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Sample records for exercise training enhances

  1. Use of Martial Art Exercises in Performance Enhancement Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Tim; Anderson, Warren

    2002-01-01

    Details some of the many martial arts training techniques and their potential applications for inclusion in performance enhancement programs, focusing on the benefits of martial training, the arts continuum, and martial arts training modes. The article concludes that the various martial arts techniques provide a stimulating and intuitively…

  2. Enhanced Training for Cyber Situational Awareness in Red versus Blue Team Exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbajal, Armida J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Human Factors and Statistics; Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Risk and Reliability Analysis; Silva, Austin Ray [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cognitive Modeling; Nauer, Kevin S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cyber Security Technologies; Anderson, Benjamin Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Assurance Technologies and Assessment; Forsythe, James Chris [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cognitive Modeling

    2012-09-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Enhanced Training for Cyber Situational Awareness in Red Versus Blue Team Exercises Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding concerning how to best structure training for cyber defenders. Two modes of training were considered. The baseline training condition (Tool-Based training) was based on current practices where classroom instruction focuses on the functions of a software tool with various exercises in which students apply those functions. In the second training condition (Narrative-Based training), classroom instruction addressed software functions, but in the context of adversary tactics and techniques. It was hypothesized that students receiving narrative-based training would gain a deeper conceptual understanding of the software tools and this would be reflected in better performance within a red versus blue team exercise.

  3. Randomized controlled trial using bosentan to enhance the impact of exercise training in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, T.H.A.; Duncker, D.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    In type 2 diabetes patients, endothelin (ET) receptor blockade may enhance blood flow responses to exercise training. The combination of exercise training and ET receptor blockade may represent a more potent stimulus than training alone to improve vascular function, physical fitness and glucose

  4. Enhanced erythrocyte antioxidant status following an 8-week aerobic exercise training program in heavy drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Manthou, Eirini; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Deli, Chariklia K; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Theodorakis, Yannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z

    2018-06-01

    Alcohol-induced oxidative stress is involved in the development and progression of various pathological conditions and diseases. On the other hand, exercise training has been shown to improve redox status, thus attenuating oxidative stress-associated disease processes. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of an exercise training program that has been previously reported to decrease alcohol consumption on blood redox status in heavy drinkers. In a non-randomized within-subject design, 11 sedentary, heavily drinking men (age: 30.3 ± 3.5 years; BMI: 28.4 ± 0.86 kg/m 2 ) participated first in a control condition for 4 weeks, and then in an intervention where they completed an 8-week supervised aerobic training program of moderate intensity (50-60% of the heart rate reserve). Blood samples were collected in the control condition (pre-, post-control) as well as before, during (week 4 of the training program), and after intervention (week 8 of the training program). Samples were analyzed for total antioxidant capacity (TAC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls (PC), uric acid (UA), bilirubin, reduced glutathione (GSH), and catalase activity. No significant change in indices of redox status in the pre- and post-control was observed. Catalase activity increased (p program enhanced erythrocyte antioxidant status in heavy drinkers, indicating that aerobic training may attenuate pathological processes caused by alcohol-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Keto-adaptation enhances exercise performance and body composition responses to training in endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwiney, Fionn T; Wardrop, Bruce; Hyde, Parker N; Lafountain, Richard A; Volek, Jeff S; Doyle, Lorna

    2018-04-01

    Low-carbohydrate diets have recently grown in popularity among endurance athletes, yet little is known about the long-term (>4wk) performance implications of consuming a low-carbohydrate high fat ketogenic diet (LCKD) in well-trained athletes. Twenty male endurance-trained athletes (age 33±11y, body mass 80±11kg; BMI 24.7±3.1kg/m 2 ) who habitually consumed a carbohydrate-based diet, self-selected into a high-carbohydrate (HC) group (n=11, %carbohydrate:protein:fat=65:14:20), or a LCKD group (n=9, 6:17:77). Both groups performed the same training intervention (endurance, strength and high intensity interval training (HIIT)). Prior to and following successful completion of 12-weeks of diet and training, participants had their body composition assessed, and completed a 100km time trial (TT), six second (SS) sprint, and a critical power test (CPT). During post-intervention testing the HC group consumed 30-60g/h carbohydrate, whereas the LCKD group consumed water, and electrolytes. The LCKD group experienced a significantly greater decrease in body mass (HC -0.8kg, LCKD -5.9kg; P=0.006, effect size (ES): 0.338) and percentage body fat percentage (HC -0.7%, LCKD -5.2%; P=0.008, ES: 0.346). Fasting serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) significantly increased from 0.1 at baseline to 0.5mmol/L in the LCKD group (P=0.011, ES: 0.403) in week 12. There was no significant change in performance of the 100km TT between groups (HC -1.13min·s, LCKD -4.07min·s, P=0.057, ES: 0.196). SS sprint peak power increased by 0.8 watts per kilogram bodyweight (w/kg) in the LCKD group, versus a -0.1w/kg reduction in the HC group (P=0.025, ES: 0.263). CPT peak power decreased by -0.7w/kg in the HC group, and increased by 1.4w/kg in the LCKD group (P=0.047, ES: 0.212). Fat oxidation in the LCKD group was significantly greater throughout the 100km TT. Compared to a HC comparison group, a 12-week period of keto-adaptation and exercise training, enhanced body composition, fat oxidation during

  6. Exercise training improves blood flow to contracting skeletal muscle of older men via enhanced cGMP signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piil, Peter Bergmann; Smith Jørgensen, Tue; Egelund, Jon

    2018-01-01

    Physical activity has the potential to offset age-related impairments in the regulation of blood flow and O2 delivery to the exercising muscles; however, the mechanisms underlying this effect of physical activity remain poorly understood. The present study examined the role of cGMP in training...... a period of aerobic high-intensity exercise training. To determine the role of cGMP signaling, pharmacological inhibition of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) was performed. Before training, inhibition of PDE5 increased (P... group; however, these effects of PDE5 inhibition were not detected after training. These findings suggest a role for enhanced cGMP signaling in the training-induced improvement of regulation of blood flow in contracting skeletal muscle of older men....

  7. Randomized controlled trial using bosentan to enhance the impact of exercise training in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, Tim H A; Duncker, Dirk J; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2014-11-01

    In type 2 diabetes patients, endothelin (ET) receptor blockade may enhance blood flow responses to exercise training. The combination of exercise training and ET receptor blockade may represent a more potent stimulus than training alone to improve vascular function, physical fitness and glucose homeostasis. We assessed the effect of an 8 week exercise training programme combined with either ET blockade or placebo on vasculature, fitness and glucose homeostasis in people with type 2 diabetes. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial, brachial endothelium-dependent and ‑independent dilatation (using flow-mediated dilatation and glyceryl trinitrate, respectively), glucose homeostasis (using Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR)) and physical fitness (maximal cycling test) were assessed in 18 men with type 2 diabetes (60 ± 6 years old). Subjects underwent an 8 week exercise training programme, with half of the subjects receiving ET receptor blockade (bosentan) and the other half a placebo, followed by reassessment of the tests above. Exercise training improved physical fitness to a similar extent in both groups, but we did not detect changes in vascular function in either group. This study suggests that there is no adaptation in brachial and femoral artery endothelial function after 8 weeks of training in type 2 diabetes patients. Endothelin receptor blockade combined with exercise training does not additionally alter conduit artery endothelial function or physical fitness in type 2 diabetes. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  8. Autogenic Feedback Training Exercise and pilot performance: enhanced functioning under search-and-rescue flying conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, P. S.; Kellar, M. A.; Folen, R. A.; Toscano, W. B.; Burge, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Studies have shown that autonomous mode behavior is one cause of aircraft fatalities due to pilot error. In such cases, the pilot is in a high state of psychological and physiological arousal and tends to focus on one problem, while ignoring more critical information. This study examined the effect of training in physiological self-recognition and regulation, as a means of improving crew cockpit performance. Seventeen pilots were assigned to the treatment and control groups matched for accumulated flight hours. The treatment group contained 4 pilots from HC-130 Hercules aircraft and 4 HH-65 Dolphin helicopter pilots; the control group contained 3 pilots of HC-130s and 6 helicopter pilots. During an initial flight, physiological data were recorded on each crewmember and an instructor pilot rated individual crew performance. Eight crewmembers were then taught to regulate their own physiological response levels using Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE). The remaining participants received no training. During a second flight, treatment participants showed significant improvement in performance (rated by the same instructor pilot as in pretests) while controls did not improve. The results indicate that AFTE management of high states of physiological arousal may improve pilot performance during emergency flying conditions.

  9. Exercise Training During +Gz Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Chou, J. L.; Simonson, S. R.; Jackson, C. G. R.; Barnes, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    The overall purpose is to study the effect of passive (without exercise) and active (with exercise) +Gz (head-to-foot) acceleration training, using a short-arm (1.9m radius) centrifuge, on post- training maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max, work capacity) and 70 deg head-up tilt (orthostatic) tolerance in ambulatory subjects to test the hypothesis that (a) both passive and active acceleration training will improve post-training tilt-tolerance, and (b) there will be no difference in tilt-tolerance between passive and active exercise acceleration training because increased hydrostatic and blood pressures, rather than increased muscular metabolism, will provide the major adaptive stimulus. The purpose of the pilot study was to test the hypothesis that there would be no significant difference in the metabolic responses (oxygen uptake, heart rate, pulmonary ventilation, or respiratory exchange ratio) during supine exercise with moderate +Gz acceleration.

  10. Exercise training lowers the enhanced tonically active glutamatergic input to the rostral ventrolateral medulla in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Yan-Ping; Wang, Yang-Kai; Deng, Yu; Zhang, Ru-Wen; Tan, Xing; Yuan, Wen-Jun; Deng, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Wei-Zhong

    2013-04-01

    It is well known that low-intensity exercise training (ExT) is beneficial to cardiovascular dysfunction in hypertension. The tonically active glutamatergic input to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), a key region for control of blood pressure and sympathetic tone, has been demonstrated to be increased in hypertensive rats. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ExT on the increased glutamatergic input to the RVLM in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Normotensive rats Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and SHR were treadmill trained or remained sedentary (Sed) for 12 weeks and classed into four groups (WKY-Sed, WKY-ExT, SHR-Sed, and SHR-ExT). The release of glutamate in the RVLM and its contribution to cardiovascular activity were determined in WKY and SHR after treatment of ExT. Blood pressure and sympathetic tone were significantly reduced in SHR after treatment with ExT. Bilateral microinjection of the glutamate receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (2.7 nmol in 100 nL) into the RVLM significantly decreased resting blood pressure, heart rate, and renal sympathetic nerve activity in SHR-Sed but not in WKY groups (WKY-Sed and WKY-ExT). However, the degree of reduction in these cardiovascular parameters evoked by KYN was significantly blunted in SHR-ExT compared with SHR-Sed group. The concentration of glutamate and the protein expression of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 in the RVLM were significantly increased in SHR-Sed compared with WKY-Sed, whereas they were reduced after treatment with ExT. Our findings suggest that ExT attenuates the enhancement in the tonically acting glutamatergic input to the RVLM of hypertensive rats, thereby reducing the sympathetic hyperactivity and blood pressure. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids and oleate enhances exercise training effects in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Juan F; Morales-Palomo, Felix; Fernandez-Elias, Valentin; Hamouti, Nassim; Bernardo, Francisco J; Martin-Doimeadios, Rosa C; Nelson, Rachael K; Horowitz, Jeffrey F; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2016-08-01

    We studied the effects of exercise training alone or combined with dietary supplementation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (Ω-3PUFA) and oleate on metabolic syndrome (MSyn) components and other markers of cardiometabolic health. Thirty-six patients with MSyn underwent 24 weeks of high-intensity interval training. In a double-blind randomized design, half of the group ingested 500 mL/day of semi-skim milk (8 g of fat; placebo milk) whereas the other half ingested 500 mL/day of skim milk enriched with 275 mg of Ω-3PUFA and 7.5 g of oleate (Ω-3 + OLE). Ω-3 + OLE treatment elevated 30% plasma Ω-3PUFA but not significantly (P = 0.286). Improvements in VO2peak (12.8%), mean blood pressure (-7.1%), waist circumference (-1.8%), body fat mass (-2.9%), and trunk fat mass (-3.3%) were similar between groups. However, insulin sensitivity (measured by intravenous glucose tolerance test), serum concentration of C-reactive protein, and high-density lipoprotein improved only in the Ω-3 + OLE group by 31.5%, 32.1%, and 10.3%, respectively (all P exercise training in patients with MSyn. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  12. Virtual Exercise Training Software System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, L.; Kim, H.; Benson, E.; Amonette, W. E.; Barrera, J.; Perera, J.; Rajulu, S.; Hanson, A.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a virtual exercise training software system (VETSS) capable of providing real-time instruction and exercise feedback during exploration missions. A resistive exercise instructional system was developed using a Microsoft Kinect depth-camera device, which provides markerless 3-D whole-body motion capture at a small form factor and minimal setup effort. It was hypothesized that subjects using the newly developed instructional software tool would perform the deadlift exercise with more optimal kinematics and consistent technique than those without the instructional software. Following a comprehensive evaluation in the laboratory, the system was deployed for testing and refinement in the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) analog.

  13. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and efficacy of strength training and aerobic exercise

  14. Exercise training in metabolic myopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, J

    2016-01-01

    metabolic adaptations, such as increased dependence on glycogen use and a reduced capacity for fatty acid oxidation, which is detrimental in GSDs. Training has not been studied systematically in any FAODs and in just a few GSDs. However, studies on single bouts of exercise in most metabolic myopathies show......Metabolic myopathies encompass muscle glycogenoses (GSD) and disorders of muscle fat oxidation (FAOD). FAODs and GSDs can be divided into two main clinical phenotypes; those with static symptoms related to fixed muscle weakness and atrophy, and those with dynamic, exercise-related symptoms...... that are brought about by a deficient supply of ATP. Together with mitochondrial myopathies, metabolic myopathies are unique among muscle diseases, as the limitation in exercise performance is not solely caused by structural damage of muscle, but also or exclusively related to energy deficiency. ATP consumption...

  15. Resistance exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Angela J; Webber, Sandra C; Richards, Rachel S; Bidonde, Julia; Schachter, Candice L; Schafer, Laurel A; Danyliw, Adrienne; Sawant, Anuradha; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina; Rader, Tamara; Overend, Tom J

    2013-12-20

    Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain that leads to reduced physical function. Exercise training is commonly recommended as a treatment for management of symptoms. We examined the literature on resistance training for individuals with fibromyalgia. Resistance training is exercise performed against a progressive resistance with the intention of improving muscle strength, muscle endurance, muscle power, or a combination of these. To evaluate the benefits and harms of resistance exercise training in adults with fibromyalgia. We compared resistance training versus control and versus other types of exercise training. We searched nine electronic databases (The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Dissertation Abstracts, Current Controlled Trials, World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, AMED) and other sources for published full-text articles. The date of the last search was 5 March 2013. Two review authors independently screened 1856 citations, 766 abstracts and 156 full-text articles. We included five studies that met our inclusion criteria. Selection criteria included: a) randomized clinical trial, b) diagnosis of fibromyalgia based on published criteria, c) adult sample, d) full-text publication, and e) inclusion of between-group data comparing resistance training versus a control or other physical activity intervention. Pairs of review authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted intervention and outcome data. We resolved disagreements between the two review authors and questions regarding interpretation of study methods by discussion within the pairs or when necessary the issue was taken to the full team of 11 members. We extracted 21 outcomes of which seven were designated as major outcomes: multidimensional function, self reported physical function, pain, tenderness, muscle strength, attrition rates, and adverse effects. We evaluated benefits and harms of the interventions using

  16. Cardiovascular adaptations to exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Nyberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic exercise training leads to cardiovascular changes that markedly increase aerobic power and lead to improved endurance performance. The functionally most important adaptation is the improvement in maximal cardiac output which is the result of an enlargement in cardiac dimension, improved...... and peripheral cardiovascular adaptations with a focus on humans, but also covers animal data. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1-32, 2016....

  17. Exercise-Based Performance Enhancement and Injury Prevention for Firefighters: Contrasting the Fitness- and Movement-Related Adaptations to Two Training Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, David M; Beach, Tyson A C; Callaghan, Jack P; McGill, Stuart M

    2015-09-01

    Using exercise to enhance physical fitness may have little impact on performers' movement patterns beyond the gym environment. This study examined the fitness and movement adaptations exhibited by firefighters in response to 2 training methodologies. Fifty-two firefighters were assigned to a movement-guided fitness (MOV), conventional fitness (FIT), or control (CON) group. Before and after 12 weeks of training, participants performed a fitness evaluation and laboratory-based test. Three-dimensional lumbar spine and frontal plane knee kinematics were quantified. Five whole-body tasks not included in the interventions were used to evaluate the transfer of training. FIT and MOV groups exhibited significant improvements in all aspects of fitness; however, only MOV exhibited improvements in spine and frontal plane knee motion control when performing each transfer task (effect sizes [ESs] of 0.2-1.5). FIT exhibited less controlled spine and frontal plane knee motions while squatting, lunging, pushing, and pulling (ES: 0.2-0.7). More MOV participants (43%) exhibited only positive posttraining changes (i.e., improved control), in comparison with FIT (30%) and CON (23%). Fewer negative posttraining changes were also noted (19, 25, and 36% for MOV, FIT, and CON). These findings suggest that placing an emphasis on how participants move while exercising may be an effective training strategy to elicit behavioral changes beyond the gym environment. For occupational athletes such as firefighters, soldiers, and police officers, this implies that exercise programs designed with a movement-oriented approach to periodization could have a direct impact on their safety and effectiveness by engraining desirable movement patterns that transfer to occupational tasks.

  18. Aquatic exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; Webber, Sandra C; Schachter, Candice L; Danyliw, Adrienne; Overend, Tom J; Richards, Rachel S; Rader, Tamara

    2014-10-28

    Exercise training is commonly recommended for individuals with fibromyalgia. This review examined the effects of supervised group aquatic training programs (led by an instructor). We defined aquatic training as exercising in a pool while standing at waist, chest, or shoulder depth. This review is part of the update of the 'Exercise for treating fibromyalgia syndrome' review first published in 2002, and previously updated in 2007. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the benefits and harms of aquatic exercise training in adults with fibromyalgia. We searched The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 2 (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Health Technology Assessment Database, NHS Economic Evaluation Database), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Dissertation Abstracts, WHO international Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and AMED, as well as other sources (i.e., reference lists from key journals, identified articles, meta-analyses, and reviews of all types of treatment for fibromyalgia) from inception to October 2013. Using Cochrane methods, we screened citations, abstracts, and full-text articles. Subsequently, we identified aquatic exercise training studies. Selection criteria were: a) full-text publication of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in adults diagnosed with fibromyalgia based on published criteria, and b) between-group data for an aquatic intervention and a control or other intervention. We excluded studies if exercise in water was less than 50% of the full intervention. We independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data (24 outcomes), of which we designated seven as major outcomes: multidimensional function, self reported physical function, pain, stiffness, muscle strength, submaximal cardiorespiratory function, withdrawal rates and adverse effects. We resolved discordance through discussion. We evaluated interventions using mean differences

  19. Enhanced fatty acid oxidation and FATP4 protein expression after endurance exercise training in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jacob; Jordy, Andreas B; Sjøberg, Kim A

    2012-01-01

    ; however, it is not known whether this involves up-regulation of FATP1 and FATP4 protein. Therefore, the aim of this project was to investigate FATP1 and FATP4 protein expression in the vastus lateralis muscle from healthy human individuals and to what extent FATP1 and FATP4 protein expression were......FATP1 and FATP4 appear to be important for the cellular uptake and handling of long chain fatty acids (LCFA). These findings were obtained from loss- or gain of function models. However, reports on FATP1 and FATP4 in human skeletal muscle are limited. Aerobic training enhances lipid oxidation...

  20. Leg vascular and skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic high-intensity exercise training are enhanced in the early postmenopausal phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Egelund, Jon; Mandrup Jensen, Camilla Maria

    2017-01-01

    the haemodynamic response to acute exercise in matched pre- and postmenopausal women before and after 12 weeks of aerobic high intensity exercise training. Twenty premenopausal and 16 early postmenopausal (3.1 ± 0.5 [mean ± SEM] years after final menstrual period) women only separated by 4 (50 ± 0 versus 54 ± 1...... receptor α (ERRα) were increased (P training in the postmenopausal women whereas only the levels of mitochondrial complex V, eNOS, and COX-2 were increased (P aerobic......Exercise training leads to favourable adaptations within skeletal muscle; however, this effect of exercise training may be blunted in postmenopausal women due to the loss of oestrogens. Furthermore, postmenopausal women may have an impaired vascular response to acute exercise. We examined...

  1. Exercise training in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abela, Mark

    2018-05-04

    Exercise training (ET) in heart failure (HF) has long been established as an important part of HF care. ET is known to improve quality of life and functional capacity in a number of ways. Despite its proposed benefits, evidence supporting its routine inclusion in standard rehabilitation programme is at times conflicting, partly because of the significant heterogeneity present in available randomised controlled trials. There is lack of evidence with regard to the duration of the overall benefit, the optimal exercise regimen and whether certain types of HF aetiologies benefit more than others. The aim of this review is to provide an update to date literature review of the positive and negative evidence surrounding ET in HF, while proposing an efficient novel in-hospital exercise-based rehabilitation programme for patients with HF in addition to a pre-existing HF clinic. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Multi-modal exercise training and protein-pacing enhances physical performance adaptations independent of growth hormone and BDNF but may be dependent on IGF-1 in exercise-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Stephen J; Norton, Chelsea; Miller, Vincent; Minicucci, Olivia; Robinson, Jake; O'Brien, Gabe; Escudero, Daniela; Paul, Maia; Sheridan, Caitlin; Curran, Kathryn; Rose, Kayla; Robinson, Nathaniel; He, Feng; Arciero, Paul J

    2017-02-01

    Protein-pacing (P; 5-6meals/day @ 2.0g/kgBW/day) and multi-mode exercise (RISE; resistance, interval, stretching, endurance) training (PRISE) improves muscular endurance, strength, power and arterial health in exercise-trained women. The current study extends these findings by examining PRISE on fitness, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) response, cardiometabolic health, and body composition in exercise-trained men. Twenty active males (>4daysexercise/week) completed either: PRISE (n=11) or RISE (5-6meals/day @ 1.0g/kgBW/day; n=9) for 12weeks. Muscular strength (1-repetition maximum bench and leg press, 1-RM BP, and 1-RM LP), endurance (sit-ups, SU; push-ups, PU), power (squat jump, SJ, and bench throw, BT), flexibility (sit-and-reach, SR), aerobic performance (5km cycling time-trial, TT), GH, IGF-1, BDNF, augmentation index, (AIx), and body composition, were assessed at weeks 0 (pre) and 13 (post). At baseline, no differences existed between groups except for GH (RISE, 230±13 vs. PRISE, 382±59pg/ml, pIGF-1 (12%, pIGF-1 response. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Social facilitation in virtual reality-enhanced exercise: competitiveness moderates exercise effort of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Snyder, Amanda L; Nimon, Joseph P; Arciero, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of virtual social facilitation and competitiveness on exercise effort in exergaming older adults. Fourteen exergaming older adults participated. Competitiveness was assessed prior to the start of exercise. Participants were trained to ride a "cybercycle;" a virtual reality-enhanced stationary bike with interactive competition. After establishing a cybercycling baseline, competitive avatars were introduced. Pedaling effort (watts) was assessed. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant group (high vs low competitiveness) × time (pre- to post-avatar) interaction (F[1,12] = 13.1, P = 0.003). Virtual social facilitation increased exercise effort among more competitive exercisers. Exercise programs that match competitiveness may maximize exercise effort.

  4. Benefits of Exercise Training in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W; Sandroff, Brian M

    2015-09-01

    Exercise training represents a behavioral approach for safely managing many of the functional, symptomatic, and quality of life consequences of multiple sclerosis (MS). This topical review paper summarizes evidence from literature reviews and meta-analyses, supplemented by recent individual studies, indicating that exercise training can yield small but important improvements in walking, balance, cognition, fatigue, depression, and quality of life in MS. The paper highlights limitations of research on exercise training and its consequences and future research directions and provides an overview for promotion of exercise training in MS based on recent prescriptive guidelines. Collectively, the evidence for the benefits of exercise training in MS suggests that the time is ripe for the promotion of exercise by healthcare providers, particularly neurologists as a central part of the clinical care and management of MS patients.

  5. Effect of exercise training on leucine oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrix, M.K.; Layman, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Oxidation of the BCAA leucine is increased during a bout of exhaustive exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise training on leu oxidation during aerobic exercise. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a commercial diet ad lib and divided into sedentary and two trained groups. Animals were trained to run on a treadmill with a 10 0 incline at 28 m/min for 5 wks for either 50 or 120 min/day. There were no differences in food intake or body weight. After a 12 hr fast, animals were run for 50 or 120 min and changes in leu catabolism determined by measurement of in vivo leu oxidation and activity of branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD). For measurement of leu oxidation, rats were injected IP with 4 μCi 1- 14 C-leu during the last 15 min of exercise, placed in glass metabolic chambers, and 14 CO 2 collected in 1 N NaOH for 30 min periods. Leu oxidation was increased by 40% after 50 min of exercise and by 79% after 120 min of exercise. Five weeks of training reduced the rate of leu oxidation during an exercise bout. The activity of the BCKAD was not increased in the trained animals after either 50 or 120 min of exercise. These data indicate that the rate of leu oxidation during exercises is dependent on the duration of the exercise and that training will reduce the magnitude of this effect

  6. Spill exercise 1980: an LLNL emergency training exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, J.L.; Gibson, T.A.; Vance, W.F.

    1981-01-01

    An emergency training exercise at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) demonstrated that off-hours emergency personnel can respond promptly and effecively to an emergency situation involving radiation, hazardous chemicals, and injured persons. The exercise simulated an explosion in a chemistry laboratory and a subsequent toxic-gas release

  7. Apollo 11 Earth Training Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    In preparation of the nation's first lunar landing mission, Apollo 11 crew members underwent training to practice activities they would be performing during the mission. In this photograph, taken at the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas, an engineer, Bob Mason, donned in a space suit, goes through some of those training exercises on the mock lunar surface. He performed activites similar to those planned for astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin during their moon walk. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  8. Cardiac parasympathetic reactivation following exercise: implications for training prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jamie; Peake, Jonathan M; Buchheit, Martin

    2013-12-01

    The objective of exercise training is to initiate desirable physiological adaptations that ultimately enhance physical work capacity. Optimal training prescription requires an individualized approach, with an appropriate balance of training stimulus and recovery and optimal periodization. Recovery from exercise involves integrated physiological responses. The cardiovascular system plays a fundamental role in facilitating many of these responses, including thermoregulation and delivery/removal of nutrients and waste products. As a marker of cardiovascular recovery, cardiac parasympathetic reactivation following a training session is highly individualized. It appears to parallel the acute/intermediate recovery of the thermoregulatory and vascular systems, as described by the supercompensation theory. The physiological mechanisms underlying cardiac parasympathetic reactivation are not completely understood. However, changes in cardiac autonomic activity may provide a proxy measure of the changes in autonomic input into organs and (by default) the blood flow requirements to restore homeostasis. Metaboreflex stimulation (e.g. muscle and blood acidosis) is likely a key determinant of parasympathetic reactivation in the short term (0-90 min post-exercise), whereas baroreflex stimulation (e.g. exercise-induced changes in plasma volume) probably mediates parasympathetic reactivation in the intermediate term (1-48 h post-exercise). Cardiac parasympathetic reactivation does not appear to coincide with the recovery of all physiological systems (e.g. energy stores or the neuromuscular system). However, this may reflect the limited data currently available on parasympathetic reactivation following strength/resistance-based exercise of variable intensity. In this review, we quantitatively analyse post-exercise cardiac parasympathetic reactivation in athletes and healthy individuals following aerobic exercise, with respect to exercise intensity and duration, and fitness/training

  9. Absolute hypoxic exercise training enhances in vitro thrombin generation by increasing procoagulant platelet-derived microparticles under high shear stress in sedentary men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Chen, Yi-Ching; Wang, Jong-Shyan

    2013-05-01

    HS (high shear) stress associated with artery stenosis facilitates TG (thrombin generation) by increasing the release of procoagulant PDMPs (platelet-derived microparticles). Physical exercise and hypoxia may paradoxically modulate vascular thrombotic risks. The aim of the present study was to investigate how exercise training with/without hypoxia affected TG mediated by PDMPs under physio-pathological shear flows. A total of 75 sedentary males were randomly divided into five groups (n=15 in each group): 21% O2 [NC (normoxic control)] or 15% O2 [HC (hypoxic control)] at rest or were trained at 50% of peak work rate under 21% O2 [NT (normoxic training)] or 15% O2 [HAT (hypoxic-absolute training)], or 50% of HR (heart rate) reserve under 15% O2 [HRT (hypoxic-relative training)] for 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. The PDMP characteristics and dynamic TG were measured by flow cytometry and thrombinography respectively. Before the intervention, strenuous exercise markedly increased the PDMP count (14.8%) and TG rate (19.5%) in PDMP-rich plasma at 100 dynes/cm2 of shear stress (Pexercise. Conversely, HAT notably promoted the PDMP count (37.3%) and TG rate (38.9%) induced by HS (Pexercise. We conclude that both HRT and NT depress similarly HS-mediated TG during exercise, but HAT accelerates the prothrombotic response to vigorous exercise. These findings provide new insights into how exercise training under a hypoxic condition influences the risk of thrombosis associated with stenotic arteries.

  10. Effect of exercise training on leucine oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrix, M.K.; Layman, D.K.

    1986-03-01

    Oxidation of the BCAA leucine is increased during a bout of exhaustive exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise training on leu oxidation during aerobic exercise. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a commercial diet ad lib and divided into sedentary and two trained groups. Animals were trained to run on a treadmill with a 10/sup 0/ incline at 28 m/min for 5 wks for either 50 or 120 min/day. There were no differences in food intake or body weight. After a 12 hr fast, animals were run for 50 or 120 min and changes in leu catabolism determined by measurement of in vivo leu oxidation and activity of branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD). For measurement of leu oxidation, rats were injected IP with 4 ..mu..Ci 1-/sup 14/C-leu during the last 15 min of exercise, placed in glass metabolic chambers, and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ collected in 1 N NaOH for 30 min periods. Leu oxidation was increased by 40% after 50 min of exercise and by 79% after 120 min of exercise. Five weeks of training reduced the rate of leu oxidation during an exercise bout. The activity of the BCKAD was not increased in the trained animals after either 50 or 120 min of exercise. These data indicate that the rate of leu oxidation during exercises is dependent on the duration of the exercise and that training will reduce the magnitude of this effect.

  11. Influence of aerobic exercise training on post-exercise responses of aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiko eAkazawa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Central arterial blood pressure (BP is more predictive of future cardiovascular events than is brachial BP because it reflects the BP load imposed on the left ventricle with greater accuracy. However, little is known about the effects of exercise training on central hemodynamic response to acute exercise. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of an aerobic exercise regimen on the response of aortic BP after a single aerobic exercise in postmenopausal women. Nine healthy postmenopausal women (age: 61 ± 2 years participated in a 12-week aerobic exercise training regimen. Before and after the training, each subjects performed a single bout of cycling at ventilatory thresholds for 30 min. We evaluated the post-exercise aortic BP response, which was estimated via the general transfer function from applanation tonometry. After the initial pre-training aerobic exercise session, aortic BP did not change significantly: however, aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure were significantly attenuated after the single aerobic exercise session following the 12-week training regimen. The present study demonstrated that a regular aerobic exercise training regimen induced the post-exercise reduction of aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure. Regular aerobic exercise training may enhance post-exercise reduction in aortic BP.

  12. Intelligent Physical Exercise Training proves effective in enhancing muscle strength and reducing musculoskeletal pain in a workplace setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalager, Tina; Justesen, Just Bendix; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    intensity IPET every week within working hours for one year. The training program was based on baseline health check measures of muscle strength, musculoskeletal pain (self-reported on a 0-9 numeric box scale), cardiorespiratory fitness and health risk indicators, as well as functional capacity including...... compared with REF (~ 20 %). Discussion: High intensity IPET during working hours significantly reduced musculoskeletal pain in neck and shoulders as well as increased muscle strength among office workers. Of note is the large proportion of employees in TG who had pain reductions of ≥1, which is considered...... workers based on health checks and to assess the effect on musculoskeletal health (Sjøgaard G et al. BMC Public Health 2014, 14:652). Methods: Office workers were at each of 6 companies randomized 1:1 to a training group, TG (N=194) or a reference group, REF (N=195). TG received one-hour supervised high...

  13. Exercise Black Skies 2008: Enhancing Live Training Through Virtual Preparation -- Part Two: An Evaluation of Tools and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    visualisation tool. These tools are currently in use at the Surveillance and Control Training Unit (SACTU) in Williamtown, New South Wales, and the School...itself by facilitating the brevity and sharpness of learning points. The playback of video and audio was considered an extremely useful method of...The task assessor’s comments were supported by wall projections and audio replays of relevant mission segments that were controlled by an AAR

  14. Core Muscle Activation in Suspension Training Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugliari, Giovanni; Boccia, Gennaro

    2017-02-01

    A quantitative observational laboratory study was conducted to characterize and classify core training exercises executed in a suspension modality on the base of muscle activation. In a prospective single-group repeated measures design, seventeen active male participants performed four suspension exercises typically associated with core training (roll-out, bodysaw, pike and knee-tuck). Surface electromyographic signals were recorded from lower and upper parts of rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, lower and upper parts of erector spinae muscles using concentric bipolar electrodes. The average rectified values of electromyographic signals were normalized with respect to individual maximum voluntary isometric contraction of each muscle. Roll-out exercise showed the highest activation of rectus abdominis and oblique muscles compared to the other exercises. The rectus abdominis and external oblique reached an activation higher than 60% of the maximal voluntary contraction (or very close to that threshold, 55%) in roll-out and bodysaw exercises. Findings from this study allow the selection of suspension core training exercises on the basis of quantitative information about the activation of muscles of interest. Roll-out and bodysaw exercises can be considered as suitable for strength training of rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles.

  15. Development of Training Aids for Nuclear Forensics Exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sangjun; Lee, Seungmin; Lim, Hobin; Hyung, Sangcheol; Kim, Jaekwang [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Current radioactive-related training has focused on the prevention of a radiation disaster. Procedures to recover nuclear and radiological materials have been simplified due to the lack of training tools to reproduce real conditions for security and staff at nuclear facilities. The process of recovering materials is crucial in order to collect evidence and secure the safety of response forces. Moreover, exercises for recovering lost or missing a low dose radiation sources, does not well match with explosive like RDD blast situations. Therefore KINAC has been developing training aids in order to closely reproduce conditions of an actual terrorist attack and enhance effectiveness of exercises. These tools will be applied to Nuclear Forensics Exercises in which evidence collection is important at the time of an incident. KINAC has been developing training aids to enhance the effectiveness of such exercises by providing simulated conditions of actual terrorist incidents. Simulated training aids, based on the beacon system, operate with electromagnetic waves. These tools are able to simulate environments close to actual conditions by supplying similar properties of radioactivity. Training aids will be helpful in giving experience to security personnel and staff in the event of a terrorist incident. This experience includes collecting evidence for nuclear forensics. KINAC also has a plan to hold drills using these tools this year with The Armed Force CBR Defense Command.

  16. Development of Training Aids for Nuclear Forensics Exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sangjun; Lee, Seungmin; Lim, Hobin; Hyung, Sangcheol; Kim, Jaekwang

    2015-01-01

    Current radioactive-related training has focused on the prevention of a radiation disaster. Procedures to recover nuclear and radiological materials have been simplified due to the lack of training tools to reproduce real conditions for security and staff at nuclear facilities. The process of recovering materials is crucial in order to collect evidence and secure the safety of response forces. Moreover, exercises for recovering lost or missing a low dose radiation sources, does not well match with explosive like RDD blast situations. Therefore KINAC has been developing training aids in order to closely reproduce conditions of an actual terrorist attack and enhance effectiveness of exercises. These tools will be applied to Nuclear Forensics Exercises in which evidence collection is important at the time of an incident. KINAC has been developing training aids to enhance the effectiveness of such exercises by providing simulated conditions of actual terrorist incidents. Simulated training aids, based on the beacon system, operate with electromagnetic waves. These tools are able to simulate environments close to actual conditions by supplying similar properties of radioactivity. Training aids will be helpful in giving experience to security personnel and staff in the event of a terrorist incident. This experience includes collecting evidence for nuclear forensics. KINAC also has a plan to hold drills using these tools this year with The Armed Force CBR Defense Command

  17. Quick Tips for Weight Training Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Saul

    2004-01-01

    Weight training is one of the single most popular types of fitness activities in the United States. One of the reasons for its popularity is that it dramatically contributes to improved strength, muscle tone, body composition, health and appearance. Weight training is a progressive resistance exercise in which resistance is gradually increased as…

  18. Eccentric exercise training in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooyackers, J.M.; Berkeljon, D.A.; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    The oxygen cost of eccentric exercise is lower than that of concentric exercise at similar work-loads. In this study, the response to eccentric cycle exercise training (EET) in addition to general exercise training (GET) on exercise performance and quality of life was investigated in 24 patients

  19. Physical exercise training for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Thomas; Nevitt, Sarah J; Hebestreit, Helge; Kriemler, Susi

    2017-11-01

    Physical exercise training may form an important part of regular care for people with cystic fibrosis. This is an update of a previously published review. To assess the effects of physical exercise training on exercise capacity by peak oxygen consumption, pulmonary function by forced expiratory volume in one second, health-related quality of life and further important patient-relevant outcomes in people with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Date of the most recent search: 04 May 2017.We searched ongoing trials registers (clinicaltrials.gov and the WHO ICTRP). Date of most recent search: 10 August 2017. All randomised and quasi-randomised controlled clinical trials comparing exercise training of any type and a minimum duration of two weeks with conventional care (no training) in people with cystic fibrosis. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion, assessed methodological quality and extracted data. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE system. Of the 83 studies identified, 15 studies which included 487 participants, met the inclusion criteria. The numbers in each study ranged from nine up to 72 participants; two studies were in adults, seven were in children and adolescents and six studies included all age ranges. Four studies of hospitalised participants lasted less than one month and 11 studies were outpatient-based, lasting between two months and three years. The studies included participants with a wide range of disease severity and employed differing levels of supervision with a mixture of types of training. There was also wide variation in the quality of the included studies.This systematic review shows very low- to low-quality evidence from both short- and long-term studies that in people

  20. Exercise Training in Children and Adolescents with Cystic Fibrosis: Theory into Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A. Williams

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity and exercise training play an important role in the clinical management of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. Exercise training is more common and recognized as an essential part of rehabilitation programmes and overall CF care. Regular exercise training is associated with improved aerobic and anaerobic capacity, higher pulmonary function, and enhanced airway mucus clearance. Furthermore, patients with higher aerobic fitness have an improved survival. Aerobic and anaerobic training may have different effects, while the combination of both have been reported to be beneficial in CF. However, exercise training remains underutilised and not always incorporated into routine CF management. We provide an update on aerobic and anaerobic responses to exercise and general training recommendations in children and adolescents with CF. We propose that an active lifestyle and exercise training are an efficacious part of regular CF patient management.

  1. Musical feedback during exercise machine workout enhances mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hans Fritz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Music making has a number of beneficial effects for motor tasks compared to passive music listening. Given that recent research suggests that high energy musical activities elevate positive affect more strongly than low energy musical activities, we here investigated a recent method that combined music making with systematically increasing physiological arousal by exercise machine workout. We compared mood and anxiety after two exercise conditions on non-cyclical exercise machines, one with passive music listening and the other with musical feedback (where participants could make music with the exercise machines. The results showed that agency during exercise machine workout (an activity we previously labeled jymmin—a cross between jammin and gym had an enhancing effect on mood compared to workout with passive music listening. Furthermore, the order in which the conditions were presented mediated the effect of musical agency for this subscale When participants first listened passively, the difference in mood between the two conditions was greater, suggesting that a stronger increase in hormone levels (e.g. endorphins during the active condition may have caused the observed effect. Given an enhanced mood after training with musical feedback compared to passively listening to the same type of music during workout, the results suggest that exercise machine workout with musical feedback (jymmin makes the act of exercise machine training more desirable.

  2. Endurance exercise training and diferuloyl methane supplement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roshan, Valiollah Dabidi; Hosseinzadeh, Somayeh; Mahjoub, Soleiman

    2013-01-01

    For many years it has been known that lead is life-threatening, not only as an air pollutant but also because of it has been associated with several conditions including degenerative disease of the nervous system. In the current study we investigated neuroprotection effects of exercise training a...

  3. Eccentric exercise: mechanisms and effects when used as training regime or training adjunct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Michael; Hoppeler, Hans H

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the current review is to discuss applications and mechanism of eccentric exercise in training regimes of competitive sports. Eccentric muscle work is important in most sports. Eccentric muscle contractions enhance the performance during the concentric phase of stretch-shortening cycles, which is important in disciplines like sprinting, jumping, throwing, and running. Muscles activated during lengthening movements can also function as shock absorbers, to decelerate during landing tasks or to precisely deal with high external loading in sports like alpine skiing. The few studies available on trained subjects reveal that eccentric training can further enhance maximal muscle strength and power. It can further optimize muscle length for maximal tension development at a greater degree of extension, and has potential to improve muscle coordination during eccentric tasks. In skeletal muscles, these functional adaptations are based on increases in muscle mass, fascicle length, number of sarcomeres, and cross-sectional area of type II fibers. Identified modalities for eccentric loading in athletic populations involve classical isotonic exercises, accentuated jumping exercises, eccentric overloading exercises, and eccentric cycle ergometry. We conclude that eccentric exercise offers a promising training modality to enhance performance and to prevent injuries in athletes. However, further research is necessary to better understand how the neuromuscular system adapts to eccentric loading in athletes. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Effects of exercise training on performance and function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of exercise training on performance and function in individuals with cerebral palsy: ... performance capabilities, and the effect of exercise training interventions, ... The physiology underlying the functional and physical impairments in CP ...

  5. Effects of exercise training on regulation of skeletal muscle glucose metabolism in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup; Olesen, Jesper; Gliemann, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and a muscle biopsy was obtained from the vastus lateralis before and 45 minutes into the OGTT. Blood samples were collected before and up to 120 minutes after glucose intake. RESULTS: Exercise training increased Hexokinase II, GLUT4, Akt2, glycogen synthase (GS), pyruvate......) phosphorylation was increased after exercise training. In the trained state, the PDHa activity was reduced following glucose intake and without changes in phosphorylation level of PDH-E1α. CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that exercise training improves glucose regulation in elderly subjects by enhancing......BACKGROUND: The aim was to investigate the molecular mechanisms behind exercise training-induced improvements in glucose regulation in aged subjects. METHODS: Twelve elderly male subjects completed 8 weeks of exercise training. Before and after the training period, the subjects completed an oral...

  6. Four Weeks of Supplementation With Isolated Soy Protein Attenuates Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and Enhances Muscle Recovery in Well Trained Athletes: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Shweta; Dhawan, Mrinal; Singh Sandhu, Jaspal

    2016-09-01

    The effects of consumption of isolated soy protein (ISP) for a chronic period (4 weeks) on exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) in athletic population have never been explored. To examine the effects of ISP on muscle damage indices elicited via a bout of damaging exercise. Forty males (20 boxers, 20 cyclists) aged 18 - 28 years were randomly assigned to two groups (ISP and Placebo) (n = 20). All participants who engaged themselves in specific, regular training of 30 hours a week during the competitive season were included in the study. Participants consumed the supplement and the placebo for 4 weeks. The damaging exercise consisted of 100 consecutive drop-jumps. Pre and post supplementation readings of the criterion variables, highly sensitive C reactive protein (hs-cRP), creatine Kinase (CK), myeloperoxidase (MPO), isometric muscle strength, maximum aerobic capacity (VO 2 max), heart rate (HR) and muscle soreness were obtained at baseline (Day 1), at 24 hours (Day 2) and at 48 hours (Day 3) following EIMD. Differences were observed in pre and post supplementation values (P athletic population.

  7. Aerobic exercise training for adults with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; Schachter, Candice L; Overend, Tom J; Kim, Soo Y; Góes, Suelen M; Boden, Catherine; Foulds, Heather Ja

    2017-06-21

    Exercise training is commonly recommended for individuals with fibromyalgia. This review is one of a series of reviews about exercise training for people with fibromyalgia that will replace the "Exercise for treating fibromyalgia syndrome" review first published in 2002. • To evaluate the benefits and harms of aerobic exercise training for adults with fibromyalgia• To assess the following specific comparisons ० Aerobic versus control conditions (eg, treatment as usual, wait list control, physical activity as usual) ० Aerobic versus aerobic interventions (eg, running vs brisk walking) ० Aerobic versus non-exercise interventions (eg, medications, education) We did not assess specific comparisons involving aerobic exercise versus other exercise interventions (eg, resistance exercise, aquatic exercise, flexibility exercise, mixed exercise). Other systematic reviews have examined or will examine these comparisons (Bidonde 2014; Busch 2013). We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Thesis and Dissertation Abstracts, the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP), and the ClinicalTrials.gov registry up to June 2016, unrestricted by language, and we reviewed the reference lists of retrieved trials to identify potentially relevant trials. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in adults with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia that compared aerobic training interventions (dynamic physical activity that increases breathing and heart rate to submaximal levels for a prolonged period) versus no exercise or another intervention. Major outcomes were health-related quality of life (HRQL), pain intensity, stiffness, fatigue, physical function, withdrawals, and adverse events. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted

  8. Social facilitation in virtual reality-enhanced exercise: competitiveness moderates exercise effort of older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson-Hanley C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cay Anderson-Hanley1,2, Amanda L Snyder1, Joseph P Nimon1, Paul J Arciero1,21Healthy Aging and Neuropsychology Lab, Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA; 2Health and Exercise Sciences Department, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY, USAAbstract: This study examined the effect of virtual social facilitation and competitiveness on exercise effort in exergaming older adults. Fourteen exergaming older adults participated. Competitiveness was assessed prior to the start of exercise. Participants were trained to ride a “cybercycle;” a virtual reality-enhanced stationary bike with interactive competition. After establishing a cybercycling baseline, competitive avatars were introduced. Pedaling effort (watts was assessed. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant group (high vs low competitiveness X time (pre- to post-avatar interaction (F[1,12] = 13.1, P = 0.003. Virtual social facilitation increased exercise effort among more competitive exercisers. Exercise programs that match competitiveness may maximize exercise effort.Keywords: exercise, aging, virtual reality, competitiveness, social facilitation, exercise intensity

  9. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. This is an update of a review first published in 2004. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and

  10. Predictability of psychic outcome for exercise training and exercise training including relaxation therapy after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); J. van Dixhoorn (J.)

    1991-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Predictability of the psychic outcome for two cardiac rehabilitation programmes was investigated in 119 myocardial infarction patients. They were randomly assigned to either a five-week daily exercise training or to an identical training in combination with six sessions

  11. Sake Protein Supplementation Affects Exercise Performance and Biochemical Profiles in Power-Exercise-Trained Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ming Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Exercise and fitness training programs have attracted the public’s attention in recent years. Sports nutrition supplementation is an important issue in the global sports market. Purpose: In this study, we designed a power exercise training (PET program with a mouse model based on a strength and conditional training protocol for humans. We tested the effect of supplementation with functional branched-chain amino acid (BCAA-rich sake protein (SP to determine whether the supplement had a synergistic effect during PET and enhanced athletic performance and resistance to fatigue. Methods: Male ICR mice were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group for four-week treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC, and PET and PET groups with SP supplementation (3.8 g/kg, PET + SP. Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue activity levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK after a 15-min swimming exercise. The biochemical parameters were measured at the end of the experiment. Results: four-week PET significantly increased grip strength and exhaustive swimming time and decreased epididymal fat pad (EFP weight and area. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatinine, and uric acid (UA were significantly increased. PET + SP supplementation significantly decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels after the 15-min swimming exercise. The resting serum levels of AST, ALT, CREA and UA were all significantly decreased with PET + SP. Conclusion: The PET program could increase the exercise performance and modulate the body composition of mice. PET with SP conferred better anti-fatigue activity, improved biochemical profiles, and may be an effective ergogenic aid in strength training.

  12. Sake Protein Supplementation Affects Exercise Performance and Biochemical Profiles in Power-Exercise-Trained Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ming; Lin, Che-Li; Wei, Li; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Chen, Kuan-Neng; Huang, Chi-Chang; Kao, Chin-Hsung

    2016-02-20

    Exercise and fitness training programs have attracted the public's attention in recent years. Sports nutrition supplementation is an important issue in the global sports market. In this study, we designed a power exercise training (PET) program with a mouse model based on a strength and conditional training protocol for humans. We tested the effect of supplementation with functional branched-chain amino acid (BCAA)-rich sake protein (SP) to determine whether the supplement had a synergistic effect during PET and enhanced athletic performance and resistance to fatigue. Male ICR mice were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group) for four-week treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC), and PET and PET groups with SP supplementation (3.8 g/kg, PET + SP). Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue activity levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise. The biochemical parameters were measured at the end of the experiment. four-week PET significantly increased grip strength and exhaustive swimming time and decreased epididymal fat pad (EFP) weight and area. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine, and uric acid (UA) were significantly increased. PET + SP supplementation significantly decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels after the 15-min swimming exercise. The resting serum levels of AST, ALT, CREA and UA were all significantly decreased with PET + SP. The PET program could increase the exercise performance and modulate the body composition of mice. PET with SP conferred better anti-fatigue activity, improved biochemical profiles, and may be an effective ergogenic aid in strength training.

  13. Resistance Training Exercise Program for Intervention to Enhance Gait Function in Elderly Chronically Ill Patients: Multivariate Multiscale Entropy for Center of Pressure Signal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Shu Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Falls are unpredictable accidents, and the resulting injuries can be serious in the elderly, particularly those with chronic diseases. Regular exercise is recommended to prevent and treat hypertension and other chronic diseases by reducing clinical blood pressure. The “complexity index” (CI, based on multiscale entropy (MSE algorithm, has been applied in recent studies to show a person’s adaptability to intrinsic and external perturbations and widely used measure of postural sway or stability. The multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE was advanced algorithm used to calculate the complexity index (CI values of the center of pressure (COP data. In this study, we applied the MSE & MMSE to analyze gait function of 24 elderly, chronically ill patients (44% female; 56% male; mean age, 67.56±10.70 years with either cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, or osteoporosis. After a 12-week training program, postural stability measurements showed significant improvements. Our results showed beneficial effects of resistance training, which can be used to improve postural stability in the elderly and indicated that MMSE algorithms to calculate CI of the COP data were superior to the multiscale entropy (MSE algorithm to identify the sense of balance in the elderly.

  14. The effects of different exercise training modalities on plasma proenkephalin Peptide F in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, William H; Kraemer, William J; Nindl, Bradley C; Lee, Elaine C; Fragala, Maren S; Hatfield, Disa L; Caldwell, Lydia K; Post, Emily M; Beeler, Matthew K; Volek, Jeff S; Maresh, Carl M

    2017-05-01

    Due to the important interactions of proenkephalin fragments (e.g., proenkephalin [107-140] Peptide F) to enhance activation of immune cells and potentially combat pain associated with exercise-induced muscle tissue damage, we examined the differential plasma responses of Peptide F to different exercise training programs. Participants were tested pre-training (T1), and after 8 weeks (T2) of training. Fifty-nine healthy women were matched and then randomly assigned to one of four groups: heavy resistance strength training (STR, n=18), high intensity endurance training (END, n=14), combined strength and endurance training (CMB, n=17), or control (CON, n=10). Blood was collected using a cannula inserted into a superficial vein in the antecubital fossa with samples collected at rest and immediately after an acute bout of 6 X 10 RM in a squat resistance exercise before training and after training. Prior to any training, no significant differences were observed for any of the groups before or after acute exercise. With training, significant (P≤0.95) elevations were observed with acute exercise in each of the exercise training groups and this effect was significantly greater in the CMB group. These data indicate that in untrained women exercise training will not change resting of plasma Peptide F concentrations unless both forms of exercise are performed but will result in significant increases in the immediate post-exercise responses. Such findings appear to indicate adrenal medullary adaptations opioid production significantly altered with exercise training. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Effect of body weight gain on insulin sensitivity after retirement from exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolkas, Constantine B.; Rodnick, Kenneth J.; Mondon, Carl E.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the body-weight gain after retirement from an exercise-training program on the retained increase in insulin sensitivity elicited by the training was investigated in exercise-trained (ET) rats. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by oral glucose tolerance and insulin suppression tests immediately after training and during retirement. Results show that, compared with sedentary controls, exercise training enhanced insulin-induced glucose uptake, but the enhanced sensitivity was gradually lost with the end of running activity until after seven days of retirement, when it became equal to that of controls. This loss of enhanced sensitivity to insulin was associated with an accelerated gain in body weight beginning one day after the start of retirement. However, those animals that gained weight only at rates similar to those of control rats, retained their enhanced sensitivity to insulin.

  16. Effect of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular parameters and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular parameters and CD4 cell ... its associated cardiovascular risk still pose some consequences for health and ... Moderate intensity aerobic exercise is an effective complementary therapy in ...

  17. THE EFFECTS OF ACUTE PHYSICAL EXERCISE TRAINING ON MATHEMATICAL COMPUTATION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Bala

    2014-12-01

    The results showed that the children’s computation performance was enhanced significantly in the groups with 30, or 45, or 60 min of physical exercise, but not in the groups without physical exercise. This means that even acute intensive physical training can yield positive effects on children's mathematical abilities.

  18. Myocardial hypoperfusion/reperfusion tolerance with exercise training in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reger, Patricia O; Barbe, Mary F; Amin, Mamta; Renna, Brian F; Hewston, Leigh Ann; MacDonnell, Scott M; Houser, Steven R; Libonati, Joseph R

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether exercise training, superimposed on compensated-concentric hypertrophy, could increase myocardial hypoperfusion-reperfusion (H/R) tolerance. Female Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) (age: 4 mo; N = 40) were placed into a sedentary (SED) or exercise training (TRD) group (treadmill running; 25 m/min, 1 h/day, 5 days/wk for 16 wk). Four groups were studied: WKY-SED (n = 10), WKY-TRD (n = 10), SHR-SED (n = 10), and SHR-TRD (n = 10). Blood pressure and heart rate were determined, and in vitro isolated heart performance was measured with a retrogradely perfused, Langendorff isovolumic preparation. The H/R protocol consisted of a 75% reduction in coronary flow for 17 min followed by 30 min of reperfusion. Although the rate-pressure product was significantly elevated in SHR relative to WKY, training-induced bradycardia reduced the rate-pressure product in SHR-TRD (P Endurance training superimposed on hypertension-induced compensated hypertrophy conferred no further cardioprotection to H/R. Postreperfusion 72-kDa heat shock protein abundance was enhanced in WKY-TRD and both groups of SHR relative to WKY-SED (P hypertension and endurance training individually improved H/R and that increased postreperfusion 72-kDa heat shock protein abundance was, in part, associated with the cardioprotective phenotype observed in this study.

  19. Enhanced muscle glucose metabolism after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Garetto, L P; Goodman, M N

    1984-01-01

    Studies in the rat suggest that after voluntary exercise there are two phases of glycogen repletion in skeletal muscle (preceding study). In phase I glucose utilization and glycogen synthesis are enhanced both in the presence and absence of insulin, whereas in phase II only the increase in the pr......Studies in the rat suggest that after voluntary exercise there are two phases of glycogen repletion in skeletal muscle (preceding study). In phase I glucose utilization and glycogen synthesis are enhanced both in the presence and absence of insulin, whereas in phase II only the increase...... in the stimulated leg closely mimicked that observed previously after voluntary exercise on a treadmill. With no insulin added to the perfusate, glucose incorporation into glycogen was markedly enhanced in muscles that were glycogen depleted as were the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose and 3-O-methylglucose. Likewise......, the stimulation of these processes by insulin was enhanced and continued to be so 2 h later when the muscles of the stimulated leg had substantially repleted their glycogen stores. The results suggest that the increases in insulin-mediated glucose utilization and glycogen synthesis in muscle after exercise...

  20. Aerobic Exercise Training Improves Orthostatic Tolerance in Aging Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Diqun; Wang, Hong; Chen, Shande; Ross, Sarah; Liu, Howe; Olivencia-Yurvati, Albert; Raven, Peter B; Shi, Xiangrong

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that aerobic exercise training of the elderly will increase aerobic fitness without compromising orthostatic tolerance (OT). Eight healthy sedentary volunteers (67.0 ± 1.7 yr old, four women) participated in 1 yr of endurance exercise training (stationary bicycle and/or treadmill) program at the individuals' 65%-75% of HRpeak. Peak O2 uptake (V˙O2peak) and HRpeak were determined by a maximal exercise stress test using a bicycle ergometer. Carotid baroreceptor reflex (CBR) control of HR and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were assessed by a neck pressure-neck suction protocol. Each subject's maximal gain (Gmax), or sensitivity, of the CBR function curves were derived from fitting their reflex HR and MAP responses to the corresponding neck pressure-neck suction stimuli using a logistic function curve. The subjects' OT was assessed using lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) graded to -50 mm Hg; the sum of the product of LBNP intensity and time (mm Hg·min) was calculated as the cumulative stress index. Training increased V˙O2peak (before vs after: 22.8 ± 0.92 vs 27.9 ± 1.33 mL·min·kg, P stress index was increased from 767 ± 68 mm Hg·min pretraining to 946 ± 44 mm Hg·min posttraining (P Aerobic exercise training improved the aerobic fitness and OT in elderly subjects. An improved OT is likely associated with an enhanced CBR function that has been reset to better maintain cerebral perfusion and cerebral tissue oxygenation during LBNP.

  1. Psychophysiological Responses to Group Exercise Training Sessions: Does Exercise Intensity Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Vandoni

    Full Text Available Group exercise training programs were introduced as a strategy for improving health and fitness and potentially reducing dropout rates. This study examined the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions. Twenty-seven adults completed two group exercise training sessions of moderate and vigorous exercise intensities in a random and counterbalanced order. The %HRR and the exertional and arousal responses to vigorous session were higher than those during the moderate session (p<0.05. Consequently, the affective responses to vigorous session were less pleasant than those during moderate session (p<0.05. These results suggest that the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions are intensity-dependent. From an adherence perspective, interventionists are encouraged to emphasize group exercise training sessions at a moderate intensity to maximize affective responses and to minimize exertional responses, which in turn may positively affect future exercise behavior.

  2. EXERCISE IN RESISTANCE-TRAINED MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RD Calixto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the effects of different velocities of eccentric muscle actions on acute blood lactate and serum growth hormone (GH concentrations following free weight bench press exercises performed by resistance-trained men. Sixteen healthy men were divided into two groups: slow eccentric velocity (SEV; n = 8 and fast eccentric velocity (FEV; n = 8. Both groups performed four sets of eight eccentric repetitions at an intensity of 70% of their one repetition maximum eccentric (1RMecc test, with 2-minute rest intervals between sets. The eccentric velocity was controlled to 3 seconds per range of motion for SEV and 0.5 seconds for the FEV group. There was a significant difference (P < 0.001 in the kinetics of blood lactate removal (at 3, 6, 9, 15, and 20 min and higher mean values for peak blood lactate (P = 0.001 for the SEV group (9.1 ± 0.5 mM compared to the FEV group (6.1 ± 0.4 mM. Additionally, serum GH concentrations were significantly higher (P < 0.001 at 15 minutes after bench press exercise in the SEV group (1.7 ± 0.6 ng · mL-1 relative to the FEV group (0.1 ± 0.0 ng · mL-1. In conclusion, the velocity of eccentric muscle action influences acute responses following bench press exercises performed by resistance-trained men using a slow velocity resulting in a greater metabolic stress and hormone response.

  3. Time to adapt exercise training regimens in pulmonary rehabilitation – a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee AL

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Annemarie L Lee,1–4 Anne E Holland1–3 1Physiotherapy, Alfred Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2Institute for Breathing and Sleep, Austin Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 3Physiotherapy, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 4Westpark Healthcare Centre, ON, Canada Abstract: Exercise intolerance, exertional dyspnea, reduced health-related quality of life, and acute exacerbations are features characteristic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Patients with a primary diagnosis of COPD often report comorbidities and other secondary manifestations, which diversifies the clinical presentation. Pulmonary rehabilitation that includes whole body exercise training is a critical part of management, and core programs involve endurance and resistance training for the upper and lower limbs. Improvement in maximal and submaximal exercise capacity, dyspnea, fatigue, health-related quality of life, and psychological symptoms are outcomes associated with exercise training in pulmonary rehabilitation, irrespective of the clinical state in which it is commenced. There may be benefits for the health care system as well as the individual patient, with fewer exacerbations and subsequent hospitalization reported with exercise training. The varying clinical profile of COPD may direct the need for modification to traditional training strategies for some patients. Interval training, one-legged cycling (partitioning and non-linear periodized training appear to be equally or more effective than continuous training. Inspiratory muscle training may have a role as an adjunct to whole body training in selected patients. The benefits of balance training are also emerging. Strategies to ensure that health enhancing behaviors are adopted and maintained are essential. These may include training for an extended duration, alternative environments to undertake the initial program, maintenance programs following initial exercise training, program repetition

  4. Exercise-trained men and women: role of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M; Hand, Taryn M; Manore, Melinda M

    2014-11-10

    The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex) and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals.

  5. Exercise-Trained Men and Women: Role of Exercise and Diet on Appetite and Energy Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M.; Hand, Taryn M.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex) and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals. PMID:25389897

  6. Exercise training in older patients with systolic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Hjardem-Hansen, Rasmus; Dela, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    Training improves exercise capacity in patients with heart failure (CHF) but most evidence is on selected younger patients with systolic CHF.......Training improves exercise capacity in patients with heart failure (CHF) but most evidence is on selected younger patients with systolic CHF....

  7. Effect of metformin on substrate utilization after exercise training in adults with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Steven K; Braun, Barry

    2013-04-01

    Metformin attenuates the higher insulin sensitivity that occurs with exercise training. Sixteen people with prediabetes trained for 10 weeks while taking metformin (n = 8) or placebo (n = 8). Substrate utilization was assessed using glucose kinetics and indirect calorimetry. After training, exercise whole-body fat oxidation was higher and glycogen use lower (p use was unchanged. Training-induced enhancement of insulin sensitivity (clamp) correlated with higher peak oxygen uptake (r = 0.70; p < 0.05), but was independent of glucose kinetic and substrate metabolism.

  8. Moderate aerobic exercise training for improving reproductive function in infertile patients: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh Maleki, Behzad; Tartibian, Bakhtyar

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated for the first time the changes in seminal markers of inflammation, oxidative stress status, semen parameters, sperm DNA integrity as well as pregnancy rate following 24weeks of moderate aerobic exercise in infertile patients. A total of 1026 sedentary men (aged 25-40years) attending the infertility clinic with history of more than one year of infertility, were screened and 419 were randomized to either exercise (EX, n=210) or non-exercise (NON-EX, n=209) groups. Exercise training favorably attenuated seminal markers of both inflammation (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α) and oxidative stress (ROS, MDA, 8-Isoprostane) as well as enhanced antioxidant defense system (SOD, catalase and TAC) (Paerobic exercise training as a treatment option for male factor infertility. The 4-week detraining period was not enough to reverse all benefits promoted by exercise intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Whole body vibration exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; van der Spuy, Ina; Tupper, Susan; Kim, Soo Y; Boden, Catherine

    2017-09-26

    Exercise training is commonly recommended for adults with fibromyalgia. We defined whole body vibration (WBV) exercise as use of a vertical or rotary oscillating platform as an exercise stimulus while the individual engages in sustained static positioning or dynamic movements. The individual stands on the platform, and oscillations result in vibrations transmitted to the subject through the legs. This review is one of a series of reviews that replaces the first review published in 2002. To evaluate benefits and harms of WBV exercise training in adults with fibromyalgia. We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PEDro, Thesis and Dissertation Abstracts, AMED, WHO ICTRP, and ClinicalTrials.gov up to December 2016, unrestricted by language, to identify potentially relevant trials. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in adults with the diagnosis of fibromyalgia based on published criteria including a WBV intervention versus control or another intervention. Major outcomes were health-related quality of life (HRQL), pain intensity, stiffness, fatigue, physical function, withdrawals, and adverse events. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data, performed risk of bias assessments, and assessed the quality of evidence for major outcomes using the GRADE approach. We used a 15% threshold for calculation of clinically relevant differences. We included four studies involving 150 middle-aged female participants from one country. Two studies had two treatment arms (71 participants) that compared WBV plus mixed exercise plus relaxation versus mixed exercise plus relaxation and placebo WBV versus control, and WBV plus mixed exercise versus mixed exercise and control; two studies had three treatment arms (79 participants) that compared WBV plus mixed exercise versus control and mixed relaxation placebo WBV. We judged the overall risk of bias as low for selection (random sequence generation), detection (objectively

  10. Exercise-training intervention studies in competitive swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspenes, Stian Thoresen; Karlsen, Trine

    2012-06-01

    Competitive swimming has a long history and is currently one of the largest Olympic sports, with 16 pool events. Several aspects separate swimming from most other sports such as (i) the prone position; (ii) simultaneous use of arms and legs for propulsion; (iii) water immersion (i.e. hydrostatic pressure on thorax and controlled respiration); (iv) propulsive forces that are applied against a fluctuant element; and (v) minimal influence of equipment on performance. Competitive swimmers are suggested to have specific anthropometrical features compared with other athletes, but are nevertheless dependent on physiological adaptations to enhance their performance. Swimmers thus engage in large volumes of training in the pool and on dry land. Strength training of various forms is widely used, and the energetic systems are addressed by aerobic and anaerobic swimming training. The aim of the current review was to report results from controlled exercise training trials within competitive swimming. From a structured literature search we found 17 controlled intervention studies that covered strength or resistance training, assisted sprint swimming, arms-only training, leg-kick training, respiratory muscle training, training the energy delivery systems and combined interventions across the aforementioned categories. Nine of the included studies were randomized controlled trials. Among the included studies we found indications that heavy strength training on dry land (one to five repetitions maximum with pull-downs for three sets with maximal effort in the concentric phase) or sprint swimming with resistance towards propulsion (maximal pushing with the arms against fixed points or pulling a perforated bowl) may be efficient for enhanced performance, and may also possibly have positive effects on stroke mechanics. The largest effect size (ES) on swimming performance was found in 50 m freestyle after a dry-land strength training regimen of maximum six repetitions across three

  11. Exposing College Students to Exercise: The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailors, Mary H.; Jackson, Andrew S.; McFarlin, Brian K.; Turpin, Ian; Ellis, Kenneth J.; Foreyt, John P.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Bray, Molly S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) study is an exercise program designed to introduce sedentary college students to regular physical activity and to identify genetic factors that influence response to exercise. Participants: A multiracial/ethnic cohort (N = 1,567; 39% male), age 18 to 35 years,…

  12. Astragalus membranaceus Improves Exercise Performance and Ameliorates Exercise-Induced Fatigue in Trained Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Shao Yeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus membranaceus (AM is a popular “Qi-tonifying” herb with a long history of use as a Traditional Chinese Medicine with multiple biological functions. However, evidence for the effects of AM on exercise performance and physical fatigue is limited. We evaluated the potential beneficial effects of AM on ergogenic and anti-fatigue functions following physiological challenge. Male ICR strain mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10 per group for treatment: (1 sedentary control and vehicle treatment (vehicle control; (2 exercise training with vehicle treatment (exercise control; and (3 exercise training with AM treatment at 0.615 g/kg/day (Ex-AM1 or (4 3.075 g/kg/day (Ex-AM5. Both the vehicle and AM were orally administered for 6 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after 15-min swimming exercise. Exercise training combined with AM supplementation increased endurance exercise capacity and increased hepatic and muscle glycogen content. AM reduced exercise-induced accumulation of the byproducts blood lactate and ammonia with acute exercise challenge. Moreover, we found no deleterious effects from AM treatment. Therefore, AM supplementation improved exercise performance and had anti-fatigue effects in mice. It may be an effective ergogenic aid in exercise training.

  13. Telemonitoring of home exercise cycle training in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franke KJ

    2016-11-01

    units. The GLTEQ-score increased from 12.2±12.1 points to 36.3±16.3 and 33.7±17.3. Conclusion: Telemonitoring is a simple method to enhance home exercise training and physical activity, improving health-related quality of life. Keywords: telehealthcare, physical activity, COPD assessment test, telephone support

  14. Psychophysiological Responses to Group Exercise Training Sessions: Does Exercise Intensity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandoni, Matteo; Codrons, Erwan; Marin, Luca; Correale, Luca; Bigliassi, Marcelo; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklim

    2016-01-01

    Group exercise training programs were introduced as a strategy for improving health and fitness and potentially reducing dropout rates. This study examined the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions. Twenty-seven adults completed two group exercise training sessions of moderate and vigorous exercise intensities in a random and counterbalanced order. The %HRR and the exertional and arousal responses to vigorous session were higher than those during the moderate session (psession were less pleasant than those during moderate session (ptraining sessions are intensity-dependent. From an adherence perspective, interventionists are encouraged to emphasize group exercise training sessions at a moderate intensity to maximize affective responses and to minimize exertional responses, which in turn may positively affect future exercise behavior.

  15. Combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training improves cardiovascular function and physical working capacity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang-Bin; Zhang, Shu; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Bing; Yao, Yong-Jie; Wang, Yong-Chun; Wu, Yan-Hong; Liang, Wen-Bin; Sun, Xi-Qing

    2010-12-01

    Musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning occurring in long-term spaceflight gives rise to the needs to develop new strategies to counteract these adverse effects. Short-arm centrifuge combined with ergometer has been proposed as a strategy to counteract adverse effects of microgravity. This study sought to investigate whether the combination of short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training have advantages over short-arm centrifuge or aerobic exercise training alone. One week training was conducted by 24 healthy men. They were randomly divided into 3 groups: (1) short-arm centrifuge training, (2) aerobic exercise training, 40 W, and (3) combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training. Before and after training, the cardiac pump function represented by stroke volume, cardiac output, left ventricular ejection time, and total peripheral resistance was evaluated. Variability of heart rate and systolic blood pressure were determined by spectral analysis. Physical working capacity was surveyed by near maximal physical working capacity test. The 1-week combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training remarkably ameliorated the cardiac pump function and enhanced vasomotor sympathetic nerve modulation and improved physical working capacity by 10.9% (Pcentrifuge nor the aerobic exercise group showed improvements in these functions. These results demonstrate that combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training has advantages over short-arm centrifuge or aerobic exercise training alone in influencing several physiologically important cardiovascular functions in humans. The combination of short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise offers a promising countermeasure to microgravity.

  16. Modulation of Synaptic Plasticity by Exercise Training as a Basis for Ischemic Stroke Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jingjing; Yang, Xiaosu

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, rehabilitation of ischemic stroke draws more and more attention in the world, and has been linked to changes of synaptic plasticity. Exercise training improves motor function of ischemia as well as cognition which is associated with formation of learning and memory. The molecular basis of learning and memory might be synaptic plasticity. Research has therefore been conducted in an attempt to relate effects of exercise training to neuroprotection and neurogenesis adjacent to the ischemic injury brain. The present paper reviews the current literature addressing this question and discusses the possible mechanisms involved in modulation of synaptic plasticity by exercise training. This review shows the pathological process of synaptic dysfunction in ischemic roughly and then discusses the effects of exercise training on scaffold proteins and regulatory protein expression. The expression of scaffold proteins generally increased after training, but the effects on regulatory proteins were mixed. Moreover, the compositions of postsynaptic receptors were changed and the strength of synaptic transmission was enhanced after training. Finally, the recovery of cognition is critically associated with synaptic remodeling in an injured brain, and the remodeling occurs through a number of local regulations including mRNA translation, remodeling of cytoskeleton, and receptor trafficking into and out of the synapse. We do provide a comprehensive knowledge of synaptic plasticity enhancement obtained by exercise training in this review.

  17. Mitochondrial Plasticity With Exercise Training and Extreme Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert; Lundby, Carsten; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria form a reticulum in skeletal muscle. Exercise training stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis, yet an emerging hypothesis is that training also induces qualitative regulatory changes. Substrate oxidation, oxygen affinity and biochemical coupling efficiency may be differentially regulated...... with training and exposure to extreme environments. Threshold training doses inducing mitochondrial up-regulation remain to be elucidated considering fitness level. SUMMARY: Muscle mitochondrial are responsive to training and environment, yet thresholds for volume vs. regulatory changes and their physiological...

  18. Impact of aerobic and anaerobic exercise training on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Song-Young; Kwak, Yi-Sub

    2016-04-01

    Exercise mediates an excessive free radical production leading to oxidative stress (OS). The body has natural antioxidant systems that help decrease OS, and these systems may be enhanced with exercise training. However, only a few studies have investigated the differences in resting OS and antioxidant capacity (AOC) between aerobically trained athletes (ET), anaerobically trained athletes (RT), and untrained individuals (UT). Therefore, this study sought to investigate the resting and postexercise OS and AOC in ET, RT, and UT. Sixty healthy young males (26.6±0.8 yr) participated in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups, ET, RT, and UT by distinct training background. Resting plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) were not significantly different in ET, RT, and UT. However, MDA and PC were significantly increased following a graded exercise test (GXT) in UT but not in ET and RT. Resting total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels and TAC were not different in ET, RT, and UT. Interestingly, TAC levels significantly decreased after the GXT in all groups. Additionally, UT showed lower post-exercise TAC levels compared to ET and RT. These results showed that ET, RT, and UT have similar OS and AOC at rest. However, both ET and RT have greater AOC against exercise mediated OS compared to UT. These findings may explain, at least in part, why both aerobic and anaerobic types of exercise training improve redox balance. However, it appears there is no specific exercise type effect in terms of redox balance.

  19. Endurance training enhances BDNF release from the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Brassard, Patrice; Wissenberg, Mads

    2010-01-01

    The circulating level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is reduced in patients with major depression and type-2 diabetes. Because acute exercise increases BDNF production in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, we hypothesized that endurance training would enhance the release of BDNF from...... the human brain as detected from arterial and internal jugular venous blood samples. In a randomized controlled study, 12 healthy sedentary males carried out 3 mo of endurance training (n = 7) or served as controls (n = 5). Before and after the intervention, blood samples were obtained at rest and during...... exercise. At baseline, the training group (58 + or - 106 ng x 100 g(-1) x min(-1), means + or - SD) and the control group (12 + or - 17 ng x 100 g(-1) x min(-1)) had a similar release of BDNF from the brain at rest. Three months of endurance training enhanced the resting release of BDNF to 206 + or - 108...

  20. Exercise training and the progression of chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eidemak, I; Haaber, A B; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1997-01-01

    The possible beneficial effect of regular exercise training on the progression of chronic renal failure was studied in a prospective randomized controlled study. Thirty patients with a median glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 25 ml/(min.1.73 m2) (range 10-43) were randomized to physical training...... the rate of progression judged by the slope of GFR versus time plot was equal in the two groups. Hence, the beneficial effect of exercise training, earlier observed in rat studies, could not be reproduced in our patients. Physical exercise had no untoward effect on progression of renal disease....

  1. Moderate Load Eccentric Exercise; A Distinct Novel Training Modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppeler, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 20 years a number of studies have been published using progressive eccentric exercise protocols on motorized ergometers or similar devices that allow for controlled application of eccentric loads. Exercise protocols ramp eccentric loads over an initial 3 weeks period in order to prevent muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness. Final training loads reach 400–500 W in rehabilitative settings and over 1200 W in elite athletes. Training is typically carried out three times per week for durations of 20–30 min. This type of training has been characterizes as moderate load eccentric exercise. It has also been denoted RENEW (Resistance Exercise via Negative Eccentric Work by LaStayo et al., 2014). It is distinct from plyometric exercises (i.e., drop jumps) that impose muscle loads of several thousand Watts on muscles and tendons. It is also distinct from eccentric overload training whereby loads in a conventional strength training setting are increased in the eccentric phase of the movement to match concentric loads. Moderate load eccentric exercise (or RENEW) has been shown to be similarly effective as conventional strength training in increasing muscle strength and muscle volume. However, as carried out at higher angular velocities of joint movement, it reduces joint loads. A hallmark of moderate load eccentric exercise is the fact that the energy requirements are typically 4-fold smaller than in concentric exercise of the same load. This makes moderate load eccentric exercise training the tool of choice in medical conditions with limitations in muscle energy supply. The use and effectiveness of moderate load eccentric exercise has been demonstrated mostly in small scale studies for cardiorespiratory conditions, sarcopenia of old age, cancer, diabetes type 2, and neurological conditions. It has also been used effectively in the prevention and rehabilitation of injuries of the locomotor system in particular the rehabilitation after anterior

  2. Regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle: effects of exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzen, Andreas Mæchel; Madsen, Agnete Louise Bjerregaard; Kleinert, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Studies in rodent muscle suggest that autophagy is regulated by acute exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation. However, little is known about the regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle. Here we investigate the autophagic response to acute one-legged exercise, one-legged exer......Studies in rodent muscle suggest that autophagy is regulated by acute exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation. However, little is known about the regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle. Here we investigate the autophagic response to acute one-legged exercise, one......-legged exercise training as well as in response to subsequent insulin stimulation in exercised and non-exercised human muscle. Acute one-legged exercise decreased (phuman muscle....... The decrease in LC3-II/LC3-I ratio did not correlate with activation of AMPK trimer complexes in human muscle. Consistently, pharmacological AMPK activation with AICAR in mouse muscle did not affect the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio. Four hours after exercise, insulin further reduced (p

  3. Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation enhances adaptability to exercise training of mice with a muscle-specific defect in the control of BCAA catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Minjun; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; Shindo, Daichi; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2018-03-01

    Branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) kinase (BDK) suppresses the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism by inactivation of the BCKDH complex. The muscle-specific BDK-deficient (BDK-mKO) mice showed accelerated BCAA oxidation in muscle and decreased endurance capacity after training (Xu et al. PLoS One. 12 (2017) e0180989). We here report that BCAA supplementation overcompensated endurance capacity in BDK-mKO mice after training.

  4. Exercise training prior to myocardial infarction attenuates cardiac deterioration and cardiomyocyte dysfunction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Marchesi Bozi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The present study was performed to investigate 1 whether aerobic exercise training prior to myocardial infarction would prevent cardiac dysfunction and structural deterioration and 2 whether the potential cardiac benefits of aerobic exercise training would be associated with preserved morphological and contractile properties of cardiomyocytes in post-infarct remodeled myocardium. METHODS: Male Wistar rats underwent an aerobic exercise training protocol for eight weeks. The rats were then assigned to sham surgery (SHAM, sedentary lifestyle and myocardial infarction or exercise training and myocardial infarction groups and were evaluated 15 days after the surgery. Left ventricular tissue was analyzed histologically, and the contractile function of isolated myocytes was measured. Student's t-test was used to analyze infarct size and ventricular wall thickness, and the other parameters were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn's test or a one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test (p<0.05. RESULTS: Myocardial infarctions in exercise-trained animals resulted in a smaller myocardial infarction extension, a thicker infarcted wall and less collagen accumulation as compared to myocardial infarctions in sedentary animals. Myocardial infarction-induced left ventricular dilation and cardiac dysfunction, as evaluated by +dP/dt and -dP/dt, were both prevented by previous aerobic exercise training. Moreover, aerobic exercise training preserved cardiac myocyte shortening, improved the maximum shortening and relengthening velocities in infarcted hearts and enhanced responsiveness to calcium. CONCLUSION: Previous aerobic exercise training attenuated the cardiac dysfunction and structural deterioration promoted by myocardial infarction, and such benefits were associated with preserved cardiomyocyte morphological and contractile properties.

  5. Multicomponent physical exercise with simultaneous cognitive training to enhance dual-task walking of older adults: a secondary analysis of a 6-month randomized controlled trial with 1-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eggenberger P

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Eggenberger,1 Nathan Theill,2,3 Stefan Holenstein,1 Vera Schumacher,4,5 Eling D de Bruin1,6,7 1Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Institute of Human Movement Sciences and Sport, ETH Zurich, 2Division of Psychiatry Research, 3Center for Gerontology, 4Department of Gerontopsychology and Gerontology, 5University Research Priority Program “Dynamics of Healthy Aging”, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 6Department of Epidemiology, CAPHRI School for Public Health and Primary Care, 7Centre for Evidence Based Physiotherapy, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands Background: About one-third of people older than 65 years fall at least once a year. Physical exercise has been previously demonstrated to improve gait, enhance physical fitness, and prevent falls. Nonetheless, the addition of cognitive training components may potentially increase these effects, since cognitive impairment is related to gait irregularities and fall risk. We hypothesized that simultaneous cognitive–physical training would lead to greater improvements in dual-task (DT gait compared to exclusive physical training.Methods: Elderly persons older than 70 years and without cognitive impairment were randomly assigned to the following groups: 1 virtual reality video game dancing (DANCE, 2 treadmill walking with simultaneous verbal memory training (MEMORY, or 3 treadmill walking (PHYS. Each program was complemented with strength and balance exercises. Two 1-hour training sessions per week over 6 months were applied. Gait variables, functional fitness (Short Physical Performance Battery, 6-minute walk, and fall frequencies were assessed at baseline, after 3 months and 6 months, and at 1-year follow-up. Multiple regression analyses with planned comparisons were carried out.Results: Eighty-nine participants were randomized to three groups initially; 71 completed the training and 47 were available at 1-year follow-up. DANCE/MEMORY showed a

  6. PGC-1alpha in exercise- and exercise training-induced metabolic adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm

    and interferes with the exercise-induced adaptive response in human skeletal muscle. Study II demonstrates that mouse liver glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) mRNA content increased in recovery from acute exercise in both wildtype (WT) and PGC-1α knockout (KO) mice, while phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK......) and pyruvate carboxylase mRNA content did not change in either genotype. Exercise training increased PEPCK protein content in both WT and PGC-1α KO mice. In addition, the mRNA and protein content of cytochrome (Cyt) c and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) subunit I increased in response to acute exercise and exercise...

  7. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Psychosocial Status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    responsible for this benefit are not fully understood, exercise is known to have ... smokers, alcoholic, diabetic, other cardiac, renal, respiratory disease patients were ..... rehabilitation should feel confident in the use of this mode of training in the ...

  8. Training Studies with Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus – Methodology, Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buks Roberts

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The current article describes topics ranging from the respiratory physiology and the structure of compressed air breathing apparatus to the performance of practical training exercises in an unbreathable environment (hereinafter referred to as UE.

  9. Spreadsheet Decision Support Model for Training Exercise Material Requirements Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tringali, Arthur

    1997-01-01

    ... associated with military training exercises. The model combines the business practice of Material Requirements Planning and the commercial spreadsheet software capabilities of Lotus 1-2-3 to calculate the requirements for food, consumable...

  10. Moderate exercise training promotes adaptations in coronary blood flow and adenosine production in normotensive rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Fernanda R.; Soci, Ursula Paula Renó; De Angelis, Katia; Coelho, Marcele A.; Furstenau, Cristina R.; Vassallo, Dalton V.; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia; Oliveira, Edilamar M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Aerobic exercise training prevents cardiovascular risks. Regular exercise promotes functional and structural adaptations that are associated with several cardiovascular benefits. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of swimming training on coronary blood flow, adenosine production and cardiac capillaries in normotensive rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (C) and trained (T). An exercise protocol was performed for 10 weeks and 60 min/day with a tail overload of 5% bodyweight. Coronary blood flow was quantified with a color microsphere technique, and cardiac capillaries were quantified using light microscopy. Adenine nucleotide hydrolysis was evaluated by enzymatic activity, and protein expression was evaluated by western blot. The results are presented as the means ± SEMs (p<0.05). RESULTS: Exercise training increased the coronary blood flow and the myocardial capillary-to-fiber ratio. Moreover, the circulating and cardiac extracellular adenine nucleotide hydrolysis was higher in the trained rats than in the sedentary rats due to the increased activity and protein expression of enzymes, such as E-NTPDase and 5′-nucleotidase. CONCLUSIONS: Swimming training increases coronary blood flow, number of cardiac capillaries, and adenine nucleotide hydrolysis. Increased adenosine production may be an important contributor to the enhanced coronary blood flow and angiogenesis that were observed in the exercise-trained rats; collectively, these results suggest improved myocardial perfusion. PMID:22189737

  11. Moderate exercise training promotes adaptations in coronary blood flow and adenosine production in normotensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda R. Roque

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Aerobic exercise training prevents cardiovascular risks. Regular exercise promotes functional and structural adaptations that are associated with several cardiovascular benefits. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of swimming training on coronary blood flow, adenosine production and cardiac capillaries in normotensive rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (C and trained (T. An exercise protocol was performed for 10 weeks and 60 min/day with a tail overload of 5% bodyweight. Coronary blood flow was quantified with a color microsphere technique, and cardiac capillaries were quantified using light microscopy. Adenine nucleotide hydrolysis was evaluated by enzymatic activity, and protein expression was evaluated by western blot. The results are presented as the means ± SEMs (p<0.05. RESULTS: Exercise training increased the coronary blood flow and the myocardial capillary-to-fiber ratio. Moreover, the circulating and cardiac extracellular adenine nucleotide hydrolysis was higher in the trained rats than in the sedentary rats due to the increased activity and protein expression of enzymes, such as E-NTPDase and 59- nucleotidase. CONCLUSIONS: Swimming training increases coronary blood flow, number of cardiac capillaries, and adenine nucleotide hydrolysis. Increased adenosine production may be an important contributor to the enhanced coronary blood flow and angiogenesis that were observed in the exercise-trained rats; collectively, these results suggest improved myocardial perfusion.

  12. Short-term intense exercise training reduces stress markers and alters the transcriptional response to exercise in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkley, J Matthew; Konopka, Adam R; Suer, Miranda K; Harber, Matthew P

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of short-term intense endurance training on cycling performance, along with the acute and chronic signaling responses of skeletal muscle stress and stability markers. Ten recreationally active subjects (25 ± 2 yr, 79 ± 3 kg, 47 ± 2 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ) were studied before and after a 12-day cycling protocol to examine the effects of short-term intense (70-100% V̇o 2max ) exercise training on resting and exercise-induced regulation of molecular factors related to skeletal muscle cellular stress and protein stability. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken at rest and 3 h following a 20-km cycle time trial on days 1 and 12 to measure mRNA expression and protein content. Training improved ( P stress. The maintenance in the myocellular environment may be due to synthesis of cytoprotective markers, along with enhanced degradation of damage proteins, as training tended ( P short-term intense training enhances protein stability, creating a cellular environment capable of resistance to exercise-induced stress, which may be favorable for adaptation. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Endurance exercise training induces fat depot-specific differences in basal autophagic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Goki; Kato, Hisashi; Izawa, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to uncover the effect of exercise training on the expression of autophagy marker proteins in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), inguinal WAT (iWAT), and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) collected from eWAT. Male Wistar rats aged 4–5 weeks were randomly divided into two groups, sedentary control (n = 7) and exercise-trained (n = 7). Rats in the exercise-trained group were exercised on a treadmill set at a 5° incline 5 days/week for 9 weeks. We determined that the expression levels of an autophagosome-associating form of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II and of p62 were significantly higher in eWAT from exercise-trained than from control rats, while those of adipose-specific deletion of autophagy-related protein (ATG7) and lysosomal-associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP2a) showed no difference between groups. However, in iWAT, the expression levels of LC3-II and ATG7 were significantly higher in exercise-trained than in control rats. The expression of p62 was highly correlated with that of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a master regulator of adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, in both WAT types (eWAT, r = 0.856, P < 0.05; iWAT, r = 0.762, P < 0.05), whereas LC3-II and PPARγ levels were highly correlated in eWAT (r = 0.765, P < 0.05) but not in iWAT (r = −0.306, ns). In SVF, the expression levels of LC3II, ATG7, and LAMP2a were significantly higher in exercise-trained than in control rats. These results suggest that exercise training suppresses basal autophagy activity in eWAT, but that this activity is enhanced in iWAT and SVF collected from eWAT. Thus, the adaptation of basal autophagic activity following exercise training exhibits fat depot-specific differences. - Highlights: • Autophagy has been associated with obesity and associated diseases. • We examined exercise-associated rat white adipose tissue (WAT) autophagy markers. • Exercise increased

  14. Endurance exercise training induces fat depot-specific differences in basal autophagic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Goki; Kato, Hisashi; Izawa, Tetsuya, E-mail: tizawa@mail.doshisha.ac.jp

    2015-10-23

    The purpose of this study was to uncover the effect of exercise training on the expression of autophagy marker proteins in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), inguinal WAT (iWAT), and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) collected from eWAT. Male Wistar rats aged 4–5 weeks were randomly divided into two groups, sedentary control (n = 7) and exercise-trained (n = 7). Rats in the exercise-trained group were exercised on a treadmill set at a 5° incline 5 days/week for 9 weeks. We determined that the expression levels of an autophagosome-associating form of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II and of p62 were significantly higher in eWAT from exercise-trained than from control rats, while those of adipose-specific deletion of autophagy-related protein (ATG7) and lysosomal-associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP2a) showed no difference between groups. However, in iWAT, the expression levels of LC3-II and ATG7 were significantly higher in exercise-trained than in control rats. The expression of p62 was highly correlated with that of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a master regulator of adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, in both WAT types (eWAT, r = 0.856, P < 0.05; iWAT, r = 0.762, P < 0.05), whereas LC3-II and PPARγ levels were highly correlated in eWAT (r = 0.765, P < 0.05) but not in iWAT (r = −0.306, ns). In SVF, the expression levels of LC3II, ATG7, and LAMP2a were significantly higher in exercise-trained than in control rats. These results suggest that exercise training suppresses basal autophagy activity in eWAT, but that this activity is enhanced in iWAT and SVF collected from eWAT. Thus, the adaptation of basal autophagic activity following exercise training exhibits fat depot-specific differences. - Highlights: • Autophagy has been associated with obesity and associated diseases. • We examined exercise-associated rat white adipose tissue (WAT) autophagy markers. • Exercise increased

  15. Aerobic exercise training promotes additional cardiac benefits better than resistance exercise training in postmenopausal rats with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteiro, Hugo; Buzin, Morgana; Conti, Filipe Fernandes; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Figueroa, Diego; Llesuy, Susana; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia; Sanches, Iris Callado; De Angelis, Kátia

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise training or resistance exercise training on cardiac morphometric, functional, and oxidative stress parameters in rats with ovarian hormone deprivation and diabetes. Female Wistar rats (200-220 g) were divided into a sham-operated group (euglycemic sham-operated sedentary [ES]; n = 8) and three ovariectomized (bilateral removal of ovaries) and diabetic (streptozotocin 50 mg/kg IV) groups as follows: diabetic ovariectomized sedentary (DOS; n = 8), diabetic ovariectomized undergoing aerobic exercise training (DOTA; n = 8), and diabetic ovariectomized undergoing resistance exercise training (DOTR; n = 8). After 8 weeks of resistance (ladder) or aerobic (treadmill) exercise training, left ventricle function and morphometry were evaluated by echocardiography, whereas oxidative stress was evaluated at the left ventricle. The DOS group presented with increased left ventricle cavity in diastole and relative wall thickness (RWT), and these changes were attenuated in both DOTA and DOTR groups. Systolic and diastolic function was impaired in the DOS group compared with the ES group, and only the DOTA group was able to reverse this dysfunction. Lipoperoxidation and glutathione redox balance were improved in both trained groups compared with the DOS group. Glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were higher in the DOTA group than in the other studied groups. Correlations were observed between lipoperoxidation and left ventricle cavity in diastole (r = 0.55), between redox balance and RWT (r = 0.62), and between lipoperoxidation and RWT (r = -0.60). Aerobic exercise training and resistance exercise training promote attenuation of cardiac morphometric dysfunction associated with a reduction in oxidative stress in an experimental model of diabetes and menopause. However, only dynamic aerobic exercise training is able to attenuate systolic and diastolic dysfunction under this condition.

  16. Low intensity exercise training improves skeletal muscle regeneration potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana ePietrangelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether 12 days of low-to-moderate exercise training at low altitude (598 m a.s.l. improves skeletal muscle regeneration in sedentary adult women.Methods: Satellite cells were obtained from the vastus lateralis skeletal muscle of seven women before and after this exercise training at low altitude. They were investigated for differentiation aspects, superoxide anion production, antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial potential variation after a depolarizing insult, intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, and micro (miRNA expression (miR-1, miR-133, miR-206.Results: In these myogenic populations of adult stem cells, those obtained after exercise training, showed increased Fusion Index and intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. This exercise training also generally reduced superoxide anion production in cells (by 12% to 67%, although not in two women, where there was an increase of ~15% along with a reduced superoxide dismutase activity. miRNA expression showed an exercise-induced epigenetic transcription profile that was specific according to the reduced or increased superoxide anion production of the cells. Conclusions: The present study shows that low-to-moderate exercise training at low altitude improves the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle in adult women. The differentiation of cells was favored by increased intracellular calcium concentration and increased the fusion index. This low-to-moderate training at low altitude also depicted the epigenetic signature of cells.

  17. Lessons learned from the quench-11 training exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohorst, J.K.; Allison, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    16 organizations in 12 countries are participating in a RELAP/SCDAPSIM training exercise based on the Quench 11 experiment performed at Karlsruhe (Germany) in 2005. This exercise is being conducted in parallel to an International Standard Problem (ISP). Both the ISP and the RELAP/SCDAPSIM training exercise included a 'semi-blind' portion that was completed in the fall of 2006 and an 'open' portion that is to be completed in the summer of 2007. The RELAP/SCDAPSIM training exercise is coordinated by Innovative Systems Software with support by the International SCDAP Development and Training Program (SDTP). The Quench-11 experiment is based on an electrically heated fuel rod bundle representative of a PWR design. The bundle was subjected to a boil down transient, heat-up, and quenching with peak temperatures exceeding the melting point of the Zircaloy cladding. This experiment was chosen by the European Union as an International Benchmark exercise to compare the effectiveness of quenching models in the severe accident computer codes used today for accident analysis. This paper briefly describes (a) RELAP/SCDAPSIM/MOD3.4, (b) the Quench facility and experiments used in the training exercise, and (c) the training guidelines provided to the participants followed by a more detailed description of the lessons learned from the initial 'semi-blind' portion. The representative results demonstrate that good analysts can still have a difficult time predicting the thermal hydraulic response of a relative simple transient in a complex system

  18. Principles of exercise physiology: responses to acute exercise and long-term adaptations to training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Brown, Anita M; Frontera, Walter R

    2012-11-01

    Physical activity and fitness are associated with a lower prevalence of chronic diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, high blood pressure, and diabetes. This review discusses the body's response to an acute bout of exercise and long-term physiological adaptations to exercise training with an emphasis on endurance exercise. An overview is provided of skeletal muscle actions, muscle fiber types, and the major metabolic pathways involved in energy production. The importance of adequate fluid intake during exercise sessions to prevent impairments induced by dehydration on endurance exercise, muscular power, and strength is discussed. Physiological adaptations that result from regular exercise training such as increases in cardiorespiratory capacity and strength are mentioned. The review emphasizes the cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations that lead to improvements in maximal oxygen capacity. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. AMPKα in Exercise-Induced Substrate Metabolism and Exercise Training-Induced Metabolic and Mitochondrial Adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fentz, Joachim

    in response to 4 weeks of voluntary running wheel exercise training. However, the acute exercise-induced increase in mRNA expression of several metabolic and mitochondrial marker genes is impaired in the mice lacking AMPKα1 and α2. In addition to the two studies and some currently unpublished data this thesis...

  20. Exercise Training Reverses Extrapulmonary Impairments in Smoke-exposed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, T Scott; Aakerøy, Lars; Eisenkolb, Sophia; Kunth, Patricia; Bakkerud, Fredrik; Wohlwend, Martin; Ormbostad, Anne Marie; Fischer, Tina; Wisloff, Ulrik; Schuler, Gerhard; Steinshamn, Sigurd; Adams, Volker; Bronstad, Eivind

    2017-05-01

    Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. However, evidence on the extrapulmonary effects of smoke exposure that precede lung impairments remains unclear at present, as are data on nonpharmacological treatments such as exercise training. Three groups of mice, including control (n = 10), smoking (n = 10), and smoking with 6 wk of high-intensity interval treadmill running (n = 11), were exposed to 20 wk of fresh air or whole-body cigarette smoke. Exercise capacity (peak oxygen uptake) and lung destruction (histology) were subsequently measured, whereas the heart, peripheral endothelium (aorta), and respiratory (diaphragm) and limb (extensor digitorum longus and soleus) skeletal muscles were assessed for in vivo and in vitro function, in situ mitochondrial respiration, and molecular alterations. Smoking reduced body weight by 26% (P 0.05). Smoking impaired exercise capacity by 15% while inducing right ventricular dysfunction by ~20%, endothelial dysfunction by ~20%, and diaphragm muscle weakness by ~15% (all P exercise training (P smoking mice had normal limb muscle and mitochondrial function (cardiac and skeletal muscle fibers); however, diaphragm measures of oxidative stress and protein degradation were increased by 111% and 65%, respectively (P exercise training (P smoking reduced exercise capacity concomitant with functional impairments to the heart, peripheral endothelium, and respiratory muscle that preceded the development of overt emphysema. However, high-intensity exercise training was able to reverse these smoke-induced extrapulmonary impairments.

  1. Ventilatory responses to exercise training in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Monique; Michallet, Anne-Sophie; Estève, François; Perrin, Claudine; Levy, Patrick; Wuyam, Bernard; Flore, Patrice

    2012-10-15

    The aim of this study was to examine ventilatory responses to training in obese adolescents. We assessed body composition, pulmonary function and ventilatory responses (among which expiratory flow limitation and operational lung volumes) during progressive cycling exercise in 16 obese adolescents (OB) before and after 12 weeks of exercise training and in 16 normal-weight volunteers. As expected, obese adolescents' resting expiratory reserve volume was lower and inversely correlated with thoraco-abdominal fat mass (r = -0.74, p<0.0001). OB presented lower end expiratory (EELV) and end inspiratory lung volumes (EILV) at rest and during submaximal exercise, and modest expiratory flow limitation. After training, OB increased maximal aerobic performance (+19%) and maximal inspiratory pressure (93.7±31.4 vs. 81.9±28.2 cm H2O, +14%) despite lack of decrease in trunk fat and body weight. Furthermore, EELV and EILV were greater during submaximal exercise (+11% and +9% in EELV and EILV, respectively), expiratory flow limitation delayed but was not accompanied by increased V(T). However, submaximal exertional symptoms (dyspnea and leg discomfort) were significantly decreased (-71.3% and -70.7%, respectively). Our results suggest that exercise training can improve pulmonary function at rest (static inspiratory muscle strength) and exercise (greater operating lung volumes and delayed expiratory flow limitation) but these modifications did not entirely account for improved dyspnea and exercise performance in obese adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Adaptations with intermittent exercise training in post- and premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Kåre; Nyberg, Michael Permin; Piil, Peter Bergmann

    2017-01-01

    of approximately one training session per week. RESULTS: In PM, the body fat percentage decreased (P training period, with no changes in PRM. In both PM and PRM, lean body mass and maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) were higher, and Yo......INTRODUCTION: The purposes of the present study was to examine the effect of intermittent exercise training on musculoskeletal and metabolic health in postmenopausal (PM) and premenopausal (PRM) women and, furthermore, to evaluate whether the adaptations can be maintained with a reduced training...... frequency. METHODS: Eighteen PM (51 ± 1 yr, mean ± SEM) and 12 PRM (48 ± 1 yr) women participated in floorball training approximately two times per week for 12 wk. In a subgroup (n = 9) of PM women (PM40), exercise training was performed for an additional 40 wk with a reduced training frequency...

  3. Regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle: effects of exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzen, Andreas M.; Madsen, Agnete B.; Kleinert, Maximilian; Treebak, Jonas T.; Lundsgaard, Anne‐Marie; Jensen, Thomas E.; Richter, Erik A.; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Kiens, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Key points Regulation of autophagy in human muscle in many aspects differs from the majority of previous reports based on studies in cell systems and rodent muscle.An acute bout of exercise and insulin stimulation reduce human muscle autophagosome content.An acute bout of exercise regulates autophagy by a local contraction‐induced mechanism.Exercise training increases the capacity for formation of autophagosomes in human muscle.AMPK activation during exercise seems insufficient to regulate autophagosome content in muscle, while mTORC1 signalling via ULK1 probably mediates the autophagy‐inhibiting effect of insulin. Abstract Studies in rodent muscle suggest that autophagy is regulated by acute exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation. However, little is known about the regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle. Here we investigate the autophagic response to acute one‐legged exercise, one‐legged exercise training and subsequent insulin stimulation in exercised and non‐exercised human muscle. Acute one‐legged exercise decreased (Pexercise in human muscle. The decrease in LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio did not correlate with activation of 5′AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) trimer complexes in human muscle. Consistently, pharmacological AMPK activation with 5‐aminoimidazole‐4‐carboxamide riboside (AICAR) in mouse muscle did not affect the LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio. Four hours after exercise, insulin further reduced (Pexercised and non‐exercised leg in humans. This coincided with increased Ser‐757 phosphorylation of Unc51 like kinase 1 (ULK1), which is suggested as a mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) target. Accordingly, inhibition of mTOR signalling in mouse muscle prevented the ability of insulin to reduce the LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio. In response to 3 weeks of one‐legged exercise training, the LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio decreased (Pexercise and insulin stimulation reduce muscle autophagosome content, while exercise

  4. Evidence based exercise - clinical benefits of high intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraev, Tim; Barclay, Gabriella

    2012-12-01

    Aerobic exercise has a marked impact on cardiovascular disease risk. Benefits include improved serum lipid profiles, blood pressure and inflammatory markers as well as reduced risk of stroke, acute coronary syndrome and overall cardiovascular mortality. Most exercise programs prescribed for fat reduction involve continuous, moderate aerobic exercise, as per Australian Heart Foundation clinical guidelines. This article describes the benefits of exercise for patients with cardiovascular and metabolic disease and details the numerous benefits of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in particular. Aerobic exercise has numerous benefits for high-risk populations and such benefits, especially weight loss, are amplified with HIIT. High intensity interval training involves repeatedly exercising at a high intensity for 30 seconds to several minutes, separated by 1-5 minutes of recovery (either no or low intensity exercise). HIT is associated with increased patient compliance and improved cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes and is suitable for implementation in both healthy and 'at risk' populations. Importantly, as some types of exercise are contraindicated in certain patient populations and HIIT is a complex concept for those unfamiliar to exercise, some patients may require specific assessment or instruction before commencing a HIIT program.

  5. Respiratory Muscle Training and Cognitive Function Exercising at Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quackenbush, Joseph; Duquin, Aubrey; Helfer, Samuel; Pendergast, David R

    2016-01-01

    Hiking and trekking often occur at altitudes up to 12,000 ft altitude. The hypoxia-induced hyperventilation at altitude paradoxically reduces arterial CO2 (Paco2). A reduction in Paco2 results in vasoconstriction of the blood vessels of the brain and thus in local hypoxia. The local hypoxia likely affects cognitive function, which may result in reduced performance and altitude accidents. Recent publications have demonstrated that voluntary isocapnic hyperventilatory training of the respiratory muscles (VIHT) can markedly enhance exercise endurance as it is associated with reduced ventilation and its energy cost. VIHT may be useful in blunting the altitude-induced hyperventilation leading to higher Paco2 and improved cognitive function. This study examined the effects of VIHT, compared to control (C) and placebo (PVIHT) groups, on selected measures of executive functioning, including working memory and processing speed (i.e., Stroop Test, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, and Digit Span Forward) at simulated altitude up to 12,000 ft. Associated physiological parameters were also measured. The Digit Span Forward Test did not show improvements after VIHT in any group. The VIHT group, but not C or PVIHT groups, improved significantly (17-30%) on the Stroop Test. Similarly the VIHT group, but not the C and PVIHT groups, improved correct responses (26%) and number of attempts (24%) on the Symbol Digit Modalities Test. In addition, reaction time was also improved (16%). VIHT improved processing speed and working memory during exercise at altitude.

  6. Respiratory Muscle Training and Exercise Endurance at Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfer, Samuel; Quackenbush, Joseph; Fletcher, Michael; Pendergast, David R

    2016-08-01

    Climbing and trekking at altitude are common recreational and military activities. Physiological effects of altitude are hypoxia and hyperventilation. The hyperventilatory response to altitude may cause respiratory muscle fatigue and reduce sustained submaximal exercise. Voluntary isocapnic hyperpnea respiratory muscle training (VIHT) improves exercise endurance at sea level and at depth. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that VIHT would improve exercise time at altitude [3600 m (11,811 ft)] compared to control and placebo groups. Subjects pedaled an ergometer until exhaustion at simulated altitude in a hypobaric chamber while noninvasive arterial saturation (Sao2), ventilation (VE), and oxygen consumption (Vo2) were measured. As expected, Sao2 decreased to 88 ± 4% saturation at rest and to 81 ± 2% during exercise, and was not affected by VIHT. VIHT resulted in a 40% increase in maximal training VE compared to pre-VIHT. Exercise endurance significantly increased 44% after VIHT (P = altitude post-VIHT increased more (49%) for longer (21 min) and decreased less (11% at 25.4 ± 6.7 min). VIHT improved exercise time at altitude and sustained VE. This suggests that VIHT reduced respiratory muscle fatigue and would be useful to trekkers and military personnel working at altitude. Helfer S, Quackenbush J, Fletcher M, Pendergast DR. Respiratory muscle training and exercise endurance at altitutde. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(8):704-711.

  7. Blood flow restriction training and the exercise pressor reflex: a call for concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spranger, Marty D; Krishnan, Abhinav C; Levy, Phillip D; O'Leary, Donal S; Smith, Scott A

    2015-11-01

    Blood flow restriction (BFR) training (also known as Kaatsu training) is an increasingly common practice employed during resistance exercise by athletes attempting to enhance skeletal muscle mass and strength. During BFR training, blood flow to the exercising muscle is mechanically restricted by placing flexible pressurizing cuffs around the active limb proximal to the working muscle. This maneuver results in the accumulation of metabolites (e.g., protons and lactic acid) in the muscle interstitium that increase muscle force and promote muscle growth. Therefore, the premise of BFR training is to simulate and receive the benefits of high-intensity resistance exercise while merely performing low-intensity resistance exercise. This technique has also been purported to provide health benefits to the elderly, individuals recovering from joint injuries, and patients undergoing cardiac rehabilitation. Since the seminal work of Alam and Smirk in the 1930s, it has been well established that reductions in blood flow to exercising muscle engage the exercise pressor reflex (EPR), a reflex that significantly contributes to the autonomic cardiovascular response to exercise. However, the EPR and its likely contribution to the BFR-mediated cardiovascular response to exercise is glaringly missing from the scientific literature. Inasmuch as the EPR has been shown to generate exaggerated increases in sympathetic nerve activity in disease states such as hypertension (HTN), heart failure (HF), and peripheral artery disease (PAD), concerns are raised that BFR training can be used safely for the rehabilitation of patients with cardiovascular disease, as has been suggested. Abnormal BFR-induced and EPR-mediated cardiovascular complications generated during exercise could precipitate adverse cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events (e.g., cardiac arrhythmia, myocardial infarction, stroke and sudden cardiac death). Moreover, although altered EPR function in HTN, HF, and PAD underlies our

  8. Ginsenoside Rg3 improves cardiac mitochondrial population quality: Mimetic exercise training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Mengwei [Key Laboratory of State General Administration of Sport, Shanghai Research Institute of Sports Science, Shanghai 200031 (China); Huang, Chenglin [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Vascular Biology, Department of Hypertension and Pharmacology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Wang, Cheng; Zheng, Jianheng; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Yangshu [Key Laboratory of State General Administration of Sport, Shanghai Research Institute of Sports Science, Shanghai 200031 (China); Chen, Hong, E-mail: hchen100@hotmail.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Vascular Biology, Department of Hypertension and Pharmacology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Shen, Weili, E-mail: weili_shen@hotmail.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Vascular Biology, Department of Hypertension and Pharmacology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Rg3 is an ergogenic aid. •Rg3 improves mitochondrial antioxidant capacity. •Rg3 regulates mitochondria dynamic remodeling. •Rg3 alone matches some the benefits of aerobic exercise. -- Abstract: Emerging evidence indicates exercise training could mediate mitochondrial quality control through the improvement of mitochondrial dynamics. Ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), one of the active ingredients in Panax ginseng, is well known in herbal medicine as a tonic and restorative agent. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of Rg3 has been elusive. In the present study, we compared the effects of Rg3 administration with aerobic exercise on mitochondrial adaptation in cardiac muscle tissue of Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats. Three groups of SD rats were studied: (1) sedentary control, (2) Rg3-treated and (3) aerobic exercise trained. Both aerobic exercise training and Rg3 supplementation enhanced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) and nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels in cardiac muscle. The activation of PGC-1α led to increased mRNA levels of mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) and nuclear related factor 1(Nrf1), these changes were accompanied by increases in mitochondrial DNA copy number and complex protein levels, while activation of Nrf2 increased levels of phase II detoxifying enzymes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate:quinone oxidoreductase 1(NQO1), superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase. Aerobic exercise also enhanced mitochondrial autophagy pathway activity, including increased conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and greater expression of beclin1 and autophagy-related protein 7 (ATG7), these effects of aerobic exercise are comparable to that of Rg3. These results demonstrate that Rg3 mimics improved cardiac adaptations to exercise by regulating mitochondria dynamic remodeling and enhancing the quantity and quality of mitochondria.

  9. Ginsenoside Rg3 improves cardiac mitochondrial population quality: Mimetic exercise training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Mengwei; Huang, Chenglin; Wang, Cheng; Zheng, Jianheng; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Yangshu; Chen, Hong; Shen, Weili

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Rg3 is an ergogenic aid. •Rg3 improves mitochondrial antioxidant capacity. •Rg3 regulates mitochondria dynamic remodeling. •Rg3 alone matches some the benefits of aerobic exercise. -- Abstract: Emerging evidence indicates exercise training could mediate mitochondrial quality control through the improvement of mitochondrial dynamics. Ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), one of the active ingredients in Panax ginseng, is well known in herbal medicine as a tonic and restorative agent. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of Rg3 has been elusive. In the present study, we compared the effects of Rg3 administration with aerobic exercise on mitochondrial adaptation in cardiac muscle tissue of Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats. Three groups of SD rats were studied: (1) sedentary control, (2) Rg3-treated and (3) aerobic exercise trained. Both aerobic exercise training and Rg3 supplementation enhanced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) and nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels in cardiac muscle. The activation of PGC-1α led to increased mRNA levels of mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) and nuclear related factor 1(Nrf1), these changes were accompanied by increases in mitochondrial DNA copy number and complex protein levels, while activation of Nrf2 increased levels of phase II detoxifying enzymes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate:quinone oxidoreductase 1(NQO1), superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase. Aerobic exercise also enhanced mitochondrial autophagy pathway activity, including increased conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and greater expression of beclin1 and autophagy-related protein 7 (ATG7), these effects of aerobic exercise are comparable to that of Rg3. These results demonstrate that Rg3 mimics improved cardiac adaptations to exercise by regulating mitochondria dynamic remodeling and enhancing the quantity and quality of mitochondria

  10. Effects of exercise training on calf muscle oxygen extraction and blood flow in patients with peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Wesley B; Li, Zhe; Schenkel, Steven S; Chandra, Malavika; Busch, David R; Englund, Erin K; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Yodh, Arjun G; Floyd, Thomas F; Mohler, Emile R

    2017-12-01

    We employed near-infrared optical techniques, diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS), and frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (FD-NIRS) to test the hypothesis that supervised exercise training increases skeletal muscle microvascular blood flow and oxygen extraction in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) who experience claudication. PAD patients ( n = 64) were randomly assigned to exercise and control groups. Patients in the exercise group received 3 mo of supervised exercise training. Calf muscle blood flow and oxygen extraction were optically monitored before, during, and after performance of a graded treadmill protocol at baseline and at 3 mo in both groups. Additionally, measurements of the ankle-brachial index (ABI) and peak walking time (PWT) to maximal claudication were made during each patient visit. Supervised exercise training was found to increase the maximal calf muscle blood flow and oxygen extraction levels during treadmill exercise by 29% (13%, 50%) and 8% (1%, 12%), respectively [ P group population were significantly higher than corresponding changes in the control group ( P training also increased PWT by 49% (18%, 101%) ( P = 0.01). However, within statistical error, the ABI, resting calf muscle blood flow and oxygen extraction, and the recovery half-time for hemoglobin\\myoglobin desaturation following cessation of maximal exercise were not altered by exercise training. The concurrent monitoring of both blood flow and oxygen extraction with the hybrid DCS/FD-NIRS instrument revealed enhanced muscle oxidative metabolism during physical activity from exercise training, which could be an underlying mechanism for the observed improvement in PWT. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We report on noninvasive optical measurements of skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen extraction dynamics before/during/after treadmill exercise in peripheral artery disease patients who experience claudication. The measurements tracked the effects of a 3-mo supervised

  11. Effects of exercise training on coronary collateralization and control of collateral resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    Coronary collateral vessels serve as a natural protective mechanism to provide coronary flow to ischemic myocardium secondary to critical coronary artery stenosis. The innate collateral circulation of the normal human heart is typically minimal and considerable variability occurs in extent of collateralization in coronary artery disease patients. A well-developed collateral circulation has been documented to exert protective effects upon myocardial perfusion, contractile function, infarct size, and electrocardiographic abnormalities. Thus therapeutic augmentation of collateral vessel development and/or functional adaptations in collateral and collateral-dependent arteries to reduce resistance into the ischemic myocardium represent a desirable goal in the management of coronary artery disease. Tremendous evidence has provided documentation for the therapeutic benefits of exercise training programs in patients with coronary artery disease (and collateralization); mechanisms that underlie these benefits are numerous and multifaceted, and currently under investigation in multiple laboratories worldwide. The role of enhanced collateralization as a major beneficial contributor has not been fully resolved. This topical review highlights literature that examines the effects of exercise training on collateralization in the diseased heart, as well as effects of exercise training on vascular endothelial and smooth muscle control of regional coronary tone in the collateralized heart. Future directions for research in this area involve further delineation of cellular/molecular mechanisms involved in effects of exercise training on collateralized myocardium, as well as development of novel therapies based on emerging concepts regarding exercise training and coronary artery disease. PMID:21565987

  12. Effects of exercise training in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Man, F S; Handoko, M L; Groepenhoff, H; van 't Hul, A J; Abbink, J; Koppers, R J H; Grotjohan, H P; Twisk, J W R; Bogaard, H-J; Boonstra, A; Postmus, P E; Westerhof, N; van der Laarse, W J; Vonk-Noordegraaf, A

    2009-09-01

    We determined the physiological effects of exercise training on exercise capacity and quadriceps muscle function in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH). In total, 19 clinically stable iPAH patients (New York Heart Association II-III) underwent a supervised exercise training programme for the duration of 12 weeks. Maximal capacity, endurance capacity and quadriceps function were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. In 12 patients, serial quadriceps muscle biopsies were obtained. 6-min walk distance and peak exercise capacity did not change after training. However, endurance capacity improved significantly after training, demonstrated by a shift of the anaerobic threshold to a higher workload (from 32+/-5 to 46+/-6 W; p = 0.003) together with an increase in exercise endurance time (pendurance by 34% (p = 0.001). Training enhanced aerobic capacity of the quadriceps, by increasing capillarisation (1.36+/-0.10 to 1.78+/-0.13 capillaries per muscle fibre; pendurance and quadriceps muscle function, which is also reflected by structural changes of the quadriceps.

  13. How much exercise does the enhanced gait-oriented physiotherapy provide for chronic stroke patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peurala, Sinikka H; Pitkänen, Kauko; Sivenius, Juhani; Tarkka, Ina M

    2004-04-01

    Physical exercise therapy in sensorimotor rehabilitation of stroke patients includes active and repetitive exercise and task-specific training. The time spent in active practice is fundamental. The purpose of this study was to analyse what was the actual amount of exercise and content of the performed exercise of the three-week gait-oriented physiotherapy program for chronic stroke patients in an in-patient setting. Twenty ambulatory post-stroke patients participated in an in-patient rehabilitation period during which a special effort was made to enhance gait training and the amount of therapy and its contents were recorded in structured form. Baseline and postintervention gait ability assessments were made, but the analysis concentrated on participation records in different forms of therapy. Patients received 19 hours of instructed physiotherapy in three weeks and together with self-initiated training they practised for 28 hours. The practice time in the upright position was 62% of the total duration of the instructed physiotherapy and 35% was performed while sitting. This amount of exercise resulted in improvement of the gait tests. In order to improve gait in the chronic state of disease, a sufficient amount of gait rehabilitation practice can be obtained with a combination of electromechanical gait trainer exercises, physiotherapy, instructed exercise groups and self-initiated training.

  14. Redox modulation of mitochondriogenesis in exercise. Does antioxidant supplementation blunt the benefits of exercise training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Salvador-Pascual, Andrea; Cabo, Helena; Ferrando, Beatriz; Viña, Jose

    2015-09-01

    Physical exercise increases the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in muscle, liver, and other organs. This is unlikely due to increased mitochondrial production but rather to extramitochondrial sources such as NADPH oxidase or xanthine oxidase. We have reported a xanthine oxidase-mediated increase in ROS production in many experimental models from isolated cells to humans. Originally, ROS were considered as detrimental and thus as a likely cause of cell damage associated with exhaustion. In the past decade, evidence showing that ROS act as signals has been gathered and thus the idea that antioxidant supplementation in exercise is always recommendable has proved incorrect. In fact, we proposed that exercise itself can be considered as an antioxidant because training increases the expression of classical antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and, in general, lowering the endogenous antioxidant enzymes by administration of antioxidant supplements may not be a good strategy when training. Antioxidant enzymes are not the only ones to be activated by training. Mitochondriogenesis is an important process activated in exercise. Many redox-sensitive enzymes are involved in this process. Important signaling molecules like MAP kinases, NF-κB, PGC-1α, p53, heat shock factor, and others modulate muscle adaptation to exercise. Interventions aimed at modifying the production of ROS in exercise must be performed with care as they may be detrimental in that they may lower useful adaptations to exercise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of trunk kinematics in trunk training exercises and throwing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, David F; Campbell, Brian M; Moyer, Todd M

    2008-01-01

    Strength and conditioning professionals, as well as coaches, have emphasized the importance of training the trunk and the benefits it may have on sport performance and reducing the potential for injury. However, no data on the efficacy of trunk training support such claims. The purpose of this study was to examine the maximum differential trunk rotation and maximum angular velocities of the pelvis and upper torso of participants while they performed 4 trunk exercises (seated band rotations, cross-overs, medicine ball throws, and twisters) and compare these trunk exercise kinematics with the trunk kinematics demonstrated in actual throwing performance. Nine NCAA Division I baseball players participated in this study. Each participant's trunk kinematics was analyzed while he performed 5 repetitions of each exercise in both dominant and nondominant rotational directions. Results indicated maximum differentiated rotation in all 4 trunk exercises was similar to maximum differentiated rotation (approximately 50-60 degrees) demonstrated in throwing performance. Maximum angular velocities of the pelvis and upper torso in the trunk exercises were appreciably slower (approximately 50% or less) than the angular velocities demonstrated during throwing performance. Incorporating trunk training exercises that demonstrate sufficient trunk ranges of motion and velocities into a strength and conditioning program may help to increase ball velocity and/or decrease the risk injury.

  16. Exercise training protects against aging-induced mitochondrial fragmentation in mouse skeletal muscle in a PGC-1α dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling, Jens Frey; Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm; Olesen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Aging is associated with impaired mitochondrial function, whereas exercise training enhances mitochondrial content and function in part through activation of PGC-1α. Mitochondria form dynamic networks regulated by fission and fusion with profound effects on mitochondrial functions, yet the effect...... evidence that exercise training rescues aging-induced mitochondrial fragmentation in skeletal muscle by suppressing mitochondrial fission protein expression in a PGC-1α dependent manner....

  17. Do antioxidant supplements interfere with skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristow, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A popular belief is that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) produced during exercise by the mitochondria and other subcellular compartments ubiquitously cause skeletal muscle damage, fatigue and impair recovery. However, the importance of ROS and RNS as signals in the cellular adaptation process to stress is now evident. In an effort to combat the perceived deleterious effects of ROS and RNS it has become common practice for active individuals to ingest supplements with antioxidant properties, but interfering with ROS/RNS signalling in skeletal muscle during acute exercise may blunt favourable adaptation. There is building evidence that antioxidant supplementation can attenuate endurance training‐induced and ROS/RNS‐mediated enhancements in antioxidant capacity, mitochondrial biogenesis, cellular defence mechanisms and insulin sensitivity. However, this is not a universal finding, potentially indicating that there is redundancy in the mechanisms controlling skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise, meaning that in some circumstances the negative impact of antioxidants on acute exercise response can be overcome by training. Antioxidant supplementation has been more consistently reported to have deleterious effects on the response to overload stress and high‐intensity training, suggesting that remodelling of skeletal muscle following resistance and high‐intensity exercise is more dependent on ROS/RNS signalling. Importantly there is no convincing evidence to suggest that antioxidant supplementation enhances exercise‐training adaptions. Overall, ROS/RNS are likely to exhibit a non‐linear (hormetic) pattern on exercise adaptations, where physiological doses are beneficial and high exposure (which would seldom be achieved during normal exercise training) may be detrimental. PMID:26638792

  18. Emergency preparedness and its enhancement in Japan: From perspectives of infrastructure preparation, and exercise enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funahashi, T.

    2010-01-01

    The organizational structure, procedures and infrastructures for the nuclear emergency response were established in Japan in the aftermath of the JCO accident and have been improved through exercises, drills and training. This paper overviews the infrastructure for the emergency response prepared by JNES and exercises implemented or supported by JNES for nuclear emergency preparedness. Approaches to feeding back exercise results are also addressed. (author)

  19. Does 'altitude training' increase exercise performance in elite athletes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundby, Carsten; Robach, Paul

    2016-07-01

    What is the topic of this review? The aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of various altitude training strategies as investigated within the last few years. What advances does it highlight? Based on the available literature, the foundation to recommend altitude training to athletes is weak. Athletes may use one of the various altitude training strategies to improve exercise performance. The scientific support for such strategies is, however, not as sound as one would perhaps imagine. The question addressed in this review is whether altitude training should be recommended to elite athletes or not. © 2016 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  20. PERSONALITY DOES NOT INFLUENCE EXERCISE-INDUCED MOOD ENHANCEMENT AMONG FEMALE EXERCISERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Lane

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the influence of personality on exercise-induced mood changes. It was hypothesised that (a exercise would be associated with significant mood enhancement across all personality types, (b extroversion would be associated with positive mood and neuroticism with negative mood both pre- and post-exercise, and (c personality measures would interact with exercise-induced mood changes. Participants were 90 female exercisers (M = 25.8 yr, SD = 9.0 yr who completed the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI once and the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS before and after a 60-minute exercise session. Median splits were used to group participants into four personality types: stable introverts (n = 25, stable extroverts (n = 20, neurotic introverts (n = 26, and neurotic extroverts (n = 19. Repeated measures MANOVA showed significant mood enhancement following exercise across all personality types. Neuroticism was associated with negative mood scores pre- and post-exercise but the effect of extroversion on reported mood was relatively weak. There was no significant interaction effect between exercise-induced mood enhancement and personality. In conclusion, findings lend support to the notion that exercise is associated with improved mood. However, findings show that personality did not influence this effect, although neuroticism was associated with negative mood

  1. Effects of Hypoxic Training versus Normoxic Training on Exercise Performance in Competitive Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun-Young Park, Kiwon Lim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In swimming competition, optimal swimming performance is characterized by a variety of interchangeable components, such as aerobic exercise capacity, anaerobic power and muscular function. Various hypoxic training methods would potentiate greater performance improvements compared to similar training at sea-level. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of six-weeks of hypoxic training on exercise performance in moderately trained competitive swimmers. Twenty swimmers were equally divided into a normoxic training group (n = 10 for residing and training at sea-level (PIO2 = 149.7 mmHg, and a hypoxic training group (n = 10 for residing at sea-level but training at 526 mmHg hypobaric hypoxic condition (PIO2 = 100.6 mmHg. Aerobic exercise capacity, anaerobic power, muscular function, hormonal response and 50 and 400 m swimming performance were measured before and after training, which was composed of warm-up, continuous training, interval training, elastic resistance training, and cool-down. The training frequency was 120 min, 3 days per week for 6 weeks. Muscular function and hormonal response parameters showed significant interaction effects (all p 0.288 in muscular strength and endurance, growth hormone; GH, insulin like growth factor-1; IGF-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor; VEGF. The other variables demonstrated no significant interaction effects. However, a hypoxic training group also showed significantly increased maximal oxygen consumption; VO2max (p = 0.001, peak anaerobic power (p = 0.001, and swimming performances for 50 m (p = 0.000 and 400 m (p = 0.000. These results indicated that the hypoxic training method proposed in our study is effective for improvement of muscular strength and endurance in moderately trained competitive swimmers compared to control group. However, our hypoxic training method resulted in unclear changes in aerobic exercise capacity (VO2max, anaerobic power, and swimming performance of 50 m and

  2. Exercise training restores cardiac protein quality control in heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane C Campos

    Full Text Available Exercise training is a well-known coadjuvant in heart failure treatment; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects remain elusive. Despite the primary cause, heart failure is often preceded by two distinct phenomena: mitochondria dysfunction and cytosolic protein quality control disruption. The objective of the study was to determine the contribution of exercise training in regulating cardiac mitochondria metabolism and cytosolic protein quality control in a post-myocardial infarction-induced heart failure (MI-HF animal model. Our data demonstrated that isolated cardiac mitochondria from MI-HF rats displayed decreased oxygen consumption, reduced maximum calcium uptake and elevated H₂O₂ release. These changes were accompanied by exacerbated cardiac oxidative stress and proteasomal insufficiency. Declined proteasomal activity contributes to cardiac protein quality control disruption in our MI-HF model. Using cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes, we showed that either antimycin A or H₂O₂ resulted in inactivation of proteasomal peptidase activity, accumulation of oxidized proteins and cell death, recapitulating our in vivo model. Of interest, eight weeks of exercise training improved cardiac function, peak oxygen uptake and exercise tolerance in MI-HF rats. Moreover, exercise training restored mitochondrial oxygen consumption, increased Ca²⁺-induced permeability transition and reduced H₂O₂ release in MI-HF rats. These changes were followed by reduced oxidative stress and better cardiac protein quality control. Taken together, our findings uncover the potential contribution of mitochondrial dysfunction and cytosolic protein quality control disruption to heart failure and highlight the positive effects of exercise training in re-establishing cardiac mitochondrial physiology and protein quality control, reinforcing the importance of this intervention as a non-pharmacological tool for heart failure therapy.

  3. Exercise and exercise training-induced increase in autophagy markers in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Nina; Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Bangsbo, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Moderately trained male subjects (mean age 25 years; range 19-33 years) completed an 8-week exercise training intervention consisting of continuous moderate cycling at 157 ± 20 W for 60 min (MOD; n = 6) or continuous moderate cycling (157 ± 20 W) interspersed by 30-sec sprints (473 ± 79 W) every 10...... muscle AMPKThr172 and ULKSer317 phosphorylation was elevated immediately after exercise, whereas mTORSer2448 and ULKSer757 phosphorylation was unchanged. Two hours after exercise LC3I, LC3II and BNIP3 protein content was overall higher than before exercise with no change in p62 protein. In MOD, Beclin1...... protein content was higher immediately and 2 h after exercise than before exercise, while there were no differences within SPRINT. Oxphos complex I, LC3I, BNIP3 and Parkin protein content was higher after the training intervention than before in both groups, while there was no difference in LC3II and p62...

  4. Enhancing team-sport athlete performance: is altitude training relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billaut, François; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J

    2012-09-01

    Field-based team sport matches are composed of short, high-intensity efforts, interspersed with intervals of rest or submaximal exercise, repeated over a period of 60-120 minutes. Matches may also be played at moderate altitude where the lower oxygen partial pressure exerts a detrimental effect on performance. To enhance run-based performance, team-sport athletes use varied training strategies focusing on different aspects of team-sport physiology, including aerobic, sprint, repeated-sprint and resistance training. Interestingly, 'altitude' training (i.e. living and/or training in O(2)-reduced environments) has only been empirically employed by athletes and coaches to improve the basic characteristics of speed and endurance necessary to excel in team sports. Hypoxia, as an additional stimulus to training, is typically used by endurance athletes to enhance performance at sea level and to prepare for competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved in the last few decades, which are known to enhance aerobic power and, thus, endurance performance. Altitude training can also promote an increased anaerobic fitness, and may enhance sprint capacity. Therefore, altitude training may confer potentially-beneficial adaptations to team-sport athletes, which have been overlooked in contemporary sport physiology research. Here, we review the current knowledge on the established benefits of altitude training on physiological systems relevant to team-sport performance, and conclude that current evidence supports implementation of altitude training modalities to enhance match physical performances at both sea level and altitude. We hope that this will guide the practice of many athletes and stimulate future research to better refine training programmes.

  5. Endurance exercise training increases peripheral vascular response in human fingers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, K; Shimoda, M; Maeda, J; Takemiya, T

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify whether peripheral vascular response to alteration of transmural pressure is changed by endurance exercise training. The healthy male subjects (training group; n = 6) performed endurance exercise training that consisted of cycle ergometer exercise 5 d.week-1 and 30 min.d-1 for a period of 8 weeks. Changes in the peripheral vascular response to alteration of transmural pressure in the human finger were measured by a differential digital photoplethysmogram (DeltaDPG) and blood pressure during passive movement of the arm to different vertical hand positions relative to heart level. Following 8 weeks of endurance training, percent changes in DeltaDPG from heart level in the training group increased significantly (mean +/- SD, -48.1 +/- 7. 3 to -58.7 +/- 9.3% at the lowered position, 46.1 +/- 13.4 to 84.6 +/- 8.8% at the elevated position, ppressure, also significantly changed in the training group over the 8 weeks (5.6 +/- 1.3 to 2.7 +/- 1.6 mV. V-1.s-1.mmHg-1 at the lowered position, 30.0 +/- 12.4 to 54.4 +/- 18. 9 mV.V-1.s-1.mmHg-1 at the elevated position ). Maximal oxygen uptake (V.O2 max) was significantly increased in the training group. On the other hand, the control group (n = 6) showed no significant changes in all parameters for 8 weeks. Therefore these results suggest that endurance exercise training induces an increase in peripheral vascular response to alteration of transmural pressure in the human finger.

  6. Dynamic exercise enhances regional cerebral artery mean flow velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linkis, P; Jørgensen, L G; Olesen, H L

    1995-01-01

    Dynamic exercise enhances regional cerebral artery mean flow velocity. J. Appl. Physiol. 78(1): 12-16, 1995.--Anterior (ACA) and middle (MCA) cerebral artery mean flow velocities (Vmean) and pulsatility indexes were determined using transcranial Doppler in 14 subjects during dynamic exercise afte...

  7. Exercise Enhances Whole-Body Cholesterol Turnover in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, Maxi; Havinga, Rick; Boverhof, Renze; Kema, Ido; Groen, Albert K.; Kuipers, Folkert

    MEISSNER, M., R. HAVINGA, R. BOVERHOF, I. KEMA, A. K. GROEN, and F. KUIPERS. Exercise Enhances Whole-Body Cholesterol Turnover in Mice. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 42, No. 8, pp. 1460-1468, 2010. Purpose: Regular exercise reduces cardiovascular risk in humans by reducing cholesterol levels, but

  8. A Clinician Guide to Altitude Training for Optimal Endurance Exercise Performance at Sea Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantini, Keren; Wilhite, Daniel P; Chapman, Robert F

    2017-06-01

    Constantini, Keren, Daniel P. Wilhite, and Robert F. Chapman. A clinician guide to altitude training for optimal endurance exercise performance at sea level. High Alt Med Biol. 18:93-101, 2017.-For well over 50 years, endurance athletes have been utilizing altitude training in an effort to enhance performance in sea level competition. This brief review will offer the clinician a series of evidence-based best-practice guidelines on prealtitude and altitude training considerations, which can ultimately maximize performance improvement outcomes.

  9. High intensity interval exercise training in overweight young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijie, T; Hainai, Y; Fengying, Y; Jianxiong, W

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was intended to evaluate the effects of a high intensity interval training (HIIT) program on the body composition, cardiac function and aerobic capacity in overweight young women. Sixty female university students (aged 19-20, BMI≥25kg/m2 and percentage body fat ≥ 30%) were chosen and then randomly assigned to each of the HIIT group, the moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) group and the non-training control group. The subjects in both the HIIT and MICT groups underwent exercise training five times per week for 12 weeks. In each of the training sessions, the HIIT group performed interval exercises at the individualized heart rate (HR) of 85% of VO2max and separated by brief periods of low intensity activity (HR at 50% of VO2max), while the MICT group did continuous walking and/or jogging at the individualized HR of 50% of VO2max. Both of these exercise training programs produced significant improvements in the subjects' body composition, left ventricular ejection fraction, heart rate at rest, maximal oxygen uptake and ventilatory threshold. However, the HIIT group achieved better results than those in the MICT group, as it was evaluated by the amount of the effect size. The control group did not achieve any change in all of the measured variables. The tangible results achieved by our relatively large groups of homogeneous subjects have demonstrated that the HIIT program is an effective measure for the treatment of young women who are overweight.

  10. Exercise training in older patients with systolic heart failure: Adherence, exercise capacity, inflammation and glycemic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Hjardem-Hansen, Rasmus; Dela, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    markers of glycemic control (glucose, insulin, glycerol, free fatty acids, HbA1c), inflammation and endothelial function (hsCRP, orosomucoid, interleukin 6, TNF-alpha, urine-orosomucoid and -albumin/creatinin), lipid metabolism, NT-proBNP or other regulatory hormones (cortisol, epinephrine and IGF-1......). There were no changes in quality of life. Conclusions. The effect of exercise training in these older CHF-patients was not as impressive as reported in younger and more selected patients. More studies on the efficiency of exercise training that reflect the age- and co-morbidity of the majority of CHF...

  11. Is hypoxia training good for muscles and exercise performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Michael; Hoppeler, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Altitude training has become very popular among athletes as a means to further increase exercise performance at sea level or to acclimatize to competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved during the last few decades, with "live high-train low" and "live low-train high" being the most popular. This review focuses on functional, muscular, and practical aspects derived from extensive research on the "live low-train high" approach. According to this, subjects train in hypoxia but remain under normoxia for the rest of the time. It has been reasoned that exercising in hypoxia could increase the training stimulus. Hypoxia training studies published in the past have varied considerably in altitude (2300-5700 m) and training duration (10 days to 8 weeks) and the fitness of the subjects. The evidence from muscle structural, biochemical, and molecular findings point to a specific role of hypoxia in endurance training. However, based on the available performance capacity data such as maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2)max) and (maximal) power output, hypoxia as a supplement to training is not consistently found to be advantageous for performance at sea level. Stronger evidence exists for benefits of hypoxic training on performance at altitude. "Live low-train high" may thus be considered when altitude acclimatization is not an option. In addition, the complex pattern of gene expression adaptations induced by supplemental training in hypoxia, but not normoxia, suggest that muscle tissue specifically responds to hypoxia. Whether and to what degree these gene expression changes translate into significant changes in protein concentrations that are ultimately responsible for observable structural or functional phenotypes remains open. It is conceivable that the global functional markers such as Vo(2)max and (maximal) power output are too coarse to detect more subtle changes that might still be functionally relevant, at least to high-level athletes.

  12. Impact of moderate versus mild aerobic exercise training on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Recently some plasma biomarkers of inflammation have been recognized as important cardiovascular risk factors. There is little information about the effects of aerobic exercise training on these biomarkers and the risk of metabolic complications in obese type 2 diabetes patients. Objective: To compare the ...

  13. Impact of exercise training on arterial wall thickness in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, D.H.J.; Cable, N.T.; Green, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Thickening of the carotid artery wall has been adopted as a surrogate marker of pre-clinical atherosclerosis, which is strongly related to increased cardiovascular risk. The cardioprotective effects of exercise training, including direct effects on vascular function and lumen dimension, have been

  14. Aerobic exercise training reduces arterial stiffness in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donley, David A; Fournier, Sara B; Reger, Brian L; DeVallance, Evan; Bonner, Daniel E; Olfert, I Mark; Frisbee, Jefferson C; Chantler, Paul D

    2014-06-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a threefold increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality partly due to increased arterial stiffening. We compared the effects of aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffening/mechanics in MetS subjects without overt CVD or type 2 diabetes. MetS and healthy control (Con) subjects underwent 8 wk of exercise training (ExT; 11 MetS and 11 Con) or remained inactive (11 MetS and 10 Con). The following measures were performed pre- and postintervention: radial pulse wave analysis (applanation tonometry) was used to measure augmentation pressure and index, central pressures, and an estimate of myocardial efficiency; arterial stiffness was assessed from carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (cfPWV, applanation tonometry); carotid thickness was assessed from B-mode ultrasound; and peak aerobic capacity (gas exchange) was performed in the seated position. Plasma matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and CVD risk (Framingham risk score) were also assessed. cfPWV was reduced (P Exercise training reduced (P exercise training, thereby lowering their cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Magnesium enhances exercise performance via increasing glucose availability in the blood, muscle, and brain during exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan-Ying Chen

    Full Text Available Glucose mobilization and utilization in the periphery and central nervous system are important during exercise and are responsible for exercise efficacy. Magnesium (Mg is involved in energy production and plays a role in exercise performance. This study aimed to explore the effects of Mg on the dynamic changes in glucose and lactate levels in the muscle, blood and brain of exercising rats using a combination of auto-blood sampling and microdialysis. Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with saline or magnesium sulfate (MgSO4, 90 mg/kg, i.p. 30 min before treadmill exercise (20 m/min for 60 min. Our results indicated that the muscle, blood, and brain glucose levels immediately increased during exercise, and then gradually decreased to near basal levels in the recovery periods of both groups. These glucose levels were significantly enhanced to approximately two-fold (P<0.05 in the Mg group. Lactate levels in the muscle, blood, and brain rapidly and significantly increased in both groups during exercise, and brain lactate levels in the Mg group further elevated (P<0.05 than those in the control group during exercise. Lactate levels significantly decreased after exercise in both groups. In conclusion, Mg enhanced glucose availability in the peripheral and central systems, and increased lactate clearance in the muscle during exercise.

  16. Exercise manual for the Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT) software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobranich, P.R.; Widney, T.W.; Goolsby, P.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cooperative Monitoring Center and Regional Security; Nelson, J.D.; Evanko, D.A. [Ogden Environmental and Energy Services, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The on-site inspection provisions in many current and proposed arms control agreements require extensive preparation and training on the part of both the Inspected Party and the Inspection Team. Current training techniques include table-top inspections and practice inspections. The Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT), an interactive computer training tool, increases the utility of table-top inspections. ACE-IT has been designed to provide training for a hypothetical challenge inspection under the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC); however, this training tool can be modified for other inspection regimes. Although ACE-IT provides training from notification of an inspection through post-inspection activities, the primary emphasis of ACE-IT is in the inspection itself--particularly with the concept of managed access. ACE-IT also demonstrates how inspection provisions impact compliance determination and the protection of sensitive information. The Exercise Manual supplements the ACE-IT software by providing general information on on-site inspections and detailed information for the CWC challenge inspection exercise. The detailed information includes the pre-inspection briefing, maps, list of sensitive items, medical records, and shipping records.

  17. Exercise training raises daily activity stronger than predicted from exercise capacity in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, Michaela; Wewel, Alexandra R; Kirsten, Detlef; Jörres, Rudolf A; Magnussen, Helgo

    2005-06-01

    The 6-min walking (6MWD) and 6-min treadmill distance (6MTD) are often used as measures of exercise performance in patients with COPD. The aim of our study was to assess their relationship to daily activity in the course of an exercise training program. Eighty-eight patients with stable COPD (71m/17f; mean +/- SD age, 60 +/-8 year; FEV1, 43+/-14% pred) were recruited, 66 of whom performed a hospital-based 10-day walking training, whereas 22 were treated as control. On day 16MTD, and on days 8 and 10, 6MTD and 6MWD were determined. In addition, patients used an accelerometer (TriTrac-R3D) to record 24 h-activity, whereby training sessions were excluded. In both groups there was a linear relationship (r > or = 0.84 and P daily activity did not markedly vary with exercise capacity under baseline conditions. Participation in a training program increased activity significantly stronger than predicted from the gain in exercise capacity. This underlines the importance of non-physiological, patient-centered factors associated with training in COPD.

  18. The role of cardiopulmonary exercise test for individualized exercise training recommendation in young obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Hoble

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is affecting a growing segment of the population and should be considered a serious health problem which will lead to medical complications and decreased life span. Lifestyle changes by adopting healthy food and increase energy consumption through physical activity is the most important treatment for obesity. Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET is considered the gold standard for exercise capacity assessment. Purpose: This study is aiming to demonstrate that individualized exercise training programs, designed using CPET results, leads to increase of physical fitness, aerobic capacity, ventilatory and cardiac exercise performance in young obese subjects.Material and method:We performed a prospective research study of 6 months. 43 sedentary subjects without contraindications to exercise, 21.3±3.1 years old, 93% female were included in the study. Assessments were made at baseline and after six months of intervention and consists of cardiopulmonary exercise test on bicycle ergometer. After we recorded oxygen uptake at aerobic threshold (AT, anaerobic threshold (in the range of respiratory compensation point – RCP and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max we designed the training program according to these parameters and individualized heart rate training zones of each subject. Exercise training (60 minutes/session, 3 sessions/week was performed taking in consideration the training zones and using a circuit on cardio devices. Each subject was supervised by a physiotherapist and using heart rate monitors. The number of subjects evaluated at the end of the study was 27 (dropout rate 37%.Results:After six months of intervention we noticed an improvement of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max (from 22.7±3.69 to 27.44±5.55, aerobic threshold (VO2_AT (from 15.48±2.66 to 20.07±4.64 ml/min/kg, p<0.0001 and anaerobic threshold (VO2_RCP (from 20.3±3.66 to 25.11±5.84 ml/min/kg, p<0.0001, cardiac performance during exercise evaluated trough maximal oxygen

  19. Intensive Exercise Training During Bed Rest Attenuates Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Intensive exercise training during bed rest attenuates deconditioning. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 207-215, 1997. A 30-d 6 deg head-down bed rest project was conducted to evaluate variable high-intensity, short-duration, isotonic cycle ergometer exercise (ITE) training and high-intensity intermittent resistive isokinetic exercise (IKE) training regimens designed to maintain peak VO2 and muscle mass, strength, and endurance at ambulatory control levels throughout prolonged bed rest. Other elements of the deconditioning (adaptive) syndrome, such as proprioception, psychological performance, hypovolemia, water balance, body composition, and orthostatic tolerance, were also measured. Major findings are summarized in this paper. Compared with response during bed rest of the no exercise (NOE) control group: the ITE training regimen (a) maintained work capacity (peak VO2), (b) maintained plasma and red cell volumes, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) decreased quality of sleep and mental concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance; the IKE training regimen (f) attenuated the decrease in peak VO2 by 50%, (g) attenuated loss of red cell volume by 40% but had no effect on loss of plasma volume, (b) induced positive body water balance, (i) had no adverse effect on quality of sleep or concentration, and 0) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance. These findings suggest that various elements of the deconditioning syndrome can be manipulated by duration and intensity of ITE or IKE training regimens and that several different training protocols will be required to maintain or restore physiological and psychological performance of individuals confined to prolonged bed rest.

  20. Exercise Training-Induced Adaptations Associated with Increases in Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Yasuko; Gollisch, Katja S.C.; Holton, Laura; Kim, Young–Bum; Brandauer, Josef; Fujii, Nobuharu L.; Hirshman, Michael F.; Goodyear, Laurie J.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic exercise training results in numerous skeletal muscle adaptations, including increases in insulin sensitivity and glycogen content. To understand the mechanism for increased muscle glycogen, we studied the effects of exercise training on glycogen regulatory proteins in rat skeletal muscle. Female Sprague Dawley rats performed voluntary wheel running for 1, 4, or 7 weeks. After 7 weeks of training, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was increased in epitrochlearis muscle. Compared to sedentary control rats, muscle glycogen did not change after 1 week of training, but increased significantly after 4 and 7 weeks. The increases in muscle glycogen were accompanied by elevated glycogen synthase activity and protein expression. To assess the regulation of glycogen synthase, we examined its major activator, protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), and its major deactivator, glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). Consistent with glycogen synthase activity, PP1 activity was unchanged after 1 week of training but significantly increased after 4 and 7 weeks of training. Protein expression of RGL(GM), another regulatory PP1 subunit, significantly decreased after 4 and 7 weeks of training. Unlike PP1, GSK3 phosphorylation did not follow the pattern of glycogen synthase activity. The ~40% decrease in GSK-3α phosphorylation after 1 week of exercise training persisted until 7 weeks and may function as a negative feedback to elevated glycogen. Our findings suggest that exercise training-induced increases in muscle glycogen content could be regulated by multiple mechanisms including enhanced insulin sensitivity, glycogen synthase expression, allosteric activation of glycogen synthase and PP1activity. PMID:23206309

  1. Dynamic Regulation of Circulating microRNAs During Acute Exercise and Long-Term Exercise Training in Basketball Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Yongqin Li; Mengchao Yao; Qiulian Zhou; Yan Cheng; Lin Che; Jiahong Xu; Junjie Xiao; Zhongming Shen; Yihua Bei

    2018-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates the beneficial effects of physical exercise on human health, which depends on the intensity, training time, exercise type, environmental factors, and the personal health status. Conventional biomarkers provide limited insight into the exercise-induced adaptive processes. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are dynamically regulated in response to acute exhaustive exercise and sustained rowing, running and cycling exercises. However, circulating miRNAs in response ...

  2. High-intensity training versus traditional exercise interventions for promoting health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training....

  3. Effect of outpatient exercise training programmes in patients with chronic heart failure: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Suzan; Zwerink, Marlies; van Brussel, M.; van der Valk, P.D.; Wajon, E.M.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria

    2012-01-01

    Advantages of outpatient exercise training are reduced waiting lists, better compliance, reduced time investment by the patient with reduced travel expenses, and less dependence on other people to participate. Therefore, this systematic review studies the effects of outpatient exercise training

  4. Benefits of lifelong exercise training on left ventricular function after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maessen, M.F.H.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Stevens, G.G.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Endurance exercise training induces cardio-protective effects, but athletes are not exempted from a myocardial infarction. Evidence from animal studies suggests that exercise training attenuates pathological left ventricular remodelling following myocardial infarction. We tested the

  5. A randomized study of the effects of exercise training on patients with atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osbak, Philip Samuel; Mourier, Malene; Kjaer, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Exercise training is beneficial in ischemic and congestive heart disease. However, the effect on atrial fibrillation (AF) is unknown.......Exercise training is beneficial in ischemic and congestive heart disease. However, the effect on atrial fibrillation (AF) is unknown....

  6. Exercise training programs to improve hand rim wheelchair propulsion capacity: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwinkels, M.; Verschuren, O.; Janssen, T.W.J.; Ketelaar, M.; Takken, T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: An adequate wheelchair propulsion capacity is required to perform daily life activities. Exercise training may be effective to gain or improve wheelchair propulsion capacity. This review investigates whether different types of exercise training programs are effective in improving

  7. Exercise training programs to improve hand rim wheelchair propulsion capacity: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwinkels, M.G.J.; Verschuren, O.W.; Janssen, T.; Ketelaar, M.; Takken, T.; Backx, F.J.G.; Groot, J.F. de; Smits, D.W.; Volman, MJM

    2014-01-01

    Objective: An adequate wheelchair propulsion capacity is required to perform daily life activities. Exercise training may be effective to gain or improve wheelchair propulsion capacity. This review investigates whether different types of exercise training programs are effective in improving

  8. Effects of exercise training on coronary transport capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughlin, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    Coronary transport capacity was estimated in eight sedentary control and eight exercise-trained anesthetized dogs by determining the differences between base line and the highest coronary blood flow and permeability-surface area product (PS) obtained during maximal adenosine vasodilation with coronary perfusion pressure constant. The anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery was cannulated and pump- perfused under constant-pressure conditions (approximately equal to 100 Torr) while aortic, central venous, and coronary perfusion pressures, heart rate, electrocardiogram, and coronary flow were monitored. Myocardial extraction and PS of 51 Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid were determined with the single-injection indicator-diffusion method. The efficacy of the 16 +/- 1 wk exercise training program was shown by significant increases in the succinate dehydrogenase activities of the gastrocnemius, gluteus medialis, and long head of triceps brachii muscles. There were no differences between control and trained dogs for either resting coronary blood flow or PS. During maximal vasodilation with adenosine, the trained dogs had significantly lower perfusion pressures with constant flow and, with constant-pressure vasodilation, greater coronary blood flow and PS. It is concluded that exercise training in dogs induces an increased coronary transport capacity that includes increases in coronary blood flow capacity (26% of control) and capillary diffusion capacity (82% of control)

  9. The development of radioactive sample surrogates for training and exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha Finck; Bevin Brush; Dick Jansen; David Chamberlain; Don Dry; George Brooks; Margaret Goldberg

    2012-03-01

    The development of radioactive sample surrogates for training and exercises Source term information is required for to reconstruct a device used in a dispersed radiological dispersal device. Simulating a radioactive environment to train and exercise sampling and sample characterization methods with suitable sample materials is a continued challenge. The Idaho National Laboratory has developed and permitted a Radioactive Response Training Range (RRTR), an 800 acre test range that is approved for open air dispersal of activated KBr, for training first responders in the entry and exit from radioactively contaminated areas, and testing protocols for environmental sampling and field characterization. Members from the Department of Defense, Law Enforcement, and the Department of Energy participated in the first contamination exercise that was conducted at the RRTR in the July 2011. The range was contaminated using a short lived radioactive Br-82 isotope (activated KBr). Soil samples contaminated with KBr (dispersed as a solution) and glass particles containing activated potassium bromide that emulated dispersed radioactive materials (such as ceramic-based sealed source materials) were collected to assess environmental sampling and characterization techniques. This presentation summarizes the performance of a radioactive materials surrogate for use as a training aide for nuclear forensics.

  10. Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation Modulates NFκB and Nrf2 Pathways in Exercise Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragip Pala, Cemal Orhan, Mehmet Tuzcu, Nurhan Sahin, Shakir Ali, Vedat Cinar, Mustafa Atalay, Kazim Sahin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the effects of Q10, coenzyme Q10 or ubiquinone, a component of the electron transport chain in mitochondria, on nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB, inhibitors of kappa B (IκB, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2 and hemeoxygenase 1 (HO-1 in rats after chronic exercise training for 6 weeks. 8-week old male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to one of four treatments planned in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of two condition (sedentary vs. exercise training, and two coenzyme Q10 levels (0 and 300 mg/kg per day for 6 weeks. The expression levels of the target proteins were determined in the heart, liver and muscle, and biochemical parameters including creatinine, urea, glucose and lipid profile were investigated in plasma. When compared with sedentary group, significant decreases in heart, liver and muscle NFκB levels by 45%, 26% and 44% were observed in Q10 supplemented rats after exercise training, respectively, while the inhibitory protein IκB increased by 179%, 111% and 127% in heart, liver and muscle tissues. Q10 supplementation caused an increase in Nrf2 (167%, 165% and 90% and HO-1 (107%, 156% and 114% after exercise training in heart, liver and muscle tissues (p < 0.05. No significant change was observed in any of the parameters associated with protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, except that exercise caused a decrease in plasma triglyceride, which was further decreased by Q10. In conclusion, these results suggest that Q10 modulates the expression of NFκB, IκB, Nrf2 and HO-1 in exercise training, indicating an anti-inflammatory effect of Q10 and emphasizes its role in antioxidant defense.

  11. Exercise training as treatment of neck pain among fighter pilots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Andersen, Christoffer Højnicke

    ) seldom, trained but stopped, 6) no participation at all. Maximal Voluntary Isometric Contraction (MVC) and Rate of Force Development (RFD) for cervical flexion and extension were measured by strain-gauge transducers. Results Prevalence of neck pain was significantly reduced in ET from baseline (mean ± SD......Introduction Neck and shoulder pain is a common complaint among fighter pilots and a growing aero-medical concern. Unfortunately, previous intervention studies have been unsuccessful in relieving such pain within this occupational group. The aim of this study was to investigate if an exercise...... intervention could reduce the high prevalence of neck pain among fighter pilots. Methods F-16 pilots were randomized in a controlled intervention trial, to either an exercise-training-group (ET, n=27) or reference-group (REF, n=28). ET underwent 24 weeks of strength, endurance, and coordination training, 3...

  12. High-intensity training versus traditional exercise interventions for promoting health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training.......The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training....

  13. Exercise and Training at Altitudes: Physiological Effects and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Cecilia Vargas Pinilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in altitude leads to a proportional fall in the barometric pressure, and a decrease in atmospheric oxygen pressure, producing hypobaric hypoxia that affects, in different degrees, all body organs, systems and functions. The chronically reduced partial pressure of oxygen causes that individuals adapt and adjust to physiological stress. These adaptations are modulated by many factors, including the degree of hypoxia related to altitude, time of exposure, exercise intensity and individual conditions. It has been established that exposure to high altitude is an environmental stressor that elicits a response that contributes to many adjustments and adaptations that influence exercise capacity and endurance performance. These adaptations include in crease in hemoglobin concentration, ventilation, capillary density and tissue myoglobin concentration. However, a negative effect in strength and power is related to a decrease in muscle fiber size and body mass due to the decrease in the training intensity. Many researches aim at establishing how training or living at high altitudes affects performance in athletes. Training methods, such as living in high altitudes training low, and training high-living in low altitudes have been used to research the changes in the physical condition in athletes and how the physiological adaptations to hypoxia can enhanceperformance at sea level. This review analyzes the literature related to altitude training focused on how physiological adaptations to hypoxic environments influence performance, and which protocols are most frequently used to train in high altitudes.

  14. Specificity of "Live High-Train Low" altitude training on exercise performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejder, Jacob; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup

    2018-01-01

    The novel hypothesis that "Live High-Train Low" (LHTL) does not improve sport-specific exercise performance (e.g., time trial) is discussed. Indeed, many studies demonstrate improved performance after LHTL but unfortunately control groups are often lacking, leaving open the possibility of training...

  15. Endurance exercise training in orthostatic intolerance: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winker, Robert; Barth, Alfred; Bidmon, Daniela; Ponocny, Ivo; Weber, Michael; Mayr, Otmar; Robertson, David; Diedrich, André; Maier, Richard; Pilger, Alex; Haber, Paul; Rüdiger, Hugo W

    2005-03-01

    Orthostatic intolerance is a syndrome characterized by chronic orthostatic symptoms of light-headedness, fatigue, nausea, orthostatic tachycardia, and aggravated norepinephrine levels while standing. The aim of this study was to assess the protective effect of exercise endurance training on orthostatic symptoms and to examine its usefulness in the treatment of orthostatic intolerance. 2768 military recruits were screened for orthostatic intolerance by questionnaire. Tilt-table testing identified 36 cases of orthostatic intolerance out of the 2768 soldiers. Subsequently, 31 of these subjects with orthostatic intolerance entered a randomized, controlled trial. The patients were allocated randomly to either a "training" (3 months jogging) or a "control" group. The influence of exercise training on orthostatic intolerance was assessed by determination of questionnaire scores and tilt-table testing before and after intervention. After training, only 6 individuals of 16 still had orthostatic intolerance compared with 10 of 11 in the control group. The Fisher exact test showed a highly significant difference in diagnosis between the 2 groups (P=0.008) at the end of the study. Analysis of the questionnaire-score showed significant interaction between time and group (P=0.001). The trained subjects showed an improvement in the average symptom score from 1.79+/-0.4 to 1.04+/-0.4, whereas the control subjects showed no significant change in average symptom score (2.09+/-0.6 and 2.14+/-0.5, respectively). Our data demonstrate that endurance exercise training leads to an improvement of symptoms in the majority of patients with orthostatic intolerance. Therefore, we suggest that endurance training should be considered in the treatment of orthostatic intolerance patients.

  16. Exercise training improves heart rate variability after methamphetamine dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, Brett Andrew; Chudzynski, Joy; Dickerson, Daniel; Mooney, Larissa; Rawson, Richard A; Garfinkel, Alan; Cooper, Christopher B

    2014-06-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects a healthy autonomic nervous system and is increased with physical training. Methamphetamine dependence (MD) causes autonomic dysfunction and diminished HRV. We compared recently abstinent methamphetamine-dependent participants with age-matched, drug-free controls (DF) and also investigated whether HRV can be improved with exercise training in the methamphetamine-dependent participants. In 50 participants (MD = 28; DF = 22), resting heart rate (HR; R-R intervals) was recorded over 5 min while seated using a monitor affixed to a chest strap. Previously reported time domain (SDNN, RMSSD, pNN50) and frequency domain (LFnu, HFnu, LF/HF) parameters of HRV were calculated with customized software. MD were randomized to thrice-weekly exercise training (ME = 14) or equal attention without training (MC = 14) over 8 wk. Groups were compared using paired and unpaired t-tests. Statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Participant characteristics were matched between groups (mean ± SD): age = 33 ± 6 yr; body mass = 82.7 ± 12 kg, body mass index = 26.8 ± 4.1 kg·min. Compared with DF, the MD group had significantly higher resting HR (P HRV indices were similar between ME and MC groups. However, after training, the ME group significantly (all P HRV, based on several conventional indices, was diminished in recently abstinent, methamphetamine-dependent individuals. Moreover, physical training yielded a marked increase in HRV, representing increased vagal modulation or improved autonomic balance.

  17. Resistance exercise, but not endurance exercise, induces IKKβ phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle of training-accustomed individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Andreas Buch; Vendelbo, Mikkel Holm; Rahbek, Stine Klejs

    2013-01-01

    following exercise. Previously, we demonstrated that mTOR is preferentially activated in response to resistance exercise compared to endurance exercise in trained individuals without concomitant activation of Akt. In the present study, we extended this investigation by examining IκB kinase complex (IKK...

  18. Oxidative stress and antioxidants in athletes undertaking regular exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Trent A; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley K; Garg, Manohar L

    2005-04-01

    Exercise has been shown to increase the production of reactive oxygen species to a point that can exceed antioxidant defenses to cause oxidative stress. Dietary intake of antioxidants, physical activity levels, various antioxidants and oxidative stress markers were examined in 20 exercise-trained "athletes" and 20 age- and sex-matched sedentary "controls." Plasma F2-isoprostanes, antioxidant enzyme activities, and uric acid levels were similar in athletes and sedentary controls. Plasma alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene were higher in athletes compared with sedentary controls. Total antioxidant capacity tended to be lower in athletes, with a significant difference between male athletes and male controls. Dietary intakes of antioxidants were also similar between groups and well above recommended dietary intakes for Australians. These findings suggest that athletes who consume a diet rich in antioxidants have elevated plasma alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene that were likely to be brought about by adaptive processes resulting from regular exercise.

  19. Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) Method and System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) method of the present invention is a combined application of physiologic and perceptual training techniques. such as autogenic therapy and biofeedback. This combined therapy approach produces a methodology that is appreciably more effective than either of the individual techniques used separately. The AFTE method enables sufficient magnitude of control necessary to significantly reduce the behavioral and physiologic reactions to severe environmental stressors. It produces learned effects that are persistent over time and are resistant to extinction and it can be administered in a short period of time. The AFTE method may be used efficiently in several applications, among which are the following: to improve pilot and crew performance during emergency flying conditions; to train people to prevent the occurrence of nausea and vomiting associated with motion and sea sickness, or morning sickness in early pregnancy; as a training method for preventing or counteracting air-sickness symptoms in high-performance military aircraft; for use as a method for cardiovascular training, as well as for multiple other autonomic responses, which may contribute to the alleviation of Space Motion Sickness (SMS) in astronauts and cosmonauts; training people suffering from migraine or tension headaches to control peripheral blood flow and reduce forehead and/or trapezius muscle tension; training elderly people suffering from fecal incontinence to control their sphincter muscles; training cancer patients to reduce the nauseagenic effects of chemotherapy; and training patients with Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction (CIP).

  20. Citrus Flavonoid Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance in Trained Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvera Overdevest, Jeroen A. Wouters, Kevin H.M. Wolfs, Job J.M. van Leeuwen, Sam Possemiers

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that polyphenol supplementation may be an effective strategy to improve exercise performance, due to their antioxidant character and ability to stimulate NO production. These properties may contribute to exercise performance, yet no conclusive research has been performed in exploring the direct effects of citrus flavonoids on human exercise performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess whether supplementation of a customized citrus flavonoid (CF extract for 4 weeks improves cycling time-trial performance in trained male athletes. In a double-blind, randomized, parallel study, 39 healthy, trained males were given a daily dose of either 500 mg of a customized citrus flavonoid extract (CF or a placebo for 4 weeks. Exercise performance was tested by means of a time-trial test on a cycle ergometer, during which participants had to generate as much power as possible for duration of 10 minutes. Absolute power output significantly increased with 14.9 ± 3.9 W after 4 weeks of CF supplementation, corresponding with a 5.0% increase, compared to 3.8 ± 3.2 W (1.3% increase in placebo (p < 0.05. In addition, oxygen consumption/power ratio significantly decreased in the CF group compared to placebo (p = 0.001, and a trend was found in the change in peak power output in CF (18.2 ± 23.2 W versus placebo (-28.4 ± 17.6 W; p = 0.116. The current study is the first convincing report that citrus flavonoid supplementation can improve exercise performance, as shown by a significant increase in power output during the exercise test.

  1. Enhancing training in the main control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuigan, K.; O'Leary, K.; Canavan, K.

    2004-01-01

    In 2003 Pickering B Nuclear of Ontario Power Generation installed a Desktop Simulator (DTS) in the Main Control Room (MCR) for training purposes. This paper will outline why this training enhancement was undertaken and the approach taken to secure its use in an active MCR environment while minimizing distractions to plant operations. (author)

  2. The peculiarities of acrobat exercises usage in the handballers training process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdyuk Dmitrii Georgievich

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Special complexes of acrobatic exercises for training handballers are developed. The level of efficiency of effect of exercises on development of coordination abilities is determined. During application of exercises of the given type it is necessary to take into account a period and a cycle of preparation, personalities of handballers, a general orientation of training process. It allows avoidance of negative effect of acrobatic exercises on special exercises of competitive character.

  3. 'Nordic' Hamstrings Exercise - Engagement Characteristics and Training Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Iga, J; Fruer, C S; Deighan, Martine A; De Ste Croix, Mark B; James, David V

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the neuromuscular activation characteristics of the hamstrings during the 'Nordic' hamstrings exercise (NHE) and changes in the eccentric strength of the knee flexors with NHE training. Initially, the normalised root mean square electromyographic (EMG) activity of the hamstrings of both limbs during various phases (90-61 degrees, 60-31 degrees and 30-0 degrees of knee extension) of the NHE were determined in 18 soccer players. Subsequently participants were randomly...

  4. Effects of Exercise Training on Haematology and Maximal Cardiac Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonne, Thomas Christian

    = 0.051) and time to complete 3000 m tended (P = 0.09) to increase in LHTH but not after sea level training. In study III haematological parameters were determined weekly three times before and four times after classical altitude and sea level training and ABP thresholds for [Hb], %ret, OFF......-score and the abnormal blood profile score (ABPS) were generated using the official ABP software. After altitude training, six swimmers exceeded the 99% ABP thresholds: Two swimmers exceeded the OFF-score thresholds at day 7; One swimmer exceeded the OFF-score threshold at day 28; One swimmer exceeded the threshold...... for %ret at day 14; One swimmer surpassed the ABPS threshold at day 7 and one swimmer exceeded the ABPS threshold 28 days after altitude training. No values exceeded the individual thresholds in the control group. In conclusion, this thesis demonstrated that BV is a main determinant of the exercise induced...

  5. EFFECTS OF EXERCISE TRAINING ON CARDIOVASCULAR ADRENERGIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario eLeosco

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In heart failure (HF, exercise has been shown to modulate cardiac sympathetic hyperactivation which is one of the earliest features of neurohormonal derangement in this syndrome and correlates with adverse outcome. An important molecular alteration related to chronic sympathetic overstimulation in HF is represented by cardiac β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR dysfunction . It has been demonstrated that exercise reverses β-AR dysfunction by restoring cardiac receptor membrane density and G-protein-dependent adenylyl cyclase activation. In particular, several evidence indicate that exercise reduces levels of cardiac G-protein coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2 which is known to be involved in both β1-AR and β2-AR dysregulation in HF. Similar alterations of β-AR system have been described also in the senescent heart. It has also been demonstrated that exercise training restores adrenal GRK2/α-2AR/cathecolamine (CA production axis. At vascular level, exercise shows a therapeutic effect on age-related impairment of vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation and restores β-AR-dependent vasodilatation by increasing vascular β-AR responsiveness and reducing endothelial GRK2 activity. Sympathetic nervous system overdrive is thought to account for >50 % of all cases of hypertension and a lack of balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic modulation has been observed in hypertensive subjects. Non-pharmacological, lifestyle interventions have been associated with reductions in SNS overactivity and blood pressure in hypertension. Several evidence have highlighted the blood pressure lowering effects of aerobic endurance exercise in patients with hypertension and the significant reduction in sympathetic neural activity has been reported as one of the main mechanisms explaining the favourable effects of exercise on blood pressure control.

  6. Effects of exercise training on cardiovascular adrenergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leosco, Dario; Parisi, Valentina; Femminella, Grazia D; Formisano, Roberto; Petraglia, Laura; Allocca, Elena; Bonaduce, Domenico

    2013-11-28

    In heart failure (HF), exercise has been shown to modulate cardiac sympathetic hyperactivation which is one of the earliest features of neurohormonal derangement in this syndrome and correlates with adverse outcome. An important molecular alteration related to chronic sympathetic overstimulation in HF is represented by cardiac β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) dysfunction. It has been demonstrated that exercise reverses β-AR dysfunction by restoring cardiac receptor membrane density and G-protein-dependent adenylyl cyclase activation. In particular, several evidence indicate that exercise reduces levels of cardiac G-protein coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2) which is known to be involved in both β1-AR and β2-AR dysregulation in HF. Similar alterations of β-AR system have been described also in the senescent heart. It has also been demonstrated that exercise training restores adrenal GRK2/α-2AR/catecholamine (CA) production axis. At vascular level, exercise shows a therapeutic effect on age-related impairment of vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation and restores β-AR-dependent vasodilatation by increasing vascular β-AR responsiveness and reducing endothelial GRK2 activity. Sympathetic nervous system overdrive is thought to account for >50% of all cases of hypertension and a lack of balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic modulation has been observed in hypertensive subjects. Non-pharmacological, lifestyle interventions have been associated with reductions in SNS overactivity and blood pressure in hypertension. Several evidence have highlighted the blood pressure lowering effects of aerobic endurance exercise in patients with hypertension and the significant reduction in sympathetic neural activity has been reported as one of the main mechanisms explaining the favorable effects of exercise on blood pressure control.

  7. AUTONOMIC CONTROL OF HEART RATE AFTER EXERCISE IN TRAINED WRESTLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F Henríquez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish differences in vagal reactivation, through heart rate recovery and heart rate variability post exercise, in Brazilian jiu-jitsu wrestlers (BJJW. A total of 18 male athletes were evaluated, ten highly trained (HT and eight moderately trained (MT, who performed a maximum incremental test. At the end of the exercise, the R-R intervals were recorded during the first minute of recovery. We calculated heart rate recovery (HRR60s, and performed linear and non-linear (standard deviation of instantaneous beat-to-beat R-R interval variability – SD1 analysis of heart rate variability (HRV, using the tachogram of the first minute of recovery divided into four segments of 15 s each (0-15 s, 15-30 s, 30-45 s, 45-60 s. Between HT and MT individuals, there were statistically significant differences in HRR60s (p <0.05 and in the non linear analysis of HRV from SD130-45s (p <0.05 and SD145-60s (p <0.05. The results of this research suggest that heart rate kinetics during the first minute after exercise are related to training level and can be used as an index for autonomic cardiovascular control in BJJW.

  8. High-intensity interval training using whole-body exercises: training recommendations and methodological overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Alexandre F; Baker, Julien S; Figueira Junior, Aylton J; Bocalini, Danilo S

    2017-05-04

    HIIT whole body (HWB)-based exercise is a new calisthenics exercise programme approach that can be considered an effective and safe method to improve physical fitness and body composition. HWB is a method that can be applied to different populations and ages. The purpose of this study was to describe possible methodologies for performing physical training based on whole-body exercise in healthy subjects. The HWB sessions consist of a repeated stimulus based on high-intensity exercise that also include monitoring time to effort, time to recuperation and session time. The exercise intensity is related to the maximal number of movements possible in a given time; therefore, the exercise sessions can be characterized as maximal. The intensity can be recorded using ratings of perceived exertion. Weekly training frequency and exercise selection should be structured according to individual subject functional fitness. Using this simple method, there is potential for greater adherence to physical activity which can promote health benefits to all members of society. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Influence of Sequential vs. Simultaneous Dual-Task Exercise Training on Cognitive Function in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Jamie L; Duckham, Rachel L; Milte, Catherine M; Main, Luana C; Daly, Robin M

    2017-01-01

    Emerging research indicates that exercise combined with cognitive training may improve cognitive function in older adults. Typically these programs have incorporated sequential training, where exercise and cognitive training are undertaken separately. However, simultaneous or dual-task training, where cognitive and/or motor training are performed simultaneously with exercise, may offer greater benefits. This review summary provides an overview of the effects of combined simultaneous vs. sequential training on cognitive function in older adults. Based on the available evidence, there are inconsistent findings with regard to the cognitive benefits of sequential training in comparison to cognitive or exercise training alone. In contrast, simultaneous training interventions, particularly multimodal exercise programs in combination with secondary tasks regulated by sensory cues, have significantly improved cognition in both healthy older and clinical populations. However, further research is needed to determine the optimal characteristics of a successful simultaneous training program for optimizing cognitive function in older people.

  10. Aerobic exercise training performed by parents reduces mice offspring adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Paulo Vitor da Silva; Guariglia, Débora Alves; Da Rocha, Francielli Ferreira; Picoli, Caroline de Carvalho; Gilio, Gustavo Renan; Fabricio, Gabriel Sergio; Mathias, Paulo Cesar de Freitas; Moraes, Solange Marta Franzói de; Peres, Sidney Barnabé

    2018-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effects of physical training performed by parents on mice offspring adiposity. Male and female parents underwent an aerobic training protocol for 7 weeks. The trained and sedentary parents were allowed to mate and the resultant offspring divided in: S (Offspring from Sedentary Parents), T (Offspring from Trained Parents), ST (Offspring from Sedentary Father and Trained Mother) and TS (Offspring from Trained Father and Sedentary Mother). After weaning, offspring was euthanized, blood collected and samples of mesenteric and inguinal fat pads used to isolate adipocytes for morphologic and histological analyses. Lee index, mesenteric fat pad, sum of visceral fat and total fat weight of female T was reduced in comparison to the other groups (p < 0.05). Periepididymal and sum of visceral fat in male T group was also reduced when compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). The diameter of mesenteric and inguinal adipocytes of T group was smaller compared to all groups comparisons for both sexes (p < 0.05). In summary, exercise training performed by parents reduced visceral offspring adiposity, the diameter of subcutaneous adipocytes and improved metabolic parameters associated to metabolic syndrome.

  11. Hypoxic training methods for improving endurance exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A. Sinex

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Endurance athletic performance is highly related to a number of factors that can be altered through altitude and hypoxic training including increases in erythrocyte volume, maximal aerobic exercise capacity, capillary density, and economy. Physiological adaptations in response to acute and chronic exposure to hypoxic environments are well documented and range from short-term detrimental effects to longer-term adaptations that can improve performance at altitude and in sea-level competitions. Many altitude and hypoxic training protocols have been developed, employing various combinations of living and training at sea-level, low, moderate, and high altitudes and utilizing natural and artificial altitudes, with varying degrees of effectiveness. Several factors have been identified that are associated with individual responses to hypoxic training, and techniques for identifying those athletes most likely to benefit from hypoxic training continue to be investigated. Exposure to sufficiently high altitude (2000–3000 m for more than 12 h/day, while training at lower altitudes, for a minimum of 21 days is recommended. Timing of altitude training related to competition remains under debate, although general recommendations can be considered.

  12. The development of radioactive sample surrogates for training and exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevin Carney; Martha Finck; Christopher McGrath; Bevin Brush; Dick Jansen; Donald Dry; George Brooks; David Chamberlain

    2013-01-01

    Source term information is required for to reconstruct a device used in a dispersed radiological dispersal device. Simulating a radioactive environment to train and exercise sampling and sample characterization methods with suitable sample materials is a continued challenge. The Idaho National Laboratory has developed and permitted a radioactive response training range (RRTR), an 800 acre test range that is approved for open air dispersal of activated KBr, for training first responders in the entry and exit from radioactively contaminated areas, and testing protocols for environmental sampling and field characterization. Members from the Department of Defense, Law Enforcement, and the Department of Energy participated in the first contamination exercise that was conducted at the RRTR in the July 2011. The range was contaminated using a short lived radioactive 82 Br isotope (activated KBr). Soil samples contaminated with KBr (dispersed as a solution) and glass particles containing activated potassium bromide that emulated dispersed radioactive materials (such as ceramic-based sealed source materials) were collected to assess environmental sampling and characterization techniques. This presentation summarizes the performance of a radioactive materials surrogate for use as a training aide for nuclear forensics. (author)

  13. Enhanced Learning through Multimodal Training: Evidence from a Comprehensive Cognitive, Physical Fitness, and Neuroscience Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, N; Paul, E; Watson, P; Cooke, G E; Hillman, C H; Cohen, N J; Kramer, A F; Barbey, A K

    2017-07-19

    The potential impact of brain training methods for enhancing human cognition in healthy and clinical populations has motivated increasing public interest and scientific scrutiny. At issue is the merits of intervention modalities, such as computer-based cognitive training, physical exercise training, and non-invasive brain stimulation, and whether such interventions synergistically enhance cognition. To investigate this issue, we conducted a comprehensive 4-month randomized controlled trial in which 318 healthy, young adults were enrolled in one of five interventions: (1) Computer-based cognitive training on six adaptive tests of executive function; (2) Cognitive and physical exercise training; (3) Cognitive training combined with non-invasive brain stimulation and physical exercise training; (4) Active control training in adaptive visual search and change detection tasks; and (5) Passive control. Our findings demonstrate that multimodal training significantly enhanced learning (relative to computer-based cognitive training alone) and provided an effective method to promote skill learning across multiple cognitive domains, spanning executive functions, working memory, and planning and problem solving. These results help to establish the beneficial effects of multimodal intervention and identify key areas for future research in the continued effort to improve human cognition.

  14. Exercise training reduces the frequency of menopausal hot flushes by improving thermoregulatory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Tom G; Cable, N Timothy; Aziz, Nabil; Dobson, Rebecca; Sprung, Victoria S; Low, David A; Jones, Helen

    2016-07-01

    Postmenopausal hot flushes occur due to a reduction in estrogen production causing thermoregulatory and vascular dysfunction. Exercise training enhances thermoregulatory control of sweating, skin and brain blood flow. We aimed to determine if improving thermoregulatory control and vascular function with exercise training alleviated hot flushes. Twenty-one symptomatic women completed a 7-day hot flush questionnaire and underwent brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and a cardiorespiratory fitness test. Sweat rate and skin blood flow temperature thresholds and sensitivities, and middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv) were measured during passive heating. Women performed 16 weeks of supervised exercise training or control, and measurements were repeated. There was a greater improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness (4.45 mL/kg/min [95% CI: 1.87, 8.16]; P = 0.04) and reduced hot flush frequency (48 hot flushes/wk [39, 56]; P core temperature (0.14°C [0.01, 0.27]; P = 0.03) and increased basal MCAv (2.8 cm/s [1.0, 5.2]; P = 0.04) compared with control. Sweat rate and skin blood flow thresholds occurred approximately 0.19°C and 0.17°C earlier, alongside improved sweating sensitivity with exercise. MCAv decreased during heating (P training that improves cardiorespiratory fitness reduces self-reported hot flushes. Improvements are likely mediated through greater thermoregulatory control in response to increases in core temperature and enhanced vascular function in the cutaneous and cerebral circulations.

  15. High-intensity exercise training for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynders, Corey A; Weltman, Arthur

    2014-02-01

    Aerobic exercise training and diet are recommended for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that adults with prediabetes engage in ≥ 150 minutes per week of moderate activity and target a 7% weight loss. However, traditional moderate-intensity (MI) exercise training programs are often difficult to sustain for prediabetic adults; a commonly cited barrier to physical activity in this population is the "lack of time" to exercise. When matched for total energy expenditure, high-intensity (HI) exercise training has a lower overall time commitment compared with traditional low-intensity (LI) or MI exercise training. Several recent studies comparing HI exercise training with LI and MI exercise training reported that HI exercise training improves skeletal muscle metabolic control and cardiovascular function in a comparable and/or superior way relative to LI and MI exercise training. Although patients can accrue all exercise benefits by performing LI or MI activities such as walking, HI activities represent a time-efficient alternative to meeting physical activity guidelines. High-intensity exercise training is a potent tool for improving cardiometabolic risk for prediabetic patients with limited time and may be prescribed when appropriate.

  16. EFFECTIVENESS OF TRUNK TRAINING EXERCISES VERSUS SWISS BALL EXERCISES FOR IMPROVING SITTING BALANCE AND GAIT PARAMETERS IN ACUTE STROKE SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothalanka Viswaja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of trunk training and Swiss ball exercises in acute stroke subjects. Trunk is often neglected part in the stroke rehabilitation, trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises result in better recruitment of trunk muscles thus improving sitting balance and gait parameters in acute stroke subjects. However literature evidences for trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises in improving sitting balance and gait are scarce in acute stroke population. Methods: A total of 60 subjects who met the inclusion criteria were recruited from department of physiotherapy, G.S.L general hospital and were randomly allocated into 2 groups with 30 subjects in each group. Initially all of them were screened for balance and gait using trunk impairment scale and by assessing gait parameters, after that they were given a 30min of trunk training and Swiss ball exercises for 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Both the groups received conventional physiotherapy for 4 weeks. Results: Post intervention there was no significant difference between the two groups. There was improvement post treatment in trunk training group (P0.5. Conclusion: The results had shown that both groups noted significant difference. But when comparing between these two groups there is no statistical significance noted. So this study concluded that there is no significant difference between trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises on sitting balance and gait parameters in subjects with stroke.

  17. Supplementation with vitamin A enhances oxidative stress in the lungs of rats submitted to aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparotto, Juciano; Petiz, Lyvia Lintzmaier; Girardi, Carolina Saibro; Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; de Vargas, Amanda Rodrigues; Henkin, Bernardo Saldanha; Chaves, Paloma Rodrigues; Roncato, Sabrina; Matté, Cristiane; Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Gelain, Daniel Pens

    2015-12-01

    Exercise training induces reactive oxygen species production and low levels of oxidative damage, which are required for induction of antioxidant defenses and tissue adaptation. This process is physiological and essential to improve physical conditioning and performance. During exercise, endogenous antioxidants are recruited to prevent excessive oxidative stress, demanding appropriate intake of antioxidants from diet or supplements; in this context, the search for vitamin supplements that enhance the antioxidant defenses and improve exercise performance has been continuously increasing. On the other hand, excess of antioxidants may hinder the pro-oxidant signals necessary for this process of adaptation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin A supplementation (2000 IU/kg, oral) upon oxidative stress and parameters of pro-inflammatory signaling in lungs of rats submitted to aerobic exercise (swimming protocol). When combined with exercise, vitamin A inhibited biochemical parameters of adaptation/conditioning by attenuating exercise-induced antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and decreasing the content of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products. Increased oxidative damage to proteins (carbonylation) and lipids (lipoperoxidation) was also observed in these animals. In sedentary animals, vitamin A decreased superoxide dismutase and increased lipoperoxidation. Vitamin A also enhanced the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and decreased interleukin-10, effects partially reversed by aerobic training. Taken together, the results presented herein point to negative effects associated with vitamin A supplementation at the specific dose here used upon oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines in lung tissues of rats submitted to aerobic exercise.

  18. Enhancing facial aesthetics with muscle retraining exercises-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'souza, Raina; Kini, Ashwini; D'souza, Henston; Shetty, Nitin; Shetty, Omkar

    2014-08-01

    Facial attractiveness plays a key role in social interaction. 'Smile' is not only a single category of facial behaviour, but also the emotion of frank joy which is expressed on the face by the combined contraction of the muscles involved. When a patient visits the dental clinic for aesthetic reasons, the dentist considers not only the chief complaint but also the overall harmony of the face. This article describes muscle retraining exercises to achieve control over facial movements and improve facial appearance which may be considered following any type of dental rehabilitation. Muscle conditioning, training and strengthening through daily exercises will help to counter balance the aging effects.

  19. Enhancing Operational Effectiveness in the Norwegian Army through Simulation-Based Training

    OpenAIRE

    B. Bakken; O. Boe

    2009-01-01

    The Norwegian Military Academy (Army) has initiated a project with the main ambition to explore possible avenues to enhancing operational effectiveness through an increased use of simulation-based training and exercises. Within a cost/benefit framework, we discuss opportunities and limitations of vertical and horizontal integration of the existing tactical training system. Vertical integration implies expanding the existing training system to span the full range of traini...

  20. Acute post-exercise change in blood pressure and exercise training response in patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti M Kiviniemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that acute post-exercise change in blood pressure (BP may predict exercise training responses in BP in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. Patients with CAD (n=116, age 62±5 years, 85 men underwent BP assessments at rest and during 10-min recovery following a symptom-limited exercise test before and after the 6-month training intervention (one strength and 3-4 aerobic moderate-intensity exercises weekly. Post-exercise change in systolic BP (SBP was calculated by subtracting resting SBP from lowest post-exercise SBP. The training-induced change in resting SBP was -2±13 mmHg (p=0.064, ranging from -42 to 35 mmHg. Larger post-exercise decrease in SBP and baseline resting SBP predicted a larger training-induced decrement in SBP (β=0.46 and β=-0.44, respectively, p<0.001 for both. Acute post-exercise decrease in SBP provided additive value to baseline resting SBP in the prediction of training-induced change in resting SBP (R squared from 0.20 to 0.26, p=0.002. After further adjustments for other potential confounders (sex, age, baseline body mass index, realized training load, post-exercise decrease in SBP still predicted the training response in resting SBP (β=0.26, p=0.015. Acute post-exercise change in SBP was associated with training-induced change in resting SBP in patients with CAD, providing significant predictive information beyond baseline resting SBP.

  1. Variation in heart rate during submaximal exercise: Implications for monitoring training : Implications for monitoring training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamberts, R.P.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.; Durandt, J.J.; Lambert, M.I.

    2004-01-01

    A change in heart rate at a controlled submaximal exercise intensity is used as a marker of training status. However, the standard error of measurement has not been studied systematically, and therefore a change in heart rate, which can be considered relevant, has not been determined. Forty-four

  2. Endurance training increases exercise-induced prostacyclin release in young, healthy men--relationship with VO2max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Jerzy A; Majerczak, Joanna; Duda, Krzysztof; Chłopicki, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the effect of 5 weeks of moderate-intensity endurance training on the basal and exercise-induced systemic release of prostacyclin (PGI(2)), as assessed by plasma 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) concentration. Twelve physically active young men with the following characteristics participated in this study (the mean +/- SD): age, 22.7 +/- 2.0 years; body mass, 76.8 +/- 8.9 kg; BMI, 23.48 +/- 2.17 kg x m(-2); and maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2 max)), 46.1 +/- 4.0 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1). Plasma 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) concentrations were measured in venous blood samples taken prior to the exercise and at exhaustion (at VO(2 max)) before and after completing the training protocol. On average, the training resulted in a significant increase in VO(2 max) (p = 0.03), power output at VO(2 max) (p = 0.001) and a significant increase (p = 0.05) in the net-exercise-induced increase in plasma 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) concentration (Delta 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) i.e., the difference between the end-exercise and pre-exercise 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) concentrations). No effect of training on the basal PGI(2) concentration was found. Interestingly, within the study sample (n = 12), two subgroups could be defined with a differential pattern of response with respect to Delta 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) concentrations. In one subgroup (n = 7), a significant increase in Delta 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) concentration after training was found (p < 0.02) (responders). This enhancement in the exercise-induced PGI(2) release was accompanied by a significant (p < 0.05) increase in VO(2 max) after training. In contrast, in another subgroup (n = 5), there was no observed effect of training on the Delta 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) concentration and the VO(2 max) after training (non-responders). In both of these subgroups, training did not influence the basal PGI(2) concentration. In conclusion, the endurance training resulted in the adaptive augmentation of the systemic release of PGI(2) in response to exercise

  3. Benefits of supplemental oxygen in exercise training in nonhypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emtner, Margareta; Porszasz, Janos; Burns, Mary; Somfay, Attila; Casaburi, Richard

    2003-11-01

    Supplemental oxygen improves exercise tolerance of normoxemic and hypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. We determined whether nonhypoxemic COPD patients undergoing exercise training while breathing supplemental oxygen achieve higher intensity and therefore improve exercise capacity more than patients breathing air. A double-blinded trial was performed involving 29 nonhypoxemic patients (67 years, exercise SaO2 > 88%) with COPD (FEV1 = 36% predicted). All exercised on cycle ergometers for 45 minutes, 3 times per week for 7 weeks at high-intensity targets. During exercise, they received oxygen (3 L/minute) (n = 14) or compressed air (3 L/minute) (n = 15). Both groups had a higher exercise tolerance after training and when breathing oxygen. However, the oxygen-trained group increased the training work rate more rapidly than the air-trained group. The mean +/- SD work rate during the last week was 62 +/- 19 W (oxygen-trained group) and 52 +/- 22 W (air-trained group) (p work rate tests increased more in the oxygen-trained group (14.5 minutes) than in the air-trained group (10.5 minutes) (p < 0.05). At isotime, the breathing rate decreased four breaths per minute in the oxygen-trained group and one breath per minute in the air-trained group (p = 0.001). We conclude that supplemental oxygen provided during high-intensity training yields higher training intensity and evidence of gains in exercise tolerance in laboratory testing.

  4. Therapeutic validity and effectiveness of supervised physical exercise training on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vooijs, M.; Siemonsma, P.C.; Heus, I.; Sont, J.K.; Rövekamp, T.A.; Meeteren, N.L. van

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Our aim was to determine the effectiveness of supervised physical exercise training on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease taken into consideration indices such as therapeutic validity of interventions, methodological quality of studies, and exercise

  5. Enhancing astronaut performance using sensorimotor adaptability training

    OpenAIRE

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen S.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts experience disturbances in balance and gait function when they return to Earth. The highly plastic human brain enables individuals to modify their behavior to match the prevailing environment. Subjects participating in specially designed variable sensory challenge training programs can enhance their ability to rapidly adapt to novel sensory situations. This is useful in our application because we aim to train astronauts to rapidly formulate effective strategies to cope with the bal...

  6. Insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility following exercise training among different obese insulin resistant phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malin, Steven K; Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) blunts the reversal of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) after exercise training. Metabolic inflexibility has been implicated in the etiology of insulin resistance, however, the efficacy of exercise on peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity or substrate utilizati...

  7. Exercise to rest ratios in RSA training in women's soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscello, Bruno; Esposito, Mario; Partipilo, Filippo; DI Cicco, Dalila; Filetti, Cristoforo; Pantanella, Laura; D'Ottavio, Stefano

    2017-10-27

    To investigate the applicability of three different exercise to rest ratios in RSA training in women's soccer players, applying those ones already adopted in male adult and young players, when performing three different sprinting modes (straight, shuttle and sprinting with changing of direction). 15 trained female soccer players (height: 1.65 ± 0.06 m; weight: 59.3 ± 9.0 kg; BMI 21.6 ± 2.7 kg·m-2; age: 23.3±5.9 years) participated to the study. In order to compare the different values of the time recorded, an Index of Fatigue was used. Recovery times among trials in the sets were administered according to the 1:5, 1:3; 1:2 exercise to rest ratio, respectively. Blood lactate concentrations at the end of each set (3') were analyzed. Significant differences among trials within each set (Repeated Measures Anova; p0.05). Significant differences were found in blood lactate concentrations (pRSA in women's soccer players, keeping the performances in the speed domain (IF% < ⊕7-8%) but inducing the fatigue processes sought with this kind of training method.

  8. Effects of aging and exercise training on leg hemodynamics and oxidative metabolism in the transition from rest to steady state exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piil, Peter Bergmann; Jørgensen, Tue Smith; Egelund, Jon

    2018-01-01

    hemodynamics and oxidative metabolism in the transition from rest to steady state exercise engaging the knee-extensor muscles in young (n=15, 25{plus minus}1 years) and older (n=15, 72{plus minus}1 years) subjects before and after a period of aerobic high-intensity exercise training. To enhance cGMP signaling....... The rate of increase in leg VO2 was, however, similar in the two groups as a result of higher ( PGMP signaling did not affect the rate of increase in blood flow or VO2 in either group. Exercise training augmented ( P.... A lower blood flow response in aging does not appear to be a result of reduced cGMP signaling....

  9. Active Recovery between Interval Bouts Reduces Blood Lactate While Improving Subsequent Exercise Performance in Trained Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harutiun M. Nalbandian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the blood lactate and blood pH kinetics during high-intensity interval training. Seventeen well-trained athletes exercised on two different occasions. Exercises consisted of three 30 s bouts at a constant intensity (90% of peak power with 4 min recovery between bouts followed by a Wingate test (WT. The recoveries were either active recovery (at 60% of the lactate threshold intensity or passive recovery (resting at sitting position. During the exercise, blood samples were taken to determine blood gasses, blood lactate, and blood pH, and peak and average power were calculated for the WT. When performing the active recovery trials, blood pH was significantly higher (p < 0.01 and blood lactate was significantly lower (p < 0.01 compared with the passive recovery trials. WT performance was significantly higher in the active recovery trials: peak power was 671 ± 88 and 715 ± 108 watts, and average power was 510 ± 70 and 548 ± 73 watts (passive and active respectively; p < 0.01. However, no statistically significant correlations were found between the increased pH and the increased performance in the active recovery trials. These results suggest that active recovery performed during high-intensity interval exercise favors the performance in a following WT. Moreover, the blood pH variations associated with active recovery did not explain the enhanced performance.

  10. The Effects of Physical Exercise and Cognitive Training on Memory and Neurotrophic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisz, Jennifer J; Clark, Ilana B; Bonin, Katija; Paolucci, Emily M; Michalski, Bernadeta; Becker, Suzanna; Fahnestock, Margaret

    2017-11-01

    This study examined the combined effect of physical exercise and cognitive training on memory and neurotrophic factors in healthy, young adults. Ninety-five participants completed 6 weeks of exercise training, combined exercise and cognitive training, or no training (control). Both the exercise and combined training groups improved performance on a high-interference memory task, whereas the control group did not. In contrast, neither training group improved on general recognition performance, suggesting that exercise training selectively increases high-interference memory that may be linked to hippocampal function. Individuals who experienced greater fitness improvements from the exercise training (i.e., high responders to exercise) also had greater increases in the serum neurotrophic factors brain-derived neurotrophic factor and insulin-like growth factor-1. These high responders to exercise also had better high-interference memory performance as a result of the combined exercise and cognitive training compared with exercise alone, suggesting that potential synergistic effects might depend on the availability of neurotrophic factors. These findings are especially important, as memory benefits accrued from a relatively short intervention in high-functioning young adults.

  11. Effects of combined exercise training and electromyostimulation treatments in chronic heart failure: A prospective multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliou, Marie C; Vergès-Patois, Bénédicte; Pavy, Bruno; Charles-Nelson, Anais; Monpère, Catherine; Richard, Rudy; Verdier, Jean C

    2017-08-01

    Background Exercise training as part of a comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is recommended for patients with cardiac heart failure. It is a valuable method for the improvement of exercise tolerance. Some studies reported a similar improvement with quadricipital electrical myostimulation, but the effect of combined exercise training and electrical myostimulation in cardiac heart failure has not been yet evaluated in a large prospective multicentre study. Purpose The aim of this study was to determine whether the addition of low frequency electrical myostimulation to exercise training may improve exercise capacity and/or muscular strength in cardiac heart failure patients. Methods Ninety-one patients were included (mean age: 58 ± 9 years; New York Heart Association II/III: 52/48%, left ventricular ejection fraction: 30 ± 7%) in a prospective French study. The patients were randomised into two groups: 41 patients in exercise training and 50 in exercise training + electrical myostimulation. All patients underwent 20 exercise training sessions. In addition, in the exercise training + electrical myostimulation group, patients underwent 20 low frequency (10 Hz) quadricipital electrical myostimulation sessions. Each patient underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test, a six-minute walk test, a muscular function evaluation and a quality of life questionnaire, before and at the end of the study. Results A significant improvement of exercise capacity (Δ peak oxygen uptake+15% in exercise training group and +14% in exercise training + electrical myostimulation group) and of quality of life was observed in both groups without statistically significant differences between the two groups. Mean creatine kinase level increased in the exercise training group whereas it remained stable in the combined group. Conclusions This prospective multicentre study shows that electrical myostimulation on top of exercise training does not demonstrate any significant

  12. Morphological assessment of pancreatic islet hormone content following aerobic exercise training in rats with poorly controlled Type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Matthew W; Murray, Michael R; Hall, Katharine E; Noble, Earl G; Melling, C W James

    2014-01-01

    Regular exercise has been shown to improve many complications of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) including enhanced glucose tolerance and increased cardiac function. While exercise training has been shown to increase insulin content in pancreatic islets of rats with T1DM, experimental models were severely hyperglycemic and not undergoing insulin treatment. Further, research to date has yet to determine how exercise training alters glucagon content in pancreatic islets. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the impact of a 10-week aerobic training program on pancreatic islet composition in insulin-treated rats with T1DM. Second, it was determined whether the acute, exercise-mediated reduction in blood glucose experienced in rats with T1DM would become larger in magnitude following aerobic exercise training. Diabetes was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by multiple low dose injections of streptozotocin (20mg/kg i.p.) and moderate intensity aerobic exercise training was performed on a motorized treadmill for one hour per day for a total of 10 weeks. Rats with T1DM demonstrated significantly less islet insulin, and significantly more islet glucagon hormone content compared with non-T1DM rats, which did not significantly change following aerobic training. The reduction in blood glucose in response to a single exercise bout was similar across 10 weeks of training. Results also support the view that different subpopulations of islets exist, as small islets (<50 μm diameter) had significantly more insulin and glucagon in rats with and without T1DM.

  13. Chronic aerobic exercise training attenuates aortic stiffening and endothelial dysfunction through preserving aortic mitochondrial function in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qi; Wang, Bing; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Ma, Yan-Ping; Liu, Jian-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Ze

    2014-08-01

    Aging leads to large vessel arterial stiffening and endothelial dysfunction, which are important determinants of cardiovascular risk. The aim of present work was to assess the effects of chronic aerobic exercise training on aortic stiffening and endothelial dysfunction in aged rats and investigate the underlying mechanism about mitochondrial function. Chronic aerobic exercise training attenuated aortic stiffening with age marked by reduced collagen concentration, increased elastin concentration and reduced pulse wave velocity (PWV), and prevented aging-related endothelial dysfunction marked by improved endothelium-mediated vascular relaxation of aortas in response to acetylcholine. Chronic aerobic exercise training abated oxidative stress and nitrosative stress in aortas of aged rats. More importantly, we found that chronic aerobic exercise training in old rats preserved aortic mitochondrial function marked by reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and mitochondrial swelling, increased ATP formation and mitochondrial DNA content, and restored activities of complexes I and III and electron-coupling capacity between complexes I and III and between complexes II and III. In addition, it was found that chronic aerobic exercise training in old rats enhanced protein expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α), manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH-2), prohibitin (PHB) and AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in aortas. In conclusion, chronic aerobic exercise training preserved mitochondrial function in aortas, which, at least in part, explained the aorta-protecting effects of exercise training in aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prescribing exercise training in pulmonary rehabilitation: A clinical experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bernard

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Built around exercise training, pulmonary rehabilitation (PR is a multidisciplinary, evidence‐based, comprehensive approach to working with the patient as a whole and not just the pulmonary component of the disease. Integrated into the individualized treatment, this intervention aims to reduce symptoms, optimize functional status, increase participation in daily life, and reduce health care costs through stabilizing or reversing systemic manifestations of the disease. Although there are many other components that should be considered to manage the impairment and symptom burden, supervised exercise training is considered the cornerstone of effective pulmonary rehabilitation. This paper addresses our clinical experience at Institut universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec to assess and manage exercise training in line with the current recommendations and guidelines surrounding PR. Resumo: Construída com base no exercício físico, a reabilitação pulmonar (RP é uma abordagem multidisciplinar, fundamentada e abrangente para trabalhar com o doente como um todo, e não apenas com a componente pulmonar da doença. Integrado no tratamento individual, esta intervenção visa reduzir os sintomas, optimizar o estado funcional, aumentar a participação na vida diária e reduzir os custos do tratamento de saúde, através da estabilização ou inversão das manifestações sistémicas da doença. Embora existam muitos outros componentes que devem ser tidos em consideração para gerir o peso da incapacidade e dos sintomas, o exercício físico supervisionado é considerado o fundamento da reabilitação pulmonar eficiente. Este documento trata da nossa experiência clínica no Institut universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec para avaliar e gerir o exercício físico em linha com as recomendações e orientações actuais envolvendo a RP

  15. Oral quercetin supplementation hampers skeletal muscle adaptations in response to exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casuso, R A; Martínez-López, E J; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to test exercise-induced adaptations on skeletal muscle when quercetin is supplemented. Four groups of rats were tested: quercetin sedentary, quercetin exercised, placebo sedentary, and placebo exercised. Treadmill exercise training took place 5 days a week for 6 weeks. Quercetin groups ...... status was also quantified by measuring muscle antioxidant enzymatic activity and oxidative damage product, such as protein carbonyl content (PCC). Quercetin supplementation increased oxidative damage in both exercised and sedentary rats by inducing higher amounts of PCC (P ...

  16. 16 Weeks of Training with the International Space Station Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (aRED) Is not Different than Training with Free Weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; English, K. E.; Leach, M.; Bentley, J.; Nash, R.; Hagan, R. D.

    2008-01-01

    RED group may be the result of undersizing the aRED flywheels which were intended to mimic the inertial component of the SQ movement when performing FW exercises. However, the biomechanical differences observed in body position during the performance of the aRED SQ, which may have affected training and testing, cannot be excluded as a factor that may have affected SQ 1RM results. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Improvements in muscle strength, muscle volume and lean mass similar to FW exercise training may be elicited using an alternative source of resistance during exercise training. The acceleration of a mass during resistive exercise may result in greater muscle tension when changing the direction of movement resulting in enhanced strength gains. Therefore, to maximize the benefits of resistive exercise, the inertial components of FW exercise should be considered during exercise selection and hardware design. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This investigation was supported by NASA-JSC s Exercise Countermeasures Project.

  17. Combined Interval Training and Post-exercise Nutrition in Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Control Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Francois, Monique E.; Durrer, Cody; Pistawka, Kevin J.; Halperin, Frank A.; Chang, Courtney; Little, Jonathan P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) can improve several aspects of cardiometabolic health. Previous studies have suggested that adaptations to exercise training can be augmented with post-exercise milk or protein consumption, but whether this nutritional strategy can impact the cardiometabolic adaptations to HIIT in type 2 diabetes is unknown. Objective: To determine if the addition of a post-exercise milk or protein beverage to a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) interv...

  18. Intermittent versus continuous exercise training in chronic heart failure: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Neil A; Dieberg, Gudrun; Giallauria, Francesco

    2013-06-20

    We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials of combined strength and intermittent aerobic training, intermittent aerobic training only and continuous exercise training in heart failure patients. A systematic search was conducted of Medline (Ovid) (1950-September 2011), Embase.com (1974-September 2011), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and CINAHL (1981-September 19 2011). The search strategy included a mix of MeSH and free text terms for the key concepts heart failure, exercise training, interval training and intermittent exercise training. The included studies contained an aggregate of 446 patients, 212 completed intermittent exercise training, 66 only continuous exercise training, 59 completed combined intermittent and strength training and 109 sedentary controls. Weighted mean difference (MD) in Peak VO2 was 1.04mlkg(-1)min(-1) and (95% C.I.) was 0.42-1.66 (p=0.0009) in intermittent versus continuous exercise training respectively. Weighted mean difference in Peak VO2 was -1.10mlkg(-1)min(-1) (95% C.I.) was -1.83-0.37 p=0.003 for intermittent only versus intermittent and strength (combined) training respectively. In studies reporting VE/VCO2 for intermittent versus control groups, MD was -1.50 [(95% C.I. -2.64, -0.37), p=0.01] and for intermittent versus continuous exercise training MD was -1.35 [(95% C.I. -2.15, -0.55), p=0.001]. Change in peak VO2 was positively correlated with weekly exercise energy expenditure for intermittent exercise groups (r=0.48, p=0.05). Combined strength and intermittent exercise appears superior for peak VO2 changes when compared to intermittent exercise of similar exercise energy expenditure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-based supplement boosts aerobic exercise performance after short-term high altitude training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Hou, Chien-Wen; Bernard, Jeffrey R; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Hung, Ta-Cheng; Cheng, Lu-Ling; Liao, Yi-Hung; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2014-09-01

    High altitude training is a widely used strategy for improving aerobic exercise performance. Both Rhodiola crenulata (R) and Cordyceps sinensis (C) supplements have been reported to improve exercise performance. However, it is not clear whether the provision of R and C during high altitude training could further enhance aerobic endurance capacity. In this study, we examined the effect of R and C based supplementation on aerobic exercise capacity following 2-week high altitude training. Alterations to autonomic nervous system activity, circulatory hormonal, and hematological profiles were investigated. Eighteen male subjects were divided into two groups: Placebo (n=9) and R/C supplementation (RC, n=9). Both groups received either RC (R: 1400 mg+C: 600 mg per day) or the placebo during a 2-week training period at an altitude of 2200 m. After 2 weeks of altitude training, compared with Placebo group, the exhaustive run time was markedly longer (Placebo: +2.2% vs. RC: +5.7%; paltitude training (paltitude training provides greater training benefits in improving aerobic performance. This beneficial effect of RC treatment may result from better maintenance of PNS activity and accelerated physiological adaptations during high altitude training.

  20. Training with a balance exercise assist robot is more effective than conventional training for frail older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Kenichi; Kondo, Izumi; Hirano, Satoshi; Kagaya, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Eiichi; Osawa, Aiko; Fujinori, Yoichi

    2017-11-01

    To examine the efficacy of postural strategy training using a balance exercise assist robot (BEAR) as compared with conventional balance training for frail older adults. The present study was designed as a cross-over trial without a washout term. A total of 27 community-dwelling frail or prefrail elderly residents (7 men, 20 women; age range 65-85 years) were selected from a volunteer sample. Two exercises were prepared for interventions: robotic exercise moving the center of gravity by the balance exercise assist robot system; and conventional balance training combining muscle-strengthening exercise, postural strategy training and applied motion exercise. Each exercise was carried out twice a week for 6 weeks. Participants were allocated randomly to either the robotic exercise first group or the conventional balance exercise first group. preferred and maximal gait speeds, tandem gait speeds, timed up-and-go test, functional reach test, functional base of support, center of pressure, and muscle strength of the lower extremities were assessed before and after completion of each exercise program. Robotic exercise achieved significant improvements for tandem gait speed (P = 0.012), functional reach test (P = 0.002), timed up-and-go test (P = 0.023) and muscle strength of the lower extremities (P = 0.001-0.030) compared with conventional exercise. In frail or prefrail older adults, robotic exercise was more effective for improving dynamic balance and lower extremity muscle strength than conventional exercise. These findings suggest that postural strategy training with the balance exercise assist robot is effective to improve the gait instability and muscle weakness often seen in frail older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1982-1990. © 2017 The Authors. Geriatrics & Gerontology International published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Geriatrics Society.

  1. Effect of a virtual reality-enhanced exercise protocol after coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Tien-Yow; Sung, Wen-Hsu; Chang, Hwa-Ann; Wang, Ray-Yau

    2006-10-01

    Virtual reality (VR) technology has gained importance in many areas of medicine. Knowledge concerning the application and the influence of VR-enhanced exercise programs is limited for patients receiving coronary artery bypass grafting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a virtual "country walk" on the number of sessions necessary to reach cardiac rehabilitation goals in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Twenty subjects who were seen for cardiac rehabilitation between January and June 2004 comprised the study sample. The protocol for this study included an initial maximum graded exercise tolerance test, given to determine the subsequent training goals for the subject, followed by biweekly submaximal endurance training sessions. All subjects were assigned by lot to 1 of 2 submaximal endurance training programs, one (group 2) with and the other (group 1) without the added VR environment. In all other respects, the 2 programs were identical. Each training session lasted for 30 minutes and was carried out twice per week for about 3 months. The primary outcome measures were maximum load during the work sessions, target oxygen consumption, target heart rate (beats per minute), and number of training sessions required to reach rehabilitation goals. By the end of 20 training sessions, only 4 of the 10 control subjects had reached the heart rate target goal of 85% their maximum heart rate. In contrast, 9 of the 10 subjects in the VR program had attained this goal by 9 or fewer training sessions. When target metabolic cost (75% peak oxygen consumption) was used as the training goal, all 10 subjects in the VR program had reached this target after 2 training sessions (or, in some cases, 1 training session), but not until training session 15 did a cumulative number of 9 control subjects reach this goal. These study outcomes clearly support the notion that incorporating a VR environment into cardiac rehabilitation programs will accelerate

  2. Exercise training in patients with heart disease: review of beneficial effects and clinical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Stephan; Laughlin, M Harold; O'Conner, Christopher; Duncker, Dirk J

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades exercise training has evolved into an established evidence-based therapeutic strategy with prognostic benefits in many cardiovascular diseases (CVDs): In stable coronary artery disease (CAD) exercise training attenuates disease progression by beneficially influencing CVD risk factors (i.e., hyperlipidemia, hypertension) and coronary endothelial function. In heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) training prevents the progressive loss of exercise capacity by antagonizing peripheral skeletal muscle wasting and by promoting left ventricular reverse remodeling with reduction in cardiomegaly and improvement of ejection fraction. Novel areas for exercise training interventions include HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), pulmonary hypertension, and valvular heart disease. In HFpEF, randomized studies indicate a lusitropic effect of training on left ventricular diastolic function associated with symptomatic improvement of exercise capacity. In pulmonary hypertension, reductions in pulmonary artery pressure were observed following endurance exercise training. Recently, innovative training methods such as high-intensity interval training, resistance training and others have been introduced. Although their prognostic value still needs to be determined, these approaches may achieve superior improvements in aerobic exercise capacity and gain in muscle mass, respectively. In this review, we give an overview of the prognostic and symptomatic benefits of exercise training in the most common cardiac disease entities. Additionally, key guideline recommendations for the initiation of training programs are summarized. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute Exercise-Associated Skin Surface Temperature Changes after Resistance Training with Different Exercise Intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Weigert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies showed, that changes in muscular metabolic-associated heat production and blood circulation during and after muscular work affect skin temperature (T but the results are inconsistent and the effect of exercise intensity is unclear. Objective: This study investigated the intensity-dependent reaction of T on resistance training. Methods: Ten male students participated. After acclimatization (15 min, the participants completed 3x10 repetitions of unilateral biceps curl with 30, 50 or 70% of their one-repetition-maximum (1RM in a randomized order. Skin temperature of the loaded and unloaded biceps was measured at rest (Trest, immediately following set 1, 2 and 3 (TS1,TS2,TS3 and 30 minutes post exercise (T1 - T30 with an infrared camera. Results: Two-way ANOVA detected a significant effect of the measuring time point on T (Trest to T30 of the loaded arm for 30% (Eta²=0.85, 50% (Eta²=0.88 and 70% 1RM (Eta²=0.85 and of the unloaded arm only for 30% 1RM (Eta²=0.41 (p0.05. The T values at the different measuring time points (Trest - T30 did not differ between the intensities at any time point. The loaded arm showed a mean maximum T rise to Trest of 1.8°C and on average, maximum T was reached approximately 5 minutes after the third set.  Conclusion: This study indicate a rise of T, which could be independent of the exercise intensity. Infrared thermography seems to be applicable to identify the primary used functional muscles in resistance training but this method seems not suitable to differentiate between exercise intensity from 30 to 70% 1RM.

  4. Exercise and Academic Achievement in Children: Effects of Acute Class-Based Circuit Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickinson Ben D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. For schools, the increasingly imposed requirement to achieve well in academic tests puts increasing emphasis on improving academic achievement. While treadmill exercise has been shown to have beneficial effects on cognitive function and cycling ergometers produce stronger effect sizes than treadmill running, it is impractical for schools to use these on a whole-class basis. There is a need to examine if more ecologically valid modes of exercise might have a similar impact on academic achievement. Circuit training is one such modality shown to benefit cognitive function and recall ability and is easily operationalised within schools. Methods. In a repeated measures design, twenty-six children (17 boys, 8 girls aged 10-11 years (mean age 10.3; SD ± 0.46 years completed the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT 4 at rest and following 30 minutes of exercise. Results. Standardised scores for word reading were significantly higher post exercise (F(1,18 = 49.9, p = 0.0001 compared to rest. In contrast, standardised scores for sentence comprehension (F(1,18 = 0.078, p = 0.783, spelling (F(1,18 = 4.07, p = 0.06 mathematics (F(1,18 = 1.257, p = 0.277, and reading (F(1,18 = 2.09, p = 0.165 were not significantly different between rest and exercise conditions. Conclusions. The results of the current study suggest acute bouts of circuit based exercise enhances word reading but not other areas of academic ability in 10-11 year old children. These findings support prior research that indicates acute bouts of exercise can selectively improve cognition in children.

  5. The Skills Enhancement Training Program. Performance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Beverage Workers Union, Local 32, Washington, DC.

    This report describes a joint labor-management workplace literacy program called SET (Skills Enhancement Training) that targeted the more than 2,000 unionized employees of food service contractors at U.S. government institutions in Washington, D.C. Nineteen classes were offered and a total of 191 people self-selected themselves into the program.…

  6. Learning and Training: Enhancing Small Business Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Sue; Crowley, Suzanne

    Owners or managers of 181 Australian businesses employing fewer than 20 people in the construction, manufacturing, property and business services, and retail industries in 3 metropolitan and 3 nonmetropolitan locations were interviewed by telephone to identify how they used training to enhance their small business's success. Of those surveyed,…

  7. Exercise training improves exercise capacity in adult patients with a systemic right ventricle : a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, Michiel M.; van der Bom, Teun; de Vries, Leonie C. S.; Balducci, Anna; Bouma, Berto J.; Pieper, Petronella G.; van Dijk, Arie P. J.; van der Plas, Mart N.; Picchio, Fernando M.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.

    To assess whether exercise training in adult patients with a systemic right ventricle (RV) improves exercise capacity and quality of life and lowers serum N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels. Multi-centre parallel randomized controlled trial. Patients with a systemic

  8. Exercise enhances wound healing and prevents cancer progression during aging by targeting macrophage polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Jorming; Ladiges, Warren C

    2014-07-01

    Physical activity, which can include regular and repetitive exercise training, has been shown to decrease the incidence of age-related diseases. Aging is characterized by aberrant immune responses, including impaired wound healing and increased cancer risk. The behavior and polarized phenotype of tissue macrophages are distinct between young and old organisms. The balance of M1 and M2 macrophages is altered in the aged tissue microenvironment, with a tilt towards an M2-dominant macrophage population, as well as its associated signaling pathways. These M2-type responses may result in unresolved inflammation and create an environment that impairs wound healing and is favorable for cancer growth. We discuss the concept that exercise training can improve the regulation of macrophage polarization and normalize the inflammatory process, and thereby exert anticancer effects and enhance wound healing in older humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Exercise training improves free testosterone in lifelong sedentary aging men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Lawrence D; Herbert, Peter; Sculthorpe, Nicholas F; Grace, Fergal M

    2017-07-01

    As the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on systemic hormones in aging men is unstudied to date, we investigated whether total testosterone (TT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free testosterone (free-T) and cortisol (all in serum) were altered following HIIT in a cohort of 22 lifelong sedentary (62 ± 2 years) older men. As HIIT requires preconditioning exercise in sedentary cohorts, participants were tested at three phases, each separated by six-week training; baseline (phase A), following conditioning exercise (phase B) and post-HIIT (phase C). Each measurement phase used identical methods. TT was significantly increased following HIIT (~17%; P  HIIT compared to baseline (~4.5%; P  = 0.023). Cortisol remained unchanged from A to C ( P  = 0.138). The present data indicate a combination of preconditioning, and HIIT increases TT and SHBG in sedentary older males, with the HIIT stimulus accounting for a small but statistically significant increase in free-T. Further study is required to determine the biological importance of small improvements in free-T in aging men. © 2017 The authors.

  10. The value of electrical stimulation as an exercise training modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Dean P.; Ray, J. Michael; Nyland, John; Noteboom, Tim

    1994-01-01

    capability of muscle. NMES in exercise training is our major concern.

  11. ISO training program mixes lectures, hands-on exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakofsky, S.; Vitale, D.

    1994-01-01

    Early in 1990, the Dresser-Rand Co., made the decision to upgrade its purchased material quality program and pursue ISO 9000 registration for all product divisions. A joint quality-purchasing council from all US based divisions met and developed a new strategy that included: developing and maintaining a common external audit schedule eliminating duplicate audits; development of a formal training program for auditors; implementing a rule for all divisions that called for internal and external audits to be conducted by certified auditors; implementing an aggressive internal audit program for each division preparing for ISO 9001 or 9002 registration. Development of a formal training program began with educating and training future instructors. Two people were selected who had previous audit and quality system experience. Both were sent to various seminars on ISO 9000, attended a lead assessor course, passed the examination, and became registered with the Institute of Quality Assurance (IQA) in the United Kingdom. The original course was developed by a consultant along with one future instructor. Course content used traditional auditing methodology, but included many team exercises including an actual factory audit. The paper describes the methods and contents of this training course

  12. Dynamic Regulation of Circulating microRNAs During Acute Exercise and Long-Term Exercise Training in Basketball Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqin Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence indicates the beneficial effects of physical exercise on human health, which depends on the intensity, training time, exercise type, environmental factors, and the personal health status. Conventional biomarkers provide limited insight into the exercise-induced adaptive processes. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs are dynamically regulated in response to acute exhaustive exercise and sustained rowing, running and cycling exercises. However, circulating miRNAs in response to long-term basketball exercise remains unknown. Here, we enrolled 10 basketball athletes who will attend a basketball season for 3 months. Specifically, circulating miRNAs which were involved in angiogenesis, inflammation and enriched in muscle and/or cardiac tissues were analyzed at baseline, immediately following acute exhaustive exercise and after 3-month basketball matches in competitive male basketball athletes. Circulating miR-208b was decreased and miR-221 was increased after 3-month basketball exercise, while circulating miR-221, miR-21, miR-146a, and miR-210 were reduced at post-acute exercise. The change of miR-146a (baseline vs. post-acute exercise showed linear correlations with baseline levels of cardiac marker CKMB and the changes of inflammation marker Hs-CRP (baseline vs. post-acute exercise. Besides, linear correlation was observed between miR-208b changes (baseline vs. after long-term exercise and AT VO2 (baseline. The changes of miR-221 (baseline vs. after long-term exercise were significantly correlated with AT VO2, peak work load and CK (after 3-month basketball matches. Although further studies are needed, present findings set the stage for defining circulating miRNAs as biomarkers and suggesting their physiological roles in long-term exercise training induced cardiovascular adaptation.

  13. Dynamic Regulation of Circulating microRNAs During Acute Exercise and Long-Term Exercise Training in Basketball Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongqin; Yao, Mengchao; Zhou, Qiulian; Cheng, Yan; Che, Lin; Xu, Jiahong; Xiao, Junjie; Shen, Zhongming; Bei, Yihua

    2018-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates the beneficial effects of physical exercise on human health, which depends on the intensity, training time, exercise type, environmental factors, and the personal health status. Conventional biomarkers provide limited insight into the exercise-induced adaptive processes. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are dynamically regulated in response to acute exhaustive exercise and sustained rowing, running and cycling exercises. However, circulating miRNAs in response to long-term basketball exercise remains unknown. Here, we enrolled 10 basketball athletes who will attend a basketball season for 3 months. Specifically, circulating miRNAs which were involved in angiogenesis, inflammation and enriched in muscle and/or cardiac tissues were analyzed at baseline, immediately following acute exhaustive exercise and after 3-month basketball matches in competitive male basketball athletes. Circulating miR-208b was decreased and miR-221 was increased after 3-month basketball exercise, while circulating miR-221, miR-21, miR-146a, and miR-210 were reduced at post-acute exercise. The change of miR-146a (baseline vs. post-acute exercise) showed linear correlations with baseline levels of cardiac marker CKMB and the changes of inflammation marker Hs-CRP (baseline vs. post-acute exercise). Besides, linear correlation was observed between miR-208b changes (baseline vs. after long-term exercise) and AT VO 2 (baseline). The changes of miR-221 (baseline vs. after long-term exercise) were significantly correlated with AT VO 2 , peak work load and CK (after 3-month basketball matches). Although further studies are needed, present findings set the stage for defining circulating miRNAs as biomarkers and suggesting their physiological roles in long-term exercise training induced cardiovascular adaptation.

  14. Autophagy Is a Promoter for Aerobic Exercise Performance during High Altitude Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High altitude training is one of the effective strategies for improving aerobic exercise performance at sea level via altitude acclimatization, thereby improving oxygen transport and/or utilization. But its underlying molecular mechanisms on physiological functions and exercise performance of athletes are still vague. More recent evidence suggests that the recycling of cellular components by autophagy is an important process of the body involved in the adaptive responses to exercise. Whether high altitude training can activate autophagy or whether high altitude training can improve exercise performance through exercise-induced autophagy is still unclear. In this narrative review article, we will summarize current research advances in the improvement of exercise performance through high altitude training and its reasonable molecular mechanisms associated with autophagy, which will provide a new field to explore the molecular mechanisms of adaptive response to high altitude training.

  15. Exercise training and weight loss, not always a happy marriage: single blind exercise trials in females with diverse BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew; Fatahi, Fardin; Alabduljader, Kholoud; Jelleyman, Charlotte; Moore, Jonathan P; Kubis, Hans-Peter

    2018-04-01

    Individuals show high variability in body weight responses to exercise training. Expectations and motivation towards effects of exercise on body weight might influence eating behaviour and could conceal regulatory mechanisms. We conducted 2 single-blind exercise trials (4 weeks (study 1) and 8 weeks (study 2)) with concealed objectives and exclusion of individuals with weight loss intention. Circuit exercise training programs (3 times a week (45-90 min), intensity 50%-90% peak oxygen uptake for 4 and 8 weeks) were conducted. Thirty-four females finished the 4-week intervention and 36 females the 8-week intervention. Overweight/obese (OV/OB) and lean female participants' weight/body composition responses were assessed and fasting and postprandial appetite hormone levels (PYY, insulin, amylin, leptin, ghrelin) were measured before and after the intervention for understanding potential contribution to individuals' body weight response to exercise training (study 2). Exercise training in both studies did not lead to a significant reduction of weight/body mass index (BMI) in the participants' groups; however, lean participants gained muscle mass. Appetite hormones levels were significantly (p training did not lead to weight loss in female participants, while a considerable proportion of variance in body weight response to training could be explained by individuals' appetite hormone levels and BMI.

  16. Effect of Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Combined with Testosterone Treatment on Cardiovascular Function in Rats: Influence of Exercise Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila A Engi

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of voluntary ethanol consumption combined with testosterone treatment on cardiovascular function in rats. Moreover, we investigated the influence of exercise training on these effects. To this end, male rats were submitted to low-intensity training on a treadmill or kept sedentary while concurrently being treated with ethanol for 6 weeks. For voluntary ethanol intake, rats were given access to two bottles, one containing ethanol and other containing water, three 24-hour sessions per week. In the last two weeks (weeks 5 and 6, animals underwent testosterone treatment concurrently with exercise training and exposure to ethanol. Ethanol consumption was not affected by either testosterone treatment or exercise training. Also, drug treatments did not influence the treadmill performance improvement evoked by training. However, testosterone alone, but not in combination with ethanol, reduced resting heart rate. Moreover, combined treatment with testosterone and ethanol reduced the pressor response to the selective α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Treatment with either testosterone or ethanol alone also affected baroreflex activity and enhanced depressor response to acetylcholine, but these effects were inhibited when drugs were coadministrated. Exercise training restored most cardiovascular effects evoked by drug treatments. Furthermore, both drugs administrated alone increased pressor response to phenylephrine in trained animals. Also, drug treatments inhibited the beneficial effects of training on baroreflex function. In conclusion, the present results suggest a potential interaction between toxic effects of testosterone and ethanol on cardiovascular function. Data also indicate that exercise training is an important factor influencing the effects of these substances.

  17. Whey Protein Supplementation Enhances Whole Body Protein Metabolism and Performance Recovery after Resistance Exercise: A Double-Blind Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel W D; Abou Sawan, Sidney; Mazzulla, Michael; Williamson, Eric; Moore, Daniel R

    2017-07-11

    No study has concurrently measured changes in free-living whole body protein metabolism and exercise performance during recovery from an acute bout of resistance exercise. We aimed to determine if whey protein ingestion enhances whole body net protein balance and recovery of exercise performance during overnight (10 h) and 24 h recovery after whole body resistance exercise in trained men. In a double-blind crossover design, 12 trained men (76 ± 8 kg, 24 ± 4 years old, 14% ± 5% body fat; means ± standard deviation (SD)) performed resistance exercise in the evening prior to consuming either 25 g of whey protein (PRO; MuscleTech 100% Whey) or an energy-matched placebo (CHO) immediately post-exercise (0 h), and again the following morning (~10 h of recovery). A third randomized trial, completed by the same participants, involving no exercise and no supplement served as a rested control trial (Rest). Participants ingested [ 15 N]glycine to determine whole body protein kinetics and net protein balance over 10 and 24 h of recovery. Performance was assessed pre-exercise and at 0, 10, and 24 h of recovery using a battery of tests. Net protein balance tended to improve in PRO ( P = 0.064; effect size (ES) = 0.61, PRO vs. CHO) during overnight recovery. Over 24 h, net balance was enhanced in PRO ( P = 0.036) but not in CHO ( P = 0.84; ES = 0.69, PRO vs. CHO), which was mediated primarily by a reduction in protein breakdown (PRO protein supplementation improved MVC (ES = 0.76), REP (ES = 0.44), and peak power (ES = 0.55). In conclusion, whey protein supplementation enhances whole body anabolism, and may improve acute recovery of exercise performance after a strenuous bout of resistance exercise.

  18. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly ... Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ...

  19. Peripheral visual performance enhancement by neurofeedback training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Wenya; Wan, Feng; Lou, Chin Ian; Vai, Mang I; Rosa, Agostinho

    2013-12-01

    Peripheral visual performance is an important ability for everyone, and a positive inter-individual correlation is found between the peripheral visual performance and the alpha amplitude during the performance test. This study investigated the effect of alpha neurofeedback training on the peripheral visual performance. A neurofeedback group of 13 subjects finished 20 sessions of alpha enhancement feedback within 20 days. The peripheral visual performance was assessed by a new dynamic peripheral visual test on the first and last training day. The results revealed that the neurofeedback group showed significant enhancement of the peripheral visual performance as well as the relative alpha amplitude during the peripheral visual test. It was not the case in the non-neurofeedback control group, which performed the tests within the same time frame as the neurofeedback group but without any training sessions. These findings suggest that alpha neurofeedback training was effective in improving peripheral visual performance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show evidence for performance improvement in peripheral vision via alpha neurofeedback training.

  20. The Effect of a Moderate Aerobic Exercise Training Program on Ovarian Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peters, Ruth

    1999-01-01

    .... Both cross-sectional studies of highly trained athletes and prospective studies of high intensity exercise training programs have found a higher frequency of anovulation, lower levels of estradiol...

  1. The Effect of a Moderate Aerobic Exercise Training Program on Ovarian Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shames, Lisa

    1997-01-01

    .... Both cross-sectional studies of highly trained athletes and prospective studies of high intensity exercise training programs have found a higher frequency of anovulation, lower levels of estradiol...

  2. The Effect of a Moderate Aerobic Exercise Training Program on Ovarian Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peters, Ruth

    2000-01-01

    .... Both cross-sectional studies of highly trained athletes and prospective studies of high intensity exercise training programs have found a higher frequency of anovulation, lower levels of estradiol...

  3. Hypoxic Living and Exercise Training Alter Adipose Tissue Leptin/Leptin Receptor in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingli Lu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypobaric hypoxia results in weight loss in obese individuals, and exercise training is advocated for the treatment of obesity and its related metabolic dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hypoxic living and exercise training on obesity and adipose tissue leptin/leptin receptor in dietary-induced obese rats. Methods: One hundred and thirty high-fat diet fed Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into one of the following groups (n=10 each: control, sedentary hypoxic living for 1 to 4 weeks (SH1, SH2, SH3, and SH4, living and exercise training in normoxic conditions for 1 to 4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4, and living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions for 1 to 4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4. Epididymal adipose tissue expression levels of leptin and leptin receptor were determined. Results: Compared to hypoxic living and living and exercise training in normoxic conditions, living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions for 3-4 weeks resulted in lower Lee index (P<0.05 to P<0.01, and higher expression of leptin and leptin receptor (P<0.05 to P<0.01 in adipose tissue. Conclusion: In a rodent model of altitude training, living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions resulted in greater alterations in obesity and adipose tissue leptin/leptin receptor than hypoxic living alone and living and exercise training in normoxic conditions.

  4. Beetroot Juice Supplementation Improves High-Intensity Intermittent Type Exercise Performance in Trained Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Nyakayiru

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that nitrate supplementation can enhance endurance exercise performance. Recent work suggests that nitrate ingestion can also increase intermittent type exercise performance in recreational athletes. We hypothesized that six days of nitrate supplementation can improve high-intensity intermittent type exercise performance in trained soccer players. Thirty-two male soccer players (age: 23 ± 1 years, height: 181 ± 1 m, weight: 77 ± 1 kg, playing experience: 15.2 ± 0.5 years, playing in the first team of a 2nd or 3rd Dutch amateur league club participated in this randomized, double-blind cross-over study. All subjects participated in two test days in which high-intensity intermittent running performance was assessed using the Yo-Yo IR1 test. Subjects ingested nitrate-rich (140 mL; ~800 mg nitrate/day; BR or a nitrate-depleted beetroot juice (PLA for six subsequent days, with at least eight days of wash-out between trials. The distance covered during the Yo-Yo IR1 was the primary outcome measure, while heart rate (HR was measured continuously throughout the test, and a single blood and saliva sample were collected just prior to the test. Six days of BR ingestion increased plasma and salivary nitrate and nitrite concentrations in comparison to PLA (p < 0.001, and enhanced Yo-Yo IR1 test performance by 3.4 ± 1.3% (from 1574 ± 47 to 1623 ± 48 m; p = 0.027. Mean HR was lower in the BR (172 ± 2 vs. PLA trial (175 ± 2; p = 0.014. Six days of BR ingestion effectively improves high-intensity intermittent type exercise performance in trained soccer players.

  5. Effect of birth weight and 12 weeks of exercise training on exercise-induced AMPK signaling in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Hingst, Janne Rasmuss; Frederiksen, Nicklas

    2013-01-01

    . We investigated 21 LBW and 21 normal birth weight (NBW) subjects during 1 hour of acute exercise performed at the same relative workload before and after 12 weeks of exercise training. Multiple skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained before and after exercise. Protein levels and phosphorylation status......Subjects with a low birth weight (LBW) display increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). We hypothesized that this is associated with defects in muscle adaptations following acute and regular physical activity, evident by impairments in the exercise-induced activation of AMPK signaling...... were determined by Western blotting. AMPK activities were measured using activity assays. Protein levels of AMPK isoforms a1 and ¿1 were significantly increased while ¿3 levels decreased with training independent of group. The LBW group had higher exercise-induced AMPK Thr(172) phosphorylation before...

  6. Exercise testing, limitation and training in patients with cystic fibrosis. A personalized approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkman, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise testing and training are cornerstones in regular CF care. However, no consensus exists in literature about which exercise test protocol should be used for individual patients. Furthermore, divergence exists in insights about both the dominant exercise limiting mechanisms and the

  7. Effects of exercise training in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Man, F.S.; Handoko, M.L.; Groepenhoff, H.; van 't Hul, A.J.; Abbink, J.; Koppers, R.J.H.; Grotjohan, H.P.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Bogaard, H.J.; Boonstra, A.; Postmus, P.E.; Westerhof, N.; van der Laarse, W.J.; Vonk Noordegraaf, A.

    2009-01-01

    We determined the physiological effects of exercise training on exercise capacity and quadriceps muscle function in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH). In total, 19 clinically stable iPAH patients (New York Heart Association II-III) underwent a supervised exercise

  8. Physiological and Neural Adaptations to Eccentric Exercise: Mechanisms and Considerations for Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosratollah Hedayatpour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eccentric exercise is characterized by initial unfavorable effects such as subcellular muscle damage, pain, reduced fiber excitability, and initial muscle weakness. However, stretch combined with overload, as in eccentric contractions, is an effective stimulus for inducing physiological and neural adaptations to training. Eccentric exercise-induced adaptations include muscle hypertrophy, increased cortical activity, and changes in motor unit behavior, all of which contribute to improved muscle function. In this brief review, neuromuscular adaptations to different forms of exercise are reviewed, the positive training effects of eccentric exercise are presented, and the implications for training are considered.

  9. Is exercise training safe and beneficial in patients receiving left ventricular assist device therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsara, Osama; Perez-Terzic, Carmen; Squires, Ray W; Dandamudi, Sanjay; Miranda, William R; Park, Soon J; Thomas, Randal J

    2014-01-01

    Because a limited number of patients receive heart transplantation, alternative therapies, such as left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy, have emerged. Published studies have shown that LVAD implantation, by itself, improves exercise tolerance to the point where it is comparable to those with mild heart failure. The improvement in exercise capacity is maximally achieved 12 weeks after LVAD therapy and can continue even after explantation of the device. This effect varies, depending on the type of LVAD and exercise training. The available data in the literature on safety and benefits of exercise training in patients after LVAD implantation are limited, but the data that are available suggest that training trends to be safe and have an impact on exercise capacity in LVAD patients. Although no studies were identified on the role of cardiac rehabilitation programs in the management of LVAD patients, it appears that cardiac rehabilitation programs offer an ideal setting for the provision of supervised exercise training in this patient group.

  10. MAP Training My Brain™: Meditation Plus Aerobic Exercise Lessens Trauma of Sexual Violence More Than Either Activity Alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey J. Shors

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sexual violence against women often leads to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, a mental illness characterized by intrusive thoughts and memories about the traumatic event (Shors and Millon, 2016. These mental processes are obviously generated by the brain but often felt in the body. MAP Training My Brain™ is a novel clinical intervention that combines mental training of the brain with physical training of the body (Curlik and Shors, 2013; Shors et al., 2014. Each training session begins with 20-min of sitting meditation, followed by 10-min of slow-walking meditation, and ending with 30-min of aerobic exercise at 60–80% of the maximum heart rate (see maptrainmybrain.com. In previous studies, the combination of mental and physical (MAP training together significantly reduced symptoms of depression and ruminative thoughts, while reducing anxiety (Shors et al., 2014, 2017; Alderman et al., 2016. We also documented positive changes in brain activity during cognitive control and whole-body oxygen consumption in various populations. In the present pilot study, we asked whether the combination of meditation and aerobic exercise during MAP Training would reduce trauma-related thoughts, ruminations, and memories in women and if so, whether the combination would be more effective than either activity alone. To test this hypothesis, interventions were provided to a group of women (n = 105, many of whom had a history of sexual violence (n = 32. Groups were trained with (1 MAP Training, (2 meditation alone, (3 aerobic exercise alone, or (4 not trained. Individuals in training groups completed two sessions a week for at least 6 weeks. MAP Training My Brain™ significantly reduced post-traumatic cognitions and ruminative thoughts in women with a history of sexual violence, whereas meditation alone, and exercise alone did not. MAP Training significantly enhanced a measure of self-worth, whereas meditation and exercise alone did not. Similar positive

  11. MAP Training My Brain™: Meditation Plus Aerobic Exercise Lessens Trauma of Sexual Violence More Than Either Activity Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shors, Tracey J; Chang, Han Y M; Millon, Emma M

    2018-01-01

    Sexual violence against women often leads to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a mental illness characterized by intrusive thoughts and memories about the traumatic event (Shors and Millon, 2016). These mental processes are obviously generated by the brain but often felt in the body. MAP Training My Brain ™ is a novel clinical intervention that combines mental training of the brain with physical training of the body (Curlik and Shors, 2013; Shors et al., 2014). Each training session begins with 20-min of sitting meditation, followed by 10-min of slow-walking meditation, and ending with 30-min of aerobic exercise at 60-80% of the maximum heart rate (see maptrainmybrain.com). In previous studies, the combination of mental and physical (MAP) training together significantly reduced symptoms of depression and ruminative thoughts, while reducing anxiety (Shors et al., 2014, 2017; Alderman et al., 2016). We also documented positive changes in brain activity during cognitive control and whole-body oxygen consumption in various populations. In the present pilot study, we asked whether the combination of meditation and aerobic exercise during MAP Training would reduce trauma-related thoughts, ruminations, and memories in women and if so, whether the combination would be more effective than either activity alone. To test this hypothesis, interventions were provided to a group of women ( n = 105), many of whom had a history of sexual violence ( n = 32). Groups were trained with (1) MAP Training, (2) meditation alone, (3) aerobic exercise alone, or (4) not trained. Individuals in training groups completed two sessions a week for at least 6 weeks. MAP Training My Brain ™ significantly reduced post-traumatic cognitions and ruminative thoughts in women with a history of sexual violence, whereas meditation alone, and exercise alone did not. MAP Training significantly enhanced a measure of self-worth, whereas meditation and exercise alone did not. Similar positive effects

  12. Improvements in fitness are not obligatory for exercise training-induced improvements in CV risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Yvonne A.W.; Hopman, Maria T.E.; Schreuder, Tim H.; Verheggen, Rebecca J.H.M.; Scholten, Ralph R.; Oudegeest-Sander, Madelijn H.; Poelkens, Fleur; Maiorana, Andrew J.; Naylor, Louise H.; Willems, Peter H.; Tack, Cees J.; Thijssen, Dick H.J.; Green, Daniel J.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether changes in physical fitness relate to changes in cardiovascular risk factors following standardized, center-based and supervised exercise training programs in subjects with increased cardiovascular risk. We pooled data from exercise training studies of

  13. Exercise training and artery function in humans: nonresponse and its relationship to cardiovascular risk factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, D.J.; Eijsvogels, T.M.; Bouts, Y.M.; Maiorana, A.J.; Naylor, L.H.; Scholten, R.R.; Spaanderman, M.E.; Pugh, C.J.; Sprung, V.S.; Schreuder, T.H.; Jones, H.; Cable, T.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of our study were to examine 1) the proportion of responders and nonresponders to exercise training in terms of vascular function; 2) a priori factors related to exercise training-induced changes in conduit artery function, and 3) the contribution of traditional cardiovascular risk

  14. Strongwomen® Program Evaluation: Effect of Strength Training Exercises on Physical Fitness of Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Van Horn, Beth; Corbin, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    The Strongwomen® Program (SWP) is a nationally disseminated group strength-training exercise and nutrition education program delivered by Extension. The study reported here examined the effect of strength training exercises in SWP on improvement in physical fitness of program participants. Senior Fitness Test was used to collect data. Upon…

  15. The impact of exercise training on the diameter dilator response to forearm ischaemia in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, D.H.J.; Tinken, T.M.; Hopkins, N.; Dawson, E.A.; Cable, N.T.; Green, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    AIM: Recent studies found differences between groups in the rate of diameter increase following the flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Whilst exercise training alters the magnitude of the FMD, little is known about the impact of exercise training on the rate of diameter increase. The aim of this study is

  16. A randomised controlled trial of adjunctive yoga and adjunctive physical exercise training for cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Triptish; Mazumdar, Sati; Wood, Joel; He, Fanyin; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L; Deshpande, Smita N

    2017-04-01

    Yoga and physical exercise have been used as adjunctive intervention for cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia (SZ), but controlled comparisons are lacking. Aims A single-blind randomised controlled trial was designed to evaluate whether yoga training or physical exercise training enhance cognitive functions in SZ, based on a prior pilot study. Consenting, clinically stable, adult outpatients with SZ (n=286) completed baseline assessments and were randomised to treatment as usual (TAU), supervised yoga training with TAU (YT) or supervised physical exercise training with TAU (PE). Based on the pilot study, the primary outcome measure was speed index for the cognitive domain of 'attention' in the Penn computerised neurocognitive battery. Using mixed models and contrasts, cognitive functions at baseline, 21 days (end of training), 3 and 6 months post-training were evaluated with intention-to-treat paradigm. Speed index of attention domain in the YT group showed greater improvement than PE at 6 months follow-up (pattention domain showed greater improvement than TAU alone at 6-month follow-up (pattention and additional cognitive domains well past the training period, supporting our prior reported beneficial effect of YT on speed index of attention domain. As adjuncts, YT or PE can benefit individuals with SZ.

  17. A simulator-based nuclear reactor emergency response training exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Edward; Bereznai, George; Shaw, John; Chaput, Joseph; Lafortune, Jean-Francois

    Training offsite emergency response personnel basic awareness of onsite control room operations during nuclear power plant emergency conditions was the primary objective of a week-long workshop conducted on a CANDU® virtual nuclear reactor simulator available at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, Canada. The workshop was designed to examine both normal and abnormal reactor operating conditions, and to observe the conditions in the control room that may have impact on the subsequent offsite emergency response. The workshop was attended by participants from a number of countries encompassing diverse job functions related to nuclear emergency response. Objectives of the workshop were to provide opportunities for participants to act in the roles of control room personnel under different reactor operating scenarios, providing a unique experience for participants to interact with the simulator in real-time, and providing increased awareness of control room operations during accident conditions. The ability to "pause" the simulator during exercises allowed the instructors to evaluate and critique the performance of participants, and to provide context with respect to potential offsite emergency actions. Feedback from the participants highlighted (i) advantages of observing and participating "hands-on" with operational exercises, (ii) their general unfamiliarity with control room operational procedures and arrangements prior to the workshop, (iii) awareness of the vast quantity of detailed control room procedures for both normal and transient conditions, and (iv) appreciation of the increased workload for the operators in the control room during a transient from normal operations. Based upon participant feedback, it was determined that the objectives of the training had been met, and that future workshops should be conducted.

  18. Aerobic Interval Exercise Training Induces Greater Reduction in Cardiac Workload in the Recovery Period in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Juliana Pereira; Masson, Gustavo Santos; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic interval exercise training has greater benefits on cardiovascular function as compared with aerobic continuous exercise training. The present study aimed at analyzing the effects of both exercise modalities on acute and subacute hemodynamic responses of healthy rats. Thirty male rats were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: continuous exercise (CE, n = 10); interval exercise (IE, n = 10); and control (C, n = 10). Both IE and CE groups performed a 30-minute exercise session. The IE group session consisted of three successive 4-minute periods at 60% of maximal velocity (Max Vel), with 4-minute recovery intervals at 40% of Max Vel. The CE group ran continuously at 50% of Max Vel. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure(BP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured before, during and after the exercise session. The CE and IE groups showed an increase in systolic BP and RPP during exercise as compared with the baseline values. After the end of exercise, the CE group showed a lower response of systolic BP and RPP as compared with the baseline values, while the IE group showed lower systolic BP and mean BP values. However, only the IE group had a lower response of HR and RPP during recovery. In healthy rats, one interval exercise session, as compared with continuous exercise, induced similar hemodynamic responses during exercise. However, during recovery, the interval exercise caused greater reductions in cardiac workload than the continuous exercise

  19. Aerobic Interval Exercise Training Induces Greater Reduction in Cardiac Workload in the Recovery Period in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Juliana Pereira; Masson, Gustavo Santos; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano

    2014-01-01

    Background Aerobic interval exercise training has greater benefits on cardiovascular function as compared with aerobic continuous exercise training. Objective The present study aimed at analyzing the effects of both exercise modalities on acute and subacute hemodynamic responses of healthy rats. Methods Thirty male rats were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: continuous exercise (CE, n = 10); interval exercise (IE, n = 10); and control (C, n = 10). Both IE and CE groups performed a 30-minute exercise session. The IE group session consisted of three successive 4-minute periods at 60% of maximal velocity (Max Vel), with 4-minute recovery intervals at 40% of Max Vel. The CE group ran continuously at 50% of Max Vel. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure(BP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured before, during and after the exercise session. Results The CE and IE groups showed an increase in systolic BP and RPP during exercise as compared with the baseline values. After the end of exercise, the CE group showed a lower response of systolic BP and RPP as compared with the baseline values, while the IE group showed lower systolic BP and mean BP values. However, only the IE group had a lower response of HR and RPP during recovery. Conclusion In healthy rats, one interval exercise session, as compared with continuous exercise, induced similar hemodynamic responses during exercise. However, during recovery, the interval exercise caused greater reductions in cardiac workload than the continuous exercise. PMID:24270864

  20. Aerobic Interval Exercise Training Induces Greater Reduction in Cardiac Workload in the Recovery Period in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Juliana Pereira, E-mail: julipborges@gmail.com; Masson, Gustavo Santos; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    Aerobic interval exercise training has greater benefits on cardiovascular function as compared with aerobic continuous exercise training. The present study aimed at analyzing the effects of both exercise modalities on acute and subacute hemodynamic responses of healthy rats. Thirty male rats were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: continuous exercise (CE, n = 10); interval exercise (IE, n = 10); and control (C, n = 10). Both IE and CE groups performed a 30-minute exercise session. The IE group session consisted of three successive 4-minute periods at 60% of maximal velocity (Max Vel), with 4-minute recovery intervals at 40% of Max Vel. The CE group ran continuously at 50% of Max Vel. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure(BP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured before, during and after the exercise session. The CE and IE groups showed an increase in systolic BP and RPP during exercise as compared with the baseline values. After the end of exercise, the CE group showed a lower response of systolic BP and RPP as compared with the baseline values, while the IE group showed lower systolic BP and mean BP values. However, only the IE group had a lower response of HR and RPP during recovery. In healthy rats, one interval exercise session, as compared with continuous exercise, induced similar hemodynamic responses during exercise. However, during recovery, the interval exercise caused greater reductions in cardiac workload than the continuous exercise.

  1. Effects of exercise training and exhaustion on 45Ca uptake by rat skeletal muscle mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, H.W.; Leslie, S.W.; Combs, A.B.; Tate, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    Mitochondrial and sarcoplasmic reticular 45 Ca 2+ uptake and Ca 2+ -ATPase activity were determined in skeletal muscle from exercise trained and non-trained rats at rest or following short-term exhaustive exercise. In trained rats exercised to exhaustion, mitochondrial 45 Ca 2+ uptake was significantly depressed when compared to non-trained rats at rest. Ca 2+ -ATPase activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum from trained rats exercised to exhaustion was significantly increased as compared to trained rats at rest. These data suggest that the disruptive influence of Ca 2+ accumulation in mitochondria isolated following exhaustive exercise may be diminished as a result of training

  2. Blood Volume: Importance and Adaptations to Exercise Training, Environmental Stresses and Trauma Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    because of limb atrophy, weight loss, and inactivity) because erythro- cyte levels of 2,3- diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) were in- creased. However...blood volume expansion during exercise training may partially be explained by factors such as initial fitness level , training intensity, exercise mode...335 and their hydration level when measurements are made (131). Plasma volume expansion seems to be greatest when performing upright exercise on about

  3. Effects of exercise training in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    de Man, F.S.; Handoko, M.L.; Groepenhoff, H.; van 't Hul, A.J.; Abbink, J.; Koppers, R.J.H.; Grotjohan, H.P.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Bogaard, H.J.; Boonstra, A.; Postmus, P.E.; Westerhof, N.; van der Laarse, W.J.; Vonk Noordegraaf, A.

    2009-01-01

    We determined the physiological effects of exercise training on exercise capacity and quadriceps muscle function in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH). In total, 19 clinically stable iPAH patients (New York Heart Association II-III) underwent a supervised exercise training programme for the duration of 12 weeks. Maximal capacity, endurance capacity and quadriceps function were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. In 12 patients, serial quadriceps muscle biopsi...

  4. Exercise training attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by peripheral immunomodulation rather than direct neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Ofira; Fainstein, Nina; Touloumi, Olga; Lagoudaki, Roza; Hanya, Ester; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos; Katz, Abram; Ben-Hur, Tamir

    2018-01-01

    Conflicting results exist on the effects of exercise training (ET) on Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE), nor is it known how exercise impacts on disease progression. We examined whether ET ameliorates the development of EAE by modulating the systemic immune system or exerting direct neuroprotective effects on the CNS. Healthy mice were subjected to 6weeks of motorized treadmill running. The Proteolipid protein (PLP)-induced transfer EAE model in mice was utilized. To assess effects of ET on systemic autoimmunity, lymph-node (LN)-T cells from trained- vs. sedentary donor mice were transferred to naïve recipients. To assess direct neuroprotective effects of ET, PLP-reactive LN-T cells were transferred into recipient mice that were trained prior to EAE transfer or to sedentary mice. EAE severity was assessed in vivo and the characteristics of encephalitogenic LN-T cells derived from PLP-immunized mice were evaluated in vitro. LN-T cells obtained from trained mice induced an attenuated clinical and pathological EAE in recipient mice vs. cells derived from sedentary animals. Training inhibited the activation, proliferation and cytokine gene expression of PLP-reactive T cells in response to CNS-derived autoantigen, but strongly enhanced their proliferation in response to Concanavalin A, a non-specific stimulus. However, there was no difference in EAE severity when autoreactive encephalitogenic T cells were transferred to trained vs. sedentary recipient mice. ET inhibits immune system responses to an auto-antigen to attenuate EAE, rather than generally suppressing the immune system, but does not induce a direct neuro-protective effect against EAE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to progressive resistance exercise intensity in trained and untrained males

    OpenAIRE

    H Çakır-Atabek; F Özdemir; R Çolak

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between oxidative stress and some exercise components of resistance exercise (e.g. intensity, exercise volume) has not been clearly defined. Additionally, the oxidative stress markers may respond differently in various conditions. This study aims to determine the effects of progressive intensity of resistance exercise (RE) on oxidative stress and antioxidants in trained and untrained men, and also to investigate the possible threshold intensity required to evoke oxidative str...

  6. Regular Exercise Enhances Task-Based Industriousness in Laboratory Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas C Laurence

    Full Text Available Individuals vary greatly in their willingness to select and persist in effortful tasks, even when high-effort will knowingly result in high-reward. Individuals who select and successively complete effortful, goal-directed tasks can be described as industrious. Trying to increase one's industriousness is desirable from a productivity standpoint, yet intrinsically challenging given that effort expenditure is generally aversive. Here we show that in laboratory rats, a basic physical exercise regimen (20 min/day, five days/week is sufficient to increase industriousness across a battery of subsequent testing tasks. Exercised rats outperformed their non-exercised counterparts in tasks designed to tax effort expenditure, strategic decision-making, problem solving and persistence. These increases in performance led to quicker reward obtainment and greater reward gain over time, and could not be accounted for simply by increased locomotor activity. Our results suggest that a basic exercise regimen can enhance effortful goal-directed behaviour in goal-directed tasks, which highlights a potential productivity benefit of staying physically active.

  7. Beneficial effects of exercise training in heart failure are lost in male diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudia, Dalila; Domergue, Valérie; Mateo, Philippe; Fazal, Loubina; Prud'homme, Mathilde; Prigent, Héloïse; Delcayre, Claude; Cohen-Solal, Alain; Garnier, Anne; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Samuel, Jane-Lise

    2017-12-01

    Exercise training has been demonstrated to have beneficial effects in patients with heart failure (HF) or diabetes. However, it is unknown whether diabetic patients with HF will benefit from exercise training. Male Wistar rats were fed either a standard (Sham, n = 53) or high-fat, high-sucrose diet ( n = 66) for 6 mo. After 2 mo of diet, the rats were already diabetic. Rats were then randomly subjected to either myocardial infarction by coronary artery ligation (MI) or sham operation. Two months later, heart failure was documented by echocardiography and animals were randomly subjected to exercise training with treadmill for an additional 8 wk or remained sedentary. At the end, rats were euthanized and tissues were assayed by RT-PCR, immunoblotting, spectrophotometry, and immunohistology. MI induced a similar decrease in ejection fraction in diabetic and lean animals but a higher premature mortality in the diabetic group. Exercise for 8 wk resulted in a higher working power developed by MI animals with diabetes and improved glycaemia but not ejection fraction or pathological phenotype. In contrast, exercise improved the ejection fraction and increased adaptive hypertrophy after MI in the lean group. Trained diabetic rats with MI were nevertheless able to develop cardiomyocyte hypertrophy but without angiogenic responses. Exercise improved stress markers and cardiac energy metabolism in lean but not diabetic-MI rats. Hence, following HF, the benefits of exercise training on cardiac function are blunted in diabetic animals. In conclusion, exercise training only improved the myocardial profile of infarcted lean rats fed the standard diet. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Exercise training is beneficial in patients with heart failure (HF) or diabetes. However, less is known of the possible benefit of exercise training for HF patients with diabetes. Using a rat model where both diabetes and MI had been induced, we showed that 2 mo after MI, 8 wk of exercise training failed to improve

  8. Clinical Utility of Exercise Training in Heart Failure with Reduced and Preserved Ejection Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrar Ul Haq, Muhammad; Goh, Cheng Yee; Levinger, Itamar; Wong, Chiew; Hare, David L

    2015-01-01

    Reduced exercise tolerance is an independent predictor of hospital readmission and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF). Exercise training for HF patients is well established as an adjunct therapy, and there is sufficient evidence to support the favorable role of exercise training programs for HF patients over and above the optimal medical therapy. Some of the documented benefits include improved functional capacity, quality of life (QoL), fatigue, and dyspnea. Major trials to assess exercise training in HF have, however, focused on heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF). At least half of the patients presenting with HF have heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) and experience similar symptoms of exercise intolerance, dyspnea, and early fatigue, and similar mortality risk and rehospitalization rates. The role of exercise training in the management of HFPEF remains less clear. This article provides a brief overview of pathophysiology of reduced exercise tolerance in HFREF and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF), and summarizes the evidence and mechanisms by which exercise training can improve symptoms and HF. Clinical and practical aspects of exercise training prescription are also discussed. PMID:25698883

  9. Maximal power output during incremental exercise by resistance and endurance trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivelavan, D S; Sumathilatha, S

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed at comparing the maximal power output by resistance trained and endurance trained athletes during incremental exercise. Thirty male athletes who received resistance training (Group I) and thirty male athletes of similar age group who received endurance training (Group II) for a period of more than 1 year were chosen for the study. Physical parameters were measured and exercise stress testing was done on a cycle ergometer with a portable gas analyzing system. The maximal progressive incremental cycle ergometer power output at peak exercise and carbon dioxide production at VO2max were measured. Highly significant (P biofeedback and perk up the athlete's performance.

  10. Whole-body vibration exercise training reduces arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women with prehypertension and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arturo; Kalfon, Roy; Madzima, Takudzwa A; Wong, Alexei

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise training on arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity [PWV]), blood pressure (BP), and leg muscle function in postmenopausal women. Twenty-five postmenopausal women with prehypertension and hypertension (mean [SE]; age, 56 [1] y; systolic BP, 139 [2] mm Hg; body mass index, 34.7 [0.8] kg/m2) were randomized to 12 weeks of WBV exercise training (n = 13) or to the no-exercise control group. Systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, carotid-femoral PWV, brachial-ankle PWV, femoral-ankle PWV (legPWV), leg lean mass, and leg muscle strength were measured before and after 12 weeks. There was a group-by-time interaction (P exercise training compared with no change after control. Heart rate decreased (-3 [1] beats/min, P exercise training, but there was no interaction (P > 0.05). Leg lean mass and carotid-femoral PWV were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by WBV exercise training or control. Our findings indicate that WBV exercise training improves systemic and leg arterial stiffness, BP, and leg muscle strength in postmenopausal women with prehypertension or hypertension. WBV exercise training may decrease cardiovascular and disability risks in postmenopausal women by reducing legPWV and increasing leg muscle strength.

  11. A Scientific Rationale to Improve Resistance Training Prescription in Exercise Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairman, Ciaran M; Zourdos, Michael C; Helms, Eric R; Focht, Brian C

    2017-08-01

    To date, the prevailing evidence in the field of exercise oncology supports the safety and efficacy of resistance training to attenuate many oncology treatment-related adverse effects, such as risk for cardiovascular disease, increased fatigue, and diminished physical functioning and quality of life. Moreover, findings in the extant literature supporting the benefits of exercise for survivors of and patients with cancer have resulted in the release of exercise guidelines from several international agencies. However, despite research progression and international recognition, current exercise oncology-based exercise prescriptions remain relatively basic and underdeveloped, particularly in regards to resistance training. Recent publications have called for a more precise manipulation of training variables such as volume, intensity, and frequency (i.e., periodization), given the large heterogeneity of a cancer population, to truly optimize clinically relevant patient-reported outcomes. Indeed, increased attention to integrating fundamental principles of exercise physiology into the exercise prescription process could optimize the safety and efficacy of resistance training during cancer care. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of the current state of resistance training prescription and discuss novel methods that can contribute to improving approaches to exercise prescription. We hope this article may facilitate further evaluation of best practice regarding resistance training prescription, monitoring, and modification to ultimately optimize the efficacy of integrating resistance training as a supportive care intervention for survivors or and patients with cancer.

  12. Computer-enhanced laparoscopic training system (CELTS): bridging the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylopoulos, N; Cotin, S; Maithel, S K; Ottensmeye, M; Jackson, P G; Bardsley, R S; Neumann, P F; Rattner, D W; Dawson, S L

    2004-05-01

    There is a large and growing gap between the need for better surgical training methodologies and the systems currently available for such training. In an effort to bridge this gap and overcome the disadvantages of the training simulators now in use, we developed the Computer-Enhanced Laparoscopic Training System (CELTS). CELTS is a computer-based system capable of tracking the motion of laparoscopic instruments and providing feedback about performance in real time. CELTS consists of a mechanical interface, a customizable set of tasks, and an Internet-based software interface. The special cognitive and psychomotor skills a laparoscopic surgeon should master were explicitly defined and transformed into quantitative metrics based on kinematics analysis theory. A single global standardized and task-independent scoring system utilizing a z-score statistic was developed. Validation exercises were performed. The scoring system clearly revealed a gap between experts and trainees, irrespective of the task performed; none of the trainees obtained a score above the threshold that distinguishes the two groups. Moreover, CELTS provided educational feedback by identifying the key factors that contributed to the overall score. Among the defined metrics, depth perception, smoothness of motion, instrument orientation, and the outcome of the task are major indicators of performance and key parameters that distinguish experts from trainees. Time and path length alone, which are the most commonly used metrics in currently available systems, are not considered good indicators of performance. CELTS is a novel and standardized skills trainer that combines the advantages of computer simulation with the features of the traditional and popular training boxes. CELTS can easily be used with a wide array of tasks and ensures comparability across different training conditions. This report further shows that a set of appropriate and clinically relevant performance metrics can be defined and a

  13. EFFECTS OF EXERCISE TRAINING ON BLOOD LIPIDS AND LIPOPROTEINS IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Stoedefalke

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The following review aims to describe what is known about the effects of exercise training in children and adolescents on the following blood lipids and lipoproteins: total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglycerides (TG. Only studies that described mode, frequency, duration and intensity of the exercise were included in the review. The results of the studies reviewed were equivocal. Clearly the effects of exercise training on the blood lipid and lipoprotein levels of normolipidemic children and adolescents are equivocal. Of the 14 studies reviewed, six observed a positive alteration in the blood lipid and lipoprotein profile, four of the studies observed no alteration in the blood lipid and lipoprotein profile and one study observed a negative effect on HDL-C but an overall improvement in the lipid and lipoprotein profile due to the decrease in the TC/HDL ratio. It appears that methodological problems present in the majority of the exercise training studies limits the ability to make a conclusive, evidence based statement regarding the effect exercise training has on blood lipid levels in normolipidemic children. Most of the research design flaws can be linked to one or more of the following: small numbers of subjects in each study, low or no representation of girls, inclusion of both boys and girls in the subject pool, inclusion of boys and girls at different maturational stages in the subject pool, exercise training regimes that do not adequately control for exercise intensity, exercise training regimes that do not last longer than 8 weeks and exercise training studies that do not have an adequate exercise volume to elicit a change. Ideally, future research should focus on longitudinal studies which examine the effects of exercise training from the primary school years through adulthood

  14. The effects of Pilates exercise training on static and dynamic balance in chronic stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hee Sung; Kim, You Lim; Lee, Suk Min

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of Pilates exercise on static and dynamic balance in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Nineteen individuals with unilateral chronic hemiparetic stroke (age, 64.7 ± 6.9 years; height, 161.7 ± 7.9 cm; weight, 67.0 ± 11.1 kg) were randomly allocated to either a Pilates exercise group (PG, n=10) or a control group (CG, n=9). The PG attended 24 exercise sessions conducted over an 8-week period (3 sessions/week). Center of pressure (COP) sway and COP velocity were measured one week before and after the exercise program and compared to assess training effects. [Results] Pilates exercise positively affected both static and dynamic balance in patients with chronic stroke. For static balance, COP sway and velocity in the medial-lateral (M-L) and anterior-posterior (A-P) directions were significantly decreased in the PG after training while no significant differences were found in the CG. For dynamic balance, measured during treadmill walking, the PG showed significantly reduced COP sway and velocity in the M-L and A-P directions for both the paretic and non-paretic leg. [Conclusions] The findings provide initial evidence that Pilates exercise can enhance static and dynamic balance in patients with chronic stroke. PMID:27390424

  15. Enhancing Astronaut Performance using Sensorimotor Adaptability Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob J Bloomberg

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Astronauts experience disturbances in balance and gait function when they return to Earth. The highly plastic human brain enables individuals to modify their behavior to match the prevailing environment. Subjects participating in specially designed variable sensory challenge training programs can enhance their ability to rapidly adapt to novel sensory situations. This is useful in our application because we aim to train astronauts to rapidly formulate effective strategies to cope with the balance and locomotor challenges associated with new gravitational environments - enhancing their ability to learn to learn. We do this by coupling various combinations of sensorimotor challenges with treadmill walking. A unique training system has been developed that is comprised of a treadmill mounted on a motion base to produce movement of the support surface during walking. This system provides challenges to gait stability. Additional sensory variation and challenge are imposed with a virtual visual scene that presents subjects with various combinations of discordant visual information during treadmill walking. This experience allows them to practice resolving challenging and conflicting novel sensory information to improve their ability to adapt rapidly. Information obtained from this work will inform the design of the next generation of sensorimotor countermeasures for astronauts.

  16. Enhancing astronaut performance using sensorimotor adaptability training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J; Peters, Brian T; Cohen, Helen S; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts experience disturbances in balance and gait function when they return to Earth. The highly plastic human brain enables individuals to modify their behavior to match the prevailing environment. Subjects participating in specially designed variable sensory challenge training programs can enhance their ability to rapidly adapt to novel sensory situations. This is useful in our application because we aim to train astronauts to rapidly formulate effective strategies to cope with the balance and locomotor challenges associated with new gravitational environments-enhancing their ability to "learn to learn." We do this by coupling various combinations of sensorimotor challenges with treadmill walking. A unique training system has been developed that is comprised of a treadmill mounted on a motion base to produce movement of the support surface during walking. This system provides challenges to gait stability. Additional sensory variation and challenge are imposed with a virtual visual scene that presents subjects with various combinations of discordant visual information during treadmill walking. This experience allows them to practice resolving challenging and conflicting novel sensory information to improve their ability to adapt rapidly. Information obtained from this work will inform the design of the next generation of sensorimotor countermeasures for astronauts.

  17. Enhancing Nuclear Training with 3D Visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnon, V.; Gagnon, B.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: While the nuclear power industry is trying to reinforce its safety and regain public support post-Fukushima, it is also faced with a very real challenge that affects its day-to-day activities: a rapidly aging workforce. Statistics show that close to 40% of the current nuclear power industry workforce will retire within the next five years. For newcomer countries, the challenge is even greater, having to develop a completely new workforce. The workforce replacement effort introduces nuclear newcomers of a new generation with different backgrounds and affinities. Major lifestyle differences between the two generations of workers result, amongst other things, in different learning habits and needs for this new breed of learners. Interactivity, high visual content and quick access to information are now necessary to achieve a high level of retention. To enhance existing training programmes or to support the establishment of new training programmes for newcomer countries, L-3 MAPPS has devised learning tools to enhance these training programmes focused on the “Practice-by-Doing” principle. L-3 MAPPS has coupled 3D computer visualization with high-fidelity simulation to bring real-time, simulation-driven animated components and systems allowing immersive and participatory, individual or classroom learning. (author

  18. Irisin and exercise training in humans - results from a randomized controlled training trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecksteden, Anne; Wegmann, Melissa; Steffen, Anke; Kraushaar, Jochen; Morsch, Arne; Ruppenthal, Sandra; Kaestner, Lars; Meyer, Tim

    2013-11-05

    The recent discovery of a new myokine (irisin) potentially involved in health-related training effects has gained great attention, but evidence for a training-induced increase in irisin remains preliminary. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine whether irisin concentration is increased after regular exercise training in humans. In a randomized controlled design, two guideline conforming training interventions were studied. Inclusion criteria were age 30 to 60 years, Physical performance provided positive control for the overall efficacy of training. Differences between groups were tested for significance using analysis of variance. For post hoc comparisons with the control group, Dunnett's test was used. Maximum performance increased significantly in the training groups compared with controls (controls: ±0.0 ± 0.7 km/h; AET: 1.1 ± 0.6 km/h, P error probability = 0.7). The general upward trend was mainly accounted for by a negative association of irisin concentration with the storage duration of frozen serum samples (P storage of samples from initial tests.

  19. Effects of functional exercise training on performance and muscle strength after meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ericsson, Y B; Dahlberg, L E; Roos, E M

    2008-01-01

    Muscular deficits and functional limitations have been found years after meniscectomy of the knee. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effect of functional exercise training on functional performance and isokinetic thigh muscle strength in middle-aged patients...... subsequent to meniscectomy for a degenerative tear. Four years after meniscectomy, 45 patients (29 men, 16 women) were randomized to functional exercise training, supervised by a physical therapist, three times weekly for 4 months or to no intervention. The exercise program comprised of postural stability...... training and functional strength and endurance exercises for leg and trunk muscles. Outcomes were three functional performance tests and isokinetic muscle strength. Thirty patients (16 exercisers/14 controls) completed the study. Compared with control patients, the exercise group showed significant...

  20. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing – effective method for evaluation and recommendation of individualized exercise training in patients with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Avram

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to emphasize the role of cardiopulmonary exercise training (CPET in evaluation and recommendation of individualized exercise training in patients with a metabolic syndrome. Methods: We performed a prospective longitudinal study of 9 months. The study group consisted of 28 young patients (21.3±3.1 years old without contraindications to exercise, previously diagnosed with metabolic syndrome according to NCEP-ATPIII criteria. All patients were evaluating at baseline and after 3 months of intervention and at the end of the study (after 9 months. The evaluation consists in performing a CPET on bicycle ergometer in which subjects were monitored in terms of cardiac and respiratory parameters. The CPET results allow us to establish the range of effort intensity in which the patient should exercise in order to burn calories and achieve the maximum fat oxidation rate. All patients benefit from an intensive interval exercise training programme, supervised and guided by a physical therapist. Exercise training consisted in 50 minutes sessions, 3 times per week, at intensive endurance training zone (in the range of anaerobic threshold, completed by 1 minute interval in the range between anaerobic threshold (AT and respiratory compensation point (RCP, for every 5 minutes of training. Results: After 9 months of intervention we noticed an improvement of abdominal obesity (waist circumference decreased from 98.98±10.14 cm to 89.54±12.32 cm, p<0.001, physical fitness (V’O2peak increased from 1.83±0.33 l/min to 2.13±0.4 l/min, p<0.001 and endurance (Oxygen uptake in the range of anaerobic treshold increase from 1.27±0.27 l/min to 1.55±0.31 l/min, p<0.001. Conclusions: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing together with training zones determinations is a useful tool for assessing the exercise capacity and drawing up individual workouts. Active and closely monitored intervention by individualized exercise training programmes leads to

  1. Combination of exercise training and diet restriction normalizes limited exercise capacity and impaired skeletal muscle function in diet-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Tadashi; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Takada, Shingo; Kadoguchi, Tomoyasu; Fukushima, Arata; Homma, Tsuneaki; Masaki, Yoshihiro; Furihata, Takaaki; Takahashi, Masashige; Sobirin, Mochamad A; Ono, Taisuke; Hirabayashi, Kagami; Yokota, Takashi; Tanaka, Shinya; Okita, Koichi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Exercise training (EX) and diet restriction (DR) are essential for effective management of obesity and insulin resistance in diabetes mellitus. However, whether these interventions ameliorate the limited exercise capacity and impaired skeletal muscle function in diabetes patients remains unexplored. Therefore, we investigated the effects of EX and/or DR on exercise capacity and skeletal muscle function in diet-induced diabetic mice. Male C57BL/6J mice that were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks were randomly assigned for an additional 4 weeks to 4 groups: control, EX, DR, and EX+DR. A lean group fed with a normal diet was also studied. Obesity and insulin resistance induced by a HFD were significantly but partially improved by EX or DR and completely reversed by EX+DR. Although exercise capacity decreased significantly with HFD compared with normal diet, it partially improved with EX and DR and completely reversed with EX+DR. In parallel, the impaired mitochondrial function and enhanced oxidative stress in the skeletal muscle caused by the HFD were normalized only by EX+DR. Although obesity and insulin resistance were completely reversed by DR with an insulin-sensitizing drug or a long-term intervention, the exercise capacity and skeletal muscle function could not be normalized. Therefore, improvement in impaired skeletal muscle function, rather than obesity and insulin resistance, may be an important therapeutic target for normalization of the limited exercise capacity in diabetes. In conclusion, a comprehensive lifestyle therapy of exercise and diet normalizes the limited exercise capacity and impaired muscle function in diabetes mellitus.

  2. The effect of different training exercises on the performance outcome on the da Vinci Skills Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walliczek-Dworschak, U; Schmitt, M; Dworschak, P; Diogo, I; Ecke, A; Mandapathil, M; Teymoortash, A; Güldner, C

    2017-06-01

    Increasing usage of robotic surgery presents surgeons with the question of how to acquire the special skills required. This study aimed to analyze the effect of different exercises on their performance outcomes. This prospective study was conducted on the da Vinci Skills Simulator from December 2014 till August 2015. Sixty robotic novices were included and randomized to three groups of 20 participants each. Each group performed three different exercises with comparable difficulty levels. The exercises were performed three times in a row within two training sessions, with an interval of 1 week in between. On the final training day, two new exercises were added and a questionnaire was completed. Technical metrics of performance (overall score, time to complete, economy of motion, instrument collisions, excessive instrument force, instruments out of view, master work space range, drops, missed targets, misapplied energy time, blood loss and broken vessels) were recorded by the simulator software for further analysis. Training with different exercises led to comparable results in performance metrics for the final exercises among the three groups. A significant skills gain was recorded between the first and last exercises, with improved performance in overall score, time to complete and economy of motion for all exercises in all three groups. As training with different exercises led to comparable results in robotic training, the type of exercise seems to play a minor role in the outcome. For a robotic training curriculum, it might be important to choose exercises with comparable difficulty levels. In addition, it seems to be advantageous to limit the duration of the training to maintain the concentration throughout the entire session.

  3. The Effects of Exercise Training on Tumor Vascularity and Response to Neoadjuvant Therapy in Operable Breast Cancer: A Phase I-II Study (Idea Award)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Lee W; Peterson, Bercedis; Blackwell, Kimberly; Dewhirst, Mark W; Marcom, P. K; Kraus, WIlliam; Baker, Jay; Allen, Jason D

    2006-01-01

    .... Participants assigned to combined exercise training and chemotherapy will perform an individualized exercise training program consisting of three cycle ergometry sessions per week at approximately 60-80...

  4. The perceived feasibility and acceptability of a conceptually challenging exercise training program in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller CT

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Clint T Miller,1 Megan Teychenne,2 Jaimie-Lee Maple2 1School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia; 2Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia Background: Exercise training is an essential component of falls prevention strategies, but they do not fully address components of physical function that leads to falls. The training approaches to achieve this may not be perceived as appropriate or even feasible in older adults. This study aims to assess the perceived feasibility and acceptability of novel exercise training approaches not usually prescribed to older adults. Patients and methods: Fourteen adults were exposed to conceptually and physically demanding exercises. Interviews were then conducted to determine perceptions and acceptability of individual exercise tasks. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to identify themes. Results: Safety and confidence, acceptability, and population participation were the key themes identified. Staff knowledge, presence, program design, and overt safety equipment were important for alleviating initial apprehension. Although physically demanding, participants expressed satisfaction when challenged. Prior disposition, understanding the value, and the appeal of novel exercises were perceived to influence program engagement. Conclusion: Given the evidence for acceptability, this type of training is feasible and may be appropriate as part of an exercise training program for older adults. Further research should be conducted to confirm that the physical adaptations to exercise training approaches as presented in this study occur in a similar manner to that observed in younger adults, and to also determine whether these adaptations lead to prolonged independence and reduced falls in older adults compared to usual care. Keywords: falls, balance, qualitative analysis, thematic

  5. ATTITUDES OF FOOTBALL PLAYERS OF DIFFERENT RANKS TOWARDS TRAINING EXERCISES OF RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Molnar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Training exercises of recovery of sportsmen include both exercises implying hig- her level of training and exercises of optimal recovery of sportsmen. In order to use training exercises of recovery best way it is necessary to know how they react to the body of a sportsman concerning their character and length. It is also necessary to take into consideration the fact that human body adapts equally both to burden and adequ- ate recovery exercises. To increase the efficiency of training exercises of recovery it is inevitable to use different exercises and methods changing their use, that is, they should be applied in a complex way considering their change depending on sport activities and structure of training process. The aim of the study is to check and analyse attitudes of fooyball players of different ranks towards training exercises of recovery. The sample of examinees consists of 120 footballers of different ranks (super league of Serbia = 43, the first league of Serbia = 40 and Serbian league = 37. The sample of variables consists of the system of 10 attitudes (claims, and each attitude (claim consists of 5 verbal ca- tegories (marked from -2 to +2. To determine multivariate and univariate significance of differences between footballers of different competition ranks multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA have been ap- plied. Concerning the attitudes of training exercises of recovery statistically significant differences were got between the groups where 7 out of 10 attitudes were different. Con- cerning the correlation two types of attitudes were noticed. Footballers of different competition ranks do not have the same attitudes towards training exercises of recovery.

  6. Effects of aerobic training intensity on resting, exercise and post-exercise blood pressure, heart rate and heart-rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, V A; Verheyden, B; Aubert, A E; Fagard, R H

    2010-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of endurance training intensity (1) on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) at rest before exercise, and during and after a maximal exercise test; and (2) on measures of HR variability at rest before exercise and during recovery from the exercise test, in at least 55-year-old healthy sedentary men and women. A randomized crossover study comprising three 10-week periods was performed. In the first and third period, participants exercised at lower or higher intensity (33% or 66% of HR reserve) in random order, with a sedentary period in between. Training programmes were identical except for intensity, and were performed under supervision thrice for 1 h per week. The results show that in the three conditions, that is, at rest before exercise, during exercise and during recovery, we found endurance training at lower and higher intensity to reduce SBP significantly (Pendurance training did not affect the response of SBP after an acute bout of exercise. The effect of training on HR at rest, during exercise and recovery was more pronounced (Pendurance training had no significant effect on sympathovagal balance. In conclusion, in participants at higher age, both training programmes exert similar effects on SBP at rest, during exercise and during post-exercise recovery, whereas the effects on HR are more pronounced after higher intensity training.

  7. Changes in ventilatory threshold with exercise training in a sedentary population: the HERITAGE Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, S E; Walker, A J; Serfass, R A; Bouchard, C; Gagnon, J; Rao, D C; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Leon, A S

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of exercise training intensity relative to the ventilatory threshold (VT) on changes in work (watts) and VO2 at the ventilatory threshold and at maximal exercise in previously sedentary participants in the HERITAGE Family Study. We hypothesized that those who exercised below their VT would improve less in VO2 at the ventilatory threshold (VO2vt) and VO2max than those who trained at an intensity greater than their VT. Supervised cycle ergometer training was performed at the 4 participating clinical centers, 3 times a week for 20 weeks. Exercise training progressed from the HR corresponding to 55% VO2max for 30 minutes to the HR associated with 75% VO2max for 50 minutes for the final 6 weeks. VT was determined at baseline and after exercise training using standardized methods. 432 sedentary white and black men (n = 224) and women (n = 208), aged 17 to 65 years, were retrospectively divided into groups based on whether exercise training was initiated below, at, or above VT. 1) Training intensity (relative to VT) accounting for about 26% of the improvement in VO2vt (R2 = 0.26, p accounted for approximately 56% of the training effect at VT (R2 = 0.56, p 0.70). 3) Training intensity (relative to VT) had no effect on DeltaVO2max. These data clearly show that as a result of aerobic training both the VO2 and W associated with VT respond and become similar to the absolute intensity of sustained (3 x /week for 50 min) aerobic exercise training. Higher intensities of exercise, relative to VT, result in larger gains in VO2vt but not in VO2max.

  8. Impact of moderate versus mild aerobic exercise training on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Key words: Aerobic exercise, inflammatory cytokines, obesity, non-insulin ... exercise, include reduced percentage of body fat and ... Skeletal muscle is another source of cytokines, called .... concomitant weight loss diet, is associated with.

  9. Aerobic vs anaerobic exercise training effects on the cardiovascular system

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Harsh; Alkhawam, Hassan; Madanieh, Raef; Shah, Niel; Kosmas, Constantine E; Vittorio, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    Physical exercise is one of the most effective methods to help prevent cardiovascular (CV) disease and to promote CV health. Aerobic and anaerobic exercises are two types of exercise that differ based on the intensity, interval and types of muscle fibers incorporated. In this article, we aim to further elaborate on these two categories of physical exercise and to help decipher which provides the most effective means of promoting CV health.

  10. Exercise and training effects on ceramide metabolism in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Dobrzyn, Agnieszka; Saltin, Bengt

    2004-01-01

    in skeletal muscle in untrained and trained subjects before and after prolonged exercise. Healthy male subjects were recruited into an untrained (n = 8, VO2,max 3.8 +/- 0.2 1 min1) and a trained (n = 8, Vo2,max 5.1 +/- 0.1 1 min2) group. Before and after a 3-h exercise bout (58 +/- 1% VO2,max) a muscle biopsy...... was measured using N-[14CH3]-sphingomyelin as a substrate. Prior to exercise, the muscle total ceramide fatty acid content in both groups was similar (201 +/- 18 and 197 +/- 9 nmol g(-1) in the untrained and trained group, respectively) and after exercise a 25% increase in the content was observed in each...... group. At rest, the muscle total sphingomyelin fatty acid content was higher in untrained than in trained subjects (456 +/- 10, 407 +/- 7 nmol g(-1), respectively; P trained subjects. The muscle neutral, Mg...

  11. Whey Protein Supplementation Enhances Whole Body Protein Metabolism and Performance Recovery after Resistance Exercise: A Double-Blind Crossover Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. D. West

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available No study has concurrently measured changes in free-living whole body protein metabolism and exercise performance during recovery from an acute bout of resistance exercise. We aimed to determine if whey protein ingestion enhances whole body net protein balance and recovery of exercise performance during overnight (10 h and 24 h recovery after whole body resistance exercise in trained men. In a double-blind crossover design, 12 trained men (76 ± 8 kg, 24 ± 4 years old, 14% ± 5% body fat; means ± standard deviation (SD performed resistance exercise in the evening prior to consuming either 25 g of whey protein (PRO; MuscleTech 100% Whey or an energy-matched placebo (CHO immediately post-exercise (0 h, and again the following morning (~10 h of recovery. A third randomized trial, completed by the same participants, involving no exercise and no supplement served as a rested control trial (Rest. Participants ingested [15N]glycine to determine whole body protein kinetics and net protein balance over 10 and 24 h of recovery. Performance was assessed pre-exercise and at 0, 10, and 24 h of recovery using a battery of tests. Net protein balance tended to improve in PRO (P = 0.064; effect size (ES = 0.61, PRO vs. CHO during overnight recovery. Over 24 h, net balance was enhanced in PRO (P = 0.036 but not in CHO (P = 0.84; ES = 0.69, PRO vs. CHO, which was mediated primarily by a reduction in protein breakdown (PRO < CHO; P < 0.01. Exercise decreased repetitions to failure (REP, maximal strength (MVC, peak and mean power, and countermovement jump performance (CMJ at 0 h (all P < 0.05 vs. Pre. At 10 h, there were small-to-moderate effects for enhanced recovery of the MVC (ES = 0.56, mean power (ES = 0.49, and CMJ variables (ES: 0.27–0.49 in PRO. At 24 h, protein supplementation improved MVC (ES = 0.76, REP (ES = 0.44, and peak power (ES = 0.55. In conclusion, whey protein supplementation enhances whole body anabolism, and may improve acute recovery of

  12. The perceived feasibility and acceptability of a conceptually challenging exercise training program in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Clint T; Teychenne, Megan; Maple, Jaimie-Lee

    2018-01-01

    Exercise training is an essential component of falls prevention strategies, but they do not fully address components of physical function that leads to falls. The training approaches to achieve this may not be perceived as appropriate or even feasible in older adults. This study aims to assess the perceived feasibility and acceptability of novel exercise training approaches not usually prescribed to older adults. Fourteen adults were exposed to conceptually and physically demanding exercises. Interviews were then conducted to determine perceptions and acceptability of individual exercise tasks. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to identify themes. Safety and confidence, acceptability, and population participation were the key themes identified. Staff knowledge, presence, program design, and overt safety equipment were important for alleviating initial apprehension. Although physically demanding, participants expressed satisfaction when challenged. Prior disposition, understanding the value, and the appeal of novel exercises were perceived to influence program engagement. Given the evidence for acceptability, this type of training is feasible and may be appropriate as part of an exercise training program for older adults. Further research should be conducted to confirm that the physical adaptations to exercise training approaches as presented in this study occur in a similar manner to that observed in younger adults, and to also determine whether these adaptations lead to prolonged independence and reduced falls in older adults compared to usual care.

  13. Exercise training improves selected aspects of daytime functioning in adults with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Christopher E; Ewing, Gary B; Burch, James B; Blair, Steven N; Durstine, J Larry; Davis, J Mark; Youngstedt, Shawn D

    2012-08-15

    To explore the utility of exercise training for improving daytime functioning in adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Forty-three sedentary and overweight/obese adults aged 18-55 years with at least moderate-severity untreated OSA (apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15) were randomized to 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise training (n = 27) or low-intensity stretching control treatment (n = 16). As part of a trial investigating the efficacy of exercise training on OSA severity, daytime functioning was assessed before and following the intervention. Sleepiness, functional impairment due to sleepiness, depressive symptoms, mood, and quality of life (QOL) were evaluated with validated questionnaires, and cognitive function was assessed with a neurobehavioral performance battery. OSA severity was measured with one night of laboratory polysomnography before and following the intervention. Compared with stretching control, exercise training resulted in significant improvements in depressive symptoms, fatigue and vigor, and aspects of QOL (p improved following exercise versus control to a similar degree in terms of effect sizes (d > 0.5), though these changes were not statistically significant. No neurobehavioral performance improvements were found. Reduced fatigue following exercise training was mediated by a reduction in OSA severity, but changes in OSA severity did not significantly mediate improvement in any other measure of daytime functioning. These data provide preliminary evidence that exercise training may be helpful for improving aspects of daytime functioning of adults with OSA. Larger trials are needed to further verify the observed improvements.

  14. Does a Wii-based exercise program enhance balance control of independently functioning older adults? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Yocheved; Dar, Gali; Kodesh, Einat

    2014-01-01

    Exercise programs that challenge an individual's balance have been shown to reduce the risk of falls among older adults. Virtual reality computer-based technology that provides the user with opportunities to interact with virtual objects is used extensively for entertainment. There is a growing interest in the potential of virtual reality-based interventions for balance training in older adults. This work comprises a systematic review of the literature to determine the effects of intervention programs utilizing the Nintendo Wii console on balance control and functional performance in independently functioning older adults. STUDIES WERE OBTAINED BY SEARCHING THE FOLLOWING DATABASES: PubMed, CINAHL, PEDro, EMBASE, SPORTdiscus, and Google Scholar, followed by a hand search of bibliographic references of the included studies. Included were randomized controlled trials written in English in which Nintendo Wii Fit was used to enhance standing balance performance in older adults and compared with an alternative exercise treatment, placebo, or no treatment. Seven relevant studies were retrieved. The four studies examining the effect of Wii-based exercise compared with no exercise reported positive effects on at least one outcome measure related to balance performance in older adults. Studies comparing Wii-based training with alternative exercise programs generally indicated that the balance improvements achieved by Wii-based training are comparable with those achieved by other exercise programs. The review indicates that Wii-based exercise programs may serve as an alternative to more conventional forms of exercise aimed at improving balance control. However, due to the great variability between studies in terms of the intervention protocols and outcome measures, as well as methodological limitations, definitive recommendations as to optimal treatment protocols and the potential of such an intervention as a safe and effective home-based treatment cannot be made at this

  15. Does a Wii-based exercise program enhance balance control of independently functioning older adults? A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Yocheved; Dar, Gali; Kodesh, Einat

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise programs that challenge an individual’s balance have been shown to reduce the risk of falls among older adults. Virtual reality computer-based technology that provides the user with opportunities to interact with virtual objects is used extensively for entertainment. There is a growing interest in the potential of virtual reality-based interventions for balance training in older adults. This work comprises a systematic review of the literature to determine the effects of intervention programs utilizing the Nintendo Wii console on balance control and functional performance in independently functioning older adults. Methods Studies were obtained by searching the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, PEDro, EMBASE, SPORTdiscus, and Google Scholar, followed by a hand search of bibliographic references of the included studies. Included were randomized controlled trials written in English in which Nintendo Wii Fit was used to enhance standing balance performance in older adults and compared with an alternative exercise treatment, placebo, or no treatment. Results Seven relevant studies were retrieved. The four studies examining the effect of Wii-based exercise compared with no exercise reported positive effects on at least one outcome measure related to balance performance in older adults. Studies comparing Wii-based training with alternative exercise programs generally indicated that the balance improvements achieved by Wii-based training are comparable with those achieved by other exercise programs. Conclusion The review indicates that Wii-based exercise programs may serve as an alternative to more conventional forms of exercise aimed at improving balance control. However, due to the great variability between studies in terms of the intervention protocols and outcome measures, as well as methodological limitations, definitive recommendations as to optimal treatment protocols and the potential of such an intervention as a safe and effective home

  16. Submaximal exercise training, more than dietary selenium supplementation, improves antioxidant status and ameliorates exercise-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle in young equine athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S H; Warren, L K

    2017-02-01

    Exercise is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as metabolism is upregulated to fuel muscle activity. If antioxidant systems become overwhelmed, ROS can negatively affect health and performance. Adaptation to exercise through regular training has been shown to improve defense against oxidative insult. Given selenium's role as an antioxidant, we hypothesized that increased Se intake would further enhance skeletal muscle adaptations to training. Quarter Horse yearlings (18 ± 0.2 mo; 402 ± 10 kg) were randomly assigned to receive either 0.1 or 0.3 mg Se/kg DM and placed in either an untrained or a trained (30 min walk-trot-canter, 4 d/wk) group for 14 wk. Phase 1 (wk 1 to 8) consisted of 4 treatments: trained and fed 0.1 mg Se/kg DM through wk 14 (CON-TR; n = 10), trained and fed 0.3 mg Se/kg DM through wk 14 (HIGH-TR; n = 10), untrained and fed 0.1 mg Se/kg DM through wk 14 (CON-UN; n = 5), or untrained and fed 0.3 mg Se/kg DM through wk 14 (HIGH-UN; n = 5). During Phase 2 (wk 9 to 14), dietary Se level in half of the trained horses was reversed, resulting in 6 treatments: CON-TR (n = 5), trained and fed 0.1 mg/kg Se in Phase 1 and then switched to 0.3 mg/kg Se for Phase 2 (ADD-TR; n = 5), trained and fed 0.3 mg/kg Se in Phase 1 and then switched to 0.1 mg/kg Se for Phase 2 (DROP-TR; n = 5), HIGH-TR (n = 5), CON-UN (n = 5), or HIGH-UN (n = 5). All horses underwent a 120-min submaximal exercise test (SET) at the end of Phase 1 (SET 1) and 2 (SET 2). Blood samples and biopsies from the middle gluteal muscle were collected before and after each phase of the study and in response to each SET and analyzed for markers of oxidative damage and antioxidant enzyme activity. In both phases, serum Se was higher (P creatine kinase (CK) activity was lower in trained horses than in untrained horses (P < 0.0001), indicating less muscle damage, but plasma lipid hydroperoxides (LPO) and muscle GPx and SOD activities were unaffected by training or Se

  17. Self-Determination and Physical Exercise Adherence in the Contexts of Fitness Academies and Personal Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klain, Ingi Petitemberte; de Matos, Dihogo Gama; Leitão, José Carlos; Cid, Luís; Moutão, João

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to analyze the validity of the relations hypothesized by the theory of self-determination in predicting adherence to physical exercise in fitness academy users and subjects following personal training. A total of 588 persons from Pelotas / RS / Brazil (405 gym users and 183 subjects following personal training) completed the Portuguese version of the three questionnaires, i.e. the Perceived Autonomy Support Climate Exercise Questionnaire, Basic Psychological Needs in the Exercise Scale and Behavioral Regulation in the Exercise Questionnaire −2. The results support the factorial structure of the questionnaires used in this sample. There was a significant multivariate effect of context on self-determination for physical exercise training [Wilks’ λ = 0.934, F (10, 576.000) = 4.03, p amotivation and external regulation were significantly higher in the context of fitness academies. PMID:26240667

  18. Cold water immersion enhances recovery of submaximal muscle function after resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Llion A; Nosaka, Kazunori; Coombes, Jeff S; Peake, Jonathan M

    2014-10-15

    We investigated the effect of cold water immersion (CWI) on the recovery of muscle function and physiological responses after high-intensity resistance exercise. Using a randomized, cross-over design, 10 physically active men performed high-intensity resistance exercise followed by one of two recovery interventions: 1) 10 min of CWI at 10°C or 2) 10 min of active recovery (low-intensity cycling). After the recovery interventions, maximal muscle function was assessed after 2 and 4 h by measuring jump height and isometric squat strength. Submaximal muscle function was assessed after 6 h by measuring the average load lifted during 6 sets of 10 squats at 80% of 1 repetition maximum. Intramuscular temperature (1 cm) was also recorded, and venous blood samples were analyzed for markers of metabolism, vasoconstriction, and muscle damage. CWI did not enhance recovery of maximal muscle function. However, during the final three sets of the submaximal muscle function test, participants lifted a greater load (P work during subsequent training sessions, which could enhance long-term training adaptations. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Is Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Combined with High Intensity Interval Training More Effective at Improving Cardiorespiratory Fitness than Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Alone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendon H. Roxburgh, Paul B. Nolan, Ryan M. Weatherwax, Lance C. Dalleck

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of either continuous moderate intensity exercise training (CMIET alone vs. CMIET combined with a single weekly bout of high intensity interval training (HIIT on cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty nine sedentary participants (36.3 ± 6.9 yrs at moderate risk of cardiovascular disease were recruited for 12 weeks of exercise training on a treadmill and cycle ergometer. Participants were randomised into three groups: CMIET + HIIT (n = 7; 8-12 x 60 sec at 100% VO2max, 150 sec active recovery, CMIET (n = 6; 30 min at 45-60% oxygen consumption reserve (VO2R and a sedentary control group (n = 7. Participants in the CMIET + HIIT group performed a single weekly bout of HIIT and four weekly sessions of CMIET, whilst the CMIET group performed five weekly CMIET sessions. Probabilistic magnitude-based inferences were determined to assess the likelihood that the true value of the effect represents substantial change. Relative VO2max increased by 10.1% (benefit possible relative to control in in the CMIET + HIIT group (32.7 ± 9.2 to 36.0 ± 11.5 mL·kg-1·min-1 and 3.9% (benefit possible relative to control in the CMIET group (33.2 ± 4.0 to 34.5 ± 6.1 mL·kg-1·min-1, whilst there was a 5.7% decrease in the control group (30.0 ± 4.6 to 28.3 ± 6.5 mL·kg-1·min-1. It was ‘unclear’ if a clinically significant difference existed between the effect of CMIET + HIIT and CMIET on the change in VO2max. Both exercising groups showed clinically meaningful improvements in VO2max. Nevertheless, it remains ‘unclear’ whether one type of exercise training regimen elicits a superior improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness relative to its counterpart.

  20. Larger Lateral Prefrontal Cortex Volume Predicts Better Exercise Adherence Among Older Women: Evidence From Two Exercise Training Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, John R; Chiu, Bryan K; Hall, Peter A; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2017-06-01

    Recent research has suggested an important role of lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) in consistent implementation of positive health behaviors and avoidance of negative health behaviors. We examined whether gray matter volume in the lPFC prospectively predicts exercise class attendance among older women (n = 122) who underwent either a 52-week or 26-week exercise training intervention. Structural magnetic resonance imaging determined gray matter volume at baseline. Independent of intracranial volume, age, education, body composition, mobility, depressive symptoms, and general cognitive functioning, larger lPFC volume predicted greater exercise class attendance (all p values exercise adherence as well as identified other regions, especially in the insula and temporal cortex, that predicted exercise adherence. These findings suggest that sustained engagement in exercise training might rely in part on functions of the lPFC and that lPFC volume might be a reasonable proxy for such functions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. PENGARUH KOMBINASI BLADDER TRAINING DAN KEGEL EXERCISE TERHADAP PEMULIHAN INKONTINENSIA PADA PADA PASIEN STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ernawati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stroke adalah suatu gangguan fungsi saraf akut yang disebabkan oleh adanya gangguan peredaran darah otak secara mendadak (dalam beberapa detik atau secara cepat (dalam beberapa jam timbul gejala dan tanda sesuai dengan daerah fokal di otak yang terganggu. Komplikasi akibat stroke diantaranya adalah lemahnya otot spingter uretra yang mengendalikan kemampuan berkemihpasien. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa pengaruh kombinasi bladder training dan kegel exercise terhadap pemulihanin kontinensia urine pada pasien stroke di Ruang Tulip Rumah Sakit Dr. Dradjat Prawiranegara Serang. Metode penelitian ini adalah kuasi eksperimen pre test and post test one group design. Populasi adalah semua pasien stroke di RS dr. Dradjat Prawiranegara berjumlah 112 orang. Sampel yang diambil adalah 36 respondendengan intervenesibladder training selama 3 haridilanjutkankegel exercise selama 7 hari.Pengukuran inkontinen dengan menggunakan Sandvik Severity Scale, sedangkan intervensi bladder training dan kegel exercise menggunakan SOP yang telah dibakukan. Hasil didapatkan rata-rata scor inkontinensia urine mengalami penurunan dengan intervensi bladder training sebesar 0,92. Umur secara bersama-sama mempengaruhi bladder training dan kegel exercise dan mempengaruhi pemulihan inkontinensia urine sebesar 0,002 . Adapengaruh yang bermakna intervensibladder training dankegel exercise terhadap pemulihan inkontinensia urine dengan p-value 0,000 dan r: 1,16. Pemulihan inkontinensia urine dapat dilakukan dengan memberikan intervensi bladder training dan kegel exercise.

  2. Resveratrol modulates the angiogenic response to exercise training in skeletal muscle of aged men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gliemann Hybholt, Lasse; Olesen, Jesper; Biensø, Rasmus S

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The polyphenol resveratrol has in animal studies been shown to influence several pathways of importance for angiogenesis in skeletal muscle. The aim was to examine the angiogenic effect of resveratrol supplementation with parallel exercise training in aged men. Methods: Forty-three healthy...... physically inactive aged men (65±1 years) were divided into A) a training group that conducted 8 weeks of intense exercise training where half of the subjects received a daily intake of either 250 mg trans resveratrol (n=14) and the other half received placebo (n=13); and B) a non-training group...... show that exercise training has a strong angiogenic effect whereas resveratrol supplementation may limit basal and training-induced angiogenesis....

  3. Tailored cognitive-behavioural therapy and exercise training improves the physical fitness of patients with fibromyalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spillekom-van Koulil, S.; Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Helmond, T. van; Vedder, A.; Hoorn, H. van; Donders, A.R.T.; Wirken, L.; Cats, H.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Evers, A.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Patients with fibromyalgia have diminished levels of physical fitness, which may lead to functional disability and exacerbating complaints. Multidisciplinary treatment comprising cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and exercise training has been shown to be effective in improving

  4. Cardiodynamicsgram: a novel tool for monitoring cardiac function in exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xu; Guo, Bokai; Gong, Yinglan; Xia, Ling; Yu, Jie

    2018-04-27

    This study evaluated the feasibility of cardiodynamicsgram (CDG) for monitoring the cardiac functions of athletes and exercisers. CDG could provide an effective, simple, and economical tool for exercise training. Seventeen middle-distance race athletes aged 14-28 years old were recruited. CDG tests and blood test including creatine kinase (CK), CK-MB isoenzyme, and high-sensitivity troponin I (hsTnI) were performed before a high-intensity prolonged training, as well as 2 and 14 h after training, respectively. The CDG test result was unsatisfactory when the CK test result was used as standard. However, the accuracy of CDG test was about 80% when CK-MB and hsTnI were used as standards. Thus, CDG offers a noninvasive, simple, and economical approach for monitoring the cardiac function of athletes and exercisers during exercise training. Nonetheless, the applicability of CDG needs further investigation.

  5. Effects of cluster vs. traditional plyometric training sets on maximal-intensity exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Asadi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Although both plyometric training methods improved lower body maximal-intensity exercise performance, the traditional sets methods resulted in greater adaptations in sprint performance, while the cluster sets method resulted in greater jump and agility adaptations.

  6. 77 FR 33718 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Training Exercises...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... (LOA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting training exercises within the... issue an LOA to the Navy that includes the use of time delayed firing devices (TDFDs), which have not been explicitly addressed previously, to [[Page 33719

  7. Adaptation of exercise-induced stress in well-trained healthy young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen Duijghuijsen, L.M.; Keijer, J.; Mensink, M.R.; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Ridder, L.O.; Nierkens, Stefan; Kartaram, Shirley; Verschuren, Martie C.M.; Pieters, Raymond; Bas, Richard; Witkamp, R.F.; Wichers, H.J.; Norren, van K.

    2017-01-01

    Strenuous exercise induces different stress-related physiological changes, potentially including changes in intestinal barrier function. In the Protégé Study (ISRCTN14236739; www.isrctn.com) we determined the test-retest repeatability in responses to exercise in well-trained individuals.
    Eleven

  8. Adaptation of exercise-induced stress in well-trained healthy young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JanssenDuijghuijsen, Lonneke M; Keijer, Jaap; Mensink, Marco; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Ridder, Lars; Nierkens, Stefan; Kartaram, Shirley W; Verschuren, Martie C M; Pieters, Raymond H H; Bas, Richard; Witkamp, Renger F; Wichers, Harry J; van Norren, Klaske

    2017-01-01

    Strenuous exercise induces different stress-related physiological changes, potentially including changes in intestinal barrier function. In the Protégé Study (ISRCTN14236739; www.isrctn.com) we determined the test-retest repeatability in responses to exercise in well-trained individuals. Eleven

  9. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Chinese Population with Mild to Moderate Depression in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra W. H. Ho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Exercise has been suggested to be a viable treatment for depression. This study investigates the effect of supervised aerobic exercise training on depressive symptoms and physical performance among Chinese patients with mild to moderate depression in early in-patient phase. Methods. A randomized repeated measure and assessor-blinded study design was used. Subjects in aerobic exercise group received 30 minutes of aerobic training, five days a week for 3 weeks. Depressive symptoms (MADRS and C-BDI and domains in physical performance were assessed at baseline and program end. Results. Subjects in aerobic exercise group showed a more significant reduction in depressive scores (MADRS as compared to control (between-group mean difference = 10.08 ± 9.41; P=0.026 after 3 weeks training. The exercise group also demonstrated a significant improvement in flexibility (between-group mean difference = 4.4 ± 6.13; P=0.02. Limitations. There was lack of longitudinal followup to examine the long-term effect of aerobic exercise on patients with depression. Conclusions. Aerobic exercise in addition to pharmacological intervention can have a synergistic effect in reducing depressive symptoms and increasing flexibility among Chinese population with mild to moderate depression. Early introduction of exercise training in in-patient phase can help to bridge the gap of therapeutic latency of antidepressants during its nonresponse period.

  10. Insulin-like growth factors and leucine kinetics during exercise training in children with cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulmans, [No Value; van der Laag, J; Wattimena, D; van Doorn, J; Oostveen, D; Berger, R; van de Meer, K

    Background: Little is known about the metabolic effects of exercise training in children with cystic fibrosis. The hypothesis for the current study was that in patients with declining clinical status, exercise increases circulating insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and improves protein kinetics.

  11. Monitoring training response in young Friesian dressage horses using two different standardised exercise tests (SETs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, Cornelis Marinus; Houterman, Willem; Ploeg, Margreet; Ducro, Bart; Boshuizen, Berit; Goethals, Klaartje; Verdegaal, Elisabeth-Lidwien; Delesalle, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most Friesian horses reach their anaerobic threshold during a standardized exercise test (SET) which requires lower intensity exercise than daily routine training. AIM: to study strengths and weaknesses of an alternative SET-protocol. Two different SETs (SETA and SETB) were applied

  12. Monitoring training response in young Friesian dressage horses using two different standardised exercise tests (SETs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de Cornelis Marinus; Houterman, Willem; Ploeg, Margreet; Ducro, Bart; Boshuizen, Berit; Goethals, Klaartje; Verdegaal, Elisabeth Lidwien; Delesalle, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Background: Most Friesian horses reach their anaerobic threshold during a standardized exercise test (SET) which requires lower intensity exercise than daily routine training. Aim: to study strengths and weaknesses of an alternative SET-protocol. Two different SETs (SETA and SETB) were applied

  13. Exercise training reveals trade-offs between endurance performance and immune function, but does not influence growth, in juvenile lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husak, Jerry F; Roy, Jordan C; Lovern, Matthew B

    2017-04-15

    Acquired energetic resources allocated to a particular trait cannot then be re-allocated to a different trait. This often results in a trade-off between survival and reproduction for the adults of many species, but such a trade-off may be manifested differently in juveniles not yet capable of reproduction. Whereas adults may allocate resources to current and/or future reproduction, juveniles can only allocate to future reproduction. Thus, juveniles should allocate resources toward traits that increase survival and their chances of future reproductive success. We manipulated allocation of resources to performance, via endurance exercise training, to examine trade-offs among endurance capacity, immune function and growth in juvenile green anole lizards. We trained male and female captive anoles on a treadmill for 8 weeks, with increasing intensity, and compared traits with those of untrained individuals. Our results show that training enhanced endurance capacity equally in both sexes, but immune function was suppressed only in females. Training had no effect on growth, but males had higher growth rates than females. Previous work showed that trained adults have enhanced growth, so juvenile growth is either insensitive to stimulation with exercise, or they are already growing at maximal rates. Our results add to a growing body of literature indicating that locomotor performance is an important part of life-history trade-offs that are sex and age specific. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Exercise training normalizes skeletal muscle vascular endothelial growth factor levels in patients with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ane Håkansson; Nielsen, Jens Jung; Saltin, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    METHODS: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein and capillarization were determined in muscle vastus lateralis biopsy samples in individuals with essential hypertension (n = 10) and normotensive controls (n = 10). The hypertensive individuals performed exercise training for 16 weeks....... Muscle samples as well as muscle microdialysis fluid samples were obtained at rest, during and after an acute exercise bout, performed prior to and after the training period, for the determination of muscle VEGF levels, VEGF release, endothelial cell proliferative effect and capillarization. RESULTS......: Prior to training, the hypertensive individuals had 36% lower levels of VEGF protein and 22% lower capillary density in the muscle compared to controls. Training in the hypertensive group reduced (P

  15. Exercise training modulates functional sympatholysis and alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness in hypertensive and normotensive individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Nyberg, Michael Permin; Gliemann Hybholt, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    were measured before and after 8 weeks of aerobic training (3-4 times/week) in 8 hypertensive (47 ± 2 years) and 8 normotensive untrained individuals (46 ± 1 years) during arterial tyramine infusion, arterial ATP infusion and/or one-legged knee extensions. Before training, exercise hypaeremia and leg......Essential hypertension is linked to an increased sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity and reduced tissue perfusion. We investigated the role of exercise training on functional sympatholysis and postjunctional α-adrenergic responsiveness in individuals with essential hypertension. Leg haemodynamics...... vascular conductance (LVC) were lower in the hypertensive individuals (P Training lowered blood pressure in the hypertensive individuals (P

  16. 5000 Meter Run Performance is not Enhanced 24 Hrs After an Intense Exercise Bout and Cold Water Immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenson, Mary C; Stenson, Matthew R; Matthews, Tracey D; Paolone, Vincent J

    2017-06-01

    Cold water immersion (CWI) is used by endurance athletes to speed recovery between exercise bouts, but little evidence is available on the effects of CWI on subsequent endurance performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CWI following an acute bout of interval training on 5000 m run performance 24 hrs after interval training, perceived muscle soreness (PMS), range of motion (ROM), thigh circumference (TC), and perceived exertion (RPE). Nine endurance-trained males completed 2 trials, each consisting of an interval training session of 8 repetitions of 1200 m at a running pace equal to 75% of VO 2 peak, either a control or CWI treatment, and a timed 5000 m run 24 hrs post interval training session. CWI was performed for 12 min at 12 degrees Celsius on the legs. Recovery treatments were performed in a counterbalanced design. Run time for 5000 m was not different between the CWI and control trials (CWI = 1317.33 ± 128.33 sec, control = 1303.44 ± 105.53 sec; p = 0.48). PMS increased significantly from baseline to immediately post exercise (BL = 1.17 ± 0.22, POST = 2.81 ± 0.52; p = 0.02) and remained elevated from baseline to 24 hrs post exercise (POST24 = 2.19 ± 0.32; p = 0.02), but no difference was observed between the treatments. No differences were observed for the interaction between time and treatment for TC (λ = 0.73, p = 0.15) and ROM (λ = 0.49; p = 0.10). CWI performed immediately following an interval training exercise bout did not enhance subsequent 5000 m run performance or reduce PMS. CWI may not provide a recovery or performance advantage when athletes are accustomed to the demands of the prior exercise bout.

  17. Exercise Training Attenuates the Dysregulated Expression of Adipokines and Oxidative Stress in White Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Sakurai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity-induced inflammatory changes in white adipose tissue (WAT, which caused dysregulated expression of inflammation-related adipokines involving tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, contribute to the development of insulin resistance. Moreover, current literature reports state that WAT generates reactive oxygen species (ROS, and the enhanced production of ROS in obese WAT has been closely associated with the dysregulated expression of adipokines in WAT. Therefore, the reduction in excess WAT and oxidative stress that results from obesity is thought to be one of the important strategies in preventing and improving lifestyle-related diseases. Exercise training (TR not only brings about a decrease in WAT mass but also attenuates obesity-induced dysregulated expression of the adipokines in WAT. Furthermore, some reports indicate that TR affects the generation of oxidative stress in WAT. This review outlines the impact of TR on the expression of inflammation-related adipokines and oxidative stress in WAT.

  18. Effects of resistance or aerobic exercise training on total and regional body composition in sedentary overweight middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donges, Cheyne E; Duffield, Rob

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 10 weeks of aerobic endurance training (AET), resistance exercise training (RET), or a control (CON) condition on absolute and relative fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM) in the total body (TB) and regions of interest (ROIs) of sedentary overweight middle-aged males and females. Following prescreening, 102 subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and strength and aerobic exercise testing. Randomized subjects (male RET, n = 16; female RET, n = 19; male AET, n = 16; and female AET, n = 25) completed supervised and periodized exercise programs (AET, 30-50 min cycling at 70%-75% maximal heart rate; RET, 2-4 sets × 8-10 repetitions of 5-7 exercises at 70%-75% 1 repetition maximum) or a nonexercising control condition (male CON, n = 13 and female CON, n = 13). Changes in absolute and relative TB-FM and TB-FFM and ROI-FM and ROI-FFM were determined. At baseline, and although matched for age and body mass index, males had greater strength, aerobic fitness, body mass, absolute and relative TB-FFM and ROI-FFM, but reduced absolute and relative TB-FM and ROI-FM, compared with females (p FFM and reduced TB-FM more than did the female exercise groups (p FFM, thus resulting in a greater enhancement of relative FFM. Despite equivalent or greater responses to RET or AET by female subjects, the corresponding respective increases in FFM or reductions in FM were lower than those in males, indicating that a biased dose-response relationship exists between sexes following 10 weeks of exercise training.

  19. Effect of aquatic exercise training on lipids profile and glycaemia: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Delevatti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the acute and chronic effects of aquatic exercise training on glycaemia and lipids profile. A systematic review of clinical trials was performed assessing the effects of aquatic exercise and/or training in upright position on lipids profile and glycaemic index. Two raters independently assessed the eligibility criteria and the methodological quality of the studies using the PEDro scale. Average and standard deviation of all variables significantly altered by the interventions were extracted for calculating percentage alterations. Three studies involving the acute effect of aquatic aerobic exercise on the variables of interest were analysed, with two of them demonstrating the efficacy of this type of training in improving lipids profile. Nine studies involving the chronic effects of aquatic training on the same variables were also analysed; eight of them, which assessed different training interventions for different populations, reported benefits of exercise regarding these variables. In conclusion, the improvements found in response to aquatic exercise training in upright position in glycaemia and lipids profile indicate the aquatic environment as a favourable environment for conducting exercise programmes.

  20. Regular exercise training reverses ectonucleotidase alterations and reduces hyperaggregation of platelets in metabolic syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Caroline Curry; Bagatini, Margarete Dulce; Cardoso, Andréia Machado; Zanini, Daniela; Abdalla, Fátima Husein; Baldissarelli, Jucimara; Dalenogare, Diéssica Padilha; Farinha, Juliano Boufleur; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina; Morsch, Vera Maria

    2016-02-15

    Alterations in the activity of ectonucleotidase enzymes have been implicated in cardiovascular diseases, whereas regular exercise training has been shown to prevent these alterations. However, nothing is known about it relating to metabolic syndrome (MetS). We investigated the effect of exercise training on platelet ectonucleotidase enzymes and on the aggregation profile of MetS patients. We studied 38 MetS patients who performed regular concurrent exercise training for 30 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical profiles, hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides in platelets and platelet aggregation were collected from patients before and after the exercise intervention as well as from individuals of the control group. An increase in the hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides (ATP, ADP and AMP) and a decrease in adenosine deamination in the platelets of MetS patients before the exercise intervention were observed (Pexercise training (Pexercise training prevented platelet hyperaggregation in addition to decrease the classic cardiovascular risks. An alteration of ectonucleotidase enzymes occurs during MetS, whereas regular exercise training had a protective effect on these enzymes and on platelet aggregation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reorganization of Functional Brain Maps After Exercise Training: Importance of Cerebellar-Thalamic-Cortical Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Holschneider, DP; Yang, J; Guo, Y; Maarek, J-M I

    2007-01-01

    Exercise training (ET) causes functional and morphologic changes in normal and injured brain. While studies have examined effects of short-term (same day) training on functional brain activation, less work has evaluated effects of long-term training, in particular treadmill running. An improved understanding is relevant as changes in neural reorganization typically require days to weeks, and treadmill training is a component of many neurorehabilitation programs.

  2. Severity of structural and functional right ventricular remodeling depends on training load in an experimental model of endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-de la Garza, Maria; Rubies, Cira; Batlle, Montserrat; Bijnens, Bart H; Mont, Lluis; Sitges, Marta; Guasch, Eduard

    2017-09-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular (RV) remodeling has been reported in response to regular training, but it remains unclear how exercise intensity affects the presence and extent of such remodeling. We aimed to assess the relationship between RV remodeling and exercise load in a long-term endurance training model. Wistar rats were conditioned to run at moderate (MOD; 45 min, 30 cm/s) or intense (INT; 60 min, 60 cm/s) workloads for 16 wk; sedentary rats served as controls. Cardiac remodeling was assessed with standard echocardiographic and tissue Doppler techniques, sensor-tip pressure catheters, and pressure-volume loop analyses. After MOD training, both ventricles similarly dilated (~16%); the RV apical segment deformation, but not the basal segment deformation, was increased [apical strain rate (SR): -2.9 ± 0.5 vs. -3.3 ± 0.6 s -1 , SED vs. MOD]. INT training prompted marked RV dilatation (~26%) but did not further dilate the left ventricle (LV). A reduction in both RV segments' deformation in INT rats (apical SR: -3.3 ± 0.6 vs. -3.0 ± 0.4 s -1 and basal SR: -3.3 ± 0.7 vs. -2.7 ± 0.6 s -1 , MOD vs. INT) led to decreased global contractile function (maximal rate of rise of LV pressure: 2.53 ± 0.15 vs. 2.17 ± 0.116 mmHg/ms, MOD vs. INT). Echocardiography and hemodynamics consistently pointed to impaired RV diastolic function in INT rats. LV systolic and diastolic functions remained unchanged in all groups. In conclusion, we showed a biphasic, unbalanced RV remodeling response with increasing doses of exercise: physiological adaptation after MOD training turns adverse with INT training, involving disproportionate RV dilatation, decreased contractility, and impaired diastolic function. Our findings support the existence of an exercise load threshold beyond which cardiac remodeling becomes maladaptive. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Exercise promotes left ventricular eccentric hypertrophy with no changes in systolic or diastolic function in healthy rats. Conversely, right

  3. Improved arterial-ventricular coupling in metabolic syndrome after exercise training: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Sara B; Donley, David A; Bonner, Daniel E; Devallance, Evan; Olfert, I Mark; Chantler, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with threefold increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality, which is partly due to a blunted CV reserve capacity, reflected by a reduced peak exercise left ventricular (LV) contractility and aerobic capacity and a blunted peak arterial-ventricular coupling. To date, no study has examined whether aerobic exercise training in MetS can reverse peak exercise CV dysfunction. Furthermore, examining how exercise training alters CV function in a group of individuals with MetS before the development of diabetes and/or overt CV disease can provide insights into whether some of the pathophysiological CV changes can be delayed/reversed, lowering their CV risk. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of 8 wk of aerobic exercise training in individuals with MetS on resting and peak exercise CV function. Twenty participants with MetS underwent either 8 wk of aerobic exercise training (MetS-ExT, n = 10) or remained sedentary (MetS-NonT, n = 10) during this period. Resting and peak exercise CV function was characterized using Doppler echocardiography and gas exchange. Exercise training did not alter resting LV diastolic or systolic function and arterial-ventricular coupling in MetS. In contrast, at peak exercise, an increase in LV contractility (40%, P < 0.01), cardiac output (28%, P < 0.05), and aerobic capacity (20%, P < 0.01), but a reduction in vascular resistance (30%, P < 0.05) and arterial-ventricular coupling (27%, P < 0.01), were noted in the MetS-ExT but not in the MetS-NonT group. Furthermore, an improvement in lifetime risk score was also noted in the MetS-ExT group. These findings have clinical importance because they provide insight that some of the pathophysiological changes associated with MetS can be improved and can lower the risk of CV disease.

  4. Risks and Benefits of Exercise Training in Adults With Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaix, Marie-A; Marcotte, François; Dore, Annie; Mongeon, François-Pierre; Mondésert, Blandine; Mercier, Lise-Andrée; Khairy, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Exercise capacity in adults with various forms of congenital heart disease is substantially lower than that of the general population. Although the underlying congenital heart defect, and its sequelae, certainly contribute to observed exercise limitations, there is evidence suggesting that deconditioning and a sedentary lifestyle are important implicated factors. The prevalence of acquired cardiovascular comorbidities is on the increase in the aging population with congenital heart disease, such that obesity and a sedentary lifestyle confer increased risk. Health fears and misconceptions are common barriers to regular physical activity in adults with congenital heart disease, despite evidence linking lower functional capacity to poor outcomes, and data supporting the safety and efficacy of exercise in bestowing numerous physical and psychosocial rewards. With few exceptions, adults with congenital heart disease should be counselled to exercise regularly. In this contemporary review, we provide a practical approach to assessing adults with congenital heart disease before exercise training. We examine available evidence supporting the safety and benefits of exercise training. Risks associated with exercise training in adults with congenital heart disease are discussed, particularly with regard to sudden cardiac death. Finally, recommendations for exercise training are provided, with consideration for the type of congenital heart disease, the nature (ie, static vs dynamic) and intensity (ie, low, medium, high) of the physical activity, and associated factors such as systemic ventricular dysfunction and residual defects. Further research is required to determine optimal exercise regimens and to identify effective strategies to implement exercise training as a key determinant of healthy living. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M; Hand, Taryn M; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Austin, Kathleen J; Alexander, Brenda M; Manore, Melinda M

    2016-04-18

    In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18-40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX) treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline), immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3-36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014) and PYY3-36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p exercise, indicating appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively), also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance.

  6. Warm-Up Exercises May Not Be So Important for Enhancing Submaximal Running Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Kazuki; Yamaguchi, Taichi; Shibata, Keisuke

    2018-05-01

    Takizawa, K, Yamaguchi, T, and Shibata, K. Warm-up exercises may not be so important for enhancing submaximal running performance. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1383-1390, 2018-The purpose of this study was to determine an appropriate warm-up intensity for enhancing performance in submaximal running at 90% vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max (it assumes 3,000-5,000 m in track events). Seven trained male university athletes took part in this study (age: 21.3 ± 2.1 years, height: 169.3 ± 4.7 cm, body mass: 58.4 ± 5.6 kg, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max: 73.33 ± 5.46 ml·kg·min). Each subject ran on a treadmill at 90% vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max until exhaustion after 1 of 4 warm-up treatments. The 4 warm-up treatments were no warm-up, 15 minutes running at 60% vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max, at 70% vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and at 80% vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max. The running performance was evaluated by time to exhaustion (TTE). V[Combining Dot Above]O2, and vastus lateralis muscle temperature were also measured. There were no significant differences in TTE among the warm-up exercises (p > 0.05). V[Combining Dot Above]O2 in no warm-up showed slower reaction than the other warm-up exercises. Regarding, the vastus lateralis muscle temperature immediately after warm-up, no warm-up was significantly (p warm-up exercises. Our results suggested that submaximal running performance was not affected by the presence or absence of a warm-up or by warm-up intensity, although physiological changes occurred.

  7. Physiological adaptations to interval training and the role of exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnis, Martin J; Gibala, Martin J

    2017-05-01

    Interval exercise typically involves repeated bouts of relatively intense exercise interspersed by short periods of recovery. A common classification scheme subdivides this method into high-intensity interval training (HIIT; 'near maximal' efforts) and sprint interval training (SIT; 'supramaximal' efforts). Both forms of interval training induce the classic physiological adaptations characteristic of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) such as increased aerobic capacity (V̇O2 max ) and mitochondrial content. This brief review considers the role of exercise intensity in mediating physiological adaptations to training, with a focus on the capacity for aerobic energy metabolism. With respect to skeletal muscle adaptations, cellular stress and the resultant metabolic signals for mitochondrial biogenesis depend largely on exercise intensity, with limited work suggesting that increases in mitochondrial content are superior after HIIT compared to MICT, at least when matched-work comparisons are made within the same individual. It is well established that SIT increases mitochondrial content to a similar extent to MICT despite a reduced exercise volume. At the whole-body level, V̇O2 max is generally increased more by HIIT than MICT for a given training volume, whereas SIT and MICT similarly improve V̇O2 max despite differences in training volume. There is less evidence available regarding the role of exercise intensity in mediating changes in skeletal muscle capillary density, maximum stroke volume and cardiac output, and blood volume. Furthermore, the interactions between intensity and duration and frequency have not been thoroughly explored. While interval training is clearly a potent stimulus for physiological remodelling in humans, the integrative response to this type of exercise warrants further attention, especially in comparison to traditional endurance training. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  8. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Psychosocial Status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic psychosocial stress and serum uric acid (SUA) level have been implicated in the etiology and cardiovascular events risk factors in hypertension. Studies have reported significant benefit of exercise in the overall management of hypertension. However, studies on the effect of exercise on psychosocial ...

  9. Exercise training characteristics in cardiac rehabilitation programmes: a cross-sectional survey of Australian practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Bridget; Glasziou, Paul; Briffa, Tom; Hoffmann, Tammy

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training is a core component of cardiac rehabilitation (CR), however, little information exists regarding the specific exercise interventions currently provided for coronary heart disease in Australian practice. We aimed to analyse the current status of exercise-based CR services across Australia. Cross-sectional survey. Australian sites offering exercise-based CR were identified from publically available directories. All sites were invited by email to participate in an online Survey Monkey questionnaire between October 2014 and March 2015, with reminders via email and phone follow-up. Questions investigated the demographics and format of individual programmes, as well as specific exercise training characteristics. 297 eligible programmes were identified, with an 82% response rate. Most sites (82%) were based at hospital or outpatient centres, with home (15%), community (18%) or gym-based options (5%) less common. While CR was most often offered in a comprehensive format (72% of sites), the level of exercise intervention varied greatly among programmes. Most frequently, exercise was prescribed 1-2 times per week for 60 min over 7 weeks. Almost one-quarter (24%) had a sole practitioner supervising exercise, although the majority used a nurse/physiotherapist combination. Low to moderate exercise intensities were used in 60% of programmes, however, higher intensity prescriptions were not uncommon. Few sites (technology, such as mobile phones or the internet, to deliver or support exercise training. While advances have been made towards providing flexible and accessible exercise-based CR, much of Australia's service remains within traditional models of care. A continuing focus on service improvement and evidence-based care should, therefore, be considered a core aim of those providing exercise for CR in order to improve health service delivery and optimise outcomes for patients.

  10. Enhanced muscle glucose metabolism after exercise in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garetto, L P; Richter, Erik; Goodman, M N

    1984-01-01

    glycogen was substantially repleted at the time (30 min postexercise) that glucose metabolism was examined. When rats were run at twice the previous rate (36 m/min), muscle glycogen was still substantially diminished 30 min after the run. At this time the previously noted increase in insulin sensitivity......Thirty minutes after a treadmill run, glucose utilization and glycogen synthesis in perfused rat skeletal muscle are enhanced due to an increase in insulin sensitivity (Richter et al., J. Clin. Invest. 69: 785-793, 1982). The exercise used in these studies was of moderate intensity, and muscle...... was still observed in perfused muscle; however, glucose utilization was also increased in the absence of added insulin (1.5 vs. 4.2 mumol X g-1 X h-1). In contrast 2.5 h after the run, muscle glycogen had returned to near preexercise values, and only the insulin-induced increase in glucose utilization...

  11. Sleep quality, sleep duration and physical activity in obese adolescents: effects of exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, M; Borowik, A; Michallet, A-S; Perrin, C; Monneret, D; Faure, P; Levy, P; Pépin, J-L; Wuyam, B; Flore, P

    2016-02-01

    Decreased sleep duration and altered sleep quality are risk factors for obesity in youth. Structured exercise training has been shown to increase sleep duration and improve sleep quality. This study aimed at evaluating the impact of exercise training for improving sleep duration, sleep quality and physical activity in obese adolescents (OB). Twenty OB (age: 14.5 ± 1.5 years; body mass index: 34.0 ± 4.7 kg m(-2) ) and 20 healthy-weight adolescents (HW) completed an overnight polysomnography and wore an accelerometer (SenseWear Bodymedia) for 7 days. OB participated in a 12-week supervised exercise-training programme consisting of 180 min of exercise weekly. Exercise training was a combination of aerobic exercise and resistance training. Sleep duration was greater in HW compared with OB (P < 0.05). OB presented higher apnoea-hypopnoea index than HW (P < 0.05). Physical activity (average daily metabolic equivalent of tasks [METs]) by accelerometer was lower in OB (P < 0.05). After exercise training, obese adolescents increased their sleep duration (+64.4 min; effect size: 0.88; P = 0.025) and sleep efficiency (+7.6%; effect size: 0.76; P = 0.028). Physical activity levels were increased in OB as evidenced by increased steps per day and average daily METs (P < 0.05). Improved sleep duration was associated with improved average daily METs (r = 0.48, P = 0.04). The present study confirms altered sleep duration and quality in OB. Exercise training improves sleep duration, sleep quality and physical activity. © 2015 World Obesity.

  12. Muscle Volume Increases Following 16 Weeks of Resistive Exercise Training with the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) and Free Weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, R. E.; Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; English, K. L.; Evans, H.; Smith, S. A.; Hagan, R. D.

    2009-01-01

    Space flight-induced muscle atrophy, particularly in the postural and locomotorymuscles, may impair task performance during long-duration space missions and planetary exploration. High intensity free weight (FW) resistive exercise training has been shown to prevent atrophy during bed rest, a space flight analog. NASA developed the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) to simulate the characteristics of FW exercise (i.e. constant mass, inertial force) and to be used as a countermeasure during International Space Station (ISS) missions. PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of ARED and FW training to induce hypertrophy in specific muscle groups in ambulatory subjects prior to deploying ARED on the ISS. METHODS: Twenty untrained subjects were assigned to either the ARED (8 males, 3 females) or FW (6 males, 3 females) group and participated in a periodizedtraining protocol consisting of squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift(DL) exercises 3 d wk-1 for 16 wks. SQ, HR, and DL muscle strength (1RM) was measured before, after 8 wks, and after 16 wks of training to prescribe exercise and measure strength changes. Muscle volume of the vastigroup (V), hamstring group (H), hip adductor group (ADD), medial gastrocnemius(MG), lateral gastrocnemius(LG), and deep posterior muscles including soleus(DP) was measured using MRI pre-and post-training. Consecutive cross-sectional images (8 mm slices with a 2 mm gap) were analyzed and summed. Anatomical references insured that the same muscle sections were analyzed pre-and post-training. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (ptraining devices. RESULTS: SQ, HR, and DL 1RM increased in both FW (SQ: 49+/-6%, HR: 12+/-2%, DL: 23+/-4%) and ARED (SQ: 31+/-4%, HR: 18+/-2%, DL: 23+/-3%) groups. Both groups increased muscle volume in the V (FW: 13+/-2%, ARED: 10+/-2%), H (FW: 3+/-1%, ARED: 3+/-1 %), ADD (FW: 15=/-2%, ARED: 10+/-1%), LG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 4+/-1%), MG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 5+/-2%), and DP (FW: 2+/-1%; ARED: 2+/-1%) after training. There

  13. Strength Training Prior to Endurance Exercise: Impact on the Neuromuscular System, Endurance Performance and Cardiorespiratory Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Matheus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two strength-training protocols on the neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise. Thirteen young males (23.2 ± 1.6 years old participated in this study. The hypertrophic strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 squats at 75% of maximal dynamic strength. The plyometric strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 jumps performed with the body weight as the workload. Endurance exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at a power corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold until exhaustion. Before and after each protocol, a maximal voluntary contraction was performed, and the rate of force development and electromyographic parameters were assessed. After the hypertrophic strengthtraining and plyometric strength-training protocol, significant decreases were observed in the maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force development, whereas no changes were observed in the electromyographic parameters. Oxygen uptake and a heart rate during endurance exercise were not significantly different among the protocols. However, the time-to-exhaustion was significantly higher during endurance exercise alone than when performed after hypertrophic strength-training or plyometric strength-training (p <0.05. These results suggest that endurance performance may be impaired when preceded by strength-training, with no oxygen uptake or heart rate changes during the exercise.

  14. Exercise training programs to improve hand rim wheelchair propulsion capacity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwinkels, Maremka; Verschuren, Olaf; Janssen, Thomas Wj; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Takken, Tim

    2014-09-01

    An adequate wheelchair propulsion capacity is required to perform daily life activities. Exercise training may be effective to gain or improve wheelchair propulsion capacity. This review investigates whether different types of exercise training programs are effective in improving wheelchair propulsion capacity. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched from their respective inceptions in October 2013. Exercise training studies with at least one outcome measure regarding wheelchair propulsion capacity were included. In this study wheelchair propulsion capacity includes four parameters to reflect functional wheelchair propulsion: cardio-respiratory fitness (aerobic capacity), anaerobic capacity, muscular fitness and mechanical efficiency. Articles were not selected on diagnosis, training type or mode. Studies were divided into four training types: interval, endurance, strength, and mixed training. Methodological quality was rated with the PEDro scale, and the level of evidence was determined. The 21 included studies represented 249 individuals with spinal-cord injury (50%), various diagnoses like spina bifida (4%), cerebral palsy (2%), traumatic injury, (3%) and able-bodied participants (38%). All interval training studies found a significant improvement of 18-64% in wheelchair propulsion capacity. Three out of five endurance training studies reported significant effectiveness. Methodological quality was generally poor and there were only two randomised controlled trials. Exercise training programs seem to be effective in improving wheelchair propulsion capacity. However, there is remarkably little research, particularly for individuals who do not have spinal-cord injury. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Telomere length and long-term endurance exercise: does exercise training affect biological age? A pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Beate Ø Østhus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomeres are potential markers of mitotic cellular age and are associated with physical ageing process. Long-term endurance training and higher aerobic exercise capacity (VO(2max are associated with improved survival, and dynamic effects of exercise are evident with ageing. However, the association of telomere length with exercise training and VO(2max has so far been inconsistent. Our aim was to assess whether muscle telomere length is associated with endurance exercise training and VO(2max in younger and older people. METHODS: Twenty men; 10 young (22-27 years and 10 old (66-77 years, were studied in this cross-sectional study. Five out of 10 young adults and 5 out of 10 older were endurance athletes, while other halves were exercising at a medium level of activity. Mean telomere length was measured as telomere/single copy gene-ratio (T/S-ratio using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. VO(2max was measured directly running on a treadmill. RESULTS: Older endurance trained athletes had longer telomere length compared with older people with medium activity levels (T/S ratio 1.12±0.1 vs. 0.92±0.2, p = 0.04. Telomere length of young endurance trained athletes was not different than young non-athletes (1.47±0.2 vs. 1.33±0.1, p = 0.12. Overall, there was a positive association between T/S ratio and VO(2max (r = 0.70, p = 0.001. Among endurance trained athletes, we found a strong correlation between VO(2max and T/S ratio (r = 0.78, p = 0.02. However, corresponding association among non-athlete participants was relatively weak (r = 0.58, p = 0.09. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that VO(2max is positively associated with telomere length, and we found that long-term endurance exercise training may provide a protective effect on muscle telomere length in older people.

  16. Exercise Training in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: A Comparison of Recumbent Stepping and Body Weight-Supported Treadmill Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilutti, Lara A; Paulseth, John E; Dove, Carin; Jiang, Shucui; Rathbone, Michel P; Hicks, Audrey L

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is evidence of the benefits of exercise training in multiple sclerosis (MS); however, few studies have been conducted in individuals with progressive MS and severe mobility impairment. A potential exercise rehabilitation approach is total-body recumbent stepper training (TBRST). We evaluated the safety and participant-reported experience of TBRST in people with progressive MS and compared the efficacy of TBRST with that of body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) on outcomes of function, fatigue, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods: Twelve participants with progressive MS (Expanded Disability Status Scale scores, 6.0-8.0) were randomized to receive TBRST or BWSTT. Participants completed three weekly sessions (30 minutes) of exercise training for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes included safety assessed as adverse events and patient-reported exercise experience assessed as postexercise response and evaluation of exercise equipment. Secondary outcomes included the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite, the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, and the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 questionnaire scores. Assessments were conducted at baseline and after 12 weeks. Results: Safety was confirmed in both exercise groups. Participants reported enjoying both exercise modalities; however, TBRST was reviewed more favorably. Both interventions reduced fatigue and improved HRQOL (P ≤ .05); there were no changes in function. Conclusions: Both TBRST and BWSTT seem to be safe, well tolerated, and enjoyable for participants with progressive MS with severe disability. Both interventions may also be efficacious for reducing fatigue and improving HRQOL. TBRST should be further explored as an exercise rehabilitation tool for patients with progressive MS.

  17. Cardioprotective effects of early and late aerobic exercise training in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Gonçalves, Daniel; Ferreira, Rita; Fonseca, Hélder; Padrão, Ana Isabel; Moreno, Nuno; Silva, Ana Filipa; Vasques-Nóvoa, Francisco; Gonçalves, Nádia; Vieira, Sara; Santos, Mário; Amado, Francisco; Duarte, José Alberto; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago

    2015-11-01

    Clinical studies suggest that aerobic exercise can exert beneficial effects in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We compared the impact of early or late aerobic exercise training on right ventricular function, remodeling and survival in experimental PAH. Male Wistar rats were submitted to normal cage activity (SED), exercise training in early (EarlyEX) and in late stage (LateEX) of PAH induced by monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg). Both exercise interventions resulted in improved cardiac function despite persistent right pressure-overload, increased exercise tolerance and survival, with greater benefits in EarlyEX+MCT. This was accompanied by improvements in the markers of cardiac remodeling (SERCA2a), neurohumoral activation (lower endothelin-1, brain natriuretic peptide and preserved vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA), metabolism and mitochondrial oxidative stress in both exercise interventions. EarlyEX+MCT provided additional improvements in fibrosis, tumor necrosis factor-alpha/interleukin-10 and brain natriuretic peptide mRNA, and beta/alpha myosin heavy chain protein expression. The present study demonstrates important cardioprotective effects of aerobic exercise in experimental PAH, with greater benefits obtained when exercise training is initiated at an early stage of the disease.

  18. Postexercise blood flow restriction does not enhance muscle hypertrophy induced by multiple-set high-load resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madarame, Haruhiko; Nakada, Satoshi; Ohta, Takahisa; Ishii, Naokata

    2018-05-01

    To test the applicability of postexercise blood flow restriction (PEBFR) in practical training programmes, we investigated whether PEBFR enhances muscle hypertrophy induced by multiple-set high-load resistance exercise (RE). Seven men completed an eight-week RE programme for knee extensor muscles. Employing a within-subject design, one leg was subjected to RE + PEBFR, whereas contralateral leg to RE only. On each exercise session, participants performed three sets of unilateral knee extension exercise at approximately 70% of their one-repetition maximum for RE leg first, and then performed three sets for RE + PEBFR leg. Immediately after completion of the third set, the proximal portion of the RE + PEBFR leg was compressed with an air-pressure cuff for 5 min at a pressure ranging from 100 to 150 mmHg. If participants could perform 10 repetitions for three sets in two consecutive exercise sessions, the work load was increased by 5% at the next exercise session. Muscle thickness and strength of knee extensor muscles were measured before and after the eight-week training period and after the subsequent eight-week detraining period. There was a main effect of time but no condition × time interaction or main effect of condition for muscle thickness and strength. Both muscle thickness and strength increased after the training period independent of the condition. This result suggests that PEBFR would not be an effective training method at least in an early phase of adaptation to high-load resistance exercise. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Exercise Training positively modulates the Ectonucleotidase Enzymes in Lymphocytes of Metabolic Syndrome Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C C; Bagatini, M D; Cardoso, A M; Zanini, D; Abdalla, F H; Baldissarelli, J; Dalenogare, D P; Dos Santos, D L; Schetinger, M R C; Morsch, V M M

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the cardiovascular risk factors as well as ectonucleotidase activities in lymphocytes of metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients before and after an exercise intervention. 20 MetS patients, who performed regular concurrent exercise training for 30 weeks, 3 times/week, were studied. Anthropometric, biochemical, inflammatory and hepatic parameters and hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides and nucleoside in lymphocytes were collected from patients before and after 15 and 30 weeks of the exercise intervention as well as from participants of the control group. An increase in the hydrolysis of ATP and ADP, and a decrease in adenosine deamination in lymphocytes of MetS patients before the exercise intervention were observed (Pexercise training after 30 weeks of intervention. Additionally, exercise training reduced the inflammatory and hepatic markers to baseline levels after 30 weeks of exercise. Our results clearly indicated alteration in ectonucleotidase enzymes in lymphocytes in the MetS, whereas regular exercise training had a protective effect on the enzymatic alterations and on inflammatory and hepatic parameters, especially if it is performed regularly and for a long period. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Aerobic Exercise Training and Arterial Changes in African-Americans versus Caucasians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranadive, Sushant M.; Yan, Huimin; Lane, Abbi D.; Kappus, Rebecca M.; Cook, Marc D.; Sun, Peng; Harvey, Idethia; Ploutz-Synder, Robert; Woods, Jeffrey A.; Wilund, Kenneth R.; Fernhall, Bo

    2015-01-01

    African-Americans (AA) have increased carotid artery intima-media thickness and decreased vascular function compared to their Caucasian (CA) peers. Aerobic exercise prevents and potentially reverses arterial dysfunction. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 8 weeks of moderate-high intensity aerobic training in young healthy sedentary AA and CA men and women. Methods Sixty-four healthy volunteers (men = 28, women = 36) with mean age = 24 underwent measures of arterial structure, function and blood pressure variables at baseline, post-4 week control period and 8 weeks post-training. Results There was a significant increase in VO2peak amongst both groups post exercise training. Brachial systolic blood pressure decreased significantly following control period in both groups but not following exercise training. Carotid pulse pressure decreased significantly in both groups post exercise training as compared to baseline. There was no change in any of the other blood pressure variables. AAs had a higher intima-media thickness at baseline and post-control period, but significantly decreased following exercise training compared to CAs. AAs had significantly lower baseline forearm blood flow and RH compared to CAs, but exercise training had no effect on these variables. There was no significant difference in arterial stiffness (cPWV) and wave-reflection (AIx) between the two groups at any time point. Conclusions This is the first study to show that, 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training causes significant improvement in the arterial structure in young, healthy AAs, making it comparable to the CAs and with minimal effects on blood pressure variables. PMID:26225767

  1. Aerobic Exercise Training and Arterial Changes in African Americans versus Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranadive, Sushant M; Yan, Huimin; Lane, Abbi D; Kappus, Rebecca M; Cook, Marc D; Sun, Peng; Harvey, Idethia; Ploutz-Synder, Robert; Woods, Jeffrey A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Fernhall, B O

    2016-01-01

    African Americans (AA) have increased carotid artery intima-media thickness and decreased vascular function compared with their Caucasian (CA) peers. Aerobic exercise prevents and potentially reverses arterial dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 8 wk of moderate- to high-intensity aerobic training in young healthy sedentary AA and CA men and women. Sixty-four healthy volunteers (men, 28; women, 36) with mean age 24 yr underwent measures of arterial structure, function, and blood pressure (BP) variables at baseline, after the 4-wk control period, and 8 wk after training. There was a significant increase in VO2peak among both groups after exercise training. Brachial systolic BP decreased significantly after the control period in both groups but not after exercise training. Carotid pulse pressure decreased significantly in both groups after exercise training as compared with that in baseline. There was no change in any of the other BP variables. AA had higher intima-media thickness at baseline and after the control period but it significantly decreased after exercise training compared with that of CA. AA had significantly lower baseline forearm blood flow and reactive hyperemia compared with those of CA, but exercise training had no effect on these variables. There was no significant difference in arterial stiffness (central pulse wave velocity) and wave-reflection (augmentation index) between the two groups at any time point. This is the first study to show that 8 wk of aerobic exercise training causes significant improvement in the arterial structure in young, healthy AA, making it comparable with the CA and with minimal effects on BP variables.

  2. A comparison between stabilization exercises and pelvic floor muscle training in women with pelvic organ prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuriye Özengin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of stabilization exercises and pelvic floor muscle training in women with stage 1 and 2 pelvic organ prolapse. Materials and Methods: In a total 38 women with pelvic organ prolapse whose average age was 45.60 years, pelvic floor muscles were evaluated with electromyography, and prolapse with pelvic organ prolapse quantification system, and the quality of life with prolapse quality of life questionnaire. Afterwards, the subjects were divided into two groups; stabilization exercise group (n=19 and pelvic floor muscle training group (n=19. Stabilization exercise group were given training for 8 weeks, 3 times a week. Pelvic floor muscle training group were given eight-week home exercises. Each group was assessed before training and after eight weeks. Results: An increase was found in the pelvic muscle activation response in the 2 groups (p≤0.05. There was no difference in EMG activity values between the groups (p>0.05. A difference was found in the values Aa, Ba and C in subjects of each group (p≤0.05, and the TVL, Ap, Bp and D values of subjects in pelvic floor muscle training group (p≤0.05 in the before and after pelvic organ prolapse quantification system assessment, however, no difference was found between the groups (p≤0.05. A positive difference was found in the effect of prolapse sub parameter in each of the two groups, and in general health perception sub parameter in subjects of stabilization exercise group (p<0.05 in the prolapse quality of life questionnaire. Conclusions: It was concluded that both training programs increased the pelvic floor muscle strength, provided a decline in prolapse stages. Stabilization exercise has increased general health perception unlike home training, thus, these exercises can be added to the treatment of women with prolapse.

  3. High-intensity interval training evokes larger serum BDNF levels compared with intense continuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo Marquez, Cinthia Maria; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Troosters, Thierry; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-12-15

    Exercise can have a positive effect on the brain by activating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-related processes. In healthy humans there appears to be a linear relationship between exercise intensity and the positive short-term effect of acute exercise on BDNF levels (i.e., the highest BDNF levels are reported after high-intensity exercise protocols). Here we performed two experiments to test the effectiveness of two high-intensity exercise protocols, both known to improve cardiovascular health, to determine whether they have a similar efficacy in affecting BDNF levels. Participants performed a continuous exercise (CON) protocol at 70% of maximal work rate and a high-intensity interval-training (HIT) protocol at 90% of maximal work rate for periods of 1 min alternating with 1 min of rest (both protocols lasted 20 min). We observed similar BDNF kinetics in both protocols, with maximal BDNF concentrations being reached toward the end of training (experiment 1). We then showed that both exercise protocols significantly increase BDNF levels compared with a rest condition (CON P = 0.04; HIT P exercise are slightly more effective than continuous high-intensity exercise for elevating serum BDNF. Additionally, 73% of the participants preferred the HIT protocol (P = 0.02). Therefore, we suggest that the HIT protocol might represent an effective and preferred intervention for elevating BDNF levels and potentially promoting brain health. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Effect of endurance exercise training on left ventricular size and remodeling in older adults with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M J; Spina, R J; Kohrt, W M; Ehsani, A A

    2000-04-01

    It is not known whether exercise training can induce a reduction of blood pressure (BP) and a regression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in older hypertensive subjects. This study was designed to determine whether endurance exercise training, by lowering BP, can induce regression of LVH and left ventricular (LV) concentric remodeling in older hypertensive adults. We studied 11 older adults with mild to moderate hypertension (BP 152.0 +/- 2.5/91.3 +/- 1.5 mm Hg, mean +/- SE), 65.5 +/- 1.2 years old, who exercised for 6.8 +/- 3.8 months. Seven sedentary hypertensive (BP 153 +/- 3/89 +/- 2 mm Hg) subjects, 68.5 +/- 1 years old, served as controls. LV size and geometry and function were assessed with the use of two-dimensional echocardiography. Exercise training increased aerobic power by 16% (p hypertension.

  5. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M.; Hand, Taryn M.; Larson-Meyer, D. Enette; Austin, Kathleen J.; Alexander, Brenda M.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2016-01-01

    In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18–40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX) treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline), immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3–36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014) and PYY3–36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively), also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance. PMID:27096869

  6. The influence of training characteristics on the effect of aerobic exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure: A meta-regression analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vromen, T.; Kraal, J. J.; Kuiper, J.; Spee, R. F.; Peek, N.; Kemps, H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Although aerobic exercise training has shown to be an effective treatment for chronic heart failure patients, there has been a debate about the design of training programs and which training characteristics are the strongest determinants of improvement in exercise capacity. Therefore, we performed a

  7. The influence of training characteristics on the effect of aerobic exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure : A meta-regression analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vromen, T.; Kraal, J. J.; Kuiper, J.; Spee, R. F.; Peek, N.; Kemps, H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Although aerobic exercise training has shown to be an effective treatment for chronic heart failure patients, there has been a debate about the design of training programs and which training characteristics are the strongest determinants of improvement in exercise capacity. Therefore, we performed a

  8. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training and Irbesartan on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Marquis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The present pilot study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of an aerobic exercise training (AET program alone or combined with an antihypertensive agent (irbesartan to reduce blood pressure (BP and enhance heart rate variability (HRV in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

  9. Skeletal Muscle Sorbitol Levels in Diabetic Rats with and without Insulin Therapy and Endurance Exercise Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, O. A.; Walseth, T. F.; Snow, L. M.; Serfass, R. C.; Thompson, L. V.

    2009-01-01

    Sorbitol accumulation is postulated to play a role in skeletal muscle dysfunction associated with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of insulin and of endurance exercise on skeletal muscle sorbitol levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Rats were assigned to one experimental group (control sedentary, control exercise, diabetic sedentary, diabetic exercise, diabetic sedentary no-insulin). Diabetic rats received daily subcutaneous insulin. The exercise-trained rats ran on a treadmill (1 hour, 5X/wk, for 12 weeks). Skeletal muscle sorbitol levels were the highest in the diabetic sedentary no-insulin group. Diabetic sedentary rats receiving insulin had similar sorbitol levels to control sedentary rats. Endurance exercise did not significantly affect sorbitol levels. These results indicate that insulin treatment lowers sorbitol in skeletal muscle; therefore sorbitol accumulation is probably not related to muscle dysfunction in insulin-treated diabetic individuals. Endurance exercise did not influence intramuscular sorbitol values as strongly as insulin. PMID:20016800

  10. Exercise training improves autonomic profiles in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mhandi, Lhassan; Pichot, Vincent; Calmels, Paul; Gautheron, Vincent; Roche, Frédéric; Féasson, Léonard

    2011-11-01

    The effect of an interval exercise training (ITE) program on heart rate variability (HRV) was studied in 8 patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease and 8 healthy controls. At baseline, all subjects underwent ambulatory 24-hour Holter electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring to evaluate HRV. HRV analysis was repeated on CMT patients after they completed a 24-week ITE program on a cycle ergometer. Before exercise, all HRV indices were lower in patients compared with controls, and the difference reached statistical significance for pNN50 (percent of differences between adjacent R-R intervals exceeding 50 ms). After ITE, time- and frequency-domain indices were significantly improved, particularly at night (+8% mean R-R interval, +95% pNN50, 52% reduction in low/high-frequency ratio). We observed significant increases in some of the time and frequency parameters, and values sometimes exceeded those of controls at baseline. Our results suggest that ITE improves HRV modulation in CMT patients by enhancing parasympathetic activity. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effects of exercise training on pulmonary mechanics and functional status in patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Huey; Lin, Hui-Ling; Hsiao, Hsiu-Feng; Chou, Lan-Ti; Kao, Kuo-Chin; Huang, Chung-Chi; Tsai, Ying-Huang

    2012-05-01

    The functional status and outcomes in patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) are often limited by poor endurance and pulmonary mechanics, which result from the primary diseases or prolonged time bedridden. We evaluate the impact of exercise training on pulmonary mechanics, physical functional status, and hospitalization outcomes in PMV patients. Twenty-seven subjects with PMV in our respiratory care center (RCC) were divided randomly into an exercise training group (n = 12) and a control group (n = 15). The exercise program comprised 10 sessions of exercise training. The measurement of pulmonary mechanics and physical functional status (Functional Independence Measurement and Barthel index) were performed pre-study and post-study. The hospitalization outcomes included: days of mechanical ventilation, hospitalization days, and weaning and mortality rates during RCC stay. The training group had significant improvement in tidal volume (143.6 mL vs 192.5 mL, P = .02) and rapid shallow breathing index after training (162.2 vs 110.6, P = .009). No significant change was found in the control group except respiratory rate. Both groups had significant improvement in functional status during the study. However, the training group had greater changes in FIM score than the control group (44.6 vs 34.2, P = .024). The training group also had shorter RCC stay and higher weaning and survival rates than the control group, although no statistical difference was found. Subjects with PMV in our RCC demonstrated significant improvement in pulmonary mechanics and functional status after exercise training. The application of exercise training may be helpful for PMV patients to improve hospitalization outcomes.

  12. Exercise Training Improves Exercise Capacity and Quality of Life in Patients with Inoperable or Residual Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herb, Jochen; Ehlken, Nicola; Fischer, Christine; Reichenberger, Frank; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Seyfarth, Hans-Juergen; Mayer, Eckhard

    2012-01-01

    Background Aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the effects of exercise training in patients with inoperable or residual chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Methods Thirty-five consecutive patients with invasively confirmed inoperable or residual CTEPH (16 women;19 men; mean age 61±15 years, mean pulmonary artery pressure, 63±20 mmHg; primary inoperable n = 33, persisting pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary endarterectomy n = 2) on stable disease-targeted medication received exercise training in-hospital for 3 weeks and continued at home for 15 weeks. Medication remained unchanged during the study period. Efficacy parameters have been evaluated at baseline, after 3 and 15 weeks by blinded-observers. Survival rate has been evaluated in a follow-up period of median 36.4 months (interquartile range 26.6–46.6 months). Results All patients tolerated exercise training without severe adverse events. Patients significantly improved the mean distance walked in 6 minutes compared to baseline by 61±54 meters after 3 weeks (p<0.001) and by 71±70 meters after 15 weeks (p = 0.001), as well as scores of quality-of-life questionnaire, peak oxygen consumption and maximal workload. NT-proBNP improved significantly after 3 weeks of exercise training (p = 0.046). The 1-year survival rate was 97%, 2-year survival rate was 94% and the 3-year-survival 86% respectively. Conclusion Training as add-on to medical therapy may be effective in patients with CTEPH to improve work capacity, quality of life and further prognostic relevant parameters and possibly improves the 1-, 2- and 3-year survival rate. Further multicentric randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm these promising results. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01398345 PMID:22848542

  13. Arthritis patients show long-term benefits from 3 weeks intensive exercise training directly following hospital discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulthuis, Y.; Drossaers-Bakker, K.W.; Drossaers-Bakker, K.W.; Taal, Erik; Rasker, Johannes J.; Oostveen, J.; van 't Pad Bosch, P.; Oosterveld, F.; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of short-term intensive exercise training (IET) directly following hospital discharge. - Methods: In the Disabled Arthritis Patients Post-hospitalization Intensive Exercise Rehabilitation (DAPPER) study, patients with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis were

  14. On-the-job training and practical emergency exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuhl, R.

    1996-01-01

    It is described in detail how OJT during initial and retraining of licensed shift personnel is performed. Furthermore it is explained how an emergency exercise, which is OJT of highest value, is prepared, conducted and evaluated. 9 figs

  15. therapeutic effect of continuous exercise training program on serum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-01

    Sep 1, 2014 ... an independent predictor of hypertension and exercise has been reported as .... assess subject's aerobic power (VO2max) as described by ACSM.20 .... improving the cardiovascular endurance by slowing the burning of ...

  16. The effect of training on cardiovascular responses to arm exercise in individuals with tetraplegia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman, M T; Dallmeijer, A J; Snoek, G; van der Woude, L H

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological responses to maximal and submaximal arm-cranking exercise in 21 individuals with tetraplegia (TP) and to evaluate the effect of a 3 and 6-month training period (mean frequency of 1.5 h.week-1, mean intensity at 35% of the training time above

  17. AExaCTT - Aerobic Exercise and Consecutive Task-specific Training for the upper limb after stroke: Protocol for a randomised controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenborghs, Sarah R; Visser, Milanka M; Dunn, Ashlee; Erickson, Kirk I; Nilsson, Michael; Callister, Robin; van Vliet, Paulette

    2017-09-01

    Motor function may be enhanced if aerobic exercise is paired with motor training. One potential mechanism is that aerobic exercise increases levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is important in neuroplasticity and involved in motor learning and motor memory consolidation. This study will examine the feasibility of a parallel-group assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial investigating whether task-specific training preceded by aerobic exercise improves upper limb function more than task-specific training alone, and determine the effect size of changes in primary outcome measures. People with upper limb motor dysfunction after stroke will be allocated to either task-specific training or aerobic exercise and consecutive task-specific training. Both groups will perform 60 hours of task-specific training over 10 weeks, comprised of 3 × 1 hour sessions per week with a therapist and 3 × 1 hours of home-based self-practice per week. The combined intervention group will also perform 30 minutes of aerobic exercise (70-85%HR max ) immediately prior to the 1 hour of task-specific training with the therapist. Recruitment, adherence, retention, participant acceptability, and adverse events will be recorded. Clinical outcome measures will be performed pre-randomisation at baseline, at completion of the training program, and at 1 and 6 months follow-up. Primary clinical outcome measures will be the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) and the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). If aerobic exercise prior to task-specific training is acceptable, and a future phase 3 randomised controlled trial seems feasible, it should be pursued to determine the efficacy of this combined intervention for people after stroke.

  18. The lung cancer exercise training study: a randomized trial of aerobic training, resistance training, or both in postsurgical lung cancer patients: rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford Jeffrey

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Lung Cancer Exercise Training Study (LUNGEVITY is a randomized trial to investigate the efficacy of different types of exercise training on cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak, patient-reported outcomes, and the organ components that govern VO2peak in post-operative non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients. Methods/Design Using a single-center, randomized design, 160 subjects (40 patients/study arm with histologically confirmed stage I-IIIA NSCLC following curative-intent complete surgical resection at Duke University Medical Center (DUMC will be potentially eligible for this trial. Following baseline assessments, eligible participants will be randomly assigned to one of four conditions: (1 aerobic training alone, (2 resistance training alone, (3 the combination of aerobic and resistance training, or (4 attention-control (progressive stretching. The ultimate goal for all exercise training groups will be 3 supervised exercise sessions per week an intensity above 70% of the individually determined VO2peak for aerobic training and an intensity between 60 and 80% of one-repetition maximum for resistance training, for 30-45 minutes/session. Progressive stretching will be matched to the exercise groups in terms of program length (i.e., 16 weeks, social interaction (participants will receive one-on-one instruction, and duration (30-45 mins/session. The primary study endpoint is VO2peak. Secondary endpoints include: patient-reported outcomes (PROs (e.g., quality of life, fatigue, depression, etc. and organ components of the oxygen cascade (i.e., pulmonary function, cardiac function, skeletal muscle function. All endpoints will be assessed at baseline and postintervention (16 weeks. Substudies will include genetic studies regarding individual responses to an exercise stimulus, theoretical determinants of exercise adherence, examination of the psychological mediators of the exercise - PRO relationship, and exercise-induced changes

  19. Evidence for β-adrenergic modulation of sweating during incremental exercise in habitually trained males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Tatsuro; Shitara, Yosuke; Fujii, Naoto; Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Kondo, Narihiko

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the β-adrenergic contribution to sweating during incremental exercise in habitually trained males. Nine habitually trained and 11 untrained males performed incremental cycling until exhaustion (20 W/min). Bilateral forearm sweat rates (ventilated capsule) were measured at two skin sites that were transdermally administered via iontophoresis with either 1% propranolol (Propranolol, a nonselective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist) or saline (Control). The sweat rate was evaluated as a function of both relative (percentage of maximum workload) and absolute exercise intensities. The sweat rate at the Propranolol site was lower than the control during exercise at 80 (0.57 ± 0.21 and 0.45 ± 0.19 mg·cm -2 ·min -1 for Control and Propranolol, respectively) and 90% (0.74 ± 0.22 and 0.65 ± 0.17 mg·cm -2 ·min -1 , respectively) of maximum workload in trained males (all P 0.05). At the same absolute intensity, higher sweat rates on the control site were observed in trained males relative to the untrained during exercise at 160 (0.23 ± 0.20 and 0.04 ± 0.05 mg·cm -2 ·min -1 for trained and untrained, respectively) and 180 W (0.40 ± 0.20 and 0.13 ± 0.13 mg·cm -2 ·min -1 , respectively) (all P 0.05). We show that the β-adrenergic mechanism does modulate sweating during exercise at a submaximal high relative intensity in habitually trained males. The β-adrenergic mechanism may in part contribute to the greater sweat production in habitually trained males than in untrained counterparts during exercise. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We demonstrated for the first time that the β-adrenergic mechanism does modulate sweating (i.e., β-adrenergic sweating) during exercise using a localized β-adrenoceptor blockade in humans in vivo. β-Adrenergic sweating was evident in habitually trained individuals during exercise at a submaximal high relative intensity (80-90% maximal work). This observation advances

  20. Exercise training alters effect of high-fat feeding on the ACTH stress response in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankord, Ryan; Ganjam, Venkataseshu K; Turk, James R; Hamilton, Marc T; Laughlin, M Harold

    2008-06-01

    Eating and physical activity behaviors influence neuroendocrine output. The purpose of this study was to test, in an animal model of diet-induced cardiovascular disease, the effects of high-fat feeding and exercise training on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity. We hypothesized that a high-fat diet would increase circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) and decrease the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol response to an acute stressor. We also hypothesized that exercise training would reverse the high-fat diet-induced changes in FFAs and thereby restore the ACTH and cortisol response. Pigs were placed in 1 of 4 groups (normal diet, sedentary; normal diet, exercise training; high-fat diet, sedentary; high-fat diet, exercise training; n = 8/group). Animals were placed on their respective dietary and activity treatments for 16-20 weeks. After completion of the treatments animals were anesthetized and underwent surgical intubation. Blood samples were collected after surgery and the ACTH and cortisol response to surgery was determined and the circulating concentrations of FFAs, glucose, cholesterol, insulin, and IGF-1 were measured. Consistent with our hypothesis, high-fat feeding increased FFAs by 200% and decreased the ACTH stress response by 40%. In exercise-trained animals, the high-fat diet also increased FFA; however, the increase in FFA in exercise-trained pigs was accompanied by a 60% increase in the ACTH response. The divergent effect of high-fat feeding on ACTH response was not expected, as exercise training alone had no effect on the ACTH response. Results demonstrate a significant interaction between diet and exercise and their effect on the ACTH response. The divergent effects of high-fat diet could not be explained by changes in weight gain, blood glucose, insulin, or IGF-1, as these were altered by high-fat feeding, but unaffected by exercise training. Thus, the increase in FFA with high-fat feeding may explain the blunted

  1. Imbalance in SOD/CAT activities in rat skeletal muscles submitted to treadmill training exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Ricardo A; Andrades, Michael E; Oliveira, Marcos R; Pirola, Aline C; Zago, Morgana S; Silveira, Paulo C L; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Moreira, José Cláudio F

    2006-10-01

    The association between physical exercise and oxidative damage in the skeletal musculature has been the focus of many studies in literature, but the balance between superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and its relation to oxidative damage is not well established. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between regular treadmill physical exercise, oxidative damage and antioxidant defenses in skeletal muscle of rats. Fifteen male Wistar rats (8-12 months) were randomly separated into two groups (trained n=9 and untrained n=6). Trained rats were treadmill-trained for 12 weeks in progressive exercise (velocity, time, and inclination). Training program consisted in a progressive exercise (10 m/min without inclination for 10 min/day). After 1 week the speed, time and inclination were gradually increased until 17 m/min at 10% for 50 min/day. After the training period animals were killed, and gastrocnemius and quadriceps were surgically removed to the determination of biochemical parameters. Lipid peroxidation, protein oxidative damage, catalase, superoxide dismutase and citrate synthase activities, and muscular glycogen content were measured in the isolated muscles. We demonstrated that there is a different modulation of CAT and SOD in skeletal muscle in trained rats when compared to untrained rats (increased SOD/CAT ratio). TBARS levels were significantly decreased and, in contrast, a significant increase in protein carbonylation was observed. These results suggest a non-described adaptation of skeletal muscle against exercise-induced oxidative stress.

  2. Training in radiological protection - a pool of practical exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, J.R.; Hudson, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    Courses in Radiological Protection have been organised at Leeds by the NRPB since its formation, and prior to that by the Leeds Centre of the Radiological Protection Service. From the outset it seemed essential that such courses should contain a practical element, and accordingly a number of exercises were drawn up. Since that time further exercises have been added, often in response to a specific requirement from a customer or group of customers. Most of the exercises have involved the design and construction of 'one-off' items of equipment, a number of which can be considered to represent interesting approaches towards radiological protection teaching. The construction of a 'second generation' of hardware has focused attention on the objectives and design features of the exercises, which in turn has prompted a desire to publish a series of short papers describing the pool of exercises that is currently available for inclusion in the various courses run by the NRPB Centres. The first of these papers puts the series into context and provides a background to the descriptions of specific exercises. (author)

  3. Does exercise training affect resting metabolic rate in adolescents with obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberga, Angela S; Prud'homme, Denis; Sigal, Ronald J; Goldfield, Gary S; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Gougeon, Réjeanne; Phillips, Penny; Malcolm, Janine; Wells, George A; Doucette, Steve; Ma, Jinhui; Kenny, Glen P

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that resistance exercise training performed alone or in combination with aerobic exercise training would increase resting metabolic rate (RMR) relative to aerobic-only and nonexercising control groups. Postpubertal adolescents (N = 304) aged 14-18 years with obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 95th percentile) or overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile + additional diabetes risk factor(s)) were randomized to 4 groups for 22 weeks: Aerobic exercise training, Resistance exercise training, Combined aerobic and resistance exercise training, or Control. All participants received dietary counselling targeting a daily energy deficit of 250 kcal. RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry and body composition by magnetic resonance imaging. There was no significant change in RMR in any group, in spite of significant within-group increases in fat-free mass in the Aerobic, Resistance, and Combined exercise training groups. RMR at baseline and 6 months were Aerobic: 1972 ± 38 and 1990 ± 41; Resistance: 2024 ± 37 and 1992 ± 41; Combined: 2023 ± 38 and 1995 ± 38; Control: 2075 ± 38 and 2073 ± 39 kcal/day (p > 0.05). There were no between-group differences in RMR after adjustment for total body weight or fat-free mass between groups over time. Per-protocol analyses including only participants with ≥70% adherence, and analyses stratified by sex, also showed no within- or between-group differences in RMR. In conclusion, despite an increase in fat-free mass in all exercise groups, 6 months of aerobic, resistance, or combined training with modest dietary restriction did not increase RMR compared with diet only in adolescents with obesity.

  4. Noninvasive assessment of changes in myocardial perfusion and ventricular performance following exercise training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubau, J.; Witztum, K.; Froelicher, V.; Jensen, D.; Atwood, E.; McKirnan, M.D.; Reynolds, J.; Ashburn, W.

    1982-01-01

    Seventeen coronary patients (CAD) underwent 201 Tl treadmill and radionuclide (RNV) ejection fraction supine bicycle testing before and after 5.6 +/- 1.6 (mean +/- SD) months of an exercise program. Thallium data were assessed both using analog images and a computerized circumferential profile technique. Patients exercised on the treadmill to a higher workload after the exercise program, but achieved a similar pressure-rate product. When interpreting the analog thallium images, only 50% agreement was obtained for the assessment of changes in myocardial perfusion (pre/post-training). The computer technique, however, had low inter-intraobserver variability (6%) and better agreement (90.5%). Using the circumferential profile method, five patients improved (a total of 11 regions) and one patient worsened (with two regions). Before the exercise program, the ejection fraction (EF) response to supine bike exercise was normal (an increase greater than 11%) in four, flat in seven, and severely abnormal (a decrease of more than 4%) in six patients. After the exercise program, even though achieving similar or higher pressure-rate products, six patients improved their EF response, nine did not change, and two worsened. Of the five patients who improved their thallium images, one improved his EF response, two remained normal, and two did not change. One patient worsened both his thallium study and the EF response after the exercise program. Changes in thallium exercise images and the EF response to supine exercise occurred in our patients after an exercise program, but were not always concordant. Indeed, of five patients with exercise-induced ischemic ST changes before and after training, the EF response improved in three whereas myocardial perfusion was unchanged. Reasons for this lack of agreement are discussed, and have been considered in the planning of a randomized trial of the effects of an exercise program on myocardial perfusion and function

  5. Implementation of resources to support patient physical activity through diabetes centres in Nova Scotia: the effectiveness of enhanced support for exercise participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowles, Jonathon R; Shields, Chris; d'Entremont, Lisette; McQuaid, Stephanie; Barron, Brittany; Dunbar, Peggy

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of enhancing support for physical activity counselling and exercise participation at diabetes centres in Nova Scotia on physical activity and exercise behaviours and clinical outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In all, 180 patients at 8 diabetes centres participated in this observational study. A range of enhanced supports for exercise were offered at these centres. A kinesiologist was added to the diabetes care team to primarily provide extra physical activity counselling and exercise classes. Patient physical activity and exercise levels, efficacy perceptions and mean glycated hemoglobin (A1C) were evaluated at baseline and 6 months. We compared changes in these variables for patients who participated in the enhanced supports versus patients who did not. Participants who attended exercise classes (n=46), increased moderate physical activity by 27% and doubled resistance exercise participation (1.0±1.8 to 2.0±2.1 days per week) whereas those who did not attend exercise classes (n=49) reduced moderate physical activity by 26% and did not change resistance exercise participation (interactions, p=0.04 and p=0.07, respectively). Patients who received resistance band instruction (n=15) from a kinesiologist had reductions in A1C (from 7.5±1.4 to 7.1±1.2; p=0.04), whereas other subgroups did not have significant changes in A1C. Offering enhanced support for exercise at diabetes centres produced improvements in physical activity and exercise in type 2 diabetes patients. Resistance band instruction from a kinesiologist combined with participating in a walking and resistance training program improved glycemic control, which underscores the importance of including exercise professionals in diabetes management. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Intradialytic Cognitive and Exercise Training May Preserve Cognitive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams-DeMarco, Mara A; Konel, Jonathan; Warsame, Fatima; Ying, Hao; Fernández, Marlís González; Carlson, Michelle C; Fine, Derek M; Appel, Lawrence J; Segev, Dorry L

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive decline is common and increases mortality risk in hemodialysis patients. Intradialytic interventions like cognitive training (CT) and exercise training (ET) may preserve cognitive function. We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial of 20 hemodialysis patients to study the impact of 3 months of intradialytic CT (tablet-based brain games) (n = 7), ET (foot peddlers) (n = 6), or standard of care (SC) (n = 7) on cognitive function. Global cognitive function was measured by the Modified Mini Mental Status Exam (3MS), psychomotor speed was measured by Trail Making Tests A and B (TMTA and TMTB), and executive function was assessed by subtracting (TMTB - TMTA). Lower 3MS scores and slower TMTA and TMTB times reflected worse cognitive function. P values for differences were generated using analysis of variance, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and P values were generated from linear regression. Patients with SC experienced a decrease in psychomotor speed and executive function by 3 months (TMTA: 15 seconds; P  = 0.055; TMTB: 47.4 seconds; P  = 0.006; TMTB - TMTA; 31.7 seconds; P  = 0.052); this decline was not seen among those with CT or ET (all P > 0.05). Compared with SC, the difference in the mean change in 3MS score was -3.29 points (95% CI: -11.70 to 5.12; P  = 0.42) for CT and 4.48 points (95% CI: -4.27 to 13.22; P  = 0.30) for ET. Compared with SC, the difference in mean change for TMTA was -15.13 seconds (95% CI: -37.64 to 7.39; P  = 0.17) for CT and -17.48 seconds (95% CI: -41.18 to 6.22; P  = 0.14) for ET, for TMTB, the difference was -46.72 seconds (95% CI: -91.12 to -2.31; P  = 0.04) for CT and -56.21 seconds (95% CI: -105.86 to -6.56; P  = 0.03) for ET, and for TMTB - TMTA, the difference was -30.88 seconds (95% CI: -76.05 to 14.28; P  = 0.16) for CT and -34.93 seconds (95% CI: -85.43 to 15.56; P  = 0.16) for ET. Preliminary findings of our pilot study suggested that cognitive decline in psychomotor speed

  7. Effect of short-term heat acclimation training on kinetics of lactate removal following maximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileo, Tsavis D; Powell, Jeffrey B; Kang, Hyoung K; Roberge, Raymond J; Coca, Aitor; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Heat acclimation (HA) evokes numerous physiological adaptations, improves heat tolerance and has also been shown to enhance lactate (LA) responses during exercise, similar to that seen with endurance training. The purpose of this study was to examine whether HA improves the body's ability to remove LA during recovery following maximal exercise. Ten healthy men completed two trials of maximal treadmill exercise (pre- and post-HA) separated by 5 days of HA. Each day of HA consisted of two 45 minute periods of cycling at ~50% VO2max separated by a 15min rest period in an environmental chamber (T(db) 45° C, RH 20%). In pre-/post-HA trials, venous blood was collected during 60 minutes of recovery to determine LA concentrations and removal kinetics (A2: amplitude and y2: velocity constant) using bi-exponential curve fitting. Physiological adaptation to heat was significantly developed during HA, as evidenced by end-exercise T(re) (DAY1 vs. 5) (38.89±0.56 vs. 38.66±0.44° C), T(sk) (38.07±0.51 vs. 37.66±0.48° C), HR (175.0±9.9 vs. 165.0±18.5 beats·min(-1)), and sweat rate (1.24 ±.26 vs. 1.47 ±0.27 L·min(-1)) (PLA concentrations (LA(0min): 8.78±1.08 vs. 8.69±1.23; LA(peak): 10.97±1.77 vs. 10.95±1.46; and La(60min); 2.88±0.82 vs. 2.96±0.93 mmol·L(-1)) or removal kinetics (A2: -13.05±7.05 vs -15.59±7.90 mmol.L(-1) and y2: 0.02±0.01 vs. 0.03±.01 min(-1)). The present study concluded that, while effective in inducing thermo-physiological adaptations to heat stress, short-term HA does not improve the body's ability to remove LA following maximal exercise. Therefore, athletes and workers seeking faster LA recovery from intense physical activity may not benefit from short-term HA.

  8. Associations of exercise-induced hormone profiles and gains in strength and hypertrophy in a large cohort after weight training

    OpenAIRE

    West, Daniel W. D.; Phillips, Stuart M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between acute exercise-induced hormone responses and adaptations to high intensity resistance training in a large cohort (n = 56) of young men. Acute post-exercise serum growth hormone (GH), free testosterone (fT), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and cortisol responses were determined following an acute intense leg resistance exercise routine at the midpoint of a 12-week resistance exercise training study. Acute hormonal responses w...

  9. The influence of training characteristics on the effect of aerobic exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure: A meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vromen, T; Kraal, J J; Kuiper, J; Spee, R F; Peek, N; Kemps, H M

    2016-04-01

    Although aerobic exercise training has shown to be an effective treatment for chronic heart failure patients, there has been a debate about the design of training programs and which training characteristics are the strongest determinants of improvement in exercise capacity. Therefore, we performed a meta-regression analysis to determine a ranking of the individual effect of the training characteristics on the improvement in exercise capacity of an aerobic exercise training program in chronic heart failure patients. We focused on four training characteristics; session frequency, session duration, training intensity and program length, and their product; total energy expenditure. A systematic literature search was performed for randomized controlled trials comparing continuous aerobic exercise training with usual care. Seventeen unique articles were included in our analysis. Total energy expenditure appeared the only training characteristic with a significant effect on improvement in exercise capacity. However, the results were strongly dominated by one trial (HF-action trial), accounting for 90% of the total patient population and showing controversial results compared to other studies. A repeated analysis excluding the HF-action trial confirmed that the increase in exercise capacity is primarily determined by total energy expenditure, followed by session frequency, session duration and session intensity. These results suggest that the design of a training program requires high total energy expenditure as a main goal. Increases in training frequency and session duration appear to yield the largest improvement in exercise capacity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exercise Training and Weight Gain in Obese Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial (ETIP Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Krohn Garnæs

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of exercise training for preventing excessive gestational weight gain (GWG and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is still uncertain. As maternal obesity is associated with both GWG and GDM, there is a special need to assess whether prenatal exercise training programs provided to obese women reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Our primary aim was to assess whether regular supervised exercise training in pregnancy could reduce GWG in women with prepregnancy overweight/obesity. Secondary aims were to examine the effects of exercise in pregnancy on 30 outcomes including GDM incidence, blood pressure, blood measurements, skinfold thickness, and body composition.This was a single-center study where we randomized (1:1 91 pregnant women with a prepregnancy body mass index (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2 to exercise training (n = 46 or control (standard maternity care (n = 45. Assessments were done at baseline (pregnancy week 12-18 and in late pregnancy (week 34-37, as well as at delivery. The exercise group was offered thrice weekly supervised sessions of 35 min of moderate intensity endurance exercise and 25 min of strength training. Seventeen women were lost to follow-up (eight in the exercise group and nine in the control group. Our primary endpoint was GWG from baseline testing to delivery. The principal analyses were done as intention-to-treat analyses, with supplementary per protocol analyses where we assessed outcomes in the women who adhered to the exercise program (n = 19 compared to the control group. Mean GWG from baseline to delivery was 10.5 kg in the exercise group and 9.2 kg in the control group, with a mean difference of 0.92 kg (95% CI -1.35, 3.18; p = 0.43. Among the 30 secondary outcomes in late pregnancy, an apparent reduction was recorded in the incidence of GDM (2009 WHO definition in the exercise group (2 cases; 6.1% compared to the control group (9 cases; 27.3%, with an odds ratio of 0.1 (95% CI 0.02, 0.95; p = 0

  11. Association of Exercise Training with Tobacco Smoking Prevents Fibrosis but has Adverse Impact on Myocardial Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis Junior, Dermeval; Antonio, Ednei Luiz; de Franco, Marcello Fabiano; de Oliveira, Helenita Antonia; Tucci, Paulo José Ferreira; Serra, Andrey Jorge

    2016-12-01

    There was no data for cardiac repercussion of exercise training associated with tobacco smoking. This issue is interesting because some smoking people can be enrolled in an exercise-training program. Thus, we evaluated swimming training effects on the function and structural myocardial in rats exposed to tobacco smoking. Male Wistar rats were assigned to one of four groups: C, untrained rats without exposure to tobacco smoking; E, exercised rats without exposure to tobacco smoking; CS, untrained rats exposed to tobacco smoking; ECS, exercised rats exposed to tobacco smoking. Rats swam five times a week twice daily (60min per session) for 8 weeks. Before each bout exercise, rats breathed smoke from 20 cigarettes for 60min. Twenty-four hours after the last day of the protocol, papillary muscles were isolated for in vitro analysis of myocardial mechanics. The myocardial mass and nuclear cardiomyocyte volume were used as hypertrophy markers, and collagen content was determined by picrosirius red staining. There was a well-pronounced myocardial hypertrophic effect for two interventions. The exercise blunted myocardial collagen increases induced by tobacco smoking. However, exercise and tobacco-smoking association was deleterious to myocardial performance. Thereby, in vitro experiments with papillary muscles contracting in isometric showed impairment myocardial inotropism in exercised rats exposed to tobacco smoking. This work presents novel findings on the role of exercise training on cardiac remodeling induced by tobacco smoking. Although exercise has mitigated tissue fibrosis, their association with tobacco smoking exacerbated hypertrophy and in vitro myocardial dysfunction. This is first study to show that the association of an aerobic exercise training with tobacco smoking intensifies the phenotype of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Therefore, the combination of interventions resulted in exacerbated myocardial hypertrophy and contractility dysfunction. These

  12. Exercise training-induced different improvement profile of endothelial progenitor cells function in mice with or without myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuan; Peng, Ran; Liu, Qiong; Xu, Danyan

    2016-10-15

    Neovascularization in response to ischemia after myocardial infarction (MI) has been widely considered as being initiated by endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Well-documented evidences in recent years have proved exercise training (ET) improving EPC function. However, whether ET-induced improvement of EPC function under or without ischemic state is different has not been reported. Mice performed ET following an exercise prescription 1week after MI or non-MI surgery respectively. Bone marrow-derived EPCs were isolated at 0day, 3days, 1week, 2weeks, 4weeks, and 8weeks of ET. After 7days cultivation, EPC functions including proliferation, adhesion, migration, and in vitro angiogenesis were measured. AKT/glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) signaling pathway was tested by western blotting. EPC function in mice underwent non-MI surgery was attenuated overtime, while ET ameliorated this tendency. EPC function was peaked at 4weeks ET in non-MI surgery mice and maintained with an extended exercise time. Besides, simple ischemia was sufficient to enhanced EPC function, with a maximum at 2weeks of MI surgery. In MI mice, ET further improved EPC function and achieved peak at 2weeks exercise. Furthermore, AKT/GSK3β signaling pathway activation was consistent with EPC function change after ischemia, which was further promoted by 4weeks exercise. ET significantly increased EPC function in mice both with and without MI, but the time points of peak function were different. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. V02 'overshoot' during moderate-intensity exercise in endurance-trained athletes: the influence of exercise modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilding, Andrew E; Jones, Andrew M

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of exercise modality on the 'overshoot' in V(O2) that has been reported following the onset of moderate-intensity (below the gas exchange threshold, GET) exercise in endurance athletes. Seven trained endurance cyclists and seven trained endurance runners completed six square-wave transitions to a work-rate or running speed requiring 80% of mode-specific GET during both cycle and treadmill running exercise. The kinetics of V(O2) was assessed using non-linear regression and any overshoot in V(O2) was quantified as the integrated volume (IV) of O(2) consumed above the steady-state requirement. During cycling, an overshoot in V(O2) was evident in all seven cyclists (IV = 136 +/- 41 ml) and in four runners (IV = 81 +/- 94 ml). During running, an overshoot in V(O2) was evident in four runners (IV = 72 +/- 61 ml) but no cyclists. These data challenge the notion that V(O2) always rises towards a steady-state with near-exponential kinetics in this exercise intensity domain. The greater incidence of the V(O2) overshoot during cycling (11/14 subjects) compared to running (4/14 subjects) indicates that the overshoot phenomenon is related to an interaction between high levels of aerobic fitness and exercise modality. We speculate that a transient loss in muscle efficiency as a consequence of a non-constant ATP requirement following the onset of constant-work-rate exercise or an initially excessive recruitment of motor units (relative to the work-rate) might contribute to the overshoot phenomenon.

  14. Voluntary Exercise Training: Analysis of Mice in Uninjured, Inflammatory, and Nerve-Injured Pain States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayler D Sheahan

    Full Text Available Both clinical and animal studies suggest that exercise may be an effective way to manage inflammatory and neuropathic pain conditions. However, existing animal studies commonly use forced exercise paradigms that incorporate varying degrees of stress, which itself can elicit analgesia, and thus may complicate the interpretation of the effects of exercise on pain. We investigated the analgesic potential of voluntary wheel running in the formalin model of acute inflammatory pain and the spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain in mice. In uninjured, adult C57BL/6J mice, 1 to 4 weeks of exercise training did not alter nociceptive thresholds, lumbar dorsal root ganglia neuronal excitability, or hindpaw intraepidermal innervation. Further, exercise training failed to attenuate formalin-induced spontaneous pain. Lastly, 2 weeks of exercise training was ineffective in reversing spared nerve injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity or in improving muscle wasting or hindpaw denervation. These findings indicate that in contrast to rodent forced exercise paradigms, short durations of voluntary wheel running do not improve pain-like symptoms in mouse models of acute inflammation and peripheral nerve injury.

  15. Effect of exercise order on the number of repeats and training volume in the tri-set training method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waynne Ferreira de Faria

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n2p187   Although the tri-set system is widely adopted by athletes and experienced weight training practitioners aimed at optimizing the metabolic overload, there are still few works in literature on the effect of exercise order manipulation on this training system. Therefore, this work was aimed at investigating the effect of exercise order manipulation on the number of repeats and training volume using the tri-set system for lower limbs. This is a randomized cross-over design study. The experimental group consisted of 14 healthy men (23.53 ± 5.40 years; 24.51 ± 2.96 kg/m2. Subjects were submitted to two experimental sessions at different exercise order for lower limbs: Sequence A: squat on guided bar, leg press 45° and bilateral leg extension; sequence B: bilateral leg extension, leg press 45° and squat on guided bar. Three sets to volitional fatigue in all exercises were performed, with intensity of 75% 1RM. Superiority for sequence B in the total number of repeats (70.14 ± 13 vs 60.93 ± 7.94 repeats, p = 0.004 and total training volume (9129.64 ± 2830.05 vs 8238.29 ± 2354.20 kg, p = 0.014 was observed. Based on the above, the performance of single-joint exercises before multi-joint exercises in the tri-set system adopted for lower limbs induced higher number of repeats and total training volume.

  16. Responses of catecholestrogen metabolism to acute graded exercise in normal menstruating women before and after training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Crée, C; Ball, P; Seidlitz, B; Van Kranenburg, G; Geurten, P; Keizer, H A

    1997-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that exercise-related hypo-estrogenemia occurs as a consequence of increased competition of catecholestrogens (CE) for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). This may result in higher norepinephrine (NE) concentrations, which could interfere with normal gonadotropin pulsatility. The present study investigates the effects of training on CE responses to acute exercise stress. Nine untrained eumenorrheic women (mean percentage of body fat +/-SD: 24.8 +/- 3.1%) volunteered for an intensive 5-day training program. Resting, submaximal, and maximal (tmax) exercise plasma CE, estrogen, and catecholamine responses were determined pre- and post training in both the follicular (FPh) and luteal phase (LPh). Acute exercise stress increased total primary estrogens (E) but had little effect on total 2-hydroxyestrogens (2-OHE) and 2-hydroxyestrogen-monomethylethers (2-MeOE) (= O-methylated CE after competition for catechol-O-methyltransferase). This pattern was not significantly changed by training. However, posttraining LPh mean (+/-SE) plasma E, 2-OHE, and 2-MeOE concentrations were significantly lower (P Training produced opposite effects on 2-OHE:E ratios (an estimation of CE formation) during acute exercise in the FPh (reduction) and LPh (increase). The 2-MeOE:2-OHE ratio (an estimation of CE activity) showed significantly higher values at tmax in both menstrual phases after training (FPh: +11%; LPh: +23%; P training, NE values were significantly higher (P training lowers absolute concentrations of plasma estrogens and CE; the acute exercise challenge altered plasma estrogens but had little effect on CE; estimation of the formation and activity of CE suggests that formation and O-methylation of CE proportionately increases. These findings may be of importance for NE-mediated effects on gonadotropin release.

  17. Active Video Game Exercise Training Improves the Clinical Control of Asthma in Children: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelim L F D Gomes

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether aerobic exercise involving an active video game system improved asthma control, airway inflammation and exercise capacity in children with moderate to severe asthma.A randomized, controlled, single-blinded clinical trial was carried out. Thirty-six children with moderate to severe asthma were randomly allocated to either a video game group (VGG; N = 20 or a treadmill group (TG; n = 16. Both groups completed an eight-week supervised program with two weekly 40-minute sessions. Pre-training and post-training evaluations involved the Asthma Control Questionnaire, exhaled nitric oxide levels (FeNO, maximum exercise testing (Bruce protocol and lung function.No differences between the VGG and TG were found at the baseline. Improvements occurred in both groups with regard to asthma control and exercise capacity. Moreover, a significant reduction in FeNO was found in the VGG (p < 0.05. Although the mean energy expenditure at rest and during exercise training was similar for both groups, the maximum energy expenditure was higher in the VGG.The present findings strongly suggest that aerobic training promoted by an active video game had a positive impact on children with asthma in terms of clinical control, improvement in their exercise capacity and a reduction in pulmonary inflammation.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01438294.

  18. Mobile-phone-based home exercise training program decreases systemic inflammation in COPD: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Hua; Chou, Pai-Chien; Joa, Wen-Ching; Chen, Li-Fei; Sheng, Te-Fang; Ho, Shu-Chuan; Lin, Horng-Chyuan; Huang, Chien-Da; Chung, Fu-Tsai; Chung, Kian Fan; Kuo, Han-Pin

    2014-08-30

    Moderate-intensity exercise training improves skeletal muscle aerobic capacity and increased oxidative enzyme activity, as well as exercise tolerance in COPD patients. To investigate whether the home-based exercise training program can reduce inflammatory biomarkers in patients with COPD, twelve patients using mobile phone assistance and 14 with free walk were assessed by incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT), spirometry, strength of limb muscles, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and inflammatory cytokines. Patients in the mobile phone group improved their ISWT walking distance, with decrease in serum CRP after 2 months, and sustained at 6 months. Patients in the control group had no improvement. Serum IL-8 in the mobile phone group was significantly reduced at 2, 3 and 6 months after doing home exercise training compared to baseline. IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly elevated at 3 and 6 months in control group, while there were no changes in mobile phone group. The strength of limb muscles was significantly greater compared to baseline at 3 and 6 months in the mobile phone group. A mobile-phone-based system can provide an efficient home endurance exercise training program with improved exercise capacity, strength of limb muscles and a decrease in serum CRP and IL-8 in COPD patients. Decreased systemic inflammation may contribute to these clinical benefits. (Clinical trial registration No.: NCT01631019).

  19. Computer-assisted upper extremity training using interactive biking exercise (iBikE) platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, In Cheol; Finkelstein, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Upper extremity exercise training has been shown to improve clinical outcomes in different chronic health conditions. Arm-operated bicycles are frequently used to facilitate upper extremity training however effective use of these devices at patient homes is hampered by lack of remote connectivity with clinical rehabilitation team, inability to monitor exercise progress in real time using simple graphical representation, and absence of an alert system which would prevent exertion levels exceeding those approved by the clinical rehabilitation team. We developed an interactive biking exercise (iBikE) platform aimed at addressing these limitations. The platform uses a miniature wireless 3-axis accelerometer mounted on a patient wrist that transmits the cycling acceleration data to a laptop. The laptop screen presents an exercise dashboard to the patient in real time allowing easy graphical visualization of exercise progress and presentation of exercise parameters in relation to prescribed targets. The iBikE platform is programmed to alert the patient when exercise intensity exceeds the levels recommended by the patient care provider. The iBikE platform has been tested in 7 healthy volunteers (age range: 26-50 years) and shown to reliably reflect exercise progress and to generate alerts at pre-setup levels. Implementation of remote connectivity with patient rehabilitation team is warranted for future extension and evaluation efforts.

  20. Effect of chronic ethanol ingestion and exercise training on skeletal muscle in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, L; Ferrando, A; Voces, J; Cabral de Oliveira, C; Prieto, J G; Alvarez, A I

    2001-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the interactive effects of exercise training and chronic ethanol consumption on metabolism, capillarity, and myofibrillar composition in rat limb muscles. Male Wistar rats were treated in separate groups as follows: non exercised-control; ethanol (15%) in animals' drinking water for 12 weeks; exercise training in treadmill and ethanol administration plus exercise for 12 weeks. Ethanol administration decreased capillarity and increased piruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities in white gastrocnemius; in plantaris muscle, ethanol increased citrate synthase activity and decreased cross-sectional area of type I, IIa, and IIb fibres. Exercise increased capillarity in all four limb muscles and decreased type I fibre area in plantaris. The decreased capillarity effect induced by ethanol in some muscles, was ameliorated when alcohol was combined with exercise. While alcoholic myopathy affects predominantly type IIb fibres, ethanol administration and aerobic exercise in some cases can affect type I and type IIa fibre areas. The exercise can decrease some harmful effects produced by ethanol in the muscle, including the decrease in the fibre area and capillary density.

  1. Exercise Training Increases Parietal Lobe Cerebral Blood Flow in Chronic Stroke: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Robertson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Exercise is increasingly recommended as an essential component of stroke rehabilitation, yet uncertainty remains with respect to its direct effect on the cerebral vasculature. The current study first demonstrated the repeatability of pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (ASL magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in older adults with stroke, and then investigated the change in cerebrovascular function following a 6-month cardiovascular rehabilitation program. In the repeatability study, 12 participants at least 3 months post-stroke underwent two ASL imaging scans 1 month apart. In the prospective observational study, eight individuals underwent ASL imaging and aerobic fitness testing before and after a 6-month cardiovascular rehabilitation program. Cerebral blood flow (CBF and the spatial coefficient of variation of CBF (sCoV were quantified to characterize tissue-level perfusion and large cerebral artery transit time properties, respectively. In repeat scanning, intraclass correlation (ICC indicated moderate test-retest reliability for global gray matter CBF (ICC = 0.73 and excellent reliability for sCoV (ICC = 0.94. In the observational study, gray matter CBF increased after training (baseline: 40 ± 13 vs. 6-month: 46 ± 12 ml·100 g−1·min−1, P = 0.036. The greatest change occurred in the parietal lobe (+18 ± 12%. Gray matter sCoV, however, did not change following training (P = 0.31. This study provides preliminary evidence that exercise-based rehabilitation in chronic stroke enhances tissue-level perfusion, without changing the relative hemodynamic properties of the large cerebral arteries.

  2. Exercise Training Increases Parietal Lobe Cerebral Blood Flow in Chronic Stroke: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Andrew D.; Marzolini, Susan; Middleton, Laura E.; Basile, Vincenzo S.; Oh, Paul I.; MacIntosh, Bradley J.

    2017-01-01

    Exercise is increasingly recommended as an essential component of stroke rehabilitation, yet uncertainty remains with respect to its direct effect on the cerebral vasculature. The current study first demonstrated the repeatability of pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in older adults with stroke, and then investigated the change in cerebrovascular function following a 6-month cardiovascular rehabilitation program. In the repeatability study, 12 participants at least 3 months post-stroke underwent two ASL imaging scans 1 month apart. In the prospective observational study, eight individuals underwent ASL imaging and aerobic fitness testing before and after a 6-month cardiovascular rehabilitation program. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the spatial coefficient of variation of CBF (sCoV) were quantified to characterize tissue-level perfusion and large cerebral artery transit time properties, respectively. In repeat scanning, intraclass correlation (ICC) indicated moderate test-retest reliability for global gray matter CBF (ICC = 0.73) and excellent reliability for sCoV (ICC = 0.94). In the observational study, gray matter CBF increased after training (baseline: 40 ± 13 vs. 6-month: 46 ± 12 ml·100 g−1·min−1, P = 0.036). The greatest change occurred in the parietal lobe (+18 ± 12%). Gray matter sCoV, however, did not change following training (P = 0.31). This study provides preliminary evidence that exercise-based rehabilitation in chronic stroke enhances tissue-level perfusion, without changing the relative hemodynamic properties of the large cerebral arteries. PMID:29033829

  3. Exercise Training for Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review and Meta?analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelissen, Veronique A.; Smart, Neil A.

    2013-01-01

    Background We conducted meta?analyses examining the effects of endurance, dynamic resistance, combined endurance and resistance training, and isometric resistance training on resting blood pressure (BP) in adults. The aims were to quantify and compare BP changes for each training modality and identify patient subgroups exhibiting the largest BP changes. Methods and Results Randomized controlled trials lasting ?4 weeks investigating the effects of exercise on BP in healthy adults (age ?18 year...

  4. Operational Applications of Autogenic Feedback Training Exercise as a Treatment for Airsickness in the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreyesus, Fiyore; Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.

    2012-01-01

    Airsickness is experienced by about 50% of military aviators some time in their career. Aviators who suffer from recurrent episodes of airsickness are typically referred to the Naval Aerospace Medical Institute (NAMI) at Pensacola where they undergo extensive evaluation and 8 weeks of training in the Self-Paced Airsickness Desensitization (SPAD) program. Researchers at NASA Ames have developed an alternative mitigation training program, Autogenic Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) that has demonstrated an 80% success rate for improving motion sickness tolerance.

  5. Aerobic interval training reduces vascular resistances during submaximal exercise in obese metabolic syndrome individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Fernandez-Elias, V E; Morales-Palomo, F; Pallares, J G; Ramirez-Jimenez, M; Ortega, J F

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity aerobic interval training (AIT) on exercise hemodynamics in metabolic syndrome (MetS) volunteers. Thirty-eight, MetS participants were randomly assigned to a training (TRAIN) or to a non-training control (CONT) group. TRAIN consisted of stationary interval cycling alternating bouts at 70-90% of maximal heart rate during 45 min day -1 for 6 months. CONT maintained baseline physical activity and no changes in cardiovascular function or MetS factors were detected. In contrast, TRAIN increased cardiorespiratory fitness (14% in VO 2PEAK ; 95% CI 9-18%) and improved metabolic syndrome (-42% in Z score; 95% CI 83-1%). After TRAIN, the workload that elicited a VO 2 of 1500 ml min -1 increased 15% (95% CI 5-25%; P exercise heart rate (109 ± 15-106 ± 13 beats min -1 ; P exercise in MetS patients. Specifically, it reduces diastolic blood pressure, systemic vascular resistances, and the double product. The reduction in double product, suggests decreased myocardial oxygen demands which could prevent the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events during exercise in this population. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT03019796.

  6. Prior exercise training blunts short-term high-fat diet-induced weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, Laelie A; MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Monaco, Cynthia M F; Frendo-Cumbo, Scott; Castellani, Laura; Peppler, Willem T; Anderson, Zachary G; Buzelle, Samyra L; LeBlanc, Paul J; Holloway, Graham P; Wright, David C

    2016-08-01

    High-fat diets rapidly cause weight gain and glucose intolerance. We sought to determine whether these changes could be mitigated with prior exercise training. Male C57BL/6J mice were exercise-trained by treadmill running (1 h/day, 5 days/wk) for 4 wk. Twenty-four hours after the final bout of exercise, mice were provided with a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal from lard) for 4 days, with no further exercise. In mice fed the HFD prior to exercise training, the results were blunted weight gain, reduced fat mass, and a slight attenuation in glucose intolerance that was mirrored by greater insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle compared with sedentary mice fed the HFD. When ad libitum-fed sedentary mice were compared with sedentary high-fat fed mice that were calorie restricted (-30%) to match the weight gain of the previously trained high-fat fed mice, the same attenuated impairments in glucose tolerance were found. Blunted weight gain was associated with a greater capacity to increase energy expenditure in trained compared with sedentary mice when challenged with a HFD. Although mitochondrial enzymes in white adipose tissue and UCP-1 protein content in brown adipose tissue were increased in previously exercised compared with sedentary mice fed a HFD, ex vivo mitochondrial respiration was not increased in either tissue. Our data suggest that prior exercise training attenuates high-fat diet-induced weight gain and glucose intolerance and is associated with a greater ability to increase energy expenditure in response to a high-fat diet. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. The evidence of benefits of exercise training in interstitial lung disease: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowman, Leona M; McDonald, Christine F; Hill, Catherine J; Lee, Annemarie L; Barker, Kathryn; Boote, Claire; Glaspole, Ian; Goh, Nicole S L; Southcott, Anne M; Burge, Angela T; Gillies, Rebecca; Martin, Alicia; Holland, Anne E

    2017-07-01

    Uncertainty exists regarding the clinical relevance of exercise training across the range of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). To establish the impact of exercise training in patients with ILDs of differing aetiology and severity. 142 participants with ILD (61 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), 22 asbestosis, 23 connective tissue disease-related ILD (CTD-ILD) and 36 with other aetiologies) were randomised to either 8 weeks of supervised exercise training or usual care. Six-minute walk distance (6MWD), Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRDQ), St George Respiratory Questionnaire IPF-specific version (SGRQ-I) and modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea score were measured at baseline, 9 weeks and 6 months. Exercise training significantly increased 6MWD (25 m, 95% CI 2 to 47 m) and health-related quality of life (CRDQ and SGRQ-I) in people with ILD. Larger improvements in 6MWD, CRDQ, SGRQ-I and dyspnoea occurred in asbestosis and IPF compared with CTD-ILD, but with few significant differences between subgroups. Benefits declined at 6 months except in CTD-ILD. Lower baseline 6MWD and worse baseline symptoms were associated with greater benefit in 6MWD and symptoms following training. Greater gains were seen in those whose exercise prescription was successfully progressed according to the protocol. At 6 months, sustained improvements in 6MWD and symptoms were associated with better baseline lung function and less pulmonary hypertension. Exercise training is effective in patients across the range of ILDs, with clinically meaningful benefits in asbestosis and IPF. Successful exercise progression maximises improvements and sustained treatment effects favour those with milder disease. Results, ACTRN12611000416998. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Artificial Gravity with Ergometric Exercise Training Improves Cardiovascular Function in Ambulatory Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xi-Qing; Zhu, Chao; Shang, Shu; Yao, Yong-Jie

    2008-06-01

    The necessity of preventing physiological deconditioning in astronauts exposed to long-term space flights is well known. Artificial gravity training via short-arm centrifugation as a countermeasure to microgravity has been considered for many years. However, an optimal duration, level and rate of exposure to artificial gravity have not yet been determined. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the cardiovascular effects of three weeks of intermittent artificial gravity with ergometric exercise training on normal ambulatory men. During 3 weeks experiment, eight healthy male subjects received alternate +1 to +2 Gz (at the foot) short-arm centrifuge training with 30 W ergometric exercise for 30 min per day. Cardiac function, heart rate variability, heart rate and blood pressure were measured before and after training. Stroke volume and total peripheral resistance increased significantly after 3 weeks training, compared with the pre-training baseline. Left ventricular ejection time (LVET) and ejection fraction increased significantly after 3 weeks training, while heart rate, the ratio of pre-ejection period to LVET, and the ratio of low frequency to high frequency power decreased significantly after 3 weeks training. These results suggest that three weeks short-arm centrifuge training with ergometric exercise could improve human cardiac systolic and pumping functions, and increase cardiac vagal modulation.

  9. Irisin Response to Two Types of Exercise Training in Type 2 Diabetic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Khalafi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Irisin is an exercise-induced myokine that is reduced with type 2 diabetes and improves insulin resistance via the browning of white adipose tissues. However, irisin response to two types of exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes is unknown. Materials and Methods: In this study, 22 diabetic Wistar rats (Induced by high-fat diet and injections Stz were randomly assigned to 3 groups: high intensity interval exercise (HIIT, low intensity continuous training (LICT and control (C. Both HIIT and LICT groups trained on the treadmill 5 sessions per week for 8 weeks. Blood samples were taken 24 hours after the last training session and plasma irisin, insulin and glucose levels were measured. ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests were used to analyze data and the level of significance has been considered at p≤0.05. Results: Data analysis showed that plasma irisin levels in the HIIT group were significantly increased compared to the control group (p0.05. Plasma glucose in both HIIT and LICT groups was significantly decreased compared to the control group (p0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that exercise training can increase plasma irisin in rats with type 2 diabetes. However, these changes are partially dependent on the type of exercise training.

  10. Evaluation of Exercise Tolerance in Dialysis Patients Performing Tai Chi Training: Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Dziubek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD have poor physical performance and exercise capacity due to frequent dialysis treatments. Tai Chi exercises can be very useful in the area of rehabilitation of people with ESRD. Objectives. The aim of the study was to assess exercise capacity in ESRD patients participating in 6-month Tai Chi training. Patients and Methods. Twenty dialysis patients from Wroclaw took part in the training; at the end of the project, 14 patients remained (age 69.2±8.6 years. A 6-minute walk test (6MWT and spiroergometry were performed at the beginning and after 6 months of training. Results. After 6 months of Tai Chi, significant improvements were recorded in mean distance in the 6MWT (387.89 versus 436.36 m, rate of perceived exertion (7.4 versus 4.7, and spiroergometry (8.71 versus 10.08 min. Conclusions. In the ESRD patients taking part in Tai Chi training, a definite improvement in exercise tolerance was recorded after the 6-month training. Tai Chi exercises conducted on days without dialysis can be an effective and interesting form of rehabilitation for patients, offering them a chance for a better quality of life and fewer falls and hospitalisations that are the result of it.

  11. The reach and adoption of a coach-led exercise training programme in community football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F; Diamantopoulou, Kathy; Twomey, Dara M; Doyle, Tim L A; Lloyd, David G; Young, Warren; Elliott, Bruce C

    2014-04-01

    To determine the reach and adoption of a coach-led exercise training programme for lower limb injury prevention. Secondary analysis of data from a group-clustered randomised controlled trial. A periodised exercise training warm-up programme was delivered to players during training sessions over an 8-week preseason (weeks 1-8) and 18-week playing season. 1564 community Australian football players. Reach, measured weekly, was the number of players who attended training sessions. Adoption was the number of attending players who completed the programme in full, partially or not at all. Reasons for partial or non-participation were recorded. In week 1, 599 players entered the programme; 55% attended 1 training session and 45% attended > 1 session. By week 12, 1540 players were recruited but training attendance (reach) decreased to <50%. When players attended training, the majority adopted the full programme-ranging from 96% (week 1) to above 80% until week 20. The most common reasons for low adoption were players being injured, too sore, being late for training or choosing their own warm-up. The training programme's reach was highest preseason and halved at the playing season's end. However, when players attended training sessions, their adoption was high and remained close to 70% by season end. For sports injury prevention programmes to be fully effective across a season, attention also needs to be given to (1) encouraging players to attend formal training sessions and (2) considering the possibility of some form of programme delivery outside of formal training.

  12. Short term effects of exercise training on exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gain Kevin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in the understanding and management of pulmonary arterial hypertension have enabled earlier diagnosis and improved prognosis. However, despite best available therapy, symptoms of exertional dyspnoea and fatigue are commonly reported and result in a reduced capacity to perform daily activities and impaired quality of life. Exercise training has demonstrated efficacy in individuals with other respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Historically, however, exercise training has not been utilised as a form of therapy in pulmonary arterial hypertension due to the perceived risk of sudden cardiac death and the theoretical possibility that exercise would lead to worsening pulmonary vascular haemodynamics and deterioration in right heart function. Now, with the advances in pharmaceutical management, determining the safety and benefits of exercise training in this population has become more relevant. Only three studies of supervised exercise training in pulmonary arterial hypertension have been published. These studies demonstrated improvements in exercise capacity and quality of life, in the absence of adverse events or clinical deterioration. However, these studies have not utilised an outpatient-based, whole body exercise training program, the most common format for exercise programs within Australia. It is uncertain whether this form of training is beneficial and capable of producing sustained benefits in exercise capacity and quality of life in this population. Design/Methods This randomised controlled trial will determine whether a 12 week, outpatient-based, supervised, whole body exercise training program, followed by a home-based exercise program, is safe and improves exercise capacity and quality of life in individuals with pulmonary arterial hypertension. This study aims to recruit 34 subjects who will be randomly allocated to the exercise group (supervised exercise training 3 times a week for 12 weeks, followed by

  13. Effect of flaxseed supplementation and exercise training on lipid profile, oxidative stress and inflammation in rats with myocardial ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nounou, Howaida A; Deif, Maha M; Shalaby, Manal A

    2012-10-05

    Flaxseed has recently gained attention in the area of cardiovascular disease primarily because of its rich contents of α-linolenic acid (ALA), lignans, and fiber. Although the benefits of exercise on any single risk factor are unquestionable, the effect of exercise on overall cardiovascular risk, when combined with other lifestyle modifications such as proper nutrition, can be dramatic.This study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of flaxseed and exercise on cardiac markers, lipids profile and inflammatory markers in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial ischemia in rats. The research was conducted on 40 male albino rats, divided into 4 groups (n=10): group I served as control, group II has acute myocardial ischemia induced by isoproterenol, groups III and IV have acute myocardial ischemia induced by isoproterenol pretreated with flaxseed supplementation orally for 6 weeks, additionally group IV practiced muscular exercise through swimming. Alterations of lipid profile, cardiac and inflammatory markers (Il-1β, PTX 3 and TNF- α) were observed in myocardial ischemia group. Flaxseed supplementation combined with exercise training showed significant increase of HDL and PON 1, on the other hand cardiac troponin, Il- 1β and TNF- α levels significantly decreased as compared to myocardial ischemic group. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis of cTnI, PTX 3, Il-1β and TNF- α revealed a satisfactory level of sensitivity and specificity. Regular exercise enhances the improvement in plasma lipoprotein levels and cardiovascular protection that results from flaxseed supplementation by mitigating the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Elevation of HDL, the antioxidant PON 1 and the cardioprotective marker PTX 3 emphasizes the protective effects of flaxseed and muscular exercise mutually against the harmful effects of acute myocardial ischemia.

  14. Effect of flaxseed supplementation and exercise training on lipid profile, oxidative stress and inflammation in rats with myocardial ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nounou Howaida A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flaxseed has recently gained attention in the area of cardiovascular disease primarily because of its rich contents of α-linolenic acid (ALA, lignans, and fiber. Although the benefits of exercise on any single risk factor are unquestionable, the effect of exercise on overall cardiovascular risk, when combined with other lifestyle modifications such as proper nutrition, can be dramatic. This study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of flaxseed and exercise on cardiac markers, lipids profile and inflammatory markers in isoproterenol (ISO-induced myocardial ischemia in rats. Methods The research was conducted on 40 male albino rats, divided into 4 groups (n=10: group I served as control, group II has acute myocardial ischemia induced by isoproterenol, groups III and IV have acute myocardial ischemia induced by isoproterenol pretreated with flaxseed supplementation orally for 6 weeks, additionally group IV practiced muscular exercise through swimming. Results Alterations of lipid profile, cardiac and inflammatory markers (Il-1β, PTX 3 and TNF- α were observed in myocardial ischemia group. Flaxseed supplementation combined with exercise training showed significant increase of HDL and PON 1, on the other hand cardiac troponin, Il- 1β and TNF- α levels significantly decreased as compared to myocardial ischemic group. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC analysis of cTnI, PTX 3, Il-1β and TNF- α revealed a satisfactory level of sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion Regular exercise enhances the improvement in plasma lipoprotein levels and cardiovascular protection that results from flaxseed supplementation by mitigating the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Elevation of HDL, the antioxidant PON 1 and the cardioprotective marker PTX 3 emphasizes the protective effects of flaxseed and muscular exercise mutually against the harmful effects of acute myocardial ischemia.

  15. Exercise training improves obesity-related lymphatic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespe, Geoffrey E; Kataru, Raghu P; Savetsky, Ira L; García Nores, Gabriela D; Torrisi, Jeremy S; Nitti, Matthew D; Gardenier, Jason C; Zhou, Jie; Yu, Jessie Z; Jones, Lee W; Mehrara, Babak J

    2016-08-01

    Obesity results in perilymphatic inflammation and lymphatic dysfunction. Lymphatic dysfunction in obesity is characterized by decreased lymphatic vessel density, decreased collecting lymphatic vessel pumping frequency, decreased lymphatic trafficking of immune cells, increased lymphatic vessel leakiness and changes in the gene expression patterns of lymphatic endothelial cells. Aerobic exercise, independent of weight loss, decreases perilymphatic inflammatory cell accumulation, improves lymphatic function and reverses pathological changes in gene expression in lymphatic endothelial cells. Although previous studies have shown that obesity markedly decreases lymphatic function, the cellular mechanisms that regulate this response remain unknown. In addition, it is unclear whether the pathological effects of obesity on the lymphatic system are reversible with behavioural modifications. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to analyse lymphatic vascular changes in obese mice and to determine whether these pathological effects are reversible with aerobic exercise. We randomized obese mice to either aerobic exercise (treadmill running for 30 min per day, 5 days a week, for 6 weeks) or a sedentary group that was not exercised and analysed lymphatic function using a variety of outcomes. We found that sedentary obese mice had markedly decreased collecting lymphatic vessel pumping capacity, decreased lymphatic vessel density, decreased lymphatic migration of immune cells, increased lymphatic vessel leakiness and decreased expression of lymphatic specific markers compared with lean mice (all P exercise did not cause weight loss but markedly improved lymphatic function compared with sedentary obese mice. Exercise had a significant anti-inflammatory effect, resulting in decreased perilymphatic accumulation of inflammatory cells and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. In addition, exercise normalized isolated lymphatic endothelial cell gene expression of lymphatic

  16. Exercise training improves obesity‐related lymphatic dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespe, Geoffrey E.; Kataru, Raghu P.; Savetsky, Ira L.; García Nores, Gabriela D.; Torrisi, Jeremy S.; Nitti, Matthew D.; Gardenier, Jason C.; Zhou, Jie; Yu, Jessie Z.; Jones, Lee W.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Obesity results in perilymphatic inflammation and lymphatic dysfunction.Lymphatic dysfunction in obesity is characterized by decreased lymphatic vessel density, decreased collecting lymphatic vessel pumping frequency, decreased lymphatic trafficking of immune cells, increased lymphatic vessel leakiness and changes in the gene expression patterns of lymphatic endothelial cells.Aerobic exercise, independent of weight loss, decreases perilymphatic inflammatory cell accumulation, improves lymphatic function and reverses pathological changes in gene expression in lymphatic endothelial cells. Abstract Although previous studies have shown that obesity markedly decreases lymphatic function, the cellular mechanisms that regulate this response remain unknown. In addition, it is unclear whether the pathological effects of obesity on the lymphatic system are reversible with behavioural modifications. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to analyse lymphatic vascular changes in obese mice and to determine whether these pathological effects are reversible with aerobic exercise. We randomized obese mice to either aerobic exercise (treadmill running for 30 min per day, 5 days a week, for 6 weeks) or a sedentary group that was not exercised and analysed lymphatic function using a variety of outcomes. We found that sedentary obese mice had markedly decreased collecting lymphatic vessel pumping capacity, decreased lymphatic vessel density, decreased lymphatic migration of immune cells, increased lymphatic vessel leakiness and decreased expression of lymphatic specific markers compared with lean mice (all P exercise did not cause weight loss but markedly improved lymphatic function compared with sedentary obese mice. Exercise had a significant anti‐inflammatory effect, resulting in decreased perilymphatic accumulation of inflammatory cells and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. In addition, exercise normalized isolated lymphatic endothelial cell gene

  17. Exercise Training in Group 2 Pulmonary Hypertension: Which Intensity and What Modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Ross; Lavie, Carl J; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Daugherty, John; Bond, Samantha; Phillips, Shane A; Guazzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to left-sided heart disease (LSHD) is a common and disconcerting occurrence. For example, both heart failure (HF) with preserved and reduced ejection fraction (HFpEF and HFrEF) often lead to PH as a consequence of a chronic elevation in left atrial filling pressure. A wealth of literature demonstrates the value of exercise training (ET) in patients with LSHD, which is particularly robust in patients with HFrEF and growing in patients with HFpEF. While the effects of ET have not been specifically explored in the LSHD-PH phenotype (i.e., composite pathophysiologic characteristics of patients in this advanced disease state), the overall body of evidence supports clinical application in this subgroup. Moderate intensity aerobic ET significantly improves peak oxygen consumption, quality of life and prognosis in patients with HF. Resistance ET significantly improves muscle strength and endurance in patients with HF, which further enhance functional capacity. When warranted, inspiratory muscle training and neuromuscular electrical stimulation are becoming recognized as important components of a comprehensive rehabilitation program. This review will provide a detailed account of ET programing considerations in patients with LSHD with a particular focus on those concomitantly diagnosed with PH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Exercise training attenuates sympathetic activation and oxidative stress in diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G; Liu, J-Y; Zhang, H-X; Li, Q; Zhang, S-W

    2015-01-01

    It is known that excessive sympathetic activity and oxidative stress are enhanced in obesity. This study aimed to clarify whether exercise training (ET) attenuates sympathetic activation and oxidative stress in obesity. The obesity was induced by high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to four groups: regular diet (RD) plus sedentary (RD-S), RD plus ET (RD-ET), HFD plus sedentary (HFD-S), and HFD plus ET (HFD-ET). The rats in RD-ET and HFD-ET groups were trained on a motorized treadmill for 60 min/day, five days/week for 8 weeks. The sympathetic activity was evaluated by the plasma norepinephrine (NE) level. The superoxide anion, malondialdehyde and F2-isoprostanes levels in serum and muscles were measured to evaluate oxidative stress. The ET prevented the increases in the body weight, arterial pressure and white adipose tissue mass in HFD rats. The NE level in plasma and oxidative stress related parameters got lower in HFD-ET group compared with HFD-S group. We have found decreased mRNA and protein levels of toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR-4 by ET in HFD rats. These findings suggest that ET may be effective for attenuating sympathetic activation and oxidative stress in diet-induced obesity.

  19. Baroreflex buffering in sedentary and endurance exercise-trained healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Demetra D; Jones, Pamela Parker; Seals, Douglas R

    2003-06-01

    Baroreflex buffering plays an important role in arterial blood pressure control. Previous reports suggest that baroreflex sensitivity may be altered in endurance exercise-trained compared with untrained subjects. It is unknown, however, if in vivo baroreflex buffering is altered in the endurance exercise-trained state in humans. Baroreflex buffering was determined in 36 healthy normotensive men (18 endurance exercise-trained, 41+/-5 [SEM] years; 18 untrained, 41+/-4 years) by measuring the potentiation of the systolic blood pressure responses to a phenylephrine bolus and to incremental phenylephrine infusion during compared with before ganglionic blockade with trimethaphan. The exercise-trained men had a lower resting heart rate and higher maximal oxygen consumption and heart rate variability than the sedentary control subjects (all P=0.01). Mean levels and variability of blood pressure, cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity (change in heart rate/change in systolic blood pressure), and basal muscle sympathetic nerve activity were not different in the two groups. The systolic blood pressure responses to phenylephrine were not different in the endurance-trained and untrained men before or during ganglionic blockade (P>0.6). Measures of baroreflex buffering with the use of a phenylephrine bolus (3.9+/-0.8 versus 4.0+/-0.7, trained versus untrained, P=0.85) and incremental infusion (2.8+/-0.4 versus 2.5+/-0.6, P=0.67) were similar in the two groups. Baroreflex buffering does not differ in endurance exercise-trained compared with untrained healthy men. These results support the concept that habitual vigorous endurance exercise does not modulate in vivo baroreflex buffering in healthy humans.

  20. Cognitive decline in prostate cancer patients undergoing ADT: a potential role for exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, Niamh L; Daly, Robin M; Macpherson, Helen; Fraser, Steve F

    2017-04-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is an effective and widely prescribed treatment for prostate cancer (PCa), but it is associated with multiple treatment-induced adverse effects that impact on various musculoskeletal and cardiometabolic health outcomes. Emerging research has shown that ADT is also associated with cognitive impairment, which has been linked to a loss of independence, increased falls and fracture risk and greater use of medical services. The aim of this review is to outline the evidence related to the effect of ADT use on cognitive function, and propose a role for exercise training as part of usual care to prevent and/or manage cognitive impairments for PCa survivors on ADT. The following results have been obtained from this study. ADT has been shown to adversely affect specific cognitive domains, particularly verbal memory, visuomotor function, attention and executive function. However, current clinical guidelines do not recommend routine assessment of cognitive function in these men. No studies have examined whether exercise training can preserve or improve cognitive function in these men, but in healthy adults', multimodal exercise training incorporating aerobic training, progressive resistance training (PRT) and challenging motor control exercises have the potential to attenuate cognitive decline. In conclusion, as treatment with ADT for men with PCa has been associated with a decline in cognition, it is recommended that cognitive function be routinely monitored in these men and that regular exercise training be prescribed to preserve (or improve) cognitive function. Assessment of cognition and individualised exercise training should be considered in the usual treatment plan of PCa patients receiving ADT. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  1. Exercise training, but not resveratrol, improves metabolic and inflammatory status in skeletal muscle of aged men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jesper; Gliemann Hybholt, Lasse; Biensøe, Rasmus S

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the metabolic and anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol alone and when combined with exercise training in skeletal muscle of aged human subjects. Material and Methods: Healthy physically inactive men (60-72 year old) were randomized into either 8 weeks of daily intake of 250...... mg resveratrol or placebo or into 8 weeks of high intensity exercise training with 250 mg resveratrol or placebo. Before and after the interventions, resting blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained and a one-leg knee-extensor endurance exercise test (KEE) was performed. Results: Exercise...... with no significant additive or adverse effects of resveratrol on these parameters. Despite an overall ~25% reduction in total acetylation level in skeletal muscle with resveratrol, no exclusive resveratrol-mediated metabolic effects were observed on the investigated parameters. Notably however, resveratrol blunted...

  2. Exercise physiology, testing, and training in patients supported by a left ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyaga-Rendon, Renzo Y; Plaisance, Eric P; Arena, Ross; Shah, Keyur

    2015-08-01

    The left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is an accepted treatment alternative for the management of end-stage heart failure. As we move toward implantation of LVADs in less severe cases of HF, scrutiny of functional capacity and quality of life becomes more important. Patients demonstrate improvements in exercise capacity after LVAD implantation, but the effect is less than predicted. Exercise training produces multiple beneficial effects in heart failure patients, which would be expected to improve quality of life. In this review, we describe factors that are thought to participate in the persistent exercise impairment in LVAD-supported patients, summarize current knowledge about the effect of exercise training in LVAD-supported patients, and suggest areas for future research. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Strength training alone, exercise therapy alone, and exercise therapy with passive manual mobilisation each reduce pain and disability in people with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Mariette J; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Lenssen, Antoine F; Hendriks, Erik J M; de Bie, Rob A

    2011-01-01

    What are the effects of strength training alone, exercise therapy alone, and exercise with additional passive manual mobilisation on pain and function in people with knee osteoarthritis compared to control? What are the effects of these interventions relative to each other? A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Adults with osteoarthritis of the knee. INTERVENTION TYPES: Strength training alone, exercise therapy alone (combination of strength training with active range of motion exercises and aerobic activity), or exercise with additional passive manual mobilisation, versus any non-exercise control. Comparisons between the three interventions were also sought. The primary outcome measures were pain and physical function. 12 trials compared one of the interventions against control. The effect size on pain was 0.38 (95% CI 0.23 to 0.54) for strength training, 0.34 (95% CI 0.19 to 0.49) for exercise, and 0.69 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.96) for exercise plus manual mobilisation. Each intervention also improved physical function significantly. No randomised comparisons of the three interventions were identified. However, meta-regression indicated that exercise plus manual mobilisations improved pain significantly more than exercise alone (p = 0.03). The remaining comparisons between the three interventions for pain and physical function were not significant. Exercise therapy plus manual mobilisation showed a moderate effect size on pain compared to the small effect sizes for strength training or exercise therapy alone. To achieve better pain relief in patients with knee osteoarthritis physiotherapists or manual therapists might consider adding manual mobilisation to optimise supervised active exercise programs. Copyright © 2011 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  4. Exercisers achieve greater acute exercise-induced mood enhancement than nonexercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Martin D; Hoffman, Debi Rufi

    2008-02-01

    To determine whether a single session of exercise of appropriate intensity and duration for aerobic conditioning has a different acute effect on mood for nonexercisers than regular exercisers. Repeated-measures design. Research laboratory. Adult nonexercisers, moderate exercisers, and ultramarathon runners (8 men, 8 women in each group). Treadmill exercise at self-selected speeds to induce a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of 13 (somewhat hard) for 20 minutes, preceded and followed by 5 minutes at an RPE of 9 (very light). Profile of Mood States before and 5 minutes after exercise. Vigor increased by a mean +/- standard deviation of 8+/-7 points (95% confidence interval [CI], 5-12) among the ultramarathon runners and 5+/-4 points (95% CI, 2-9) among the moderate exercisers, with no improvement among the nonexercisers. Fatigue decreased by 5+/-6 points (95% CI, 2-8) for the ultramarathon runners and 4+/-4 points (95% CI, 1-7) for the moderate exercisers, with no improvement among the nonexercisers. Postexercise total mood disturbance decreased by a mean of 21+/-16 points (95% CI, 12-29) among the ultramarathon runners, 16+/-10 points (95% CI, 7-24) among the moderate exercisers, and 9+/-13 points (95% CI, 1-18) among the nonexercisers. A single session of moderate aerobic exercise improves vigor and decreases fatigue among regular exercisers but causes no change in these scores for nonexercisers. Although total mood disturbance improves postexercise in exercisers and nonexercisers, regular exercisers have approximately twice the effect as nonexercisers. This limited postexercise mood improvement among nonexercisers may be an important deterrent for persistence with an exercise program.

  5. Clinical and Physiological Effects of Exercise Training in Dyspneic Mild COPD Patients: Design of the Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Labarca; Andrea Bustamante; Francisco Rodríguez; Igor Nuñez; Gonzalo Valdivia; Paul Mac Nab; Álvaro Huete; Jaime Leppe; Fernando Saldías; Orlando Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may be associated with physical inactivity, exercise limitation, and impaired health related quality of life, because of a combination of deconditioning, dyspnea, and reduced peripheral muscle mass. Although the benefits of exercise training (ET) in counteracting these consequences are well established in moderate-to-very-severe COPD, it is unclear if they are also effective in mild disease. The aim of this paper is to describe t...

  6. Rehabilitation (exercise and strength training) and osteoarthritis: A critical narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Christelle; Lefèvre-Colau, Marie-Martine; Poiraudeau, Serge; Rannou, François

    2016-06-01

    Rehabilitation is widely recommended in national and international guidelines for managing osteoarthritis (OA) in primary care settings. According to the 2014 OA Research Society International (OARSI) recommendations, rehabilitation is even considered the core treatment of OA and is recommended for all patients. Rehabilitation for OA widely includes land- and water-based exercise, strength training, weight management, self-management and education, biomechanical interventions, and physically active lifestyle. We performed a critical narrative review of the efficacy and safety of rehabilitation for managing OA and discuss evidence-based international recommendations. The process of article selection was unsystematic. Articles were selected based on authors' expertise, self-knowledge, and reflective practice. For the purpose of the review, we focused on land- and water-based exercise and strength training for knee, hip and hand OA. Other aspects of rehabilitation in OA are treated elsewhere in this special issue. Exercise therapy is widely recommended for managing knee, hip and hand OA. However, the level of evidence varies according to OA location. Overall, consistent evidence suggests that exercise therapy and specific strengthening exercise or strength training for the lower limb reduce pain and improve physical function in knee OA. Evidence for other OA sites are less consistent. Therefore, because of the lack of specific studies, recommendations for hip and hand OA are mainly derived from studies of knee OA. In addition, no recommendations have been established regarding the exercise regimen. The efficacy and safety of exercise therapy and strength training need to be further evaluated in randomized controlled trials of patients with hip and hand OA. The optimal delivery of exercise programs also has to be more clearly defined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of different durations of treadmill training exercise on bone mineral density in growing rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ertem

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of different durations of treadmill training exercise (daily for 30 min and 60 min on bone mineral density (BMD in young growing rats. Training consisted of treadmill running at 5 days per week during a period of 13 weeks. The rats in 30 min and 60 min exercise groups began to training on day 63 of life and had maintained for at least a week, with a minimal progression as a guide to the rats’ training and adaptation to the treadmill. Running time was gradually increased from 15 min to 30 and 60 min per session for two exercise groups respectively. Control rats were kept in the cages at the same environmental conditions and daily inspected to control their health. At the end of 13 weeks, bone mineral densities of the bilateral tibia of all rats were measured .with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA (QDR 4500/W, Hologic Inc., Bedford, MA, USA and results were evaluated. There were significantly increases in BMD of right and left tibia of rats in 30 min exercise group at post-exercise period (p<0.01 for both sides when compared to the control group. BMD of right and left tibia of rats were also correlated with each other (r=0.556 and p=0.003. Otherwise, there is a positive correlation between pre- and post-exercise body weights of rats (r=0.588 and p=0.002. From our results, we concluded that subjects should perform moderate running exercise for development of bone mass and its protection during the lifelong. However, intensity and duration of performing exercise are required to put in order for every ages or actual physical conditions.

  8. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Stress Reactivity in Every-Day Life

    OpenAIRE

    Haaren, Birte von

    2015-01-01

    The current thesis investigated the effects of a 20-week aerobic exercise training on physiological and emotional responses to real-life stress using a randomized, controlled trial and an inactive sample. To assess participants' physiological and psychological responses during everyday life, ambulatory assessment was used. In summary, the present thesis provides empirical support that regular exercise can lead to improved emotional and physiological responses during real-life stress.

  9. Exercise training modulates the hepatic renin-angiotensin system in fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Eliete Dalla Corte; Medeiros, Renata Frauches; Giori, Isabele Gomes; Lima, Juliana Bittencourt Silveira; Bento-Bernardes, Thais; Gaique, Thaiane Gadioli; Fernandes-Santos, Caroline; Fernandes, Tiago; Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes; Vieira, Carla Paulo; Conte-Junior, Carlos Adam; Oliveira, Karen Jesus; Nobrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas

    2017-09-01

    What is the central question of this study? What are the effects of exercise training on the hepatic renin-angiotensin system and their contribution to damage resulting from fructose overload in rats? What is the main finding and its importance? Exercise training attenuated the deleterious actions of the angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin II/angiotensin II type 1 receptor axis and increased expression of the counter-regulatory (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2/angiotensin (1-7)/Mas receptor) axis in the liver. Therefore, our study provides evidence that exercise training modulates the hepatic renin-angiotensin system, which contributes to reducing the progression of metabolic dysfunction and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in fructose-fed rats. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in the development of metabolic syndrome. We investigated whether the hepatic RAS is modulated by exercise training and whether this modulation improves the deleterious effects of fructose overload in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into (n = 8 each) control (CT), exercise control (CT-Ex), high-fructose (HFr) and exercise high-fructose (HFr-Ex) groups. Fructose-drinking rats received d-fructose (100 g l -1 ). After 2 weeks, CT-Ex and HFr-Ex rats were assigned to a treadmill training protocol at moderate intensity for 8 weeks (60 min day -1 , 4 days per week). We assessed body mass, glucose and lipid metabolism, hepatic histopathology, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activity, the angiotensin concentration and the expression profile of proteins affecting the hepatic RAS, gluconeogenesis and inflammation. Neither fructose overload nor exercise training influenced body mass gain and serum ACE and ACE2 activity. The HFr group showed hyperinsulinaemia, but exercise training normalized this parameter. Exercise training was effective in preventing hepatic steatosis and in preventing triacylglycerol and

  10. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone administration on recovery from mix-type exercise training-induced muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yi-Hung; Liao, Kun-Fu; Kao, Chung-Lan; Chen, Chung-Yu; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chang, Wei-Hsiang; Ivy, John L; Bernard, Jeffrey R; Lee, Shin-Da; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the role of DHEA-S in coping against the exercise training mixing aerobic and resistance components. During 5-day successive exercise training, 16 young male participants (19.2 ± 1.2 years) received either a placebo (flour capsule) or DHEA (100 mg/day) in a double-blinded and placebo-controlled design. Oral DHEA supplementation significantly increased circulating DHEA-S by 2.5-fold, but a protracted drop (~35 %) was observed from Day 3 during training. In the Placebo group, only a minimal DHEA-S reduction (~17 %) was observed. Changes in testosterone followed a similar pattern as DHEA-S. Muscle soreness was elevated significantly on Day 2 for both groups to a similar extent. Lower muscle soreness was observed in the DHEA-supplemented group on Day 3 and Day 6. In the Placebo group, training increased circulating creatine kinase (CK) levels by approximately ninefold, while only a threefold increase was observed in the DHEA-supplemented group. This mix-type exercise training improved glucose tolerance in both groups, while lowering the insulin response to the glucose challenge, but no difference between treatments was observed. Our results suggest that DHEA-S may play a role in protecting skeletal muscle from exercise training-induced muscle damage.

  11. Improving Peripheral and Central Vascular Adjustments during Exercise through a Training Program in Adolescents with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Valérie; Thivel, David; Pereira, Bruno; Costes, Frédéric; Richard, Ruddy; Duclos, Martine

    2016-01-01

    The effects of a training program (TP) on muscle microvascularization during exercise remained to be explored in adolescents with obesity. We hypothesized that a TP would lead to better microvascular adaptations to exercise in skeletal muscle. 15 inactive adolescents followed a 12-week TP where both peripheral (muscular microvascularization) and central (cardiac) adaptations to exercise (40 min exercise set at 70% V̇O2peak) were assessed before and after intervention. Microvascular adaptations were evaluated in the Musculus vastus lateralis with near-infrared spectroscopy, by measurement of muscular blood volume (IR-BV) and tissue oxygen saturation (IR-SO2). Central adaptations were evaluated using thoracic impedance. The TP favored lower BMI (p exercise in adolescents with obesity. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  12. Are Injuries More Common With CrossFit Training Than Other Forms of Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Chelsey; Ashbeck, Christopher; Brook, Alexander J; Durall, Chris

    2018-05-22

    Clinical Scenario: CrossFit is a form of exercise that incorporates rapid and successive high-intensity ballistic movements. As CrossFit is an increasingly popular fitness option, it is important to determine how rates of injury compare to more traditional forms of exercise. This review was conducted to ascertain the incidence of injury with CrossFit relative to other forms of exercise. Focused Clinical Question: Are injuries more common with CrossFit training than other forms of exercise? Summary of Key Findings: (1) The literature was searched for studies that compared injury rates among individuals who participated in CrossFit fitness programs to participants in other exercise programs. (2) The search initially yielded >100 results, which were narrowed down to 3 level 2b retrospective cohort studies that were deemed to have met inclusion/exclusion criteria. (3) In all 3 reviewed studies, the reported incidences of injuries associated with CrossFit training programs were comparable or lower than rates of injury in Olympic weightlifting, distance running, track and field, rugby, or gymnastics. Clinical Bottom Line: Current evidence suggests that the injury risk from CrossFit training is comparable to Olympic weightlifting, distance running, track and field, rugby, football, ice hockey, soccer, or gymnastics. Injuries to the shoulder(s) appear to be somewhat common with CrossFit. However, the certitude of these conclusions is questionable given the lack of randomization, control, or uniform training in the reviewed studies. Clinicians should be aware that injury is more prevalent in cases where supervision is not always available to athletes. This is more often the case for male participants who may not actively seek supervision during CrossFit exercise. Strength of Recommendation: Level 2b evidence from 3 retrospective cohort studies indicates that the risk of injury from participation in CrossFit is comparable to or lower than some common forms of exercise or

  13. Safety and feasibility of inpatient exercise training in pediatric heart failure: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Michael G; Binder, Tracy Jo; Paridon, Stephen M

    2007-01-01

    To determine the safety and feasibility of an inpatient exercise training program for a group of pediatric heart transplantation candidates on multiple inotropic support. Children with end-stage heart disease often require heart transplantation. Currently, no data exist on the safety and feasibility of an inpatient exercise training program in pediatric patients awaiting heart transplantation while on inotropic support. Twenty ambulatory patients (11 male; age, 13.6 +/- 3.2 years) were admitted, listed, and subsequently enrolled into an exercise training program while awaiting heart transplantation. Patient diagnoses consisted of dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 15), restrictive cardiomyopathy (n = 1), and failing single-ventricle physiology (n = 4). Inotropic support consisted of a combination of dobutamine, dopamine, or milrinone. Exercise sessions were scheduled three times a week lasting from 30 to 60 minutes and consisted of aerobic and musculoskeletal conditioning. Over 6.2 +/- 4.2 months, 1,251 of a possible 1,508 exercise training sessions were conducted, with a total of 615 hours (26.3 +/- 2.7 min/session) dedicated to low-intensity aerobic exercise. Reasons for noncompliance included a change in medical status, staffing, or patient cooperation. Two adverse episodes (seizures) occurred, neither of which resulted in termination from the program. No adverse episodes of hypotension or significant complex arrhythmias occurred. No complication of medication administration or loss of intravenous access occurred. Data from this study indicate that pediatric patients on inotropic support as a result of systemic ventricular or biventricular heart failure can safely participate in exercise training programs with relatively moderate to high compliance.

  14. Translation of incremental talk test responses to steady-state exercise training intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Ellen; Menke, Miranda; Foster, Carl; Porcari, John P; Gibson, Mark; Bubbers, Terresa

    2014-01-01

    The Talk Test (TT) is a submaximal, incremental exercise test that has been shown to be useful in prescribing exercise training intensity. It is based on a subject's ability to speak comfortably during exercise. This study defined the amount of reduction in absolute workload intensity from an incremental exercise test using the TT to give appropriate absolute training intensity for cardiac rehabilitation patients. Patients in an outpatient rehabilitation program (N = 30) performed an incremental exercise test with the TT given every 2-minute stage. Patients rated their speech comfort after reciting a standardized paragraph. Anything other than a "yes" response was considered the "equivocal" stage, while all preceding stages were "positive" stages. The last stage with the unequivocally positive ability to speak was the Last Positive (LP), and the preceding stages were (LP-1 and LP-2). Subsequently, three 20-minute steady-state training bouts were performed in random order at the absolute workload at the LP, LP-1, and LP-2 stages of the incremental test. Speech comfort, heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded every 5 minutes. The 20-minute exercise training bout was completed fully by LP (n = 19), LP-1 (n = 28), and LP-2 (n = 30). Heart rate, RPE, and speech comfort were similar through the LP-1 and LP-2 tests, but the LP stage was markedly more difficult. Steady-state exercise training intensity was easily and appropriately prescribed at intensity associated with the LP-1 and LP-2 stages of the TT. The LP stage may be too difficult for patients in a cardiac rehabilitation program.

  15. Benefits of Exercise Training For Computer-Based Staff: A Meta Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mothna Mohammed

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Office workers sit down to work for approximately 8 hours a day and, as a result, many of them do not have enough time for any form of physical exercise. This can lead to musculoskeletal discomforts, especially low back pain and recently, many researchers focused on home/office-based exercise training for prevention/treatment of low back pain among this population. Objective: This Meta analyses paper tried to discuss about the latest suggested exercises for the office workers based on the mechanisms and theories behind low back pain among office workers. Method: In this Meta analyses the author tried to collect relevant papers which were published previously on the subject. Google Scholar, Scopus, and PubMed were used as sources to find the articles. Only articles that were published using the same methodology, including office workers, musculoskeletal discomforts, low back pain, and exercise training keywords, were selected. Studies that failed to report sufficient sample statistics, or lacked a substantial review of past academic scholarship and/or clear methodologies, were excluded. Results: Limited evidence regarding the prevention of, and treatment methods for, musculoskeletal discomfort, especially those in the low back, among office workers, is available. The findings showed that training exercises had a significant effect (p<0.05 on low back pain discomfort scores and decreased pain levels in response to office-based exercise training. Conclusion: Office-based exercise training can affect pain/discomfort scores among office workers through positive effects on flexibility and strength of muscles. As such, it should be suggested to occupational therapists as a practical way for the treatment/prevention of low back pain among office workers.

  16. Trampoline exercise vs. strength training to reduce neck strain in fighter pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovelius, Roope; Oksa, Juha; Rintala, Harri; Huhtala, Heini; Ylinen, Jari; Siitonen, Simo

    2006-01-01

    Fighter pilots' muscular strength and endurance are subjected to very high demands. Pilots' fatigued muscles are at higher risk for injuries. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two different training methods in reducing muscular loading during in-flight and cervical loading testing (CLT). There were 16 volunteer Finnish Air Force cadets who were divided into 2 groups: a strength training group (STG) and a trampoline training group (TTG). During the 6-wk training period, the STG performed dynamic flexion and extension and isometric rotation exercises, and the TTG performed trampoline bouncing exercises. During in-flight and CLT, muscle strain from the sternocleidomastoid, cervical erector spinae, trapezius, and thoracic erector spinae muscles was recorded with EMG. In-flight muscle strain in the STG after the training period decreased in the sternocleidomastoid 50%, cervical erector spinae 3%, trapezius 4%, and thoracic erector spinae 8%. In the TTG, the decrease was 41%, 30%, 20%, and 6%, respectively. In CLT, the results were similar. After a 3-mo follow-up period with intensive high +Gz flying, EMG during CLT was still lower than in baseline measurements. Both training methods were found to be effective in reducing muscle strain during in-flight and CLT, especially in the cervical muscles. There was no statistically significant difference between the training groups. Introduced exercises expand muscles' capacities in different ways and the authors recommend both strength and trampoline training programs to be included in fighter pilots' physical education programs.

  17. Locomotor Training and Strength and Balance Exercises for Walking Recovery After Stroke: Response to Number of Training Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Dorian K; Nadeau, Stephen E; Wu, Samuel S; Tilson, Julie K; Dobkin, Bruce H; Pei, Qinglin; Duncan, Pamela W

    2017-11-01

    Evidence-based guidelines are needed to inform rehabilitation practice, including the effect of number of exercise training sessions on recovery of walking ability after stroke. The objective of this study was to determine the response to increasing number of training sessions of 2 interventions-locomotor training and strength and balance exercises-on poststroke walking recovery. This is a secondary analysis of the Locomotor Experience Applied Post-Stroke (LEAPS) randomized controlled trial. Six rehabilitation sites in California and Florida and participants' homes were used. Participants were adults who dwelled in the community (N=347), had had a stroke, were able to walk at least 3 m (10 ft) with assistance, and had completed the required number of intervention sessions. Participants received 36 sessions (3 times per week for 12 weeks), 90 minutes in duration, of locomotor training (gait training on a treadmill with body-weight support and overground training) or strength and balance training. Talking speed, as measured by the 10-Meter Walk Test, and 6-minute walking distance were assessed before training and following 12, 24, and 36 intervention sessions. Participants at 2 and 6 months after stroke gained in gait speed and walking endurance after up to 36 sessions of treatment, but the rate of gain diminished steadily and, on average, was very low during the 25- to 36-session epoch, regardless of treatment type or severity of impairment. Results may not generalize to people who are unable to initiate a step at 2 months after stroke or people with severe cardiac disease. In general, people who dwelled in the community showed improvements in gait speed and walking distance with up to 36 sessions of locomotor training or strength and balance exercises at both 2 and 6 months after stroke. However, gains beyond 24 sessions tended to be very modest. The tracking of individual response trajectories is imperative in planning treatment. Published by Oxford University

  18. Effect of training in the fasted state on metabolic responses during exercise with carbohydrate intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bock, K; Derave, W; Eijnde, B O

    2008-01-01

    program (6 wk, 3 day/wk, 1-2 h, 75% of peak Vo(2)) in moderately active males. They trained in the fasted (F; n = 10) or carbohydrate-fed state (CHO; n = 10) while receiving a standardized diet [65 percent of total energy intake (En) from carbohydrates, 20%En fat, 15%En protein]. Before and after...... the training period, substrate use during a 2-h exercise bout was determined. During these experimental sessions, all subjects were in a fed condition and received extra carbohydrates (1 g.kg body wt(-1) .h(-1)). Peak Vo(2) (+7%), succinate dehydrogenase activity, GLUT4, and hexokinase II content were...... adaptations in peak Vo(2) whether carried out in the fasted or carbohydrate-fed state. Although there was a decrease in exercise-induced glycogen breakdown and an increase in proteins involved in fat handling after fasting training, fat oxidation during exercise with carbohydrate intake was not changed....

  19. Resveratrol blunts the positive effects of exercise training on cardiovascular health in aged men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybholt, Lasse Gliemann; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Olesen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    on atherosclerosis marker VCAM-1. Sirtuin 1 protein levels were not affected by resveratrol supplementation. These findings indicate that, whereas exercise training effectively improves several cardiovascular health parameters in aged men, concomitant resveratrol supplementation blunts most of these effects.......Aging is thought to be associated with decreased vascular function partly due to oxidative stress. Resveratrol is a polyphenol, which, in animal studies has been shown to decrease atherosclerosis, improve cardiovascular health and physical capacity, in part through its effects on Sirtuin 1.......02) and muscle TBX synthase was higher in the resveratrol group after training (P effects of exercise on LDL, TC/HDL ratio and triglycerides concentrations in blood (P effect of exercise training...

  20. Eccentric exercise training as a countermeasure to non-weight-bearing soleus muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Christopher R.; Ryan, Mirelle J.; Booth, Frank W.

    1992-01-01

    This investigation tested whether eccentric resistance training could prevent soleus muscle atrophy during non-weight bearing. Adult female rats were randomly assigned to either weight bearing +/- intramuscular electrodes or non-weight bearing +/- intramuscular electrodes groups. Electrically stimulated maximal eccentric contractions were performed on anesthetized animals at 48-h intervals during the 10-day experiment. Non-weight bearing significantly reduced soleus muscle wet weight (28-31 percent) and noncollagenous protein content (30-31 percent) compared with controls. Eccentric exercise training during non-weight bearing attenuated but did not prevent the loss of soleus muscle wet weight and noncollagenous protein by 77 and 44 percent, respectively. The potential of eccentric exercise training as an effective and highly efficient counter-measure to non-weight-bearing atrophy is demonstrated in the 44 percent attenuation of soleus muscle noncollagenous protein loss by eccentric exercise during only 0.035 percent of the total non-weight-bearing time period.

  1. Distance exercised during submaximal training on race winnings for Thoroughbred racehorses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Berkman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluations of the physical fitness of Thoroughbred racehorses have been correlated with race earnings, but few reports exist about the influence of the distance exercised during training on both physical conditioning indices and financial productivity. During one training season sixteen claiming Thoroughbred horses were subjected to submaximal training and monitored by a global positioning system (GPS coupled to a heart rate monitor. After initial and single monitoring, the horses were distributed into two groups of eight individuals each; one group exercised short distances (SD between 1600 and 1900m, while the other exercised long distances (LD between 2000 and 2350m. The duration (min and mean and maximal velocities (ms-1attained during each session were determined, as well as the difference in distances exercised (m between official races and each training session. Blood lactate concentration ([LA] during recovery was also determined. Student's t-test was used for a non-paired analysis, with P≤0.05 considered significant. The winnings (USD of each horse were correlated with the peak heart rate (HRpeak attained during the training session. The distances exercised in the training sessions were greater in relation to the official races distances by 24.7% and 40% for SD and LD, respectively. Lactatemia did not differ between the groups. The HRpeak obtained during the training session was lower in LD group. The velocity at which the heart rate reached 200 bpm (V200 was higher in LD group. There was a moderate correlation (r= 0.42 between the highest winnings and lowest HRpeak. The horses that ran longer distances during their submaximal training session had better cardiac conditioning and tendency to increase financial productivity

  2. Effects of draught load exercise and training on calcium homeostasis in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervuert, I; Coenen, M; Zamhöfer, J

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of draught load exercise on calcium (Ca) homeostasis in young horses. Five 2-year-old untrained Standardbred horses were studied in a 4-month training programme. All exercise workouts were performed on a treadmill at a 6% incline and with a constant draught load of 40 kg (0.44 kN). The training programme started with a standardized exercise test (SET 1; six incremental steps of 5 min duration each, first step 1.38 m/s, stepwise increase by 0.56 m/s). A training programme was then initiated which consisted of low-speed exercise sessions (LSE; constant velocity at 1.67 m/s for 60 min, 48 training sessions in total). After the 16th and 48th LSE sessions, SETs (SET 2: middle of training period, SET 3: finishing training period) were performed again under the identical test protocol of SET 1. Blood samples for blood lactate, plasma total Ca, blood ionized calcium (Ca(2+)), blood pH, plasma inorganic phosphorus (P(i)) and plasma intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) were collected before, during and after SETs, and before and after the first, 16th, 32nd and 48th LSE sessions. During SETs there was a decrease in ionized Ca(2+) and a rise in lactate, P(i) and intact PTH. The LSEs resulted in an increase in pH and P(i), whereas lactate, ionized Ca(2+), total Ca and intact PTH were not affected. No changes in Ca metabolism were detected in the course of training. Results of this study suggest that the type of exercise influences Ca homeostasis and intact PTH response, but that these effects are not influenced in the course of the training period.

  3. Exercise Training at Maximal Fat Oxidation Intensity for Older Women with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sijie; Du, Ping; Zhao, Wanting; Pang, Jiaqi; Wang, Jianxiong

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pleiotropic effects of 12 weeks of supervised exercise training at maximal fat oxidation (FATmax) intensity on body composition, lipid profile, glycemic control, insulin sensitivity and serum adipokine levels in older women with type 2 diabetes. Thirty-one women with type 2 diabetes, aged 60 to 69 years, were randomly allocated into exercise and control groups. Body composition, lipid profile, blood glucose, insulin resistance and serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured before and after the intervention. Exercise group (n=16) walked at individualized FATmax intensities for 1 h/day for 3 days/week over 12 weeks. No dietary intervention was introduced during the experimental period. Maximal fat oxidation rate was 0.37±0.10 g/min, and occurred at 37.3±7.3% of the estimated VO 2 max. Within the exercise group, significant improvements were observed for most of the measured variables compared to non-exercising controls; in particular, the FATmax program reduced body fat% (presistance (pchange in daily energy intake for all participants during the intervention period. These results suggest that individualized FATmax training is an effective exercise training intensity for managing type 2 diabetes in older women. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Does a Wii-based exercise program enhance balance control of independently functioning older adults? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laufer Y

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yocheved Laufer, Gali Dar, Einat Kodesh Physical Therapy Department, Faculty of Social Welfare and Health Sciences, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel Background: Exercise programs that challenge an individual’s balance have been shown to reduce the risk of falls among older adults. Virtual reality computer-based technology that provides the user with opportunities to interact with virtual objects is used extensively for entertainment. There is a growing interest in the potential of virtual reality-based interventions for balance training in older adults. This work comprises a systematic review of the literature to determine the effects of intervention programs utilizing the Nintendo Wii console on balance control and functional performance in independently functioning older adults.Methods: Studies were obtained by searching the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, PEDro, EMBASE, SPORTdiscus, and Google Scholar, followed by a hand search of bibliographic references of the included studies. Included were randomized controlled trials written in English in which Nintendo Wii Fit was used to enhance standing balance performance in older adults and compared with an alternative exercise treatment, placebo, or no treatment.Results: Seven relevant studies were retrieved. The four studies examining the effect of Wii-based exercise compared with no exercise reported positive effects on at least one outcome measure related to balance performance in older adults. Studies comparing Wii-based training with alternative exercise programs generally indicated that the balance improvements achieved by Wii-based training are comparable with those achieved by other exercise programs.Conclusion: The review indicates that Wii-based exercise programs may serve as an alternative to more conventional forms of exercise aimed at improving balance control. However, due to the great variability between studies in terms of the intervention protocols and outcome measures, as

  5. "The effect of supervised exercise training on psychological characteristics and physical fitness after myocardial infarction "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Boshtam M

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the increasing prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD especially myocardial infarction (MI, and the insufficiency of information in the field of physical rehabilitation, this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a course of physical rehabilitation on the psychological status and physical characteristics f cardiac patients. In this study, the effect of 8 weeks exercise training, 3 sessions of 45 minutes duration per week, on the physical and psychological function of MI patients was evaluated. Eighty patients who were referred to the rehabilitation unit of Isfahan cardiovascular Research Center were randomly divided into two groups of exercise and non-exercise. The data of pre and post exercise course were analyzed with the SPSS software using the two-sample t-test and multiple liner regression. The comparison of the mean changes of functional capacity. Weight, body mass index (BMI, heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures between exercise and non-exercise groups after 8 weeks showed significant difference for all studied factors (P<0.05. Also, investigating the psychological characteristics such as depression, anxiety and hostility scores indicated a significant change after exercise training (P<0.05. Personality and behavior showed no significant difference. This study suggests the functional has a significant effect on improving the function capacity and psychological behavior in post MI patients.

  6. Blood Volume: Importance and Adaptations to Exercise Training, Environmental Stresses and Trauma/Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawka, Michael N.; Convertino, Victor A.; Eichner, E. Randy; Schnieder, Suzanne M.; Young, Andrew J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the influence of several perturbations (physical exercise, heat stress, terrestrial altitude, microgravity, and trauma/sickness) on adaptations of blood volume (BV), erythrocyte volume (EV), and plasma volume (PV). Exercise training can induced BV expansion; PV expansion usually occurs immediately, but EV expansion takes weeks. EV and PV expansion contribute to aerobic power improvements associated with exercise training. Repeated heat exposure induces PV expansion but does not alter EV. PV expansion does not improve thermoregulation, but EV expansion improves thermoregulation during exercise in the heat. Dehydration decreases PV (and increases plasma tonicity) which elevates heat strain and reduces exercise performance. High altitude exposure causes rapid (hours) plasma loss. During initial weeks at altitude, EV is unaffected, but a gradual expansion occurs with extended acclimatization. BV adjustments contribute, but are not key, to altitude acclimatization. Microgravity decreases PV and EV which contribute to orthostatic intolerance and decreased exercise capacity in astronauts. PV decreases may result from lower set points for total body water and central venous pressure, which EV decrease bay result form increased erythrocyte destruction. Trauma, renal disease, and chronic diseases cause anemia from hemorrhage and immune activation, which suppressions erythropoiesis. The re-establishment of EV is associated with healing, improved life quality, and exercise capabilities for these injured/sick persons.

  7. The effects of adding single-joint exercises to a multi-joint exercise resistance training program on upper body muscle strength and size in trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de França, Henrique Silvestre; Branco, Paulo Alexandre Nordeste; Guedes Junior, Dilmar Pinto; Gentil, Paulo; Steele, James; Teixeira, Cauê Vazquez La Scala

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was compare changes in upper body muscle strength and size in trained men performing resistance training (RT) programs involving multi-joint plus single-joint (MJ+SJ) or only multi-joint (MJ) exercises. Twenty young men with at least 2 years of experience in RT were randomized in 2 groups: MJ+SJ (n = 10; age, 27.7 ± 6.6 years) and MJ (n = 10; age, 29.4 ± 4.6 years). Both groups trained for 8 weeks following a linear periodization model. Measures of elbow flexors and extensors 1-repetition maximum (1RM), flexed arm circumference (FAC), and arm muscle circumference (AMC) were taken pre- and post-training period. Both groups significantly increased 1RM for elbow flexion (4.99% and 6.42% for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively), extension (10.60% vs 9.79%, for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively), FAC (1.72% vs 1.45%, for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively), and AMC (1.33% vs 3.17% for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively). Comparison between groups revealed no significant difference in any variable. In conclusion, 8 weeks of RT involving MJ or MJ+SJ resulted in similar alterations in muscle strength and size in trained participants. Therefore, the addition of SJ exercises to a RT program involving MJ exercises does not seem to promote additional benefits to trained men, suggesting MJ-only RT to be a time-efficient approach.

  8. Measuring Virtual Simulations Value in Training Exercises - USMC Use Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-04

    performance capability, (2) training realism capability, (3) affective reaction level , and (4) training efficiencies. The first three elements combined...included 18 unclassified events and 11 classified events from air combat element (ACE), ground combat element ( GCE ), and logistics combat element...affective reaction data sheets (measurement for affective reaction level element). Discrepancies in data sheet collection totals resulted from fluid

  9. Children and Adolescents: Physiological Considerations during Exercise Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawbridge, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Because children and adolescents are not just miniature adults, it is important to know that children might be vulnerable to injury and may not respond positively to certain types or intensities of training. It is also important to recognize how training can positively affect growth and development, so it can be judiciously applied at critical…

  10. Electromyography-controlled exoskeletal upper-limb-powered orthosis for exercise training after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Joel; Narendran, Kailas; McBean, John; Krebs, Kathryn; Hughes, Richard

    2007-04-01

    Robot-assisted exercise shows promise as a means of providing exercise therapy for weakness that results from stroke or other neurological conditions. Exoskeletal or "wearable" robots can, in principle, provide therapeutic exercise and/or function as powered orthoses to help compensate for chronic weakness. We describe a novel electromyography (EMG)-controlled exoskeletal robotic brace for the elbow (the active joint brace) and the results of a pilot study conducted using this brace for exercise training in individuals with chronic hemiparesis after stroke. Eight stroke survivors with severe chronic hemiparesis were enrolled in this pilot study. One subject withdrew from the study because of scheduling conflicts. A second subject was unable to participate in the training protocol because of insufficient surface EMG activity to control the active joint brace. The six remaining subjects each underwent 18 hrs of exercise training using the device for a period of 6 wks. Outcome measures included the upper-extremity component of the Fugl-Meyer scale and the modified Ashworth scale of muscle hypertonicity. Analysis revealed that the mean upper-extremity component of the Fugl-Meyer scale increased from 15.5 (SD 3.88) to 19 (SD 3.95) (P = 0.04) at the conclusion of training for the six subjects who completed training. Combined (summated) modified Ashworth scale for the elbow flexors and extensors improved from 4.67 (+/-1.2 SD) to 2.33 (+/-0.653 SD) (P = 0.009) and improved for the entire upper limb as well. All subjects tolerated the device, and no complications occurred. EMG-controlled powered elbow orthoses can be successfully controlled by severely impaired hemiparetic stroke survivors. This technique shows promise as a new modality for assisted exercise training after stroke.

  11. Mechanisms for training security inspectors to enhance human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhalter, H.E.; Sessions, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established qualification standards for protective force personnel employed at nuclear facilities [10 CFR Part 1046 (Federal Register)]. Training mechanisms used at Los Alamos to enhance human performance in meeting DOE standards include, but are not limited to, the following: for cardio-respiratory training, they utilize distance running, interval training, sprint training, pacing, indoor aerobics and circuit training; for muscular strength, free weights, weight machines, light hand weights, grip strength conditioners, and calistenics are employed; for muscular endurance, participants do high repetitions (15 - 40) using dumbbells, flex weights, resistive rubber bands, benches, and calisthenics; for flexibility, each training session devotes specific times to stretch the muscles involved for a particular activity. These training mechanisms with specific protocols can enhance human performance

  12. The effects of aerobic exercise training on psychosocial aspects of men with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardar, Mohammad Ali; Boghrabadi, Vahdat; Sohrabi, Mehdi; Aminzadeh, Reza; Jalalian, Mehrdad

    2014-01-20

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of aerobic exercise training on psychosocial aspects (mental health, the aspects of physical symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social functioning, and depression) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 53 men who had type 2 diabetes mellitus for a mean duration of the disease for 3±5 years were selected purposely and classified randomly into experimental (27 patients) and a control group (26 patients). Patients in the experimental group did aerobic exercise training three times a week for eight weeks. The exercise included an aerobic activity for 45 to 60 minutes during which the patients' heart rates were maintained at 60-70 percent of heart rate reserve on ergo meter bikes. The eight-week aerobic exercise training had significant effects on mental health (p = 0.002), subscales of physical symptoms (p = 0.006), and anxiety and insomnia (p = 0.001). It had no significant effects on subscales related to disorder of social functioning (p = 0.117) and depression (p = 0.657). Aerobic exercise training can be considered as an appropriate program for improving the health of the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and it also can improve their mental health.

  13. A DIGE proteomic analysis for high-intensity exercise-trained rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Wataru; Fujimoto, Eri; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Tabata, Izumi

    2010-09-01

    Exercise training induces various adaptations in skeletal muscles. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we conducted 2D-DIGE proteomic analysis, which has not yet been used for elucidating adaptations of skeletal muscle after high-intensity exercise training (HIT). For 5 days, rats performed HIT, which consisted of 14 20-s swimming exercise bouts carrying a weight (14% of the body weight), and 10-s pause between bouts. The 2D-DIGE analysis was conducted on epitrochlearis muscles excised 18 h after the final training exercise. Proteomic profiling revealed that out of 800 detected and matched spots, 13 proteins exhibited changed expression by HIT compared with sedentary rats. All proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/MS. Furthermore, using western immunoblot analyses, significantly changed expressions of NDUFS1 and parvalbumin (PV) were validated in relation to HIT. In conclusion, the proteomic 2D-DIGE analysis following HIT-identified expressions of NDUFS1 and PV, previously unknown to have functions related to exercise-training adaptations.

  14. Self-Determination and Physical Exercise Adherence in the Contexts of Fitness Academies and Personal Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klain Ingi Petitemberte

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to analyze the validity of the relations hypothesized by the theory of self-determination in predicting adherence to physical exercise in fitness academy users and subjects following personal training. A total of 588 persons from Pelotas / RS / Brazil (405 gym users and 183 subjects following personal training completed the Portuguese version of the three questionnaires, i.e. the Perceived Autonomy Support Climate Exercise Questionnaire, Basic Psychological Needs in the Exercise Scale and Behavioral Regulation in the Exercise Questionnaire −2. The results support the factorial structure of the questionnaires used in this sample. There was a significant multivariate effect of context on self-determination for physical exercise training [Wilks’ λ = 0.934, F (10, 576.000 = 4.03, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.01]. The hypothesized structural equation model, which considered the self-determination theory, showed a good fit to the data (S-B χ2 = 234.703; p= .001; df = 52; χ2/df = 4.514; SRMS = .049; NNFI = .906; CFI = .926; RMSEA = .077; RMSEA 90% CI = .067 − .088. However, in the comparative analysis, the perception of autonomy support, relatedness and competence were significantly higher in the context of personal training, while the amotivation and external regulation were significantly higher in the context of fitness academies.

  15. The effect of cinnamon extract and long-term aerobic training on heart function, biochemical alterations and lipid profile following exhaustive exercise in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalzadeh, Reza; Shaghaghi, Mehrnoush; Mohammadi, Mustafa; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Mohammadi, Zeynab

    2014-12-01

    Regular training is suggested to offer a host of benefits especially on cardiovascular system. In addition, medicinal plants can attenuate oxidative stress-mediated damages induced by stressor insults. In this study, we investigated the concomitant effect of cinnamon extract and long-term aerobic training on cardiac function, biochemical alterations and lipid profile following exhaustive exercise. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were divided into five groups depending on receiving regular training, cinnamon bark extraction, none or both of them, and then encountered with an exhausted exercise in last session. An 8-week endurance training program was designed with a progressive increase in training speed and time. Myocardial hemodynamics was monitored using a balloon-tipped catheter inserted into left ventricles. Blood samples were collected for analyzing biochemical markers, lipid profiles and lipid-peroxidation marker, malondealdehyde (MDA). Trained animals showed an enhanced cardiac force and contractility similar to cinnamon-treated rats. Co-application of regular training and cinnamon had additive effect in cardiac hemodynamic (Ptraining and supplementation with cinnamon significantly decreased serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level and HDL/LDL ratio as compared to control group (Ptraining significantly reduced MDA level elevation induced by exhausted exercise (Ptraining improved cardiac hemodynamic through an additive effect. The positive effects of cinnamon and regular training on cardiac function were associated with a reduced serum MDA level and an improved blood lipid profile.

  16. The efficacy of early initiated, supervised, progressive resistance training compared to unsupervised, home-based exercise after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Bo; Bogh, Søren B; Kierkegaard, Signe

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine if supervised progressive resistance training was superior to home-based exercise in rehabilitation after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. DESIGN: Single blinded, randomized clinical trial. SETTING: Surgery, progressive resistance training and testing was carried out...

  17. Longitudinal changes in reproductive hormones and menstrual cyclicity in cynomolgus monkeys during strenuous exercise training: abrupt transition to exercise-induced amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, N I; Caston-Balderrama, A L; Helmreich, D L; Parfitt, D B; Nosbisch, C; Cameron, J L

    2001-06-01

    Cross-sectional studies of exercise-induced reproductive dysfunction have documented a high proportion of menstrual cycle disturbances in women involved in strenuous exercise training. However, longitudinal studies have been needed to examine individual susceptibility to exercise-induced reproductive dysfunction and to elucidate the progression of changes in reproductive function that occur with strenuous exercise training. Using the female cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis), we documented changes in menstrual cyclicity and patterns of LH, FSH, estradiol, and progesterone secretion as the animals developed exercise-induced amenorrhea. As monkeys gradually increased running to 12.3 +/- 0.9 km/day, body weight did not change significantly although food intake remained constant. The time spent training until amenorrhea developed varied widely among animals (7-24 months; mean = 14.3 +/- 2.2 months) and was not correlated with initial body weight, training distance, or food intake. Consistent changes in function of the reproductive axis occurred abruptly, one to two menstrual cycles before the development of amenorrhea. These included significant declines in plasma reproductive hormone concentrations, an increase in follicular phase length, and a decrease in luteal phase progesterone secretion. These data document a high level of interindividual variability in the development of exercise-induced reproductive dysfunction, delineate the progression of changes in reproductive hormone secretion that occur with exercise training, and illustrate an abrupt transition from normal cyclicity to an amenorrheic state in exercising individuals, that is not necessarily associated with weight loss.

  18. A Theory-Based Exercise App to Enhance Exercise Adherence: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voth, Elizabeth C; Oelke, Nelly D; Jung, Mary E

    2016-06-15

    Use of mobile health (mHealth) technology is on an exponential rise. mHealth apps have the capability to reach a large number of individuals, but until now have lacked the integration of evidence-based theoretical constructs to increase exercise behavior in users. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a theory-based, self-monitoring app on exercise and self-monitoring behavior over 8 weeks. A total of 56 adults (mean age 40 years, SD 13) were randomly assigned to either receive the mHealth app (experimental; n=28) or not to receive the app (control; n=28). All participants engaged in an exercise goal-setting session at baseline. Experimental condition participants received weekly short message service (SMS) text messages grounded in social cognitive theory and were encouraged to self-monitor exercise bouts on the app on a daily basis. Exercise behavior, frequency of self-monitoring exercise behavior, self-efficacy to self-monitor, and self-management of exercise behavior were collected at baseline and at postintervention. Engagement in exercise bouts was greater in the experimental condition (mean 7.24, SD 3.40) as compared to the control condition (mean 4.74, SD 3.70, P=.03, d=0.70) at week 8 postintervention. Frequency of self-monitoring increased significantly over the 8-week investigation between the experimental and control conditions (Pcomparison to those in the control condition (mean 1.95, SD 2.58, Psocial cognitive theory into an mHealth exercise self-monitoring app provides support for future research to feasibly integrate theoretical constructs into existing exercise apps. In addition, findings provide preliminary support for theory-based apps to increase self-monitoring and exercise behavior in comparison to a control, no-app condition.

  19. [Comparison of the psychological effects of standard exercises with those of space exercises in autogenic training: from the perspective of passive concentration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Ikuyo; Koshikawa, Fusako

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the psychological effects of the heaviness and the warmth Standard Exercises (SE) with those of the first Space Exercises (SP) in Autogenic Training (AT) on college students. This study was conducted by the repeated practice of two experimental groups (SE, SP) and one control group (CT). The participants in the experimental groups practiced once a week, for three weeks. All the participants were assessed with State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Anxiety (STAI-T), Autogenic Training Clinical Effectiveness Scale (ATCES), and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. The results showed that the SE group showed more decreases in STAI-T and more increases in ATCES than the SP group, while the more neurotic, showed more increases in self-esteem in both the SE and SP groups. It is possible that non-clinical adults with high neuroticism might be able to enhance their STAI-T and ATCES in the SE group than in the SP group if their SE trainers respected their bodily abilities in readily responding to changes in sensations.

  20. Training in radiological protection - a pool of practical exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, J.R.; Hudson, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    In this, the second of a series of papers, an exercise is described in which the objectives are to illustrate some of the problems and underlying principles related to scattered radiation in industrial radiography situations, although the principles involved can be applied to other situations. A model of a radiography room, with a beta emitter as the source of radiation, is used to demonstrate- (i) the scatter of radiation down a maze entrance. (ii) 'airscatter' over the walls of the room. (iii) the effect of beam collimation on dose rates from scattered radiation. (iv) the minimisation of scattered dose rates by judicious direction of the collimated beam. The exercise is strictly qualitative and course participants are positively warned that the results must not be regarded as having any quantitative value. The exercise provokes discussions on a number of topics; typically regarding the economic benefit (in terms of savings in cost of protection) to be derived from being able to limit the size and direction of the useful beam. (author)

  1. Catecholamines and obesity: effects of exercise and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouhal, Hassane; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Casazza, Gretchen A; Jabbour, Georges

    2013-07-01

    Excess body fat in obese individuals can affect the catecholamine response to various stimuli. Indeed, several studies report lower plasma catecholamine concentrations in obese subjects compared with nonobese subjects in response to submaximal or maximal exercise. This low catecholamine response reflects decreased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. Although the relationship between the SNS and obesity is not well established, some authors have suggested that low SNS activity may contribute to the development of obesity. A decreased catecholamine response could affect α- and β-adrenoceptor sensitivity in adipose tissue, reducing lipolysis and increasing fat stores. Few studies have examined the effects of obesity on the plasma catecholamine response at rest and during exercise in adolescents. It is interesting to note that the effects of age, sex, and degree of obesity and the impact of very intense exercise on the catecholamine response have not yet been well examined. Moreover, the hormonal concentrations measured in the majority of obesity studies did not take into account plasma volume changes. This methodological factor can also undoubtedly influence plasma catecholamine results.

  2. Functional measures show improvements after a home exercise program following supervised balance training in older adults with elevated fall risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisher, Kristen; Mann, Kimberly; VanDyke, Sarah; Johansson, Charity; Vallabhajosula, Srikant

    2018-03-05

    Supervised balance training shows immediate benefit for older adults at fall risk. The long-term effectiveness of such training can be enhanced by implementing a safe and simple home exercise program (HEP). We investigated the effects of a12-week unsupervised HEP following supervised clinic-based balance training on functional mobility, balance, fall risk, and gait. Six older adults with an elevated fall risk obtained an HEP and comprised the HEP group (HEPG) and five older adults who were not given an HEP comprised the no HEP group (NoHEPG). The HEP consisted of three static balance exercises: feet-together, single-leg stance, and tandem. Each exercise was to be performed twice for 30-60 s, once per day, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Participants were educated on proper form, safety, and progression of exercises. Pre- and post-HEP testing included Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go, Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) assessments, Activities-Balance Confidence, Late-Life Functional Disability Instrument and instrumented assessments of balance and gait (Limits of Stability, modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance, Gait). A healthy control group (HCG; n = 11) was also tested. For most of the measures, the HEPG improved to the level of HCG. Though task-specific improvements like BBS and SPPB components were seen, the results did not carry over to more dynamic assessments. Results provide proof of concept that a simple HEP can be independently implemented and effective for sustaining and/or improving balance in older adults at elevated fall-risk after they have undergone a clinic-based balance intervention.

  3. Supplemental Oxygen During High-Intensity Exercise Training in Nonhypoxemic Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neunhäuserer, Daniel; Steidle-Kloc, Eva; Weiss, Gertraud; Kaiser, Bernhard; Niederseer, David; Hartl, Sylvia; Tschentscher, Marcus; Egger, Andreas; Schönfelder, Martin; Lamprecht, Bernd; Studnicka, Michael; Niebauer, Josef

    2016-11-01

    Physical exercise training is an evidence-based treatment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and patients' peak work rate is associated with reduced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality. We assessed whether supplemental oxygen during exercise training in nonhypoxemic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease might lead to superior training outcomes, including improved peak work rate. This was a randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover trial. Twenty-nine patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (aged 63.5 ± 5.9 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second percent predicted, 46.4 ± 8.6) completed 2 consecutive 6-week periods of endurance and strength training with progressive intensity, which was performed 3 times per week with supplemental oxygen or compressed medical air (flow via nasal cannula: 10 L/min). Each session of electrocardiography-controlled interval cycling lasted 31 minutes and consisted of a warm-up, 7 cycles of 1-minute intervals at 70% to 80% of peak work rate alternating with 2 minutes of active recovery, and final cooldown. Thereafter, patients completed 8 strength-training exercises of 1 set each with 8 to 15 repetitions to failure. Change in peak work rate was the primary study end point. The increase in peak work rate was more than twice as high when patients exercised with supplemental oxygen compared with medical air (0.16 ± 0.02 W/kg vs 0.07 ± 0.02 W/kg; P work rate was 39.1% of the overall training effect, whereas it had no influence on strength gain (P > .1 for all exercises). We report that supplemental oxygen in nonhypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease doubled the effect of endurance training but had no effect on strength gain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Interval and continuous exercise enhances aerobic capacity and hemodynamic function in CHF rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro B. Nunes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of continuous versus interval aerobic exercise training on hemodynamic parameters, cardiac remodeling, and maximal exercise capacity (MEC in chronic heart failure (CHF rats.METHOD: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were subjected to myocardial infarction (MI surgery. Five weeks post MI, the animals were assigned to one of three groups: sedentary group (CHF-Sed, n=8, aerobic continuous training group (CHF-ACT, n=8, and aerobic interval training group (CHF-AIT, n=8. Treadmill training was performed five times a week for 8 weeks (ACT: 50 min/day at 15 m/min and AIT: 40 min/day with 8 min of warm-up at 10 m/min and exercise at 15 m/min 4×4 min interspersed with 4×4 min at 23 m/min. MEC was evaluated pre and post exercise program.RESULTS: Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP, left ventricular mass/body mass ratio (LVM:BM, and total collagen volume fraction were lower in the trained groups compared with the sedentary group, but no difference was found between the trained groups. Systolic ventricular pressure (SVP and maximum positive derivative of LV pressure (+dP/dtmax were higher in the trained groups, but CHF-ACT showed higher +dP/dtmax compared to CHF-AIT. Both training regimens were able to increase MEC. However, the aerobic interval training was superior for improving MEC.CONCLUSION: Aerobic training is an important intervention to improve cardiac function and remodeling and physical capacity in CHF rats. Interval training is a potential strategy to maximize the results, but exercise type and intensity are still topics to be explored.

  5. Changes in blood glucose among trained normoglycemic adults during a mini-trampoline exercise session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins Cunha, Raphael; Raiana Bentes, Mariana; Araújo, Victor H; DA Costa Souza, Mayara C; Vasconcelos Noleto, Marcelo; Azevedo Soares, Ademar; Machado Lehnen, Alexandre

    2016-12-01

    Blood glucose changes response during and after exercise are modulated by the postabsorptive state, intensity and duration of exercise, and the level of physical fitness as well. This study focused on the idea that high-intensity interval exercise, as mini-trampoline class, can reduce blood glucose. Thus, we examined acute changes in blood glucose among trained normoglycemic adults during a mini-trampoline exercise session. Twenty-four normoglycemic adult subjects were enrolled in the study. After physical assessment they were randomly assigned to either the experimental (N.=12) or the control group (N.=12). The experimental group performed a 50-minute session of moderate-to-high intensity (70 to 85% HRmax) exercise on a mini-trampoline commonly used in fitness classes. The control group did not perform any exercise, and all procedures were otherwise similar to the experimental group. Capillary blood glucose was measured before and every 15 minutes during the exercise session. The effects of exercise on blood glucose levels (group; time; and group interaction) were estimated using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) followed by Bonferroni's post-hoc Test (Ptrampoline can be used for reducing blood glucose levels and thus can potentially control blood glucose.

  6. Improvements to executive function during exercise training predict maintenance of physical activity over the following year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eBest

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that exercise training benefits cognitive, neural, and physical health markers in older adults. It is likely that these positive effects will diminish if participants return to sedentary lifestyles following training cessation. Theory posits that that the neurocognitive processes underlying self-regulation, namely executive function (EF, are important to maintaining positive health behaviors. Therefore, we examined whether better EF performance in older women would predict greater adherence to routine physical activity (PA over 1 year following a 12-month resistance exercise training randomized controlled trial. The study sample consisted of 125 community-dwelling women aged 65 to 75 years old. Our primary outcome measure was self-reported PA, as measured by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE, assessed on a monthly basis from month 13 to month 25. Executive function was assessed using the Stroop Test at baseline (month 0 and post-training (month 12. Latent growth curve analyses showed that, on average, PA decreased during the follow-up period but at a decelerating rate. Women who made greater improvements to EF during the training period showed better adherence to PA during the 1-year follow-up period (β = -.36, p .10. Overall, these findings suggest that improving EF plays an important role in whether older women maintain higher levels of PA following exercise training and that this association is only apparent after training when environmental support for PA is low.

  7. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Ventilatory Efficiency and Respiratory Drive in Obese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlif, Mehdi; Chaouachi, Anis; Ahmaidi, Said

    2017-07-01

    Obese patients show a decline in exercise capacity and diverse degrees of dyspnea in association with mechanical abnormalities, increased ventilatory requirements secondary to the increased metabolic load, and a greater work of breathing. Consequently, obese patients may be particularly predisposed to the development of respiratory muscle fatigue during exercise. The aim of this study was to assess inspiratory muscle performance during incremental exercise in 19 obese male subjects (body mass index 41 ± 6 kg/m 2 ) after aerobic exercise training using the noninvasive, inspiratory muscle tension-time index (T T0.1 ). Measurements performed included anthropometric parameters, lung function assessed by spirometry, rate of perceived breathlessness with the modified Borg dyspnea scale (0-10), breathing pattern, maximal exercise capacity, and inspiratory muscle performance with a breath-by-breath automated exercise metabolic system during an incremental exercise test. T T0.1 was calculated using the equation, T T0.1 = P 0.1 /P Imax × T I /T tot (where P 0.1 represents mouth occlusion pressure, P Imax is maximal inspiratory pressure, and T I /T tot is the duty cycle). At rest, there was no statistically significant difference for spirometric parameters and cardiorespiratory parameters between pre- and post-training. At maximal exercise, the minute ventilation, the rate of exchange ratio, the rate of perceived breathlessness, and the respiratory muscle performance parameters were not significantly different pre- and post-training; in contrast, tidal volume ( P = .037, effect size = 1.51), breathing frequency ( P = .049, effect size = 0.97), power output ( P = .048, effect size = 0.79), peak oxygen uptake ( P = .02, effect size = 0.92) were significantly higher after training. At comparable work load, training induces lower minute ventilation, mouth occlusion pressure, ratio of occlusion pressure to maximal inspiratory pressure, T T0.1 , and rate of perceived

  8. Improved Arterial–Ventricular Coupling in Metabolic Syndrome after Exercise Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Sara B.; Donley, David A.; Bonner, Daniel E.; DeVallance, Evan; Olfert, I. Mark; Chantler, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a three-fold increase risk of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality, which is in part, due to a blunted CV reserve capacity, reflected by a reduced peak exercise left ventricular contractility and aerobic capacity, and a blunted peak arterial-ventricular coupling. To date, no study has examined whether aerobic exercise training in MetS can reverse the peak exercise CV dysfunction. Further, examining how exercise training alters CV function in a group of individuals with MetS prior to the development of diabetes and/or overt CVD, can provide insights into whether some of the pathophysiological changes to the CV can be delayed/reversed, lowering their CV risk. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training in individuals with MetS on resting and peak exercise CV function. Methods Twenty MetS underwent either 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training (MetS-ExT; n=10) or remained sedentary (MetS-NonT; n=10) during this time period. Resting and peak exercise CV function was characterized using Doppler echocardiography and gas exchange. Results Exercise training did not alter resting left ventricular diastolic or systolic function and arterial-ventricular coupling in MetS. In contrast, at peak exercise an increase in LV contractility (40%, p<0.01), cardiac output (28%, p<0.05) and aerobic capacity (20%, p<0.01), while a reduction in vascular resistance (30%, p<0.05) and arterial-ventricular coupling (27%, p<0.01), were noted in the MetS-ExT but not the MetS-NonT group. Further, an improvement in Lifetime Risk Score was also noted in the MetS-ExT group. Conclusions These findings have clinical importance as they provide insight that some of the pathophysiological changes associated with MetS can be improved and lower the risk of CVD. PMID:24870568

  9. [Cognitive training combined with aerobic exercises in multiple sclerosis patients: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Morales, R M; Herrera-Jimenez, L F; Macias-Delgado, Y; Perez-Medinilla, Y T; Diaz-Diaz, S M; Forn, C

    2017-06-01

    The scientific evidences associated to the effectiveness of different techniques of cognitive rehabilitation are still contradictory. To compare a program of combined training (physical and cognitive) in front of a program of physical training and to observe their effectiveness about the optimization of the cognitive functions in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). It was carried out an experimental study in 32 patients with MS. The patients were distributed in two groups: 16 to the experimental group (combined cognitive training with aerobic exercises) and 16 patients to the control group (aerobic exercises). The intervention was planned for six weeks combining cognitive tasks by means of a game of dynamic board of cubes and signs (TaDiCS ®) and a program of aerobic exercises. The Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Test and the Stroop Test were applied to evaluate the cognitive yield. Also, the Beck Depression Inventory was administered. There were found significant differences in the intergrupal analysis after the intervention in the variable learning and visuoespacial long term memory (p = 0.000), attention (p = 0.026) and inhibitory control (p = 0.007). Also, in the intragroup analysis there were found significant differences in these variables and information processing speed in the group that received the combined training. These patients also showed a significant improvement in the emotional state (p = 0.043). The cognitive training combined with the aerobic exercises is effective to improve the cognitive performance.

  10. Aerobic exercise training without weight loss reduces dyspnea on exertion in obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Vipa; Stickford, Jonathon L.; Bhammar, Dharini M.; Babb, Tony G.

    2015-01-01

    Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) is a common symptom in obesity. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training without weight loss could reduce DOE. Twenty-two otherwise healthy obese women participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise training program, exercising 30 min/day at 70–80% heart rate reserve, 4 days/week. Subjects were grouped based on their Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB) during constant load 60W cycling: +DOE (n = 12, RPB ≥ 4, 37 ± 7 years, 34 ± 4kg/m2) and −DOE (n = 10, RPB ≤ 2, 32 ± 6 years, 33 ± 3kg/m2). No significant differences between the groups in body composition, pulmonary function, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed pre-training. Post-training, peak was improved significantly in both groups (+DOE: 12 ± 7, −DOE: 14 ± 8%). RPB was significantly decreased in the + DOE (4.7 ± 1.0–2.5 ± 1.0) and remained low in the −DOE group (1.2 ± 0.6–1.3 ± 1.0) (interaction p exercise training improved cardiorespiratory fitness and DOE and thus appears to be an effective treatment for DOE in obese women. PMID:26593640

  11. Augmented Reality to Enhance Crew Medical Training

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Due to the large and diverse set of possible medical conditions, crew medical training focuses on the most likely medical scenarios that may occur in the current...

  12. Metabolism of ketone bodies during exercise and training: physiological basis for exogenous supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mark; Cogan, Karl E; Egan, Brendan

    2017-05-01

    Optimising training and performance through nutrition strategies is central to supporting elite sportspeople, much of which has focused on manipulating the relative intake of carbohydrate and fat and their contributions as fuels for energy provision. The ketone bodies, namely acetoacetate, acetone and β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), are produced in the liver during conditions of reduced carbohydrate availability and serve as an alternative fuel source for peripheral tissues including brain, heart and skeletal muscle. Ketone bodies are oxidised as a fuel source during exercise, are markedly elevated during the post-exercise recovery period, and the ability to utilise ketone bodies is higher in exercise-trained skeletal muscle. The metabolic actions of ketone bodies can alter fuel selection through attenuating glucose utilisation in peripheral tissues, anti-lipolytic effects on adipose tissue, and attenuation of proteolysis in skeletal muscle. Moreover, ketone bodies can act as signalling metabolites, with βHB acting as an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, an important regulator of the adaptive response to exercise in skeletal muscle. Recent development of ketone esters facilitates acute ingestion of βHB that results in nutritional ketosis without necessitating restrictive dietary practices. Initial reports suggest this strategy alters the metabolic response to exercise and improves exercise performance, while other lines of evidence suggest roles in recovery from exercise. The present review focuses on the physiology of ketone bodies during and after exercise and in response to training, with specific interest in exploring the physiological basis for exogenous ketone supplementation and potential benefits for performance and recovery in athletes. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  13. Global Proteome Changes in the Rat Diaphragm Induced by Endurance Exercise Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt J Sollanek

    Full Text Available Mechanical ventilation (MV is a life-saving intervention for many critically ill patients. Unfortunately, prolonged MV results in the rapid development of diaphragmatic atrophy and weakness. Importantly, endurance exercise training results in a diaphragmatic phenotype that is protected against ventilator-induced diaphragmatic atrophy and weakness. The mechanisms responsible for this exercise-induced protection against ventilator-induced diaphragmatic atrophy remain unknown. Therefore, to investigate exercise-induced changes in diaphragm muscle proteins, we compared the diaphragmatic proteome from sedentary and exercise-trained rats. Specifically, using label-free liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we performed a proteomics analysis of both soluble proteins and mitochondrial proteins isolated from diaphragm muscle. The total number of diaphragm proteins profiled in the soluble protein fraction and mitochondrial protein fraction were 813 and 732, respectively. Endurance exercise training significantly (P<0.05, FDR <10% altered the abundance of 70 proteins in the soluble diaphragm proteome and 25 proteins of the mitochondrial proteome. In particular, key cytoprotective proteins that increased in relative abundance following exercise training included mitochondrial fission process 1 (Mtfp1; MTP18, 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MPST, microsomal glutathione S-transferase 3 (Mgst3; GST-III, and heat shock protein 70 kDa protein 1A/1B (HSP70. While these proteins are known to be cytoprotective in several cell types, the cyto-protective roles of these proteins have yet to be fully elucidated in diaphragm muscle fibers. Based upon these important findings, future experiments can now determine which of these diaphragmatic proteins are sufficient and/or required to promote exercise-induced protection against inactivity-induced muscle atrophy.

  14. [Performance enhancement by carbohydrate intake during sport: effects of carbohydrates during and after high-intensity exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beelen, Milou; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous carbohydrate availability does not provide sufficient energy for prolonged moderate to high-intensity exercise. Carbohydrate ingestion during high-intensity exercise can therefore enhance performance.- For exercise lasting 1 to 2.5 hours, athletes are advised to ingest 30-60 g of carbohydrates per hour.- Well-trained endurance athletes competing for longer than 2.5 hours at high intensity can metabolise up to 90 g of carbohydrates per hour, provided that a mixture of glucose and fructose is ingested.- Athletes participating in intermittent or team sports are advised to follow the same strategies but the timing of carbohydrate intake depends on the type of sport.- If top performance is required again within 24 hours after strenuous exercise, the advice is to supplement endogenous carbohydrate supplies quickly within the first few hours post-exercise by ingesting large amounts of carbohydrate (1.2 g/kg/h) or a lower amount of carbohydrate (0.8 g/kg/h) with a small amount of protein (0.2-0.4 g/kg/h).

  15. Exercise training on skill-related physical fitness in adolescents with intellectual disability: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Shiau-Chian; Chang, Chia-Wei; Liu, Wen-Yu; Hou, Yu-Jen; Lin, Yang-Hua

    2017-04-01

    Skill-related fitness (SRF) is a component of physical fitness related to sports or occupational performance. Adolescents with intellectual disability (ID) can take advantage of SRF for enhancing work performance and enjoying participation with peers in leisure activities. However, few studies have examined the benefits of exercise on SRF in adolescents with ID. This study synthesized the results from the reviewed studies and determined whether exercise training improves SRF in adolescents with ID. We searched ten electronic databases and used the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale to assess the methodological quality of included studies. This study pooled quantitative data where possible in statistical meta-analyses and expressed the effect sizes (ESs) as Cohen's d and converted it to Hedges's g. Eighteen studies met inclusion criteria for systematic review, of which 14 for further meta-analyses. Nine meta-analyses were conducted in this study. The results supported positive exercise training effects on agility, power, RT, and speed, but not balance (Hedges's g range -1.465-0.760) in adolescents with ID. We found only a limited number of studies exhibiting high quality evidence and were being included in the meta-analyses. Therefore, the results of our systematic review and meta-analyses should be interpreted with caution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The effects of exercise training in patients with peripheral vascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mon tools to assess walking tolerance in patients with PVD. A wide variety of ... Department of Sport Management. Faculty of ... cise to maximal claudication pain in order to elicit the best training ..... Edinburgh artery study: Prevalence of ...

  17. ISOMETRIC EXERCISE VERSUS COMBINED CONCENTRIC-ECCENTRIC EXERCISE TRAINING IN PATIENTS WITH OSTEOARTHRITIS KNEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigombam Amit Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoarthritis is a slowly evolving articular disease, which appears to originate in the cartilage and affects the underlying bone and soft tissues. OA results in pain and functional disability. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of isometric exercises and combined concentric-eccentric exercises in reducing pain and functional disability in patients with osteoarthritis of knee. Methods: Forty individuals who were diagnosed as osteoarthritis by qualified orthopaedics and orthopaedic surgeons were chosen and were randomly divided into 2 groups Group A (N=20 and Group B (N=20. Group A was treated with isometric exercises and Group B was treated with combined concentric-eccentric exercises. The intervention lasted eight weeks and the physical activity was carried out for 3 days a week. Both the groups were assessed for pain and functional disability of knee joint by using WOMAC osteoarthritis index and VAS. Results: Between group analysis of pre and post study data reveals that VAS and WOMAC osteoarthritis index revealed significant findings (P=0.00. Group B performs significantly better on both the scales after the treatment. Conclusion: Both the groups showed significant improvement in decreasing pain and functional disability. But mean scores of Group B showed greater improvement in reducing pain and functional disability as compared to Group A in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Thus the results suggest that a combined concentric-eccentric e

  18. Impaired transcriptional activity of Nrf2 in age-related myocardial oxidative stress is reversible by moderate exercise training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sellamuthu S Gounder

    Full Text Available Aging promotes accumulation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS in cardiomyocytes, which leads to contractile dysfunction and cardiac abnormalities. These changes may contribute to increased cardiovascular disease in the elderly. Inducible antioxidant pathways are regulated by nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2 through antioxidant response cis-elements (AREs and are impaired in the aging heart. Whereas acute exercise stress (AES activates Nrf2 signaling and promotes myocardial antioxidant function in young mice (~2 months, aging mouse (>23 months hearts exhibit significant oxidative stress as compared to those of the young. The purpose of this study was to investigate age-dependent regulation of Nrf2-antioxidant mechanisms and redox homeostasis in mouse hearts and the impact of exercise. Old mice were highly susceptible to oxidative stress following high endurance exercise stress (EES, but demonstrated increased adaptive redox homeostasis after moderate exercise training (MET; 10m/min, for 45 min/day for ~6 weeks. Following EES, transcription and protein levels for most of the ARE-antioxidants were increased in young mice but their induction was blunted in aging mice. In contrast, 6-weeks of chronic MET promoted nuclear levels of Nrf2 along with its target antioxidants in the aging heart to near normal levels as seen in young mice. These observations suggest that enhancing Nrf2 function and endogenous cytoprotective mechanisms by MET, may combat age-induced ROS/RNS and protect the myocardium from oxidative stress diseases.

  19. Ice slurry ingestion does not enhance self-paced intermittent exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrett, N; Jackson, S; Yates, J; Thomas, G

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to determine if ice slurry ingestion improved self-paced intermittent exercise in the heat. After a familiarisation session, 12 moderately trained males (30.4 ± 3.4 year, 1.8 ± 0.1 cm, 73.5 ± 14.3 kg, V˙O 2max 58.5 ± 8.1 mL/kg/min) completed two separate 31 min self-paced intermittent protocols on a non-motorised treadmill in 30.9 ± 0.9 °C, 41.1 ± 4.0% RH. Thirty minutes prior to exercise, participants consumed either 7.5 g/kg ice slurry (0.1 ± 0.1 °C) (ICE) or 7.5 g/kg water (23.4 ± 0.9 °C) (CONTROL). Despite reductions in T c (ΔT c : -0.51 ± 0.3 °C, P exercise, ICE did not enhance self-paced intermittent exercise compared to CONTROL. The average speed during the walk (CONTROL: 5.90 ± 1.0 km, ICE: 5.90 ± 1.0 km), jog (CONTROL: 8.89 ± 1.7 km, ICE: 9.11 ± 1.5 km), run (CONTROL: 12.15 ± 1.7 km, ICE: 12.54 ± 1.5 km) and sprint (CONTROL: 17.32 ± 1.3 km, ICE: 17.18 ± 1.4 km) was similar between conditions (P > 0.05). Mean T sk , T b , blood lactate, heart rate and RPE were similar between conditions (P > 0.05). The findings suggest that lowering T c prior to self-paced intermittent exercise does not translate into an improved performance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Phlebotomy eliminates the maximal cardiac output response to six weeks of exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonne, Thomas Christian; Doucende, Gregory; Flück, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    With this study we tested the hypothesis that six weeks of endurance training increases maximal cardiac output (Qmax) relatively more by elevating blood volume (BV) than by inducing structural and functional changes within the heart. Nine healthy but untrained volunteers (VO2max 47 ± 5 ml.min(-1......).kg(-1)) underwent supervised training (60 min; 4 times weekly at 65% VO2max for six weeks) and Qmax was determined by inert gas re-breathing during cycle ergometer exercise before and after the training period. After the training period, blood volume (determined in duplicates by CO re......-breathing) was re-established to pre-training values by phlebotomy and Qmax was quantified again. Resting echography revealed no structural heart adaptations as a consequence of the training intervention. Following the training period, plasma volume (PV), red blood cell volume (RBCV) and BV increased (p...

  1. Individual Variability in Aerobic Fitness Adaptations to 70-d of Bed Rest and Exercise Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Meghan; Buxton, Roxanne; Goetchius, Elizabeth; DeWitt, John; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Change in maximal aerobic capacity (VO2pk) in response to exercise training and disuse is highly variable among individuals. Factors that could contribute to the observed variability (lean mass, daily activity, diet, sleep, stress) are not routinely controlled in studies. The NASA bed rest (BR) studies use a highly controlled hospital based model as an analog of spaceflight. In this study, diet, hydration, physical activity and light/dark cycles were precisely controlled and provided the opportunity to investigate individual variability. PURPOSE. Evaluate the contribution of exercise intensity and lean mass on change in VO2pk during 70-d of BR or BR + exercise. METHODS. Subjects completed 70-d of BR alone (CON, N=9) or BR + exercise (EX, N=17). The exercise prescription included 6 d/wk of aerobic exercise at 70 - 100% of max and 3 d/wk of lower body resistance exercise. Subjects were monitored 24 hr/d. VO2pk and lean mass (iDXA) were measured pre and post BR. ANOVA was used to evaluate changes in VO2pk pre to post BR. Subjects were retrospectively divided into high and low responders based on change in VO2pk (CON > 20% loss, n=5; EX >10% loss, n=4, or 5% gain, n=4) to further understand individual variability. RESULTS. VO2pk decreased from pre to post BR in CON (Pexercise intensity. CONCLUSION. Change in VO2pk in response to disuse and exercise was highly variable among individuals, even in this tightly controlled study. Loss in lean mass accounts for a significant degree of variability in the CON; however, training induced gains in VO2pk appear unrelated to lean mass or exercise intensity.

  2. Resveratrol modulates the angiogenic response to exercise training in skeletal muscles of aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliemann, Lasse; Olesen, Jesper; Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Akerstrom, Thorbjorn; Nyberg, Michael; Lindqvist, Anna; Bangsbo, Jens; Hellsten, Ylva

    2014-10-15

    In animal studies, the polyphenol resveratrol has been shown to influence several pathways of importance for angiogenesis in skeletal muscle. The aim of the present study was to examine the angiogenic effect of resveratrol supplementation with parallel exercise training in aged men. Forty-three healthy physically inactive aged men (65 ± 1 yr) were divided into 1) a training group that conducted 8 wk of intense exercise training where half of the subjects received a daily intake of either 250 mg trans-resveratrol (n = 14) and the other half received placebo (n = 13) and 2) a nontraining group that received either 250 mg trans-resveratrol (n = 9) or placebo (n = 7). The group that trained with placebo showed a ~20% increase in the capillary-to-fiber ratio, an increase in muscle protein expression of VEGF, VEGF receptor-2, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) but unaltered thrombospodin-1 levels. Muscle interstitial VEGF and thrombospodin-1 protein levels were unchanged after the training period. The group that trained with resveratrol supplementation did not show an increase in the capillary-to-fiber ratio or an increase in muscle VEGF protein. Muscle TIMP-1 protein levels were lower in the training and resveratrol group than in the training and placebo group. Both training groups showed an increase in forkhead box O1 protein. In nontraining groups, TIMP-1 protein was lower in the resveratrol-treated group than the placebo-treated group after 8 wk. In conclusion, these data show that exercise training has a strong angiogenic effect, whereas resveratrol supplementation may limit basal and training-induced angiogenesis. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Responsiveness to exercise training in juvenile dermatomyositis: a twin case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roschel Hamilton

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM often present strong exercise intolerance and muscle weakness. However, the role of exercise training in this disease has not been investigated. Purpose this longitudinal case study reports on the effects of exercise training on a 7-year-old patient with JDM and on her unaffected monozygotic twin sister, who served as a control. Methods Both the patient who was diagnosed with JDM as well as her healthy twin underwent a 16-week exercise training program comprising aerobic and strengthening exercises. We assessed one repetition-maximum (1-RM leg-press and bench-press strength, balance, mobility and muscle function, blood markers of inflammation and muscle enzymes, aerobic conditioning, and disease activity scores. As a result, the healthy child had an overall greater absolute strength, muscle function and aerobic conditioning compared to her JDM twin pair at baseline and after the trial. However, the twins presented comparable relative improvements in 1-RM bench press, 1-RM leg press, VO2peak, and time-to-exhaustion. The healthy child had greater relative increments in low-back strength and handgrip, whereas the child with JDM presented a higher relative increase in ventilatory anaerobic threshold parameters and functional tests. Quality of life, inflammation, muscle damage and disease activity scores remained unchanged. Results and Conclusion this was the first report to describe the training response of a patient with non-active JDM following an exercise training regimen. The child with JDM exhibited improved strength, muscle function and aerobic conditioning without presenting an exacerbation of the disease.

  4. Effect of aerobic exercise training on fatigue and physical activity in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Ali A; Chin, Lisa M K; Keyser, Randall E; Kennedy, Michelle; Nathan, Steven D; Woolstenhulme, Joshua G; Connors, Gerilynn; Chan, Leighton

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of an exercise intervention for decreasing fatigue severity and increasing physical activity in individuals with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). A small, phase 2 randomized clinical trial of the effect of aerobic exercise training on fatigue severity and physical activity in patients with idiopathic or PAH associated with other conditions was conducted. Twenty-four patients with PAH (24 female; age: 54.4 ± 10.4 years; BMI: 30.8 ± 7.2 kg/m(2)) participated in the study. A convenience sample was recruited in which 9% (28 of 303) of screened patients were enrolled. The project was carried out in a clinical pulmonary rehabilitation clinic during existing pulmonary rehabilitation program sessions. Patients with PH were randomized into a 10-week program that consisted of patient education only or patient education plus an aerobic exercise-training regimen. Both groups received 20 lectures, two per week over the 10-weeks, on topics related to PAH and its management. The aerobic exercise training consisted of 24-30 sessions of treadmill walking for 30-45 min per session at an intensity of 70-80% of heart rate reserve, three days per week over the 10 weeks. After 10-weeks of intervention, patients receiving aerobic exercise training plus education reported routinely engaging in higher levels of physical activity (p decrease in fatigue severity (p = 0.03). Patients in the education only group did not report changes in fatigue severity or participation in physical activity. The 10-week aerobic exercise training intervention resulted in increased physical activity and decreased fatigue in individuals with PAH. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00678821. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Remote Adaptive Motor Resistance Training Exercise Apparatus and Method of Use Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Alton (Inventor); Shaw, James (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The invention comprises a method and/or an apparatus using a computer configured exercise system equipped with an electric motor to provide physical resistance to user motion in conjunction with means for sharing exercise system related data and/or user performance data with a secondary user, such as a medical professional, a physical therapist, a trainer, a computer generated competitor, and/or a human competitor. For example, the exercise system is used with a remote trainer to enhance exercise performance, with a remote medical professional for rehabilitation, and/or with a competitor in a competition, such as in a power/weightlifting competition or in a video game. The exercise system is optionally configured with an intelligent software assistant and knowledge navigator functioning as a personal assistant application.

  6. Caffeine ingestion enhances perceptual responses during intermittent exercise in female team-game players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ajmol; O'Donnell, Jemma; Von Hurst, Pamela; Foskett, Andrew; Holland, Sherina; Starck, Carlene; Rutherfurd-Markwick, Kay

    2016-01-01

    We examined the influence of caffeine supplementation on cognitive performance and perceptual responses in female team-game players taking low-dose monophasic oral contraceptives of the same hormonal composition. Ten females (24 ± 4 years; 59.7 ± 3.5 kg body mass; 2-6 training sessions per week) took part in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover-design trial. A 90-min intermittent treadmill-running protocol was completed 60 min following ingestion of a capsule containing either 6 mg • kg(-1) anhydrous caffeine or artificial sweetener (placebo). Perceptual responses (ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), feeling scale (FS), felt arousal scale (FAS)), mood (profile of mood states (POMS)) and cognitive performance (Stroop test, choice reaction time (CRT)) were completed before, during and after the exercise protocol, as well as after ~12 h post exercise. Caffeine ingestion significantly enhanced the ratings of pleasure (P = 0.008) and arousal (P = 0.002) during the exercise protocol, as well as increased vigour (POMS; P = 0.007), while there was a tendency for reduced fatigue (POMS; P = 0.068). Caffeine ingestion showed a tendency to decrease RPE (P = 0.068) and improve reaction times in the Stroop (P = 0.072) and CRT (P = 0.087) tests. Caffeine supplementation showed a positive effect on perceptual parameters by increasing vigour and a tendency to decrease fatigue during intermittent running activity in female games players taking low-dose monophasic oral contraceptive steroids (OCS).

  7. Local vibration enhanced the efficacy of passive exercise on mitigating bone loss in hindlimb unloading rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunfei; Luan, Huiqin; Sun, Lianwen; Bi, Jingfang; Wang, Ying; Fan, Yubo

    2017-08-01

    Spaceflight induced bone loss is seriously affecting astronauts. Mechanical stimulation from exercise has been shown to restrain bone resorption as well as improve bone formation. Current exercise countermeasures in space cannot prevent it completely. Active exercise may convert to passive exercise in some ways because of the loss of gravity stimulus and inertia of exercise equipment. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of passive exercise or/and local vibration on counteracting the deterioration of the musculoskeletal system, including bone, muscle and tendons in tail-suspended rats. We hypothesized that local vibration could enhance the efficacy of passive exercise on countering bone loss. 40 Sprague Dawley rats were randomly distributed into five groups (n = 8, each): tail-suspension (TS), TS+35 Hz vibration (TSV), TS + passive exercise (TSP), TS + passive exercise coupled with 35 Hz vibration (TSPV) and control (CON). Passive exercise or/and local vibration was performed for 21 days. On day 0 and 21, bone mineral density (BMD) was observed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and trabecular microstructure was evaluated by microcomputer tomography (μCT) analysis in vivo. Mechanical properties of tibia and tendon were determined by a mechanical testing system. Soleus and bone ash weight was tested by an electronic balance. Results showed that the passive exercise could not prevent the decrease of trabecular BMD, microstructure and bone ash weight induced by TS, whereas vibration and passive exercise coupled with local vibration (PV) could. Biomechanical properties of the tibia and tendon in TSPV group significantly increased compared with TS group. In summary, PV in this study was the best method in preventing weightlessness-induced bone loss. Consistent with our hypothesis, local vibration partly enhanced the effect of passive exercise. Furthermore, this study will be useful in improving countermeasure for astronauts, but also for the

  8. Making Olympic lizards: the effects of specialised exercise training on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husak, Jerry F; Keith, Allison R; Wittry, Beth N

    2015-03-01

    Exercise training is well known to affect a suite of physiological and performance traits in mammals, but effects of training in other vertebrate tetrapod groups have been inconsistent. We examined performance and physiological differences among green anole lizards (Anolis carolinensis) that were trained for sprinting or endurance, using an increasingly rigorous training regimen over 8 weeks. Lizards trained for endurance had significantly higher post-training endurance capacity compared with the other treatment groups, but groups did not show post-training differences in sprint speed. Although acclimation to the laboratory environment and training explain some of our results, mechanistic explanations for these results correspond with the observed performance differences. After training, endurance-trained lizards had higher haematocrit and larger fast glycolytic muscle fibres. Despite no detectable change in maximal performance of sprint-trained lizards, we detected that they had significantly larger slow oxidative muscle fibre areas compared with the other treatments. Treatment groups did not differ in the proportion of number of fibre types, nor in the mass of most limb muscles or the heart. Our results offer some caveats for investigators conducting training research on non-model organisms and they reveal that muscle plasticity in response to training may be widespread phylogenetically. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Combined aerobic and resistance exercise training decreases peripheral but not central artery wall thickness in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, T.H.A.; Munckhof, I.C.L. van de