSO4. Further studies are needed to assess the eco-toxicity and impact on agricultural production when pond sediment is discharged into aquatic recipients and used as soil fertilizer.

  20. Effects of regular aerobic exercise on physical characteristics, body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of regular aerobic exercise on physical characteristics, body image satisfaction and self-efficacy of middle-aged women. ... South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation ... An exercise group and a control group consisted of 25 and 20 middle-aged women respectively. The exercise ...

  1. Understanding the barriers to and reasons for physical exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significant gender differences were found between, racial groups and between students who exercise and those who don't. As most South Africans do not exercise enough to experience physical and psychological health benefits, it is important to understand the exercise behaviour of students. They are in a phase of life ...

  2. Channel catfish hatchery production efficiency using a vertical-lift incubator the see-saw at various egg loading densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish spawns are typically incubated in ¼-in mesh baskets suspended in water that is agitated with paddles positioned between baskets. We tested a new vertical-lift incubator (the “See-Saw”) to incubate channel catfish spawns. Previous research demonstrated that when loaded with spawns at...

  3. Conjoint Analysis of Breaded Catfish Nuggets: Consumer Preferences for Price, Product Color, Cooking Method and Country of Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Jessica I.; Nelson, Robert G.; Woods-Williams, Kristin L.; Weese, Sondra J.; Whitis, Gregory N.

    2008-01-01

    A new product, marinated, breaded catfish nuggets, was developed. This conjoint study was designed to evaluate consumers’ preferences for certain attributes of the nuggets. An in-store survey was conducted to collect data. The data collected will be used to determine the market potential for the catfish nuggets.

  4. South African Crime Quarterly 59

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and Others v South African Rugby Football. Union and Others, an .... administration and administrative activities to ensure that the exercise of public powers does not adversely affect the rights of individuals.47. It is clear that administrative law effectively regulates what the administration may or may not do, and what ...

  5. Diet and population metrics of the introduced blue catfish population in the Altamaha, River, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvechio, Timothy F.; Jennings, Cecil A.

    2011-01-01

    Blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) were first detected in the Altamaha River, Georgia, during an access creel survey in 2005 and subsequently in 2006 during annual ictalurid sampling. Introduction of this species in the Altamaha River is believed to have occurred via escape from normal upstream reservoir releases from Lake Sinclair and Lake Oconee. Relative abundance, as indexed by electrofishing catch rate (fish per hour), has increased from 2.9±1.0 SE in 2006 to 38.8±8.2 SE in 2011. The size of blue catfish captured ranged from 56 to 820 mm total length and 0.001 to 7.7 kg. Using otoliths obtained in 2010 (n=214), age of fish ranged from 0 to 6 yrs, which indicated a relatively young population. The catch-curve analysis resulted in an instantaneous mortality rate (Z) of 0.75. Despite concerns of blue catfish predation on native fishes and mussels, a diet analysis of blue catfish (n=257) obtained in 2010 revealed that diets of fish in all size groups were dominated by the introduced Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea). This study describes a recently introduced blue catfish population in an Atlantic coastal plain river and provides insight on possible ecological effects during the early phases of establishment. These results offer an early status assessment of the invasion dynamics before the system has had time to reach a new equilibrium state.

  6. Heritable targeted inactivation of myostatin gene in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco using engineered zinc finger nucleases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangji Dong

    Full Text Available Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco is one of the most important freshwater aquaculture species in China. However, its small size and lower meat yield limit its edible value. Myostatin (MSTN is a negative regulator of mammalian muscle growth. But, the function of Mstn in fish remains elusive. To explore roles of mstn gene in fish growth and create a strain of yellow catfish with high amount of muscle mass, we performed targeted disruption of mstn in yellow catfish using engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs. Employing zebrafish embryos as a screening system to identify ZFN activity, we obtained one pair of ZFNs that can edit mstn in yellow catfish genome. Using the ZFNs, we successfully obtained two founders (Founder July29-7 and Founder July29-8 carrying mutated mstn gene in their germ cells. The mutated mstn allele inherited from Founder July29-7 was a null allele (mstn(nju6 containing a 4 bp insertion, predicted to encode function null Mstn. The mutated mstn inherited from Founder July29-8 was a complex type of mutation (mstn(nju7, predicted to encode a protein lacking two amino acids in the N-terminal secretory signal of Mstn. Totally, we obtained 6 mstn(nju6/+ and 14 mstn(nju7/+ yellow catfish. To our best knowledge, this is the first endogenous gene knockout in aquaculture fish. Our result will help in understanding the roles of mstn gene in fish.

  7. Heritable targeted inactivation of myostatin gene in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) using engineered zinc finger nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhangji; Ge, Jiachun; Li, Kui; Xu, Zhiqiang; Liang, Dong; Li, Jingyun; Li, Junbo; Jia, Wenshuang; Li, Yuehua; Dong, Xiaohua; Cao, Shasha; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Pan, Jianlin; Zhao, Qingshun

    2011-01-01

    Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) is one of the most important freshwater aquaculture species in China. However, its small size and lower meat yield limit its edible value. Myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator of mammalian muscle growth. But, the function of Mstn in fish remains elusive. To explore roles of mstn gene in fish growth and create a strain of yellow catfish with high amount of muscle mass, we performed targeted disruption of mstn in yellow catfish using engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs). Employing zebrafish embryos as a screening system to identify ZFN activity, we obtained one pair of ZFNs that can edit mstn in yellow catfish genome. Using the ZFNs, we successfully obtained two founders (Founder July29-7 and Founder July29-8) carrying mutated mstn gene in their germ cells. The mutated mstn allele inherited from Founder July29-7 was a null allele (mstn(nju6)) containing a 4 bp insertion, predicted to encode function null Mstn. The mutated mstn inherited from Founder July29-8 was a complex type of mutation (mstn(nju7)), predicted to encode a protein lacking two amino acids in the N-terminal secretory signal of Mstn. Totally, we obtained 6 mstn(nju6/+) and 14 mstn(nju7/+) yellow catfish. To our best knowledge, this is the first endogenous gene knockout in aquaculture fish. Our result will help in understanding the roles of mstn gene in fish.

  8. A first generation BAC-based physical map of the channel catfish genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldbieser Geoffrey C

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, is the leading species in North American aquaculture. Genetic improvement of catfish is performed through selective breeding, and genomic tools will help improve selection efficiency. A physical map is needed to integrate the genetic map with the karyotype and to support fine mapping of phenotypic trait alleles such as Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL and the effective positional cloning of genes. Results A genome-wide physical map of the channel catfish was constructed by High-Information-Content Fingerprinting (HICF of 46,548 Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC clones using the SNaPshot technique. The clones were assembled into contigs with FPC software. The resulting assembly contained 1,782 contigs and covered an estimated physical length of 0.93 Gb. The validity of the assembly was demonstrated by 1 anchoring 19 of the largest contigs to the microsatellite linkage map 2 comparing the assembly of a multi-gene family to Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP patterns seen in Southern blots, and 3 contig sequencing. Conclusion This is the first physical map for channel catfish. The HICF technique allowed the project to be finished with a limited amount of human resource in a high throughput manner. This physical map will greatly facilitate the detailed study of many different genomic regions in channel catfish, and the positional cloning of genes controlling economically important production traits.

  9. Utilization of Cinnamon Leaf and Shrimp Flour as an Enhancer of Catfish Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Setiawati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus is a freshwater fish that has been produced in the form of a filet. One of the problems in producing good catfish fillet is compactness and brightness of catfish farmed meat. This research aimed to get feed formulation as enhancer meat quality of striped catfish with added Cinnamon leaves flour (Cinnamomum burmannii and used shrimp head meal. A Fish with a weight of 208.98±25.76 g reared in 12 floating nets cage (2x1x1.5 m3 with density of 15 fish/nets for 60 days. As treatment, fish were fed with feed contains 1% cinnamon leaves, 45% shrimp head meal, and combined of cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal, and as control used feed were formulated without cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal. Fish were fed 2 times a daily with feeding rate 3.5% of average body weight of fish. The test parameters observed were physical, chemical and organoleptic test of catfish meat. The results showed feed with contains cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal could decrease level of body fat 14.7% compared than control (p<0.05. Feed with used cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal gave a texture of fillet fish more compact, elastic and color of fillet fish white. Keywords: Cinnamomum burmannii, fillet, shrimp head meal, feed formulated, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

  10. Utilization of Cinnamon Leaf and Shrimp Flour as an Enhancer of Catfish Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Setiawati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus is a freshwater fish that has been produced in the form of a filet. One of the problems in producing good catfish fillet is compactness and brightness of catfish farmed meat. This research aimed to get feed formulation as enhancer  meat quality of striped catfish with added Cinnamon leaves flour (Cinnamomum burmannii  and used shrimp head meal. A Fish with a weight of  208.98±25.76 g reared in 12 floating nets cage (2x1x1.5 m3 with density of 15 fish/nets for 60 days. As treatment, fish were fed with feed contains 1% cinnamon leaves,  45% shrimp head meal, and combined of cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal, and as control used feed were formulated without cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal. Fish were fed 2 times a daily with feeding rate 3.5% of average body weight offish. The test parameters observed were physical, chemical and organoleptic test of catfish meat. The results showed feed with contains cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal could decrease level of body fat 14.7% compared than control (p<0.05. Feed with used cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal gave a texture offillet fish more compact,  elastic and color of fillet fish white.

  11. TANTANGAN BISNIS IKAN HIAS TIGER CATFISH (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum MELALUI PENGUASAAN TEKNOLOGI PEMIJAHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Kusrini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ikan tiger catfish (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum merupakan salah satu ikan hias hasil introduksi yang berasal dari Sungai Amazon Amerika Latin dan mempunyai nilai ekonomi yang cukup tinggi terutama untuk komoditas ekspor. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk memberikan informasi tentang pembenihan ikan tiger catfish secara buatan. Metode yang digunakan untuk pemijahan buatan ikan tiger catfish ini adalah dengan stimulasi hormon gonadotropin. Calon induk ikan hias tiger catfish dapat matang gonad dipelihara dalam kolam beton berukuran 2,5 m x 2,0 m x 0,8 m dengan ke dalaman air antara 50-60 cm dilengkapi dengan sistem sirkulasi. Perbandingan antara jantan dan betina yaitu 1:2. Bobot rata-rata induk yang siap dipijahkan sekitar 2,5 kg dan sudah berumur minimal dua tahun. Jumlah telur yang dihasilkan setiap satu induk dapat mencapai 300.000 butir dengan daya tetas rata-rata 80%. Telur akan menetas semua dalam waktu 15 19 jam pada suhu berkisar antara 26oC-30oC. Larva yang telah menetas tetap dibiarkan dalam akuarium sampai kuning telur yang menempel di tubuh habis termakan. Keberhasilan pembenihan diawali dari pengelolaan induk yang benar untuk dapat matang gonad, sehingga kualitas telur bagus dan akan menghasikan benih-benih yang berkualitas. Teknik pembenihan juga menjadi faktor yang menentukan untuk keberhasilan pembenihan. Teknologi pemijahan buatan dengan menggunakan stimulasi hormon gonadotropin ikan tiger catfish telah dikuasai dan telah berkembang di para breeder ikan hias.

  12. Assembly of 500,000 inter-specific catfish expressed sequence tags and large scale gene-associated marker development for whole genome association studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catfish Genome Consortium; Wang, Shaolin; Peatman, Eric; Abernathy, Jason; Waldbieser, Geoff; Lindquist, Erika; Richardson, Paul; Lucas, Susan; Wang, Mei; Li, Ping; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Liu, Lei; Vullaganti, Deepika; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Murdock, Christopher; Small, Brian C; Wilson, Melanie; Liu, Hong; Jiang, Yanliang; Lee, Yoona; Chen, Fei; Lu, Jianguo; Wang, Wenqi; Xu, Peng; Somridhivej, Benjaporn; Baoprasertkul, Puttharat; Quilang, Jonas; Sha, Zhenxia; Bao, Baolong; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Qun; Takano, Tomokazu; Nandi, Samiran; Liu, Shikai; Wong, Lilian; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Quiniou, Sylvie; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman; Trant, John; Rokhsar, Daniel; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2010-03-23

    Background-Through the Community Sequencing Program, a catfish EST sequencing project was carried out through a collaboration between the catfish research community and the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute. Prior to this project, only a limited EST resource from catfish was available for the purpose of SNP identification. Results-A total of 438,321 quality ESTs were generated from 8 channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and 4 blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) libraries, bringing the number of catfish ESTs to nearly 500,000. Assembly of all catfish ESTs resulted in 45,306 contigs and 66,272 singletons. Over 35percent of the unique sequences had significant similarities to known genes, allowing the identification of 14,776 unique genes in catfish. Over 300,000 putative SNPs have been identified, of which approximately 48,000 are high-quality SNPs identified from contigs with at least four sequences and the minor allele presence of at least two sequences in the contig. The EST resource should be valuable for identification of microsatellites, genome annotation, large-scale expression analysis, and comparative genome analysis. Conclusions-This project generated a large EST resource for catfish that captured the majority of the catfish transcriptome. The parallel analysis of ESTs from two closely related Ictalurid catfishes should also provide powerful means for the evaluation of ancient and recent gene duplications, and for the development of high-density microarrays in catfish. The inter- and intra-specific SNPs identified from all catfish EST dataset assembly will greatly benefit the catfish introgression breeding program and whole genome association studies.

  13. Assembly of 500,000 inter-specific catfish expressed sequence tags and large scale gene-associated marker development for whole genome association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaolin; Peatman, Eric; Abernathy, Jason; Waldbieser, Geoff; Lindquist, Erika; Richardson, Paul; Lucas, Susan; Wang, Mei; Li, Ping; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Liu, Lei; Vullaganti, Deepika; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Murdock, Christopher; Small, Brian C; Wilson, Melanie; Liu, Hong; Jiang, Yanliang; Lee, Yoona; Chen, Fei; Lu, Jianguo; Wang, Wenqi; Xu, Peng; Somridhivej, Benjaporn; Baoprasertkul, Puttharat; Quilang, Jonas; Sha, Zhenxia; Bao, Baolong; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Qun; Takano, Tomokazu; Nandi, Samiran; Liu, Shikai; Wong, Lilian; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Quiniou, Sylvie; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman; Trant, John; Rokhsar, Daniel; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2010-01-22

    Through the Community Sequencing Program, a catfish EST sequencing project was carried out through a collaboration between the catfish research community and the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute. Prior to this project, only a limited EST resource from catfish was available for the purpose of SNP identification. A total of 438,321 quality ESTs were generated from 8 channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and 4 blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) libraries, bringing the number of catfish ESTs to nearly 500,000. Assembly of all catfish ESTs resulted in 45,306 contigs and 66,272 singletons. Over 35% of the unique sequences had significant similarities to known genes, allowing the identification of 14,776 unique genes in catfish. Over 300,000 putative SNPs have been identified, of which approximately 48,000 are high-quality SNPs identified from contigs with at least four sequences and the minor allele presence of at least two sequences in the contig. The EST resource should be valuable for identification of microsatellites, genome annotation, large-scale expression analysis, and comparative genome analysis. This project generated a large EST resource for catfish that captured the majority of the catfish transcriptome. The parallel analysis of ESTs from two closely related Ictalurid catfishes should also provide powerful means for the evaluation of ancient and recent gene duplications, and for the development of high-density microarrays in catfish. The inter- and intra-specific SNPs identified from all catfish EST dataset assembly will greatly benefit the catfish introgression breeding program and whole genome association studies.

  14. Diet Shift and Prey Selection of the Native European Catfish, Silurus glanis, in a Turkish Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet ALP

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Diet and prey selection of European catfish were studied in Menzelet Reservoir in Turkey. Diet of European catfish composed of 6 prey fish species, 1 crab (Potamon sp. and 1 leech (Hirudo sp.. Diet composition was dominated by fish, including Alburnus kotsychyi, Capoeta angorae, Capoeta erhani, Luciobarbus pectoralis, Silurus glanis and the most important prey item was A. kotsychyi. The diet of European catfish was constituted solely by fish in winter and autumn while crab and leech contributed to a small part of the diet in spring and summer. Therefore, feeding was more heterogeneous in spring and summer than winter and autumn. The values of X2 and G statistics indicated a significant difference (P0.05.

  15. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific ... benefit from this exercise... Sagittal Core Strengthening You can stretch and strengthen the low back muscles that ...

  16. Simulation Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, Pat

    1976-01-01

    Describes five simulation exercises: a problem for a student teacher, an industrial relations game, a series of student problems; an international relations crisis, and a sociological exercise on public and private opinions. (LS)

  17. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... martial arts all provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as ... doctor or physical therapist to prescribe an exercise program that matches your abilities. Neck Press This is ...

  18. Prevention: Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are described below. If any of the following ... balls, you will experience more benefit from this exercise... Sagittal Core Strengthening You can stretch and strengthen the low ...

  19. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are ... a Success Story to Share? | Contact Us SPINE CARE PROVIDERS GO HERE © 2017 North American Spine Society | ...

  20. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescribe an exercise program that matches your abilities. Neck Press This is an isometric exercise to strengthen your neck. Press your palm against your forehead, then use ...

  1. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories ... Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ...

  2. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics ...

  3. Exercise Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... headaches may require emergency medical attention. Symptoms Primary exercise headaches These headaches: Are usually described as throbbing ... sides of the head in most cases Secondary exercise headaches These headaches may cause: The same symptoms ...

  4. Increasing Thai Catfish's Immunity (Pangasius hypophthalmus Fowler Using Ascorbic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    , Ilmiah

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAn experiment to determine Thai catfish's (Pangasius hypophthalmus Fowler immunity was carried out using different levels of ascorbic acid (0, 1.000, 2.000 and 3.000 mg/kg feed.  Fish of 15-20 g in weight were kept in aquaria for 6 weeks with density of 15 fish/aquaria.  Feed was given at 5-10 % of total biomass with frequency of three times a day.  The blood sampling was taken every week and the challenge test with Aeromonas hydrophila (106cells/mm3 injection intramuscular was done on the 30th day.   The result of this experiment shown that feed with ascorbic acid of 2.000 mg/kg was elevated the cellular responses such as: leucocyte total (34.850 cels/mm3, differential of leucocyte (lymphocyte: 72,2%, monocyte: 8,0%, neutrophyl: 7,8%, phagocytic index (13% and humoral response (titre antibody: 0.829 serum aglutination unit, which at the same time proves high level of survival rate against the artificial injection using A. hydrophila. Key words :  Ascorbic acid, fish immunity, Thai catfish, Pangasius hypophthalmus.   ABSTRAK Suatu penelitian telah dilakukan di laboratorium dengan menggunakan ikan jambal Siam (Pangasius hypophthalmus Fowler untuk melihat tingkat kekebalan ikan dengan menambahkan vitamin C pada pakan (0, 1.000, 2.000 dan 3.000 mg/kg pakan.  Ikan jambal Siam ukuran 15-20 g dipelihara dalam aquarium selama 6 minggu dengan kepadatan 15 ekor/wadah.  Pemberian pakan dilakukan 3 kali sehari sebanyak 5-10% dari bobot biomasa, pengambilan contoh darah dilakukan setiap minggu dan uji tantang dilakukan pada hari ke-30 dengan bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila (106 sel/mm3 secara intramuskular.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan vitamin C sebanyak 2.000 mg/kg pakan menyebabkan meningkatnya respon seluler antara lain: total lekosit (34.850 sel/mm3, jenis lekosit (limfosit: 72,2%, monosit: 8,0%, netrofil: 7,7% dan trombosit: 17,6% indeks fagositik 13% dan respon humoral (titer antibodi: 0,829 unit serum aglutinasi

  5. Sound production and pectoral spine locking in a Neotropical catfish (Iheringichthys labrosus, Pimelodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier S. Tellechea

    Full Text Available Catfishes may have two sonic organs: pectoral spines for stridulation and swimbladder drumming muscles. The aim of this study was to characterize the sound production of the catfish Iheringichthys labrosus. The I. labrosus male and female emits two different types of sounds: stridulatory sounds (655.8 + 230 Hz consisting of a train of pulses, and drumming sounds (220 + 46 Hz, which are composed of single-pulse harmonic signals. Stridulatory sounds are emitted during abduction of the pectoral spine. At the base of the spine there is a dorsal process that bears a series of ridges on its latero-ventral surface, and by pressing the ridges against the groove (with an unspecialized rough surface during a fin sweep, the animal produce a series of short pulses. Drumming sound is produced by an extrinsic sonic muscle, originated on a flat tendon of the transverse process of the fourth vertebra and inserted on the rostral and ventral surface of the swimbladder. The sounds emitted by both mechanisms are emitted in distress situation. Distress was induced by manipulating fish in a laboratory tank while sounds were recorded. Our results indicate that the catfish initially emits a stridulatory sound, which is followed by a drumming sound. Simultaneous production of stridulatory and drumming sounds was also observed. The catfish drumming sounds were lower in dominant frequency than stridulatory sounds, and also exhibited a small degree of dominant frequency modulation. Another behaviour observed in this catfish was the pectoral spine locking. This reaction was always observed before the distress sound production. Like other authors outline, our results suggest that in the catfish I. labrosus stridulatory and drumming sounds may function primarily as a distress call.

  6. Putative roles for a rhamnose binding lectin in Flavobacterium columnare pathogenesis in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Benjamin H; Farmer, Bradley D; Straus, David L; Li, Chao; Peatman, Eric

    2012-10-01

    Columnaris disease, caused by the bacterial pathogen Flavobacterium columnare, continues to be a major problem worldwide and commonly leads to tremendous losses of both wild and cultured freshwater fish, particularly in intensively farmed aquaculture species such as channel catfish. Despite its ecologic and economic impacts, the fundamental molecular mechanisms of the host immune response to this pathogen remain unclear. While F. columnare can induce marked pathologic changes in numerous ectopic tissues, the adhesion of F. columnare to the gill in particular is strongly associated with pathogen virulence and host susceptibility. Recently, in this regard, using RNA-seq expression profiling we found that a rhamnose-binding lectin (RBL) was dramatically upregulated in the gill of fish infected with F. columnare (as compared to naïve fish). Thus, in the present study we sought to further characterize and understand the RBL response in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). We first identified two distinct catfish families with differential susceptibilities to columnaris disease; one family was found to be completely resistant while the other was susceptible (0% mortality versus 18.3% respectively, P catfish RBL that persisted for at least 24 h (P catfish to different doses of the putative RBL ligands l-rhamnose and d-galactose, and found that these sugars, protected channel catfish against columnaris disease, likely through competition with F. columnare binding of host RBL. Finally, we examined the role of nutritional status on RBL regulation and found that RBL expression was upregulated (>120-fold; P feeding. Collectively, these findings highlight putative roles for RBL in the context of columnaris disease and reveal new aspects linking RBL regulation to feed availability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Feasibility studies of using the Catfish Immune System to produce monoclonal antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.

    1987-03-01

    The objective of these studies was to determine the feasibility of using a teleost cell line to produce monoclonal antibodies. Studies were undertaken to demonstrate the production of a polyclonal response of channel catfish (Icatalurus punctatus) challenged with mycotoxins coupled to a protein carrier. Companion studies were also performed to induce a permanent cell line with catfish lymphocytes. Attempts to demonstrate a polyclonal response to haptenized mycotoxins were inconclusive. Tests to induce an immortal, permanent cell line with benzene and x-ray irradiated cells were also inconclusive. 3 refs., 13 tabs.

  8. Oxyropsis ephippia, a New Hypoptopomatine Catfish (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Guyana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Adriana E; Pérez, Mark H Sabaj

    2016-07-05

    Oxyropsis ephippia, a new species of loricariid catfish in the subfamily Hypoptopomatinae, is described from the Essequibo and Branco basins, Guyana. Based on the presence of a keel-like row of relatively enlarged odontodes on trunk median plates immediately above the lateral line canal, the new species is assigned to the genus Oxyropsis Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889. It can be distinguished from its congeners by having the keel-like row on each median plate dominated by a single odontode (one closest to the posterior margin of the plate) conspicuously larger than preceding ones, and by having the sides of the trunk below the median series (approximately between median plates 7 to 12) shielded only by plates of the midventral series, with the exclusion of plates from the ventral series. The report of O. ephippia from the Essequibo is the first record of the genus in a river system that drains the north-central portion of the Guiana Shield into the Atlantic Ocean.

  9. Thidiazuron uptake, distribution and metabolism in bluegills and channel catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, C O; Benezet, H J; Mayer, F L

    1980-01-01

    Bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) exposed to 0.1 ppm of thidiazuron-14C cotton defoliant for 28 days under continuous flow conditions accumulated relatively low levels of radiocarbon. The maximum detected was 5.4 ppm in fillet tissue after 1 day. During a 14 day depuration period, radioactivity declined to 1.0 ppm or less. Fractionation of offal and fillet tissues from bluegills collected at 28 days indicated that most of the radioactive material was water soluble, although appreciable amounts of organosoluble radioactive material also were present. When bluegills were injected intraperitoneally with thidiazuron-14C, metabolism and elimination were relatively rapid. Organosoluble radioactive material isolated from fish tissue included thidiazuron, its 2-hydroxyphenyl derivative, phenylurea, and several unknowns. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) exposed under static conditions to a system containing 0.15 ppm of thidiazuron-14C incorporated into soil also accumulated only low concentrations of radiocarbon. The maximum detected was 2.5 ppb in offal tissue at 7 days. In fillet tissue, radioactivity did not exceed 0.5 ppb. There was no evidence from these studies to indicate that thidiazuron would pose a hazard to the aquatic ecosystem.

  10. Exercise addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask

    2014-01-01

    Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications...... of exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short......-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels...

  11. Micronuclei in red blood cells of armored catfish Hypostomus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 7 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Dioxin congener patterns in commercial catfish from the United States and the indication of mineral clays as the potential source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwe, J K; Archer, J C

    2013-01-01

    Since 1991 the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) has conducted annual surveys of pesticide residues in foods under the Agricultural Marketing Service's Pesticide Data Program (PDP). To assess chemical residues in domestically marketed catfish products, 1479 catfish samples were collected during the 2008-2010 PDPs. A subset of 202 samples was analysed for 17 toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs). The average pattern of the individual PCDD/F congener concentrations in the catfish was rather unique in that it had almost no measurable amounts of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), but all PCDDs were present. This pattern was more dominant in the domestically produced catfish products than in the imported products (China/Taiwan). Comparison of the pattern to known sources of PCDD/Fs showed strong similarities to the pattern of PCDD/Fs found in kaolin clays which have often been used as anti-caking agents in animal feeds. To investigate whether catfish feeds may be the source of the PCDD/Fs found in the catfish, archived catfish feed data from a US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) database were examined. In 61 out of 112 feed samples, the PCDD concentrations were 50 times higher than the PCDF concentrations and resembled the pattern found in the catfish products and in clays mined in the south-eastern United States. Although the source of PCDD/Fs in domestically marketed catfish products cannot be definitively established, mined clay products used in feeds should be considered a likely source and, given the wide concentration range of PCDD/Fs that has been found in clays, a critical control point for PCDD/Fs entrance to the food supply.

  13. Serum estrogenicity and biological responses in African catfish raised in wastewater ponds in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuse of wastewater for aquaculture improves efficient use of water and promotes sustainability but the potential effects of endocrine disrupting compounds including estrogens in wastewater is an emerging challenge that needs to be addressed. We examined the biological effects of wastewater-borne es...

  14. Influence of Culture Water Draw-off on Growth of the African Catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Applied Agriculture and Apiculture Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 1-2 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. The relationship between individual differences in feed efficiency and stress response in African catfish Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.I.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the importance of feed efficiency and stress response in fish production, the number of studies focusing on the relationship of their individual differences has never been investigated. This study tests whether individual differences in glucose and cortisol responsiveness after an acute

  16. Dietary L-Carnitine and energy and lipid metabolism in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) juveniles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ozório, de R.O.

    2001-01-01

    As the lipid content of the diet increases so does the requirement for certain components involved in lipid metabolism. Carnitine is a normal constituent of animal tissues and plasma, which is required for the transport of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) to the site of

  17. Behavioural responses under different feeding methods and light regimes of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) juveniles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almazán Rueda, P.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the behaviour of fish under culture conditions. Several factors may have a direct effect on fish behaviour and its variations during the day. This study assessed the effect of feeding method (continuous by self-feeders vs. twice a day hand-feeding), light intensity (15 vs. 150

  18. Nutrition and related ontogenetic aspects in larvae of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreth, J.

    1994-01-01


    The absence of adequate techniques for rearing fish larvae constitutes a bottleneck for sustainable aquacultural growth. Important constraints are the tiny size of the larvae, the dependance on live food organisms and the developmental stage of the fish larvae. The development

  19. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of copper to the african catfish ( clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lethal and sub-lethal effects of copper on Clarias gariepinus were studied using a 96-hour static bioassay. Copper (as copper chloride, CuCl2 . H2O) was used to prepare the stock solution from which five standard concentrations 0.0, 1.8, 3.2, 5.6, and 10.0 mg/L were prepared (coded A – E). 15 juvenile C. gariepinus fish ...

  20. Næringsinnhold i African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) beriket med taurin : tap ved tilberedning

    OpenAIRE

    Robertsen, Thomas Myrnes

    2008-01-01

    Mangelen på marine råstoffer har ført til bruk av vegetabilske råvarer i produksjon av fiskefôr. Innblanding av vegetabilske råvarer i fiskefôr gjør for eksempel at oppdrettsfisken får et lavere innhold fordelaktige komponenter enn det som normalt finnes i vill fisk. Prosessering og tilberedning av mat påvirker også innholdet av næringsstoffer. Mange gunstige forbindelser påvirkes negativt av slik bearbeiding. Varmebehandling og renseprosesser kan føre til lavere tilgjengelighet eller tap av ...

  1. The evolution of body muscle composition of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) (Burchell 1822)

    OpenAIRE

    Maithya, J.

    1998-01-01

    Changes in body muscle composition of Clarias gariepinus were studied in fish reared from 1.08 g to 383 g mean body weight in a 201-day culture period. Changes in the amount of protein content, dry matter and ash free dry matter in the muscle tissue can be described as a function of body weight. The percentage of protein content was observed to be higher in bigger fish. Fat content was low throughout the fingerling stage. Specific growth rate decreased significantly at 400 g mean body weight (P

  2. The potential for using red claw crayfish and hybrid African catfish as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... affected by the presence of an alternative prey. Therefore, under suitable conditions, these species can be considered for biological control of schistosomiasis transmission. Keywords: Bulinus globosus, Cherax quadricarinatus, Clarias gariepinus, Clarias ngamensis, Melanoides tuberculata, Neglected Tropical Diseases, ...

  3. Effect Of Crude Oil And Its Products On Bilirubin Of African Catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bilirubinlevel increased wth increasing concentrations of toxicants. Increased bilirubin level suggests lver cell damage or a metabolic disturbance in the liver involving defective conjugation and / or excretion of bilirubin. Keywords: Crude oil concentration, Clarias gariepinus, Bilirubin, Toxicity, Recovery Animal Research ...

  4. Development of gonadotropin-releasing hormone systems in the male African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Reproductive processes are mainly regulated by the brain-pituitary-gonad axis (BPG-axis). Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons localized in the brain release their hormone GnRH, which allows the release of gonadotropic hormone by gonadotropic cells in the pituitary. Gonadotropic

  5. Toxic stress of lead on Clarias Gariepinus (African catfish)fingerlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The toxic stress of lead on fish was tested employing a 96-hour bioassay test. The experimental fish used were Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. Lead in the form of lead chloride was used to prepare the stock solution. The concentrations of lead used for the experiment were 0, 1.8, 3.2, and 5.6, and10.0mg/l. The lethal ...

  6. The effect of group composition on the welfare of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.I.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Within fish farming grading, i.e. the process of sorting to approximate size, changes the group composition from heterogeneous to homogeneous. Although this procedure is considered an acute stressor, the long-term consequences of grading on aggression and stress levels have not yet been

  7. Individual variation in growth of African catfish Clarias gariepinus: a search for explanatory factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matos Martins, de C.I.

    2005-01-01

    Among farmed animals, fish exhibit the largest individual variation in growth, yet most of the studies reporting data on growth do not take individual variation into account. Usually a mean value is considered and although the variation around the mean is also mentioned, it is generally viewed as a

  8. Inherent variation in growth efficiency of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) juveniles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matos Martins, de C.I.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the major causes of growth variation is crucial for the success of fish farming since its reduction contributes to maximize production efficiency, reduce food waste and improve water quality. The growth variation observed in aquaculture has been associated with the establishment of

  9. Effects of feeding un-extruded floating feed to African giant catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of feeding two types of un-extruded floating fish feeds (HM1 and HM2 –38% CP, produced manually using available feedstuffs) and a commercial imported fish feed (Coppens – 40% CP) on growth performance and body composition of Heterobranchus longifilis over 56 days. Commercial ...

  10. effect of crude oil extracts on early stages of african catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    galaxy of oil rigs, flow stations and other petroleum based installations. This has resulted in oil entering the marine and adjoining estuarine waters from time to time. ... types of dissolved hydrocarbons. Preliminary chemical analyses show that under the described test conditions the amount of hydrocarbons dissolved from ...

  11. Temperature changes associated with excitation of the electric organ in the African electric catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaki, I; Byrne, P M

    1994-04-29

    By using heat-sensors made from synthetic pyroelectric film, it was shown that excitation of the Malapterurus electric organ brings about first a rapid rise, then a slow fall and finally a very slow rise in the temperature of the organ. Difficulties encountered in determining these rapid temperature changes by the method of employing thermistor probes are pointed out.

  12. The African catfish (Clarias lazera C. and V., 1840) : a new species for aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogendoorn, H.

    1983-01-01

    Fish husbandry can contribute substantially to the production of animal protein for human nutrition, especially in tropical countries. To determine the suitability of C. lazera for aquaculture, the propagation and production ,management as well as the growth physiology of this

  13. Parasite fauna of farmed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoll, Peter; Konecny, Robert; Mwanja, Wilson W; Nattabi, Juliet K; Agoe, Catherine; Schiemer, Fritz

    2012-01-01

    An intensive parasite survey was conducted in 2008 to better understand the parasite fauna occurrence, distribution and diversity in the commercial aquaculture fish species in Uganda. A total of 265 fish collected from hatcheries and grow-out systems were examined for parasites using routine parasitological techniques. The survey yielded 17 parasite species: 11 from Oreochromis niloticus and ten from Clarias gariepinus. Four parasites-Amirthalingamia macracantha, Monobothrioides sp., Zoogonoides sp. and a member of the family Amphilinidae-were recorded for the first time in the country. The parasite diversity was similar between hosts; however, O. niloticus was dominated by free-living stage-transmitted parasites in lower numbers, whereas both trophically and free-living stage-transmitted parasites were equally represented in C. gariepinus in relatively high intensities. The patterns in parasite numbers and composition in the two hosts reflect differences in fish habitat use and diet. A shift in parasite composition from monoxenous species-dominated communities in small-sized fish to heteroxenous in large fishes was recorded in both hosts. This was linked to ontogenetic feeding changes and prolonged exposure to parasites. Polyculture systems showed no effect on parasite intensity and composition. The gills were highly parasitized, mainly by protozoans and monogeneans. Generally, the occurrence and diversity of parasites in these fish species highlight the likelihood of disease outbreak in the proposed intensive aquaculture systems. This calls for raising awareness in fish health management among potential farmers, service providers and researchers.

  14. A new genus and species of marine catfishes (Siluriformes; Ariidae) from the upper Eocene Birket Qarun Formation, Wadi El-Hitan, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Sanaa E; Kora, Mahmoud A; Sallam, Hesham M; Claeson, Kerin M; Seiffert, Erik R; Antar, Mohammed S

    2017-01-01

    Wadi El-Hitan, the UNESCO World Heritage Site, of the Fayum Depression in the northeast part of the Western Desert of Egypt, has produced a remarkable collection of Eocene vertebrates, in particular the fossil whales from which it derives its name. Here we describe a new genus and species of marine catfishes (Siluriformes; Ariidae), Qarmoutus hitanensis, from the base of the upper Eocene Birket Qarun Formation, based on a partial neurocranium including the complete left side, partial right dentary, left suspensorium, two opercles, left pectoral girdle and spine, nuchal plates, first and second dorsal spines, Weberian apparatus and a disassociated series of abdominal vertebrae. All of the elements belong to the same individual and some of them were found articulated. Qarmoutus gen. nov. is the oldest and the most complete of the Paleogene marine catfishes unearthed from the Birket Qarun Formation. The new genus exhibits distinctive features not seen in other African Paleogene taxa, such as different sculpturing on the opercle and pectoral girdle with respect to that on the neurocranium and nuchal plates, denticulate ornamentation on the skull bones arranged in longitudinal rows and forming a radiating pattern on the sphenotic, pterotic, extrascapular and the parieto-supraoccipital, indentations or pitted ornamentation on the nuchal plates as well as the parieto-supraoccipital process, strut-like radiating pattern of ornamentation on the opercle from the proximal articulation to margins, longitudinal, curved, reticulate ridges and tubercular ornamentations on the cleithrum, sinuous articulation between the parieto-supraoccipital process and the anterior nuchal plate, long, narrow, and arrowhead shaped nuchal shield, very small otic capsules restricted to the prootic. Multiple parsimony and Bayesian morphological phylogenetic analyses of Ariidae, run with and without "molecular scaffolds", yield contradictory results for the placement of Qarmoutus; the genus is either

  15. A new genus and species of marine catfishes (Siluriformes; Ariidae from the upper Eocene Birket Qarun Formation, Wadi El-Hitan, Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa E El-Sayed

    Full Text Available Wadi El-Hitan, the UNESCO World Heritage Site, of the Fayum Depression in the northeast part of the Western Desert of Egypt, has produced a remarkable collection of Eocene vertebrates, in particular the fossil whales from which it derives its name. Here we describe a new genus and species of marine catfishes (Siluriformes; Ariidae, Qarmoutus hitanensis, from the base of the upper Eocene Birket Qarun Formation, based on a partial neurocranium including the complete left side, partial right dentary, left suspensorium, two opercles, left pectoral girdle and spine, nuchal plates, first and second dorsal spines, Weberian apparatus and a disassociated series of abdominal vertebrae. All of the elements belong to the same individual and some of them were found articulated. Qarmoutus gen. nov. is the oldest and the most complete of the Paleogene marine catfishes unearthed from the Birket Qarun Formation. The new genus exhibits distinctive features not seen in other African Paleogene taxa, such as different sculpturing on the opercle and pectoral girdle with respect to that on the neurocranium and nuchal plates, denticulate ornamentation on the skull bones arranged in longitudinal rows and forming a radiating pattern on the sphenotic, pterotic, extrascapular and the parieto-supraoccipital, indentations or pitted ornamentation on the nuchal plates as well as the parieto-supraoccipital process, strut-like radiating pattern of ornamentation on the opercle from the proximal articulation to margins, longitudinal, curved, reticulate ridges and tubercular ornamentations on the cleithrum, sinuous articulation between the parieto-supraoccipital process and the anterior nuchal plate, long, narrow, and arrowhead shaped nuchal shield, very small otic capsules restricted to the prootic. Multiple parsimony and Bayesian morphological phylogenetic analyses of Ariidae, run with and without "molecular scaffolds", yield contradictory results for the placement of Qarmoutus

  16. To boldly gulp: standard metabolic rate and boldness have context-dependent influences on risk-taking to breathe air in a catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, David J; Belão, Thiago C; Killen, Shaun S; Rantin, F Tadeu

    2015-12-01

    The African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus has bimodal respiration, it has a suprabranchial air-breathing organ alongside substantial gills. We used automated bimodal respirometry to reveal that undisturbed juvenile catfish (N=29) breathed air continuously in normoxia, with a marked diurnal cycle. Air breathing and routine metabolic rate (RMR) increased in darkness when, in the wild, this nocturnal predator forages. Aquatic hypoxia (20% air saturation) greatly increased overall reliance on air breathing. We investigated whether two measures of risk taking to breathe air, namely absolute rates of aerial O2 uptake (ṀO2,air) and the percentage of RMR obtained from air (%ṀO2,air), were influenced by individual standard metabolic rate (SMR) and boldness. In particular, whether any influence varied with resource availability (normoxia versus hypoxia) or relative fear of predation (day versus night). Individual SMR, derived from respirometry, had an overall positive influence on ṀO2,air across all contexts but a positive influence on %ṀO2,air only in hypoxia. Thus, a pervasive effect of SMR on air breathing became most acute in hypoxia, when individuals with higher O2 demand took proportionally more risks. Boldness was estimated as time required to resume air breathing after a fearful stimulus in daylight normoxia (Tres). Although Tres had no overall influence on ṀO2,air or %ṀO2,air, there was a negative relationship between Tres and %ṀO2,air in daylight, in normoxia and hypoxia. There were two Tres response groups, 'bold' phenotypes with Tres below 75 min (N=13) which, in daylight, breathed proportionally more air than 'shy' phenotypes with Tres above 115 min (N=16). Therefore, individual boldness influenced air breathing when fear of predation was high. Thus, individual energy demand and personality did not have parallel influences on the emergent tendency to take risks to obtain a resource; their influences varied in strength with context. © 2015

  17. Characterization of Histopathological and Ultrastructural Changes in Channel Catfish Experimentally Infected with Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Abdelhamed

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A highly virulent clonal population of Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh has been the cause of recent motile Aeromonas septicemia epizootic in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus farms in the Southeastern United States. The pathology of the disease caused by vAh has not been studied well yet. Thus, our aim was to determine histopathological and ultrastructural changes in channel catfish following vAh challenge. To accomplish this, catfish fingerlings were challenged with vAh (strain ML09-119 by bath. Six fish per each time point were collected at 1, 3, 5, 6, 24, and 48 h for light microscopy, and six fish were collected at 48 h for transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The first pathological lesions were detected in the spleen and stomach at 1 h post-challenge (HPC while intestine, gills, kidney, and liver lesions were observed at 24 and 48 HPC. Histopathological examination revealed degenerative changes, necrosis, extensive edema, and inflammation in internal organs. The TEM showed severe tissue destruction with multiple bacterial cells secreting outer membrane vesicles, especially in spleen and gills and far number in the stomach. Degenerated bacterial cells were observed in the intestinal lumen and the phagosomes of phagocytic kidney cells. We identified, for the first time, degranulate eosinophilic granular cells, and dendritic cells like (DC-like cells in the necrotic intestinal epithelium. These findings suggest that vAh rapidly proliferated and spread through the catfish organs following bath challenge.

  18. Dietary copper effects survival of channel catfish challenged with Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columnaris disease is one of the most important bacterial diseases of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, commercially grown in the US. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) has also been shown to be both therapeutic and prophylactic as a water treatment for columnaris disease. As copper is an essential dietar...

  19. Stress Effects in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) Fry on Pond Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results from previous studies suggested that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fry that were housed in very high traffic areas from hatch until reaching 9 g in size were able to survive experimental challenge with Edwardsiella ictaluri better than siblings who were hatched and raised in very low...

  20. Dioxins and other environmental contaminants in catfish from U.S. commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (Farm Bill), amended the Federal Meat Inspection Act to provide that "catfish, as defined by the Secretary," is an amenable species and therefore subject to continuous inspection by the USDA Food Safety Inspection Service. Since few background data are ...

  1. PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PBDEs in catfish from U.S. Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is responsible for the safety of meat, poultry, egg products, and farm-raised catfish marketed in the United States. As such the USDA conducts statistical surveys to determine chemical residue concentrations in these domestic products. Little background data...

  2. Cost and returns analysis of catfish marketing in Aba South Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzed the cost and returns of catfish marketing in Aba South Local Government Area of Abia State. Specifically, the study ascertained the socioeconomic profile of respondents, ascertained costs, returns and net returns of the marketers, determined the marketing margin, marketing efficiency and market share of ...

  3. cost and returns analysis of catfish marketing in aba south local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The study analyzed the cost and returns of catfish marketing in Aba South Local Government Area of Abia State. Specifically, the study ascertained the socioeconomic profile of respondents, ascertained costs, returns and net returns of the marketers, determined the marketing margin, marketing efficiency and ...

  4. Earthy and musty off-flavor episodes in catfish split-pond aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interest and use of variations of partitioned aquaculture systems (PAS) by the southeastern U.S. catfish farming industry continues to grow. Split-pond systems, one type of PAS, are designed to improve management of dissolved oxygen levels and fish waste products (e.g., ammonia) compared to conv...

  5. Dissolved Oxygen management in catfish ponds using electric paddlewheel aerators: new approaches with old technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The electric paddlewheel aerator has been the main aerator used in the U.S. catfish industry for the post forty years. While it has its limitations, it is perhaps the most efficient shallow-water aerator yet to be developed. Its shortcomings result not so much from poor design, as from poor usage. U...

  6. Oxygen and nitrogen dyamics in split ponds vs. intensive and conventional catfish production ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Split Pond aquaculture system (SP) has captured the attention of catfish producers across the southern U.S. The SP represents a lower cost adaptation of Clemson University’s Partitioned Aquaculture System (PAS). The original PAS design relied on slowly rotating paddlewheels to move water throu...

  7. Governance Strategies and Welfare Effects: Vertical Integration and Contracts in the Catfish Sector in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    2014-01-01

    Using an original dataset from the Vietnamese catfish sector, we study the impact of vertical coordination options on household welfare and the implications of different stages of vertical coordination for the success of the whole sector. The welfare gain from contract farming and employment...

  8. Design of mini-barcode for catfishes for assessment of archival biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Maloyjo J; Ghosh, Sankar K

    2014-05-01

    Recovery of DNA barcode sequences is often challenging from the archived specimens. However, short fragments of DNA may be recovered, which would significantly improve many unresolved taxonomic conflicts. Here, we designed a mini-barcode for catfishes comprising several species and many cryptic taxa. We analysed a data set of 3048 publicly available COI barcode sequences representing 547 worldwide catfish species and performed 152 628 interspecies comparisons. A significantly more positively correlated interspecies distance was detected with transversion (0.78, P barcode. The interspecies distance with full-length barcode was 0.212 ± 0.037, while that with 53-bp and 119-bp fragments was 0.325 ± 0.039 and 0.218 ± 0.045, respectively. Survey of 53-bp fragment showed a possibility of only 1144 barcodes, while that of 119-bp fragment showed >4 million barcodes. Thus, the 119-bp fragment is a viable mini-barcode for catfishes comprising >3000 extant species. Experiment with 82 archived catfishes showed successful recovery of this mini-barcode using the designed primer. The mini-barcode sequences showed species-specific similarity in the range of 98-100% with the global database. Therefore, survey of a transversion-rich fragment within the full-length barcode would be an ideal approach of mini-barcode design for biodiversity assessment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Gender nor sex hormones alter the disease susceptibility of channel catfish to Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of monosex populations for aquaculture is becoming widely used for several species. Monosex populations are not in wide use in the catfish industry but techniques to develop all male populations have been developed. These studies were conducted to determine if there were any differences be...

  10. Effect of precooking and polyphosphate treatment on the quality of microwave cooked catfish fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the US market place there are many examples of precooked poultry products designed to be reheated in a microwave oven and, to a lesser extent, fish products such as tilapia. However, few US catfish products are designed to be microwave cooked or reheated. The first objective of this study was t...

  11. Evaluation of Various Feeding Regimens in A Multiple-Batch Cropping System of Channel Catfish Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    A four-year pond study was conducted to compare gross production, feed conversion, processing yield, and body composition of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fed once daily or every other day to satiation, or # 110 kg/ha per day in a multiple-batch cropping system. The greatest amount of feed fed...

  12. The South American Mailed Catfishes of the genus Pseudoloricaria Bleeker, 1862 (Pisces, Siluriformes, Loricariidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isbrücker, I.J.H.; Nijssen, H.

    1976-01-01

    Two species of South American Mailed Catfishes of the genus Pseudoloricaria Bleeker, 1862 are redescribed and figured from type-specimens and additional material: Pseudoloricaria laeviuscula (Valenciennes, 1840), and Pseudoloricaria punctata (Regan, 1904). Since the provenance of the holotype of P.

  13. Clearance of yellow pigments lutein and zeathanxin in channel catfish reared at different water temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine clearance time of yellow pigments lutein and zeaxanthin in channel catfish at various temperatures. Fish of initial weight of 13.4 g were stocked into flow-through aquaria and fed once daily with a yellow pigment enhanced diet for 11 weeks when the yellow color be...

  14. Acute toxicity and histopathology of channel catfish fry exposed to peracetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus yolk-sac fry and swim-up fry were exposed to peracetic acid (PAA) for 48h in static toxicity bioassays at 23C. The test water was 217 and 126 mg/L (as CaCO3) total alkalinity and total hardness, respectively. Probit LC50 values were estimated with the trimmed Sp...

  15. Demonstrating the Ecosystem Effects of Armored Suckermouth Catfishes (Loricariidae): A Feasibility Study Using Mesocosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    mesocosms to identify ecosystem-level effects of suckermouth catfishes. To minimize intra- and interspecific interactions, the following were used: 1...in North America: A conceptual model. Aquatic Nuisance Species Research Program Bulletin (in preparation). Hunt, B.P. 1953. Food Relationships

  16. Plasma cortisol stress response in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus influences susceptibility to Edwardeseilla ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortisol is a primary stress hormone in fish as its plasma variations correlate with the occurrence of various stressful situations. Past studies have demonstrated that fish subjected to handling stress or poor water quality had a reduced ability to resist pathogens. Channel catfish fingerlings th...

  17. Developing a low cortisol responsive line of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj G. Chatakondi and Brian C. Peterson USDA ARS Warmwater Aquaculture Research Unit, 141 Experiment Station Road, Stoneville, MS 38776. nagaraj.chatakondi@ars.usda.gov Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus is the most important farm-raised aquacultured species in the USA. Stressors in aquacultu...

  18. Function of a recombinant Chitinase derived from a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    A chitinase was identified in extracellular products of a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Bioactive recombinant chitinase (rChi-Ah) was produced in Escherichia coli. Purified rChi-Ah had optimal activity at temperature of 42°C and pH 6.5. T...

  19. Comparison of phytoplankton communities in catfish split-pond aquaculture systems with conventional ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been a growing interest and use of variations of partitioned aquaculture systems (PAS) in recent years by the southeastern United States of America farmed catfish industry. Split-pond systems, one type of PAS, are designed to better manage fish waste byproducts (e.g., ammonia) and dissolv...

  20. Threadfin shad impacts phytoplankton and zooplankton community structures in channel catfish ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plankton community structure and chlorophyll a concentration were compared in 12 0.1-ha earthen ponds co-stocked with channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque, 1818) in multiple-batch culture (initial biomass = 5,458 kg ha-1) and a planktivore, threadfin shad (Dorosoma petenense Güther, 1867;...

  1. CHANNEL CATFISH INDUSTRY IN THE USA AND THE OFF-FLAVOR PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Fijan

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The history, the production technology in channel catfish pond farming industry as well as the statistical data on production, processing and product value during past 15 years are presented. The trend of increasing consumption by the population and the presently low prices of grain and soybeans are conductive to further expansion of production. The steady growth of the industry is stimulated by several factors: innovative efforts by farmers, research at the universities and at government institutions some of which have numerous experimental ponds, cooperative extension service for farmers, modern marketing, activities of catfish farming associations, high quality of products from processing plants and vertical integration. The off-flavor in catfish caused by algal metabolites is a major problem in the industry. Genera of algae producing such metabolites, their accumulation in other fish and occurrence in drinking water reservoirs as well as the current emphasis on preventing the entrance of off-flavor contaminated catfish onto the market were reviewed. The main undesirable algal metyabolites are volatile alcohols geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB. The need for less expensive and quick methods of identifying major off-flavor compounds was pointed out. Research at the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, USA, on control of off-flavor algae in experimental ponds by filter-feeding silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val. and tilapias confined in cages showed this approach to be rather promising.

  2. Impact of Copper Sulfate on Plankton in Channel Catfish Nursery Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many fish culturists are interested in applying copper sulfate pentahydrate (CSP) to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, nursery ponds as a prophylactic treatment for trematode infection and proliferative gill disease by killing snails and Dero sp., respectively, before stocking fry. However, copp...

  3. Experimental evaluation of the effect of winter feeding on channel catfish growout pond plankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten, 0.25 acre ponds at the UAPB Aquaculture Station were sampled weekly from Dec. 7-Feb. 22 (n=90) for phytoplankton and zooplankton. Five of the ponds were randomly assigned to each of two treatments: no feeding and feeding based on recommended rates. Channel catfish sizes and numbers approximated...

  4. Evaluation of Peanut Meal as an Alternative Dietary Protein Source for Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of peanut meal as an alternative protein source in diets for channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated in a 9-week study under controlled laboratory conditions. Five practical diets (28% crude protein and 6% crude lipid) were formulated to contain 0, 10, 15, 20, and 25% peanut meal as a ...

  5. Generation of myostatin B knockout yellow catfish (Tachysurus fulvidraco) using transcription activator-like effector nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhangji; Ge, Jiachun; Xu, Zhiqiang; Dong, Xiaohua; Cao, Shasha; Pan, Jianlin; Zhao, Qingshun

    2014-06-01

    Myostatin (Mstn), a member of the transforming growth factor β superfamily, plays an inhibiting role in mammalian muscle growth. Mammals like human, cattle, mouse, sheep, and dog carrying null alleles of Mstn display a double-muscle phenotype. Mstn is conserved in fish; however, little is known whether the fish with mutated mstn display a similar phenotype to mammals because of the lack of mutant fish with mstn null alleles. Previously, we knocked out one of the duplicated copies of myostatin gene (mstna) in yellow catfish using zinc-finger nucleases. In this study, we report the identification of the second myostatin gene (mstnb) and knockout of mstnb in yellow catfish. The gene comprises three exons. It is predicted to encode 373 amino acid residues. The predicted protein exhibits 59.3% identity with yellow catfish Mstna and 57.3% identity with human MSTN. Employing TALEN (transcription activator-like effector nucleases) technology, we obtained two founders (from four randomly selected founders) of yellow catfish carrying the mutated mstnb gene in their germ cells. Totally, six mutated alleles of mstnb were obtained from the founders. Among the six alleles, four are nonframeshift and two are frameshift mutation. The frameshift mutated alleles include mstnb(nju22), an 8 bp deletion, and mstnb(nju24), a complex type of mutation comprising a 7 bp deletion and a 12 bp insertion. They are predicted to encode function null Mstnb. Our results will help to understand the roles of mstn genes in fish growth.

  6. Sequence genomic organization and expression of two channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus Ghrelin receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two ghrelin receptor (GHS-R) genes were isolated from channel catfish tissue and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. The two receptors were characterized by determining tissue distribution, ontogeny of receptor mRNA expression, and effects of exogenous homologous ghrelin administration ...

  7. The channel catfish genome sequence provides insights into the evolution of scale formation in teleosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), characteristic of its scaleless skin and prominent barbels, is an ideal species to study osteogenesis, development of appendages, olfactory sensing, and immunological adaptation. It is the leading aquaculture species in the United States. A high quality refere...

  8. Performance and survival of hybrid catfish (hetero x clarias) fed with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary WCRM at 100% inclusion produced similar results in the mean weight gain (MWG), mean daily weight gain (MDWG), Gross Feed Conversion Efficiency (GFCE), Protein Intake (PI), and survival as the control diet. It could therefore be concluded that WCRM can replace maize in the diet of hybrid catfish effectively up ...

  9. Prevalence of veterinary drug residues and heavy metals in catfish nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seafood, including catfish, can sometimes become contaminated with chemicals and heavy metals at levels which would harm human health. Seafood safety has been increasing concerns to the consumers in the United States and limited availability of domestic fresh products in retail stores have been rais...

  10. Influences of cyclic, high temperatures on juvenile channel catfish growth and feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of high summer temperatures on channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) are poorly understood, particularly for thermal regimes that mimic pond aquaculture conditions. Therefore, this study examined the effects of three cycling upper-range temperature regimes (23-27ºC, 27-31ºC, and 31-35ºC) cha...

  11. The effect of feed type on the growth of catfish ( Claria-gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of feed type on the growth of pond raised catfish (Clarias- garienpinus) is examined using a 2k factorial design. A period of four weeks was used in experimentation. The four factors represent four feed types namely Sharp, Coppens, Euro, Dizeng-golf. Analysis of the experiment reveal a great variation in the ...

  12. FEATURES OF DEVELOPMENT OF SOME ORGANS OF AIRBREATHING CATFISH (CLARIIDAE IN EARLY ONTOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pirog

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Airbreathing catfish (CLARIIDAE - is one of the most promising specie of artificial breeding. However, for the reproduction of this specie it is required to conduct appropriate studies. In particular, it is necessary to review the features of morphogenesis during early ontogeny of this type of fish. We investigated prelarvae of airbreathing catfish (CLARIIBAE in 2,3 and 4 days of life. In the embryos, the spinal cord was formed on the 2nd day of life. At this stage, organs of vision were sufficiently developed. On the 4th day, we found hyaline cartilage at the base of the gill arch, arcs were covered with gill filaments; we also discovered fully formed mesonephros, renal corpuscles, renal tubules and intratubular liquid in the kidneys. The heart of the embryo consisted of atrium and voluminous ventricle.Methods. The research of development of airbreathing catfish in early ontogenesis has been carried out on the basis of "RENTOP Agro-5" Ltd. under the conditions of RAS in the Krasnodar region in the spring – summer period of years 2013-14. For morphological analysis we used serial histological sections on prelarvae of 40 airbreathing catfish at age 2, 3 and 4 days developing normally and atypically. The research combines some complex biological methods: ichthyologic, histological, physiological. Materials for the research were handled with the methods of classical histology. Viewing and imaging of the sections were made using Mikmed 6 microscope with a digital camera for imaging and computer analysis.Results. The finding of the study has been the analysis of the morphological structure of airbreathing catfish during early ontogeny, which can contribute to improving the biotechnology of breeding of airbreathing catfish under RAS.Main conclusions. First, in the early ontogenesis of airbreathing catfish we have discovered heterochrony in the development of basic systems: rapidly developing central nervous system and the digestive system

  13. Air breathing and aquatic gas exchange during hypoxia in armoured catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Graham R; Matey, Victoria; Mendoza, Julie-Anne; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Perry, Steve F; Almeida-Val, Vera M F; Val, Adalberto L

    2017-01-01

    Air breathing in fish is commonly believed to have arisen as an adaptation to aquatic hypoxia. The effectiveness of air breathing for tissue O2 supply depends on the ability to avoid O2 loss as oxygenated blood from the air-breathing organ passes through the gills. Here, we evaluated whether the armoured catfish (Hypostomus aff. pyreneusi)-a facultative air breather-can avoid branchial O2 loss while air breathing in aquatic hypoxia, and we measured various other respiratory and metabolic traits important for O2 supply and utilization. Fish were instrumented with opercular catheters to measure the O2 tension (PO2) of expired water, and air breathing and aquatic respiration were measured during progressive stepwise hypoxia in the water. Armoured catfish exhibited relatively low rates of O2 consumption and gill ventilation, and gill ventilation increased in hypoxia due primarily to increases in ventilatory stroke volume. Armoured catfish began air breathing at a water PO2 of 2.5 kPa, and both air-breathing frequency and hypoxia tolerance (as reflected by PO2 at loss of equilibrium, LOE) was greater in individuals with a larger body mass. Branchial O2 loss, as reflected by higher PO2 in expired than in inspired water, was observed in a minority (4/11) of individuals as water PO2 approached that at LOE. Armoured catfish also exhibited a gill morphology characterized by short filaments bearing short fused lamellae, large interlamellar cell masses, low surface area, and a thick epithelium that increased water-to-blood diffusion distance. Armoured catfish had a relatively low blood-O2 binding affinity when sampled in normoxia (P50 of 3.1 kPa at pH 7.4), but were able to rapidly increase binding affinity during progressive hypoxia exposure (to a P50 of 1.8 kPa). Armoured catfish also had low activities of several metabolic enzymes in white muscle, liver, and brain. Therefore, low rates of metabolism and gill ventilation, and a reduction in branchial gas-exchange capacity

  14. Morphology of the gas bladder in bumblebee catfishes (Siluriformes, Pseudopimelodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birindelli, José L O; Shibatta, Oscar A

    2011-07-01

    The gross morphology of the gas bladder is described and compared for representatives of all valid genera of Pseudopimelodidae (Siluriformes). Cephalosilurus albomarginatus and species of Batrochoglanis, and Microglanis have the most basic form: a large, cordiform gas bladder with a simple internal T-shaped septum. Cephalosilurus apurensis, C. fowleri, and C. nigricauda also have a large, cordiform gas bladder, but they have well-developed trabeculae associated with the internal T-shaped septum, and a pair of well-developed constrictor muscles inserted on the external wall; the latter feature is present in most species of Pimelodidae, but absent in all other catfishes. The monotypic Lophiosilurus alexandri also has well-developed constrictor muscles, and its gas bladder is moderately sized. The species of Pseudopimelodus and Cruciglanis have a diminutive gas bladder partially divided into two lateral sacs without internal communication, and lack constrictor muscles. The parapophysis of the fourth vertebra is a wide and long shelf connected to the dorsal surface of the gas bladder in most pseudopimelodid genera. However, in the species of Pseudopimelodus and Cruciglanis the parapophysis of the fourth vertebra is shorter and has its anterior ramus folded back, partially covering the gas bladder anteroventrally; and the tympanic opening is smaller than in species of the other genera. Five phylogenetic characters are proposed based on the morphology of the gas bladder and associated structures in species of Pseudopimelodidae, and the evolution of those characters in the family is discussed. J. Morphol., 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...

  16. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Exercises Electrothermal Modalities Ergonomic Changes Hydrotherapy Manual Therapy Physical Therapy Postural Training Traction Watchful Waiting and Education Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections ...

  17. Feeding for larvae of catfish Pangasionodon sp. larvae in different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Agus Suprayudi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sludge worm (Tubifex sp. as natural feed on catfish (Pangasionodon sp. larvae rearing is available in limited amount especially during rainy season. It becomes a constraint factor for larvae rearing sector. This research was conducted to evaluate the appropriate initial age of catfish larvae to get artificial feed as sludge worm replacement. Evaluation was conducted on the growth and survival of catfish larvae in 14 days of culture. There were four treatments of feeding in triplicates i.e. larvae were given natural feed without artificial feed, given artificial feed started from d3, d6, and d9 with three replications. The results showed that larvae fed on artificial feed on d3 had the lowest growth compared to the other treatments, whereas the survival was not significantly different (P>0.05 among the treatments. As a conclusion, artificial feed could be used to replace natural feed for catfish larvae started at the age of nine days. Keywords: sludge worm, catfish larvae, artificial feed  ABSTRAK Cacing sutra (Tubifex sp. tersedia dalam jumlah terbatas terutama pada musim penghujan sebagai pakan alami dalam usaha pembenihan ikan patin (Pangasionodon sp.. Ini menjadi kendala dalam usaha pembenihan. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi umur larva ikan patin yang tepat untuk mulai diberi pakan buatan menggantikan cacing sutra. Evaluasi dilakukan pada pertumbuhan dan kelangsungan hidup larva ikan patin umur 14 hari. Selama pemeliharaan, larva diberi pakan dengan empat perlakuan; pemberian pakan alami tanpa pakan buatan, pemberian pakan buatan mulai d3, d6, dan d9 dengan tiga ulangan untuk masing-masing perlakuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan pemberian pakan buatan mulai d3 memiliki pertumbuhan panjang yang terkecil dibandingkan perlakuan lain, sedangkan tingkat kelangsungan hidup larva tidak berbeda nyata (P>0,05 antarperlakuan. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa pakan buatan dapat digunakan

  18. Spermatogenesis of male catfish Clarias sp. fed diet supplemeted with purwoceng extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poppy Dea Bertha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purwoceng Pimpinella alpina Molk has been a commercial medicinal plant that their root could be used as aphrodisiac, diuretic, and body fit enhancer. This research was performed to evaluated the effect of purwoceng on spermatogenesis of the male catfish Clarias sp. consisted of testis weight, gonado somatic index (GSI, and spermatocrite levels. The treatment comprised administering purwoceng extract through the feed at a dose of 0; 2.5; 5; 7.5 g/kg of feed. Experimental fish used were male catfish Clarias sp. with initial body weight of 200–300 g at the density of 10 fish/tank. Male catfish were maintained in tank sized 2×1,5×1 m3, filled with water at 60–70 cm deep. The result showed that purwoceng extract at a dose of 5 g/kg mixed in the feed increased testis weight, GSI values, and spermatocrite levels in adult male catfish. Keywords: purwoceng extract, spermatogenesis, catfish  ABSTRAK Purwoceng Pimpinella alpina Molk merupakan tanaman herbal komersial yang akarnya dilaporkan berkhasiat sebagai obat afrodisiak, diuretik, dan tonik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh ekstrak purwoceng terhadap perkembangan testis ikan lele Clarias sp. yang meliputi peningkatan bobot testis, nilai GSI, serta nilai spermatokrit. Perlakuan terdiri atas pemberian ekstrak purwoceng melalui pakan dengan dosis 0; 2,5; 5 dan 7,5 g/kg pakan. Adapun ikan yang diujicobakan pada penelitian adalah ikan lele jantan dengan bobot awal 200–300 g dan padat tebar 10 ekor/bak. Pemeliharaan ikan dilakukan pada bak berukuran 2×1,5×1 m3 yang diisi air dengan ketinggian  60–70 cm. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa pemberian ekstrak purwoceng dengan dosis 5 g/kg yang dicampur dalam pakan meningkatkan nilai bobot testis, nilai GSI dan kadar spermatokrit  pada lele jantan dewasa. Kata kunci: ekstrak purwoceng, spermatogenesis, ikan lele

  19. Ontogeny of the digestive tract in butter catfish Ompok bimaculatus (Bloch) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, P K; Jena, J K; Mitra, G; Sood, N; Gisbert, E

    2012-12-01

    The ontogeny of the digestive tract was studied histologically in butter catfish Ompok bimaculatus from hatching to 30 days post-hatching (dph). At hatching, the digestive tract of butter catfish consisted of a straight tube with a smooth lumen dorsally attached to the yolk sac. Between 1 and 2 dph, the mouth opened, oral valves were visible and canine-like teeth and taste buds were detected. During this period, intestine was differentiated into the anterior and posterior intestine, and the digestive accessory glands were also developed. Exogenous feeding started at 2 dph, and there was a 2-day mixed endogenous-exogenous feeding period. Most of the yolk sac reserves were consumed between 2 and 3 dph, and by 5 dph, the yolk sac was completely depleted and no longer visible in histological sections. Between 3 and 4 dph, several vacuoles (neutral lipids) were observed in the intestine and also in hepatocytes, indicating a functional absorption of nutrients from food. At 8 dph, differentiation of gastric glands was noticed, and by 9-11 dph, there were abundant gastric tubular glands arranged along numerous longitudinal folds. During the same period, pyloric sphincter appeared as an epithelial fold that separated the stomach from the anterior intestine. From 12 dph to the end of the study at 30 dph, no noticeable histological modifications were observed. The development of gastric glands is considered as the last major events in digestive tract development and their presence designates the end of larval period and the onset of the juvenile period. Hence, it is suggested that, butter catfish larvae have a morphologically complete digestive tract by 12 dph. These findings on the development of the digestive system in butter catfish may lead to a better understanding of the ontogeny and would be useful to improve the larval rearing techniques of this promising catfish species for freshwater aquaculture diversification.

  20. Estradiol and testosterone (11-KT) concentrations in catfish associated with wastewater discharges into Hollis Creek and the Noxubee River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report discusses the findings concerning possible water contamination and endocrine disruption in catfish associated with discharge of tertiary treated wastewater...

  1. INDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE AND ASSOCIATED TOXICITY IN LIVERS OF HARDHEAD CATFISH, ARIUS FELIS, FROM CONTROL AND EPIZOOTIC SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earlier work with a live channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) pathogen, Edwardsiella ictaluri, demonstrated the induction of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the head kidney, paralleling enteric septicemia (Hawke et al. 1981; Schoor and Plumb 1994). However, another study exposing...

  2. Mercury concentrations in gafftopsail catfish and other fishes in waters adjacent to Hobe Sound National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From September 22-26, 1990, 20 gafftopsail catfish (Bagre marinus) and 3 other fish species (n=4) were collected from marine waters adjacent to Hobe Sound National...

  3. Corydoras ornatus, a new species of callichthyid catfish from the Rio Tapajós Drainage, Brazil (Pisces, Siluriformes, Callichthyidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, H.; Isbrücker, I.J.H.

    1976-01-01

    A new species of the neotropical callichthyid catfish genus Corydoras Lacépède, 1803, C. ornatus, is described and figured. It is compared with Corydoras pulcher Isbrücker & Nijssen, 1973, a closely related species.

  4. ANALITICAL METHOD VALIDATION OF ANIONIC SURFACTANT SODIUM DODECYL BENZENE SULFONATE (SDBS) IN CATFISH BY UV-VIS SPECTROPHOTOMETRY USING ACRIDINE ORANGE

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Cahyaning Ratri; Adhitasari Suratman; Roto Roto

    2017-01-01

    The analytical method development on an anionic surfactant of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) in a catfish using spectrophotometer UV-Vis using acridine orange (AO) has been conducted. This research aims to determine the optimum conditions of analysis and to determine validation parameters of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) analysis in a catfish. This study was divided into two steps, isolation of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) in the catfish with soxhlet extraction and t...

  5. Differentiating cave Aspidoras catfish from a karst area of Central Brazil, upper rio Tocantins basin (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Secutti

    Full Text Available Two cave populations of Aspidoras albater catfish with reduced eyes and pigmentation were recently found near the city of Posse, São Domingos karst area, Goiás State, representing the first known case of a troglomorphic callichthyid catfish. Cave specimens are described and compared to epigean specimens of A. albater, but morphometric differences between the epigean and the cave populations are not adequate to delimit as distinct species.

  6. A common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) prey handling technique for marine catfish (Ariidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ronje, Errol I.; Barry, Kevin P.; Sinclair, Carrie; Grace, Mark A.; Barros, N?lio; Allen, Jason; Balmer, Brian; Panike, Anna; Toms, Christina; Keith D. Mullin; Wells, Randall S.

    2017-01-01

    Few accounts describe predator-prey interactions between common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus Montagu 1821) and marine catfish (Ariopsis felis Linnaeus 1766, Bagre marinus Mitchill 1815). Over the course of 50,167 sightings of bottlenose dolphin groups in Mississippi Sound and along the Florida coast of the Gulf of Mexico, severed catfish heads were found floating and exhibiting movements at the surface in close proximity to 13 dolphin groups that demonstrated feeding behavior. Thes...

  7. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are described below. If any of the following ... balls, you will experience more benefit from this exercise... Sagittal Core Strengthening You can stretch and strengthen the low ...

  8. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... slow full movements. Repeat 10-15 times, to fatigue... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both knees bent. ... Return leg and extend other leg. Repeat to fatigue, about 10-15 repetitions at a slow ... training is exercise done against something providing resistance. It can be ...

  9. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... core strengthening, or building the muscles that provide support for your body. Pilates, yoga and martial arts all provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are ...

  10. African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Zoology, a peer-reviewed research journal, publishes original scientific contributions and critical reviews that focus principally on African fauna in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems. Research from other regions that advances practical and theoretical aspects of zoology will be considered. Rigorous ...

  11. Four Alien Monogeneans, Including Trinigyrus peregrinus n. sp., Parasitic on the Invasive Armored Catfish Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Okinawa-jima Island, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nitta, Masato; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2016-01-01

    ...., and Heteropriapulus heterotylus (Jogunoori, Kritsky, and Venkatanarasaiah, 2004), were collected from the gills of vermiculated sailfin catfish, Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber, 1991) (Siluriformes: Loricariidae...

  12. Effects of dietary sweet potato leaf meal on the growth, non-specific immune responses, total phenols and antioxidant capacity in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmann, Rebecca T; Islam, Shahidul; Phillips, Harold; Adam, Zelalem; Everette, Jace

    2013-04-01

    Traditional energy sources in catfish diets have become costly, and economical alternatives are needed. Sweet potato leaves are underutilised agricultural by-products that provide energy and substantial amounts of phenols, which affect animal and human health. There is little information on the effects of these compounds on catfish, or the capacity of catfish to accumulate dietary phenols. Catfish enriched with phenols have marketing potential as functional foods. This study investigated the effects of diets with sweet potato leaf meal (SPLM) on growth performance, health and total phenolic compounds in catfish. SPLM was substituted for wheat middlings in three diets fed to groups of juvenile catfish for 10 weeks. Weight gain, feed conversion, survival, alternative complement activity and lysozyme activity were similar among diets. Haematocrit was lower in fish fed diets with SPLM, but within the normal range. Total phenols and antioxidant capacity in the whole body were similar among treatments. SPLM was an effective energy source for catfish up to the maximum level tested (230 g kg(-1) diet). SPLM did not enhance total phenols in catfish, but there were no apparent antinutritional effects of the meal on catfish growth, health or survival. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Contamination by polybrominated diphenyl ethers and persistent organochlorines in catfish and feed from Mekong River Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Nguyen Hung; Minh, Tu Binh; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Iwata, Hisato; Viet, Pham Hung; Tu, Nguyen Phuc Cam; Tuyen, But Cach; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2006-10-01

    Commercial feeds for aquaculture and catfish samples were collected from the Mekong River Delta, Vietnam, for determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and selected persistent organochlorines, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane-related compounds (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The most abundant contaminants were DDTs, with concentrations ranging from 10 to 700 ng/g lipid weight, followed by PCBs (1.0-80 ng/g), CHLs (pollutants to the surrounding areas. Contamination pattern in aquaculture feeds revealed elevated levels of PCBs and PBDEs in samples from foreign companies, perhaps implying their higher residues in some imported ingredients. Congener profiles of PBDEs and PCBs demonstrated similarity between the farmed catfish and the aquaculture feeds, suggesting these feeds as a major source of pollution to the farmed catfish. On the other hand, the PBDE and PCB profiles in the dumpsite catfish are clearly different from those of the farmed catfish, revealing their exposure to different sources. Risk assessment showed significantly higher intake of the contaminants by people who eat catfish cultured near the dumping areas. Further investigation regarding fate and occurrence of the contaminants in dumping sites is necessary.

  14. reproductive biology and condition factor of the catfish bagrus docmak

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ABSTRACT: Some aspects of reproductive biology, length-weight relationship and condition factor ... biology of B. docmak in some African water bodies ..... nda, R.S. (1979). Analyses of catch rate data from. 1968 to 197 dings in the Kenya waters of L sh Biol. 14:385–388. 6. Billard, R. and Breton, B. (1978). Rhythm ndon. 8.

  15. reproductive biology and condition factor of the catfish bagrus docmak

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    the Nile system, Chad, Niger, Senegal, the Volta and most of the East African rift lakes (Risch, 1986;. Golubtsov et ... management and conservation of B. docmak in Lake. Chamo. This paper, therefore, sets to document some aspects ..... 3b) and F and OW (Fig. 3c) were all significant. The best-fit ips, respectively, were: Fi. L.

  16. KANDUNGAN ASAM LEMAK DAN KARAKTERISTIK FISIKO-KIMIA MINYAK IKAN LELE DAN MINYAK IKAN LELE TERFERMENTASI (FATTY ACID CONTENTS AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CATFISH OIL AND FERMENTED CATFISH OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskari Ngadiarti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Catfish oil and fermented catfish oil have not been developed and commercially produced as catfish derived products. Various processing of catfish oil will change both the composition and physico-chemical characteristics. The objective of this study was to identify the composition of fatty acids and physico-chemical characteristics of both catfish oil (MIL and fermented catfish oil (MILT. Results showed that fatty acid composition of catfish oil was MUFA (36.12%> PUFA> (32.43%> SFA (31.45%, while the composition of fermented catfish oil was MUFA (42.96%> SFA (42.32%> PUFA (15.39%. The fermentation process with lactic acid bacteria increased the content of stearic acid but decreased the content of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Physical and chemical characteristics of MIL and MILT were almost similar, they indicated oxidation process, based on melting point, viscosity, and thiobarbituric acid values. Therefore, in the production of catfish oil or fermented cat fish oil, it is necessary to add spices and/or nutrient as antioxidants sources. Keywords: catfish oil, PUFA, MUFA, SFA and CLA  ABSTRAK Minyak ikan lele (MIL dan minyak ikan lele terfermentasi (MILT sebagai produk turunan dari ikan lele masih belum banyak dikembangkan dan diproduksi secara komersial. Berbagai proses pengolahan minyak dapat mengubah komposisi dan karakteristik fisiko-kimia minyak ikan lele. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi komposisi asam lemak dan karakteristik fisiko-kimia dari minyak ikan lele (MIL dan minyak ikan lele terfermentasi (MILT. Komposisi asam lemak pada MIL secara berurutan adalah MUFA (36,12% > PUFA (32,43% > SFA (31,45%, sedangkan setelah difermentasi menjadi MILT terjadi perubahan yaitu MUFA (42,96% > SFA (42,32% > PUFA (15,39%. Jenis asam lemak jenuh yang mengalami peningkatan  pada MILT adalah asam lemak stearat, sedangkan asam lemak tidak jenuh ganda yang mengalami penurunan adalah asam linoleat dan linolenat yang

  17. Science and Traditional African Value System: Essay on Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay operates the methodology of double deconstruction. It uses science to evaluate traditional African value system and re-evaluates science in the light of traditional African value system. The exercise of double demolition should end in the reintegration of science and the reconstruction of salient traditional values, ...

  18. Quadriacanthus species (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) from catfishes (Teleostei: Siluriformes) in eastern Africa: new species, new records and first insights into interspecific genetic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francová, Kateřina; Seifertová, Mária; Blažek, Radim; Gelnar, Milan; Mahmoud, Zuheir N; Řehulková, Eva

    2017-08-01

    African catfishes of the families Bagridae and Clariidae are known to be parasitized with monogeneans of Quadriacanthus Paperna, 1961 (Dactylogyridae). The genus remains taxonomically challenging due to its speciose nature and relatively wide host range representing two fish orders, i.e. Siluriformes and Osteoglossiformes, in Africa and Asia. Here, we investigated diversity of Quadriacanthus spp. parasitizing Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), Heterobranchus bidorsalis Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, and Bagrus docmak (Forsskål) collected in the Lake Turkana (Kenya) and Nile River Basin (Sudan). The interspecific relationships among Quadriacanthus spp. parasitizing catfishes inferred from ribosomal DNA sequences were investigated for the first time. A combined morphological and molecular approach was used for description of the new species and for a critical review of the previously described Quadriacanthus spp., by means of phase contrast microscopic examination of sclerotized structures, and assessing the genetic divergence among the species found using rDNA sequences. Seven species (including four new) of Quadriacanthus were identified. These were as follows: Quadriacanthus aegypticus El-Naggar & Serag, 1986, Quadriacanthus clariadis Paperna, 1961, Quadriacanthus fornicatus n. sp., Quadriacanthus pravus n. sp., and Quadriacanthus zuheiri n. sp. from Clarias gariepinus (Clariidae); Quadriacanthus mandibulatus n. sp. from Heterobranchus bidorsalis (Clariidae); and Quadriacanthus bagrae Paperna, 1979 from Bagrus docmak (Bagridae). For both 18S-ITS1 and 28S rDNA regions, Q. clariadis from a clariid fish was found to be most closely related to Q. bagrae from a bagrid host. Quadriacanthus mandibulatus n. sp. was observed to be the most distant species from the others. The separation of Q. mandibulatus n. sp. from the other species corresponds with the different morphology of its copulatory tube. The copulatory tube is terminally enlarged in Q. mandibulatus n. sp., while the tube

  19. A comparative overview of exercise and health related professions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The numerous employment opportunities being advertised internationally in exercise and health related professions are actively being pursued by many South African biokineticists. Therefore, the overlap in the scope of practice among the professions of athletic training, clinical exercise physiology and biokinetics needs to ...

  20. Perceived benefits of and barriers to exercise among black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived benefits of and barriers to exercise among black university students. ... Perceived benefits of and barriers to exercise among black university students. Karl Peltzer, Supa Pengpid. Abstract. No Abstract. African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance Vol. 12(1) 2006: 60-69 ...

  1. The effect of exercise and lifestyle interventions on heart rate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of exercise and lifestyle interventions on heart rate variability in students at risk of cardiovascular disease –A pilot study. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... Cardiovascular disease is a major public health concern and it can be modified by diet, exercise and health awareness. However ...

  2. African Journals Online: African Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 56 ... The African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation will take and publish empirical studies and theoretical propositions as well as ..... The Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa, produced in collaboration with the South African College of Music at University of Cape Town, will henceforth ...

  3. Signal transmission in the catfish retina. V. Sensitivity and circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, H M; Naka, K

    1987-12-01

    components in the bipolar cells and nonlinear components in the amacrine cells are encoded into spike trains in the ganglion cells. Thus, under our simple stimulus regimen, the ganglion cells transformed the results of the preganglionic signal processing into a spike train without much modification. 5. We propose a tentative diagram of the signal flow in the cone-driven catfish retinal neurons based on this and previous studies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  4. Rotator Cuff Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Prevention and Wellness Exercise and Fitness Injury Rehabilitation Rotator Cuff Exercises Rotator Cuff Exercises Share Print Rotator Cuff ... Best Rotator Cuff ExercisesNational Institutes of Health: MedlinePlus, ... and WellnessTags: Exercise Prescription, prevention, Shoulder Problems, ...

  5. Exercise and Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Spondylitis › Treatment Information › Exercise & Posture Print Page Exercise Exercise is an integral part of any spondylitis ... For First Responders For Chiropractors Research Article Archive Exercise Guidelines Having an exercise program that accomplishes your ...

  6. Novel transcripts of the estrogen receptor α gene in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Reynaldo; Xia, Zhenfang; Gale, William L.; Wu, Chunfa; Maule, Alec G.; Chang, Xiaotian

    2000-01-01

    Complementary DNA libraries from liver and ovary of an immature female channel catfish were screened with a homologous ERα cDNA probe. The hepatic library yielded two new channel catfish ER cDNAs that encode N-terminal ERα variants of different sizes. Relative to the catfish ERα (medium size; 581 residues) previously reported, these new cDNAs encode Long-ERα (36 residues longer) and Short-ERα (389 residues shorter). The 5′-end of Long-ERα cDNA is identical to that of Medium-ERα but has an additional 503-bp segment with an upstream, in-frame translation-start codon. Recombinant Long-ERα binds estrogen with high affinity (Kd = 3.4 nM), similar to that previously reported for Medium-ERα but lower than reported for catfish ERβ. Short-ERα cDNA encodes a protein that lacks most of the receptor protein and does not bind estrogen. Northern hybridization confirmed the existence of multiple hepatic ERα RNAs that include the size range of the ERα cDNAs obtained from the libraries as well as additional sizes. Using primers for RT-PCR that target locations internal to the protein-coding sequence, we also established the presence of several ERα cDNA variants with in-frame insertions in the ligand-binding and DNA-binding domains and in-frame or out-of-frame deletions in the ligand-binding domain. These internal variants showed patterns of expression that differed between the ovary and liver. Further, the ovarian library yielded a full-length, ERα antisense cDNA containing a poly(A) signal and tail. A limited survey of histological preparations from juvenile catfish by in situ hybridization using directionally synthesized cRNA probes also suggested the expression of ERα antisense RNA in a tissue-specific manner. In conclusion, channel catfish seemingly have three broad classes of ERα mRNA variants: those encoding N-terminal truncated variants, those encoding internal variants (including C-terminal truncated variants), and antisense mRNA. The sense variants may

  7. Crew Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafalik, Kerrie K.

    2017-01-01

    Johnson Space Center (JSC) provides research, engineering, development, integration, and testing of hardware and software technologies for exercise systems applications in support of human spaceflight. This includes sustaining the current suite of on-orbit exercise devices by reducing maintenance, addressing obsolescence, and increasing reliability through creative engineering solutions. Advanced exercise systems technology development efforts focus on the sustainment of crew's physical condition beyond Low Earth Orbit for extended mission durations with significantly reduced mass, volume, and power consumption when compared to the ISS.

  8. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/ ... something providing resistance. It can be done with weights (hand-held or training machines) or using isometric ...

  9. Prevention: Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... 15 repetitions at a slow and controlled pace... Resistance Training Resistance training is exercise done against something providing resistance. It can be done with weights (hand-held ...

  10. Prevention: Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back ... in very slightly. Hold a ball directly in front of you. Keep your abdominal muscles tight and ...

  11. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from your ribs ... heavier balls, you will experience more benefit from this exercise... Sagittal Core Strengthening You can stretch and ...

  12. Compulsive Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exercise Safety Are Steroids Worth the Risk? Binge Eating Disorder Sports Supplements Female Athlete Triad Body Image and Self-Esteem What's the Right Weight for My Height? Eating Disorders Strength Training Contact Us Print Resources Send to ...

  13. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... following suggested exercises increases your back pain after five repetitions, or causes acute pain, you should stop ... 10 seconds working towards 30 seconds. Repeat 1-5 times or to fatigue... Prone Bridge/Plank Prop ...

  14. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or causes acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that ... training is exercise done against something providing resistance. It can be done with weights (hand-held or ...

  15. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone ... for 10 seconds working towards 30 seconds. Repeat 1-5 times or to fatigue... Prone Bridge/Plank ...

  16. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility ... Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories ...

  17. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... slow full movements. Repeat 10-15 times, to fatigue... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both ... Return leg and extend other leg. Repeat to fatigue, about 10-15 repetitions at a slow and ...

  18. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain ...

  19. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Education Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle ... Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis ...

  20. Prevention: Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... Physical Therapy Postural Training Traction Watchful Waiting and Education Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections ... martial arts all provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as ...

  1. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... legs to touch the wall, keeping hips and knees bent. Use your hips to push your body ... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both knees bent. Draw abdominal wall in. Maintaining abdominal wall ...

  2. Compulsive Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... October 2013 More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Body Dysmorphic Disorder Your Child's Weight Kids and Exercise Encouraging a Healthy Body Image Eating ...

  3. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pain Other Scoliosis Back Pain and Emotional Distress Muscle Spasms Pinched Nerve Discitis Degenerative Conditions Bulge vs ... exercise focus on core strengthening, or building the muscles that provide support for your body. Pilates, yoga ...

  4. Prevention: Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... provide support for your body. Pilates, yoga and martial arts all provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple ... repetitions at a slow and controlled pace... Resistance Training Resistance training is exercise done against something providing ...

  5. Human health risk assessment for silver catfish Schilbe intermedius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/wsa.v40i4.5 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers ...

  6. Chemical treatments for reducing the yellow discoloration of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yilin; Liu, Shaoyang; Cline, David; Chen, Shengshun; Wang, Yifen; Bell, Leonard N

    2013-10-01

    The effect of chemical pretreatments on the color and carotenoid content of yellow discolored channel catfish fillets was studied. The color and carotenoid content of the fillets were analyzed by the L*a*b* color system and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Untreated fillets turned more yellow and darker after 12-d storage. Sodium bicarbonate had a beneficial effect on reducing the degree of yellowness, but the fillets still turned darker after storage. Sodium bisulfite gave the best results with fillets becoming less yellow and brighter after storage. Ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole, citric acid, and sodium metabisulfite were not successful at reducing the discoloration. The sum of carotenoid contents of untreated fillets decreased significantly (P 0.05) different from the fresh or untreated fillets. The appearance of catfish fillets may be improved during storage by pretreating with sodium bisulfite. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Production of Generation-2 Mekong giant catfish (Pangasinodon gigas cultured with Spirulina sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriangsak Meng-umphan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the treatment of Spirulina-supplemented pellet feed to 5-year-old F1 groups of Mekong giant catfish (Pangasinodon gigas from the brood stock and intended for use as breeders. The effects on their growth and maturation when cultured in an earthen pond were observed. Results revealed that, compared to control, there was more gain in weight while the feed conversion ratio was lower. The number of red blood cells was also higher while that of white blood cells was lower, compared to control. Out of 18 treated fish (9 males and 9 females, 6 males and 2 females gave sperms and eggs while none from control group did. It was concluded that Spirulina supplemented in pellet feed can improve growth and maturation performance to the brood stock of Mekong giant catfish.

  8. The functional properties and application of gelatin derived from the skin of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Rui; Zhang, Junjie; Liu, Liping; Cui, Wenzhe; Regenstein, Joe M

    2018-01-15

    The objective of this work was to extract gelatin from skin of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and to study its functional properties and application in ice-cream and beer. SDS-PAGE patterns showed that channel catfish gelatin (CCG) had more high molecular weight components (β and γ chains) than had calf bone gelatin (CBG). The viscosity of CCG was 42mPa.s at 10°C, which was three times more than that of CBG. Compared to CBG, CCG presented higher emulsion capacity and stability, as well as higher foaming stability. CCG conferred the ice-cream samples and beer with better mouth feel and clarification effect, respectively. The results indicated that CCG had great potential to be utilized in the food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Studies on the nutrition of brackish water catfish - Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus . 1. Preliminary investigations on the probable use of vegetable oil in catfish feeds

    OpenAIRE

    Igbinosun, J.E.; Talabi, S.O.

    1983-01-01

    Four groups of brackishwater catfish were fed four diets: N.F. (NIOMR formula 1 feed), A. B. and C. for seven weeks. Feeds N.F., A., B and C. contained 1.21% fish oil + 5.59% vegetable oil; 1.21% fish oil + 7.39% vegetable oil; 1.21% fish oil + 9.09% vegetable oil; 1.21% fish oil + 10.89% vegetable oil respectively. Results of feeding trial showed that growth was best in the group fed diets containing 10.89% vegetable oil and least in those containing 9.09% vegetable oil

  10. Capture antibody targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (CAT-FISH): dual labeling allows for increased specificity in complex samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroot, Joyce M; Leach, Kelly M; Stroot, Peter G; Lim, Daniel V

    2012-02-01

    Pathogen detection using biosensors is commonly limited due to the need for sensitivity and specificity in detecting targets within mixed populations. These issues were addressed through development of a dual labeling method that allows for both liquid-phase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and capture antibody targeted detection (CAT-FISH). CAT-FISH was developed using Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus as representative bacteria, and processing techniques were evaluated with regard to FISH intensities and antibody recognition. The alternative fixative solution, methacarn, proved to be superior to standard solid-phase paraformaldehyde fixation procedures, allowing both FISH labeling and antibody recognition. CAT-FISH treated cells were successfully labeled with FISH probes, captured by immunomagnetic separation using fluorescent cytometric array beads, and detected using a cytometric array biosensor. CAT-FISH treated cells were detectable with LODs comparable to the standard antibody-based technique, (~10(3)cells/ml in PBS), and the technique was also successfully applied to two complex matrices. Although immunomagnetic capture and detection using cytometric arrays were demonstrated, CAT-FISH is readily applicable to any antibody-based fluorescence detection platform, and further optimization for sensitivity is possible via inclusion of fluorescently tagged antibodies. Since the confidence level needed for positive identification of a detected target is often paramount, CAT-FISH was developed to allow two separate levels of specificity, namely nucleic acid and protein signatures. With proper selection of FISH probes and capture antibodies, CAT-FISH may be used to provide rapid detection of target pathogens from within complex matrices with high levels of confidence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Longitudinal patterns in flathead catfish relative abundance and length at age within a large river: Effects of an urban gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukert, C.P.; Makinster, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the spatial variation of flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris) relative abundance and growth in the 274 km long Kansas River to determine if population dynamics of catfish are related to urbanization. Electrofishing was conducted at 462 random sites throughout the river in summer, 2005-2006 to collect fish. Relative abundance of age 1 fish (???200mm), subadult (>200-400mm) and adult fish (>400 mm) ranged from 0.34 to 14.67 fish h-1, mean length at age 1 was 165 (range: 128-195) mm total length (TL) and mean length at age 3 was 376 mm TL (range: 293-419mm TL). The proportion of land use within 200 m of the river edge was between 0 and 0.54 urban. River reaches with high relative abundance of age 1 flathead catfish had high relative abundance of subadult and adult catfish. River reaches with fast flathead catfish growth to age 1 had fast growth to age 3. High urban land use and riprap in the riparian area were evident in river reaches near the heavily populated Kansas City and Topeka, Kansas, USA. Reaches with increased number of log jams and islands had decreased riparian agriculture. Areas of low urbanization had faster flathead catfish growth (r = 0.67, p = 0.005). Relative abundance of flathead catfish was higher in more agricultural areas (r = -0.57, p = 0.02). Changes in land use in riverine environments may alter population dynamics of a fish species within a river. Spatial differences in population dynamics need to be considered when evaluating riverine fish populations. Published in 2008 by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Expression analysis of the acute phase response in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) after infection with a Gram-negative bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peatman, Eric; Baoprasertkul, Puttharat; Terhune, Jeffery; Xu, Peng; Nandi, Samiran; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Li, Ping; Wang, Shaolin; Somridhivej, Benjaporn; Dunham, Rex; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2007-01-01

    The acute phase response (APR) is a set of metabolic and physiological reactions occurring in the host in response to tissue infection or injury and is a crucial component of the larger innate immune response. The APR is best characterized by dramatic changes in the concentration of a group of plasma proteins known as acute phase proteins (APPs) which are synthesized in the liver and function in a wide range of immunity-related activities. Utilizing a new high-density in situ oligonucleotide microarray, we have evaluated the APR in channel catfish liver following infection with Edwardsiella ictaluri, a bacterial pathogen that causes enteric septicemia of catfish. Our catfish microarray design (28K) builds upon a previous 19K channel catfish array by adding recently sequenced immune transcripts from channel catfish along with 7159 unique sequences from closely related blue catfish. The analysis of microarray results using a traditional 2-fold change in gene expression cutoff and a 10% false-discovery rate revealed a well-developed APR in catfish, with particularly high upregulation (>50-fold) of genes involved in iron homeostasis (i.e. intelectin, hemopexin, haptoglobin, ferritin, and transferrin). Other classical APP genes upregulated greater than 2-fold included coagulation factors, proteinase inhibitors, transport proteins, and complement components. Upregulation of the majority of the complement cascade was observed including the membrane attack complex components and complement inhibitors. A number of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) and chemokines were also differentially expressed in the liver following infection. Independent testing of a selection of differentially expressed genes with real-time RT-PCR confirmed microarray results.

  13. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific to pangasius catfish, basa, and tra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, K G; Chen, Y-T; Hsieh, Y-H P

    2009-04-01

    Four IgG (subclass IgG1) class monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) strongly reactive to Asian farm-raised Pangasius catfish, tra (Pangasius hypophthalmus) and basa (Pangasius bocourti), have been developed. These MAbs were raised by immunizing an animal with thermal-stable crude sarcoplasmic protein extract of cooked tra. The MAbs were selected by screening hybridoma clones against more than 70 common fish and meat protein extracts. Two MAbs, T7E10 and T1G11, were found to be specific to the Asian Pangasius catfish, tra, and basa, with no cross-reactions with any of the common fish and meat species or with the food additive proteins (bovine serum albumin, soy proteins, milk proteins, egg proteins, and gelatin) tested. MAb T7E10 recognized 2 antigenic proteins (molecular weight approximately 36 and 75 kDa) in raw and cooked tra and basa extracts, while T1G11 bound to several proteins (molecular weight between 13 and 18 kDa) in tra and basa extracts. Two other MAbs, F7B8 and F1G11, recognized a common protein (36 KDa) and cross-reacted with all the fish extracts tested and with several mammalian species. These MAbs can be employed individually or in combination in various formats of immunoassays for rapid identification of Pangasius catfish, either raw or cooked. They can also be used to study the biological, biochemical, and physiological aspects of thermal-stable antigenic proteins. This is the first study identifying these thermal-stable antigenic proteins present in Pangasius catfish as species-specific biomarkers.

  14. Influence of throat configuration and fish density on escapement of channel catfish from hoop nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porath, Mark T.; Pape, Larry D.; Richters, Lindsey K.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, several state agencies have adopted the use of baited, tandemset hoop nets to assess lentic channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus populations. Some level of escapement from the net is expected because an opening exists in each throat of the net, although factors influencing rates of escapement from hoop nets have not been quantified. We conducted experiments to quantify rates of escapement and to determine the influence of throat configuration and fish density within the net on escapement rates. An initial experiment to determine the rate of escapement from each net compartment utilized individually tagged channel catfish placed within the entrance (between the two throats) and cod (within the second throat) compartments of a single hoop net for overnight sets. From this experiment, the mean rate (±SE) of channel catfish escaping was 4.2% (±1.5) from the cod (cod throat was additionally restricted from the traditionally manufactured product), and 74% (±4.2) from the entrance compartments. In a subsequent experiment, channel catfish were placed only in the cod compartment with different throat configurations (restricted or unrestricted) and at two densities (low [6 fish per net] and high [60 fish per net]) for overnight sets to determine the influence of fish density and throat configuration on escapement rates. Escapement rates between throat configurations were doubled at low fish density (13.3 ± 5.4% restricted versus 26.7 ± 5.6% unrestricted) and tripled at high fish density (14.3 ± 4.9% restricted versus 51.9 ± 5.0% unrestricted). These results suggest that retention efficiency is high from cod compartments with restricted throat entrances. However, managers and researchers need to be aware that modification to the cod throats (restrictions) is needed for hoop nets ordered from manufacturers. Managers need to be consistent in their use and reporting of cod end throat configurations when using this gear.

  15. Reproductive potential of male catfish treated with gel extract of Aloe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproductive potential of male catfish treated with gel extract of Aloe vera plant was studied using twelve male fish weighing 500-560g.The fish were divided into 3 groups; A, B and C with four fish in each group. Group A was treated with 2% Aloe vera gel while group B was treated with 3% and Group C the control was ...

  16. Constraints to adoption of improved hatchery management practices among catfish farmers in Lagos State

    OpenAIRE

    Oghenetejiri DIGUN-AWETO; Ademuyiwa OLADELE

    2017-01-01

    Aquaculture has shown capacities to serve as means of livelihood, improve living standards, provide employment and generate foreign exchange in many countries. Recent investment in Nigerian aquaculture has been target towards catfish farming. However, small quantity and poor quality fish seeds are one of the problems limiting production. Consequently, Lagos State government introduced improved breeding and hatchery management practices as a package to fish hatchery operators with the aim of i...

  17. Responses of Antioxidant Enzymes in Catfish Exposed to Liquid Crystals from E-Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Yu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Liquid crystals (LCs are typically elongated organic molecules with a non-uniform distribution of electrical charges leading to a dipole. LCs are widely used in displays of computers and other electronic devices. The rapid obsolescence rate of electronics results in large amounts of liquid crystal displays (LCDs entering the environment. Data on health effects of LCs on living creatures are currently limited to some acute toxicity tests by a few major LC manufacturers. These tests concluded that the vast majority of LCs are not acutely toxic. Since the amount of LCs in electronic devices is very small, the health effects of LCs at low concentrations or doses become important. Catfish were used as the test animals in this study. Four major enzymes of the fish’s antioxidant defense system catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx, and glutathione-Stransferase (GST were chosen as biomarkers to examine effects of LCs, which were taken from obsolete laptop personal computers made in the early 1990s. The catfish were fed with food containing different contents of LCs for 40 days. Activities of the four chosen enzymes in fish livers were assayed. The results showed that there were significant inductions of CAT, SOD, and Se-GPx activities in response to the LC doses. The plots of the enzyme activities versus LC doses suggested an occurrence of oxidative stress when the dose reached about 20 μg LC/g fish·d. It was concluded that LCs can cause pollutant-induced stress to catfish at low doses. CAT, SOD and Se-GPx are effective biomarkers to give early warning on potential health effects of LCs on some aquatic lives including catfish.

  18. Burrowing by Sailfin Catfish (Pterygoplichthys sp.): A Potential Cause of Erosion in Disturbed Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    of the present state of world trade in ornamental fish . Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Devick, W. S. 1988...BACKGROUND: Suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae), commonly called “plecos,” have been exported from tropical America as aquarium fishes for over a...cultured in outdoor ponds (Grier 1980). Consequent releases by hobbyists and escapes from tropical fish farms resulted in introduced populations of

  19. Effect of bait and gear type on channel catfish catch and turtle bycatch in a reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartabiano, Evan C.; Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Hoop nets have become the preferred gear choice to sample channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus but the degree of bycatch can be high, especially due to the incidental capture of aquatic turtles. While exclusion and escapement devices have been developed and evaluated, few have examined bait choice as a method to reduce turtle bycatch. The use of Zote™ soap has shown considerable promise to reduce bycatch of aquatic turtles when used with trotlines but its effectiveness in hoop nets has not been evaluated. We sought to determine the effectiveness of hoop nets baited with cheese bait or Zote™ soap and trotlines baited with shad or Zote™ soap as a way to sample channel catfish and prevent capture of aquatic turtles. We used a repeated-measures experimental design and treatment combinations were randomly assigned using a Latin-square arrangement. Eight sampling locations were systematically selected and then sampled with either hoop nets or trotlines using Zote™ soap (both gears), waste cheese (hoop nets), or cut shad (trotlines). Catch rates did not statistically differ among the gear–bait-type combinations. Size bias was evident with trotlines consistently capturing larger sized channel catfish compared to hoop nets. Results from a Monte Carlo bootstrapping procedure estimated the number of samples needed to reach predetermined levels of sampling precision to be lowest for trotlines baited with soap. Moreover, trotlines baited with soap caught no aquatic turtles, while hoop nets captured many turtles and had high mortality rates. We suggest that Zote™ soap used in combination with multiple hook sizes on trotlines may be a viable alternative to sample channel catfish and reduce bycatch of aquatic turtles.

  20. Antipredator and alarm reaction responses of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen juveniles exposed to waterborne ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Weber

    Full Text Available Ammonia has relatively toxic effects on fish and other aquatic organisms. This study examined whether juvenile silver catfish exposed to alarm substances released by conspecifics and predators in water with different ammonia levels modify their behaviour in response to the perceived risk of predation. We used juvenile catfish that were naive to predators. The fish were raised from the larval stage in the laboratory and kept in 40-L aquaria at waterborne NH3 concentrations of 0, 0.05, 0.1, or 0.2 mg L-1 for 10 days. The alarm substances used were predator odour and skin extract from conspecifics. The juveniles were transferred to 2-L aquaria for the antipredator and alarm reaction behavioural tests, which were performed on days 1, 5 and 10 after initial exposure to ammonia. The test aquaria contained a shelter at one end of the tank. The trials consisted of a 10-min prestimulus and a 10-min poststimulus observation period. The results of the study suggest that naive juvenile catfish are able to identify predators and skin extract from conspecifics by odour. In addition, waterborne NH3 levels modify the antipredator response of this species.

  1. Quality of Antimicrobial Products Used in Striped Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) Aquaculture in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phu, Tran Minh; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial usage is common in Asian aquaculture. This study aimed to determine the quality of antimicrobial products used by Vietnamese striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) farmers. Twenty one antimicrobial products (11 products contained a single antimicrobial and 10 products contained a mixture of two different antimicrobials) commonly used by catfish farmers were obtained from so-called chemical shops located in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry was used to analyze concentration of sulfonamides, trimethoprim, amoxicillin, cefalexin and ciprofloxacin whereas concentrations of florfenicol and doxycycline were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV detection. Results revealed that only 4/11 products with a single antimicrobial and 2/10 products with a mixture of antimicrobials contained active substances within ±10% of the concentration declared on the product label. Two products with antimicrobial mixtures did not contain any of the declared antimicrobials. Comparing two batches, analysis of 11 products revealed that only one product contained a concentration of active compound that varied with less than 10% in both batches. Several product labels provided inadequate information on how to calculate therapeutic dosage and further stated withdrawal time despite lack of pharmacokinetic data on the antimicrobials in catfish. There is an urgent need to strengthen approval procedures and in particular regularly to monitor the quality of antimicrobials used in Vietnamese aquaculture.

  2. Quality of Antimicrobial Products Used in Striped Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) Aquaculture in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phu, Tran Minh; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial usage is common in Asian aquaculture. This study aimed to determine the quality of antimicrobial products used by Vietnamese striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) farmers. Twenty one antimicrobial products (11 products contained a single antimicrobial and 10 products contained a mixture of two different antimicrobials) commonly used by catfish farmers were obtained from so-called chemical shops located in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry was used to analyze concentration of sulfonamides, trimethoprim, amoxicillin, cefalexin and ciprofloxacin whereas concentrations of florfenicol and doxycycline were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV detection. Results revealed that only 4/11 products with a single antimicrobial and 2/10 products with a mixture of antimicrobials contained active substances within ±10% of the concentration declared on the product label. Two products with antimicrobial mixtures did not contain any of the declared antimicrobials. Comparing two batches, analysis of 11 products revealed that only one product contained a concentration of active compound that varied with less than 10% in both batches. Several product labels provided inadequate information on how to calculate therapeutic dosage and further stated withdrawal time despite lack of pharmacokinetic data on the antimicrobials in catfish. There is an urgent need to strengthen approval procedures and in particular regularly to monitor the quality of antimicrobials used in Vietnamese aquaculture. PMID:25897517

  3. Survival strategies of sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus in desiccating pans in the northern Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C.W. Van der Waal

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Observations in drying out pans showed that small (26-37 cm sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus can hide at the bottom of small pools filled with sticky mud whereas larger fish stay afloat at the surface in larger pools with sloppy mud, where they easily become prey or succumb to heat stress. The inability of larger fish to keep down in the sloppy mud of up to 40 cm depth is the result of their large bulk and high density of the mud. This may indicate a survival advantage for smaller fish in the final dry-out phase of pools and is supported by the presence of only small fish remains in the last drying up pools of dry pans. Another adaptation of smaller fish includes the temporary congregation outside the water enabling concealment under dense vegetation as a means to escape adverse environmental conditions, including high water temperatures and avian predation. The advantage small fish have over larger catfish under these extreme conditions may explain why catfish are known to show a wide variation in growth rate under natural and aquaculture conditions.

  4. Determination of amoxicillin in catfish and salmon tissues by liquid chromatography with precolumn formaldehyde derivatization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, C.Y.W.; Wenhong Luo; Hansen, E.B. Jr.; Freeman, J.P.; Thompson, H.C. Jr. [Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR (United States)

    1996-03-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method with fluorescence detection was developed for analysis of amoxicillin in catfish and salmon tissued. The tissue was extracted with phosphate buffer (pH 4.5), followed by trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation of proteins and solid-phase (C{sub 18}) extraction. Trace amounts of nonpolar interfering substances present after solid-phase extraction were removed by ether liquid-liquid extraction. The extract was reacted with formaldehyde and TCA at 100{degrees}C for 30 min. A fluorescent derivative was extracted with ether, concentrated, and analyzed by reversed-phase LC with fluorescence detection. Average recoveries of amoxicillin spiked at 2.5-20 ppb were > 80% for catfish and >75% for salmon muscle tissue, with coefficients of variation of <6%. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) for catfish tissue were 0.5 and 1.2 ppb, respectively. LOD and LOQ for salmon muscle tissue were 0.8 and 2.0 ppb, respectively. 23 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Acute toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, M.L.; Stiebel, C.L.; Grizzle, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nitrofurazone (5-nitro-2-furaldehyde semicarbazone) is a nitrofuran, a group of organic compounds which have inhibitory activity against many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and against some protozoan parasites. Although not approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for use with food fish, nitrofurazone has been found effective in fish against external and internal infections by various species of Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and myxobacteria and can be administered either as a food additive or as a bath treatment. Attempts to control the microsporidian parasite Pleistophora ovariae in golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas, with nitrofurazone met with equivocal results. The following experiment was performed to determine acute toxicity, including lesions, of nitrofurazone to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, carassius auratus, fingerlings. Toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish was determined with low dissolved oxygen concentrations (2 mg/L) to simulate conditions frequently encountered in channel catfish culture. Information abut toxic levels of drugs and the lesions occurring in exposed fish is important to determine the safety of treatment levels and the effects of toxic concentrations.

  6. Copper nanoparticles differentially target testis of the catfish, Clarias batrachus: in vivo and in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Murugananthkumar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Present study examined the impact of copper (Cu as nanoparticle (Cu-NPs and soluble form (CuSO4 in adult male catfish Clarias batrachus. Following treatment, upregulation of transcripts of several testis-related genes and increased androgen levels were evident. Though profound promotional effect was seen at gene and androgen levels, structural analysis revealed completely different scenario. Histological observations of testis showed disruption of basal lamina, distinct spermatogonium and enlarged spermatocytes in the treated groups. Quite alarmingly, transmission electron microscopic analysis showed damage of testicular lumen with irregular basal lamina and distinctive spermatocytes. In addition, Sertoli cells and erythrocytes exhibited damage after Cu treatments. Cytotoxic effects of Cu in catfish primary testis and TM3 Leydig cells showed cytotoxicity which is correlated well with morphological and flow cytometric analysis. Taken together, the results demonstrated that low dose of Cu/Cu-NPs can be detrimental to catfish testicular recrudescence vis-à-vis reproduction and the toxic effect manifest drastically in in vitro cultures.

  7. Nocturnal claroteine catfishes reveal dual colonisation but a single radiation in Lake Tanganyika.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peart, Claire R; Bills, Roger; Wilkinson, Mark; Day, Julia J

    2014-04-01

    Lake Tanganyika (LT) is a biodiversity hotspot supporting many endemic radiations that provide comparative systems in which to investigate if there are common factors leading to the build-up of its considerable diversity. Despite LT containing the highest diversity of lacustrine catfishes on Earth, the evolutionary relationships of nocturnal catfishes within the sub-family Claroteinae have not been investigated and it is unknown if its constituent genera have diversified via single or independent colonisation events. We report the first molecular phylogeny of the LT claroteine catfishes based on a multigene dataset (three nuclear markers, two mitochondrial totalling 4227 bp), including 85 samples from LT and outside of the lake basin. These data support LT claroteine monophyly, with the exclusion of the LT endemic Chrysichthys brachynema that independently colonised the lake but has not radiated. Multiple sampling localities from LT and the use of Bayesian species delimitation methods reveal additional locally restricted diversity within the LT Claroteinae clade. Fossil calibrated molecular divergence dates suggest that diversification occurred within full lake conditions as demonstrated in other LT lineages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Quality of Antimicrobial Products Used in Striped Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus Aquaculture in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Minh Phu

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial usage is common in Asian aquaculture. This study aimed to determine the quality of antimicrobial products used by Vietnamese striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus farmers. Twenty one antimicrobial products (11 products contained a single antimicrobial and 10 products contained a mixture of two different antimicrobials commonly used by catfish farmers were obtained from so-called chemical shops located in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry was used to analyze concentration of sulfonamides, trimethoprim, amoxicillin, cefalexin and ciprofloxacin whereas concentrations of florfenicol and doxycycline were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV detection. Results revealed that only 4/11 products with a single antimicrobial and 2/10 products with a mixture of antimicrobials contained active substances within ±10% of the concentration declared on the product label. Two products with antimicrobial mixtures did not contain any of the declared antimicrobials. Comparing two batches, analysis of 11 products revealed that only one product contained a concentration of active compound that varied with less than 10% in both batches. Several product labels provided inadequate information on how to calculate therapeutic dosage and further stated withdrawal time despite lack of pharmacokinetic data on the antimicrobials in catfish. There is an urgent need to strengthen approval procedures and in particular regularly to monitor the quality of antimicrobials used in Vietnamese aquaculture.

  9. Antibiotic Application and Emergence of Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) in Global Catfish Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Li-Oon; Effarizah, M E; Goni, Abatcha Mustapha; Rusul, Gulam

    2016-06-01

    Catfish is one of the most cultivated species worldwide. Antibiotics are usually used in catfish farming as therapeutic and prophylactic agents. In the USA, only oxytetracycline, a combination of sulfadimethoxine and ormetoprim, and florfenicol are approved by the Food Drug Administration for specific fish species (e.g., catfish and salmonids) and their specific diseases. Misuse of antibiotics as prophylactic agents in disease prevention, however, is common and contributes in the development of antibiotic resistance. Various studies had reported on antibiotic residues and/or resistance in farmed species, feral fish, water column, sediments, and, in a lesser content, among farm workers. Ninety percent of the world aquaculture production is carried out in developing countries, which lack regulations and enforcement on the use of antibiotics. Hence, efforts are needed to promote the development and enforcement of such a regulatory structure. Alternatives to antibiotics such as antibacterial vaccines, bacteriophages and their lysins, and probiotics have been applied to curtail the increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria due to the imprudent application of antibiotics in aquaculture.

  10. Biochemical and molecular characterization of tetracycline-resistant Aeromonas veronii isolates from catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Mohamed; Sung, Kidon; Khan, Saeed A; Khan, Ashraf A; Steele, Roger

    2006-10-01

    Eighty-one tetracycline-resistant Aeromonas sp. strains were isolated from farm-raised catfish. Morphological and biochemical characteristics indicated that 23 of the 81 aeromonads were Aeromonas hydrophila, 7 isolates were Aeromonas trota, 6 isolates were Aeromonas caviae, 42 isolates were Aeromonas veronii, and 3 isolates were Aeromonas jandaei. However, the AluI and MboI restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns of the PCR-amplified 1.4-kb 16S rRNA gene from all 81 tetracycline-resistant aeromonads from catfish were identical to the RFLP banding patterns of A. veronii ATCC 35626, indicating that all 81 isolates were strains of A. veronii. A multiplex PCR assay successfully amplified the 5 tetracycline-resistant genes (tetA to E) from the genomic DNA of all 81 isolates. The assay determined that tetE was the dominant gene occurring in 73/81 (90.0%) of the aeromonads. Plasmids (2.0 to 20 kb) were isolated from 33 of the 81 isolates. Dendrogram analysis of the SpeI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis identified 15 distinct macrorestriction patterns among the isolates. Our results indicate the need for use of 16S rRNA in the identification of Aeromonas spp. and the prevalence of catfish as a reservoir of tet genes.

  11. Effects of variable periods of food deprivation on the development of enteric septicemia in channel catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, David J; Greenway, Terry; Li, Menghe H; Camus, Alvin C; Robinson, Edwin H

    2008-03-01

    Enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by the bacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri, is the most significant bacterial disease affecting channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Withholding feed during outbreaks of ESC is a widely accepted industry practice used to control losses from the disease. Scientific evidence concerning the validity of the practice is contradictory. Two studies were conducted to further evaluate the survival of channel catfish fingerlings following variable periods of feed deprivation before and after exposure to E. ictaluri in controlled aquarium experiments. In the first study, feed was withheld for varying time periods before bacterial challenge. After bacterial challenge, feed was either withheld or fish were fed daily. The second study utilized fish fed daily or fish deprived of feed 7 d before bacterial challenge. Daily feeding was resumed 4, 48, and 96 h after fish were exposed to E. ictaluri. In both experiments, the prechallenge feed treatments did not affect mortality. In contrast, withholding feed after bacterial challenge reduced mortalities by 52% in experiment 1 and by 45% in experiment 2. The highest mortality was observed when fish were fed immediately after immersion exposure and the lowest when fish were completely denied feed or fed daily starting 96 h after challenge. This reduction in mortality occurred when the concentration of E. ictaluri in aquarium water was negligible. These data suggest that when E. ictaluri is present in the water, feeding fish increases mortality by enhancing oral exposure to the pathogen.

  12. The Pathological Effects of Melamine and Cyanuric Acid in the Diet of Walking Catfish (Clarius batrachus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirarat, N; Katagiri, T; Chansue, N; Ponpornpisit, A; Endo, M; Maita, M

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of melamine and its analogue in man and animals has been reported widely. The aim of the present study was to examine the pathological effects of feeding melamine and cyanuric acid, separately or in combination, to walking catfish (Clarius batrachus). The catfish developed darkening of the skin as early as 3 days post feeding. Melamine-related crystals were distributed multifocally throughout the liver, kidney, heart, spleen and corpuscle of Stannius of fish fed melamine and cyanuric acid in combination. Oil red O staining and electron microscopy revealed that the melamine-related crystals had structure resembling that of plastic polymer crystals. Elevations in the serum concentrations of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, creatinine and uric acid were related to the crystal-associated granulomatous inflammation in the liver and kidney of affected fish. None of the catfish died during the 2-week experiment. Melamine and cyanuric acid are therefore systemically toxic to fish in addition to causing renal crystal formation and renal damage as seen in man and animals. The finding of extrarenal crystals implies that the metabolism and biotransformation of these toxic compounds should be further investigated in aquatic animals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparing the efficacy of four immersion flush and static hydorgen peroxide and copper sulfate treatments on channel catfish eggs infected with water molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water mold infestations on channel catfish eggs lower the hatch rate (egg survival) and ultimately the number of catfish fry available for stocking in production ponds. This study compared the potential of two hydrogen peroxide (HP) and two copper sulfate pentahydrate (CSP) treatments to increase c...

  14. Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Messenger RNA Expression is Regulated by Food Intake in the Brain of the Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased growth is included as a selection criterion at the USDA Catfish Genetics Research Unit, Stoneville, MS, USA. Faster growth of selected channel catfish is typically attributed to their ability to consume more feed. While endocrine and neural factors and mechanisms that regulate feed intak...

  15. South African Journal of Sports Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Journal of Sports Medicineis an international, refereed journal published for professionals with a primary interest in sports medicine and exercise science practice. The journal publishes original research and reviews covering diagnostics, therapeutics and rehabilitation in healthy and physically challenged ...

  16. Childhood asthma | Levin | South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of South African children, affecting growth and development and quality of life. Features supporting the diagnosis are a family or personal history of atopy, night cough, exercise-induced cough and/or wheeze and seasonal variation in symptoms. Asthma is on the increase in both ...

  17. Postexercise insulin action in African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Rebecca E; Freedson, Patty S; Braun, Barry

    2006-11-01

    African Americans are more insulin resistant than Caucasians. A single bout of moderate-intensity exercise reduces insulin resistance in sedentary Caucasian individuals. The impact of a single bout of exercise on insulin resistance has never been studied in African Americans. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the impact of a single bout of exercise on insulin resistance in African-American women. Insulin resistance was assessed in 10 sedentary, over-weight or obese African-American women during a sedentary and exercise condition over a two-day period. During the sedentary condition, participants fasted overnight and sat quietly in the laboratory for 75 minutes. During the exercise condition, participants completed 75 minutes of brisk walking on a treadmill. Ninety minutes following each condition, participants completed an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Three-and-a-half hours later, subjects consumed a standardized meal [meal tolerance test (MTT)]. The insulin response to the OGTT was 18% lower (p=0.046), and insulin sensitivity was 18% higher (p=0.042) in the exercise condition compared to the sedentary condition. There were no differences between conditions following the MTT. These results indicate that overweight/obese, sedentary, insulin resistant African-American women had a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity from 75 minutes of brisk walking.

  18. Immunizations and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Immunizations Immunizations and African Americans African American adults are less ... 19 to 35 months had comparable rates of immunization. African American women are as likely to have ...

  19. Generation of genome-scale gene-associated SNPs in catfish for the construction of a high-density SNP array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaltenboeck Ludmilla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have become the marker of choice for genome-wide association studies. In order to provide the best genome coverage for the analysis of performance and production traits, a large number of relatively evenly distributed SNPs are needed. Gene-associated SNPs may fulfill these requirements of large numbers and genome wide distribution. In addition, gene-associated SNPs could themselves be causative SNPs for traits. The objective of this project was to identify large numbers of gene-associated SNPs using high-throughput next generation sequencing. Results Transcriptome sequencing was conducted for channel catfish and blue catfish using Illumina next generation sequencing technology. Approximately 220 million reads (15.6 Gb for channel catfish and 280 million reads (19.6 Gb for blue catfish were obtained by sequencing gene transcripts derived from various tissues of multiple individuals from a diverse genetic background. A total of over 35 billion base pairs of expressed short read sequences were generated. Over two million putative SNPs were identified from channel catfish and almost 2.5 million putative SNPs were identified from blue catfish. Of these putative SNPs, a set of filtered SNPs were identified including 342,104 intra-specific SNPs for channel catfish, 366,269 intra-specific SNPs for blue catfish, and 420,727 inter-specific SNPs between channel catfish and blue catfish. These filtered SNPs are distributed within 16,562 unique genes in channel catfish and 17,423 unique genes in blue catfish. Conclusions For aquaculture species, transcriptome analysis of pooled RNA samples from multiple individuals using Illumina sequencing technology is both technically efficient and cost-effective for generating expressed sequences. Such an approach is most effective when coupled to existing EST resources generated using traditional sequencing approaches because the reference ESTs facilitate

  20. RESULTS OF REARING THE MULTIPLE AGE GROUPS OF CHANNEL CATFISH (ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS RAFINESQUE WITH THE USE OF PROBIOTIC FEED SUPPLEMENTS NUPRO® AND BIO-MOS®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vashchenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the effect of feed supplements NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® on the results of rearing the multiple age groups of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque. Methodology. The study of effect of feed supplements NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® on the results of rearing the multiple age groups of channel catfish have been carried out according to conventional methods. The experiments were conducted in the conditions of Pridneprovsky industrial fish farm of Dnepropetrovsk region. Channel catfish larvae were reared in standard trays. Water volume in trays was maintained at a level of 1.4 m3, stocking density of larvae was 20 thousand fish/tray. Rearing of young-of-the-year channel catfish was conducted in 1 m3 cages, stocking density of grown up larvae was 1000 fish/m3. Age 1+ channel catfish was reared in 1 m3 cages, stocking density was 150 fish/m3. Findings. The studies demonstrated that feeding of multiple age groups of channel catfish with balanced combined feeds with the addition of feed supplements NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® compared to the control group, which was fed with the combined feed but without supplements, increased their growth intensity. The use of these feed supplements in the combined feed composition contributes to an increase in fish growth rate and fish output and to a reduction in feed costs for fish rearing. The results of the conducted works allow determining the optimum doses of the addition of feed supplements NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® in the composition of combined feeds for feeding multiple age groups of channel catfish reared in the controlled conditions of aquaculture, which are as follow: NUPRO® when added to the feed of channel catfish larvae – 0.5%, young-of-the-year – 3.0%, age-1+ channel catfish – 5.0%; BIO-MOS® for channel catfish larvae – 0.5%, young-of-the-year and age-1+ channel catfish – 5.0%. Hydrochemical parameters in the experimental ponds were within normal limits, temperature regime was