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Sample records for exercise related leg

  1. Exercise Related Leg Pain (ERLP): a Review of The Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Reinking, Mark F.

    2007-01-01

    Exercise related leg pain (ERLP) is a regional pain syndrome described as pain between the knee and ankle which occurs with exercise. Indiscriminant use of terminology such as “shin splints” has resulted in ongoing confusion regarding the pathoanatomic entities associated with this pain syndrome. Each of the pathoanatomic entities – medial tibial stress syndrome, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, tibial and fibular stress fractures, tendinopathy, nerve entrapment, and vascular patholog...

  2. Exercise Related Leg Pain (ERLP): a Review of The Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinking, Mark F

    2007-08-01

    Exercise related leg pain (ERLP) is a regional pain syndrome described as pain between the knee and ankle which occurs with exercise. Indiscriminant use of terminology such as "shin splints" has resulted in ongoing confusion regarding the pathoanatomic entities associated with this pain syndrome. Each of the pathoanatomic entities - medial tibial stress syndrome, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, tibial and fibular stress fractures, tendinopathy, nerve entrapment, and vascular pathology - which manifest as ERLP are each described in terms of relevant anatomy, epidemiology, clinical presentation, associated pathomechanics, and intervention strategies. Evidence regarding risk factors for ERLP general and specific pathoanatomic entities are presented in the context of models of sports injury prevention.

  3. Exercise-related leg pain in female collegiate athletes: the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinking, Mark F

    2006-09-01

    Exercise-related leg pain is a common complaint among athletes, but there is little evidence regarding risk factors for this condition in female collegiate athletes. To examine prospectively the effect of selected extrinsic and intrinsic factors on the development of exercise-related leg pain in female collegiate athletes. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Subjects were 76 female collegiate athletes participating in fall season sports, including cross-country running, field hockey, soccer, and volleyball. Athletes were seen for a pre-season examination that included measures of height, weight, foot pronation, and calf muscle length as well as a questionnaire for disordered eating behaviors. Body mass index was calculated from height and weight (kg/m(2)). Those athletes who developed exercise-related leg pain during the season were seen for follow-up. All athletes who developed the condition and a matched group without such leg pain underwent bone mineral density and body composition testing. Statistical analyses of differences and relationships were conducted. Of the 76 athletes, 58 (76%) reported a history of exercise-related leg pain, and 20 (26%) reported occurrence of exercise-related leg pain during the season. A history of this condition was strongly associated with its occurrence during the season (odds ratio, 13.2). Exercise-related leg pain was most common among field hockey and cross-country athletes and least common among soccer players. There were no differences between athletes with and without such leg pain regarding age, muscle length, self-reported eating behaviors, body mass index, menstrual function, or bone mineral density. Athletes with exercise-related leg pain had significantly (P sport, and a history of this condition, that are associated with an increased risk of exercise-related leg pain.

  4. Spinal manipulation and home exercise with advice for subacute and chronic back-related leg pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bronfort, Gert; Hondras, Maria; Schulz, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Back-related leg pain (BRLP) is often disabling and costly, and there is a paucity of research to guide its management. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) plus home exercise and advice (HEA) compared with HEA alone reduces leg pain in the short and long...... of SMT plus HEA or HEA alone. MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcome was patient-rated BRLP at 12 and 52 weeks. Secondary outcomes were self-reported low back pain, disability, global improvement, satisfaction, medication use, and general health status at 12 and 52 weeks. Blinded objective tests were done...... at 12 weeks. RESULTS: Of the 192 enrolled patients, 191 (99%) provided follow-up data at 12 weeks and 179 (93%) at 52 weeks. For leg pain, SMT plus HEA had a clinically important advantage over HEA (difference, 10 percentage points [95% CI, 2 to 19]; P = 0.008) at 12 weeks but not at 52 weeks...

  5. [Athletes with exercise-related pain at the medial side of the lower leg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartgens, F; Hoogeveen, A R; Brink, P R G

    2008-08-16

    Two patients were diagnosed with exercise-related pain at the medial side of the lower leg. The first patient, an 18-year-old woman who had expanded her athletic activities extensively, had developed pain at the inner side of the distal third portion of the left lower leg. She showed over-pronation of the ankle during running. A 3-phase bone scintigram revealed diffuse uptake of the tracer covering a large portion of the medial tibia margin. Based on this evidence, a diagnosis of periostalgia was made. She recovered after a period of relative calf massages and used insoles. The second patient was a 28-year-old male endurance runner who developed pain at the medial shin after intensifying his training regimen. The periods without pain during running became increasingly shorter, and the medial side of the lower leg became sore and tense. Intracompartmental pressure measurements indicated exercise-related posterior deep compartment syndrome of the calf. The patient recovered after fasciotomy. In athletes, exercise-related symptoms of the medial side of the lower leg can be usually attributed to the tibial periosteum or tendons of the deep calfmusculature, tibial stress reaction or fracture, or a compartment syndrome of the deep calf. Surgery is indicated for chronic compartment syndrome, but conservative therapy provides favourable outcomes in the other types of disorders. The optimal conservative therapeutic approach is unknown, but it is advisable to temporary reduce symptom-provoking athletic activity and modify any risk factors present. Ankle over-pronation during running is considered a very relevant intrinsic risk factor.

  6. Prevention and treatment of exercise related leg pain in young soldiers; a review of the literature and current practice in the Dutch Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Wes O; Helmhout, P H; Beutler, A

    2017-04-01

    Overuse injuries of the leg are a common problem for young soldiers. This article reviews the literature concerning the prevention and treatment of exercise related leg pain in military settings and presents the latest developments in proposed mechanisms and treatments. Current practice and treatment protocols from the Dutch Armed Forces are reviewed, with an emphasis on the most prevalent conditions of medial tibial stress syndrome and chronic exertional compartment syndrome. The conclusion is that exercise related leg pain in the military is an occupational problem that deserves further study. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. The relationship between isotonic plantar flexor endurance, navicular drop, and exercise-related leg pain in a cohort of collegiate cross-country runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jason E; Reinking, Mark F; Rauh, Mitchell J

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between isotonic ankle plantar flexor endurance (PFE), foot pronation as measured by navicular drop, and exercise-related leg pain (ERLP). Exercise-related leg pain is a common occurrence in competitive and recreational runners. The identification of factors contributing to the development of ERLP may help guide methods for the prevention and management of overuse injuries. Seventy-seven (44 males, 33 females) competitive runners from five collegiate cross-country (XC) teams consented to participate in the study. Isotonic ankle PFE and foot pronation were measured using the standing heel-rise and navicular drop (ND) tests, respectively. Demographic information, anthropometric measurements, and ERLP history were also recorded. Subjects were then prospectively tracked for occurrence of ERLP during the 2009 intercollegiate cross-country season. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between isotonic ankle joint PFE and ND and the occurrence of ERLP. While no significant differences were identified for isotonic ankle PFE between groups of collegiate XC runners with and without ERLP, runners with a ND >10 mm were almost 7 times (OR=6.6, 95% CI=1.2-38.0) more likely to incur medial ERLP than runners with ND risk factor in the development of ERLP in this group of collegiate XC runners, those with a ND greater than 10 mm may be at greater odds of incurring medial ERLP. 2b.

  8. Chronic Exercise-Induced Leg Pain in Active People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, L C; Baxter, D E; Clanton, T O; Sammarco, G J

    1992-01-01

    In brief "Shin splints" is a catchall term for any kind persistent exercise-related lower leg pain with no obvious cause. Such pain can originate from a number of conditions, such as medial tibial stress syndrome, stress fracture, compartment syndrome, vascular pathology, nerve entrapment, and others. A methodical work-up designed to detect problems in all anatomic structures from bone to skin will narrow the possibilities and lay the basis for appropriate treatment.

  9. Why do arms extract less oxygen than legs during exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Holmberg, H-C; Rosdahl, H

    2005-01-01

    % maximal O2 uptake (V(O2)max) and at V(O2)max with different techniques: diagonal stride (combined arm and leg exercise), double poling (predominantly arm exercise), and leg skiing (predominantly leg exercise). The percentage of O2 extraction was always higher for the legs than for the arms. At maximal...... exercise (diagonal stride), the corresponding mean values were 93 and 85% (n = 3; P extraction correlated with the P(O2) value that causes hemoglobin to be 50% saturated (P50: r = 0.93, P extraction was always higher......Hg, respectively. Because conditions for O2 off-loading from the hemoglobin are similar in leg and arm muscles, the observed differences in maximal arm and leg O2 extraction should be attributed to other factors, such as a higher heterogeneity in blood flow distribution, shorter mean transit time, smaller...

  10. What do patients value about spinal manipulation and home exercise for back-related leg pain? A qualitative study within a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiers, Michele; Hondras, Maria A; Salsbury, Stacie A; Bronfort, Gert; Evans, Roni

    2016-12-01

    Patient perceptions may influence the effectiveness and utilization of healthcare interventions, particularly for complex health conditions such as sciatica or back-related leg pain (BRLP). To explore BRLP patients' perceptions of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) and home exercise with advice (HEA). Qualitative study in a controlled clinical trial. Semi-structured interviews conducted after 12 weeks of treatment asked participants about satisfaction with care and whether treatment was worthwhile. An interdisciplinary research team conducted content analysis using qualitative data analysis software to identify and summarize themes. Of 192 trial participants, 174 (91%) completed interviews (66% female, age 57.0 ± 11.5 years). Participants identified interactions with providers and staff, perceived treatment effects, and information as key contributors to both their satisfaction and the worthwhile nature of treatment. HEA was liked for its convenience and ability to foster an exercise habit. SMT was liked for specific aspects of the modality (e.g. manipulation, stretching) and provider competency. Most participants reported no dislikes for SMT or HEA, but some noted the dose/time commitment for SMT and discipline of HEA as least liked aspects of the interventions. The quality of patient-provider interactions, perceived treatment effects, and information sharing influenced BRLP patients' satisfaction with care. Qualitative research describing patients' preferences can facilitate translation of study findings into practice and allow clinicians to tailor treatments to facilitate compliance and satisfaction with care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Immediate effects of the trunk stabilizing exercise on static balance parameters in double-leg and one-leg stances

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jwa-jun; Park, Se-yeon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of stabilizing exercise using the PNF technique on standing balance in one-leg and double-leg stances. [Subjects and Methods] The present study recruited 34 healthy participants from a local university. The Participants performed four balance tests (double-leg stance with and without vision, one-leg stance with and without vision), before and after exercise. The exercise consisted of exercises performed using PNF techniq...

  12. What do patients value about spinal manipulation and home exercise for back-related leg pain? A qualitative study within a controlled clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiers, M.; Hondras, M. A.; Salsbury, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient perceptions may influence the effectiveness and utilization of healthcare interventions, particularly for complex health conditions such as sciatica or back-related leg pain (BRLP). Objectives To explore BRLP patients’ perceptions of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) and home...

  13. One-legged endurance training: leg blood flow and oxygen extraction during cycling exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rud, B; Foss, O; Krustrup, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Aim: As a consequence of enhanced local vascular conductance, perfusion of muscles increases with exercise intensity to suffice the oxygen demand. However, when maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2) max) and cardiac output are approached, the increase in conductance is blunted. Endurance training increases...... muscle metabolic capacity, but to what extent that affects the regulation of muscle vascular conductance during exercise is unknown. Methods: Seven weeks of one-legged endurance training was carried out by twelve subjects. Pulmonary VO(2) during cycling and one-legged cycling was tested before and after...... training, while VO(2) of the trained leg (TL) and control leg (CL) during cycling was determined after training. Results: VO(2) max for cycling was unaffected by training, although one-legged VO(2) max became 6.7 (2.3)% (mean ± SE) larger with TL than with CL. Also TL citrate synthase activity was higher...

  14. Exercise testing of leg amputees and the result of prosthetic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Alsté, J A; Cruts, H E; Huisman, K; de Vries, J

    1985-01-01

    Thirty-nine patients undergoing rehabilitation following leg amputation were examined to determine cardiac status, which included clinical examination and a graded exercise ECG test, using an arm ergometer. Results were compared to final walking ability. It was found that the cardiac status of these patients was generally poor and that the exercise ECG results did co-relate to walking ability.

  15. Immediate effects of the trunk stabilizing exercise on static balance parameters in double-leg and one-leg stances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jwa-Jun; Park, Se-Yeon

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of stabilizing exercise using the PNF technique on standing balance in one-leg and double-leg stances. [Subjects and Methods] The present study recruited 34 healthy participants from a local university. The Participants performed four balance tests (double-leg stance with and without vision, one-leg stance with and without vision), before and after exercise. The exercise consisted of exercises performed using PNF techniques (stabilizing reversal and rhythmic stabilization), which were applied to facilitate trunk musculature. To examine balance ability, total displacement of the center of pressure was measured during balance tests. [Results] The total anterior-posterior center of pressure displacement was significantly reduced after applying rhythmic stabilization compared before exercise regardless of the balance test conditions. [Conclusion] The present results suggest that trunk stability exercise using rhythmic stabilization could effectively enhance balance ability under one-leg and double-leg conditions.

  16. Leg and arm lactate and substrate kinetics during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Jensen-Urstad, M; Rosdahl, H

    2003-01-01

    To study the role of muscle mass and muscle activity on lactate and energy kinetics during exercise, whole body and limb lactate, glucose, and fatty acid fluxes were determined in six elite cross-country skiers during roller-skiing for 40 min with the diagonal stride (Continuous Arm + Leg) followed...... by 10 min of double poling and diagonal stride at 72-76% maximal O(2) uptake. A high lactate appearance rate (R(a), 184 +/- 17 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1)) but a low arterial lactate concentration ( approximately 2.5 mmol/l) were observed during Continuous Arm + Leg despite a substantial net lactate...... release by the arm of approximately 2.1 mmol/min, which was balanced by a similar net lactate uptake by the leg. Whole body and limb lactate oxidation during Continuous Arm + Leg was approximately 45% at rest and approximately 95% of disappearance rate and limb lactate uptake, respectively. Limb lactate...

  17. THE EFFECTS OF SINGLE LEG HOP PROGRESSION AND DOUBLE LEGS HOP PROGRESSION EXERCISE TO INCREASE SPEED AND EXPLOSIVE POWER OF LEG MUSCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nining W. Kusnanik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of single leg hop progression and double legs hop progression exercise to increase speed and explosive power of leg muscles. Plyometric is one of the training methods that can increase explosive power. There are many models of plyometric training including single leg hop progression and double leg hop progression. This research was experimental using match subject design techniques. The subjects of this study were 39 students who joined basketball school club. There were 3 groups in this study: Group 1 were 13 students who given sin¬gle leg hop progression exercise, Group 2 were 13 students who given double legs hop progression exercise, Group 3 were 13 students who given conventional exercise. The data was collected during pre test and post test by testing 30m speed running and vertical jump. The data was analyzed using Analysis of Varians (Anova. It was found that there were significantly increased on speed and explosive power of leg muscles of Group 1 and Group 2. It can be stated that single leg hop progression exercise was more effective than double leg hop progression exercise. The recent findings supported the hypothesis that single leg hop progression and double legs hop progression exercise can increase speed and explosive power of leg muscles. These finding were supported by some previous studies (Singh, et al, 2011; Shallaby, H.K., 2010. The single leg hop progression is more effective than double legs hop progression. This finding was consistent with some previous evidences (McCurdy, et al, 2005; Makaruk et al, 2011.

  18. Pulmonary and leg VO2 during submaximal exercise: implications for muscular efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, D. C.; Gaesser, G. A.; Hogan, M. C.; Knight, D. R.; Wagner, P. D.

    1992-01-01

    Insights into muscle energetics during exercise (e.g., muscular efficiency) are often inferred from measurements of pulmonary gas exchange. This procedure presupposes that changes of pulmonary O2 (VO2) associated with increases of external work reflect accurately the increased muscle VO2. The present investigation addressed this issue directly by making simultaneous determinations of pulmonary and leg VO2 over a range of work rates calculated to elicit 20-90% of maximum VO2 on the basis of prior incremental (25 or 30 W/min) cycle ergometry. VO2 for both legs was calculated as the product of twice one-leg blood flow (constant-infusion thermodilution) and arteriovenous O2 content difference across the leg. Measurements were made 3-5 min after each work rate imposition to avoid incorporation of the VO2 slow component above the lactate threshold. For all 17 subjects, the slope of pulmonary VO2 (9.9 +/- 0.2 ml O2.W-1.min-1) was not different (P greater than 0.05) from that for leg VO2 (9.2 +/- 0.6 ml O2.W-1.min-1). Estimation of "delta" efficiency (i.e., delta work accomplished divided by delta energy expended, calculated from slope of VO2 vs. work rate and a caloric equivalent for O2 of 4.985 cal/ml) using pulmonary VO2 measurements (29.1 +/- 0.6%) was likewise not significantly different (P greater than 0.05) from that made using leg VO2 measurements (33.7 +/- 2.4%). These data suggest that the net VO2 cost of metabolic "support" processes outside the exercising legs changes little over a relatively broad range of exercise intensities. Thus, under the conditions of this investigation, changes of VO2 measured from expired gas reflected closely those occurring within the exercising legs.

  19. Prior exercise and standing as strategies to circumvent sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Morishima, Takuma; Restaino, Robert M.; Walsh, Lauren K.; Kanaley, Jill A.; Padilla, Jaume

    2017-01-01

    We have previously shown that local heating or leg fidgeting can prevent prolonged sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction. However, whether physical activity prevents subsequent sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction remains unknown. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction would be prevented by prior exercise. We also examined if, in the absence of exercise, standing is an effective alternative strategy to sitting for conserving leg endothel...

  20. The perspectives of adults with venous leg ulcers on exercise: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, J; Finlayson, K; Kerr, G; Edwards, H

    2014-10-01

    Exercise has the potential to offer a range of health benefits in addition to improving healing outcomes for people with venous leg ulcers (VLUs). However, despite evidence-based recommendations, most of these individuals do not engage in regular exercise. The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of the perspectives of adults with VLUs, in relation to exercise. This was a qualitative design using semi-structured interviews and discussions. Ten participants with venous leg ulceration volunteered to participate. Recruitment was through a specialist wound clinic. Verbatim data were collected by an experienced moderator using a semi-structured guide. Data saturation was reached after three group discussions and two interviews. A random selection of transcripts was sent back to the participants for verification. Thematic content analysis was used to determine major themes and categories. Two transcripts were independently analysed, categories and themes independently developed, cross checked and found comparable. Remaining transcripts were analysed using the developed categories and codes. Regardless of their current exercise routine, participants reported exercising before venous leg ulceration and expressed an interest in either becoming active or maintaining an active lifestyle. Overall, four themes emerged from the findings: i) participant understanding of the relationship between chronic venous insufficiency and exercise patterns; ii) fear of harm impacts upon positive beliefs and attitudes to exercise; iii) perceived factors limit exercise; and iv) structured management facilitates exercise. The value of exercise in improving outcomes in VLUs lies in its capacity to promote venous return and reduce the risk of secondary conditions in this population. Despite motivation and interest in being exercise active, people with VLUs report many obstacles. Further exploration of mechanisms that assist this patient population and promote understanding about

  1. Postprandial triacylglycerol uptake in the legs is increased during exercise and post-exercise recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, L H; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2005-01-01

    exercising on a cycle ergometer for 60 min at 50% of the peak oxygen consumption commencing 60 min after the meal (M-->E) and then for another 240 min. Regional metabolism was measured by Fick's Principle in a leg and in the splanchnic tissue. The combination of food intake and exercise led to increased...

  2. Double-leg isometric exercise training in older men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baross AW

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthony W Baross,1 Jonathan D Wiles,2 Ian L Swaine21Sport and Exercise Science, University of Northampton, Northampton, UK; 2Sport and Exercise Science, Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, Kent, UKAbstract: Double-leg isometric training has been demonstrated to reduce resting blood pressure in young men when using electromyographic activity (EMG to regulate exercise intensity. This study assessed this training method in healthy older (45–60 years. men. Initially, 35 older men performed an incremental isometric exercise test to determine the linearity of the heart rate versus percentage peak EMG (%EMGpeak and systolic blood pressure versus %EMGpeak relationship. Thereafter, 20 participants were allocated to a training or control group. The training group performed three double-leg isometric sessions per week for 8 weeks, at 85% of peak heart rate. The training resulted in a significant reduction in resting systolic (11 ± 8 mmHg, P < 0.05 and mean arterial (5 ± 7 mmHg, P < 0.05 blood pressure. There was no significant change in resting systolic blood pressure for the control group or diastolic blood pressure in either group (all P > 0.05. These findings show that this training method, used previously in young men, is also effective in reducing resting systolic and mean arterial blood pressure in older men.Keywords: electromyography, resting blood pressure, heart rate

  3. Evaluating the effectiveness of a self-management exercise intervention on wound healing, functional ability and health-related quality of life outcomes in adults with venous leg ulcers: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jane; Finlayson, Kathleen; Kerr, Graham; Edwards, Helen

    2017-02-01

    Exercise that targets ankle joint mobility may lead to improvement in calf muscle pump function and subsequent healing. The objectives of this research were to assess the impact of an exercise intervention in addition to routine evidence-based care on the healing rates, functional ability and health-related quality of life for adults with venous leg ulcers (VLUs). This study included 63 patients with VLUs. Patients were randomised to receive either a 12-week exercise intervention with a telephone coaching component or usual care plus telephone calls at the same timepoints. The primary outcome evaluated the effectiveness of the intervention in relation to wound healing. The secondary outcomes evaluated physical activity, functional ability and health-related quality of life measures between groups at the end of the 12 weeks. A per protocol analysis complemented the effectiveness (intention-to-treat) analysis to highlight the importance of adherence to an exercise intervention. Intention-to-treat analyses for the primary outcome showed 77% of those in the intervention group healed by 12 weeks compared to 53% of those in the usual care group. Although this difference was not statistically significant due to a smaller than expected sample size, a 24% difference in healing rates could be considered clinically significant. The per protocol analysis for wound healing, however, showed that those in the intervention group who adhered to the exercise protocol 75% or more of the time were significantly more likely to heal and showed higher rates for wound healing than the control group (P = 0·01), that is, 95% of those who adhered in the intervention group healed in 12 weeks. The secondary outcomes of physical activity, functional ability and health-related quality of life were not significantly altered by the intervention. Among the secondary outcomes (physical activity, functional ability and health-related quality of life), intention-to-treat analyses did not support the

  4. Intramuscular deoxygenation during exercise in patients who have chronic anterior compartment syndrome of the leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, L. R.; Styf, J. R.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.; Gershuni, D. H.

    1997-01-01

    Currently, the definitive diagnosis of chronic compartment syndrome is based on invasive measurements of intracompartmental pressure. We measured the intramuscular pressure and the relative oxygenation in the anterior compartment of the leg in eighteen patients who were suspected of having chronic compartment syndrome as well as in ten control subjects before, during, and after exercise. Chronic compartment syndrome was considered to be present if the intramuscular pressure was at least fifteen millimeters of mercury (2.00 kilopascals) before exercise, at least thirty millimeters of mercury (4.00 kilopascals) one minute after exercise, or at least twenty millimeters of mercury (2.67 kilopascals) five minutes after exercise. Changes in relative oxygenation were measured with use of the non-invasive method of near-infrared spectroscopy. In all patients and subjects, there was rapid relative deoxygenation after the initiation of exercise, the level of oxygenation remained relatively stable during continued exercise, and there was reoxygenation to a level that exceeded the pre-exercise resting level after the cessation of exercise. During exercise, maximum relative deoxygenation in the patients who had chronic compartment syndrome (mean relative deoxygenation [and standard error], -290 +/- 39 millivolts) was significantly greater than that in the patients who did not have chronic compartment syndrome (-190 +/- 10 millivolts) and that in the control subjects (-179 +/- 14 millivolts) (p compartment syndrome (184 +/- 54 seconds) than for the patients who did not have chronic compartment syndrome (39 +/- 19 seconds) and the control subjects (33 +/- 10 seconds) (p < 0.05 for both comparisons).

  5. Regulation of PDH in human arm and leg muscles at rest and during intense exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Kristian; Birk, Jesper Bratz; Damsgaard, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    arm cycling on two occasions and leg cycling exercise on a third day. Muscle biopsies were obtained from deltoid or triceps on the arm exercise days and from vastus lateralis on the leg cycling day. Resting PDH protein content and phosphorylation on PDH-E1 alpha sites 1 and 2 were higher (P

  6. Haemodynamic responses to dehydration in the resting and exercising human leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, James; Kalsi, Kameljit K; Stöhr, Eric J; Low, David A; Barker, Horace; Ali, Leena; González-Alonso, José

    2013-06-01

    Dehydration and hyperthermia reduces leg blood flow (LBF), cardiac output ([Formula: see text]) and arterial pressure during whole-body exercise. It is unknown whether the reductions in blood flow are associated with dehydration-induced alterations in arterial blood oxygen content (C aO2) and O2-dependent signalling. This study investigated the impact of dehydration and concomitant alterations in C aO2 upon LBF and [Formula: see text]. Haemodynamics, arterial and femoral venous blood parameters and plasma [ATP] were measured at rest and during one-legged knee-extensor exercise in 7 males in four conditions: (1) control, (2) mild dehydration, (3) moderate dehydration, and (4) rehydration. Relative to control, C aO2 and LBF increased with dehydration at rest and during exercise (C aO2: from 199 ± 1 to 208 ± 2, and 202 ± 2 to 210 ± 2 ml L(-1) and LBF: from 0.38 ± 0.04 to 0.77 ± 0.09, and 1.64 ± 0.09 to 1.88 ± 0.1 L min(-1), respectively). Similarly, [Formula: see text] was unchanged or increased with dehydration at rest and during exercise, whereas arterial and leg perfusion pressures declined. Following rehydration, C aO2 declined (to 193 ± 2 mL L(-1)) but LBF remained elevated. Alterations in LBF were unrelated to C aO2 (r (2) = 0.13-0.27, P = 0.48-0.64) and plasma [ATP]. These findings suggest dehydration and concomitant alterations in C aO2 do not compromise LBF despite reductions in plasma [ATP]. While an additive or synergistic effect cannot be excluded, reductions in LBF during exercise with dehydration may not necessarily be associated with alterations in C aO2 and/or intravascular [ATP].

  7. Prior exercise and standing as strategies to circumvent sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishima, Takuma; Restaino, Robert M; Walsh, Lauren K; Kanaley, Jill A; Padilla, Jaume

    2017-06-01

    We have previously shown that local heating or leg fidgeting can prevent prolonged sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction. However, whether physical activity prevents subsequent sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction remains unknown. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction would be prevented by prior exercise. We also examined if, in the absence of exercise, standing is an effective alternative strategy to sitting for conserving leg endothelial function. Fifteen young healthy subjects completed three randomized experimental trials: (1) sitting without prior exercise; (2) sitting with prior exercise; and (3) standing without prior exercise. Following baseline popliteal artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) measurements, subjects maintained a supine position for 45 min in the sitting and standing trials, without prior exercise, or performed 45 min of leg cycling before sitting (i.e. sitting with prior exercise trial). Thereafter, subjects were positioned into a seated or standing position, according to the trial, for 3 h. Popliteal artery FMD measures were then repeated. Three hours of sitting without prior exercise caused a significant impairment in popliteal artery FMD (baseline: 3.8±0.5%, post-sitting: 1.5±0.5%, Pexercise (baseline: 3.8±0.5%, post-sitting: 3.6±0.7%, P>0.05). Three hours of standing did not significantly alter popliteal artery FMD (baseline: 4.1±0.4%, post-standing: 4.3±0.4%, P>0.05). In conclusion, prolonged sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction can be prevented by prior aerobic exercise. In addition, in the absence of exercise, standing represents an effective substitute to sitting for preserving leg conduit artery endothelial function. © 2017 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  8. Bed rest attenuates sympathetic and pressor responses to isometric exercise in antigravity leg muscles in humans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atsunori Kamiya; Daisaku Michikami; Tomoke Shiozawa; Satoshi Iwase

    2004-01-01

      Although spaceflight and bed rest are known to cause muscular atrophy in the antigravity muscles of the legs, the changes in sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to exercises using the atrophied...

  9. Bed rest attenuates sympathetic and pressor responses to isometric exercise in antigravity leg muscles in humans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atsunori Kamiya; Daisaku Michikami; Tomoki Shiozawa; Satoshi Iwase; Junichiro Hayano; Toru Kawada; Kenji Sunagawa; Tadaaki Mano

    2004-01-01

    Although spaceflight and bed rest are known to cause muscular atrophy in the antigravity muscles of the legs, the changes in sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to exercises using the atrophied...

  10. Anaerobic energy expenditure and mechanical efficiency during exhaustive leg press exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorostiaga, Esteban M.; Navarro-Amézqueta, Ion; Cusso, Roser

    2010-01-01

    Information about anaerobic energy production and mechanical efficiency that occurs over time during short-lasting maximal exercise is scarce and controversial. Bilateral leg press is an interesting muscle contraction model to estimate anaerobic energy production and mechanical efficiency during ...

  11. Energy metabolism during repeated sets of leg press exercise leading to failure or not

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorostiaga, Esteban M; Navarro-Amézqueta, Ion; Calbet, José A L

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the influence of the number of repetitions per set on power output and muscle metabolism during leg press exercise. Six trained men (age 34 ± 6 yr) randomly performed either 5 sets of 10 repetitions (10REP), or 10 sets of 5 repetitions (5REP) of bilateral leg press exe...

  12. Trunk muscle activation during stabilization exercises with single and double leg support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vaquero, María Pilar; Moreside, Janice M; Brontons-Gil, Evaristo; Peco-González, Noelia; Vera-Garcia, Francisco J

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze trunk muscle activity during bridge style stabilization exercises, when combined with single and double leg support strategies. Twenty-nine healthy volunteers performed bridge exercises in 3 different positions (back, front and side bridges), with and without an elevated leg, and a quadruped exercise with contralateral arm and leg raise ("bird-dog"). Surface EMG was bilaterally recorded from rectus abdominis (RA), external and internal oblique (EO, IO), and erector spinae (ES). Back, front and side bridges primarily activated the ES (approximately 17% MVC), RA (approximately 30% MVC) and muscles required to support the lateral moment (mostly obliques), respectively. Compared with conventional bridge exercises, single leg support produced higher levels of trunk activation, predominantly in the oblique muscles. The bird-dog exercise produced greatest activity in IO on the side of the elevated arm and in the contralateral ES. In conclusion, during a common bridge with double leg support, the antigravity muscles were the most active. When performed with an elevated leg, however, rotation torques increased the activation of the trunk rotators, especially IO. This information may be useful for clinicians and rehabilitation specialists in determining appropriate exercise progression for the trunk stabilizers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of Running Exercise Duration on Leg Muscle Strength among the people Joining Indorunners Bandung Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agaprita Eunike Sirait

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indorunners Bandung is a community for runners that has a routine exercise schedule for running around the city of Bandung. Exercise, like running, if is conducted in an accurate duration may improve physical fitness. One of the aspects of physical fitness is leg muscles strength. Many people fail to fathom the importance of exercise duration, so, they fail to get the benefit. The aim of this study was to discover the impact of running exercise duration on leg muscles strength among the people joining Indorunners Bandung community. Methods: A comparative study was conducted to 41 people, 31 males and 10 females, of Indorunners Bandung community from September to November 2015. Each participant filled a questionnaire about his/her personal data, and then was grouped by his/her duration of exercise per week, which were 150 minutes/week, 150–299 minutes/week, and 300 minutes/week or more. The respondents were measured for their leg muscles strength. The data collected were analyzed using ANOVA test. Results: There was significant difference of lower extremities muscle strength both in men (p<0.001 and women (p=0.029. These results showed that there was a difference in leg muscles strength among the people joining Indorunners Bandung community with different exercise duration per week. Conclusions: There is a difference in leg muscles strength among the people joining Indorunners Bandung community with different exercise duration per week.

  14. Bed rest attenuates sympathetic and pressor responses to isometric exercise in antigravity leg muscles in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Atsunori; Michikami, Daisaku; Shiozawa, Tomoki; Iwase, Satoshi; Hayano, Junichiro; Kawada, Toru; Sunagawa, Kenji; Mano, Tadaaki

    2004-05-01

    Although spaceflight and bed rest are known to cause muscular atrophy in the antigravity muscles of the legs, the changes in sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to exercises using the atrophied muscles remain unknown. We hypothesized that bed rest would augment sympathetic responses to isometric exercise using antigravity leg muscles in humans. Ten healthy male volunteers were subjected to 14-day 6 degrees head-down bed rest. Before and after bed rest, they performed isometric exercises using leg (plantar flexion) and forearm (handgrip) muscles, followed by 2-min postexercise muscle ischemia (PEMI) that continues to stimulate the muscle metaboreflex. These exercises were sustained to fatigue. We measured muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in the contralateral resting leg by microneurography. In both pre- and post-bed-rest exercise tests, exercise intensities were set at 30 and 70% of the maximum voluntary force measured before bed rest. Bed rest attenuated the increase in MSNA in response to fatiguing plantar flexion by approximately 70% at both exercise intensities (both P antigravity leg muscles.

  15. Passive Leg Raising Correlates with Future Exercise Capacity after Coronary Revascularization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chun Huang

    Full Text Available Hemodynamic properties affected by the passive leg raise test (PLRT reflect cardiac pumping efficiency. In the present study, we aimed to further explore whether PLRT predicts exercise intolerance/capacity following coronary revascularization. Following coronary bypass/percutaneous coronary intervention, 120 inpatients underwent a PLRT and a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET 2-12 days during post-surgery hospitalization and 3-5 weeks after hospital discharge. The PLRT included head-up, leg raise, and supine rest postures. The end point of the first CPET during admission was the supra-ventilatory anaerobic threshold, whereas that during the second CPET in the outpatient stage was maximal performance. Bio-reactance-based non-invasive cardiac output monitoring was employed during PLRT to measure real-time stroke volume and cardiac output. A correlation matrix showed that stroke volume during leg raise (SVLR during the first PLRT was positively correlated (R = 0.653 with the anaerobic threshold during the first CPET. When exercise intolerance was defined as an anaerobic threshold < 3 metabolic equivalents, SVLR / body weight had an area under curve value of 0.822, with sensitivity of 0.954, specificity of 0.593, and cut-off value of 1504·10-3mL/kg (positive predictive value 0.72; negative predictive value 0.92. Additionally, cardiac output during leg raise (COLR during the first PLRT was related to peak oxygen consumption during the second CPET (R = 0.678. When poor aerobic fitness was defined as peak oxygen consumption < 5 metabolic equivalents, COLR / body weight had an area under curve value of 0.814, with sensitivity of 0.781, specificity of 0.773, and a cut-off value of 68.3 mL/min/kg (positive predictive value 0.83; negative predictive value 0.71. Therefore, we conclude that PLRT during hospitalization has a good screening and predictive power for exercise intolerance/capacity in inpatients and early outpatients following coronary

  16. Oral antioxidants improve leg blood flow during exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Matthew J.; Trinity, Joel D.; Garten, Ryan S.; Ives, Stephen J.; Conklin, Jamie D.; Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Witman, Melissa A. H.; Bledsoe, Amber D.; Morgan, David E.; Runnels, Sean; Reese, Van R.; Zhao, Jia; Amann, Markus; Wray, D. Walter

    2015-01-01

    The consequence of elevated oxidative stress on exercising skeletal muscle blood flow as well as the transport and utilization of O2 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not well understood. The present study examined the impact of an oral antioxidant cocktail (AOC) on leg blood flow (LBF) and O2 consumption during dynamic exercise in 16 patients with COPD and 16 healthy subjects. Subjects performed submaximal (3, 6, and 9 W) single-leg knee extensor exercise while LBF (Doppler ultrasound), mean arterial blood pressure, leg vascular conductance, arterial O2 saturation, leg arterial-venous O2 difference, and leg O2 consumption (direct Fick) were evaluated under control conditions and after AOC administration. AOC administration increased LBF (3 W: 1,604 ± 100 vs. 1,798 ± 128 ml/min, 6 W: 1,832 ± 109 vs. 1,992 ± 120 ml/min, and 9W: 2,035 ± 114 vs. 2,187 ± 136 ml/min, P exercise in COPD, whereas no effect was observed in healthy subjects. In addition, the AOC afforded a small, but significant, improvement in arterial O2 saturation only in patients with COPD. Thus, these data demonstrate a novel beneficial role of AOC administration on exercising LBF, O2 consumption, and arterial O2 saturation in patients with COPD, implicating oxidative stress as a potential therapeutic target for impaired exercise capacity in this population. PMID:26188020

  17. Oral antioxidants improve leg blood flow during exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Matthew J; Trinity, Joel D; Garten, Ryan S; Ives, Stephen J; Conklin, Jamie D; Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Witman, Melissa A H; Bledsoe, Amber D; Morgan, David E; Runnels, Sean; Reese, Van R; Zhao, Jia; Amann, Markus; Wray, D Walter; Richardson, Russell S

    2015-09-01

    The consequence of elevated oxidative stress on exercising skeletal muscle blood flow as well as the transport and utilization of O2 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not well understood. The present study examined the impact of an oral antioxidant cocktail (AOC) on leg blood flow (LBF) and O2 consumption during dynamic exercise in 16 patients with COPD and 16 healthy subjects. Subjects performed submaximal (3, 6, and 9 W) single-leg knee extensor exercise while LBF (Doppler ultrasound), mean arterial blood pressure, leg vascular conductance, arterial O2 saturation, leg arterial-venous O2 difference, and leg O2 consumption (direct Fick) were evaluated under control conditions and after AOC administration. AOC administration increased LBF (3 W: 1,604 ± 100 vs. 1,798 ± 128 ml/min, 6 W: 1,832 ± 109 vs. 1,992 ± 120 ml/min, and 9W: 2,035 ± 114 vs. 2,187 ± 136 ml/min, P exercise in COPD, whereas no effect was observed in healthy subjects. In addition, the AOC afforded a small, but significant, improvement in arterial O2 saturation only in patients with COPD. Thus, these data demonstrate a novel beneficial role of AOC administration on exercising LBF, O2 consumption, and arterial O2 saturation in patients with COPD, implicating oxidative stress as a potential therapeutic target for impaired exercise capacity in this population. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Venous leg ulcer patients: a review of the literature on lifestyle and pain-related interventions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, M.M.; Achterberg, T. van; Reimer, W.S. op; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Laat, H.E.W. de

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Having a leg ulcer has a major impact on daily life. Lifestyle is mentioned in most leg ulcer guidelines but mostly without much emphasis on the subject. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Evidence for the effect of nutrition, leg elevation and exercise on the healing of leg ulcers was reconsidered.

  19. An investigation of skin perfusion in venous leg ulcer after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlak, Omar; Aslam, Mohammed; Standfield, Nigel J

    2018-01-01

    A venous leg ulcer (VLU) has a major impact on the quality of life and functional ability of individuals, but no single treatment is yet effective. This study investigates the changes induced by dorsiflexion exercise on skin perfusion in VLU patients to achieve a better understanding of venous ulcer pathophysiology. Seventy-eight venous leg ulcer patients were randomised into four groups. The non-exercise groups included a control group (n = 18) and a compression therapy group (n = 20) and the exercise groups included an exercise-only group (n = 20) and a compression and exercise group (n = 20). The exercise groups were expected to perform exercise for three months. Measurements included transcutaneous oximetry (tcPO 2 ) and laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Skin perfusion measurements for all groups were taken twice: at the beginning and end of the three-month period. Initially, all participants showed a low level of tcPO 2 . The exercise groups showed a significant increase after three months of exercise (pvenous leg ulcer and this effect may play a role in understanding the pathophysiology of VLU.

  20. Effects of ATP-induced leg vasodilation on VO2 peak and leg O2 extraction during maximal exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Lundby, C; Sander, M

    2006-01-01

    During maximal whole body exercise VO2 peak is limited by O2 delivery. In turn, it is though that blood flow at near-maximal exercise must be restrained by the sympathetic nervous system to maintain mean arterial pressure. To determine whether enhancing vasodilation across the leg results in higher......) into the right femoral artery at a rate of 80 microg.kg body mass-1.min-1. During near-maximal exercise (92% of VO2 peak), the infusion of ATP increased leg vascular conductance (+43%, P...... O2 delivery and leg VO2 during near-maximal and maximal exercise in humans, seven men performed two maximal incremental exercise tests on the cycle ergometer. In random order, one test was performed with and one without (control exercise) infusion of ATP (8 mg in 1 ml of isotonic saline solution...

  1. Respiratory-related leg movements and their relationship with periodic leg movements during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manconi, Mauro; Zavalko, Irina; Bassetti, Claudio L; Colamartino, Elisabetta; Pons, Marco; Ferri, Raffaele

    2014-03-01

    To describe the time structure of leg movements (LM) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome, in order to advance understanding of their clinical significance. Sleep Research Centre, Oasi Institute (IRCCS), Troina, Italy. Sleep laboratory. Eighty-four patients (16 females, 68 males, mean age 55.1 y, range 29-74 y). Respiratory-related leg movements (RRLM) and those unrelated to respiratory events (NRLM) were examined within diagnostic polysomnograms alone and together for their distributions within the sleep period and for their periodicity. Patients with OSA and RRLM exhibited more periodic leg movements in sleep (PLMS), particularly in NREM sleep. A gradual decrease in number of NRLM across the sleep period was observed in patients with RRLM. This pattern was less clear for RRLM. Frequency histograms of intermovement intervals of all LMs in patients with RRLM showed a prominent first peak at 4 sec, and a second peak at approximately 24 sec coincident with that of PLMS occurring in the absence of OSA. A third peak of lowest amplitude was the broadest with a maximum at approximately 42 sec. In patients lacking RRLM, NRLM were evident with a single peak at 2-4 sec. A stepwise linear regression analysis showed that, after controlling for a diagnosis of restless legs syndrome and apnea-hypopnea index, PLMS remained significantly associated with RRLM. The time structure of leg movements occurring in conjunction with respiratory events exhibit features of periodic leg movements in sleep occurring alone, only with a different and longer period. This brings into question the validity, both biologic and clinical, of scoring conventions with their a priori exclusion from consideration as periodic leg movements in sleep.

  2. Chair rising exercise is more effective than one-leg standing exercise in improving dynamic body balance: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, F; Iwamoto, J; Osugi, T; Yamazaki, M; Takakuwa, M

    2012-06-01

    A randomized controlled trial was conducted to compare the effect of a one-leg standing exercise and a chair-rising exercise on body balance in patients with locomotive disorders. Thirty ambulatory patients (mean age: 66.6 years) were randomly divided into two groups (n=15 in each group): a one-leg standing exercise group and a chair-rising exercise group. All the participants performed calisthenics of the major muscles, a tandem gait exercise, and a stepping exercise. The exercises were performed 3 days per week, and the study period was 5 months. Physical function was evaluated at baseline and at one-month intervals. No significant differences in the baseline characteristics were observed between the two groups. After the 5-month exercise program, the timed up and go, one-leg standing time, and tandem gait time improved significantly in the one-leg standing exercise group, while the walking time and chair-rising time in addition to above parameters improved significantly in the chair-rising exercise group. The improvements in the walking time, chair-rising time, and tandem gait time were significantly greater in the chair-rising exercise group than in the one-leg standing exercise group. The present study showed that the chair-rising exercise was more effective than the one-leg standing exercise for improving walking velocity and dynamic body balance.

  3. Effect of reduced hemoglobin concentration on leg oxygen uptake during maximal exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffartzik, W; Barton, E D; Poole, D C; Tsukimoto, K; Hogan, M C; Bebout, D E; Wagner, P D

    1993-08-01

    Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) is affected by hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]). Whether this is simply due to altered convection of O2 into the muscle microcirculation or also to [Hb]-dependent diffusive transport of O2 out of the muscle capillary is unknown in humans. To examine this, seven healthy volunteers performed four maximal cycle exercise bouts at sea level immediately after 8 wk at altitude (3,801 m, barometric pressure 485 Torr), a sojourn designed to increase [Hb]. The first two bouts were at ambient [Hb] of 15.9 +/- 0.7 g/100 ml breathing 21 or 12% O2 in random order. [Hb] was then decreased to a prealtitude level of 13.8 +/- 0.6 g/100 ml by venesection and isovolemic replacement with 5% albumin in 0.9% saline, and the exercise bouts were repeated. At whole body VO2max, PO2, PCO2, pH, and O2 saturation were measured in radial arterial and femoral venous blood. Femoral venous thermodilution blood flow was determined for calculation of leg VO2. Mean muscle capillary PO2 and muscle diffusing capacity (DO2) were computed by Bohr integration between measured arterial and femoral venous PO2. Averaged over both fractional concentrations of inspired O2, leg VO2 at maximum decreased by 17.7 +/- 4.3% as [Hb] was lowered while leg O2 delivery decreased by 17.5 +/- 2.6% and DO2 decreased by 10.7 +/- 2.7% (all P < 0.05). The relative contributions of decreases in leg O2 delivery and DO2 to the decrease in VO2max were computed to be 64 and 36%, respectively. These findings suggest that [Hb] is an important determinant of O2 diffusion rates into working muscle in humans. Possible mechanisms include 1) dependence of DO2 on intracapillary red blood cell spacing, 2) changes in the total rate of dissociation of O2 from [Hb], and 3) increased red blood cell flow heterogeneity as [Hb] is reduced.

  4. Physiological responses to incremental, interval, and continuous counterweighted single-leg and double-leg cycling at the same relative intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnis, Martin J; Morris, Nathaniel; Sonne, Michael W; Zuniga, Amanda Farias; Keir, Peter J; Potvin, Jim R; Gibala, Martin J

    2017-07-01

    We compared physiological responses to incremental, interval, and continuous counterweighted single-leg and double-leg cycling at the same relative intensities. The primary hypothesis was that the counterweight method would elicit greater normalized power (i.e., power/active leg), greater electromyography (EMG) responses, and lower cardiorespiratory demand. Graded-exercise tests performed by 12 men (age: 21 ± 2 years; BMI: 24 ± 3 kg/m 2 ) initially established that peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]; 76 ± 8.4%), expired ventilation ([Formula: see text]; 71 ± 6.8%), carbon dioxide production ([Formula: see text]; 71 ± 6.8%), heart rate (HRpeak; 91 ± 5.3%), and power output (PPO; 56 ± 3.6%) were lower during single-leg compared to double-leg cycling (main effect of mode; p cycling were performed at greater absolute power outputs but lower normalized power outputs compared to single-leg cycling (p  0.05), but semitendinosus was activated to a greater extent for single-leg cycling (p = 0.005). Single-leg interval and continuous cycling elicited lower mean [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], HR and ratings of perceived exertion compared to double-leg cycling (p cycling elicits lower cardiorespiratory and perceptual responses than double-leg cycling at greater normalized power outputs.

  5. Interleukin-6 release is higher across arm than leg muscles during whole-body exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn W; Klein, Ditte K; Andersen, Thor Munch

    2011-01-01

    ± 7 and 47 ± 7 µmol min(-1) (kg lean limb mass)(-1)) were lower, glucose uptake similar (51 ± 12 and 41 ± 8 mmol min(-1) (kg lean limb mass)(-1)) and lactate release higher (82 ± 32 and -2 ± 12 µmol min(-1) (kg lean limb mass)(-1)) in arms than legs, respectively, during exercise (P ....05). No correlations were present between IL-6 release and exogenous substrate uptakes. Muscle glycogen was similar in arms and legs before exercise (388 ± 22 and 428 ± 25 mmol (kg dry weight)(-1)), but after exercise it was only significantly lower in the leg (219 ± 29 mmol (kg dry weight)(-1)). The novel finding......Exercising muscle releases interleukin-6 (IL-6), but the mechanisms controlling this process are poorly understood. This study was performed to test the hypothesis that the IL-6 release differs in arm and leg muscle during whole-body exercise, owing to differences in muscle metabolism. Sixteen...

  6. Effect of a 4-week period of unloaded leg cycling exercise on spasticity in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnoff, Jacob; Motl, Robert W; Snook, Erin M; Wynn, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a small pilot study that examined the effect of a 4-week period of unloaded leg cycling on spasticity in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). The sample included 22 individuals with MS who were assigned using a quasi-experimental method into either exercise (n = 12) or control (n = 10) conditions. The exercise condition consisted of unloaded leg cycling for 30 minutes per session, 3 times per week, across a 4-week period. The control condition served as a control for passage of time and instrumentation effects. The H-reflex, modified Ashworth scale (MAS), and Multiple Sclerosis Spasticity Scale (MSSS-88) were collected before, 1-day after, and 1 and 4 weeks after the 4-week period. The 4-week period of unloaded leg cycling exercise was not associated with reductions in the H-reflex or MAS, whereas the exercise condition was associated with a reduction in MSSS-88 scores. This pattern of results suggests that chronic, unloaded leg cycling exercise is associated with improvements in spasticity from the participant's perspective, but neither improves nor worsens spasticity from electrophysiological and clinical perspectives.

  7. Exercise-induced leg pain: sifting through a broad differential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkola, M; Amendola, A

    2001-06-01

    The causes of exertional leg pain are not always easily determined but are often linked to repetitive stress. Medial tibial stress syndrome or periostitis, tibial stress fractures, deep posterior compartment syndrome, exertional compartment syndrome, fascial hernias, peripheral neuropathy, and blood vessel entrapments have characteristic signs and symptoms. A complete history and exam coupled with wise use of adjunctive investigations will lead to the correct diagnosis and treatment.

  8. Leg oxygen uptake in the initial phase of intense exercise is slowed by a marked reduction in oxygen delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Nyberg, Michael Permin; Mortensen, Stefan Peter

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined if a marked reduction in oxygen delivery, unlike findings with moderate intensity exercise, would slow leg oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics during intense exercise (86±3% of incremental test peak power). Seven healthy males (26±1 years, mean±SEM) performed one-legged knee-e...

  9. Are substrate use during exercise and mitochondrial respiratory capacity decreased in arm and leg muscle in type 2 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Ara, I; Rabøl, R

    2009-01-01

    AIM/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to investigate mitochondrial function, fibre type distribution and substrate oxidation in arm and leg muscle during exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes and in obese and lean controls. METHODS: Indirect calorimetry was used to calculate fat...... and carbohydrate oxidation during both progressive arm-cranking and leg-cycling exercises. Muscle biopsies from arm and leg were obtained. Fibre type, as well as O(2) flux capacity of saponin-permeabilised muscle fibres were measured, the latter by high resolution respirometry, in patients with type 2 diabetes......, age- and BMI-matched obese controls, and age-matched lean controls. RESULTS: Fat oxidation was similar in the groups during either arm or leg exercise. During leg exercise at higher intensities, but not during arm exercise, carbohydrate oxidation was lower in patients with type 2 diabetes compared...

  10. Similar dynamic hyperinflation during arm and leg exercise at similar ventilation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hannink, J.D.C.; Helvoort, H.A.C. van; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Heijdra, Y.F.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) report more dyspnea during arm than during leg exercise. One of the major causes of dyspnea is dynamic hyperinflation (DH), which is caused by airflow limitation as well as increase in ventilation. The aims of our study were to

  11. Exercise promotes IL-6 release from legs in older men with minor response to unilateral immobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reihmane, Dace; Gram, Martin; Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a major contributor to low-grade systemic inflammation. Most of the studies characterizing interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) release from exercising legs have been done in young, healthy men, but studies on inactivity in older people are lacking. The...

  12. Muscle activity during leg strengthening exercise using free weights and elastic resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2013-01-01

    The present study's aim was to evaluate muscle activity during leg exercises using elastic vs. isoinertial resistance at different exertion and loading levels, respectively. Twenty-four women and eighteen men aged 26-67 years volunteered to participate in the experiment. Electromyographic (EMG...

  13. Contribution of exercising legs to the slow component of oxygen uptake kinetics in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, D C; Schaffartzik, W; Knight, D R; Derion, T; Kennedy, B; Guy, H J; Prediletto, R; Wagner, P D

    1991-10-01

    Rates of performing work that engender a sustained lactic acidosis evidence a slow component of pulmonary O2 uptake (VO2) kinetics. This slow component delays or obviates the attainment of a stable VO2 and elevates VO2 above that predicted from considerations of work rate. The mechanistic basis for this slow component is obscure. Competing hypotheses depend on its origin within either the exercising limbs or the rest of the body. To resolve this question, six healthy males performed light nonfatiguing [approximately 50% maximal O2 uptake (VO2max)] and severe fatiguing cycle ergometry, and simultaneous measurements were made of pulmonary VO2 and leg blood flow by thermodilution. Blood was sampled 1) from the femoral vein for O2 and CO2 pressures and O2 content, lactate, pH, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and potassium concentrations, and temperature and 2) from the radial artery for O2 and CO2 pressures, O2 content, lactate concentration, and pH. Two-leg VO2 was thus calculated as the product of 2 X blood flow and arteriovenous O2 difference. Blood pressure was measured in the radial artery and femoral vein. During light exercise, both pulmonary and leg VO2 remained stable from minute 3 to the end of exercise (26 min). In contrast, during severe exercise [295 +/- 10 (SE) W], pulmonary VO2 increased 19.8 +/- 2.4% (P less than 0.05) from minute 3 to fatigue (occurring on average at 20.8 min). Over the same period, leg VO2 increased by 24.2 +/- 5.2% (P less than 0.05). Increases of leg and pulmonary VO2 were highly correlated (r = 0.911), and augmented leg VO2 could account for 86% of the rise in pulmonary VO2.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. The effect of age and unilateral leg immobilization for 2 weeks on substrate utilization during moderate‐intensity exercise in human skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, M.; Dybboe, R.; Kuhlman, A. B.; Prats, C.; Greenhaff, P. L.; Constantin‐Teodosiu, D.; Birk, J. B.; Wojtaszewski, J. F. P.; Dela, F.; Helge, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    Key points This study aimed to provide molecular insight into the differential effects of age and physical inactivity on the regulation of substrate metabolism during moderate‐intensity exercise.Using the arteriovenous balance technique, we studied the effect of immobilization of one leg for 2 weeks on leg substrate utilization in young and older men during two‐legged dynamic knee‐extensor moderate‐intensity exercise, as well as changes in key proteins in muscle metabolism before and after exercise.Age and immobilization did not affect relative carbohydrate and fat utilization during exercise, but the older men had higher uptake of exogenous fatty acids, whereas the young men relied more on endogenous fatty acids during exercise.Using a combined whole‐leg and molecular approach, we provide evidence that both age and physical inactivity result in intramuscular lipid accumulation, but this occurs only in part through the same mechanisms. Abstract Age and inactivity have been associated with intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG) accumulation. Here, we attempt to disentangle these factors by studying the effect of 2 weeks of unilateral leg immobilization on substrate utilization across the legs during moderate‐intensity exercise in young (n = 17; 23 ± 1 years old) and older men (n = 15; 68 ± 1 years old), while the contralateral leg served as the control. After immobilization, the participants performed two‐legged isolated knee‐extensor exercise at 20 ± 1 W (∼50% maximal work capacity) for 45 min with catheters inserted in the brachial artery and both femoral veins. Biopsy samples obtained from vastus lateralis muscles of both legs before and after exercise were used for analysis of substrates, protein content and enzyme activities. During exercise, leg substrate utilization (respiratory quotient) did not differ between groups or legs. Leg fatty acid uptake was greater in older than in young men, and although young men demonstrated net

  15. Leg blood flow is impaired during small muscle mass exercise in patients with COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Ulrik Winning; Munch, Gregers Druedal Wibe; Rugbjerg, Mette

    2017-01-01

    -extensor exercise, and during arterial infusions of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and acetylcholine (ACh), respectively. Ten patients with moderate to severe COPD and eight age- and sex matched healthy controls were studied. During knee-extensor exercise (10 W), leg blood flow was lower in the patients compared...... the formation of interstitial prostacyclin (vasodilator) was only increased in the controls. There was no difference between groups in the nitrite/nitrate levels (vasodilator) in plasma or interstitial fluid during exercise. Moreover, patients and controls showed similar vasodilatory capacity in response...

  16. Divergent muscle sympathetic responses to dynamic leg exercise in heart failure and age-matched healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarius, Catherine F; Millar, Philip J; Murai, Hisayoshi; Morris, Beverley L; Marzolini, Susan; Oh, Paul; Floras, John S

    2015-02-01

    People with diminished ventricular contraction who develop heart failure have higher sympathetic nerve firing rates at rest compared with healthy individuals of a similar age and this is associated with less exercise capacity. During handgrip exercise, sympathetic nerve activity to muscle is higher in patients with heart failure but the response to leg exercise is unknown because its recording requires stillness. We measured sympathetic activity from one leg while the other leg cycled at a moderate level and observed a decrease in nerve firing rate in healthy subjects but an increase in subjects with heart failure. Because these nerves release noradrenaline, which can restrict muscle blood flow, this observation helps explain the limited exercise capacity of patients with heart failure. Lower nerve traffic during exercise was associated with greater peak oxygen uptake, suggesting that if exercise training attenuated sympathetic outflow functional capacity in heart failure would improve. The reflex fibular muscle sympathetic nerve (MSNA) response to dynamic handgrip exercise is elicited at a lower threshold in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The present aim was to test the hypothesis that the contralateral MSNA response to mild to moderate dynamic one-legged exercise is augmented in HFrEF relative to age- and sex-matched controls. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure and MSNA were recorded in 16 patients with HFrEF (left ventricular ejection fraction = 31 ± 2%; age 62 ± 3 years, mean ± SE) and 13 healthy control subjects (56 ± 2 years) before and during 2 min of upright one-legged unloaded cycling followed by 2 min at 50% of peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2,peak). Resting HR and blood pressure were similar between groups whereas MSNA burst frequency was higher (50.0 ± 2.0 vs. 42.3 ± 2.7 bursts min(-1), P = 0.03) and V̇O2,peak lower (18.0 ± 2.0 vs. 32.6 ± 2.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1), P Exercise increased HR (P group difference (P = 0.1). MSNA burst

  17. Whole-body-vibration-induced increase in leg muscle activity during different squat exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelants, Machteld; Verschueren, Sabine M P; Delecluse, Christophe; Levin, Oron; Stijnen, Valère

    2006-02-01

    This study analyzed leg muscle activity during whole-body vibration (WBV) training. Subjects performed standard unloaded isometric exercises on a vibrating platform (Power Plate): high squat (HS), low squat (LS), and 1-legged squat (OL). Muscle activity of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and gastrocnemius was recorded in 15 men (age 21.2 +/- 0.8 years) through use of surface electromyography (EMG). The exercises were performed in 2 conditions: with WBV and without (control [CO]) a vibratory stimulus of 35 Hz. Muscle activation during WBV was compared with CO and with muscle activation during isolated maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs). Whole-body vibration resulted in a significantly higher (p < 0.05) EMG root-mean-square compared with CO in all muscle groups and all exercises (between +39.9 +/- 17.5% and +360.6 +/- 57.5%). The increase in muscle activity caused by WBV was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in OL compared with HS and LS. In conclusion, WBV resulted in an increased activation of the leg muscles. During WBV, leg muscle activity varied between 12.6 and 82.4% of MVC values.

  18. Immediate Effects of Smoking on Cardiorespiratory Responses During Dynamic Exercise: Arm Versus Leg Ergometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Liang eChen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study compared the immediate effects of smoking on cardiorespiratory responses to dynamic arm and leg exercises. Methods: This randomized crossover study recruited 14 college students. Each participant underwent 2 sets of arm-cranking (AC and leg-cycling (LC exercise tests. The testing sequences of the control trial (participants refrained from smoking for 8 hours before testing and the experimental trial (participants smoked 2 cigarettes were randomly chosen. We observed immediate changes in pulmonary function and heart rate variability after smoking and before the exercise test. The participants then underwent graded exercise tests of their arms and legs, respectively, until reaching exhaustion. We compared the peak work achieved and the time to exhaustion during the exercise tests with various cardiorespiratory indices [i.e., heart rate, oxygen consumption (VO2, minute ventilation (VE]. The main effects of the time and the trial, as well as their interaction effects on outcome measures, were investigated using repeated measure ANOVA.Results: Five minutes after smoking, the participants exhibited reduced forced vital capacities and forced expiratory volumes in the first second (P < .05, in addition to elevated resting heart rates (P < .001. The high-frequency, low-frequency, and the total power of the heart rate variability were also reduced (P < .05 at rest. For the exercise test periods, smoking reduced the time to exhaustion (P = .005 and the ventilatory threshold (P < .05 in the LC tests, whereas there were no significant effects in the AC tests. A trend analysis revealed a significant (P < .001 trial-by-time interaction effect for heart rate, VO2, and VE during the graded exercise test. Lower VO2 and VE levels were exhibited in the exercise response of the smoking trial than in that of the control LC trials, whereas there was no discernable inter-trial difference in the AC trials. Moreover, the differences in heart rate

  19. Strength, body composition, and functional outcomes in the squat versus leg press exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Fabrício E; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Ocetnik, Skyler; Young, Jonathan; Vigotsky, Andrew; Contreras, Bret; Krieger, James W; Miller, Michael G; Cholewa, Jason

    2016-10-13

    The purpose of this study was to compare strength, body composition, and functional outcome measures following performance of the back squat, leg press, or a combination of the two exercises. Subjects were pair-matched based on initial strength levels and then randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: A squat-only group (SQ) that solely performed squats for the lower body; a leg press-only group (LP) that solely performed leg presses for the lower body, or; a combined squat and leg press group (SQ-LP) that performed both squats and leg presses for the lower body. All other RT variables were held constant. The study period lasted 10 weeks with subjects performing 2 lower body workouts per week comprising 6 sets per session at loads corresponding to 8-12 RM with 90 to 120 second rest intervals. Results showed that SQ had greater transfer to maximal squat strength compared to the leg press. Effect sizes favored SQ and SQ-LP versus LP with respect to countermovement jump while greater effect sizes for dynamic balance were noted for SQ-LP and LP compared to SQ, although no statistical differences were noted between conditions. These findings suggest that both free weights and machines can improve functional outcomes, and that the extent of transfer may be specific to the given task.

  20. Resistance exercise increases leg muscle protein synthesis and mTOR signalling independent of sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Hans C.; Fujita, Satoshi; Glynn, Erin L.; Drummond, Micah J.; Volpi, Elena; Rasmussen, Blake B.

    2010-01-01

    Aim Sex differences are evident in human skeletal muscle as the cross-sectional area of individual muscle fibres is greater in men as compared to women. We have recently shown that resistance exercise stimulates mTOR signalling and muscle protein synthesis in humans during early post-exercise recovery. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if sex influences the muscle protein synthesis response during recovery from resistance exercise. Methods Seventeen subjects, 9 male and 8 female, were studied in the fasted state before, during and for two hours following a bout of high-intensity leg resistance exercise. Mixed muscle protein fractional synthetic rate (FSR) was measured using stable isotope techniques and mTOR signalling was assessed by immunoblotting from repeated vastus lateralis muscle biopsy samples. Results Post-exercise muscle protein synthesis increased by 52% in the men and by 47% in the women (P0.05). Akt phosphorylation increased in both groups at 1 hr post-exercise (P0.05). Phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream effector S6K1 increased significantly and similarly between groups during post-exercise recovery (P<0.05). eEF2 phosphorylation decreased at 1- and 2 hrs post-exercise (P<0.05) to a similar extent in both groups. Conclusion The contraction-induced increase in early post-exercise mTOR signalling and muscle protein synthesis is independent of sex and appears to not be playing a role in the sexual dimorphism of leg skeletal muscle in young men and women. PMID:20070283

  1. Three non-ambulatory adults with multiple disabilities exercise foot-leg movements through microswitch-aided programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Alberti, Gloria; Oliva, Doretta; Campodonico, Francesca

    2013-09-01

    This study assessed the use of microswitch-aided programs to help three non-ambulatory adults with multiple disabilities exercise foot-leg responses. Those responses served to activate a largely neglected part of the participants' body, with possibly positive physical implications (e.g., for blood circulation, swelling, and muscle strength). Intervention focused on the left and right foot-leg response, separately. Eventually, sessions with one response were alternated with sessions with the other response. Responses were monitored via microswitches and followed by 8s of preferred stimulation (e.g., music and vibrotactile stimulation), which was automatically delivered. The results showed that all three participants had high levels of foot-leg responses during the intervention phases and a 3-week post-intervention check. The participants also displayed expressions of positive involvement during those study periods (i.e., engaged in behaviors, such as music-related head movements, smiles, or touching the vibratory devices) that could be interpreted as forms of interest/pleasure and happiness. These results are in line with previous findings in this area and can be taken as an important confirmation of the strength and dependability of the approach in motivating non-ambulatory persons with multiple disabilities to engage in foot-leg movements. The practical implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantitation of progressive muscle fatigue during dynamic leg exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fulco, C S; Lewis, S F; Frykman, Peter

    1995-01-01

    There is virtually no published information on muscle fatigue, defined as a gradual decline in force-generating capacity, during conventional dynamic (D) leg exercise. To quantitate progression of fatigue, we developed 1) a model featuring integration of maximal voluntary static contraction (MVC.......05) for matched DKE work rates. To track fatigue, MVC (90 degrees knee angle) was performed every 2 min of DKE. After 4 min of DKE at work rates corresponding to (mean +/- SE) 66 +/- 2, 78 +/- 2, and 100% of peak DKE O2 uptake, MVC fell to 95 +/- 3, 90 +/- 5, and 65 +/- 7%* of MVC of rested muscle, respectively...... (*P muscle fatigue during D leg exercise provides a framework to study the effects of a variety...

  3. Effects of leg massage on recovery from high intensity cycling exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, A; Watt, J; Galloway, S

    2004-01-01

    Background: The effect of massage on recovery from high intensity exercise is debatable. Many studies on massage suffer from methodological flaws such as poor standardisation of previous exercise, lack of dietary control, and inappropriate massage duration. Objective: To examine the effects of leg massage compared with passive recovery on lactate clearance, muscular power output, and fatigue characteristics after repeated high intensity cycling exercise, with the conditions before the intervention controlled and standardised. Methods: Nine male games players participated. They attended the laboratory on two occasions one week apart and at the same time of day. Dietary intake and activity were replicated for the two preceding days on each occasion. After baseline measurement of heart rate and blood lactate concentration, subjects performed a standardised warm up on the cycle ergometer. This was followed by six standardised 30 second high intensity exercise bouts, interspersed with 30 seconds of active recovery. After five minutes of active recovery and either 20 minutes of leg massage or supine passive rest, subjects performed a second standardised warm up and a 30 second Wingate test. Capillary blood samples were drawn at intervals, and heart rate, peak power, mean power, and fatigue index were recorded. Results: There were no significant differences in mean power during the initial high intensity exercise bouts (p = 0.92). No main effect of massage was observed on blood lactate concentration between trials (p = 0.82) or heart rate (p = 0.81). There was no difference in the maximum power (p = 0.75) or mean power (p = 0.66) in the subsequent Wingate test, but a significantly lower fatigue index was observed in the massage trial (p = 0.04; mean (SD) fatigue index 30.2 (4.1)% v 34.2 (3.3)%). Conclusions: No measurable physiological effects of leg massage compared with passive recovery were observed on recovery from high intensity exercise, but the subsequent effect on

  4. Modular MR-compatible lower leg exercise device for whole-body scanners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini Ghomi, Reza; Bredella, Miriam A.; Thomas, Bijoy J.; Torriani, Martin [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Miller, Karen K. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Neuroendocrine Unit, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-10-15

    To develop a modular MR-compatible lower leg exercise device for muscle testing using a clinical 3 T MR scanner. An exercise device to provide isotonic resistance to plantar- or dorsiflexion was constructed from nonferrous materials and designed for easy setup and use in a clinical environment. Validation tests were performed during dynamic MR acquisitions. For this purpose, the device was tested on the posterior lower leg musculature of five subjects during 3 min of exercise at 30% of maximum voluntary plantarflexion during 31-phosphorus MR spectroscopy ({sup 31}P-MRS). Measures of muscle phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi), and pH were obtained before, during, and after the exercise protocol. At the end of exercise regimen, muscle PCr showed a 28% decrease from resting levels (to 21.8 {+-} 3.9 from 30.4 {+-} 3.0 mM) and the average PCr recovery rate was 35.3 {+-} 8.3 s. Muscle Pi concentrations increased 123% (to 14.6 {+-} 4.7 from 6.5 {+-} 3.3 mM) and pH decreased 1.5% (to 7.06 {+-} 0.14 from 7.17 {+-} 0.07) from resting levels. The described MR-compatible lower leg exercise was an effective tool for data acquisition during dynamic MR acquisitions of the calf muscles. The modular design allows for adaptation to other whole-body MR scanners and incorporation of custom-built mechanical or electronic interfaces and can be used for any MR protocol requiring dynamic evaluation of calf muscles. (orig.)

  5. Leg blood flow is impaired during small muscle mass exercise in COPD patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Ulrik Winning; Munch, Gregers Druedal Wibe; Rugbjerg, Mette

    2017-01-01

    with the controls (1.82±0.11 versus 2.36±0.14 L/min, respectively, P<0.05) which compromised leg oxygen delivery (372±26 versus 453±32 mLO2/min, respectively, P<0.05). At rest, plasma endothelin-1 (vasoconstrictor) was higher in the COPD patients (P<0.05) and also tended to be higher during exercise (p=0...

  6. Gas exchange kinetics following concentric-eccentric isokinetic arm and leg exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, U; Mookerjee, S; Steegmanns, A; Knicker, A; Hoffmann, U

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of exercise velocity (60, 150, 240deg∙s(-1)) and muscle mass (arm vs leg) on changes in gas exchange and arterio-venous oxygen content difference (avDO2) following high-intensity concentric-eccentric isokinetic exercise. Fourteen subjects (26.9±3.1years) performed a 3×20-repetition isokinetic exercise protocol. Recovery beat-to-beat cardiac output (CO) and breath-by-breath gas exchange were recorded to determine post-exercise half-time (t1/2) for oxygen uptake (V˙O2pulm), carbon dioxide output (V˙CO2pulm), and ventilation (V˙E). Significant differences of the t1/2 values were identified between 60 and 150deg∙s(-1). Significant differences in the t1/2 values were observed between V˙O2pulm and V˙CO2pulm and between V˙CO2pulm and V˙E. The time to attain the first avDO2-peak showed significant differences between arm and leg exercise. The present study illustrates, that V˙O2pulm kinetics are distorted due to non-linear CO dynamics. Therefore, it has to be taken into account, that V˙O2pulm may not be a valuable surrogate for muscular oxygen uptake kinetics in the recovery phases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Bed rest attenuates sympathetic and pressor responses to isometric exercise in antigravity leg muscles in humans.(Author Abstract)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michikami, Daisaku; Mano, Tadaaki; Iwase, Satoshi; Shiozawa, Tomoki; Hayano, Junichiro; Sunagawa, Kenji; Kawada, Toru; Kamiya, Atsunori

    2004-01-01

    Although spaceflight and bed rest are known to cause muscular atrophy in the antigravity muscles of the legs, the changes in sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to exercises using the atrophied...

  8. Anaerobic energy expenditure and mechanical efficiency during exhaustive leg press exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorostiaga, Esteban M; Navarro-Amézqueta, Ion; Cusso, Roser; Hellsten, Ylva; Calbet, Jose A L; Guerrero, Mario; Granados, Cristina; González-Izal, Miriam; Ibáñez, Javier; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2010-10-19

    Information about anaerobic energy production and mechanical efficiency that occurs over time during short-lasting maximal exercise is scarce and controversial. Bilateral leg press is an interesting muscle contraction model to estimate anaerobic energy production and mechanical efficiency during maximal exercise because it largely differs from the models used until now. This study examined the changes in muscle metabolite concentration and power output production during the first and the second half of a set of 10 repetitions to failure (10RM) of bilateral leg press exercise. On two separate days, muscle biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis prior and immediately after a set of 5 or a set of 10 repetitions. During the second set of 5 repetitions, mean power production decreased by 19% and the average ATP utilisation accounted for by phosphagen decreased from 54% to 19%, whereas ATP utilisation from anaerobic glycolysis increased from 46 to 81%. Changes in contraction time and power output were correlated to the changes in muscle Phosphocreatine (PCr; r = -0.76; Panaerobic sources during the final 5 repetitions fell to 83% whereas total anaerobic ATP production increased by 9% due to a 30% longer average duration of exercise (18.4 ± 4.0 vs 14.2 ± 2.1 s). These data indicate that during a set of 10RM of bilateral leg press exercise there is a decrease in power output which is associated with a decrease in the contribution of PCr and/or an increase in muscle lactate. The higher energy cost per repetition during the second 5 repetitions is suggestive of decreased mechanical efficiency.

  9. Neurodynamic treatment for patients with nerve-related leg pain: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Giovanni E; Stieven, Fábio F; Araújo, Francisco X; Wiebusch, Matheus; Rosa, Carolina G; Plentz, Rodrigo Della Méa; Silva, Marcelo F

    2016-10-01

    To investigate if neurodynamic treatment is more effective than advice to remain active in patients with nerve-related leg pain. Parallel-group randomized controlled trial blinded to the outcome assessor conducted in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Sixty patients recruited from the community and private practices. Patients will be randomly assigned to receive four sessions of neurodynamic treatment over two weeks comprising passive lumbar foramen opening and neurodynamic sliders plus home exercises or advice to remain active. Leg pain intensity, disability, low back pain intensity, functional ability, symptoms distribution and global impression of recovery will be assessed at two and four weeks after randomization. A linear mixed model will be employed for each outcome following intention to treat principles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of leg strength and bicycle ergometry exercise on cardiovascular deconditioning after 30-day head-down bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Liu, Yusheng; Sun, Hongyi; Zhao, Dongming; Wang, Yue; Wu, Ping; Ni, Chengzhi

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if the intermittent leg muscular strength exercise and bicycle ergometry exercise could attenuate cardiovascular deconditioning induced by prolonged -6° head-down bed rest (HDBR). Fifteen male subjects were randomly allocated into group A ( n=5, 30 days HDBR without exercise), group B ( n=5, 30 days HDBR with leg muscular strength exercise) and group C ( n=5, 30 days HDBR with bicycle ergometry exercise). The orthostatic tolerance (OT) was determined by +75°/20 min head-up tilt (HUT) test and the submaximal exercise capacity was determined by bicycle ergometry before and after HDBR. The results were as follows: (1) Compared with that before HDBR, OT time decreased dramatically by 57.6% ( pexercise time decreased significantly by 17.7% ( p0.77) in group C. (3) compared with that before HDBR, the changes of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure were slightly improved in group B and C, while deteriorated in group A during orthostatic test and exercise test after HDBR. The results indicate that leg muscular strength exercise and bicycle ergometry exercise could partially attenuate the cardiovascular deconditioning induced by 30 d HDBR, and the latter exercise training could fully provide the protection for the loss of exercise capacity.

  11. Energy metabolism during repeated sets of leg press exercise leading to failure or not.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban M Gorostiaga

    Full Text Available This investigation examined the influence of the number of repetitions per set on power output and muscle metabolism during leg press exercise. Six trained men (age 34 ± 6 yr randomly performed either 5 sets of 10 repetitions (10REP, or 10 sets of 5 repetitions (5REP of bilateral leg press exercise, with the same initial load and rest intervals between sets. Muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis were taken before the first set, and after the first and the final sets. Compared with 5REP, 10REP resulted in a markedly greater decrease (P<0.05 of the power output, muscle PCr and ATP content, and markedly higher (P<0.05 levels of muscle lactate and IMP. Significant correlations (P<0.01 were observed between changes in muscle PCr and muscle lactate (R(2 = 0.46, between changes in muscle PCr and IMP (R(2 = 0.44 as well as between changes in power output and changes in muscle ATP (R(2 = 0.59 and lactate (R(2 = 0.64 levels. Reducing the number of repetitions per set by 50% causes a lower disruption to the energy balance in the muscle. The correlations suggest that the changes in PCr and muscle lactate mainly occur simultaneously during exercise, whereas IMP only accumulates when PCr levels are low. The decrease in ATP stores may contribute to fatigue.

  12. Anaerobic energy expenditure and mechanical efficiency during exhaustive leg press exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban M Gorostiaga

    Full Text Available Information about anaerobic energy production and mechanical efficiency that occurs over time during short-lasting maximal exercise is scarce and controversial. Bilateral leg press is an interesting muscle contraction model to estimate anaerobic energy production and mechanical efficiency during maximal exercise because it largely differs from the models used until now. This study examined the changes in muscle metabolite concentration and power output production during the first and the second half of a set of 10 repetitions to failure (10RM of bilateral leg press exercise. On two separate days, muscle biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis prior and immediately after a set of 5 or a set of 10 repetitions. During the second set of 5 repetitions, mean power production decreased by 19% and the average ATP utilisation accounted for by phosphagen decreased from 54% to 19%, whereas ATP utilisation from anaerobic glycolysis increased from 46 to 81%. Changes in contraction time and power output were correlated to the changes in muscle Phosphocreatine (PCr; r = -0.76; P<0.01 and lactate (r = -0.91; P<0.01, respectively, and were accompanied by parallel decreases (P<0.01-0.05 in muscle energy charge (0.6%, muscle ATP/ADP (8% and ATP/AMP (19% ratios, as well as by increases in ADP content (7%. The estimated average rate of ATP utilisation from anaerobic sources during the final 5 repetitions fell to 83% whereas total anaerobic ATP production increased by 9% due to a 30% longer average duration of exercise (18.4 ± 4.0 vs 14.2 ± 2.1 s. These data indicate that during a set of 10RM of bilateral leg press exercise there is a decrease in power output which is associated with a decrease in the contribution of PCr and/or an increase in muscle lactate. The higher energy cost per repetition during the second 5 repetitions is suggestive of decreased mechanical efficiency.

  13. Aerobic Exercise Improves Signs of Restless Leg Syndrome in End Stage Renal Disease Patients Suffering Chronic Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Mortazavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Restless leg syndrome (RLS is one of the prevalent complaints of patients with end stage renal diseases suffering chronic hemodialysis. Although there are some known pharmacological managements for this syndrome, the adverse effect of drugs causes a limitation for using them. In this randomized clinical trial we aimed to find a nonpharmacological way to improve signs of restless leg syndrome and patients’ quality of life. Material and Methods. Twenty-six patients were included in the study and divided into 2 groups of control and exercise. The exercise group used aerobic exercise during their hemodialysis for 16 weeks. The quality of life and severity of restless leg syndrome were assessed at the first week of study and final week. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results. The difference of means of RLS signs at the first week of study and final week was in exercise group and in control group. There was not any statistical difference between control group and exercise group in quality of life at the first week of study and final week. Conclusions. We suggest using aerobic exercise for improving signs of restless leg syndrome, but no evidence was found for its efficacy on patient’s quality of life.

  14. Biomechanics of Counterweighted One-Legged Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Steven J; McDaniel, John; Martin, James C

    2016-02-01

    One-legged cycling has served as a valuable research tool and as a training and rehabilitation modality. Biomechanics of one-legged cycling are unnatural because the individual must actively lift the leg during flexion, which can be difficult to coordinate and cause premature fatigue. We compared ankle, knee, and hip biomechanics between two-legged, one-legged, and counterweighted (11.64 kg) one-legged cycling. Ten cyclists performed two-legged (240 W), one-legged (120 W), and counterweighted one-legged (120 W) cycling (80 rpm). Pedal forces and limb kinematics were recorded to determine work during extension and flexion. During counterweighted one-legged cycling relative ankle dorsiflexion, knee flexion, and hip flexion work were less than one-legged but greater than two-legged cycling (all P cycling were greater than one-legged but less than two-legged cycling (all P cycling reduced but did not eliminate differences in joint flexion and extension actions between one- and two-legged cycling. Even with these differences, counterweighted one-legged cycling seemed to have advantages over one-legged cycling. These results, along with previous work highlighting physiological characteristics and training adaptations to counterweighted one-legged cycling, demonstrate that this exercise is a viable alternative to one-legged cycling.

  15. Reliability of a Novel High Intensity One Leg Dynamic Exercise Protocol to Measure Muscle Endurance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Pageaux

    Full Text Available We recently developed a high intensity one leg dynamic exercise (OLDE protocol to measure muscle endurance and investigate the central and peripheral mechanisms of muscle fatigue. The aims of the present study were to establish the reliability of this novel protocol and describe the isokinetic muscle fatigue induced by high intensity OLDE and its recovery. Eight subjects performed the OLDE protocol (time to exhaustion test of the right leg at 85% of peak power output three times over a week period. Isokinetic maximal voluntary contraction torque at 60 (MVC60, 100 (MVC100 and 140 (MVC140 deg/s was measured pre-exercise, shortly after exhaustion (13 ± 4 s, 20 s (P20 and 40 s (P40 post-exercise. Electromyographic (EMG signal was analyzed via the root mean square (RMS for all three superficial knee extensors. Mean time to exhaustion was 5.96 ± 1.40 min, coefficient of variation was 8.42 ± 6.24%, typical error of measurement was 0.30 min and intraclass correlation was 0.795. MVC torque decreased shortly after exhaustion for all angular velocities (all P < 0.001. MVC60 and MVC100 recovered between P20 (P < 0.05 and exhaustion and then plateaued. MVC140 recovered only at P40 (P < 0.05. High intensity OLDE did not alter maximal EMG RMS of the three superficial knee extensors during MVC. The results of this study demonstrate that this novel high intensity OLDE protocol could be reliably used to measure muscle endurance, and that muscle fatigue induced by high intensity OLDE should be examined within ~ 30 s following exhaustion.

  16. Femoral Blood Flow and Cardiac Output During Blood Flow Restricted Leg Press Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, M. E.; Hackney, K.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.

    2011-01-01

    Low load blood flow restricted resistance exercise (LBFR) causes muscle hypertrophy that may be stimulated by the local ischemic environment created by the cuff pressure. However, local blood flow (BF) during such exercise is not well understood. PURPOSE: To characterize femoral artery BF and cardiac output (CO) during leg press exercise (LP) performed at a high load (HL) and low load (LL) with different levels of cuff pressure. METHODS: Eleven subjects (men/women 4/7, age 31.4+/-12.8 y, weight 68.9+/-13.2 kg, mean+/-SD) performed 3 sets of supine left LP to fatigue with 90 s of rest in 4 conditions: HL (%1-RM/cuff pressure: 80%/0); LL (20%/0); LBFR(sub DBP) (20%/1.3 x diastolic blood pressure, BP); LBFR(sub SBP) (20%/1.3 x supine systolic BP). The cuff remained inflated throughout the LBFR exercise sessions. Artery diameter, velocity time integral (VTI), and stroke volume (SV) were measured using Doppler ultrasound at rest and immediately after each set of exercise. Heart rate (HR) was monitored using a 3-lead ECG. BF was calculated as VTI x vessel cross-sectional area. CO was calculated as HR x SV. The data obtained after each set of exercise were averaged and used for analyses. Multi-level modeling was used to determine the effect of exercise condition on dependent variables. Statistical significance was set a priori at p LL (9.92+/-0.82 cm3) > LBFR(sub dBP)(6.47+/-0.79 cm3) > LBFR(sub SBP) (3.51+/-0.59 cm3). Blunted exercise induced increases occurred in HR, SV, and CO after LBFR compared to HL and LL. HR increased 45% after HL and LL and 28% after LBFR (p<0.05), but SV increased (p<0.05) only after HL. Consequently, the increase (p<0.05) in CO was greater in HL and LL (approximately 3 L/min) than in LBFR (approximately 1 L/min). CONCLUSION: BF during LBFR(sub SBP) was 1/3 of that observed in LL, which supports the hypothesis that local ischemia stimulates the LBFR hypertrophic response. As the cuff did not compress the artery, the ischemia may have occurred

  17. Features interference EMG leg extensor muscles of skilled players in the context of the special exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirenko P.A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problems of improvement of physical training of skilled players. The main instrumental method of the research is electromyography. The aim of the research is determination of the optimal angle of the provisions of legs on her hips for the appearance of a maximum of bioelectric activity of the muscles of the front panel hips in exercise unbending legs sitting on the mechanical simulator. In the course of research we have worked for electromyography 10 players of FC Metalist at the age of 19 – 30 years during the five-second of the submaximum contraction of these muscles as: musculus rectus femoris, musculus vastus medialis, musculus vastus lateralis. The results of the analysis of segments of electromyography allowed to make a conclusion, that we investigated the provisions of the angle of 140 degrees has the lowest preconditions for the appearance of muscle strength. We have obtained data testify to the fact that the angle of 90 degrees is the position of the greatest preconditions for the appearance of muscle strength.

  18. Chronic leg ulcers disrupt patients' lives: A study of leg ulcer-related life changes and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Nélia; Campos, Sara; Cabete, Joana

    2017-09-01

    Chronic leg ulcers have a profound impact on patients' physical, functional, and psychological status, which may result in several life changes and a significant decline in quality of life (QoL). We aimed to study what changed in patients' lives after developing a chronic leg ulcer, including QoL, patients' comprehension of the disease and related feelings. A cross-sectional study, using an anonymous questionnaire and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) was performed. Chronic leg ulcers were life changing events, causing abandonment of work in almost 80% of the patients and important limitations in daily activities and autonomy. Familial relationships changed in more than half of the patients. Almost 15% hid or would like to hide their disease from others, especially patients with a shorter duration of disease. QoL was very or extremely affected in 18.2% of the participants completing the DLQI.

  19. Differential glucose uptake in quadriceps and other leg muscles during one-legged dynamic submaximal knee-extension exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Kari K; Boushel, Robert; Langberg, Henning

    2011-01-01

    to mean GU in QF (=100%), GU was on average 73% in VL, 84% in rectus femoris, 115% in vastus medialis, and 142% in VI. Variable activation of hamstring muscles and muscles of the lower leg was also observed. These results show that GU of different muscles of quadriceps muscle group as well as between...

  20. Modeling trajectories of perceived leg exertion during maximal cycle ergometer exercise in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Marianne; Zhang, Zhen; Therneau, Terry; McGrath, Patrick; Pianosi, Paolo

    2014-01-09

    between ratings of perceived exertion and work capacity normalized across individuals. Models including a delay term, a linear component, or a power function can describe these individual trajectories of perceived leg exertion during incremental exercise to voluntary exhaustion.

  1. Food related, exercise induced anaphylaxis.

    OpenAIRE

    Caffarelli, C.; TERZI V.; Perrone, F.; Cavagni, G.

    1996-01-01

    Four children under 12 years of age with food dependent, exercise induced anaphylaxis (EIAn) were investigated. These children and five controls performed exercise challenges when fasting and one hour after a meal without food suspected to predispose to the reaction. Patients then performed exercise tests after intake of each suspected food. Three out of 15 food-exercise combination challenges were positive, but no reactions were provoked after exercise without prior intake of suspected foods...

  2. Physical exercise in Aging: Nine weeks of leg press or electrical stimulation training in 70 years old sedentary elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Zampieri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of muscle mass and function, reducing force generation and mobility in the elderlies. Contributing factors include a severe decrease in both myofiber size and number as well as a decrease in the number of motor neurons innervating muscle fibers (mainly of fast type which is sometimes accompanied by reinnervation of surviving slow type motor neurons (motor unit remodeling. Reduced mobility and functional limitations characterizing aging can promote a more sedentary lifestyle for older individuals, leading to a vicious circle further worsening muscle performance and the patients' quality of life, predisposing them to an increased risk of disability, and mortality. Several longitudinal studies have shown that regular exercise may extend life expectancy and reduce morbidity in aging people. Based on these findings, the Interreg IVa project aimed to recruit sedentary seniors with a normal life style and to train them for 9 weeks with either leg press (LP exercise or electrical stimulation (ES. Before and at the end of both training periods, all the subjects were submitted to mobility functional tests and muscle biopsies from the Vastus Lateralis muscles of both legs. No signs of muscle damage and/or of inflammation were observed in muscle biopsies after the training. Functional tests showed that both LP and ES induced improvements of force and mobility of the trained subjects. Morphometrical and immunofluorescent analyses performed on muscle biopsies showed that ES significantly increased the size of fast type muscle fibers (p<0.001, together with a significant increase in the number of Pax7 and NCAM positive satellite cells (p<0.005. A significant decrease of slow type fiber diameter was observed in both ES and LP trained subjects (p<0.001. Altogether these results demonstrate the effectiveness of physical exercise either voluntary (LP or passive (ES to improve the functional performances of aging muscles. Here ES

  3. Comparison of cardiovascular adaptations to long-term arm and leg exercise in wheelchair athletes versus long-distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, D T; Davidoff, R; Balady, G J

    2000-04-15

    The effect of long-term arm exercise on cardiac morphology and function is unknown. To study these effects, highly trained wheelchair athletes were compared with long-distance runners and controls. In addition, the wheelchair athletes were compared with the long-distance runners to determine if long-term leg exercise confers a training effect during the performance of dynamic arm exercise. The study included 31 male subjects (mean age of 33+/-5 years), who comprised 3 groups matched for age and weight: wheelchair athletes (n = 9), long-distance runners (n = 12), and healthy controls (n = 10). All underwent echocardiography at rest and arm ergometry exercise testing with expiratory gas analysis. The peak work rate during arm exercise was highest among the wheelchair athletes, and was significantly higher in both groups of trained athletes compared with the control group (pRunners demonstrated a significantly lower submaximal heart rate response to arm exercise compared with wheelchair and control subjects. Wheelchair athletes had increased left ventricular (LV) volume and mass by echocardiography compared with controls, but not to the same degree as that of runners. Although chamber dimensions and wall thickness did not differ among the groups, the LV volume index tended to be largest in the runners. Doppler indexes of diastolic LV filling were similar between the trained and untrained subjects. These data demonstrate that both long-term arm and leg exercise yield increases in LV volume and mass compared with untrained control subjects, although to a lesser degree in arm-trained athletes. Runners demonstrated a transfer of training effect in the performance of dynamic arm exercise, as demonstrated by their ability to achieve a higher peak work rate than controls, and showed a lower heart rate response to submaximal exercise than the wheelchair athletes and control subjects.

  4. The effect of age and unilateral leg immobilization for 2 weeks on substrate utilization during moderate intensity exercise in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø, Andreas; Gram, Martin; Dybboe, Rie

    2016-01-01

    Age and inactivity have been associated with intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG) accumulation. Here, we attempt to disentangle these factors by studying the effect of 2 weeks' unilateral leg immobilization on substrate utilization across the legs during moderate intensity exercise in young (n = 17...... in older than in young men, and while young men demonstrated net leg glycerol release during exercise, older men showed net glycerol uptake. At baseline, IMTG, muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity, protein content of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2, AMP......; 23 ± 1 years) and older (n = 15; 68 ± 1 years) men, while the contralateral leg served as control. After immobilization, the participants performed two-legged isolated knee-extensor exercise at 20 ± 1 Watt (∼50% Wattmax ) for 45 min with catheters inserted in the brachial artery and both femoral...

  5. Effects of respiratory muscle unloading on leg muscle oxygenation and blood volume during high-intensity exercise in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Carrascosa, Cláudia; Oliveira, Cristino Carneiro; Barroco, Adriano C; Berton, Danilo C; Vilaça, Debora; Lira-Filho, Edgar B; Ribeiro, Dirceu; Nery, Luiz Eduardo; Neder, J Alberto

    2008-06-01

    Blood flow requirements of the respiratory muscles (RM) increase markedly during exercise in chronic heart failure (CHF). We reasoned that if the RM could subtract a fraction of the limited cardiac output (QT) from the peripheral muscles, RM unloading would improve locomotor muscle perfusion. Nine patients with CHF (left ventricle ejection fraction = 26 +/- 7%) undertook constant-work rate tests (70-80% peak) receiving proportional assisted ventilation (PAV) or sham ventilation. Relative changes (Delta%) in deoxy-hemoglobyn, oxi-Hb ([O2Hb]), tissue oxygenation index, and total Hb ([HbTOT], an index of local blood volume) in the vastus lateralis were measured by near infrared spectroscopy. In addition, QT was monitored by impedance cardiography and arterial O2 saturation by pulse oximetry (SpO2). There were significant improvements in exercise tolerance (Tlim) with PAV. Blood lactate, leg effort/Tlim and dyspnea/Tlim were lower with PAV compared with sham ventilation (P 0.05). Unloaded breathing, however, was related to enhanced leg muscle oxygenation and local blood volume compared with sham, i.e., higher Delta[O2Hb]% and Delta[HbTOT]%, respectively (P < 0.05). We conclude that RM unloading had beneficial effects on the oxygenation status and blood volume of the exercising muscles at similar systemic O2 delivery in patients with advanced CHF. These data suggest that blood flow was redistributed from respiratory to locomotor muscles during unloaded breathing.

  6. Comparisons of muscle oxygenation changes between arm and leg muscles during incremental rowing exercise with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongxing; Wang, Bangde; Gong, Hui; Xu, Guodong; Nioka, Shoko; Chance, Britton

    2010-01-01

    Our purpose is to compare the changes in muscle oxygenation in the vastus lateralis (VL) and biceps brachii (BB) muscles simultaneously using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during incremental rowing exercise in eight rowers. Based on the BB and VL muscle oxygenation patterns, two points are used to characterize the muscle oxygenation kinetics in both the arm and the leg muscles. The first point is the breaking point (Bp), which refers to an accelerated fall in muscle oxygenation that correlates with the gas exchange threshold (GET). The second point is the leveling-off point (Lo), which suggests the upper limit of O2 extraction. The GET occurred at 63.3+/-2.4% of maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2 max). The Bp appeared at 45.0+/-3.8% and 55.6+/-2.4% V˙O2 max in the BB and VL, respectively. The Lo appeared at 63.6+/-4.1% and 86.6+/-1.0% V˙O2 max in these two muscles, respectively. Both the Bp and the Lo occurred earlier in BB compared with VL. These results suggest that arm muscles have lower oxidative capacity than leg muscles during rowing exercise. The rowers with higher exercise performances showed heavier workloads, as evaluated by Bp and Lo. The monitoring of muscle oxygenation by NIRS in arm and leg muscles during rowing could be a useful guide for evaluation and training.

  7. Muscle fatigue and exhaustion during dynamic leg exercise in normoxia and hypobaric hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fulco, C S; Lewis, S F; Frykman, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Using an exercise device that integrates maximal voluntary static contraction (MVC) of knee extensor muscles with dynamic knee extension, we compared progressive muscle fatigue, i.e., rate of decline in force-generating capacity, in normoxia (758 Torr) and hypobaric hypoxia (464 Torr). Eight.......3 vs. -11.9 N/min, respectively; P muscle excitation. Exhaustion, per se, was postulated to related more...

  8. Effects of exercise training on restless legs syndrome, depression, sleep quality and fatigue among hemodialysis patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuan-Yuan; Hu, Ru-Jun; Diao, Yong-Shu; Chen, Lin; Jiang, Xiao-Lian

    2017-12-13

    Hemodialysis patients experience a heavy symptom burden that leads to a decreased quality of life. Pharmacological treatment is effective but costly and has adverse effects. Exercise is a promising approach for symptom management, but the effect of exercise on restless legs syndrome, depression, sleep quality and fatigue in hemodialysis patients is still uncertain. This meta-analysis was conducted to identify whether exercise training is beneficial in the treatment of the symptoms of restless legs syndrome, depression, poor sleep quality, and fatigue in patients receiving hemodialysis. A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Web of Science was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing exercise training with routine care on restless legs syndrome, depression, sleep quality and fatigue among hemodialysis patients. Quality assessment was conducted using the Cochrane risk of bias tool, and RevMan (5.3) was used to analyze the data. Fifteen RCTs met our inclusion criteria were included. The pooled effect size showed that exercise training was effective on restless legs syndrome (Psleep quality were not performed due to the sensitivity analysis results. Exercise training may help hemodialysis patients to reduce the severity of restless legs syndrome, depression, and fatigue. More high-quality RCTs with larger samples and comparative RCTs focused on different exercise regimens are needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Perceptions of exercise consistency: Relation to exercise-related cognitive errors and cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Sean R; Brawley, Lawrence R

    2017-04-01

    This study examined psychological differences between individuals (1) with varying perceptions of their exercise adherence pattern and (2) who do and do not make exercise-related cognitive errors. A total of 364 adults completed an exercise pattern and cognitive errors questionnaire. Individuals perceiving themselves as consistent exercisers reported more adaptive social cognitive outcomes (e.g. higher self-regulatory efficacy) than those perceiving themselves as inconsistent. Individuals expressing stronger exercise-related cognitive errors exercised less and reported problematic cognitions (e.g. more struggle with exercise decisions). These results link inconsistent adherence perceptions to weaker social cognitions and exercise-related cognitive errors, a novel form of bias related to limited exercise engagement.

  10. Automated Management of Exercise Intervention at the Point of Care: Application of a Web-Based Leg Training System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedov, Vadim N; Dedova, Irina V

    2015-11-23

    Recent advances in information and communication technology have prompted development of Web-based health tools to promote physical activity, the key component of cardiac rehabilitation and chronic disease management. Mobile apps can facilitate behavioral changes and help in exercise monitoring, although actual training usually takes place away from the point of care in specialized gyms or outdoors. Daily participation in conventional physical activities is expensive, time consuming, and mostly relies on self-management abilities of patients who are typically aged, overweight, and unfit. Facilitation of sustained exercise training at the point of care might improve patient engagement in cardiac rehabilitation. In this study we aimed to test the feasibility of execution and automatic monitoring of several exercise regimens on-site using a Web-enabled leg training system. The MedExercise leg rehabilitation machine was equipped with wireless temperature sensors in order to monitor its usage by the rise of temperature in the resistance unit (Δt°). Personal electronic devices such as laptop computers were fitted with wireless gateways and relevant software was installed to monitor the usage of training machines. Cloud-based software allowed monitoring of participant training over the Internet. Seven healthy participants applied the system at various locations with training protocols typically used in cardiac rehabilitation. The heart rates were measured by fingertip pulse oximeters. Exercising in home chairs, in bed, and under an office desk was made feasible and resulted in an intensity-dependent increase of participants' heart rates and Δt° in training machine temperatures. Participants self-controlled their activities on smart devices, while a supervisor monitored them over the Internet. Individual Δt° reached during 30 minutes of moderate-intensity continuous training averaged 7.8°C (SD 1.6). These Δt° were used as personalized daily doses of exercise with

  11. Effects of the Indoor Horseback Riding Exercise on Electromyographic Activity and Balance in One-leg Standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangyong; Lee, Daehee; Park, Jungseo

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the influence of the indoor horseback riding exercise on the electromyographic activity of the lower extremity and balance during one-leg standing. [Subjects] Twenty normal adults were divided into an indoor horseback riding exercise group (IHREG, n=10), which performed the indoor horseback riding exercise using equipment 3 times a week for 3 weeks, and a control group (CG, n=10), which performed no exercise. [Methods] For comparitive analysis, an electromyographic test was performed to measure the electromyographic activities of the rectus femoris (RF), adductor longus (AL), and gluteus medius and the Biodex Balance System was used to measure the anteroposterior stability index (APSI), mediolateral stability index, and overall stability index (OSI). [Results] The electromyographic activities of RF and AL significantly increased and the balance abilities of APSI and OSI decreased significantly in the IHREG compared to the CG. [Conclusion] We consider indoor horseback riding exercise is an effective intervention for increasing electromyographic activities of the RF and AL, and the balance abilities of APSI and OSI of normal adults.

  12. Effects of single-leg drop-landing exercise from different heights on skeletal adaptations in prepubertal girls: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Peter N; Blimkie, Cameron J R; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie; Briody, Julie; Marsh, Damian; Kemp, Allan; Cowell, Chris; Howman-Giles, Roberts

    2008-05-01

    Few studies have explored osteogenic potential of prepubertal populations. We conducted a 28-week school-based exercise trial of single-leg drop-landing exercise with 42 prepubertal girls (6 to 10 years) randomly assigned to control (C), low-drop (LD) or high-drop (HD) exercise groups. The latter two groups performed single-leg drop-landings (3 sessions/week-1 and 50 landings/session-1) from 14 cm(LD) and 28 cm(HD) using the nondominant leg. Osteogenic responses were assessed using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Single-leg peak ground-reaction impact forces (PGRIF) in a subsample ranged from 2.5 to 4.4 x body-weight (BW). No differences (p > .05) were observed among groups at baseline for age, stature, lean tissue mass (LTM), leisure time physical activity, or average daily calcium intake. After adjusting for covariates of body mass, fat mass and LTM, no differences were found in bone mineral measures or site-specific bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip and lower leg among exercise or control groups. Combining data from both exercise groups failed to produce differences in bone properties when compared with the control group. No changes were apparent for between-leg differences from baseline to posttraining. In contrast to some reports, our findings suggest that strictly controlled unimodal, unidirectional single-leg drop-landing exercises involving low-moderate peak ground-reaction impact forces are not osteogenic in the developing prepubertal female skeleton.

  13. Adenosine contributes to blood flow regulation in the exercising human leg by increasing prostaglandin and nitric oxide formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan; Nyberg, Michael; Thaning, Pia

    2009-01-01

    Adenosine can induce vasodilation in skeletal muscle, but to what extent adenosine exerts its effect via formation of other vasodilators and whether there is redundancy between adenosine and other vasodilators remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that adenosine, prostaglandins, and NO act...... in synergy to regulate skeletal muscle hyperemia by determining the following: (1) the effect of adenosine receptor blockade on skeletal muscle exercise hyperemia with and without simultaneous inhibition of prostaglandins (indomethacin; 0.8 to 1.8 mg/min) and NO (N(G)-mono-methyl-l-arginine; 29 to 52 mg....../min); (2) whether adenosine-induced vasodilation is mediated via formation of prostaglandins and/or NO; and (3) the femoral arterial and venous plasma adenosine concentrations during leg exercise with the microdialysis technique in a total of 24 healthy, male subjects. Inhibition of adenosine receptors...

  14. Effects of a pre-workout supplement on hyperemia following leg extension resistance exercise to failure with different resistance loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey S; Mumford, Petey W; Haun, Cody T; Luera, Micheal J; Muddle, Tyler W D; Colquhoun, Ryan J; Feeney, Mary P; Mackey, Cameron S; Roberson, Paul A; Young, Kaelin C; Pascoe, David D; DeFreitas, Jason M; Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Roberts, Michael D

    2017-01-01

    We sought to determine if a pre-workout supplement (PWS), containing multiple ingredients thought to enhance blood flow, increases hyperemia associated with resistance training compared to placebo (PBO). Given the potential interaction with training loads/time-under-tension, we evaluated the hyperemic response at two different loads to failure. Thirty males participated in this double-blinded study. At visit 1, participants were randomly assigned to consume PWS (Reckless™) or PBO (maltodextrin and glycine) and performed four sets of leg extensions to failure at 30% or 80% of their 1-RM 45-min thereafter. 1-wk. later (visit 2), participants consumed the same supplement as before, but exercised at the alternate load. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), femoral artery blood flow, and plasma nitrate/nitrite (NOx) were assessed at baseline (BL), 45-min post-PWS/PBO consumption (PRE), and 5-min following the last set of leg extensions (POST). Vastus lateralis near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was employed during leg extension exercise. Repeated measures ANOVAs were performed with time, supplement, and load as independent variables and Bonferroni correction applied for multiple post-hoc comparisons. Data are reported as mean ± SD. With the 30% training load compared to 80%, significantly more repetitions were performed (p  0.05). NIRS derived minimum oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb) was lower in the 80% load condition compared to 30% for all rest intervals between sets of exercise (p < 0.0167). HR and BP did not vary as a function of supplement or load. Femoral artery blood flow at POST was higher independent of exercise load and treatment. However, a time*supplement*load interaction was observed revealing greater femoral artery blood flow with PWS compared to PBO at POST in the 80% (+56.8%; p = 0.006) but not 30% load condition (+12.7%; p = 0.476). Plasma NOx was ~3-fold higher with PWS compared to PBO at PRE and POST (p < 0.001). Compared to PBO, the PWS

  15. Effect of Ladder Drill Exercise on Speed, Surrounding, and Power Leg Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Chandra Adinata Kusuma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at finding the effect of ladder drill training upon: (1 run speed, (2 agility, and (2 power of leg muscle. This study is an experimental research. This study utilized one group pre test-post test design. There were total people as the subject of this research. Data collection technique used 30-meter sprint test to measure run speed, Illinois agility test to measure agility, and vertical jump test to measure power of leg muscle. Data analysis technique which was used for normality test, homogeneity test/F-test, and T-test with significant level 5% by using SPSS 16.0.0. Based on the finding, there was effect of ladder drill training upon run speed with sig value=0.007, agility and power of leg muscle with sig value=0.000. Based on the data analysis, it could be concluded that there was significant effect of ladder drill training upon run speed, agility and power of leg muscle.

  16. The effect of 15 weeks of exercise on balance, leg strength, and reduction in falls in 40 women aged 65 to 89 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Joyce E; McFarland, Carol; Wallace, Lorraine Silver; Holiday, David B; Roberson, Glenda

    2004-01-01

    Risk of falling increases as people age, and decreased leg strength and poor balance have been implicated as contributors. Our aims were to:1) assess the efficacy of a fall-prevention exercise program on balance and leg strength in women aged 65 to 89 years and 2) conduct a 1-year follow-up to determine the effect of exercise on fall rates. Forty women were classified by falling history and fear of falling and assigned to exercise and control groups using stratified randomization. We used the Berg Balance Scale, Get-up and Go, Functional Reach, and Wall-Sit Tests to evaluate changes in balance and leg strength before and after a supervised 15-week exercise program (31-hr sessions/week). We conducted 1-year follow-up telephone interviews and compared the number of falls reported by exercise and control groups.The study used a 2 x 2 (exercise/control by pretest/post-test) factorial design with the testing times being a repeated factor, so we used analysis of variance (ANOVA) to evaluate differences between the 2 groups across testing times. Power analysis computed a priori with STPLAN software (Version 4.2) showed that a sample size of 40 was necessary to determine statistical differences in balance and leg strength. Exercise subjects showed significant improvement on 5 of 14 items (5.2%, p score (6.8%, p < or = .05). Leg strength increased significantly (p < or = .05) on post-test as measured by the Wall-Sit Test. Control subjects reported 6 falls and exercise subjects no falls during the follow-up year, but this difference was not significant using Fischer's exact test (p=.106). The exercise program resulted in increased balance and leg strength, but did not result in a significant difference in falls during the follow-up period. Further research with a larger and possibly older sample is needed to more adequately investigate this question. Health care providers who work with older women should provide exercise programs in which balance and leg strength are

  17. Relative Contribution of Arms and Legs in 30 s Fully Tethered Front Crawl Swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro G. Morouço

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relative contribution of arm stroke and leg kicking to maximal fully tethered front crawl swimming performance remains to be solved. Twenty-three national level young swimmers (12 male and 11 female randomly performed 3 bouts of 30 s fully tethered swimming (using the whole body, only the arm stroke, and only the leg kicking. A load-cell system permitted the continuous measurement of the exerted forces, and swimming velocity was calculated from the time taken to complete a 50 m front crawl swim. As expected, with no restrictions swimmers were able to exert higher forces than that using only their arm stroke or leg kicking. Estimated relative contributions of arm stroke and leg kicking were 70.3% versus 29.7% for males and 66.6% versus 33.4% for females, with 15.6% and 13.1% force deficits, respectively. To obtain higher velocities, male swimmers are highly dependent on the maximum forces they can exert with the arm stroke (r=0.77, P<0.01, whereas female swimmers swimming velocity is more related to whole-body mean forces (r=0.81, P<0.01. The obtained results point that leg kicking plays an important role over short duration high intensity bouts and that the used methodology may be useful to identify strength and/or coordination flaws.

  18. Chiropractic and self-care for back-related leg pain: design of a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz Craig A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Back-related leg pain (BRLP is a common variation of low back pain (LBP, with lifetime prevalence estimates as high as 40%. Often disabling, BRLP accounts for greater work loss, recurrences, and higher costs than uncomplicated LBP and more often leads to surgery with a lifetime incidence of 10% for those with severe BRLP, compared to 1-2% for those with LBP. In the US, half of those with back-related conditions seek CAM treatments, the most common of which is chiropractic care. While there is preliminary evidence suggesting chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy is beneficial for patients with BRLP, there is insufficient evidence currently available to assess the effectiveness of this care. Methods/Design This study is a two-site, prospective, parallel group, observer-blinded randomized clinical trial (RCT. A total of 192 study patients will be recruited from the Twin Cities, MN (n = 122 and Quad Cities area in Iowa and Illinois (n = 70 to the research clinics at WHCCS and PCCR, respectively. It compares two interventions: chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy (SMT plus home exercise program (HEP to HEP alone (minimal intervention comparison for patients with subacute or chronic back-related leg pain. Discussion Back-related leg pain (BRLP is a costly and often disabling variation of the ubiquitous back pain conditions. As health care costs continue to climb, the search for effective treatments with few side-effects is critical. While SMT is the most commonly sought CAM treatment for LBP sufferers, there is only a small, albeit promising, body of research to support its use for patients with BRLP. This study seeks to fill a critical gap in the LBP literature by performing the first full scale RCT assessing chiropractic SMT for patients with sub-acute or chronic BRLP using important patient-oriented and objective biomechanical outcome measures. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00494065

  19. Standardized intermittent static exercise increases peritendinous blood flow in human leg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, Henning; Bülow, J; Kjaer, M

    1999-01-01

    . The radioactive isotope xenon-133 was injected just ventrally to the Achilles tendon 5 cm proximal to the tendon's insertion on the calcaneous. The disappearance of 133Xe was used to determine blood flow during intermittent static exercise of the calf muscle (1.5 s exercise/1.5 s rest) for 30 min at a workload...

  20. "Coveting thy neighbour's legs": a qualitative study of exercisers' experiences of intrinsic and extrinsic goal pursuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Standage, Martyn; Gillison, Fiona B; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2013-06-01

    Goals are central to exercise motivation, although not all goals (e.g., health vs. appearance goals) are equally psychologically or behaviorally adaptive. Within goal content theory (Vansteenkiste, Niemiec, & Soenens, 2010), goals are adaptive to the extent to which they satisfy psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. However, little is known about what exercisers pursuing different goals are feeling, doing, thinking, and paying attention to that may help to explain the association between goal contents and need satisfaction. Using semistructured interviews and interpretative phenomenological analysis, we explored experiences of exercise among 11 adult exercisers who reported pursuing either predominantly intrinsic or extrinsic goals. Four themes emerged: (a) observation of others and resulting emotions, (b) goal expectations and time perspective, (c) markers of progress and (d) reactions to (lack of) goal achievement. Intrinsic and extrinsic goal pursuers reported divergent experiences within these four domains. The findings illuminate potential mechanisms by which different goals may influence psychological and behavioral outcomes in the exercise context.

  1. Cardiovascular responses to exercise as functions of absolute and relative work load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S. F.; Taylor, W. F.; Graham, R. M.; Pettinger, W. A.; Schutte, J. E.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    1983-01-01

    The roles of absolute and relative oxygen uptake (VO2 and percent of muscle group specific VO2-max) as determinants of the cardiovascular and ventilatory responses to exercise over a wide range of active muscle mass are investigated. Experiments were conducted using four types of dynamic exercise: one-arm curl, one-arm cranking, and one and two-leg cycling at four different relative work loads (25, 50, 75, and 100 percent of VO2-max) for the corresponding muscle group. Results show that VO2 during maximal one-arm curl, one-arm cranking, and one-leg cycling averaged 20, 50, and 75 percent, respectively, of that for maximal two-leg cycling. Cardiac output was determined to be linearly related to VO2 with a similar slope and intercept for each type of exercise, and the heart rate at a given percent VO2-max was higher with larger active muscle mass. It is concluded that the cardiovascular responses to exercise was determined to a large extent by the active muscle mass and the absolute oxygen uptake, with the principal feature appearing to be the tight linkage between systematic oxygen transport and utilization.

  2. Dynamic phosphocreatine imaging with unlocalized pH assessment of the human lower leg muscle following exercise at 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khegai, Oleksandr; Madelin, Guillaume; Brown, Ryan; Parasoglou, Prodromos

    2017-05-30

    To develop a high temporal resolution imaging method that measures muscle-specific phosphocreatine (PCr) resynthesis time constant (τPCr ) and pH changes in muscles of the lower leg following exercise on a clinical 3T MRI scanner. We developed a frequency-selective 3D non-Cartesian FLORET sequence to measure PCr with 17-mm nominal isotropic resolution (28 mm actual resolution) and 6-s temporal resolution to capture dynamic metabolic muscle activity. The sequence was designed to additionally collect inorganic phosphate spectra for pH quantification, which were localized using sensitivity profiles of individual coil elements. Nineteen healthy volunteers were scanned while performing a plantar flexion exercise on an in-house developed ergometer. Data were acquired with a dual-tuned multichannel coil array that enabled phosphorus imaging and proton localization for muscle segmentation. After a 90-s plantar flexion exercise at 0.66 Hz with resistance set to 40% of the maximum voluntary contraction, τPCr was estimated at 22.9 ± 8.8 s (mean ± standard deviation) with statistical coefficient of determination r(2)  = 0.89 ± 0.05. The corresponding pH values after exercise were in the range of 6.9-7.1 in the gastrocnemius muscle. The developed technique allows measurement of muscle-specific PCr resynthesis kinetics and pH changes following exercise, with a temporal resolution and accuracy comparable to that of single voxel (31) P-MRS sequences. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  3. Comparison of the electromyographic activity, quadriceps: hamstring coactivation ratio and strength changes of dominant leg muscles in collegiate football and volleyball players during different forms of exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzila Taj; Subhra Chatterjee (Nee Karmakar)

    2015-01-01

    The preliminary study was aimed to compare Electromyographic (EMG) activity, Quadriceps: Hamstring coactivation (Q: H) ratio and 1- Repetition maximum (RM) squat changes of dominant leg muscles in collegiate football and volleyball players during different forms of exercises. Surface EMG analysis was carried out in 24 university level trained male players, football (n=12) and volleyball (n=12) while performing the following exercises: unilateral bridges, lunges, lateral step up to a 20.32 cm ...

  4. Relation between subjective and objective scores on the active straight leg raising test.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool-Goudzwaard, A.L.; Mens, Jan M A; Beekmans, RE; Tijhuis, MT

    2010-01-01

    DESIGN: Cross sectional. OBJECTIVE: To fill a gap in the validation of the active straight leg raising (ASLR) test concerning the relation between a patient's subjective score on the ASLR test and the objective measured force. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The ASLR test is used to classify patients

  5. Aquatic Exercise and Heat-Related Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sova, Ruth

    1991-01-01

    Heat-related injuries in aquatics classes are possible, though 100 percent preventable. The article discusses heat-related syndromes; how bodies generate and dissipate heat; how elevated heart rates that burn calories differ from those that dissipate heat; and modification of exercise intensity to provide calorie-burning workouts without…

  6. Pulmonary O2 uptake and leg blood flow kinetics during moderate exercise are slowed by hyperventilation-induced hypocapnic alkalosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Lisa M. K.; Heigenhauser, George J. F.; Paterson, Donald H.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of hyperventilation-induced hypocapnic alkalosis (Hypo) on the adjustment of pulmonary O2 uptake (V̇o2p) and leg femoral conduit artery (“bulk”) blood flow (LBF) during moderate-intensity exercise (Mod) was examined in eight young male adults. Subjects completed four to six repetitions of alternate-leg knee-extension exercise during normal breathing [Con; end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PetCO2) ∼40 mmHg] and sustained hyperventilation (Hypo; PetCO2 ∼20 mmHg). Increases in work rate were made instantaneously from baseline (3 W) to Mod (80% estimated lactate threshold). V̇o2p was measured breath by breath by mass spectrometry and volume turbine, and LBF (calculated from mean femoral artery blood velocity and femoral artery diameter) was measured simultaneously by Doppler ultrasound. Concentration changes of deoxy (Δ[HHb])-, oxy (Δ[O2Hb])-, and total hemoglobin-myoglobin (Δ[HbTot]) of the vastus lateralis muscle were measured continuously by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The kinetics of V̇o2p, LBF, and Δ[HHb] were modeled using a monoexponential equation by nonlinear regression. The time constants for the phase 2 V̇o2p (Hypo, 49 ± 26 s; Con, 28 ± 8 s) and LBF (Hypo, 46 ± 16 s; Con, 23 ± 6 s) were greater (P hyperventilation-induced hypocapnic alkalosis is associated with slower convective (i.e., slowed femoral artery and microvascular blood flow) and diffusive (i.e., greater fractional O2 extraction for a given ΔV̇o2p) O2 delivery, which may contribute to the hyperventilation-induced slowing of V̇o2p (and muscle O2 utilization) kinetics. PMID:20339012

  7. A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS COMPARING CARDIOPULMONARY EXERCISE TEST VALUES OBTAINED FROM THE ARM CYCLE AND THE LEG CYCLE RESPECTIVELY IN HEALTHY ADULTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus Tolstrup; Christensen, Jan; Tang, Lars Hermann

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) assesses maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and is commonly performed on a leg cycle ergometer (LC). However, some individuals would rather perform the CPET on an arm cycle ergometer (AC). OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to undertake...

  8. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Comparing Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test Values Obtained From the Arm Cycle and the Leg Cycle Respectively in Healthy Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus Tolstrup; Christensen, Jan; Tang, Lars Hermann

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) assesses maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and is commonly performed on a leg cycle ergometer (LC). However, some individuals would rather perform the CPET on an arm cycle ergometer (AC). OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to undertake...

  9. A systematic review and meta-analysis comparing cardiopulmonary exercise test values obtained from the arm cycle and the leg cycle respectively in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus Tolstrup; Christensen, Jan; Tang, Lars Hermann

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) assesses maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and is commonly performed on a leg cycle ergometer (LC). However, some individuals would rather perform the CPET on an arm cycle ergometer (AC). OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to undertake...

  10. Standardized intermittent static exercise increases peritendinous blood flow in human leg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, Henning; Bülow, J; Kjaer, M

    1999-01-01

    Alteration in tendinous and peritendinous blood flow during and after exercise is suggested to contribute to the development of Achilles tendon injury and inflammation. In the present study a method for evaluating the influence of standardized workload on peritendinous flow is presented. The radi......Alteration in tendinous and peritendinous blood flow during and after exercise is suggested to contribute to the development of Achilles tendon injury and inflammation. In the present study a method for evaluating the influence of standardized workload on peritendinous flow is presented...

  11. Muscle interstitial ATP and norepinephrine concentrations in the human leg during exercise and ATP infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan P.; Gonzalez-Alonso, Jose; Nielsen, Jens Jung

    2009-01-01

    ATP has been proposed to play multiple roles in local skeletal muscle blood flow regulation by inducing vasodilation and modulating sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity, but the mechanism remain unclear. Here we evaluated the effects of arterial ATP infusion and exercise on limb muscle interstitial...... local concentration. Key words: sympathetic nerve activity, vasodilation, endothelium, skeletal muscle....

  12. Circulatory response evoked by a 3 s bout of dynamic leg exercise in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieling, W.; Harms, M. P.; ten Harkel, A. D.; van Lieshout, J. J.; Sprangers, R. L.

    1996-01-01

    1. The mechanisms underlying the pronounced transient fall in arterial blood pressure evoked by a 3 s bout of bicycle exercise were investigated in twenty healthy young adults and four patients with hypoadrenergic orthostatic hypotension. 2. In healthy subjects a 3 s bout of upright cycling induced

  13. Exercise alleviates depression related systemic inflammation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Depression is a highly prevalent co-morbidity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) which was shown to be ... Conclusion: Aerobic exercise is an effective treatment policy to improve depression related to systemic inflammation in patients ... serotonin reuptake inhibitor) for the treatment of depres-.

  14. Effects of Quadriceps Strengthening Exercise on Quadriceps Muscle Strength and Its Relation to Lower Extremity Lean Mass

    OpenAIRE

    Istingadah Desiana; Marina Annette Moeliono; Tertianto Prabowo

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To discover whether quadriceps resistance exercise could increase quadriceps strength as well as its relation to lower extremity lean mass. Methods: This study was a pre- and post- experimental study in which 36 participants with knee OA grade 2 and 3 were recruited. Assesment of leg lean mass and quadriceps strength was taken before and after intervention. Participants practiced quadriceps isotonic resistance exercise 3 times a week for 8 weeks. This study was conducted ...

  15. Central and peripheral cardiovascular responses to electrically induced and voluntary leg exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltin, B.; Strange, S.; Bangsbo, J.; Kim, C. K.; Duvoisin, M.; Hargens, A.; Gollnick, P. D.

    1990-01-01

    With long missions in space countermeasures have to be used to secure safe operations in space and a safe return to Earth. Exercises of various forms have been used, but the question has arisen whether electrically induced contractions of muscle especially sensitive to weightlessness and crucial for man's performance would aid in maintaining their optimal function. The physiological responses both to short term and prolonged dynamic exercise performed either voluntarily or induced by electrical stimulation were considered. The local and systemic circulatory responses were similar for the voluntary and electrically induced contractions. The metabolic response was slightly more pronounced with electrical stimulation. This could be a reflection of not only slow twitch (type 1) but also fast twitch (type 2) fibers being recruited when the contractions were induced electrically. Intramuscular pressure recordings indicated that the dominant fraction of the muscle group was engaged regardless of mode of activation. Some 70 percent of the short term peak voluntary exercise capacity could be attained with electrical stimulation. Thus, electrically induced contractions of specific muscle groups should indeed be considered as an efficient countermeasure.

  16. Modeling the effect of tilting, passive leg exercise, and functional electrical stimulation on the human cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabadani Tafreshi, Amirehsan; Okle, Jan; Klamroth-Marganska, Verena; Riener, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Long periods of bed rest negatively affect the human body organs, notably the cardiovascular system. To avert these negative effects and promote functional recovery in patients dealing with prolonged bed rest, the goal is to mobilize them as early as possible while controlling and stabilizing their cardiovascular system. A robotic tilt table allows early mobilization by modulating body inclination, automated passive leg exercise, and the intensity of functional electrical stimulation applied to leg muscles (inputs). These inputs are used to control the cardiovascular variables heart rate (HR), and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (sBP, dBP) (outputs). To enhance the design of the closed-loop cardiovascular biofeedback controller, we investigated a subject-specific multi-input multi-output (MIMO) black-box model describing the relationship between the inputs and outputs. For identification of the linear part of the system, two popular linear model structures-the autoregressive model with exogenous input and the output error model-are examined and compared. The estimation algorithm is tested in simulation and then used in four study protocols with ten healthy participants to estimate transfer functions of HR, sBP and dBP to the inputs. The results show that only the HR transfer functions to inclination input can explain the variance in the data to a reasonable extent (on average 69.8%). As in the other input types, the responses are nonlinear; the models are either not reliable or explain only a negligible amount of the observed variance. Analysis of both, the nonlinearities and the occasionally occurring zero-crossings, is necessary before designing an appropriate MIMO controller for mobilization of bedridden patients.

  17. Ulcer-related problems and health care needs in patients with venous leg ulceration: a descriptive, cross-sectional study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, M.M.; Persoon, A.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Otero, M.; Achterberg, T. van

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with leg ulceration often have long lasting and recurrent wounds. The treatment exists mainly of wound-care and compression therapy. International literature shows several indications of problems in relation to leg ulceration, but no studies were performed to give a

  18. Classification of low back-related leg pain: do subgroups differ in disability and psychosocial factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jeremy; Hall, Toby

    2009-01-01

    It has been proposed that patients with low back-related leg pain can be classified according to pain mechanisms into four distinct subgroups: Central Sensitization (CS), Denervation (D), Peripheral Nerve Sensitization (PNS), and Musculoskeletal (M). The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were any differences in terms of disability and psychosocial factors between these four subgroups. Forty-five subjects with low back-related leg pain completed the Oswestry Disability Index, the hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire. Subsequently, an examiner blinded to the questionnaire results classified the subjects into one of the four subgroups, according to the findings of the self-administered Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Signs and Symptoms questionnaire and a physical examination. It was found that the PNS subgroup had significantly greater disability compared to all other subgroups and significantly greater fear avoidance beliefs about physical activity compared to the CS and D subgroups. This highlights the importance of sub-classification but also the need to take into account disability and psychosocial factors in the management of low back-related leg pain.

  19. Improvement in upper leg muscle strength underlies beneficial effects of exercise therapy in knee osteoarthritis: secondary analysis from a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoop, J; Steultjens, M P M; Roorda, L D; Lems, W F; van der Esch, M; Thorstensson, C A; Twisk, J W R; Bierma-Zeinstra, S M A; van der Leeden, M; Dekker, J

    2015-06-01

    Although exercise therapy is effective for reducing pain and activity limitations in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), the underlying mechanisms are unclear. This study aimed to evaluate if improvements in neuromuscular factors (i.e. upper leg muscle strength and knee proprioception) underlie the beneficial effects of exercise therapy in patients with knee OA. Secondary analyses from a randomised controlled trial, with measurements at baseline, 6 weeks, 12 weeks and 38 weeks. Rehabilitation centre. One hundred and fifty-nine patients diagnosed with knee OA. Exercise therapy. Changes in pain [numeric rating scale (NRS)] and activity limitations [Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) physical function subscale and get-up-and-go test] during the study period. Independent variables were changes in upper leg muscle strength and knee joint proprioception (i.e. motion sense) during the study period. Longitudinal regression analyses (generalised estimating equation) were performed to analyse associations between changes in upper leg muscle strength and knee proprioception with changes in pain and activity limitations. Improved muscle strength was significantly associated with reductions in NRS pain {B coefficient -2.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) -3.7 to -1.4], meaning that every change of 1 unit of strength was linked to a change of -2.5 units of pain}, WOMAC physical function (-8.8, 95% CI -13.4 to -4.2) and get-up-and-go test (-1.7, 95% CI -2.4 to -1.0). Improved proprioception was not significantly associated with better outcomes of exercise therapy (P>0.05). Upper leg muscle strengthening is one of the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise therapy in patients with knee OA. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The relative contributions of anthropometric variables to vertical jumping ability and leg power in Tunisian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouichaoui, Chirine; Trabelsi, Yassine; Bouhlel, Ezzdine; Tabka, Zouhair; Dogui, Mohamed; Richalet, Jean Paul; Buvry, Annick Bouchez

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relative contributions of anthropometric variables to vertical jumping ability and leg power and to establish reference values of vertical jumping parameters in athletic Tunisian children aged 7-13 years in both sexes. Three hundred and ninety-one athletic Tunisian children (208 boys and 183 girls) aged 7-13 years were randomly selected to participate in our study. They were asked to perform squat jumps and countermovement jumps. Jump heights and leg power were simultaneously provided by the optojump device. Full and stepwise regression models were calculated to identify which anthropometric parameters significantly contributed to performance variables. The multiple regressions showed that age, weight, standing height and fat-free mass were the predictors of jumping performance. The results may help in verifying the effectiveness of a specific training program and detecting highly talented athletes.

  1. Exercise, sleep and cancer-related fatigue: Are they related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medysky, Mary E; Temesi, John; Culos-Reed, Susan Nicole; Millet, Guillaume Y

    2017-04-01

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a commonly reported and debilitating side effect of cancer and/or cancer treatment. Sleep disorders are also highly reported in the cancer population; however it is unknown if sleep is associated with fatigue. In the general population, exercise has been shown to improve sleep, however in the cancer population this idea is under investigation. The primary purposes of this review were to: (i) review the prevalence and causes of sleep disorders in cancer patients and survivors, (ii) examine the relationship between sleep and CRF and (iii) review the impact of exercise interventions on sleep in cancer patients and survivors. A scoping review of the literature was conducted regarding exercise interventions in cancer patients and survivors with sleep as at least one outcome measure. A search of the literature revealed limited studies (n=21) assessing the effect of exercise on sleep disorders in the cancer population. Methodological issues are evident because assessing sleep is often not the main outcome of interest. The reviewed studies revealed that exercise positively impacts sleep quality and quantity. There seems to be possible relationship between sleep disorders, exercise and CRF. Further investigation of this relationship is necessary, specifically using objective measurement tools, in large, controlled studies, focusing on sleep as the primary outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. A randomised study of home-based electrical stimulation of the legs and conventional bicycle exercise training for patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Stuart; LeMaitre, John P; Mackenzie, Graham; Fox, Keith A A; Denvir, Martin A

    2003-05-01

    Recent guidelines recommend regular exercise in the management of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). This study was designed to compare the safety and efficacy of conventional bicycle exercise and functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the legs as forms of home-based exercise training for patients with stable CHF. Forty-six patients (38 male) with stable NYHA Class II/III heart failure underwent a 6-week training programme using either a bicycle ergometer or electrical stimulation of the quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles. In the bike group, significant increases were seen in 6-min walk (44.6m, 95% confidence interval (CI) 29.3-60.9 m), treadmill exercise time (110 s, 95% CI 72.2-148.0 s), maximum leg strength (5.32 kg, 95% CI 3.18-7.45 kg), and quadriceps fatigue index (0.08, 95% CI 0.04-0.12) following training. In the stimulator group, similar significant increases were seen following training for 6-min walk (40.6m, 95% CI 28.2-53.0m), treadmill exercise time (67 s, 95% CI 11.8-121.8s), maximum leg strength (5.35 kg, 95% CI 1.53-9.17 kg), and quadriceps fatigue index (0.10, 95% CI 0.04-0.17). Peak VO(2)did not change in either group following training, indicating a low-intensity regime. Quality of life scores improved following training when the bicycle and stimulator groups were considered together, but not when considered separately (-0.43, 95% CI -8.13 to -0.56). FES produces beneficial changes in muscle performance and exercise capacity in patients with CHF. Within this study, the benefits were similar to those observed following bicycle training. FES could be offered to patients with heart failure as an alternative to bicycle training as part of a home-based rehabilitation programme.

  3. Comparison of Abdominal Muscle Activity in Relation to Knee Angles during Abdominal Drawing-in Exercises Using Pressure Biofeedback

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Jun-Cheol; Lee, Su-Kyoung; Kim, Kyoung

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The leg angles that are the most effective for abdominal muscle activation were investigated by performing abdominal drawing-in exercises at different leg angles with a biofeedback pressure unit. [Methods...

  4. Variability of leg kinematics in free-walking crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, and related inter-joint coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamon; Clarac

    1997-01-01

    The inter-joint coordination in leg 4 of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii was investigated while they travelled freely along straight paths. Video analysis of the kinematics of the leg's three-dimensional motion, combined with a statistical method based on conjugate cross-correlation functions, showed stable inter-joint coordination in the leg kinematics. In particular, the inter-joint coordination involved a strong movement in the distal mero-carpopodite (M-C) joint occurring between the movements of the proximal thoraco-coxopodite and coxo-basal joints; thus, the leg extended during the swing phase and flexed during the stance phase. This synchronisation was mainly independent of global changes in the locomotor pattern induced by variation in speed or contralateral inter-leg coupling which occurred during free walking. The main changes in inter-joint coordination were found to be related to the appearance of a biphasic flexion/extension movement during each stroke of the step cycle when the leg retracted far backwards. This movement was observed more frequently in large animals and was therefore possibly related to changes in postural control. The functional role of this distal M-C joint movement in the leg motion is discussed.

  5. Effects of Shoes and a Prefabricated Medial Arch Support on Medial Gastrocnemius and Tibialis Anterior Activity while doing Leg Press Exercise in Normal Feet Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sheikhi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, different types of exercise machines are being used in the field of athletic training, recreation, post-injury and post-operation rehabilitation. Leg press is a commonly-used one that retrains muscles and simulates natural functional activities. In this activity, feet are in contact with a footrest to exert muscular forces. In addition, the footrest inserts reactive forces to feet and from the feet load would transfer to structures that are more proximal. Any misalignment in foot structure may interfere its function. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of shoes and using a prefabricated medial arch support on the activity of Tibialis anterior and medial gastrocnemius muscles while doing leg press exercise in normal feet subjects. Method: 14 men with normal Medial Longitudinal Arch and normal Body Mass Index aged between 18-35 years old, with at least 6 months experience of doing leg press volunteered to participate in this study.  Medial gastrocnemius and Tibialis anterior activity were measured by surface electromyography while doing leg press with 70% of subjects 1 Repetition Maximum.  To increase accuracy, motion was divided into knee flexion and knee extension phases. Peak Amplitude, Time to Peak Amplitude and Root Mean Square variables were used for analysis. Wilcoxon nonparametric test was used to compare the results. Results: No statistically significant difference was found in the electromyographic parameters of Medial gastrocnemius nor Tibialis anterior in any phases of motion, except for an increase in Tibialis anterior time to peak amplitude in shod condition compared with barefoot in knee extension phase of motion (p-value=0.008 and Tibialis anterior RMS in knee flexion phase in orthotic condition compared to shod (p-value=0.03. Conclusion: It seems that in high loads shoes or medial arch supports cannot change electromyographic parameters in Medial gastrocnemius nor Tibialis anterior in

  6. The Relation of Arm Exercise Peak Heart Rate to Stress Test Results and Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Hong; Liu, Weijian; Marshall, Cynthia; Chandiramani, Pooja; Bainter, Emily; Martin, Wade H

    2016-09-01

    Arm exercise is an alternative to pharmacologic stress testing for >50% of patients unable to perform treadmill exercise, but no data exist regarding the effect of attained peak arm exercise heart rate on test sensitivity. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to characterize the relationship of peak arm exercise heart rate responses to abnormal stress test findings, coronary revascularization, and mortality in patients unable to perform leg exercise. From 1997 until 2002, arm cycle ergometer stress tests were performed in 443 consecutive veterans age 64.1 yr (11.0 yr) (mean (SD)), of whom 253 also underwent myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Patients were categorized by frequency distributions of quartiles of percentage age-predicted peak heart rate (APPHR), heart rate reserve (HRR), and peak heart rate-systolic blood pressure product (PRPP). Exercise-induced ST-segment depression, abnormal MPI findings, coronary revascularization, and 12.0-yr (1.3 yr) Kaplan-Meier all-cause and cardiovascular mortality plots were then characterized by quartiles of APPHR, HRR, and PRPP. A reduced frequency of abnormal arm exercise ECG results was associated only with the lowest quartile of APPHR (≤69%) and HRR (≤43%), whereas higher frequency of abnormal MPI findings exhibited an inverse relationship trend with lower APPHR (P = 0.10) and HRR (P = 0.12). There was a strong inverse association of APPHR, HRR, and PRPP with all-cause (all P ≤ 0.01) and cardiovascular (P Arm exercise ECG stress test sensitivity is only reduced at ≤69% APPHR or ≤43% HRR, whereas arm exercise MPI sensitivity and referral for coronary revascularization after arm exercise stress testing are not adversely affected by even a severely blunted peak heart rate. However, both all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality are strongly and inversely related to APPHR and HRR.

  7. Effects of concentric and eccentric control exercise on gross motor function and balance ability of paretic leg in children with spastic hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su-Ik; Kim, Mi-Sun; Choi, Jong-Duk

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study examines the effect of concentric and eccentric control training of the paretic leg on balance and gross motor function in children with spastic hemiplegia. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty children with spastic hemiplegia were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, 20 min of neurodevelopmental therapy and 20 min of concentric and eccentric control exercise were applied to the paretic leg. In the control group, 40 min of neurodevelopmental therapy was applied. The Pediatric Balance Scale test and standing and gait items of the Gross Motor Function Measure were evaluated before and after intervention. [Results] In the experimental group, Gross Motor Function Measure and Pediatric Balance Scale scores statistically significantly increased after the intervention. The control group showed no statistically significant difference in either score after the intervention. [Conclusion] Concentric and eccentric control exercise therapy in children with spastic hemiplegia can be effective in improving gross motor function and balance ability, and can be used to solve functional problems in a paretic leg.

  8. Pronounced effects of acute endurance exercise on gene expression in resting and exercising human skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milène Catoire

    Full Text Available Regular physical activity positively influences whole body energy metabolism and substrate handling in exercising muscle. While it is recognized that the effects of exercise extend beyond exercising muscle, it is unclear to what extent exercise impacts non-exercising muscles. Here we investigated the effects of an acute endurance exercise bouts on gene expression in exercising and non-exercising human muscle. To that end, 12 male subjects aged 44-56 performed one hour of one-legged cycling at 50% W(max. Muscle biopsies were taken from the exercising and non-exercising leg before and immediately after exercise and analyzed by microarray. One-legged cycling raised plasma lactate, free fatty acids, cortisol, noradrenalin, and adrenalin levels. Surprisingly, acute endurance exercise not only caused pronounced gene expression changes in exercising muscle but also in non-exercising muscle. In the exercising leg the three most highly induced genes were all part of the NR4A family. Remarkably, many genes induced in non-exercising muscle were PPAR targets or related to PPAR signalling, including PDK4, ANGPTL4 and SLC22A5. Pathway analysis confirmed this finding. In conclusion, our data indicate that acute endurance exercise elicits pronounced changes in gene expression in non-exercising muscle, which are likely mediated by changes in circulating factors such as free fatty acids. The study points to a major influence of exercise beyond the contracting muscle.

  9. Effect of voluntary hyperventilation with supplemental CO2 on pulmonary O2 uptake and leg blood flow kinetics during moderate-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Lisa M K; Heigenhauser, George J F; Paterson, Donald H; Kowalchuk, John M

    2013-12-01

    Pulmonary O2 uptake (V(O₂p)) and leg blood flow (LBF) kinetics were examined at the onset of moderate-intensity exercise, during hyperventilation with and without associated hypocapnic alkalosis. Seven male subjects (25 ± 6 years old; mean ± SD) performed alternate-leg knee-extension exercise from baseline to moderate-intensity exercise (80% of estimated lactate threshold) and completed four to six repetitions for each of the following three conditions: (i) control [CON; end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (P(ET, CO₂)) ~40 mmHg], i.e. normal breathing with normal inspired CO2 (0.03%); (ii) hypocapnia (HYPO; P(ET, CO₂) ~20 mmHg), i.e. sustained hyperventilation with normal inspired CO2 (0.03%); and (iii) normocapnia (NORMO; P(ET, CO₂) ~40 mmHg), i.e. sustained hyperventilation with elevated inspired CO2 (~5%). The V(O₂p) was measured breath by breath using mass spectrometry and a volume turbine. Femoral artery mean blood velocity was measured by Doppler ultrasound, and LBF was calculated from femoral artery diameter and mean blood velocity. Phase 2 V(O₂p) kinetics (τV(O₂p)) was different (P hyperventilation manoeuvre itself (i.e. independent of induced hypocapnic alkalosis) may contribute to the slower V(O₂p) kinetics observed during HYPO.

  10. Application of a Web-Enabled Leg Training System for the Objective Monitoring and Quantitative Analysis of Exercise-Induced Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedov, Vadim N; Dedova, Irina V

    2016-08-22

    Sustained cardiac rehabilitation is the key intervention in the prevention and treatment of many human diseases. However, implementation of exercise programs can be challenging because of early fatigability in patients with chronic diseases, overweight individuals, and aged people. Current methods of fatigability assessment are based on subjective self-reporting such as rating of perceived exertion or require specialized laboratory conditions and sophisticated equipment. A practical approach allowing objective measurement of exercise-induced fatigue would be useful for the optimization of sustained delivery of cardiac rehabilitation to improve patient outcomes. The objective of this study is to develop and validate an innovative approach, allowing for the objective assessment of exercise-induced fatigue using the Web-enabled leg rehabilitation system. MedExercise training devices were equipped with wireless temperature sensors in order to monitor their usage by temperature rise in the resistance unit (Δ t °). Since Δ t ° correlated with the intensity and duration of exercise, this parameter was used to characterize participants' leg work output (LWO). Personal smart devices such as laptop computers with wireless gateways and relevant software were used for monitoring of self-control training. Connection of smart devices to the Internet and cloud-based software allowed remote monitoring of LWO in participants training at home. Heart rates (HRs) were measured by fingertip pulse oximeters simultaneously with Δ t ° in 7 healthy volunteers. Exercise-induced fatigue manifested as the decline of LWO and/or rising HR, which could be observed in real-time. Conversely, training at the steady-state LWO and HR for the entire duration of exercise bout was considered as fatigue-free. The amounts of recommended daily physical activity were expressed as the individual Δ t ° values reached during 30-minute fatigue-free exercise of moderate intensity resulting in a mean of 8

  11. The effects of compensatory workplace exercises to reduce work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Cristina Taubert de Freitas-Swerts

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to assess the effect of a compensatory workplace exercise program on workers with the purpose of reducing work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain.METHOD: quasi-experimental research with quantitative analysis of the data, involving 30 administrative workers from a Higher Education Public Institution. For data collection, questionnaires were used to characterize the workers, as well as the Workplace Stress Scale and the Corlett Diagram. The research took place in three stages: first: pre-test with the application of the questionnaires to the subjects; second: Workplace Exercise taking place twice a week, for 15 minutes, during a period of 10 weeks; third: post-test in which the subjects answered the questionnaires again. For data analysis, the descriptive statistics and non-parametric statistics were used through the Wilcoxon Test.RESULTS: work-related stress was present in the assessed workers, but there was no statistically significant reduction in the scores after undergoing Workplace Exercise. However, there was a statistically significant pain reduction in the neck, cervical, upper, middle and lower back, right thigh, left leg, right ankle and feet.CONCLUSION: the Workplace Exercise promoted a significant pain reduction in the spine, but did not result in a significant reduction in the levels of work-related stress.

  12. Exercise-related hypoglycemia in diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Younk, Lisa M.; Mikeladze, Maia; Tate, Donna; Davis, Stephen N

    2011-01-01

    Current recommendations are that people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus exercise regularly. However, in cases in which insulin or insulin secretagogues are used to manage diabetes, patients have an increased risk of developing hypoglycemia, which is amplified during and after exercise. Repeated episodes of hypoglycemia blunt autonomic nervous system, neuroendocrine and metabolic defenses (counter-regulatory responses) against subsequent episodes of falling blood glucose levels during...

  13. Cross-cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Exercise-Induced Leg Pain Questionnaire for English- and Greek-Speaking Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korakakis, Vasileios; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Baliotis, Konstantinos; Papadopoulou, Sofia; Padhiar, Nat; Nauck, Tanja; Lohrer, Heinz

    2015-06-01

    Clinical measurement. To translate the German version of the Exercise-Induced Leg Pain Questionnaire (EILP-G) to Greek and English and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Greek version. The EILP-G was developed to evaluate the severity of symptoms and sports ability in individuals with exercise-induced leg pain (EILP). Translation of the questionnaire to other languages will provide a standard outcome measure across populations. The EILP-G questionnaire was cross-culturally adapted to Greek and English, according to established guidelines. The validity and reliability of the Greek version were assessed in 40 patients with EILP, 40 patients with other lower extremity injuries, 40 track-and-field athletes with no history of EILP, and 40 young adults without pathology. Participants completed the questionnaire at baseline and again after 7 to 10 days. The expert committee and the participants considered the questionnaire to have good face and content validity. Concurrent validity as assessed using the Schepsis score was almost perfect (rho = 0.947, PGreek version exhibited excellent test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.995 for the EILP group) and internal consistency (Cronbach α = .942 for the EILP group). Finally, no ceiling or floor effects were found, as none of the individuals with EILP scored the maximum or minimum possible values on the questionnaire. The Greek version, adapted from the original EILP-G, is a valid and reliable questionnaire, and its psychometric properties are comparable with the original version.

  14. Relationship between functional assessments and exercise-related changes during static balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Daniel R; Harrison, Blain C; Hertel, Jay; Hart, Joseph M

    2013-04-01

    The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is currently used for injury risk prediction, although researchers have not studied its relationships to injury risk factors. The purpose of this study was to compare FMS scores at rest to changes in static balance after exercise. Second, we examined FMS scores pre and post exercise. Twenty-five participants performed center of pressure (COP) measures and FMS testing. An acclimatization session for the FMS occurred on day 1, whereas day 2 involved COP measures for static balance and FMS testing before and after a 36-minute exercise protocol. Center of pressure standard deviations in the frontal (COPML-SD) and sagittal (COPAP-SD) planes, center of pressure velocity (COP-Velocity), center of pressure area (COP-Area), and FMS scores were recorded. No significant correlations occurred between preexercise FMS scores and change in COP measures. Preexercise hurdle step scores related to preexercise COPML-SD (p = -0.46), COPAP-SD (p = -0.43), and COP-Area (p = -0.50). Preexercise in-line lunge scores related to postexercise COPAP-SD (p = -0.44) and COP-Velocity (p = -0.39), whereas preexercise active straight leg raise (ASLR) scores related to postexercise COPML-SD (p = -0.46). Functional Movement Screen scores were not related to changes in static balance after exercise and may therefore not be useful to predict who will experience greater static balance deficits after exercise. Additionally, FMS scores did not differ before and after exercise. Clinicians aiming to identify injury risk from a general static balance standpoint may find the hurdle step, in-line lunge, and ASLR useful. Clinicians aiming to identify injury risk from a change in static balance standpoint may need to explore other screening tools.

  15. Muscle ion transporters and antioxidative proteins have different adaptive potential in arm than in leg skeletal muscle with exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Nielsen, Tobias Schmidt; Weihe, Pál

    2017-01-01

    premenopausal women aged 45 ± 6 years (mean ± SD) were randomized into a high-intensity intermittent swimming group (HIS, n = 21), a moderate-intensity swimming group (MOS, n = 21), a soccer group (SOC, n = 21), or a control group (CON, n = 20). Intervention groups completed three weekly training sessions......It was evaluated whether upper-body compared to lower-body musculature exhibits a different phenotype in relation to capacity for handling reactive oxygen species (ROS), H(+), La(-), Na(+), K(+) and also whether it differs in adaptive potential to exercise training. Eighty-three sedentary...... for 15 weeks, and pre- and postintervention biopsies were obtained from deltoideus and vastus lateralis muscle. Before training, monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4), Na(+)/K(+) pump α2, and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) expressions were lower (P

  16. Exercise-related complications in sickle cell trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripette, Julien; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Romana, Marc; Hue, Olivier; Diaw, Mor; Samb, Abdoulaye; Diop, Saliou; Connes, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    This review presents the epidemiological data regarding the exercise-related complication in exercising sickle cell trait carriers, and focuses on the different potential mechanisms that could be involved in these adverse events, such as hemorheological alterations, inflammation, vascular adhesion of circulating blood cells, oxidative stress and impaired nitric oxide metabolism. We also discuss the effects of different modulating factors such as vascular function, environment (hot temperature), hydration status, physical fitness, exercise intensity and genetic factors.

  17. Leg pain location and neurological signs relate to outcomes in primary care patients with low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Lisbeth; Hestbæk, Lise; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    Background Low back pain (LBP) patients with related leg pain and signs of nerve root involvement are considered to have a worse prognosis than patients with LBP alone. However, it is unclear whether leg pain location above or below the knee and the presence of neurological signs are important...... in primary care patients. The objectives of this study were to explore whether the four Quebec Task Force categories (QTFC) based on the location of pain and on neurological signs have different characteristics at the time of care seeking, whether these QTFC are associated with outcome, and if so whether......, across LBP with leg pain above the knee and below the knee to LBP with nerve root involvement. However, the variation within the categories was considerable. Conclusion The QTFC identify different LBP subgroups at baseline and there is a consistent ranking of the four categories with respect to outcomes...

  18. Leg pain location and neurological signs relate to outcomes in primary care patients with low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Lisbeth; Hestbæk, Lise; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP) patients with related leg pain and signs of nerve root involvement are considered to have a worse prognosis than patients with LBP alone. However, it is unclear whether leg pain location above or below the knee and the presence of neurological signs are important...... in primary care patients. The objectives of this study were to explore whether the four Quebec Task Force categories (QTFC) based on the location of pain and on neurological signs have different characteristics at the time of care seeking, whether these QTFC are associated with outcome, and if so whether......, across LBP with leg pain above the knee and below the knee to LBP with nerve root involvement. However, the variation within the categories was considerable. CONCLUSION: The QTFC identify different LBP subgroups at baseline and there is a consistent ranking of the four categories with respect to outcomes...

  19. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... slow full movements. Repeat 10-15 times, to fatigue... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both ... Return leg and extend other leg. Repeat to fatigue, about 10-15 repetitions at a slow and ...

  20. Working memory deficit in patients with restless legs syndrome: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Min; Choi, Jeong Woo; Lee, Chany; Lee, Byeong Uk; Koo, Yong Seo; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Jung, Ki-Young

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a working memory (WM) deficit in restless legs syndrome (RLS) patients, by studying the Sternberg WM task of event-related potential (ERP). Thirteen drug-naive RLS patients and 13 healthy age-matched controls with no sleep disturbances participated in the present study. P300 ERP was recorded during Sternberg WM task using digits as mnemonic items. P300 amplitudes and reaction times were compared between groups (RLS vs. control) considering brain regions (frontal, central, and parietal) and memory load sizes (two, three, and four) as within-subject factors. Clinical and sleep-related variables were correlated with P300 amplitude. The reaction time in RLS patients was significantly longer than controls over all memory load sizes. The P300 amplitude at parietal regions in RLS patients was significantly lower than in controls regardless of memory load sizes, which was significantly negatively correlated with duration of RLS history in RLS patients. Our study suggests that patients with severe RLS have WM deficits. Furthermore, negative correlation of P300 amplitudes with the duration of RLS illness suggests that cerebral cortical dysfunction in RLS patients results from repeated RLS symptom attacks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Transfer Relation between the Compression Test Rig and the Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) Lower Leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Compression Test Rig (CTR) that is capable of evaluating the effectiveness of the blast-mitigating floor mat against assessed lower leg injury. The CTR...blast-mitigating floor mat, Evaluation methodology, Drop test 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18...mitigating floor mats are effective means for reducing the severity of lower leg injury.5–7 Until now, it has been necessary to conduct the loading test with

  2. Biomechanical differences related to leg dominance were not found during a cutting task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greska, E K; Cortes, N; Ringleb, S I; Onate, J A; Van Lunen, B L

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies have shown conflicting information regarding leg dominance as an etiological factor for the risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. It remains unclear if lower extremity neuromechanical limb asymmetries exist in experienced athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate lower extremity neuromechanical effects of leg dominance in female collegiate soccer athletes during an unanticipated side-step cutting task. Twenty female collegiate soccer players completed an unanticipated side-step cutting task, using their dominant and non-dominant legs. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected to quantify joint angles and forces, with wireless electromyography (EMG) quantifying muscle activity. MANOVA's were conducted to determine the effect of leg dominance on hip and knee mechanics at and between pre-contact, initial contact, peak knee adduction moment, and peak stance periods. Dependent variables consisted of peak time occurrences, hip and knee rotations and moments, ground reaction force, EMG amplitudes, stance time, and approach velocity. No significant differences were found for any variables at or between the periods of interest. Collegiate female soccer athletes exhibit similar movement patterns between dominant and non-dominant legs while performing a side-step cutting task, suggesting that leg dominance does not adversely influence known biomechanical non-contact ACL risk factors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A comparative overview of exercise and health related professions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The numerous employment opportunities being advertised internationally in exercise and health related professions are actively being pursued by many South African biokineticists. Therefore, the overlap in the scope of practice among the professions of athletic training, clinical exercise physiology and biokinetics needs to ...

  4. Exercise-related respiratory symptoms and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in industrial bakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minov, Jordan B; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka D; Vasilevska, Kristin V; Stoleski, Saso B; Mijakoski, Dragan G

    2013-01-01

    In order to assess prevalence and characteristics of exercise-related respiratory symptoms (ERRS) and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in industrial bakery, the authors performed a cross-sectional study including 57 bakers and an equal number of office workers studied as a control. Evaluation of examined subjects included completion of a questionnaire, skin prick tests to common inhalant and occupational allergens, spirometry, and exercise and histamine challenge. The authors found a similar prevalence of ERRS and EIB in both bakers and controls. EIB was significantly associated with atopy, asthma, family history of asthma, and positive histamine challenge in either group, whereas in bakers it was closely related to sensitization to occupational allergens (p = .032). Bronchial reaction to exercise was significantly higher in bakers with EIB (25.7% vs 19.2%; p = .021). These findings suggest that occupational exposure in industrial bakery may accentuate bronchoconstrictive response to exercise.

  5. Pain and health-related quality of life in people with chronic leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopman, W M; Buchanan, M; VanDenKerkhof, E G; Harrison, M B

    2013-06-01

    Venous leg ulceration is associated with pain and poor health-related quality of life (HRQL). The purpose of this study was to identify demographic and clinical characteristics associated with pain and decreased HRQL in patients with active venous ulcers. Baseline data were combined from two trials that took place between 2001 and 2007 (n = 564). Pain was measured using the Numeric Pain Scale (NPS), and HRQL was measured using the Medical Outcomes Survey 12-item Short Form (SF-12), which generates a Physical (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS). Analyses included logistic and linear regression (for pain and HRQL, respectively). Mean age was 66.5 years; 47% were male. Median NPS score was 2.2 (out of 10) and mean PCS and MCS scores were 38.0 and 50.5, respectively (scores are standardized to a mean of 50 representing average HRQL). Younger age, living with others, and arthritis were associated with pain. Poorer PCS was associated with being female, venous/mixed ulcer etiology, larger ulcers, longer ulcer duration, cardiovascular disease, arthritis and higher pain intensity. Poorer MCS was associated with younger age, longer ulcer duration, comorbidity and higher pain intensity. Research is needed to test strategies to reduce pain and possibly improve HRQL in high risk groups.

  6. Burden of restless legs syndrome on health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushida, Clete; Martin, Marie; Nikam, Prashant; Blaisdell, Bonnie; Wallenstein, Gene; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Ware, John E

    2007-05-01

    To quantify the total and unique burden of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) on patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The disease burden that RLS places on HRQoL was estimated by comparing Short-Form (SF-36) scores between individuals with RLS and several patient and general populations in the US. Regression methods were applied to estimate SF-36 normative values from the general population sample and statistically adjust them to match age, gender and disease comorbidity characteristics of the RLS sample. Significance tests were then used to compare the means across samples. All SF-36 measures were significantly below adjusted US general population norms. Five of the eight scales (physical functioning, role physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality) were below US norms by 0.8 or more standard deviations (SD), while the remaining three (social functioning, role emotional, mental health) were 0.5 SD below norm. The burden of RLS was greater on physical than on mental/emotional HRQoL (physical and mental summary scores were 1.08 and 0.40 SD below norm, respectively), and greater than that observed for type-2 diabetes. After controlling for the impact of age, gender, and disease comorbidity, RLS was associated with unique burden on both physical and mental aspects of HRQoL.

  7. Effect of exercise-induced enhancement of the leg-extensor muscle-tendon unit capacities on ambulatory mechanics and knee osteoarthritis markers in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanidis, Kiros; Oberländer, Kai Daniel; Niehoff, Anja; Epro, Gaspar; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Leg-extensor muscle weakness could be a key component in knee joint degeneration in the elderly because it may result in altered muscular control during locomotion influencing the mechanical environment within the joint. This work aimed to examine whether an exercise-induced enhancement of the triceps surae (TS) and quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle-tendon unit (MTU) capacities would affect mechanical and biological markers for knee osteoarthritis in the elderly. Twelve older women completed a 14-week TS and QF MTU exercise intervention, which had already been established as increasing muscle strength and tendon stiffness. Locomotion mechanics and serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) levels were examined during incline walking. MTU mechanical properties were assessed using simultaneously ultrasonography and dynamometry. Post exercise intervention, the elderly had higher TS and QF contractile strength and tendon-aponeurosis stiffness. Regarding the incline gait task, the subjects demonstrated a lower external knee adduction moment and lower knee adduction angular impulse during the stance phase post-intervention. Furthermore, post-intervention compared to pre-intervention, the elderly showed lower external hip adduction moment, but revealed higher plantarflexion pushoff moment. The changes in the external knee adduction moment were significantly correlated with the improvement in ankle pushoff function. Serum COMP concentration increased in response to the 0.5-h incline walking exercise with no differences in the magnitude of increment between pre- and post-intervention. This work emphasizes the important role played by the ankle pushoff function in knee joint mechanical loading during locomotion, and may justify the inclusion of the TS MTU in prevention programs aiming to positively influence specific mechanical markers for knee osteoarthritis in the elderly. However, the study was unable to show that COMP is amenable to change in the elderly following a

  8. The effects of squat exercises in postures for toilet use on blood flow velocity of the leg vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Jun Ho; Chung, Sin Ho; Shim, Jae Hun

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of squat exercises performed in toilet-using postures on the blood flow velocity of the lower extremities for the prevention of deep vein thrombosis. [Subjects] The subjects were 28 students who were attending B University in Cheonan. They were divided into a group of 14 subjects of sitting toilet users and a group of 14 subjects of squat toilet users. [Methods] The subjects performed squat exercises in different toilet-using postures and we investigated the changes in blood flow velocity. [Results] The variations in blood flow velocities before and after the exercises showed significant differences in both groups but the differences between the two groups were not significant. [Conclusion] Based on the results of this study, we consider squat exercises are effective at improving the variation in lower-extremity blood flow velocity when using a toilet.

  9. Methods of prescribing relative exercise intensity: physiological and practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Theresa; Lamberts, Robert Patrick; Lambert, Michael Ian

    2013-07-01

    Exercise prescribed according to relative intensity is a routine feature in the exercise science literature and is intended to produce an approximately equivalent exercise stress in individuals with different absolute exercise capacities. The traditional approach has been to prescribe exercise intensity as a percentage of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) or maximum heart rate (HRmax) and these methods remain common in the literature. However, exercise intensity prescribed at a %VO2max or %HRmax does not necessarily place individuals at an equivalent intensity above resting levels. Furthermore, some individuals may be above and others below metabolic thresholds such as the aerobic threshold (AerT) or anaerobic threshold (AnT) at the same %VO2max or %HRmax. For these reasons, some authors have recommended that exercise intensity be prescribed relative to oxygen consumption reserve (VO2R), heart rate reserve (HRR), the AerT, or the AnT rather than relative to VO2max or HRmax. The aim of this review was to compare the physiological and practical implications of using each of these methods of relative exercise intensity prescription for research trials or training sessions. It is well established that an exercise bout at a fixed %VO2max or %HRmax may produce interindividual variation in blood lactate accumulation and a similar effect has been shown when relating exercise intensity to VO2R or HRR. Although individual variation in other markers of metabolic stress have seldom been reported, it is assumed that these responses would be similarly heterogeneous at a %VO2max, %HRmax, %VO2R, or %HRR of moderate-to-high intensity. In contrast, exercise prescribed relative to the AerT or AnT would be expected to produce less individual variation in metabolic responses and less individual variation in time to exhaustion at a constant exercise intensity. Furthermore, it would be expected that training prescribed relative to the AerT or AnT would provide a more homogenous training

  10. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Comparing Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test Values Obtained From the Arm Cycle and the Leg Cycle Respectively in Healthy Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus Tolstrup; Christensen, Jan; Tang, Lars Hermann

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) assesses maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and is commonly performed on a leg cycle ergometer (LC). However, some individuals would rather perform the CPET on an arm cycle ergometer (AC). OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to undertake...... a systematic review and meta-analysis of the difference in VO2max achieved by AC compared to LC in healthy adults and to explore factors that may be predictive of this difference. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PEDro were searched in April 2015. The differences in VO2max (ACLCdiff) were pooled across...... studies using random effects meta-analysis and three different methods were used to estimate the ratio between the values obtained from the tests (ACLCratio). RESULTS: This paper included 41 studies with a total of 581 participants. The mean ACLCdiff across studies was 12.5 ml/kg/min and 0.89 l...

  11. Quantification of muscle oxygenation and flow of healthy volunteers during cuff occlusion of arm and leg flexor muscles and plantar flexion exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durduran, Turgut; Yu, Guoqiang; Zhou, Chao; Lech, Gwen; Chance, Britton; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2003-07-01

    A hybrid instrument combining near infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies was used to measure muscle oxygenation and blood flow dynamics during cuff occlusion and ischemia. Measurements were done on six healthy subjects on their arm and leg flexor muscles. Hemodynamic response was characterized for blood oxygen saturation, total hemoglobin concenration and relative blood flow speed. The characterization allowed us to define the normal response range as well as showing the feasibility of using a hybrid instrument for dynamic measurements.

  12. Age-related changes in the effects of strength training on lower leg muscles in healthy individuals measured using MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psatha, Maria; Wu, Zhiqing; Gammie, Fiona; Ratkevicius, Aivaras; Wackerhage, Henning; Redpath, Thomas W; Gilbert, Fiona J; Meakin, Judith R; Aspden, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    We previously measured the rate of regaining muscle strength during rehabilitation of lower leg muscles in patients following lower leg casting. Our primary aim in this study was to measure the rate of gain of strength in healthy individuals undergoing a similar training regime. Our secondary aim was to test the ability of MRI to provide a biomarker for muscle function. Men and women were recruited in three age groups: 20-30, 50-65 and over 70 years. Their response to resistance training of the right lower leg twice a week for 8 weeks was monitored using a dynamometer and MRI of tibialis anterior, soleus and gastrocnemius muscles at 2 weekly intervals to measure muscle size (anatomical cross-sectional area ( ACSA )) and quality ( T 2 relaxation). Forty-four volunteers completed the study. Baseline strength declined with age. Training had no effect in middle-aged females or in elderly men in dorsiflexion. Other groups significantly increased both plantarflexion and dorsiflexion strength at rates up to 5.5 N m week -1 in young females in plantarflexion and 1.25 N m week -1 in young males in dorsiflexion. No changes were observed in ACSA or T 2 in any age group in any muscle. Exercise training improves muscle strength in males at all ages except the elderly in dorsiflexion. Responses in females were less clear with variation across age and muscle groups. These results were not reflected in simple MRI measures that do not, therefore, provide a good biomarker for muscle atrophy or the efficacy of rehabilitation.

  13. Ulcer pain in patients with venous leg ulcers related to antibiotic treatment and compression therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akesson, Nina; Oien, Rut Frank; Forssell, Henrik; Fagerström, Cecilia

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare venous leg ulcer patients with and without ulcer pain to see whether ulcer pain affected the use of antibiotic treatment and compression therapy throughout healing. A total of 431 patients with venous leg ulcers were included during the study period. Every patient was registered in a national quality registry for patients with hard-to-heal leg, foot, and pressure ulcers. A high incidence of ulcer pain (57%) was found when the patients entered the study. Patients with ulcer pain had been treated more extensively with antibiotics both before and during the study period. Throughout healing there was a significant reduction of antibiotic use among patients in the 'no pain' group, from 44% to 23% (P=0.008). There was no significant difference between the two groups concerning compression therapy (85% vs. 88%), but 12% of patients in the 'pain' group did not get their prescribed compression compared with 6% of patients in the 'no pain' group. The groups did not differ significantly in terms of ulcer duration, ulcer size or healing time. This study shows a high incidence of ulcer pain, confirming that pain has a great impact on patients with venous leg ulcers. Results further suggest that the presence of ulcer pain increases the prescription of antibiotics but does not affect the use of compression therapy. Several advantages were found from using a national quality registry. The registry is a valuable clinical tool showing the importance of accurate diagnosis and effective treatment.

  14. Leg dominancy in relation to fast isometric torque production and squat jump height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.J.; de Korte, A.; Schreven, S.; de Haan, A.

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized that maximal unilateral isometric knee extensor torque, the rate of torque development during maximally fast isometric contractions and unilateral squat jump performance would be better with the dominant than non-dominant leg. Limb dominancy was established using the step up, balance

  15. Ultrasound measurement of the size of the anterior tibial muscle group: the effect of exercise and leg dominance

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCreesh, Karen

    2011-09-13

    Abstract Background Knowledge of normal muscle characteristics is crucial in planning rehabilitation programmes for injured athletes. There is a high incidence of ankle and anterior tibial symptoms in football players, however little is known about the effect of limb dominance on the anterior tibial muscle group (ATMG). The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of limb dominance and sports-specific activity on ATMG thickness in Gaelic footballers and non-football playing controls using ultrasound measurements, and to compare results from transverse and longitudinal scans. Methods Bilateral ultrasound scans were taken to assess the ATMG size in 10 Gaelic footballers and 10 sedentary controls (age range 18-25 yrs), using a previously published protocol. Both transverse and longitudinal images were taken. Muscle thickness measurements were carried out blind to group and side of dominance, using the Image-J programme. Results Muscle thickness on the dominant leg was significantly greater than the non-dominant leg in the footballers with a mean difference of 7.3%, while there was no significant dominance effect in the controls (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the measurements from transverse or longitudinal scans. Conclusions A significant dominance effect exists in ATMG size in this group of Gaelic footballers, likely attributable to the kicking action involved in the sport. This should be taken into account when rehabilitating footballers with anterior tibial pathology. Ultrasound is a reliable tool to measure ATMG thickness, and measurement may be taken in transverse or longitudinal section.

  16. Bilateral differences in muscle fascicle architecture are not related to the preferred leg in jumping athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeles, Jeroen; Lenchant, Sietske; Vanlommel, Liesbeth; Vanwanseele, Benedicte

    2017-07-01

    In many sports, athletes have a preferred leg for sport-specific tasks, such as jumping, which leads to strength differences between both legs, yet the underlying changes in force-generating mechanical properties of the muscle remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the muscle architecture of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) is different between both legs in well-trained jumping athletes and untrained individuals. In addition, we investigated the effect of two ankle joint positions on ultrasound muscle architecture measurements. Muscle architecture of both legs was measured in 16 athletes and 11 untrained individuals at two ankle joint angles: one with the ankle joint in a tendon slack length (TSL) angle and one in a 90° angle. Fascicle lengths and pennation angles at TSL were not different between the preferred and non-preferred legs in either group. The comparison between groups showed no difference in fascicle length, but greater pennation angles were found in the athletes (21.7° ± 0.5°) compared to the untrained individuals (19.8° ± 0.6°). Analyses of the muscle architecture at a 90° angle yielded different results, mainly in the comparison between groups. These results provide only partial support for the notion of training-induced changes in muscle architecture as only differences in pennation angles were found between athletes and untrained individuals. Furthermore, our results provide support to the recommendation to take into account the tension-length relationship and to measure muscle architecture at individually determined tendon slack joint angles.

  17. Immersible ergocycle prescription as a function of relative exercise intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Garzon; Mathieu Gayda; Anil Nigam; Alain-Steve Comtois; Martin Juneau

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to establish the relationship between various expressions of relative exercise intensity percentage of maximal oxygen uptake (%VO2max), percentage of maximal heart rate (%HRmax), %VO2 reserve (%VO2R), and %HR reserve (%HRR)) in order to obtain the more appropriate method for exercise intensity prescription when using an immersible ergocycle (IE) and to propose a prediction equation to estimate oxygen consumption (VO2) based on IE pedaling rate (rpm) for ...

  18. Exercise and osteoporosis-related fractures: perspectives and recommendations of the sports and exercise scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; von Stengel, Simon

    2011-02-01

    Osteoporosis-related fractures represent a major health concern, particularly in elderly populations. Direct and indirect costs (amounting to nearly $17 billion in 2005), increased morbidity, and loss of independence place substantial burden on the health care system. Observational studies have shown that a physically active lifestyle is associated with a 30% to 50% decrease in vertebral or hip fractures, and a recent meta-analysis that determined the effects of exercise on fracture incidence further confirmed these results. However, because no randomized controlled exercise trials have selected fractures as a primary endpoint, causality between a sedentary lifestyle and fractures may be potentially confounded by participants' poor health status. With regard to fall reduction and bone strength as the main surrogates for fracture risk, many randomized controlled trials and corresponding meta-analyses have reported significant positive outcomes. Interestingly, no study that has assessed fall-related injuries has focused specifically on interventions that aimed to reduce fall impact. There is ongoing debate as to which factor, osteoporosis or falls, is more important for fracture prevention. This may be dependent on the region prone to fracture and the subjects' health status. In randomized controlled trials on exercise, the type, mode, and composition of exercise parameters are predictors of study outcome. Unfortunately, many exercise trials on fall prevention have not adequately described the exercise protocol used, which makes it difficult to determine which fall prevention protocol was most effective. A recent meta-analysis recommended Tai Chi and/or a mix of balance and resistance exercises for fall prevention. More sophisticated protocols are required to impact bone strength. Corresponding state-of-the-art protocols have focused on periodized high-impact/high-intensity resistance protocols performed at least twice per week. In the frail elderly, high

  19. Age-related changes in distance from center of mass to center of pressure during one-leg standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Hiroki; Hsiao, Shih-Fen; Takeda, Kenta; Hasegawa, Naoya; Tozuka, Mitsuhisa; Tsuda, Akiyo; Ohashi, Tetsuro; Suwahara, Tsukasa; Ito, Kumiko; Asaka, Tadayoshi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the age-related effects of distances from the center of pressure (COP) to the center of mass (COM) (COP-COM distances) during one-leg standing (OLS) task. Healthy old and young adults (n = 11 each) participated in this study. The authors divided the task into 3 phases (accelerated, decelerated, and steady) based on the relationship between COM and COP. COP-COM distances in the older group were significantly reduced during the accelerated phase, then significantly increased during the decelerated and steady phases. Furthermore, distances during these phases correlated inversely with OLS time. The authors conclude that OLS time is shortened by the larger braking response to COM shifts just after leg-lifting, and the production of larger inertial forces to maintain COM position during the OLS in older individuals.

  20. "Nutraceuticals" in relation to human skeletal muscle and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Colleen S; Wilkinson, Daniel J; Phillips, Bethan E; Smith, Kenneth; Etheridge, Timothy; Atherton, Philip J

    2017-04-01

    Skeletal muscles have a fundamental role in locomotion and whole body metabolism, with muscle mass and quality being linked to improved health and even lifespan. Optimizing nutrition in combination with exercise is considered an established, effective ergogenic practice for athletic performance. Importantly, exercise and nutritional approaches also remain arguably the most effective countermeasure for muscle dysfunction associated with aging and numerous clinical conditions, e.g., cancer cachexia, COPD, and organ failure, via engendering favorable adaptations such as increased muscle mass and oxidative capacity. Therefore, it is important to consider the effects of established and novel effectors of muscle mass, function, and metabolism in relation to nutrition and exercise. To address this gap, in this review, we detail existing evidence surrounding the efficacy of a nonexhaustive list of macronutrient, micronutrient, and "nutraceutical" compounds alone and in combination with exercise in relation to skeletal muscle mass, metabolism (protein and fuel), and exercise performance (i.e., strength and endurance capacity). It has long been established that macronutrients have specific roles and impact upon protein metabolism and exercise performance, (i.e., protein positively influences muscle mass and protein metabolism), whereas carbohydrate and fat intakes can influence fuel metabolism and exercise performance. Regarding novel nutraceuticals, we show that the following ones in particular may have effects in relation to 1 ) muscle mass/protein metabolism: leucine, hydroxyl β-methylbutyrate, creatine, vitamin-D, ursolic acid, and phosphatidic acid; and 2 ) exercise performance: (i.e., strength or endurance capacity): hydroxyl β-methylbutyrate, carnitine, creatine, nitrates, and β-alanine. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Anxiety levels among Turkish public transportation drivers: a relation to restless legs syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozder, Aclan; Eker, Hasan Huseyin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of individuals who are at high risk for state and trait anxiety as well as to investigate the relationship of anxiety levels of urban transportation drivers from Istanbul, Turkey with restless legs syndrome (RLS). The data was gathered between April 2013 and June 2013 by the use of a questionnaire prepared for the purpose of this study, completed anonymously. Restless leg syndrome and anxiety level were evaluated in the group; data obtained was analyzed using the SPSS version 16. Chi-square, correlation and student-t tests were used. Restless leg syndrome symptoms were determined by a self-assessment questionnaire, including the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG) diagnostic criteria, to determine RLS symptoms and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to determine anxiety levels of the participants. In the present study, the four RLS criteria were reported in 31.2%. STAI-state and STAI-trait scores were 40.82 ± 9.55 and 42.99 ± 8.54 respectively. The state and trait anxiety mean scores were different among participants with RLS in this study (p < 0.05). It was found a significant difference between tobacco usage and state anxiety (p < 0.05). There were a significant difference between RLS and age, number of cigarettes daily consumed and employment time (p < 0.05). The state and trait anxiety scores were found high among bus drivers with RLS in this study. PMID:25035782

  2. Altered postural sway following fatiguing foot muscle exercises.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Koyama

    Full Text Available This study investigated the acute effects of fatiguing foot muscle exercises on the maximum muscle strength of the foot and postural control ability. Eighteen healthy young individuals performed fatiguing foot muscle strength exercises, and their toe flexor and ankle plantar flexor strength and postural control ability were measured before and after the exercises. Postural control ability was evaluated using the path of the center of pressure (COP during three balance tasks: double-leg standing with eyes open; double-leg standing with eyes closed; and single-leg standing with eyes open. After the exercises, the muscle strength of both the toe and ankle plantar flexor significantly decreased. Under all of the conditions, most COP variables did not significantly differ before and after the exercises; however, the total length and mean velocity in the single-leg standing with eyes open significantly decreased after the exercises. Postural sway velocities in the anteroposterior direction of double-leg standing with eyes closed and in both anteroposterior and mediolateral directions of single-leg standing with eyes open significantly decreased after the exercises. The associations between relative changes in muscle strength after the exercise and relative changes in COP variables after the exercise were not found. These results indicate that postural control while standing could be maintained even though foot muscle strength is decreased after fatiguing foot muscle exercises.

  3. Altered postural sway following fatiguing foot muscle exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Keiji; Yamauchi, Junichiro

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of fatiguing foot muscle exercises on the maximum muscle strength of the foot and postural control ability. Eighteen healthy young individuals performed fatiguing foot muscle strength exercises, and their toe flexor and ankle plantar flexor strength and postural control ability were measured before and after the exercises. Postural control ability was evaluated using the path of the center of pressure (COP) during three balance tasks: double-leg standing with eyes open; double-leg standing with eyes closed; and single-leg standing with eyes open. After the exercises, the muscle strength of both the toe and ankle plantar flexor significantly decreased. Under all of the conditions, most COP variables did not significantly differ before and after the exercises; however, the total length and mean velocity in the single-leg standing with eyes open significantly decreased after the exercises. Postural sway velocities in the anteroposterior direction of double-leg standing with eyes closed and in both anteroposterior and mediolateral directions of single-leg standing with eyes open significantly decreased after the exercises. The associations between relative changes in muscle strength after the exercise and relative changes in COP variables after the exercise were not found. These results indicate that postural control while standing could be maintained even though foot muscle strength is decreased after fatiguing foot muscle exercises.

  4. Handgrip and general muscular strength and endurance during prolonged bedrest with isometric and isotonic leg exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Starr, J. C.; Van Beaumont, W.; Convertino, V. A.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of maximal grip strength and endurance at 40 percent max strength were obtained for 7 men 19-21 years of age, 1-2 days before and on the first recovery day during three 2-week bedrest (BR) periods, each separated by a 3-week ambulatory recovery period. The subjects performed isometric exercise (IME) for 1 hr/day, isotonic exercise (ITE) for 1 hr/day, and no exercise (NOE) in the three BR periods. It was found that the mean maximal grip strength was unchanged after all three BR periods. Mean grip endurance was found to be unchanged after IME and ITE training, but was significantly reduced after NOE. These results indicate that IME and ITE training during BR do not increase or decrease maximal grip strength, alghough they prevent loss of grip endurance, while the maximal strength of all other major muscle groups decreases in proportion to the length of BR to 70 days. The maximal strength reduction of the large muscle groups was found to be about twice that of the small muscle groups during BR. In addition, it is shown that changes in maximal strength after spaceflight, BR, or water immersion deconditioning cannot be predicted from changes in submaximal or maximal oxygen uptake values.

  5. Exercising with reserve: exercise regulation by perceived exertion in relation to duration of exercise and knowledge of endpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, J; Lamberts, R P; Lambert, M I; Lambert, E V; Woolrich, R W; Johnston, S; Noakes, T D

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and performance during repetitive maximal effort 40 km time trials as well as after an intervention that aimed to decrease certainty about the remaining distance of the exercise bout. In addition, we examined the RPE during exercise bouts of markedly different duration. Part 1: 12 well-trained, competitive-level cyclists completed five 40 km time trials. During the final time trial all feedback was withheld until the final kilometre. In addition, to cause confusion about the remaining distance, they were asked to report their RPE at random intervals from 18 km to 38 km. Part 2: 6 well-trained, recreation-level cyclists randomly completed a 5 km, 10 km, 40 km and 100 km time trial. Part 1: Mean RPE increased during the first four trials and decreased during the final trial. The rate of RPE progression increased in linearity during the first four trials and became more conservative in the final trial. These changes were directly related to performance. Part 2: Mean RPE for longer duration trials (40 km, 100 km) were lower during the first half of trial duration but matched those of shorter trials in the final 20%. Increased familiarity of the exercise bout and certainty about its endpoint are associated with a more aggressive RPE strategy that produces a superior exercise performance. Certainty about the endpoint and the duration of exercise affect both the RPE strategy and performance.

  6. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... slow full movements. Repeat 10-15 times, to fatigue... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both knees bent. ... Return leg and extend other leg. Repeat to fatigue, about 10-15 repetitions at a slow ... training is exercise done against something providing resistance. It can be ...

  7. Neurodynamic mobilization in a collegiate long jumper with exercise-induced lateral leg and ankle pain: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Terry; Sneed, Tom; Hamann, Herb

    2017-09-22

    Case Report. The purpose of this case report is to describe nerve mobilization in the treatment of lower extremity neuropathic pain in a female collegiate long jumper. A 21 year-old long jumper presented 7 months after onset of ankle and leg pain. She complained of "aching" pain over the lateral ankle, radiating proximally to just superior to the lateral knee. Neurodynamic testing of the sural and superficial branch of the fibular nerves was positive. Interventions/Outcomes: Persistent neuropathic pain which impeded sport participation in a collegiate athlete did not improve using traditional rehabilitation intervention, but did ameliorate as a result of an intervention which included self-administered, supervised nerve mobilization of the sural and superficial branch of fibular nerve. The patient improved in all outcome measures including the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS), Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NPRS), and the Global Rating of Change (GROC). In a female collegiate athlete with persistent neuropathic pain, initial improvements were achieved with traditional rehabilitation, but her pain continued. Considerable additional improvements were achieved following the addition of self-administered, supervised nerve mobilization. Neurodynamic testing should be performed on patients with possible peripheral nerve involvement and treatment commenced if positive.

  8. A healthy lifestyle for the ostomist in relation to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Sarah

    Stoma surgery results in significant changes for the patient. These are both physical and psychological. Not only must the patient get used to the loss of control over elimination, but they must adapt to their altered physiology and may lack confidence in participating in everyday and sporting activities. Such surgery can have a profound effect on their pyschosocial wellbeing. In today's society, we are encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle, which includes exercise. As healthcare professionals, we should be encouraging the ostomist to resume a healthy lifestyle as part of their rehabilitation and adaption to their new stoma, as well as encouraging social interaction; however, their is a lack of clarity in the literature as to how appropriate sport and exercise are for the ostomist. To date, evidence-based literature relating to ostomists and stoma-related injuries is sparse, and anecdotal evidence from healthcare professionals may be discouraging ostomists from taking part in sport and exercise. This article explores sporting and exercise issues among ostomists. A variety of strategies are offered, which the stoma nurse can use to encourage ostomists to engage in gentle exercise and to participate or return to physical sports that they once enjoyed prior to their surgery.

  9. Exercising self-control increases relative left frontal cortical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Crowell, Adrienne; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2016-02-01

    Self-control refers to the capacity to override or alter a predominant response tendency. The current experiment tested the hypothesis that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, as revealed by patterns of electrical activity in the prefrontal cortex. Participants completed a writing task that did vs did not require them to exercise self-control. Then they viewed pictures known to evoke positive, negative or neutral affect. We assessed electroencephalographic (EEG) activity while participants viewed the pictures, and participants reported their trait levels of behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity at the end of the study. We found that exercising (vs not exercising) self-control increased relative left frontal cortical activity during picture viewing, particularly among individuals with relatively higher BAS than BIS, and particularly during positive picture viewing. A similar but weaker pattern emerged during negative picture viewing. The results suggest that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, which may help to explain the aftereffects of self-control (i.e. ego depletion). © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. A Laboratory Exercise with Related Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sworder, Steven C.

    A laboratory experiment, based on a simple electric circuit that can be used to demonstrate the existence of real-world "related rates" problems, is outlined and an equation for voltage across the capacitor terminals during discharge is derived. The necessary materials, setup methods, and experimental problems are described. A student laboratory…

  11. Patients' Attitudes Toward Nonphysician Screening of Low Back and Low Back Related Leg Pain Complaints Referred for Surgical Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, Joshua; Busse, Jason W; Drew, Brian; Reddy, Kesava; Cenic, Aleksa; Kachur, Edward; Murty, Naresh; Candelaria, Henry; Moore, Ainsley E; Riva, John J

    2017-03-01

    A questionnaire survey. The aim of this study was to explore patient attitudes toward screening to assess suitability for low back surgery by nonphysician health care providers. Canadian spine surgeons have shown support for nonphysician screening to assess and triage patients with low back pain and low back related leg pain. However, patients' attitudes toward this proposed model are largely unknown. We administered a 19-item cross-sectional survey to adults with low back and/or low back related leg pain who were referred for elective surgical assessment at one of five spine surgeons' clinics in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The survey inquired about demographics, expectations regarding wait time for surgical consultation, as well as willingness to pay, travel, and be screened by nonphysician health care providers. Eighty low back patients completed our survey, for a response rate of 86.0% (80 of 93). Most respondents (72.5%; 58 of 80) expected to be seen by a surgeon within 3 months of referral, and 88.8% (71 of 80) indicated willingness to undergo screening with a nonphysician health care provider to establish whether they were potentially a surgical candidate. Half of respondents (40 of 80) were willing to travel >50 km for assessment by a nonphysician health care provider, and 46.2% were willing to pay out-of-pocket (25.6% were unsure). However, most respondents (70.0%; 56 of 80) would still want to see a surgeon if they were ruled out as a surgical candidate, and written comments from respondents revealed concern regarding agreement between surgeons' and nonphysicians' determination of surgical candidates. Patients referred for surgical consultation for low back or low back related leg pain are largely willing to accept screening by nonphysician health care providers. Future research should explore the concordance of screening results between surgeon and nonphysician health care providers. 3.

  12. Possibility of leg muscle hypertrophy by ambulation in older adults: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Hayao; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Thiebaud, Robert S; Stager, Joel M; Abe, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    It is known that ambulatory exercises such as brisk walking and jogging are potent stimuli for improving aerobic capacity, but it is less understood whether ambulatory exercise can increase leg muscle size and function. The purpose of this brief review is to discuss whether or not ambulatory exercise elicits leg muscle hypertrophy in older adults. Daily ambulatory activity with moderate (>3 metabolic equivalents [METs], which is defined as the ratio of the work metabolic rate to the resting metabolic rate) intensity estimated by accelerometer is positively correlated with lower body muscle size and function in older adults. Although there is conflicting data on the effects of short-term training, it is possible that relatively long periods of walking, jogging, or intermittent running for over half a year can increase leg muscle size among older adults. In addition, slow-walk training with a combination of leg muscle blood flow restriction elicits muscle hypertrophy only in the blood flow restricted leg muscles. Competitive marathon running and regular high intensity distance running in young and middle-aged adults may not produce leg muscle hypertrophy due to insufficient recovery from the damaging running bout, although there have been no studies that have investigated the effects of running on leg muscle morphology in older subjects. It is clear that skeletal muscle hypertrophy can occur independently of exercise mode and load.

  13. A Laboratory Exercise Relating Soil Energy Budgets to Soil Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Richard T.; Cerny-Koenig, Teresa; Kotuby-Amacher, Janice; Grossl, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    Enrollment by students in degree programs other than traditional horticulture, agronomy, and soil science has increased in basic plant and soil science courses. In order to broaden the appeal of these courses to students from majors other than agriculture, we developed a hands-on laboratory exercise relating the basic concepts of a soil energy…

  14. Effect of exercise intervention on vestibular related impairments in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-07

    ... the efficacy of exercise interventions in the treatment of vestibular-related deficits in hearing-impaired children. Sources: Extensive search of computerized bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, CINHAL, EMBASE, SCOPUS, ISI of web science, Cochrane Library, and AMED) was performed from earliest to February 7, 2011.

  15. Aerobic exercises alleviate symptoms of fatigue related to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aerobic exercises alleviate symptoms of fatigue related to inflammatory cytokines in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. ... Measurements of fatigue symptoms and markers of systemic inflammation were assessed before and at the end of the study for all participants in both groups. Results: The mean values of inflammatory ...

  16. Effects of Quadriceps Strengthening Exercise on Quadriceps Muscle Strength and Its Relation to Lower Extremity Lean Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istingadah Desiana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To discover whether quadriceps resistance exercise could increase quadriceps strength as well as its relation to lower extremity lean mass. Methods: This study was a pre- and post- experimental study in which 36 participants with knee OA grade 2 and 3 were recruited. Assesment of leg lean mass and quadriceps strength was taken before and after intervention. Participants practiced quadriceps isotonic resistance exercise 3 times a week for 8 weeks. This study was conducted in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung from September 2014 to February 2015. Results: After the intervention, an increase in quadriceps strength was seen but not in the lower extremity lean mass. Statistical analysis showed that there was no correlation between lower extremity lean mass and quadriceps strength. Conclusions: Quadriceps strength is found to increase after intervention. No increase is found in the lower extremity lean mass.

  17. Causes of ring-related leg injuries in birds - evidence and recommendations from four field studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Griesser

    Full Text Available One of the main techniques for recognizing individuals in avian field research is marking birds with plastic and metal leg rings. However, in some species individuals may react negatively to rings, causing leg injuries and, in extreme cases, the loss of a foot or limb. Here, we report problems that arise from ringing and illustrate solutions based on field data from Brown Thornbills (Acanthiza pusilla (2 populations, Siberian Jays (Perisoreus infaustus and Purple-crowned Fairy-wrens (Malurus coronatus. We encountered three problems caused by plastic rings: inflammations triggered by material accumulating under the ring (Purple-crowned Fairy-wrens, contact inflammations as a consequence of plastic rings touching the foot or tibio-tarsal joint (Brown Thornbills, and toes or the foot getting trapped in partly unwrapped flat-band colour rings (Siberian Jays. Metal rings caused two problems: the edges of aluminium rings bent inwards if mounted on top of each other (Brown Thornbills, and too small a ring size led to inflammation (Purple-crowned Fairy-wrens. We overcame these problems by changing the ringing technique (using different ring types or larger rings, or using different adhesive. Additionally, we developed and tested a novel, simple technique of gluing plastic rings onto metal rings in Brown Thornbills. A review of studies reporting ring injuries (N = 23 showed that small birds (35 g tend to get rings stuck over their feet. We give methodological advice on how these problems can be avoided, and suggest a ringing hazard index to compare the impact of ringing in terms of injury on different bird species. Finally, to facilitate improvements in ringing techniques, we encourage online deposition of information regarding ringing injuries of birds at a website hosted by the European Union for Bird Ringing (EURING.

  18. Exercise and comorbidity: the i3-S strategy for developing comorbidity-related adaptations to exercise therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Joost; de Rooij, Mariëtte; van der Leeden, Marike

    2016-01-01

    Exercise therapy is effective in a wide range of chronic diseases. Comorbid disease necessitates adaptations to exercise therapy. Guidance on how to develop such adaptations is currently not available. We present an innovative strategy for the development of comorbidity-related adaptations to exercise therapy in an index disease. We previously developed comorbidity-related adaptations to exercise therapy in osteoarthritis. We now broaden this approach into a general strategy for the development of comorbidity-related adaptations to exercise therapy in an index disease. The i3-S strategy consists of four steps. The first three steps involve creating an inventory of comorbid disease, an inventory of contraindications and restrictions on exercise therapy, and an inventory of potential adaptations to exercise therapy. In the fourth step, this information is synthesized into guidance on comorbidity-related adaptations to exercise therapy in the index disease. The adaptations concern physiological, behavioural and environmental factors. In view of the general effectiveness of exercise therapy and the high prevalence of comorbidity in older people, there is a great need for comorbidity-related adaptations to exercise therapy. We recommend to use and evaluate the i3-S strategy in future research. Exercise therapy is effective in a wide range of chronic diseases. Comorbid disease necessitates adaptations to exercise therapy. Guidance on how to develop such adaptations is currently not available. We present an innovative strategy for the development of comorbidity-related adaptations to exercise therapy in an index disease. Researchers and clinicians can use this strategy to develop guidance on the adaptation of exercise therapy to comorbidity.

  19. Review - Selenium - Its metabolism and relation to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Akil, Mustafa; Bicer, Mursel

    2016-09-01

    Selenium (Se), which is commonly found in nature, is one of the essential trace elements necessary for the normal development of human and animal organisms. Selenium was first defined in 1818 by the Swedish chemist Berzelius in sulfuric acid residues. At the end of 1960s, the role of selenium in human health began to attract attention and human diseases that resembled animal diseases responding to selenium was started to be investigated. Selenium, which is highly important for human health, is necessary for a variety of metabolic processes, including thyroid hormone metabolism, protection against oxidative stress and immunity functions. Selenium is a molecule that activates glutathione peroxidase, and thus, it is involved in the antioxidant mechanisms that prevent oxidant damage. Exhaustive physical exercise is known to cause oxidant damage, probably by promoting free radical production in many tissues, including muscle, liver, heart and lungs in animals. The increase in oxidative stress during exercise and recognition of selenium's stimulation of antioxidant activity inevitably suggest a relation between selenium and exercise. The present review aims to provide information on selenium metabolism and the relation between selenium and exercise.

  20. Broken Leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... been weakened by a condition such as osteoporosis. Risk factors Stress fractures are often the result of repetitive ... the joint and poor bone alignment can cause osteoarthritis years later. If your leg starts to hurt ...

  1. Distinctive Steady-State Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Responses to Passive Robotic Leg Exercise and Functional Electrical Stimulation During Head-up Tilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirehsan Sarabadani Tafreshi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tilt tables enable early mobilization of patients by providing verticalization. But there is a high risk of orthostatic hypotension provoked by verticalization, especially after neurological diseases such as spinal cord injury. Robot-assisted tilt tables might be an alternative as they add passive robotic leg exercise (PE that can be enhanced with functional electrical stimulation (FES to the verticalization, thus reducing the risk of orthostatic hypotension. We hypothesized that the influence of PE on the cardiovascular system during verticalization depends on the verticalization angle, and FES strengthens the PE influence. To test our hypotheses, we investigated the PE effects on the cardiovascular parameters heart rate (HR, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (sBP, dBP at different angles of verticalization in a healthy population. Ten healthy subjects on a robot-assisted tilt table underwent four different study protocols while HR, sBP and dBP were measured: (1 head-up tilt to 60° and 71° without PE; (2 PE at 20°, 40°, and 60° of head-up tilt; (3 PE while constant FES intensity was applied to the leg muscles, at 20°, 40°, and 60° of head-up tilt; (4 PE with variation of the applied FES intensity at 0°, 20°, 40°, and 60° of head-up tilt. Linear mixed models were used to model changes in HR, sBP, and dBP responses. The models show that: (1 head-up tilt alone resulted in statistically significant increases in HR and dBP, but no change in sBP. (2 PE during head-up tilt resulted in statistically significant changes in HR, sBP, and dBP, but not at each angle and not always in the same direction (i.e., increase or decrease of cardiovascular parameters. Neither adding (3 FES at constant intensity to PE nor (4 variation of FES intensity during PE had any statistically significant effects on the cardiovascular parameters.The effect of PE on the cardiovascular system during head-up tilt is strongly dependent on the verticalization

  2. Aerobic-synergized exercises may improve fall-related physical fitness in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Chen; Wang, Jung-Der; Chen, Ho-Cheng; Hu, Susan C

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether a synergistic exercise model based on aerobics with additional fall-preventive components could provide extra benefits compared with the same duration of aerobic-synergistic exercise alone. A total of 102 adults aged 65 years and over from three geographically separated communities were assigned to three groups: the general aerobic exercise (GAE) group (N.=44), the GAE plus ball game group (BG group; N.=30) and the GAE plus square-stepping exercise group (SSE group; N.=28). Each group participated in one hour of exercise intervention and two hours of leisure activities twice weekly for 12 weeks. Each exercise session consisted of one hour of combined exercises performed in the following order: 10 minutes of warm-up activities, 20 minutes of aerobics, 20 minutes of the respective exercise model, and 10 minutes of cool-down activities. Functional fitness tests, including aerobic endurance, leg strength, flexibility, reaction time, static balance and mobility, were measured before and after the intervention. Paired t-tests and mixed model analyses were conducted to compare the differences in each measurement within and among the groups. All of the groups exhibited significantly positive effects (Paerobic endurance, leg muscle strength, static balance, and mobility, after the intervention. There were no significant differences in these improvements in the other two groups compared with group GAE. However, group BG and group SSE showed significantly greater improvements in mobility compared with group GAE (Paerobics and selected fall-prevention exercises performed over a consistent period may improve mobility without compromising the fundamental benefits of aerobics. Future studies using randomized control trials with recorded fall events and a longer period of follow-up are indicated to validate the effects of fall prevention exercises.

  3. Red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa de-novo transcriptome assembly and identification of gene-related markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Sevane

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa has a great socio-economic importance as a game species and is reared by millions in farms in several European countries. The ability to respond to a wide spectrum of pathogens and environmental changes is key for farm-reared animals that, as such, face even higher pathogen exposure and specifically for those submitted to restocking programs. In this study, RNA-sequencing and de-novo assembly of genes expressed in different immune tissues were performed. The raw FASTQ files were submitted to the NCBI SRA database with accession number PRJNA289204. A total of 94.2 million reads were obtained and assembled into 51,403 contigs using OASES software. The final annotated partridge immune transcriptome comprises almost 7000 unigenes, available as FASTA in the supplementary material. A total of 12,828 microsatellites and 33,857 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs were identified. The candidate gene sequences and the large number of potential genetic markers from the red-legged partridge transcriptome reliably identified through the use for the first time of a high coverage 100-bp paired-end RNA-seq protocol, provide new tools for future studies in this and related species, thus contributing to the ongoing development of genomic resources in avian species. Further investigation into candidate genes and gene-associated markers will help to uncover individual variability in the resistance to infections and other external aggressions in partridges.

  4. ARM VS. COMBINED LEG AND ARM EXERCISE: BLOOD PRESSURE RESPONSES AND RATINGS OF PERCEIVED EXERTION AT THE SAME INDIRECTLY DETERMINED HEART RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Di Blasio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Pre-participation screening is very important for prescribing and practising exercise safely. The aim of this study was to investigate both ratings of perceived exertion (RPE and blood pressure responses in two different types of exercises with matching duration and indirectly determined working heart rate (HR. Participants were 23 male students, who were generally healthy but sedentary. The time course of their RPE and blood pressure during a 50- minute work-out session on an arm crank ergometer and a cross trainer were compared. RM-ANOVA showed both a higher RPE (p < 0.001 and diastolic blood pressure (DBP (p < 0.001 response to the arm exercise that were shown significantly correlated (r = 0.883; p = 0.008. Linear regression analysis (p = 0.001 confirmed the ability to predict the time course of DBP by knowing the RPE on the arm crank ergometer. Even if people use the recommended relative intensity, the HR method is not always safe for health without pre-participation screening because exercise characteristics can negatively influence physiological responses. The HR method could be substituted by the RPE method.

  5. Unusual exercise-related stress fractures. Two case reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink-Bennett, D.M.; Benson, M.T.

    1984-08-01

    We describe two unusual exercise-related stress fractures, one in the sacroiliac joint of a long distance runner, the other in the body of the scapulae of an above-knee amputee. Each were detected on a 2-hour delay bone scan. To our knowledge, neither have been described scintigraphically. The bilateral scapular fracture is an unreported entity, and the fractured SI joint is a very uncommon site for an overuse injury.

  6. Effect of aerobic exercise on cancer-related fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaivika Govindbhai Patel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatigue is the most common side effect of cancer treatment with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, selected biologic response modifiers. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise on cancer-related fatigue in patients of the solid tumor after chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Methods: After screening for cancer-related fatigue, 34 patients fulfilled the inclusive criteria and were assigned into two groups (n = 17 recruited in the intervention group and n = 17 in control group. The intervention group received aerobic exercise program which included treadmill walking with low to moderate intensity (50%–70% of maximum heart rate, for 20–40 min/day for 5 days/week. Control group were taught stretching exercises of hamstrings, gastrocnemius, and soleus (to be done at home and were encouraged to remain active. Outcome measures such as brief fatigue inventory (BFI, 6-min walk test, and functional assessment of cancer therapy-general (FACT-G were taken at baseline and after 6-weeks. Results: The data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test for within group and Mann–Whitney U-test for between group comparisons. The results of this study showed that there was a significant reduction in cancer-related fatigue BFI score (P < 0.0001,, also there was significant improvement in the physical performance as in 6-min walk distance (P < 0.0001 and quality of life, FACT-G score (P = 0.0001. Conclusion: Aerobic exercise for 6 weeks has beneficial effects on cancer-related fatigue in patients with solid tumor after chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.

  7. The effectiveness of a deep water aquatic exercise program in cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero-Villanueva, Irene; Fernández-Lao, Carolina; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I; Del Moral-Avila, Rosario; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of an 8-week aquatic program on cancer-related fatigue, as well as physical and psychological outcomes in breast cancer survivors. A randomized controlled trial. Outpatient clinic, urban, academic medical center, and a sport university swimming pool. Breast cancer survivors (N=68) were randomly assigned to either an experimental (aquatic exercise group in deep water pool) group or a control (usual care) group. The intervention group attended aquatic exercise sessions 3 times per week for 8 weeks in a heated deep swimming pool. Sessions lasted 60 minutes in duration: 10 minutes of warm-up, 40 minutes of aerobic and endurance exercises, and 10 minutes of cool-down exercises. Patients allocated to the usual care group followed the oncologist's recommendations in relation to a healthy lifestyle. Values for fatigue (Piper Fatigue Scale), mood state (Profile of Mood States), and abdominal (trunk curl static endurance test) and leg (multiple sit-to-stand test) strength were collected at baseline, after the last treatment session, and at a 6-month follow-up. Immediately after discharge, the aquatic exercise group showed a large effect size in total fatigue score (d=.87; 95% confidence interval, .48-1.26), trunk curl endurance (d=.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.97-3.83), and leg strength (d=1.10; .55-2.76), but negligible effects in vigor, confusion, and disturbance of mood (daquatic exercise group maintained large to small effect sizes in fatigue scores, multiple sit-to-stand test, and trunk curl static endurance (.25>d>.90) and negligible effects for the fatigue-severity dimension and different scales of the Profile of Mood States (daquatic exercise program conducted in deep water was effective for improving cancer-related fatigue and strength in breast cancer survivors. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exercising. Count out loud as you do the exercises. View Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Home Techniques to ... Intimacy Importance of Being Together Body Changes with Age Communicating with Your Partner Exercise and Sexual Activity Less Strenuous Positions for Sexual ...

  9. Trigger point-related sympathetic nerve activity in chronic sciatic leg pain: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorupska, Elżbieta; Rychlik, Michał; Pawelec, Wiktoria; Bednarek, Agata; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2014-10-01

    Sciatica has classically been associated with irritation of the sciatic nerve by the vertebral disc and consequent inflammation. Some authors suggest that active trigger points in the gluteus minimus muscle can refer pain in similar way to sciatica. Trigger point diagnosis is based on Travel and Simons criteria, but referred pain and twitch response are significant confirmatory signs of the diagnostic criteria. Although vasoconstriction in the area of a latent trigger point has been demonstrated, the vasomotor reaction of active trigger points has not been examined. We report the case of a 22-year-old Caucasian European man who presented with a 3-year history of chronic sciatic-type leg pain. In the third year of symptoms, coexistent myofascial pain syndrome was diagnosed. Acupuncture needle stimulation of active trigger points under infrared thermovisual camera showed a sudden short-term vasodilatation (an autonomic phenomenon) in the area of referred pain. The vasodilatation spread from 0.2 to 171.9 cm(2) and then gradually decreased. After needling, increases in average and maximum skin temperature were seen as follows: for the thigh, changes were +2.6°C (average) and +3.6°C (maximum); for the calf, changes were +0.9°C (average) and +1.4°C (maximum). It is not yet known whether the vasodilatation observed was evoked exclusively by dry needling of active trigger points. The complex condition of the patient suggests that other variables might have influenced the infrared thermovision camera results. We suggest that it is important to check if vasodilatation in the area of referred pain occurs in all patients with active trigger points. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Exercise adherence, cardiopulmonary fitness and anthropometric changes improve exercise self-efficacy and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imayama, Ikuyo; Alfano, Catherine M; Mason, Caitlin E; Wang, Chiachi; Xiao, Liren; Duggan, Catherine; Campbell, Kristin L; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Wang, Ching-Yun; McTiernan, Anne

    2013-07-01

    Regular exercise increases exercise self-efficacy and health-related quality of life (HRQOL); however, the mechanisms are unknown. We examined the associations of exercise adherence and physiological improvements with changes in exercise self-efficacy and HRQOL. Middle-aged adults (N = 202) were randomized to 12 months aerobic exercise (360 minutes/week) or control. Weight, waist circumference, percent body fat, cardiopulmonary fitness, HRQOL (SF-36), and exercise self-efficacy were assessed at baseline and 12 months. Adherence was measured in minutes/day from activity logs. Exercise adherence was associated with reduced bodily pain, improved general health and vitality, and reduced role-emotional scores (P(trend) ≤ 0.05). Increased fitness was associated with improved physical functioning, bodily pain and general health scores (P(trend) ≤ 0.04). Reduced weight and percent body fat were associated with improved physical functioning, general health, and bodily pain scores (P(trend) health but with reduced role-emotional scores (P(trend) ≤ 0.05). High exercise adherence, increased cardiopulmonary fitness and reduced weight, waist circumference and percent body fat were associated with increased exercise self-efficacy (P(trend) exercise programs to induce changes in cardiopulmonary fitness and body composition may lead to greater improvements in HRQOL and self-efficacy that could promote exercise maintenance.

  11. Proteome Profiles of Longissimus and Biceps femoris Porcine Muscles Related to Exercise and Resting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, te M.F.W.; Keuning, E.; Wiel, van de D.F.M.; Young, J.F.; Oksbjerg, N.; Kruijt, L.

    2011-01-01

    Exercise affects muscle metabolism and composition in the untrained muscles. The proteome of muscle tissue will be affected by exercise and resting. This is of economic importance for pork quality where transportation relates to exercise of untrained muscles. Rest reverses exercise effects. The

  12. Self-Described Differences Between Legs in Ballet Dancers: Do They Relate to Postural Stability and Ground Reaction Force Measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Laura; Docherty, Carrie

    2012-12-01

    Ballet technique classes are designed to train dancers symmetrically, but they may actually create a lateral bias. It is unknown whether dancers in general are functionally asymmetrical, or how an individual dancer's perceived imbalance between legs might manifest itself. The purpose of this study was to examine ballet dancers' lateral preference by analyzing their postural stability and ground reaction forces in fifth position when landing from dance-specific jumps. Thirty university ballet majors volunteered to participate in this study. The subjects wore their own ballet technique shoes and performed fundamental ballet jumps out of fifth position on a force plate. The force plate recorded center of pressure (COP) and ground reaction force (GRF) data. Each subject completed a laterality questionnaire that determined his or her preferred landing leg for ballet jumps, self-identified stronger leg, and self-identified leg with better balance. All statistical comparisons were made between the leg indicated on the laterality questionnaire and the other leg (i.e., if the dancer's response to a question was "left," the comparison was made with the left leg as the "preferred" leg and the right leg as the "non-preferred leg"). No significant differences were identified between the limbs in any of the analyses conducted (all statistical comparisons produced p values > 0.05). The results of this study indicate that a dancer's preferential use of one limb over the other has no bearing on GRFs or balance ability after landing jumps in ballet. Similarly, dancers' opinions of their leg characteristics (such as one leg being stronger than the other) seem not to correlate with the dancers' actual ability to absorb GRFs or to balance when landing from ballet jumps.

  13. The Effects of High Intensity Exercise on Overall Leg Strength of Non-Sickel-Cell-Trait and Sickle-Cell-Trait Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Hill, Jr.; Evans, Mel

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was any significant difference in overall leg strength gains in individuals with sickle-cell-trait as compared to non-sickle-cell-trait individuals, as measured by the leg dynamometer. Twenty black male first-year college students were used in this study. The subjects were divided into a control…

  14. Effects of two physical exercise protocols on physical performance related to falls in the oldest old: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansai, Juliana Hotta; Aurichio, Thais Rabiatt; Gonçalves, Raquel; Rebelatto, José Rubens

    2016-04-01

    To compare the effects of 16-week multicomponent and resistance training, and 6-week detraining on physical variables related to a higher risk of falls in very old people. A randomized, three-arm, controlled trial was carried out. A total of 69 community-dwelling older adults aged 80 years and older were allocated to three groups: control, multicomponent training and resistance training. They were assessed at baseline, after 16-week training and 6-week detraining. The control group did not perform any intervention. The multicomponent group performed protocol consisting of warm-up, aerobic, strength, balance and cool-down exercises. The resistance group underwent strength exercises using six adapted machines. The training sessions had progressive intensity, lasted 16 weeks and 12 included three 1-h sessions per week. The assessment consisted of anamneses, five-repetition sit-to-stand, one-leg standing, tandem and dual task tests. For statistical analysis, α = 0.05 was used. There were no significant differences between groups and assessments in any variable when analyzed by intention to treat. However, when analyzed, the older adults who adhered to the training, the multicomponent group, had a significant improvement in the sit-to-stand and the one-leg standing (right support) tests. There was a significant main effect between times on the one-leg standing (left support) test. In very old people, multicomponent training seems to be more beneficial and presents fewer adverse events when the adherence to protocol is higher. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. Exercise-induced albuminuria is related to metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Sharon; Shenhar-Tsarfaty, Shani; Rogowski, Ori; Shapira, Itzhak; Zeltser, David; Weinstein, Talia; Lahav, Dror; Vered, Jaffa; Tovia-Brodie, Oholi; Arbel, Yaron; Berliner, Shlomo; Milwidsky, Assi

    2016-06-01

    Microalbuminuria (MA) is a known marker for endothelial dysfunction and future cardiovascular events. Exercise-induced albuminuria (EiA) may precede the appearance of MA. Associations between EiA and metabolic syndrome (MS) have not been assessed so far. Our aim was to investigate this association in a large sample of apparently healthy individuals with no baseline albuminuria. This was a cross-sectional study of 2,027 adults with no overt cardiovascular diseases who took part in a health survey program and had no baseline MA. Diagnosis of MS was based on harmonized criteria. All patients underwent an exercise test (Bruce protocol), and urinary albumin was measured before and after the examination. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) values before and after exercise were 0.40 (0.21-0.89) and 1.06 (0.43-2.69) mg/g for median (interquartile range) respectively. A total of 394 (20%) subjects had EiA; ACR rose from normal rest values (0.79 mg/g) to 52.28 mg/g after exercise (P < 0.001); this effect was not shown for the rest of the study population. EiA was related to higher prevalence of MS (13.8% vs. 27.1%, P < 0.001), higher metabolic equivalents (P < 0.001), higher baseline blood pressure (P < 0.001), and higher levels of fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, and body mass index (P < 0.001). Multivariate binary logistic regression model showed that subjects with MS were 98% more likely to have EiA (95% confidence interval: 1.13-3.46, P = 0.016). In conclusion, EiA in the absence of baseline MA is independently related to MS. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Physiological and Psychological Responses during Exercise and Recovery in a Cold Environment Is Gender-Related Rather Than Fabric-Related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Cernych

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated gender-specific effects of two types of undergarments on exercise-induced physiological and psychological stress and subsequent recovery in cold conditions for male and female participants. Ten healthy men and eleven healthy women (25.0 ± 1.5 versus 23.4 ± 1.2 years old, respectively completed the experimental session twice with two different types of undergarments: polyester or merino wool leggings and long-sleeve tops; specifically, merino fabric had greater thermal resistance and water absorbency, and less water vapor as well as air permeability than polyester. Experimental sessions involved performing 1 h of exercise on a cycle ergometer at 8°C ambient temperature and 55% relative humidity, holding at 70–80 revolutions per minute and 60% of each participant’s predetermined maximal power output (assessed by maximal oxygen uptake test, followed by 1 h recovery in the same environment. Every 5 min during exercise and every 10 min during recovery, rectal temperature, heart rate, subjective ratings for thermal, shivering/sweating and clothing wetness sensations, and clothing next-to-skin and outer side surface temperature and humidity on the chest, back and thigh were recorded. All participants experienced high physiological stress (assessed by physiological strain index during exercise. No significant gender differences were found in core temperature or heart rate changes during exercise, but women cooled down faster during recovery. Next-to-skin humidity was similar between genders and different garment sets during exercise and recovery, but such temperatures at the chest during exercise and at the thigh during exercise and recovery were lower in women with both sets of garments. Subjective thermal sensations were similar in all cases. In the last 20 min of cycling, women started to feel wetter than men (P < 0.05 for both garment sets. Shivering was reported as stronger in women in the last 10 min of recovery. Most of the

  17. Comparison of Abdominal Muscle Activity in Relation to Knee Angles during Abdominal Drawing-in Exercises Using Pressure Biofeedback

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jun-Cheol; Lee, Su-Kyoung; Kim, Kyoung

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The leg angles that are the most effective for abdominal muscle activation were investigated by performing abdominal drawing-in exercises at different leg angles with a biofeedback pressure unit. [Methods] Subjects were asked to adopt a supine position, and the tip of the biofeedback pressure unit was placed under the posterior superior iliac spine. Then, the pressure was adjusted to 40 mmHg while referring to the pressure gauge connected to the biofeedback pressure unit. Subjects w...

  18. Possibility of leg muscle hypertrophy by ambulation in older adults: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozaki H

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hayao Ozaki,1 Jeremy P Loenneke,2 Robert S Thiebaud,2 Joel M Stager,3 Takashi Abe31Juntendo University, Inzai, Chiba, Japan; 2Department of Health and Exercise Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA; 3Department of Kinesiology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USAAbstract: It is known that ambulatory exercises such as brisk walking and jogging are potent stimuli for improving aerobic capacity, but it is less understood whether ambulatory exercise can increase leg muscle size and function. The purpose of this brief review is to discuss whether or not ambulatory exercise elicits leg muscle hypertrophy in older adults. Daily ambulatory activity with moderate (>3 metabolic equivalents [METs], which is defined as the ratio of the work metabolic rate to the resting metabolic rate intensity estimated by accelerometer is positively correlated with lower body muscle size and function in older adults. Although there is conflicting data on the effects of short-term training, it is possible that relatively long periods of walking, jogging, or intermittent running for over half a year can increase leg muscle size among older adults. In addition, slow-walk training with a combination of leg muscle blood flow restriction elicits muscle hypertrophy only in the blood flow restricted leg muscles. Competitive marathon running and regular high intensity distance running in young and middle-aged adults may not produce leg muscle hypertrophy due to insufficient recovery from the damaging running bout, although there have been no studies that have investigated the effects of running on leg muscle morphology in older subjects. It is clear that skeletal muscle hypertrophy can occur independently of exercise mode and load.Keywords: aerobic exercise, muscle mass, aging, strength, sarcopenia

  19. Alternative splice variant PGC-1α-b is strongly induced by exercise in human skeletal muscle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J. Norrbom; E. K. Sällstedt; H. Fischer; C. J. Sundberg; H. Rundqvist; T. Gustafsson

    2011-01-01

    .... The subjects exercised one leg for 45 min with restricted blood flow (R-leg), followed by 45 min of exercise using the other leg at the same absolute workload but with normal blood flow (NR-leg...

  20. Alternative splice variant PGC-1 -b is strongly induced by exercise in human skeletal muscle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Norrbom, J; Sallstedt, E. K; Fischer, H; Sundberg, C. J; Rundqvist, H; Gustafsson, T

    2011-01-01

    .... The subjects exercised one leg for 45 min with restricted blood flow (R-leg), followed by 45 min of exercise using the other leg at the same absolute workload but with normal blood flow (NR-leg...

  1. Sensitivity of sensor-based sit-to-stand peak power to the effects of training leg strength, leg power and balance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regterschot, G Ruben H; Folkersma, Marjanne; Zhang, Wei; Baldus, Heribert; Stevens, Martin; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2014-01-01

    Increasing leg strength, leg power and overall balance can improve mobility and reduce fall risk. Sensor-based assessment of peak power during the sit-to-stand (STS) transfer may be useful for detecting changes in mobility and fall risk. Therefore, this study investigated whether sensor-based STS peak power and related measures are sensitive to the effects of increasing leg strength, leg power and overall balance in older adults. A further aim was to compare sensitivity between sensor-based STS measures and standard clinical measures of leg strength, leg power, balance, mobility and fall risk, following an exercise-based intervention. To achieve these aims, 26 older adults (age: 70-84 years) participated in an eight-week exercise program aimed at improving leg strength, leg power and balance. Before and after the intervention, performance on normal and fast STS transfers was evaluated with a hybrid motion sensor worn on the hip. In addition, standard clinical tests (isometric quadriceps strength, Timed Up and Go test, Berg Balance Scale) were performed. Standard clinical tests as well as sensor-based measures of peak power, maximal velocity and duration of normal and fast STS showed significant improvements. Sensor-based measurement of peak power, maximal velocity and duration of normal STS demonstrated a higher sensitivity (absolute standardized response mean (SRM): ≥ 0.69) to the effects of training leg strength, leg power and balance than standard clinical measures (absolute SRM: ≤ 0.61). Therefore, the presented sensor-based method appears to be useful for detecting changes in mobility and fall risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Orthorexic eating behaviors related to exercise addiction and internal motivations in a sample of university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Crystal D; Watkins, Ryan S; Burkot, Andrew J

    2017-12-20

    This research explored the exercise tendencies and motivations of individuals varying in orthorexia symptomatology. Participants were 411 university students, who completed the Eating Habits Questionnaire alongside measures of exercise activity and addiction in Study 1 (a modified version of the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, the Exercise Addiction Inventory, and the Compulsive Exercise Test) and various exercise motivations in Study 2 (the Behavioural Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire and the Exercise Motivations Inventory-2). Orthorexia symptomatology was positively correlated with aerobic and strength-training exercise levels; all measures of exercise addiction; all measures of internal exercise motivation; and nearly all measures of exercise motivation for the purposes of psychological, social, health, and body improvement. Symptomatology was not significantly related to either measure that specifically assessed external motivation to exercise. Individuals high in orthorexia symptomatology are internally driven to exercise for the purposes of improving their physical and mental health, but these strong motivations also lead to exercise addiction characterized by a compulsive need to follow a rigid schedule of intensive exercise even in the face of injury, illness, or other problems. Level V, descriptive cross-sectional study.

  3. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... legs to touch the wall, keeping hips and knees bent. Use your hips to push your body ... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both knees bent. Draw abdominal wall in. Maintaining abdominal wall ...

  4. Sustaining Behavior Changes Following a Venous Leg Ulcer Client Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Charne; Kapp, Suzanne; Donohue, Lisa

    2014-09-04

    Venous leg ulcers are a symptom of chronic insufficiency of the veins. This study considered the sustainability of behavior changes arising from a client focus e-Learning education program called the "Leg Ulcer Prevention Program" (LUPP) for people with a venous leg ulcer. Data from two related studies were used to enable a single sample (n = 49) examination of behavior maintenance across an average 8 to 9 months period. Physical activity levels increased over time. Leg elevation, calf muscle exercises, and soap substitute use were seen to fluctuate over the follow up time points. The use of a moisturizer showed gradual decline over time. The provision of a client-focused venous leg ulcer program was associated with behavior changes that had varied sustainability across the evaluation period.

  5. Leg size and muscle functions associated with leg compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Doerr, Donald F.; Flores, Jose F.; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe; Buchanan, Paul

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between the leg compliance and factors related to the size of leg muscle and to physical fitness was investigated in ten healthy subjects. Vascular compliance of the leg, as determined by a mercury strain gauge, was found to be not significantly correlated with any variables associated with physical fitness per se (e.g., peak O2 uptake, calf strength, age, body weight, or body composition. On the other hand, leg compliance correlated with the calf cross-sectional area (CSA) and the calculated calf volume, with the CSA of calf muscle being the most dominant contributing factor (while fat and bone were poor predicators). It is suggested that leg compliance can be lowered by increasing calf muscle mass, thus providing structural support to limit the expansion of leg veins.

  6. Quantitative trait loci analysis for leg weakness-related traits in a Duroc × Pietrain crossbred population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phatsara Chirawath

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leg weakness issues are a great concern for the pig breeding industry, especially with regard to animal welfare. Traits associated with leg weakness are partly influenced by the genetic background of the animals but the genetic basis of these traits is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL affecting leg weakness in pigs. Methods Three hundred and ten F2 pigs from a Duroc × Pietrain resource population were genotyped using 82 genetic markers. Front and rear legs and feet scores were based on the standard scoring system. Osteochondrosis lesions were examined histologically at the head and the condylus medialis of the left femur and humerus. Bone mineral density, bone mineral content and bone mineral area were measured in the whole ulna and radius bones using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. A line-cross model was applied to determine QTL regions associated with leg weakness using the QTL Express software. Results Eleven QTL affecting leg weakness were identified on eight autosomes. All QTL reached the 5% chromosome-wide significance level. Three QTL were associated with osteochondrosis on the humerus end, two with the fore feet score and two with the rear leg score. QTL on SSC2 and SSC3 influencing bone mineral content and bone mineral density, respectively, reached the 5% genome-wide significance level. Conclusions Our results confirm previous studies and provide information on new QTL associated with leg weakness in pigs. These results contribute towards a better understanding of the genetic background of leg weakness in pigs.

  7. Postpartum Exercise among Nigerian Women: Issues Relating to Exercise Performance and Self-Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    A. F. Adeniyi; O. O. Ogwumike; Bamikefa, T. R.

    2013-01-01

    Physical exercise during postpartum period is beneficial to mothers, and the health gains are abundantly reported. This study characterises the postpartum exercise profile of a group of Nigerian women and reports how their exercise self-efficacies are influenced by sociodemographic characteristics. Participants were women attending the two largest postnatal clinics in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria. A self-developed questionnaire assessed the socio-demographic and exercise profile of participa...

  8. Neurodynamic treatment did not improve pain and disability at two weeks in patients with chronic nerve-related leg pain: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Ferreira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Question: In people with nerve-related leg pain, does adding neurodynamic treatment to advice to remain active improve leg pain, disability, low back pain, function, global perceived effect and location of symptoms? Design: Randomised trial with concealed allocation and intention-to-treat analysis. Participants: Sixty participants with nerve-related leg pain recruited from the community. Interventions: The experimental group received four sessions of neurodynamic treatment. Both groups received advice to remain active. Outcome measures: Leg pain and low back pain (0, none, to 10, worst, Oswestry Disability Index (0, none, to 100, worst, Patient-Specific Functional Scale (0, unable to perform, to 30, able to perform, global perceived effect (–5 to 5 and location of symptoms were measured at 2 and 4 weeks after randomisation. Continuous outcomes were analysed by linear mixed models. Location of symptoms was assessed by relative risk (95% CI. Results: At 2 weeks, the experimental group did not have significantly greater improvement than the control group in leg pain (MD –1.1, 95% CI –2.3 to 0.1 or disability (MD –3.3, 95% CI –9.6 to 2.9. At 4 weeks, the experimental group experienced a significantly greater reduction in leg pain (MD –2.4, 95% CI –3.6 to –1.2 and low back pain (MD –1.5, 95% CI –2.8 to –0.2. The experimental group also improved significantly more in function at 2 weeks (MD 5.2, 95% CI 2.2 to 8.2 and 4 weeks (MD 4.7, 95% CI 1.7 to 7.8, as well as global perceived effect at 2 weeks (MD 2.5, 95% CI 1.6 to 3.5 and 4 weeks (MD 2.9, 95% CI 1.9 to 3.9. No significant between-group differences occurred in disability at 4 weeks and location of symptoms. Conclusion: Adding neurodynamic treatment to advice to remain active did not improve leg pain and disability at 2 weeks. Trial registration: NCT01954199. [Ferreira G, Stieven F, Araujo F, Wiebusch M, Rosa C, Plentz R, et al. (2016 Neurodynamic treatment did not improve

  9. Poor outcome in patients with spine-related leg or arm pain who are involved in compensation claims: a prospective study of patients in the secondary care sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, C; Leboeuf-Yde, C; Hestbaek, L

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether poor outcome after spinal pain episodes is linked with the claim process and, if so, whether this link is independent of other potential risk factors of chronic pain and disability in patients with spine-related leg or arm pain. METHODS: A 1-year prospective...... outcome study with internal control groups in two Danish secondary care, public, multidisciplinary, non-surgical spine clinics. Patients with low back pain (LBP) radiating to the leg (n = 1243) or with neck and arm pain thought to emanate from the neck (n = 202) were referred to the clinics...

  10. Immersible ergocycle prescription as a function of relative exercise intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Garzon

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The %HRR–%VO2R relationship appears to be the most accurate for exercise training prescription on IE. This study offers new tools to better prescribe, control, and individualize exercise intensity on IE.

  11. Proteome profiles of longissimus and biceps femoris porcine muscles related to exercise and resting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F.W.Te Pas, Marinus; Keuning, Els; Van der Wiel, Dick J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Exercise affects muscle metabolism and composition in the untrained muscles. The proteome of muscle tissue will be affected by exercise and resting. This is of economic importance for pork quality where transportation relates to exercise of untrained muscles. Rest reverses exercise effects....... The objective of this research was to develop potential protein biomarkers that predict the optimal resting time after exercise related to optimal pork quality. Ten litters of four female pigs were within litter allocated to the four treatment groups: exercise by running on a treadmill for 27 minutes followed...... by rest for 0, 1, or 3 h; control pigs without exercise. Proteome profiles and biochemical traits measuring energy metabolism and meat quality traits expected to be related to exercise were determined in the Longissimus and the Biceps femoris of the pigs. The results indicated associations between protein...

  12. Decreases in left atrial compliance during early-stage exercise are related to exercise intolerance in asymptomatic significant mitral stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mi-Hyang; Jung, Hae Ok; Lee, Jung-Won; Youn, Ho-Joong

    2017-11-01

    Doppler-driven net atrioventricular compliance (C n ), which represents left atrial (LA) compliance, is an important determinant of pulmonary hypertension in mitral stenosis (MS). We hypothesized that decreases in C n during early-stage exercise underlie exercise intolerance in patients with MS. Thirty-three asymptomatic patients with significant MS (valve area 1.24 ± 0.16 cm 2 ) underwent resting and bicycle exercise echocardiography. LA compliance and conventional parameters were assessed at each workload. The patients were classified into two groups based on whether they developed dyspnea during exercise: an exercise-intolerance group (n = 22) and an exercise-tolerance group (n = 11). Moreover, "50 W" was defined as an early exercise stage. Although the groups had similar resting characteristics, there were striking differences in their echocardiographic parameters from the early stages of exercise. The relative C n decrease at 50 W (expressed as a percentage of the resting C n ) was significantly greater in the exercise-intolerance group (70.3 ± 15.4% vs 49.7 ± 9.7%, P intolerance group (P = .0005). Furthermore, differences in the trends in this parameter were observed between the two groups (P intolerance (adjusted OR 1.105, 95% CI 1.030-1.184) after adjustment for other conventional parameters. Decreases in C n during early-stage exercise are an important mechanism underlying exercise intolerance in MS. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Three week results of transforaminal epidural steroid injection in patients with chronic unilateral low back related leg pain: The relation to MRI findings and clinical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekedahl, Harald; Jönsson, Bo; Annertz, Mårten; Frobell, Richard B

    2016-11-21

    Transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TESI) is a frequently used intervention for lumbar radicular pain. To evaluate the value of MRI findings, neurologic assessment and the Slump test (neurodynamic test) as predictors of treatment response to TESI. One hundred subjects (mean age 58 [SD13], 54% females) were included in this trial. The sample was stratified by location of disc herniaton, grade of nerve root compression, clinically assessed neurologic deficit and positive Slump test.Treatment response was primarily evaluated by Visual Analogue Scale for leg pain after three weeks. Predictive value for each stratum was analyzed using logistic regression after the sample was dichotomized into definite treatment response (≥ 50% reduction of pain) and negative response (≤ 0% reduction) to TESI (the 1-49% reduction group was excluded). The overall definite treatment response rate was 27%. The Slump test was the only predictor of the response to TESI (p= 0.031). The definite treatment response rates for subjects with positive and negative Slump test were 33% and 15%, respectively. In patients with chronic low back related leg pain, MRI findings and neurologic assessment results failed to predict treatment response, whereas a positive Slump test predicted the best 3-week response to TESI.

  14. Supervised exercise reduces cancer-related fatigue: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F Meneses-Echávez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Question: Does supervised physical activity reduce cancer-related fatigue? Design: Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised trials. Participants: People diagnosed with any type of cancer, without restriction to a particular stage of diagnosis or treatment. Intervention: Supervised physical activity interventions (eg, aerobic, resistance and stretching exercise, defined as any planned or structured body movement causing an increase in energy expenditure, designed to maintain or enhance health-related outcomes, and performed with systematic frequency, intensity and duration. Outcome measures: The primary outcome measure was fatigue. Secondary outcomes were physical and functional wellbeing assessed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Fatigue Scale, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire, Piper Fatigue Scale, Schwartz Cancer Fatigue Scale and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. Methodological quality, including risk of bias of the studies, was evaluated using the PEDro Scale. Results: Eleven studies involving 1530 participants were included in the review. The assessment of quality showed a mean score of 6.5 (SD 1.1, indicating a low overall risk of bias. The pooled effect on fatigue, calculated as a standardised mean difference (SMD using a random-effects model, was –1.69 (95% CI –2.99 to –0.39. Beneficial reductions in fatigue were also found with combined aerobic and resistance training with supervision (SMD = –0.41, 95% CI –0.70 to –0.13 and with combined aerobic, resistance and stretching training with supervision (SMD = –0.67, 95% CI –1.17 to –0.17. Conclusion: Supervised physical activity interventions reduce cancer-related fatigue. These findings suggest that combined aerobic and resistance exercise regimens with or without stretching should be included as part of rehabilitation programs for people who have been diagnosed with cancer

  15. Effects of a Community-Based Multimodal Exercise Program on Health-Related Physical Fitness and Physical Function in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Michael P; Hasson, Scott M

    2016-12-01

    Breast cancer and oncological treatment can result in significant acute and late localized and systemic negative effects on health-related physical fitness and physical function. The aim of this single-arm study was to examine the effects of a 12-week community-based multimodal exercise program on health-related physical fitness and physical function in breast cancer survivors. A total of 52 female breast cancer survivors (mean age = 59.7 ± 10.4 years) completed supervised exercise training consisting of (1) aerobic conditioning, (2) resistance training, and (3) balance and flexibility training, for 30 minutes each, totaling 90 minutes twice weekly for 12 weeks. Pretreatment and posttreatment outcome measures-mobility: (1) Timed Up and Go (TUG) and (2) 6-minute walk test (6MWT); muscular strength: (3) leg press strength and (4) chest press strength; upper-extremity flexibility: (5) back scratch test; and balance: (6) functional reach (FR) and (7) single-leg stance time-were assessed and compared. Postintervention assessment measures given as percentage improvement and effect size (ES) for mobility, TUG (18%, 0.59), and 6MWT (14%, 0.74) were significantly (P exercise program for breast cancer survivors. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Randomized trial of pramipexole for patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) and RLS-related impairment of mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Pasquale; Hornyak, Magdolna; Ulfberg, Jan; Hong, Seung Bong; Koester, Juergen; Crespi, Giovanna; Albrecht, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) have an elevated prevalence of mood disorders compared with the general population. We investigated the change of RLS-related mood impairment during treatment of RLS with pramipexole, a dopamine D(3)/D(2) agonist. Adults with moderate to very severe RLS were enrolled in a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase IV pramipexole trial. A moderate to very severe RLS-related mood disturbance at baseline (score ≥2 on Item 10 of the International RLS Study Group Rating Scale [IRLS]) was also required. Pramipexole (0.125 to 0.75 mg once daily) was flexibly titrated over the first 4 weeks. The intent-to-treat population comprised 199 patients on placebo and 203 on pramipexole. At week 12, adjusted mean total-score changes on IRLS were -14.2±0.7 for pramipexole and -8.1±0.7 for placebo (p<0.0001), and on the Beck Depression Inventory version II, -7.3±0.4 for pramipexole and -5.8±0.5 for placebo (p=0.0199). For IRLS item 10, the 12-week responder rate (reduction to no or mild mood disturbance) was 75.9% for pramipexole and 57.3% for placebo (p<0.0001). Study withdrawal rates were higher for placebo (20.5%) than for pramipexole (12.8%). In patients with RLS-related mood disturbance, pramipexole improved RLS while also improving RLS-related mood impairment. Tolerability of pramipexole was similar to that in previous studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Leg vascular and skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic high-intensity exercise training are enhanced in the early postmenopausal phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Egelund, Jon; Mandrup Jensen, Camilla Maria

    2017-01-01

    the haemodynamic response to acute exercise in matched pre- and postmenopausal women before and after 12 weeks of aerobic high intensity exercise training. Twenty premenopausal and 16 early postmenopausal (3.1 ± 0.5 [mean ± SEM] years after final menstrual period) women only separated by 4 (50 ± 0 versus 54 ± 1...... high intensity exercise training are more pronounced in recent post- compared to premenopausal women, possibly as an effect of enhanced ERRα signalling. Also, the hyperaemic response to acute exercise appears to be preserved in the early postmenopausal phase. This article is protected by copyright. All......Exercise training leads to favourable adaptations within skeletal muscle; however, this effect of exercise training may be blunted in postmenopausal women due to the loss of oestrogens. Furthermore, postmenopausal women may have an impaired vascular response to acute exercise. We examined...

  18. Application of a classification system and description of a combined manual therapy intervention: a case with low back related leg pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Shannon M; Scott, Daphne R

    2010-06-01

    Low back pain and leg pain commonly occur together. Multiple factors can cause low back related leg pain; therefore, identification of the source of symptoms is required in order to develop an appropriate intervention program. The patient in this case presented with low back and leg pain. A patho-mechanism based classification is described in combination with the patient's subjective and objective examination findings to guide treatment. The patient's symptoms improved marginally with intervention addressing primarily the musculoskeletal impairments and with intervention addressing primarily the neurodynamic impairments. Full functional improvements were attained with a manual therapy intervention directed at both mechanisms simultaneously. The approach described in this case address a mixed pathology utilizing passive accessory and passive physiological lumbar mobilizations in combination with lower extremity neurodynamic mobilization. The patient reported complete resolution of symptoms after a total of seven visits over a period of 6 weeks. While specific guidelines do not yet exist for treatment based on the classification approach utilized, this case report provides an example of manual therapy to address low back related leg pain of mixed pathology.

  19. Force balance in the take-off of a pierid butterfly: relative importance and timing of leg impulsion and aerodynamic forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimbard, Gaëlle; Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Bouteleux, Olivier; Casas, Jérôme; Godoy-Diana, Ramiro

    2013-09-15

    Up to now, the take-off stage has remained an elusive phase of insect flight that was relatively poorly explored compared with other maneuvers. An overall assessment of the different mechanisms involved in force production during take-off has never been explored. Focusing on the first downstroke, we have addressed this problem from a force balance perspective in butterflies taking off from the ground. In order to determine whether the sole aerodynamic wing force could explain the observed motion of the insect, we have firstly compared a simple analytical model of the wing force with the acceleration of the insect's center of mass estimated from video tracking of the wing and body motions. Secondly, wing kinematics were also used for numerical simulations of the aerodynamic flow field. Similar wing aerodynamic forces were obtained by the two methods. However, neither are sufficient, nor is the inclusion of the ground effect, to predict faithfully the body acceleration. We have to resort to the leg forces to obtain a model that best fits the data. We show that the median and hind legs display an active extension responsible for the initiation of the upward motion of the insect's body, occurring before the onset of the wing downstroke. We estimate that legs generate, at various times, an upward force that can be much larger than all other forces applied to the insect's body. The relative timing of leg and wing forces explains the large variability of trajectories observed during the maneuvers.

  20. Doppler ultrasound exam of an arm or leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... related deaths are caused by cardiovascular problems, not lung cancer. Alternative Names Peripheral vascular disease - Doppler; PVD - Doppler; PAD - Doppler; Blockage of leg arteries - Doppler; Intermittent claudication - Doppler; Arterial insufficiency of the legs - Doppler; Leg pain and cramping - ...

  1. The impact of automatically activated motivation on exercise-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banting, Lauren K; Dimmock, James A; Grove, J Robert

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the effect of motivational primes on participants (N = 171) during a cycling task. Relative to participants primed with a controlled motivational orientation, it was hypothesized that participants primed for autonomous motivation would report greater feelings of enjoyment, effort, and choice in relation to the cycling activity and report greater exercise intentions. Members of the autonomous prime group were expected to exercise for longer, at a greater percentage of their heart rate maximum, and report lower levels of perceived exertion than those in the controlled prime condition. It was found that, relative to participants in the controlled prime group, those who received the autonomous prime enjoyed the exercise more, exercised at a greater percentage of heart rate maximum, and reported a lower rating of perceived exertion. Furthermore, participants experiencing the controlled prime exercised for less time and had lower intentions to exercise than did other participants. Results highlight the importance of automatic processes in activating motivation for exercise.

  2. A review of the content, criterion-related, and construct-related validity of assessment center exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Brian J; Kennedy, Colby L; LoPilato, Alexander C; Monahan, Elizabeth L; Lance, Charles E

    2015-07-01

    This study uses meta-analysis and a qualitative review of exercise descriptions to evaluate the content, criterion-related, construct, and incremental validity of 5 commonly used types of assessment center (AC) exercises. First, we present a meta-analysis of the relationship between 5 types of AC exercises with (a) the other exercise types, (b) the 5-factor model of personality, (c) general mental ability (GMA), and (d) relevant criterion variables. All 5 types of exercises were significantly related to criterion variables (ρ = .16-.19). The nomological network analyses suggested that the exercises tend to be modestly associated with GMA, Extraversion and, to a lesser extent, Openness to Experience but largely unrelated to Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Emotional Stability. Finally, despite sparse reporting in primary studies, a content analysis of exercise descriptions yielded some evidence of complexity, ambiguity, interpersonal interaction, and fidelity but not necessarily interdependence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Preventive exercises reduced injury-related costs among adult male amateur soccer players: a cluster-randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krist, M.R.; Beijsterveldt, A.M.C van; Backx, F.J.G.; Wit, G.A. de

    2013-01-01

    QUESTION: Is an injury prevention program consisting of 10 exercises designed to improve stability, muscle strength, co-ordination, and flexibility of the trunk, hip and leg muscles (known as The11) cost effective in adult male amateur soccer players?DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness analysis of a

  4. Expression of extracellular matrix components and related growth factors in human tendon and muscle after acute exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, K M; Bjerrum, S S; Schjerling, P

    2013-01-01

    the patellar tendon and vastus lateralis muscle of each leg at 2 (n = 10), 6 (n = 11), or 26 h (n = 10) after exercise. Levels of messenger ribonucleic acid mRNA for collagens, noncollagenous matrix proteins, and growth factors were measured with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction...

  5. Age-related changes in the effects of strength training on lower leg muscles in healthy individuals measured using MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Psatha, Maria; Wu, Zhiqing; Gammie, Fiona; Ratkevicius, Aivaras; Wackerhage, Henning; Redpath, Thomas W; Gilbert, Fiona J; Meakin, Judith R; Aspden, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    Background We previously measured the rate of regaining muscle strength during rehabilitation of lower leg muscles in patients following lower leg casting. Our primary aim in this study was to measure the rate of gain of strength in healthy individuals undergoing a similar training regime. Our secondary aim was to test the ability of MRI to provide a biomarker for muscle function. Methods Men and women were recruited in three age groups: 20?30, 50?65 and over 70 years. Their response to resis...

  6. Restless Legs Syndrome Among the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Hao Chen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome is a sleep and movement disorder that affects 5–15% of the general population, with an increased prevalence among the elderly population. It not only affects quality of life but also increases risk of mortality among older adults. The diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms of the patient by four minimal essential criteria. Restless legs syndrome can be divided into primary or secondary causes. Examination should be performed to rule out potentially treatable illnesses, such as iron deficiency, renal failure or peripheral neuropathy, especially among elderly patients. The initial approach to restless legs syndrome should be nonpharmacologic management, such as good sleep hygiene, regular exercise, cognitive behavioral therapy and avoidance of certain aggravating drugs. An algorithm based on scientific evidence and expert opinion was developed for guidance of treatment. Combination or change of medication can be applied to resistant or difficult cases. Since elderly patients are prone to treatment-related side effects, the best strategy is to start medication cautiously and at the lowest recommended dosage.

  7. Normal mitochondrial function and increased fat oxidation capacity in leg and arm muscles in obese humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ara, I; Larsen, S; Stallknecht, Bente Merete

    2011-01-01

    Aim/hypothesis:The aim of this study was to investigate mitochondrial function, fibre-type distribution and substrate oxidation during exercise in arm and leg muscles in male postobese (PO), obese (O) and age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched control (C) subjects. The hypothesis of the study...... deltoideus (m. deltoideus) and m. vastus lateralis muscles. Fibre-type composition, enzyme activity and O(2) flux capacity of saponin-permeabilized muscle fibres were measured, the latter by high-resolution respirometry.Results:During the graded exercise tests, peak fat oxidation during leg cycling......, and plasma leptin was higher in O than in PO and C.Conclusions:In O subjects, maximal fat oxidation during exercise and the eliciting relative exercise intensity are increased. This is associated with higher intramuscular triglyceride levels and higher resting non esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations...

  8. Exercise Is Positively Related to Adolescents' Relationships and Academics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Sanders, Christopher E.

    2001-01-01

    High school seniors were surveyed on their exercise habits; relationships with parents and peers; depressive tendencies; sports involvement; drug use; and academic performance. Students with high levels of exercise had better family relationships; were less depressed; were more involved in sports; used drugs less; and had better grades than…

  9. Exercise-related cardiac cardiac rehabilitation arrest In

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    most important being myocardial infarction and cardiac arrest. (CA).1,2. 'Normal' ... myocardial infarction and CA in cardiac rehabilitation pro- ..... The acute risk of. Strenuous exercise.JAMA 1980; 244: 1799-1801. 5. Siscovick DS, Weiss NS, Fletcber RH et al. The incidence of primary cardiac arrest during vigorous exercise.

  10. Digital Astronaut Project Biomechanical Models: Biomechanical Modeling of Squat, Single-Leg Squat and Heel Raise Exercises on the Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William K.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Crentsil, Lawton; Lewandowski, Beth E.; Humphreys, Brad T.; DeWitt, John K.; Fincke, Renita S.; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) implements well-vetted computational models to predict and assess spaceflight health and performance risks, and to enhance countermeasure development. The DAP Musculoskeletal Modeling effort is developing computational models to inform exercise countermeasure development and to predict physical performance capabilities after a length of time in space. For example, integrated exercise device-biomechanical models can determine localized loading, which will be used as input to muscle and bone adaptation models to estimate the effectiveness of the exercise countermeasure. In addition, simulations of mission tasks can be used to estimate the astronaut's ability to perform the task after exposure to microgravity and after using various exercise countermeasures. The software package OpenSim (Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA) (Ref. 1) is being used to create the DAP biomechanical models and its built-in muscle model is the starting point for the DAP muscle model. During Exploration missions, such as those to asteroids and Mars, astronauts will be exposed to reduced gravity for extended periods. Therefore, the crew must have access to exercise countermeasures that can maintain their musculoskeletal and aerobic health. Exploration vehicles may have very limited volume and power available to accommodate such capabilities, even more so than the International Space Station (ISS). The exercise devices flown on Exploration missions must be designed to provide sufficient load during the performance of various resistance and aerobic/anaerobic exercises while meeting potential additional requirements of limited mass, volume and power. Given that it is not practical to manufacture and test (ground, analog and/or flight) all candidate devices, nor is it always possible to obtain data such as localized muscle and bone loading empirically, computational modeling can estimate the localized loading during various exercise modalities performed on

  11. Relation between exercise, depression and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vasconcelos-Raposo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between physical exercise, depression, and body mass index (BMI. The sample of the study consisted of 175 participants (43 male and 132 female with ages between the 18 and 27 years. The used instruments were: an adapted and validated Portuguese version of the Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI and an adaptation of the physical exercise scale developed by Prochaska, Sallis and Long (2001. The results suggested a negative correlation between the physical exercise and depression, with statistical significance. The group that does not reach the recommended level of physical exercise presents higher scores of depression in comparison with the group that reaches. This study corroborates previous studies that suggested positive effects of physical exercise on depression.

  12. Pathological motivations for exercise and eating disorder specific health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Brian; Engel, Scott; Crosby, Ross; Hausenblas, Heather; Wonderlich, Stephen; Mitchell, James

    2014-04-01

    To examine associations among pathological motivations for exercise with eating disorder (ED) specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Survey data assessing ED severity (i.e., Eating Disorder Diagnostic Survey), ED specific HRQOL (i.e., Eating Disorders Quality of Life Instrument), and pathological motivations for exercise (i.e., Exercise Dependence Scale) were collected from female students (N = 387) at seven universities throughout the United States. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations among exercise dependence, ED-specific HRQOL and ED severity, and the interaction of exercise dependence and ED severity on HRQOL scores. The overall model examining the impact of ED severity and exercise dependence (independent variables) on HRQOL (dependent variable) was significant and explained 16.1% of the variance in HRQOL scores. Additionally, the main effects for ED severity and exercise dependence and the interaction among ED severity and exercise dependence were significant, suggesting that the combined effects of ED severity and exercise dependence significantly impacts HRQOL. Our results suggest that pathological motivations for exercise may exacerbate ED's detrimental impact on HRQOL. Our results offer one possible insight into why exercise may be associated with deleterious effects on ED HRQOL. Future research is needed to elucidate the relationship among psychological aspects of exercise, ED, and HRQOL. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Temporal discounting rates and their relation to exercise behavior in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Linda M; Tsai, Pao-Feng; Landes, Reid D; Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Lefler, Leanne L

    2015-12-01

    As our nation's population ages, the rates of chronic illness and disability are expected to increase significantly. Despite the knowledge that exercise may prevent chronic disease and promote health among older adults, many still are inactive. Factors related to exercise behaviors have been explored in recent years. However, temporal discounting is a motivational concept that has not been explored in regard to exercise in older adults. Temporal discounting is a decision making process by which an individual chooses a smaller more immediate reward over a larger delayed reward. The aim of this study was to determine if temporal discounting rates vary between exercising and non-exercising older adults. This study used cross-sectional survey of 137 older adults living in the community. Older adults were recruited from 11 rural Arkansas churches. The Kirby delay-discounting Monetary Choice Questionnaire was used to collect discounting rates and then bivariate analysis was performed to compare temporal discounting rate between the exercisers and non-exercisers. Finally, multivariate analysis was used to compare discounting rate controlling for other covariates. The results indicated that exercising older adults display lower temporal discounting rates than non-exercising older adults. After controlling for education, exercisers still have lower temporal discounting rates than non-exercisers (polder adults. This research suggests that if we can find appropriate incentives for discounting individuals, some type of immediate reward, then potentially we can design programs to engage and retain older adults in exercise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Lively Legs self-management programme increased physical activity and reduced wound days in leg ulcer patients: Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, M.M.; Borm, G.F.; Vleuten, C.J.M. van der; Evers, A.W.M.; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Achterberg, T. van

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Investigating the effectiveness of the Lively Legs program for promoting adherence with ambulant compression therapy and physical exercise as well as effects on leg ulcer recurrence. DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Eleven outpatient clinics for dermatology in the

  15. Aerobic exercise reduces biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    an aerobic exercise worksite intervention changes the level of inflammation biomarkers among cleaners. METHODS: The design was a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 4-month worksite intervention. Before the 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were randomized, they signed an informed consent form...... that an aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners leads to reduced levels of high-sensitive C-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and an unaltered level of fibrinogen. The aerobic exercise seems to improve inflammatory levels and lipoprotein profile among cleaners, with no signs...

  16. Exercise is positively related to adolescents' relationships and academics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, T; Diego, M; Sanders, C E

    2001-01-01

    Eighty-nine high school seniors were administered a questionnaire that gathered information on their exercise habits (ranging from rarely to daily), relationships with parents and peers, depressive tendencies, sports involvement, drug use, and academic performance. Students with a high level of exercise had better relationships with their parents (including greater intimacy and more frequent touching), were less depressed, spent more time involved in sports, used drugs less frequently, and had higher grade point averages than did students with a low level of exercise.

  17. Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it can lead to weakness of muscles, decreased bone density with an increased risk of fracture, and shallow, inefficient breathing. An exercise program needs to fit the capabilities and limitations ...

  18. Arm vs. Combined Leg and Arm Exercise: Blood Pressure Responses and Ratings of Perceived Exertion at the Same Indirectly Determined Heart Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Di Blasio; Andrea Sablone; Paola Civino; Emanuele D'Angelo; Sabina Gallina; Patrizio Ripari

    2009-01-01

    Pre-participation screening is very important for prescribing and practising exercise safely. The aim of this study was to investigate both ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood pressure responses in two different types of exercises with matching duration and indirectly determined working heart rate (HR). Participants were 23 male students, who were generally healthy but sedentary. The time course of their RPE and blood pressure during a 50- minute work-out session on an arm crank erg...

  19. Maternal Recreational Exercise during Pregnancy in relation to Children's BMI at 7 Years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou Andersen, Camilla; Juhl, Mette; Gamborg, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Exposures during fetal life may have long-term health consequences including risk of childhood overweight. We investigated the associations between maternal recreational exercise during early and late pregnancy and the children's body mass index (BMI) and risk of overweight at 7 years. Data on 40...... was analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Recreational exercise across pregnancy was inversely related to children's BMI and risk of overweight, but all associations were mainly explained by smoking habits, socioeconomic status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Additionally, we did...... not find exercise intensity or changes in exercise habits in pregnancy related to the children's BMI or risk of overweight....

  20. Understanding Why Undergraduate Students Declare and Continue to Study an Exercise Science-Related Major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaartstra, Matthew B; Kercher, Vanessa M; Start, Amanda; Brown, Amber N; Peterson, Mark D; McGrath, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    Understanding factors that contribute to a student's selection of an exercise science-related major is important to student success, higher education and industry. This study sought to 1) better understand why undergraduate students study an exercise science-related major, 2) determine whether positive influences to study an exercise science-related major differ by academic classification, and 3) identify what student's aspirations are after graduation. Department administrators from four-year colleges and universities offering an exercise science-related major in the Northwest Region of the United States (i.e., Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington) were contacted. Cooperating department administrators were given self-reported questionnaires for students to complete using a snowball sampling method. A total of 388 participants completed the questionnaire. Interest in the subject and potential job opportunities were the most common reasons to study an exercise science-related major. Self-reported Holland's codes identified that realistic and social personalities were most prevalent among participants. Seniors rated a friend's influence and college advisors as stronger influences to study an exercise science-related major compared to freshmen. Pay in the field was a stronger influence for freshmen to study an exercise science-related major than for fifth-year seniors, whereas freshmen were less influenced by introductory courses to study an exercise-science related major than fifth-year seniors. The majority of undergraduate students studying an exercise science-related major planned on attending graduate school after completing their baccalaureate degree. These findings can be used to help guide undeclared students and better serve undergraduates enrolled in an exercise science-related major.

  1. Examining the moderating effect of depressive symptoms on the relation between exercise and self-efficacy during the initiation of regular exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kangas, J.L.; Baldwin, A.S.; Rosenfield, D.; Smits, J.A.J.; Rethorst, C.D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: People with depressive symptoms report lower levels of exercise self-efficacy and are more likely to discontinue regular exercise than others, but it is unclear how depressive symptoms affect the relation between exercise and self-efficacy. We sought to clarify whether depressive symptoms

  2. Low muscle glycogen and elevated plasma free fatty acid modify but do not prevent exercise-induced PDH activation in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Kristian; Gudmundsson, Mikkel; Birk, Jesper Bratz

    2010-01-01

    to the contra-lateral leg (CON) the day before the experiment day. On the experimental days, plasma FFA was ensured normal or remained elevated by consuming breakfast rich (low FFA) or poor (high FFA) in carbohydrate, 2 hours before performing 20 min of two-legged knee extensor exercise. Vastus lateralis......Objective: Test the hypothesis that FFA and muscle glycogen modify exercise-induced regulation of PDH in human skeletal muscle through regulation of PDK4 expression. Research Design and Methods: On two occasions, healthy male subjects lowered (by exercise) muscle glycogen in one leg (LOW) relative...... biopsies were obtained before and after exercise. Results: PDK4 protein content was approximately 2.2 and approximately 1.5 fold higher in LOW than CON leg in high FFA and low FFA, respectively, and the PDK4 protein content in CON leg was approximately 2 fold higher in high FFA than in low FFA. In all...

  3. Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; thor Straten, Eivind Per

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that voluntary exercise leads to an influx of immune cells in tumors and a greater than 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across several mouse models. Improved immunological control of tumor progression may have important clinical implications in the prevention...... and treatment of cancer in humans....

  4. Foot muscle morphology is related to center of pressure sway and control mechanisms during single-leg standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianyi; Schütte, Kurt Heinrich; Vanwanseele, Benedicte

    2017-09-01

    Maintaining balance is vitally important in everyday life. Investigating the effects of individual foot muscle morphology on balance may provide insights into neuromuscular balance control mechanisms. This study aimed to examine the correlation between the morphology of foot muscles and balance performance during single-leg standing. Twenty-eight recreational runners were recruited in this study. An ultrasound device was used to measure the thickness and cross-sectional area of three intrinsic foot muscles (abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis and quadratus plantae) and peroneus muscles. Participants were required to perform 30s of single-leg standing for three trials on a force plate, which was used to record the center of pressure (COP). The standard deviation of the amplitude and ellipse area of the COP were calculated. In addition, stabilogram diffusion analysis (SDA) was performed on COP data. Pearson correlation coefficients were computed to examine the correlation between foot muscle morphology and traditional COP parameters as well as with SDA parameters. Our results showed that larger abductor hallucis correlated to smaller COP sway, while larger peroneus muscles correlated to larger COP sway during single-leg standing. Larger abductor hallucis also benefited open-loop dynamic stability, as well as supported a more efficient transfer from open-loop to closed loop control mechanisms. These results suggest that the morphology of foot muscles plays an important role in balance performance, and that strengthening the intrinsic foot muscles may be an effective way to improve balance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Exercise to reduce work-related fatigue among employees : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. de Vries (Juriena); M.L.M. van Hooff (Madelon); S.A.E. Geurts (Sabine); M.A.J. Kompier (Michiel)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Objectives__ The present study evaluated the efficacy of an exercise intervention to reduce work-related fatigue (emotional exhaustion, overall fatigue, and need for recovery). The effects of exercise on self-efficacy, sleep, work ability, cognitive functioning and aerobic fitness

  6. Exercise to reduce work-related fatigue among employees: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J.D. de; Hooff, M.L.M. van; Geurts, S.A.E.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The present study evaluated the efficacy of an exercise intervention to reduce work-related fatigue (emotional exhaustion, overall fatigue, and need for recovery). The effects of exercise on self-efficacy, sleep, work ability, cognitive functioning and aerobic fitness (secondary

  7. Workplace exercise for changing health behavior related to physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Antonio José; Cieslak, Fabrício; Silva, Valter

    2015-01-01

    Physical Activity in the workplace has received special attention from researchers who are looking to promote lifelong health and well-being. The workplace is being investigated as a possible place to assess and create strategies to help people to become healthier. The transtheoretical model and stages of change has been adapted as a tool to assess the stages of behavioral change towards exercising. To assess the change in health behavior following a three-month exercise program based in the workplace. A quasi-experimental study design was used in which 165 employees participated in the study. An intervention program of workplace exercise was applied for three months. Participants were assessed through the transtheoretical model and stages of change questionnaire before and after intervention to understand changes in their position on the behavioral change continuum. The number of employees who were physically active increased after the workplace exercise intervention (13.9% , 95% CI 9.5 to 20.1; P = 0.009). There was a significant decrease in the proportion of employees in the pre-contemplation stage (-6.1% , 95% CI 3.3 to 10.8; P = 0.045) and contemplation stage (-11.5% , 95% CI 7.5 to 17.3; P = 0.017), and a significant increase in the action stage (10.9% , 95% CI 7.0 to 16.6; P = 0.003). Engaging in workplace exercise has a significant positive effect on health behavior and willingness to become more physically active.

  8. Does a crouched leg posture enhance running stability and robustness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Yvonne; Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra; Daley, Monica A; Seyfarth, Andre

    2011-07-21

    Humans and birds both walk and run bipedally on compliant legs. However, differences in leg architecture may result in species-specific leg control strategies as indicated by the observed gait patterns. In this work, control strategies for stable running are derived based on a conceptual model and compared with experimental data on running humans and pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). From a model perspective, running with compliant legs can be represented by the planar spring mass model and stabilized by applying swing leg control. Here, linear adaptations of the three leg parameters, leg angle, leg length and leg stiffness during late swing phase are assumed. Experimentally observed kinematic control parameters (leg rotation and leg length change) of human and avian running are compared, and interpreted within the context of this model, with specific focus on stability and robustness characteristics. The results suggest differences in stability characteristics and applied control strategies of human and avian running, which may relate to differences in leg posture (straight leg posture in humans, and crouched leg posture in birds). It has been suggested that crouched leg postures may improve stability. However, as the system of control strategies is overdetermined, our model findings suggest that a crouched leg posture does not necessarily enhance running stability. The model also predicts different leg stiffness adaptation rates for human and avian running, and suggests that a crouched avian leg posture, which is capable of both leg shortening and lengthening, allows for stable running without adjusting leg stiffness. In contrast, in straight-legged human running, the preparation of the ground contact seems to be more critical, requiring leg stiffness adjustment to remain stable. Finally, analysis of a simple robustness measure, the normalized maximum drop, suggests that the crouched leg posture may provide greater robustness to changes in terrain height

  9. Regular exercise and related factors in patients with Parkinson's disease: Applying zero-inflated negative binomial modeling of exercise count data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JuHee; Park, Chang Gi; Choi, Moonki

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to identify risk factors that influence regular exercise among patients with Parkinson's disease in Korea. Parkinson's disease is prevalent in the elderly, and may lead to a sedentary lifestyle. Exercise can enhance physical and psychological health. However, patients with Parkinson's disease are less likely to exercise than are other populations due to physical disability. A secondary data analysis and cross-sectional descriptive study were conducted. A convenience sample of 106 patients with Parkinson's disease was recruited at an outpatient neurology clinic of a tertiary hospital in Korea. Demographic characteristics, disease-related characteristics (including disease duration and motor symptoms), self-efficacy for exercise, balance, and exercise level were investigated. Negative binomial regression and zero-inflated negative binomial regression for exercise count data were utilized to determine factors involved in exercise. The mean age of participants was 65.85 ± 8.77 years, and the mean duration of Parkinson's disease was 7.23 ± 6.02 years. Most participants indicated that they engaged in regular exercise (80.19%). Approximately half of participants exercised at least 5 days per week for 30 min, as recommended (51.9%). Motor symptoms were a significant predictor of exercise in the count model, and self-efficacy for exercise was a significant predictor of exercise in the zero model. Severity of motor symptoms was related to frequency of exercise. Self-efficacy contributed to the probability of exercise. Symptom management and improvement of self-efficacy for exercise are important to encourage regular exercise in patients with Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Relationship among Leg Strength, Leg Power and Alpine Skiing Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettman, Larry R.; Huckel, Jack R.

    The purpose of this study was to relate leg strength and power to alpine skiing success as measured by FIS points. Isometric leg strength was represented by the knee extension test described by Clarke. Leg power was measured by the vertical jump test and the Margaria-Kalamen stair run. Results in the strength and power tests were correlated with…

  11. The relation between exercise and glaucoma in a South Korean population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shuai-Chun; Wang, Sophia Y; Pasquale, Louis R; Singh, Kuldev; Lin, Shan C

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association between exercise and glaucoma in a South Korean population-based sample. Population-based, cross-sectional study. A total of 11,246 subjects, 40 years and older who underwent health care assessment as part of the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Variables regarding the duration (total minutes per week), frequency (days per week), and intensity of exercise (vigorous, moderate exercise and walking) as well as glaucoma prevalence were ascertained for 11,246 survey participants. Demographic, comorbidity, and health-related behavior information was obtained via interview. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between the exercise-related parameters and odds of a glaucoma diagnosis. Glaucoma defined by International Society for Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria. Overall, 336 (2.7%) subjects met diagnostic criteria for glaucomatous disease. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, subjects engaged in vigorous exercise 7 days per week had higher odds of having glaucoma compared with those exercising 3 days per week (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-9.54). High intensity of exercise, as categorized by the guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), was also associated with greater glaucoma prevalence compared with moderate intensity of exercise (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.03-2.33). There was no association between other exercise parameters including frequency of moderate exercise, walking, muscle strength exercise, flexibility training, or total minutes of exercise per week, and the prevalence of glaucoma. In sub-analyses stratifying by gender, the association between frequency of vigorous exercise 7 days per week and glaucoma diagnosis remained significant in men (OR 6.05, 95% CI 1.67-21.94) but not in women (OR 0.96 95% CI: 0.23-3.97). A U-shaped association between exercise intensity and

  12. The relation between exercise and glaucoma in a South Korean population-based sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai-Chun Lin

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between exercise and glaucoma in a South Korean population-based sample.Population-based, cross-sectional study.A total of 11,246 subjects, 40 years and older who underwent health care assessment as part of the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.Variables regarding the duration (total minutes per week, frequency (days per week, and intensity of exercise (vigorous, moderate exercise and walking as well as glaucoma prevalence were ascertained for 11,246 survey participants. Demographic, comorbidity, and health-related behavior information was obtained via interview. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between the exercise-related parameters and odds of a glaucoma diagnosis.Glaucoma defined by International Society for Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria.Overall, 336 (2.7% subjects met diagnostic criteria for glaucomatous disease. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, subjects engaged in vigorous exercise 7 days per week had higher odds of having glaucoma compared with those exercising 3 days per week (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-9.54. High intensity of exercise, as categorized by the guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM, was also associated with greater glaucoma prevalence compared with moderate intensity of exercise (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.03-2.33. There was no association between other exercise parameters including frequency of moderate exercise, walking, muscle strength exercise, flexibility training, or total minutes of exercise per week, and the prevalence of glaucoma. In sub-analyses stratifying by gender, the association between frequency of vigorous exercise 7 days per week and glaucoma diagnosis remained significant in men (OR 6.05, 95% CI 1.67-21.94 but not in women (OR 0.96 95% CI: 0.23-3.97. A U-shaped association between exercise intensity and

  13. Exercise-related sudden cardiac arrest in London: incidence, survival and bystander response

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Melanie J; Fothergill, Rachael T

    2015-01-01

    Objective The study aimed to (1) establish the incidence of exercise-related sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in London, (2) investigate survival from exercise-related SCA and (3) examine factors related to survival. Method This retrospective observational study examined 2 years’ data from the London Ambulance Service (LAS) cardiac arrest registry for patients in whom resuscitation was attempted following an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), a cardiac cause was presumed and the arrest occurre...

  14. Patients' Attitudes Toward Non-Physician Screening of Low Back and Low Back-Related Leg Pain Complaints Referred for Surgical Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, Joshua; Busse, Jason W; Drew, Brian; Reddy, Kesava; Cenic, Aleksa; Kachur, Edward; Murty, Naresh; Candelaria, Henry; Moore, Ainsley E; Riva, John J

    2016-07-07

    Questionnaire survey. To explore patient attitudes towards screening to assess suitability for low back surgery by non-physician healthcare providers. Canadian spine surgeons have shown support for non-physician screening to assess and triage patients with low back pain and low back-related leg pain. However, patients' attitudes towards this proposed model are largely unknown. We administered a 19-item cross-sectional survey to adults with low back and/or low back-related leg pain who were referred for elective surgical assessment at one of five spine surgeons' clinics in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The survey inquired about demographics, expectations regarding wait time for surgical consultation, as well as willingness to pay, travel, and be screened by non-physician healthcare providers. 80 low back patients completed our survey, for a response rate of 86.0% (80 of 93). Most respondents (72.5%; 58 of 80) expected to be seen by a surgeon within 3 months of referral, and 88.8% (71 of 80) indicated willingness to undergo screening with a non-physician healthcare provider to establish if they were potentially a surgical candidate. Half of respondents (40 of 80) were willing to travel >50 km for assessment by a non-physician healthcare provider, and 46.2% were willing to pay out-of-pocket (25.6% were unsure). However, most respondents (70.0%; 56 of 80) would still want to see a surgeon if they were ruled out as a surgical candidate, and written comments from respondents revealed concern regarding agreement between surgeons' and non-physicians' determination of surgical candidates. Patients referred for surgical consultation for low back or low back-related leg pain are largely willing to accept screening by non-physician healthcare providers. Future research should explore the concordance of screening results between surgeon and non-physician healthcare providers. 3.

  15. The Relationship between Isokinetic Relative Torque of Hip, Knee and Ankle Joints and the Height of Guide Leg Jump in Young Men

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Nikoukheslat; Shirin Yazdani; Ebrahim Hosseini Houri Pasand

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between isokinetic relative torques of hip, knee and ankle joints and the height of guide leg jump in young men. Methods: 27 college male athletes with mean age of 25±3.5 years, height 178.5±7.8 cm and weight of 75.7±10.7 kg voluntarily participated in this study. Isokinetic torque of hip, knee and ankle joints and the height of vertical jump were measured using BIODEX SYSTEM PRO 4 and digital vertic...

  16. The relation of physical activity and exercise to mental health.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, C B; Sallis, J F; Needle, R.

    1985-01-01

    Mental disorders are of major public health significance. It has been claimed that vigorous physical activity has positive effects on mental health in both clinical and nonclinical populations. This paper reviews the evidence for this claim and provides recommendations for future studies. The strongest evidence suggests that physical activity and exercise probably alleviate some symptoms associated with mild to moderate depression. The evidence also suggests that physical activity and exercis...

  17. The Prevalence of Exercise Prescription-Related Course Offerings in United States Pharmacy School Curricula: Exercise is Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks-Naylor, Amie J.; Griffiths, Carrie L.; Gibson, Jacob L.; Luu, Jacqueline A.

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training has proven to be beneficial in the prevention of disease. In addition, exercise can improve the pathogenesis and symptoms associated with a variety of chronic disease states and can attenuate drug-induced adverse effects. Exercise is a drug-free polypill. Because the benefits of exercise are clear and profound, Exercise is…

  18. Resetting of the carotid arterial baroreflex during dynamic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norton, K H; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Andersen, Line Strange

    1999-01-01

    Recent investigations have demonstrated that at the onset of low-to-moderate-intensity leg cycling exercise (L) the carotid baroreflex (CBR) was classically reset in direct relation to the intensity of exercise. On the basis of these data, we proposed that the CBR would also be classically reset ...

  19. Reducing workplace burnout: the relative benefits of cardiovascular and resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Judith Bretland

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The global burden of burnout cost is in excess of $300 billion annually. Locally, just under half of working Australians experience high levels of occupational burnout. Consequently, burnout interventions are paramount to organisational productivity. Exercise has the potential to provide a multilevel and cost effective burnout intervention. The current study aims to extend the literature by comparing cardiovascular with resistance exercise to assess their relative effectiveness against well-being, perceived stress, and burnout.Design. Participants were 49 (36 females and 13 males previously inactive volunteers ranging in age from 19 to 68 that completed a four week exercise program of either cardiovascular, resistance, or no exercise (control. Randomised control trial design was employed.Method. Participants were measured against the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory.Results. After four weeks of exercise participants had greater positive well-being and personal accomplishment, and concomitantly less psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Cardiovascular exercise was found to increase well-being and decrease psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Resistance training was noticeably effective in increasing well-being and personal accomplishment and to reduce perceived stress. The present findings revealed large effect sizes suggesting that exercise may be an effective treatment for burnout. However, given a small sample size further research needs to be conducted.Conclusion. Exercise has potential to be an effective burnout intervention. Different types of exercise may assist employees in different ways. Organisations wishing to proactively reduce burnout can do so by encouraging their employees to access regular exercise programs.

  20. Exercise boosts hippocampal volume by preventing early age-related gray matter loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, Johannes; Biedermann, Sarah V; Falfán-Melgoza, Claudia; Auer, Matthias K; Zheng, Lei; Steinle, Jörg; Hörner, Felix; Sartorius, Alexander; Ende, Gabriele; Weber-Fahr, Wolfgang; Gass, Peter

    2014-02-01

    Recently, a larger hippocampus was found in exercising mice and men. Here we studied the morphological underpinnings in wheel running mice by longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based morphometry revealed that running increases hippocampal volume by inhibiting an early age-related gray matter loss. Disruption of neurogenesis-related neuroplasticity by focalized irradiation is sufficient to block positive effects of exercise on macroscopic brain morphology. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The effect of transversus abdominis activation on exercise-related transient abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mole, Jason L; Bird, Marie-Louise; Fell, James W

    2014-05-01

    Exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP) affects 40-60% of the physically active population, is detrimental to performance but of unknown aetiology. Excessive movement of abdominal peritoneum is one proposed mechanism. Transversus abdominis (TrA) function may play a role reducing in the incidence of Exercise-related transient abdominal pain via the tensioning of the thoracolumbar fascia or increasing intra-abdominal pressure. The aim of this study is to identify any relationship between transversus abdominis function and exercise-related transient abdominal pain, hypothesing that those with stronger transversus abdominis will have lower incidence of exercise-related transient abdominal pain. Observational study design. Trunk muscle strength was measured clinically using the functional Sahrmann test. Contraction of transversus abdominis was measured by ultrasound imaging of resting muscle size and calculating the change in thickness with a voluntary contraction. Participants completed questionnaires describing any exercise-related transient abdominal pain symptoms, and were divided into four groups dependent upon frequency of any symptoms (never, yearly, monthly and weekly). Between group differences were analysed using analysis of covariance, with Bonferroni correction adjusting for age and training of participants using STATA. Poisson regression determined incident rate ratios for relevant variables. Data was obtained from fifty runners (28 male, 25.8 ± 7.0 years). Sahrmann test score and frequency of Exercise-related transient abdominal pain were significantly different between groups (p=0.002) with asymptomatic runners having significantly higher Sahrmann test scores (stronger muscles) than weekly and yearly Exercise-related transient abdominal pain groups (p=0.001, p=0.02). There were significant between group differences for resting transversus abdominis thickness (p=0.034) but not for transversus abdominis thickness change (p=0.555). Participants who

  2. Transformational and transactional leadership and exercise-related self-efficacy: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Mark R; Welch, Amy S; Hulley, Angie J

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between transformational and transactional leadership behaviors and the self-efficacy ofparticipants involved in a structured 10-week exercise program. Three weeksinto their exercise classes 174 females (M age = 25.36 years, SD = 8.48) provided ratings of their exercise instructor's leadership behaviors as well as their personal efficacy related to scheduling, over-coming barriers and within-class capabilities. Results revealed that for exercise initiates, contingent rewards behaviors were able to explain unique variation in scheduling self-efficacy and barrier self-efficacy, but not within-class self-efficacy. For experienced exercisers, none of the leadership behaviors assessed in this study were associated with participant self-efficacy.

  3. Relative workload determines exercise-induced increases in PGC-1alpha mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Lundby, Carsten; Leick, Lotte

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION:: The hypothesis that brief intermittent exercise induced increases in human skeletal muscle metabolic mRNA is dependent on relative workload was investigated. METHODS:: Trained (n=10) and untrained (n=8) subjects performed exhaustive intermittent cycling exercise (4x4 min @ 85% of VO2...... peak, interspersed by 3 min). Trained subjects also performed the intermittent exercise at the same absolute workload as untrained, corresponding to 70% of VO2 peak (n=6). RESULTS:: Exercise at 85% of VO2 peak elevated (Ptrained...... after exercise at 85% of VO2 peak. Likewise, PDK4 and HKII mRNA expression were only increased (Ptrained subjects. HIF2alpha mRNA only increased (Ptrained, with no difference between the 70% and 85% of VO2 peak...

  4. Examining the Moderating Effect of Depressive Symptoms on the Relation Between Exercise and Self-Efficacy During the Initiation of Regular Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Julie L.; Baldwin, Austin S.; Rosenfield, David; Smits, Jasper A. J.; Rethorst, Chad D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective People with depressive symptoms typically report lower levels of exercise self-efficacy and are more likely to discontinue regular exercise than others, but it is unclear how depressive symptoms affect people’s exercise self-efficacy. Among potential sources of self-efficacy, engaging in the relevant behavior is the strongest (Bandura, 1997). Thus, we sought to clarify how depressive symptoms affect the same-day relation between engaging in exercise and self-efficacy during the initiation of regular exercise. Methods Participants (N=116) were physically inactive adults (35% reported clinically significant depressive symptoms at baseline) who initiated regular exercise and completed daily assessments of exercise minutes and self-efficacy for four weeks. We tested whether (a) self-efficacy differed on days when exercise did and did not occur, and (b) the difference was moderated by depressive symptoms. Mixed linear models were used to examine these relations. Results An interaction between exercise occurrence and depressive symptoms (pexercise occurred, but this difference was significantly larger for people with high depressive symptoms. People with high depressive symptoms had lower self-efficacy than those with low depressive symptoms on days when no exercise occurred (p=.03), but self-efficacy did not differ on days when exercise occurred (p=.34). Conclusions During the critical period of initiating regular exercise, daily self-efficacy for people with high depressive symptoms is more sensitive to whether they exercised than for people with low depressive symptoms. This may partially explain why people with depression tend to have difficulty maintaining regular exercise. PMID:25110850

  5. The Pathophysiology and Care of Exercise Related Muscle Cramps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay Kumar Pandey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cramps are major concerns to competing athletes occurring during or after exercise, are common yet, poorly understood phenomena. Pain alone is not object of treatment as serious musculophysiologic and metabolic disturbance of fluid and electrolyte deserve correction. Acute muscle pain and stiffness may cause soreness for longer time. Based on observations, two etiological theories are construed, i.e. the muscle fatigue theory and sodium-water deficit theory. Either has supporting and contradicting facts, but these are relevant to guide prevention and management interventions. Cramps may be different in kind based on different local and/or general causes. Occurrence of cramps in varied situations, environmental conditions and populations, suggests of pleural causal determinents. These include neuromuscular and fluid-electrolyte disturbance factors directly responsible under specific circumstances of individual sports person. Degree of conditioning to particular kind of physical exertion appears most significant factor. Prevention exercises target theorised physiology of muscle tendon and golgi organ receptors, toward delaying fatigability and cramp risk. Occurrence of cramps mostly in hot environments emphasizes support to dehydration-electrolyte imbalance theory. Maintenance of hydration and adequate electrolyte levels in cramp-prone individuals thus makes sense. Worth of variety of measures empirically employed for cramp relief can be judged by scientific understanding. Drugs found useful may not be the best match to pathophysiologic proprieties and thus irrational. The pathophysiological details and relevant clinical information is presented and discussed as first hand understanding for the sports persons and their care givers.

  6. Exercise reduces inflammation and oxidative stress in obesity-related liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sechang; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Warabi, Eiji; Shoda, Junichi

    2013-12-01

    Weight reduction remains the most common therapy advocated for the treatment of obesity-related liver diseases. Recently, a beneficial effect of exercise regimens for liver dysfunction, independent of weight reduction, has been reported. Therefore, a retrospective analysis was conducted to determine whether exercise training without dietary restriction in obese, middle-age men influences the pathophysiology of abnormal liver function. A total of 108 subjects who completed a 12-wk exercise training program without any dietary restriction were analyzed in this study; these results were compared with those of 104 subjects who completed a 12-wk dietary restriction program. Furthermore, 42 of these subjects (from both groups) who had abnormal liver function and suspicious liver fibrosis by nonalcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score were analyzed to obtain a more concrete outcome for exercise-training effects. In exercise training, although the magnitude of body-weight reduction (-3.1% vs -8.5%), waist circumference (-4.0% vs -7.1%), and visceral adipose tissue area (-12.2% vs -22.5%) was significantly more modest than that achieved by dietary restriction, exercise training elicited equivalent reductions in serum alanine aminotransferase and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase levels (-20.6% vs -16.1% and -25.7% vs -34.0%) and equivalent improvement of insulin resistance (-29.7% vs -26.9%). Moreover, exercise training remarkably increased the serum adiponectin level (+33.4% vs +15.1%). Importantly, for subjects with abnormal liver function and suspicious liver fibrosis, exercise training was effective in reducing the serum levels of inflammation and oxidative stress markers: ferritin and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (-25.0% vs +1.1% and -33.5% vs -10.5%). Exercise training benefits the management of obesity-related liver diseases independent of detectable weight reduction. Particularly, these effects seem to be acquired through an improvement in the hepatic

  7. Skeletal muscle signaling and the heart rate and blood pressure response to exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan P; Svendsen, Jesper H; Ersbøll, Mads

    2013-01-01

    -extensor training and 2 weeks of deconditioning of the other leg (leg cast). Hemodynamics and muscle interstitial nucleotides were determined during exercise with the (1) deconditioned leg, (2) trained leg, and (3) trained leg with atrial pacing to the heart rate obtained with the deconditioned leg. Heart rate...

  8. Association of age at menarche with adult leg length and trunk height: Speculations in relation to breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuch, Janet Rose; Karmaus, Wilfried; Hoekman, Peter; Mudd, Lanay; Zhang, Jie; Haan, Pam; Mikucki, Dorota

    2010-01-01

    It seems paradoxical that both increased height and earlier age at menarche (which predicts for shorter stature) are both associated with increased breast cancer risk. Retrospective data from a parental cohort coupled with prospective interviews with and anthropometric measurements from their daughters were used. Multivariable linear regression analyses were conducted using mixed regression models to account for same-family participants. Controlling for birth weight, maternal height, and birth cohort, and analyzed as a group, a 1-year increase in the age at menarche predicted an increase in standing height, leg length, and trunk height of 0.76, 0.41, and 0.35 cm, respectively. However, when stratifying by birth year (prior to 1966 vs 1966 or after), these relationships were true only for those born prior to 1966. Given the height-breast cancer risk association, the emerging evidence linking breast cell proliferation to hormones associated with growth, and the finding in this study that the relationship between age at menarche and adult height no longer exists for women born in 1966 or later, it is possible that the long-established relationship between age at menarche and breast cancer risk may also no longer exist.

  9. Comparison of Abdominal Muscle Activity in Relation to Knee Angles during Abdominal Drawing-in Exercises Using Pressure Biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Cheol; Lee, Su-Kyoung; Kim, Kyoung

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] The leg angles that are the most effective for abdominal muscle activation were investigated by performing abdominal drawing-in exercises at different leg angles with a biofeedback pressure unit. [Methods] Subjects were asked to adopt a supine position, and the tip of the biofeedback pressure unit was placed under the posterior superior iliac spine. Then, the pressure was adjusted to 40 mmHg while referring to the pressure gauge connected to the biofeedback pressure unit. Subjects were instructed to increase the pressure by 10 mmHg using the drawing-in technique upon the oral instruction, "Start," and to maintain the drawn-in state. The time during which the pressure was maintained within an error range of ±1-2mmHg was measured in seconds. [Result] During the abdominal drawing-in exercises, the activity of the rectus abdominis, the internal and external obliques, and the transverse abdominis increased as the knee joint flexion angle increased from 45° to 120°. [Conclusion] When trunk stabilization exercises are performed at the same pressure to reduce damage after the acute phase of low back pain, trunk muscle strength can be efficiently increased by increasing the knee joint angle gradually, while performing abdominal drawing-in exercises with a biofeedback pressure unit.

  10. Successful Treatment with Clonazepam and Pramipexole of a Patient with Sleep-Related Eating Disorder Associated with Restless Legs Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kobayashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of involuntary eating during sleep period and is often associated with restless legs syndrome (RLS. Although pharmacotherapy is recommended for SRED patients, no drug have shown promising effects so far. The patient, a 48-year-old Japanese housewife, first visited our clinic and complained about nighttime eating. She had a history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, sleep apnea syndrome, and depression. Insomnia appeared 10 years before the first visit and she often received hypnosedatives; at the same time, she developed nocturnal eating episodes. She had amnesia for these episodes, and she felt urge to move her legs while sleeping. The patient was diagnosed with SRED and RLS. Reduction in the doses of triazolam decreased her nighttime eating frequency, and her complete amnesia changed to vague recall of eating during night. Clonazepam 1.0 mg at bedtime decreased nocturnal eating frequency from 1 to 2 times per month, though sleepwalking remained. Administration of pramipexole 0.125 mg relieved all symptoms including SRED, RLS, and sleepwalking. This is the first paper to report that the combination of clonazepam and pramipexole therapy-reduced SRED episodes and RLS symptoms.

  11. Factors affecting one-leg standing time in patients with end-stage knee osteoarthritis and the age-related recovery process following total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harato, Kengo; Kobayashi, Shu; Kojima, Iwao; Sakurai, Aiko; Tanikawa, Hidenori; Niki, Yasuo

    2017-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the factors affecting one-leg standing (OLS) time in patients with end-stage knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to clarify the age-related recovery process following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the early postoperative period. A total of 80 knees of 40 patients with knee OA were enrolled. They were asked to perform relaxed standing on one leg for as long as possible. First, OLS time was measured. Second, age, body mass index, knee flexion angle during (KFA) OLS, femorotibial angle (FTA) during OLS, and a visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain were evaluated. Multiple regression analysis was done to identify the factors affecting OLS time. In addition, the recovery process was compared between older and younger patients after TKA. A larger KFA during OLS, older age, and larger FTA were significantly associated with shorter OLS time. After TKA, postoperative OLS time in older patients did not improve significantly by postoperative day 20, while the time in younger patients improved significantly from postoperative day 19. Even if subjective knee pain and KFA during OLS improved, longer rehabilitation was required to improve OLS time in older patients in the early postoperative period.

  12. [Exercise-related risk at anaerobic threshold in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q F; Yuan, W; Zhao, X J; Li, B; Wang, H Y

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the exercise-related risk at anaerobic threshold(AT) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD). Sixty two patients [men 56, women 6, aged (66±8) yr] with stable COPD in Beijing Friendship Hospital during 2013-2014, participated in this study. Incremental symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise test was performed on cycle ergometer. The AT was determined using the V-Slope technique and ventilatory equivalents for carbon dioxide and oxygen. Symptoms, 10-lead electrocardiogram, oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry(SpO(2)) were monitored during exercise. The AT, detectable in 53 patients, occurred at (68±10)% of peak oxygen uptake(peak VO(2)). The SpO(2) was in the safe range (94±2) % and the respiratory reserve was relatively high at AT (i.e. 48%). High-intensity exercise training can be performed in patients with moderate-to- severe COPD without resting oxygen desaturation.

  13. Exercise training as a preventive tool for age-related disorders: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging populations are a worldwide phenomenon affecting both developed and developing countries. This issue raises serious concerns for both governments and the general population. Regular participation in physical activity and/or exercise training programs can minimize the physiological alterations that occur during aging and may contribute to improvements in health and well-being. The present review will discuss the role of regular exercise training in preventing age-related physiological decline and, consequently, associated chronic diseases. Compelling evidence that regular exercise and/or physical activity can improve quality of life, prevent or control the development of chronic disease and increase life expectancy is shown. In summary, regular exercise training and/or physical activity has an important influence on aging and may help to prevent age-related disorders.

  14. Biochemical changes in relation to a maximal exercise test in patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, J; Bülow, P M; Mehlsen, J

    1994-01-01

    Patients with fibromyalgia often complain of fatigue and pain during exercise and of worsening of pain days after exercise. The aim of the study described here was to determine if abnormal changes in potassium or lactate could be observed during an exercise test in fibromyalgia. Whether an abnormal...... incline in plasma creatine kinase or myoglobin could be observed days after the test was studied also. Fifteen female fibromyalgia patients and 15 age- and sex-matched controls performed a stepwise incremental maximal bicycle-ergometer test. Blood samples were collected from a catheter in a cubital vein......-1 was reached at a heart rate of 124 min-1 in the patients with fibromyalgia as compared to 140 min-1 in the controls (P = 0.02). In relation to workload, the patients scored higher on a Borg scale for perceived exertion during exercise, but if the Borg score was related to lactate no significant...

  15. Health-related quality of life, handgrip strength and falls during detraining in elderly habitual exercisers

    OpenAIRE

    Esain, Izaro; Rodriguez-Larrad, Ana; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Gil, Susana María

    2017-01-01

    Background The effects of regular exercise on physical functioning and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) have been thoroughly studied. In contrast, little is known about the changes which occur following cessation of activity (detraining). Here, we have investigated the effect of a 3 month detraining period on HRQOL and on handgrip strength in elderly people who had regularly exercised, and examined the association of these variables with falls. Methods Thirty-eight women and 11 men (mea...

  16. Changes in the leukocyte methylome and its effect on cardiovascular-related genes after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Joshua; O'Brien, Brendan J; Marques, Francine Z; Charchar, Fadi J

    2015-02-15

    Physical exercise has proven cardiovascular benefits, yet there is no clear understanding of the related molecular mechanisms leading to this. Here we determined the beneficial epigenetic effects of exercise after sprint interval training, a form of exercise known to improve cardiometabolic health. We quantified genome-wide leukocyte DNA methylation of 12 healthy young (18-24 yr) men before and after 4 wk (thrice weekly) of sprint interval training using the 450K BeadChip (Illumina) and validated gene expression changes in an extra seven subjects. Exercise increased subjects' cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal running performance, and decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration in conjunction with genome-wide DNA methylation changes. Notably, many CpG island and gene promoter regions were demethylated after exercise, indicating increased genome-wide transcriptional changes. Among genes with DNA methylation changes, epidermal growth factor (EGF), a ligand of the epidermal growth factor receptor known to be involved in cardiovascular disease, was demethylated and showed decreased mRNA expression. Additionally, we found that in microRNAs miR-21 and miR-210, gene DNA methylation was altered by exercise causing a cascade effect on the expression of the mature microRNA involved in cardiovascular function. Our findings demonstrate that exercise alters DNA methylation in circulating blood cells in microRNA and protein-coding genes associated with cardiovascular physiology. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Body-related sport and exercise motives and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J S; Lanfranchi, Marie-Christine; Therme, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Motives underlying sport and exercise involvement have recently been hypothesized as potential factors influencing the positive association between sports/exercises involvement and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours (DEAB) among adolescents. Nevertheless, very few studies have examined this hypothesis or the moderating role of gender, context of practice, performance levels and sport type on these relationships. In this study, these questions were addressed among 168 male and 167 female French adolescents involved in various types, contexts and performance levels of sport and exercise. Participants were asked to indicate their main motives for involvement in sport practice and to self-report DEAB (generic DEAB, vomiting-purging behaviours, and eating-related control) on a French adaptation of the Eating Attitudes Test-26. The results shared positive associations between body-related sport and exercise motives and most of the DEAB subscales. Furthermore, they show that the relationship between body-related sport and exercise motives and Vomiting-Purging Behaviours differs according to involvement in individual and competitive sports and exercises. Copyright ©2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  18. Exercise for breast cancer survival: the effect on cancer risk and cancer-related fatigue (CRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Jennifer A; Mokbel, Kefah; van Someren, Ken A; Jewell, Andrew P; Garrod, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    To date, all epidemiological research in this area has focused on the relationship between physical activity level and the risk of breast cancer in healthy women, or more recently, those who have recovered from the disease. Most of this research highlights the fact that those women who are physically active are at a reduced risk of the disease. Although physical activity is similar to exercise, it lacks the specificity of a prescribed exercise training program. Consequently, such research can only be viewed as a promising indicator of the beneficial effect that regular exercise may have for breast cancer survivors. Furthermore, due to the nature of such research, there has been a failure to provide specific evidence concerning the most suitable modality, duration, intensity, and frequency of training for risk reduction in breast cancer survivors. Thus, evidence aiding the correct prescription of exercise for this population has been lacking. More promising evidence is provided by randomized controlled trials, which examine the effect of exercise on specific risk factors and provide convincing scientific rationale for the use of exercise among breast cancer survivors. These studies not only provide understanding of the physiological mechanisms by which exercise can be effective at aiding a reduction in breast cancer risk, but also allow conclusions on the correct prescription to be drawn. Additionally, exercise has proven to be effective in combating cancer-related fatigue (CRF), significantly improving both quality of life outcomes (QOL) and physiological capacity in women who have survived breast cancer. In order to promote a wider understanding of the beneficial effect that exercise holds for this population regarding reduction of breast cancer risk and CRF, this review discusses this research, making conclusions regarding the necessary training prescription to elicit such benefits.

  19. Effect of exercise programs with aerobic exercise sessions of similar intensity but different frequency and duration on health-related measures in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthou, Eirini; Gill, Jason M; Malkova, Dalia

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated health-related effects of exercise programs with exercise sessions of similar intensity but different frequency and duration. Thirty-four overweight women were randomized into either long-bout (LB) or short-bout (SB) exercise groups. Participants performed an 8-week supervised program, with the LB group exercising for 75 minutes twice per week, and the SB group for 30 minutes on 5 days of the week. The LB group completed 16 sessions at a heart rate (HR) of 127 ± 1 beat·min-1 and the SB group completed 40 sessions at a HR of 126 ± 1 beat·min-1. Weekly energy expenditure of exercise was not different between groups (LB group, 5.64 ± 0.34 MJ; SB group, 5.83 ± 0.23 MJ). Training significantly (P exercise training did not differ between the SB and LB groups. Health-related outcomes of exercise programs with similar energy expenditure are independent of frequency and duration of exercise sessions. This provides individuals with a degree of flexibility in exercise program planning.

  20. Exercise self-efficacy moderates the relation between anxiety sensitivity and body mass index and exercise tolerance in treatment-seeking smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farris, S.G.; Davis, M.L.; Rosenfield, D.; Kauffman, B.Y.; Baird, S.O.; Powers, M.B.; Otto, M.W.; Marcus, B.H.; Church, T.S.; Smits, J.A.J.; Zvolensky, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    There is little known about factors that contribute to the comorbidity of cigarette smoking and obesity. The current study sought to test whether exercise self-efficacy moderated the relation between anxiety sensitivity (fear of internal sensations) and BMI and exercise tolerance among cigarette

  1. Does chronic exercise attenuate age-related physiological decline in males?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Lawrence D; Grace, Fergal M; Sculthorpe, Nick; Herbert, Peter; Kilduff, Liam P; Baker, Julien S

    2013-01-01

    Alteration in body composition, physical function, and substrate metabolism occur with advancing age. These changes can be attenuated by exercise. This study evaluated whether master athletes (MA [n = 20]) would have improved exercise capabilities, anthropometry, and hormone profiles when compared with age-matched sedentary counterparts (S [n = 28]). The MA group was predominantly aerobically trained with some resistance exercise incorporated in their routine. The VO(2max), peak power output, and salivary testosterone was significantly higher (p group, while diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, and body fat percentage were lower (p different between groups. Salivary testosterone correlated positively with VO(2max) (r² = .320), suggesting that increased aerobic capacity is linked with higher concentrations of testosterone. These results suggest that life-long exercise is associated with favorable body composition and attenuation of the age related decline in testosterone.

  2. Single-leg squats can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements in "turnout".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Luke S; Sato, Nahoko; Weidemann, Andries L

    2016-01-01

    The physical assessments used in dance injury surveillance programs are often adapted from the sports and exercise domain. Bespoke physical assessments may be required for dance, particularly when ballet movements involve "turning out" or external rotation of the legs beyond that typically used in sports. This study evaluated the ability of the traditional single-leg squat to predict the leg alignment of dancers performing ballet movements with turnout. Three-dimensional kinematic data of dancers performing the single-leg squat and five ballet movements were recorded and analyzed. Reduction of the three-dimensional data into a one-dimensional variable incorporating the ankle, knee, and hip joint center positions provided the strongest predictive model between the single-leg squat and the ballet movements. The single-leg squat can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements, even in "turned out" postures. Clinicians should pay careful attention to observational positioning and rating criteria when assessing dancers performing the single-leg squat.

  3. Comparison of hemodynamic responses to static and dynamic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezucha, G R; Lenser, M C; Hanson, P G; Nagle, F J

    1982-12-01

    Eight healthy male adults (25-34 yr) were studied to compare hemodynamic responses to static exercise (30% MVC in leg extension), static-dynamic exercise (one-arm cranking, 66 and 79% VO2 max-arm), and dynamic exercise (two-leg cycling, 58 and 82% VOmax-legs). Leg extension (LE) strength was measured by a spring scale. Cranking and cycling were performed on a Quinton bicycle ergometer. VO2 was measured using an automated open-circuit system. Heart rate (HR) was monitored from a CM-5 ECG lead, and arterial pressure (Pa) was measured from an indwelling brachial artery catheter. Cardiac output (Q) was measured using a CO2-rebreathing procedure. Total peripheral resistance (TPR) was calculated using the mean arterial pressure (Pa) as the systemic pressure gradient. In 30% LE, a significant (P less than 0.05) Pa increase occurred (pressor response) mediated primarily by an increase in Q. One-arm cranking and two-leg cycling at similar relative VO2 demands resulted in nearly identical increases in Pa due to different contributions of Q and TPR. Q and the arteriovenous O2 difference varied as a function of VO2 regardless of the mode of exercise (static or dynamic). On the other hand, the HR response, which accounted for increased Q in the exercises containing a static component, and Pa varied with mode of exercise. Any generalized scheme of cardiovascular control during exercise must account for the potential influence of dynamic and static components of the exercise.

  4. Physical Rehabilitation for Disabled People with Insulin-independent Diabetes after Single Leg Amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya A. Pilosyan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the program of physical rehabilitation for the disabled people with insulin-independent diabetes, who came through single leg amputation. The program includes phantom-impulsive gymnastics, exercises for the remaining leg, back and shoulders, for the improvement of stump functional state, equilibrium exercises and exercises for arms supporting function development. Set of therapeutic exercises involves exercise machine training. The application of the developed physical rehabilitation program at the stage of preparation for fitting the prosthesis and learning to walk on prosthetic leg has proved its efficiency according to test results, biomedical methods of research and increases the motor activity of 100% percent of patients.

  5. Physical Activity Patterns and Factors Related to Exercise during Pregnancy: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simony Lira Nascimento

    Full Text Available To assess the physical activity levels of pregnant women and to examine the characteristics associated with the practice of exercise and the activities of daily living during pregnancy.For this cross-sectional study, 1,279 women were recruited within 72 hours postpartum. They were interviewed about their socio-demographic data and obstetric history and were administered self-report questionnaires about exercise and daily physical activities during pregnancy. Data on the current pregnancy, labor, delivery, and newborn outcomes were collected from participants' medical records. To analyze factors related to the practice of exercise, we used the student t-test, X², and odds ratio (OR, with a corresponding 95% confident interval (CI, followed by a multiple logistic regression. The significance level was 5%.Compared to the pre-pregnancy period, the prevalence of physical activity among participants was lower throughout pregnancy (20.1% (p = 0.01. Half of the women interrupted practicing physical exercise due to pregnancy. The lowest prevalence of exercise was observed in the first (13.6% and third trimesters (13.4%. Less than half of women received exercise guidance during prenatal care meetings (47.4%. Walking was the most commonly reported exercise, followed by water aerobics. Factors positively associated with exercise practice were higher educational level (OR= 1.82; CI 95% 1.28-2.60, primiparity (OR=1.49; CI 95% 1.07-2.07, exercising before pregnancy (OR= 6.45; CI 95% 4.64-8.96, and exercise guidance during prenatal care (OR=2.54; CI 95% 1.80-3.57. Mildly intense exercise and domestic activities were most frequently reported among pregnant women. There were no differences in maternal and perinatal outcomes between active and sedentary pregnant women.The findings indicate that promoting physical activity remains a priority in public health policy, and women of childbearing age, especially those planning a pregnancy, should be encouraged to adopt

  6. Physical Activity Patterns and Factors Related to Exercise during Pregnancy: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Simony Lira; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Godoy, Ana Carolina; Kasawara, Karina Tamy; Morais, Sirlei Siani

    2015-01-01

    To assess the physical activity levels of pregnant women and to examine the characteristics associated with the practice of exercise and the activities of daily living during pregnancy. For this cross-sectional study, 1,279 women were recruited within 72 hours postpartum. They were interviewed about their socio-demographic data and obstetric history and were administered self-report questionnaires about exercise and daily physical activities during pregnancy. Data on the current pregnancy, labor, delivery, and newborn outcomes were collected from participants' medical records. To analyze factors related to the practice of exercise, we used the student t-test, X², and odds ratio (OR), with a corresponding 95% confident interval (CI), followed by a multiple logistic regression. The significance level was 5%. Compared to the pre-pregnancy period, the prevalence of physical activity among participants was lower throughout pregnancy (20.1%) (p = 0.01). Half of the women interrupted practicing physical exercise due to pregnancy. The lowest prevalence of exercise was observed in the first (13.6%) and third trimesters (13.4%). Less than half of women received exercise guidance during prenatal care meetings (47.4%). Walking was the most commonly reported exercise, followed by water aerobics. Factors positively associated with exercise practice were higher educational level (OR= 1.82; CI 95% 1.28-2.60), primiparity (OR=1.49; CI 95% 1.07-2.07), exercising before pregnancy (OR= 6.45; CI 95% 4.64-8.96), and exercise guidance during prenatal care (OR=2.54; CI 95% 1.80-3.57). Mildly intense exercise and domestic activities were most frequently reported among pregnant women. There were no differences in maternal and perinatal outcomes between active and sedentary pregnant women. The findings indicate that promoting physical activity remains a priority in public health policy, and women of childbearing age, especially those planning a pregnancy, should be encouraged to adopt an

  7. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-24

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  8. Exercise in claudicants increase or decrease walking ability and the response relates to mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaardenburgh, Michel; Wohlwend, Martin; Rognmo, Øivind; Mattsson, Erney J R

    2017-06-07

    Exercise of patients with intermittent claudication improves walking performance. Exercise does not usually increase blood flow, but seems to increase muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities. Although exercise is beneficial in most patients, it might be harmful in some. The mitochondrial response to exercise might therefore differ between patients. Our hypothesis was that changes in walking performance relate to changes in mitochondrial function after 8 weeks of exercise. At a subgroup level, negative responders decrease and positive responders increase mitochondrial capacity. Two types of exercise were studied, calf raising and walking (n = 28). We wanted to see whether there were negative and positive responders, independent of type of exercise. Measurements of walking performance, peripheral hemodynamics, mitochondrial respiration and content (citrate synthase activity) were obtained on each patient before and after the intervention period. Multiple linear regression was used to test whether changes in peak walking time relate to mitochondrial function. Subgroups of negative (n = 8) and positive responders (n = 8) were defined as those that either decreased or increased peak walking time following exercise. Paired t test and analysis of covariance was used to test changes within and between subgroups. Changes in peak walking time were related to changes in mitochondrial respiration supported by electron transferring flavoprotein (ETF + CI)P (p = 0.004), complex I (CI + ETF)P (p = 0.003), complex I + complex II (CI + CII + ETF)P (p = 0.037) and OXPHOS coupling efficiency (p = 0.046) in the whole group. Negative responders had more advanced peripheral arterial disease. Mitochondrial respiration supported by electron transferring flavoprotein (ETF + CI)P (p = 0.0013), complex I (CI + ETF)P (p = 0.0005), complex I + complex II (CI + CII + ETF)P (p = 0.011) and electron transfer system capacity (CI + CII + ETF)E (p = 0

  9. Arm and leg substrate utilization and muscle adaptation after prolonged low-intensity training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2010-01-01

    the review will address the available studies on low-intensity training performed separately with arm or legs or as whole-body training to evaluate if this leads to different adaptations in arm and leg muscle resulting in different substrate utilization patterns during separate arm or leg exercise...

  10. [Self-management programme for leg ulcer patients: increased physical activity and fewer wound days

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, M.M.; Borm, G.F.; Vleuten, C.J. van der; Evers, A.W.; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Achterberg, T. van

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of the Lively Legs programme on patient adherence to compression therapy, walking behaviour and leg exercising, as well as on leg ulcer recurrence. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00184873). METHOD: A total of 184

  11. Body-related envy: a social comparison perspective in sport and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pila, Eva; Stamiris, Angela; Castonguay, Andree; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2014-02-01

    These three studies sought to better understand experiences of body-related envy and to examine the association with motivation and exercise behavior in young adult males and females. In an interview study, participants (N = 11) discussed body-related envy within a framework of social comparison. In Study 2, a thematic content analysis was conducted on self-reported narratives of body-related envy experiences reported by 288 participants. Themes of body-related envy triggers, cognitions, and cognitive and behavioral outcomes were identified. Findings from Studies 1 and 2 highlighted the possible link between body-related envy and exercise motivation and behavior. Study 3 tested these associations with males and females (N = 595) who completed a self-report questionnaire. In the structural equation model, body-related envy was positively associated with external, introjected, and identified regulations, and identified regulation was positively associated with exercise behavior. Taken together, the importance of body-related envy in the experience of cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes related to sport and exercise contexts is highlighted.

  12. Maneuvers during legged locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindrich, Devin L.; Qiao, Mu

    2009-06-01

    Maneuverability is essential for locomotion. For animals in the environment, maneuverability is directly related to survival. For humans, maneuvers such as turning are associated with increased risk for injury, either directly through tissue loading or indirectly through destabilization. Consequently, understanding the mechanics and motor control of maneuverability is a critical part of locomotion research. We briefly review the literature on maneuvering during locomotion with a focus on turning in bipeds. Walking turns can use one of several different strategies. Anticipation can be important to adjust kinematics and dynamics for smooth and stable maneuvers. During running, turns may be substantially constrained by the requirement for body orientation to match movement direction at the end of a turn. A simple mathematical model based on the requirement for rotation to match direction can describe leg forces used by bipeds (humans and ostriches). During running turns, both humans and ostriches control body rotation by generating fore-aft forces. However, whereas humans must generate large braking forces to prevent body over-rotation, ostriches do not. For ostriches, generating the lateral forces necessary to change movement direction results in appropriate body rotation. Although ostriches required smaller braking forces due in part to increased rotational inertia relative to body mass, other movement parameters also played a role. Turning performance resulted from the coordinated behavior of an integrated biomechanical system. Results from preliminary experiments on horizontal-plane stabilization support the hypothesis that controlling body rotation is an important aspect of stable maneuvers. In humans, body orientation relative to movement direction is rapidly stabilized during running turns within the minimum of two steps theoretically required to complete analogous maneuvers. During straight running and cutting turns, humans exhibit spring-mass behavior in the

  13. Exercise for improving age-related hyperkyphotic posture: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Symron; Katzman, Wendy B; Giangregorio, Lora M

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate previous research to determine if exercise can improve preexisting hyperkyphosis by decreasing the angle of thoracic kyphosis in adults aged ≥45 years. PubMed, Embase, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases were searched for studies related to posture, exercise, and age ≥45 years. Online conference proceedings of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, American Physical Therapy Association, and Gerontological Society of America were also searched. Two independent reviewers screened the titles and abstracts and selected studies that tested the effect of exercise on measures of kyphosis, or forward head posture, in individuals with hyperkyphosis at baseline (defined as angle of kyphosis ≥40°). Reviews, letters, notes, and non-English language studies were excluded. A pilot-tested abstraction form was used by each reviewer to extract data from each study regarding details of exercise intervention, participant characteristics, safety, adherence, and results. The Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias was used to assess methodologic quality. Discrepancies on the abstraction forms between the 2 reviewers were resolved by a third reviewer. A formal meta-analysis was not performed. Thirteen studies were abstracted and included in the review; of these, 8 studies saw improvements in ≥1 measure of posture. The main sources of bias were related to blinding participants and incomplete outcome data. The adherence reported across studies suggests that exercise is an acceptable intervention for individuals with age-related hyperkyphosis. The scarcity and quality of available data did not permit a pooled estimate of the effect of exercise on hyperkyphotic posture; however, the positive effects observed in high-quality studies suggest some benefit and support the need for an adequately designed randomized controlled trial examining the effect of exercise on hyperkyphosis. Copyright © 2014

  14. Effects of Exercise on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus-Related Cognitive Impairment and Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callisaya, Michele; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive impairment and dementia are common contributors to institutionalization and loss of quality of life in older people. Both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and physical inactivity are prevalent and important modifiable risk factors for developing dementia. Physical activity is recommended in the management of T2DM, and there is growing evidence that exercise, a subgroup of physical activity, is also beneficial for maintaining and improving brain structure and function. This paper reviews the evidence for a benefit of exercise on T2DM related cognitive impairment and dementia. In addition, the type (e.g., aerobic, resistance), intensity, duration, and frequency of exercise are discussed. This review shows that although exercise has known benefits on the mechanisms linking T2DM to dementia, there are very few randomized controlled trials examining whether this is the case. It is concluded that the uptake of exercise for the brain has great potential to improve quality of life and provide significant cost savings, but further research is warranted to clarify the effects of exercise on T2DM and those on dementia.

  15. Exercise as an intervention for the age-related decline in brain metabolic support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda J Anderson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To identify interventions for brain aging, we must first identify the processes in which we hope to intervene. Brain aging is a period of decreasing functional capacity and increasing vulnerability, which reflect a reduction in morphological organization and perhaps degeneration. Since life is ultimately dependent upon the ability to maintain cellular organization through metabolism, this review explores evidence for a decline in neural metabolic support during aging, which includes a reduction in whole brain cerebral blood flow, and cellular metabolic capacity. Capillary density may also decrease with age, although the results are less clear. Exercise may be a highly effective intervention for brain aging, because it improves the cardiovascular system as a whole, and increases regional capillary density and neuronal metabolic capacity. Although the evidence is strongest for motor regions, more work may yield additional evidence for exercise-related improvement in metabolic support in non-motor regions. The protective effects of exercise may be specific to brain region and the type of insult. For example, exercise protects striatal cells from ischemia, but it produces mixed results after hippocampal seizures. Exercise can improve metabolic support and bioenergetic capacity in adult animals, but it remains to be determined whether it has similar effects in aging animals. What is clear is that exercise can influence the multiple levels of support necessary for maintaining optimal neuronal function, which is unique among proposed interventions for aging.

  16. Movement-Related Cortical Potential Amplitude Reduction after Cycling Exercise Relates to the Extent of Neuromuscular Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Jérôme Nicolas; Place, Nicolas; Borrani, Fabio; Kayser, Bengt; Barral, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Exercise-induced fatigue affects the motor control and the ability to generate a given force or power. Surface electroencephalography allows researchers to investigate movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP), which reflect preparatory brain activity 1.5 s before movement onset. Although the MRCP amplitude appears to increase after repetitive single-joint contractions, the effects of large-muscle group dynamic exercise on such pre-motor potential remain to be described. Sixteen volunteers exercised 30 min at 60% of the maximal aerobic power on a cycle ergometer, followed by a 10-km all-out time trial. Before and after each of these tasks, knee extensor neuromuscular function was investigated using maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) combined with electrical stimulations of the femoral nerve. MRCP was recorded during 60 knee extensions after each neuromuscular sequence. The exercise resulted in a significant decrease in the knee extensor MVC force after the 30-min exercise (-10 ± 8%) and the time trial (-21 ± 9%). The voluntary activation level (VAL; -6 ± 8 and -12 ± 10%), peak twitch (Pt; -21 ± 16 and -32 ± 17%), and paired stimuli (P100 Hz; -7 ± 11 and -12 ± 13%) were also significantly reduced after the 30-min exercise and the time trial. The first exercise was followed by a decrease in the MRCP, mainly above the mean activity measured at electrodes FC1-FC2, whereas the reduction observed after the time trial was related to the FC1-FC2 and C2 electrodes. After both exercises, the reduction in the late MRCP component above FC1-FC2 was significantly correlated with the reduction in P100 Hz (r = 0.61), and the reduction in the same component above C2 was significantly correlated with the reduction in VAL (r = 0.64). In conclusion, large-muscle group exercise induced a reduction in pre-motor potential, which was related to muscle alterations and resulted in the inability to produce a maximal voluntary contraction.

  17. Blood temperature and perfusion to exercising and non-exercising human limbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González-Alonso, José; Calbet, José A. L.; Boushel, Robert

    2015-01-01

    - and metabolism-sensitive mechanisms are important for the control of human limb perfusion, possibly by activating ATP release from the erythrocytes.  Temperature-sensitive mechanisms may contribute to blood-flow regulation, but the influence of temperature on perfusion to exercising and non-exercising human...... limbs is not established. Blood temperature (TB), blood flow and oxygen uptake (V̇O2) in the legs and arms were measured in 16 healthy humans during 90 min of leg and arm exercise and during exhaustive incremental leg or arm exercise. During prolonged exercise, leg blood flow (LBF) was fourfold higher...

  18. Exercise stereotypes and health-related outcomes in French people living with HIV: development and validation of an HIV Exercise Stereotypes Scale (HIVESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Laura; Falzon, Charlène; Bergamaschi, Alessandro; Schuft, Laura; Durant, Jacques; Rosenthal, Eric; Pradier, Christian; Duracinsky, Martin; Rouanet, Isabelle; Colson, Serge S; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne

    2016-11-14

    The main objective of the current study was to develop and validate a French exercise stereotype scale for people living with HIV (PLHIV) in order to gain visibility to the possible barriers and facilitators for exercise in PLHIV and thus enhance their quality of life. A series of four complementary studies was carried out with a total sample of 524 participants to: (a) develop a preliminary version of the HIV Exercise Stereotype Scale (HIVESS) (Stage 1), (b) confirm the factorial structure of the instrument (Stage 2), (c) evaluate the stability of the instrument (Stage 3), and (d) examine the construct and divergent validity of the scale (Stage 4). Results provided support for a 14-item scale with three sub-scales reporting stereotypes related to exercise benefits, exercise risks and lack of capacity for exercise with Cronbach's alphas of .77, .69 and .76 respectively. Results showed good factorial structure, strong reliability and indicators of convergent validity relating to self-efficacy, exercise and quality of life. The HIVESS presented satisfactory psychometric properties, constitutes a reliable and valid instrument to measure exercise stereotypes among PLHIV and has applications for future research and clinical practice.

  19. Does cycling effect motor coordination of the leg during running in elite triathletes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Andrew R; Vicenzino, Bill; Blanch, Peter; Dowlan, Steve; Hodges, Paul W

    2008-07-01

    Triathletes report incoordination when running after cycling. We investigated the influence of the transition from cycling to running on leg movement and muscle recruitment during running in elite international level triathletes. Leg movement (three-dimensional kinematics) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscle activity (surface electromyography) were compared between a control-run (no prior exercise) and a 30-min transition-run (preceded by 20 min of cycling; i.e., run versus cycle-run). The role of fatigue in motor changes was also investigated. Leg kinematics were not different between control- and transition-runs in any triathlete. Recruitment of TA was different in 5 of 14 triathletes, in whom altered TA recruitment patterns during the transition-run were more similar to recruitment patterns of TA during cycling. Changes in TA recruitment during the transition-run were not associated with altered force production of TA or other leg muscles during isometric fatigue testing, or myoelectric indicators of fatigue (median frequency, average rectified value). These findings suggest that short periods of cycling do not influence running kinematics or TA muscle activity in most elite triathletes. However, our findings are evidence that leg muscle activity during running is influenced by cycling in at least some elite triathletes despite their years of training. This influence is not related to kinematic variations and is unlikely related to fatigue but may be a direct effect of cycling on motor commands for running.

  20. Safety of lower extremity neurodynamic exercises in adults with diabetes mellitus: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Benjamin S; Nee, Robert J; Smoot, Betty

    2017-02-01

    Neurodynamic exercises aim to improve neural mechanosensitivity in order to promote pain-free movement and function. People with diabetes mellitus (DM) may be candidates for neurodynamic exercises to address common DM-related impairments such as reduced lower extremity range of motion (ROM) and altered neural mechanosensitivity. However, no studies have examined the safety and immediate effects of neurodynamic exercise in people with DM. This study aims to determine the feasibility of applying neurodynamic exercises in adults with DM by evaluating the rate of adverse events and quantifying immediate changes in straight leg raise (SLR) ROM. This quasi-experimental study included 20 people with DM who performed a series of neurodynamic exercises on their right leg. Their left leg was used as an internal control. SLR testing was performed before and immediately after these exercises. Adverse events were monitored, including provocation of their neuropathy symptoms or discomfort or pain. All participants completed the neurodynamic exercises without provocation of their neuropathy symptoms. No pain was reported and only one participant had minor discomfort with one exercise; a neurodynamic exercises are safe in adults with DM and may create small immediate improvements in SLR testing. Further research is indicated to investigate the safety and efficacy of neurodynamic exercises performed over multiple sessions. 3b.

  1. Effects of an endurance and resistance exercise program on persistent cancer-related fatigue after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeo, F; Schwartz, S; Wesel, N; Voigt, A; Thiel, E

    2008-08-01

    Fatigue is a relevant problem of cancer patients during and after treatment. Several studies have shown that exercise can improve quality of life and functional status of cancer patients undergoing chemo- or radiotherapy. However, there is a lack of information about the effects of this intervention on persistent cancer-related fatigue. Therefore, we assessed the effects of an exercise program on cancer-related fatigue after treatment. A consecutive series of 32 cancer patients with mild to severe persistent fatigue [scores on the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI) > 25] participated in a 3-week exercise program consisting of endurance (30 min walking on a treadmill) and resistance/coordination exercises for the major muscle groups. Fatigue, mood, and anxiety were assessed with questionnaires and physical performance with a stress test before and after the program. At the end of the program, we observed a significant increase of physical performance (workload at the anaerobic threshold pre 61 +/- 26 W, post 78 +/- 31 W, P fatigue (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy: pre 45.7 +/- 13.4, post 52.6 +/- 12.4, P fatigue or reduction of anxiety was observed. A 3-week exercise program leads to a substantial improvement of physical performance and reduction of mental and physical fatigue in cancer patients after treatment. However, this intervention does not affect depression, anxiety, or cognitive fatigue.

  2. Biochemical changes in relation to a maximal exercise test in patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, J; Bülow, P M; Mehlsen, J

    1994-01-01

    . The changes in heart rate, potassium levels, and haematocrit during the exercise test were similar in the two groups. The maximal obtained lactate concentration was 4.2 mmol l-1 (3.5-5.6) in the patients as compared to 4.9 mmol l-1 (3.9-5.9) in the controls (NS). The estimated anaerobic threshold of 2 mmol l......Patients with fibromyalgia often complain of fatigue and pain during exercise and of worsening of pain days after exercise. The aim of the study described here was to determine if abnormal changes in potassium or lactate could be observed during an exercise test in fibromyalgia. Whether an abnormal......-1 was reached at a heart rate of 124 min-1 in the patients with fibromyalgia as compared to 140 min-1 in the controls (P = 0.02). In relation to workload, the patients scored higher on a Borg scale for perceived exertion during exercise, but if the Borg score was related to lactate no significant...

  3. Effects of aerobic exercise on cancer-related fatigue: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Li; Lu, Hui J; Lin, Lu; Hu, Yan

    2016-02-01

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is the most commonly reported and most distressing symptom in cancer patients. Currently, there are no effective strategies for managing this condition. The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of aerobic exercise on CRF with the standard of care. A systematic search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed using the Cochrane Library, JBI Library, Embase, MEDLINE, Web of Science, China Biology Medicine (CBM), and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). The risk of bias was critically evaluated, and data were independently extracted by two reviewers. All of the analyses were performed using Review Manager 5. A total of 26 qualified studies that included 2830 participants (aerobic exercise, 1426; control, 1404) were included in the meta-analysis. Cancer patients who completed adjuvant therapy in the aerobic exercise group reported reduced CRF levels relative to patients undergoing the standard of care. Aerobic exercise had a moderate effect on CRF for patients not currently undergoing anticancer treatment. Supervised aerobic exercise, exercise for 20–30 min/session, or exercise three times/week had a small effect on CRF. Exercise for 50 min/session or exercise two sessions/week had a significant effect on patient CRF, whereas 8 weeks of exercise had a moderate effect. Aerobic exercise is effective for the management of CRF, especially for patients who have completed adjuvant therapy. Cancer patients can make more informed choices regarding their cancer-related fatigue management based on the best available evidence.

  4. Muscle lactate metabolism in recovery from intense exhaustive exercise: impact of light exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangsbo, J; Graham, T; Johansen, L; Saltin, B

    1994-10-01

    This study examined the effect of low-intensity exercise on lactate metabolism during the first 10 min of recovery from high-intensity exercise. Subjects exercised (61.0 +/- 5.4 W) one leg to exhaustion (approximately 3.5 min), and after 1 h of rest they performed the same exhaustive exercise with the other leg. For one leg the intense exercise was followed by rest [passive (P) leg], and for the other leg the exercise was followed by a 10-min period with low-intensity exercise at a work rate of 10 W [active (A) leg]. The muscle lactate concentration after the intense exercise was the same in the P and A legs, but after 10 min of recovery, the lactate concentration and the arterial blood lactate level were higher for the P leg than for the A leg (both P O2 consumption during 10 min of recovery was 440 and 750 ml for the P and A legs, respectively. The present data suggest that a lowered blood lactate level during active recovery is due to an elevated muscle lactate metabolism and is not caused by a transient higher release of lactate from the exercising muscles coupled with greater uptake in other tissues.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Therapeutic potential of eccentric exercises for age-related muscle atrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Jae-Young

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on evidence-based interventions to prevent mobility decline and enhance physical performance in older adults. Several modalities, in addition to traditional strengthening programs, have been designed to manage age-related functional decline more effectively. In this study, we reviewed the current relevant literatures to assess the therapeutic potential of eccentric exercises for age-related muscle atrophy (sarcopenia). Age-related changes in human skeletal muscle, ...

  6. Motor performance, exercise tolerance, and health-related quality of life in children on dialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsermans, RM; Creemers, DG; Helders, PJ; Schroder, CH

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to the adult population, little is known regarding health-related quality of life and exercise tolerance in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing chronic intermittent hemodialysis. We designed a pilot study to investigate whether research into this area is indicated.

  7. Physical Education Teachers' Continuing Professional Development in Health-Related Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfrey, Laura; Cale, Lorraine; Webb, Louisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: As a component of the physical education curriculum, Health-Related Exercise (HRE) has been subject to intensive critique in terms of its status, organisation and expression in schools. Concerns and questions have also been raised about physical education teachers' professional knowledge of health and the extent to which HRE features…

  8. Physical Education Teachers' Continuing Professional Development in Health-Related Exercise: A Figurational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfrey, Laura; Webb, Louisa; Cale, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses figurational sociology to explain why Secondary Physical Education teachers' engagement with Health Related Exercise (HRE) is often limited. Historically-rooted concerns surround the teaching of HRE, and these have recently been linked to teachers' limited continuing professional development (CPD) in HRE (HRE-CPD). A two-phase,…

  9. Decomposing executive stock option exercises: relative information and incentives to manage earnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenman, D.; Hodgson, A.; van Praag, B.; Zhang, W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the information content of stock option exercises versus regular insider share trades by corporate executives. We argue that the asymmetric payoff structure of options makes managerial wealth - compared to holdings of shares - relatively more sensitive to stock price changes and

  10. Exercise therapy for Stress-related mental disorder, a randomised controlled trial in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quartero, A. Otto; Burger, Huib; Donker, Marieke; de Wit, Niek J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: to investigate whether a structured physical exercise programme (PEP) improves the recovery of general health in patients suffering from Stress-related Mental Disorder (SMD). Method: Study design: randomised open trial in general practice. Patients from two regions in the Netherlands

  11. Reduced muscle activation during exercise related to brain oxygenation and metabolism in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Nielsen, Jannie; Overgaard, M

    2010-01-01

    Maximal exercise may be limited by central fatigue defined as an inability of the central nervous system to fully recruit the involved muscles. This study evaluated whether a reduction in the cerebral oxygen-to-carbohydrate index (OCI) and in the cerebral mitochondrial oxygen tension relate...

  12. Lyden-af-Leg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Herdis

    Præsentation af seniorforsker-projekt Lyden-af-Leg i et traderingsperspektiv og med indledende fokus på YouTube som traderings-platform.......Præsentation af seniorforsker-projekt Lyden-af-Leg i et traderingsperspektiv og med indledende fokus på YouTube som traderings-platform....

  13. Dynamically Stable Legged Locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-27

    balanced itself in 31) using a tabular ctontrol sclwnme. With only thUiee actuated degrees it used a shuffling gait to balance that reminds one of Charlie ... Chaplin . * The present study explores the control of a physical one-legged hopping machine. The objective of using a machine with only one leg was to

  14. Peripheral artery disease - legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the legs, feet, and toes Painful, non-bleeding sores on the feet or toes (most often black) that are slow ... block small arteries Coronary artery disease Impotence Open sores ... (gangrene) The affected leg or foot may need to be amputated

  15. Muscle Activation During Exercise in Severe Acute Hypoxia: Role of Absolute and Relative Intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Losa-Reyna, José; González-Izal, Miriam; Perez-Suarez, Ismael; Calle-Herrero, Jaime; Izquierdo, Mikel; Calbet, José A. L.

    2014-01-01

    Torres-Peralta, Rafael, José Losa-Reyna, Miriam González-Izal, Ismael Perez-Suarez, Jaime Calle-Herrero, Mikel Izquierdo, and José A.L. Calbet. Muscle activation during exercise in severe acute hypoxia: Role of absolute and relative intensity. High Alt Med Biol 15:472–482, 2014.—The aim of this study was to determine the influence of severe acute hypoxia on muscle activation during whole body dynamic exercise. Eleven young men performed four incremental cycle ergometer tests to exhaustion bre...

  16. Muscle Activation During Exercise in Severe Acute Hypoxia: Role of Absolute and Relative Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Losa-Reyna, José; González-Izal, Miriam; Perez-Suarez, Ismael; Calle-Herrero, Jaime; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Torres-Peralta, Rafael, José Losa-Reyna, Miriam González-Izal, Ismael Perez-Suarez, Jaime Calle-Herrero, Mikel Izquierdo, and José A.L. Calbet. Muscle activation during exercise in severe acute hypoxia: Role of absolute and relative intensity. High Alt Med Biol 15:472–482, 2014.—The aim of this study was to determine the influence of severe acute hypoxia on muscle activation during whole body dynamic exercise. Eleven young men performed four incremental cycle ergometer tests to exhaustion breathing normoxic (FIo2=0.21, two tests) or hypoxic gas (FIo2=0.108, two tests). Surface electromyography (EMG) activities of rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VL), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris (BF) were recorded. The two normoxic and the two hypoxic tests were averaged to reduce EMG variability. Peak Vo2 was 34% lower in hypoxia than in normoxia (p<0.05). The EMG root mean square (RMS) increased with exercise intensity in all muscles (p<0.05), with greater effect in hypoxia than in normoxia in the RF and VM (p<0.05), and a similar trend in VL (p=0.10). At the same relative intensity, the RMS was greater in normoxia than in hypoxia in RF, VL, and BF (p<0.05), with a similar trend in VM (p=0.08). Median frequency increased with exercise intensity (p<0.05), and was higher in hypoxia than in normoxia in VL (p<0.05). Muscle contraction burst duration increased with exercise intensity in VM and VL (p<0.05), without clear effects of FIo2. No significant FIo2 effects on frequency domain indices were observed when compared at the same relative intensity. In conclusion, muscle activation during whole body exercise increases almost linearly with exercise intensity, following a muscle-specific pattern, which is adjusted depending on the FIo2 and the relative intensity of exercise. Both VL and VM are increasingly involved in power output generation with the increase of intensity and the reduction in FIo2. PMID:25225839

  17. Maintained exercise-enhanced brain executive function related to cerebral lactate metabolism in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashimoto, Takeshi; Tsukamoto, Hayato; Takenaka, Saki

    2018-01-01

    High-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) improves cerebral executive function (EF), but the improvement in EF is attenuated after repeated HIIE, perhaps because of lower lactate availability for the brain. This investigation examined whether improved EF after exercise relates to brain lactate uptake....... Fourteen healthy, male subjects performed 2 HIIE protocols separated by 60 min of rest. Blood samples were obtained from the right internal jugular venous bulb and from the brachial artery to determine differences across the brain for lactate (a-v difflactate), glucose (diffglucose), oxygen (diffoxygen...

  18. Acute circuit-resistance exercise increases expression of lymphocyte agouti-related protein in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari-Niaki, Abbass; Saghebjoo, Marziyeh; Rashid-Lamir, Amir; Fathi, Rozita; Kraemer, Robert R

    2010-03-01

    Exercise-induced leukocytosis and lymphocytosis is accompanied by up-regulation and down-regulation of hundreds of genes in white blood cells (WBCs). Agouti-related protein (AgRP) is an orexigenic peptide secreted predominantly from the arcuate nucleus in the hypothalamus. AgRP affects feeding behavior and plays a role in energy and glucose homeostasis and adiposity. The purpose of the study was to determine effects of circuit resistance exercise (CRE) (9 exercises, 25 s per exercise) at different intensities on peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) AgRP mRNA expression and its concentrations in lymphocytes and plasma. Twenty-five young female college students were randomly divided into five groups: control, 40% 1-repetition maximum (1-RM), 60% 1-RM, 80% 1-RM and combined (40 + 60 + 80% 1-RM) loads. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated by a lymphocyte density gradient centrifugation method for AgRP mRNA expression. Lymphocyte ATP, glycogen, AgRP, growth hormone (GH), and plasma AgRP, GH and glucose concentrations were measured. CRE increased AgRP mRNA lymphocyte expression significantly (P exercise stress.

  19. Physiological benefits of exercise in artificial gravity: A broadband countermeasure to space flight related deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Jessica L.; Jarchow, Thomas; Young, Laurence R.

    2008-07-01

    Current countermeasures to space flight related physiological deconditioning have not been sufficiently effective. We believe that a comprehensive countermeasure is the combination of intermittent centrifugation (artificial gravity) and exercise. We aim to test the long-term effectiveness of this combination in terms of fitness benefits. As a first-order determination of effectiveness, subjects participated in an eight-week exercise program. Three times per week, they exercised using a stair-stepper on a short-radius (2 m) centrifuge spinning at 30 RPM, maintaining a target heart rate that was systematically increased over the exercise period. During the sessions, foot forces and stepping cadence, heart rate, and perceived exertion were measured. Before and after the eight-week exercise program, measurements included: body fat percentage, bone mineral content, quadriceps extension strength, push-ups endurance, stepping cadence for a given heart rate, and maximum stepping endurance. We find that stair-stepping on a centrifuge is safe and comfortable. Preliminary fitness results indicate that stair-stepping on a centrifuge may be effective in improving aerobic fitness, body composition, and strength. These results indicate that such a combination may also be effective as a countermeasure to space flight deconditioning.

  20. Capillary ultrastructure and mitochondrial volume density in skeletal muscle in relation to reduced exercise capacity of patients with intermittent claudication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, Oliver; Torchetti, Eleonora; Malik, Corinna

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent claudication (IC) is the most commonly reported symptom of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Impaired limb blood flow is a major casual factor of lower exercise tolerance in PAD, but cannot entirely explain it. We hypothesized that IC is associated with structural changes...... of the capillary-mitochondria interface that could contribute to the reduction of exercise tolerance in IC-patients. Capillary and mitochondrial morphometry were performed after light and transmission electron microscopy using vastus lateralis muscle biopsies of 14 IC-patients and 10 age-matched controls and peak...... power output (PPO) was determined for all participants using an incremental single-leg knee-extension protocol. Capillary density was lower (411±90 mm(-2)versus 506±95 mm(-2); P≤0.05) in the biopsies of the IC patients than in those of the controls. The basement membrane (BM) around capillaries...

  1. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swelling of the ankles - feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... Foot, leg, and ankle swelling is common when the person also: Is overweight Has a blood clot ...

  2. Problems with Legs and Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Teeth Heart Murmurs Problems With Legs and Feet KidsHealth > For Kids > Problems With Legs and Feet Print A A A Where would you be without your legs and feet? They do a lot to get you where ...

  3. Human muscle net K(+) release during exercise is unaffected by elevated anaerobic metabolism, but reduced after prolonged acclimatization to 4,100 m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai B; Calbet, José A L; Sander, Mikael; van Hall, Gerrit; Juel, Carsten; Saltin, Bengt; Lundby, Carsten

    2010-07-01

    It was investigated whether skeletal muscle K(+) release is linked to the degree of anaerobic energy production. Six subjects performed an incremental bicycle exercise test in normoxic and hypoxic conditions prior to and after 2 and 8 wk of acclimatization to 4,100 m. The highest workload completed by all subjects in all trials was 260 W. With acute hypoxic exposure prior to acclimatization, venous plasma [K(+)] was lower (P exercise intensity, leg net K(+) release was unaffected by hypoxic exposure independent of acclimatization. After 8 wk of acclimatization, no difference existed in venous plasma [K(+)] between the normoxic and hypoxic trial, either at submaximal intensities or at exhaustion (360 +/- 14 W vs. 313 +/- 8 W; P exercise intensity, leg net K(+) release was less (P exercise relative to rest was less (P anaerobic energy production and that acclimatization reduces leg net K(+) release during exercise.

  4. Simulation Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, Pat

    1976-01-01

    Describes five simulation exercises: a problem for a student teacher, an industrial relations game, a series of student problems; an international relations crisis, and a sociological exercise on public and private opinions. (LS)

  5. Leg and trunk length at 43 years in relation to childhood health, diet and family circumstances; evidence from the 1946 national birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, M E J; Hardy, R J; Paul, A A; Marshall, S F; Cole, T J

    2002-04-01

    This is a study of the associations of adult leg and trunk length with early life height and weight, diet, socioeconomic circumstances, and health, and parental height, divorce and death. The data used were collected in a longitudinal study of the health, development and ageing of a British national birth cohort (N = 2879 in this analysis) studied since birth in 1946. Multiple regression models were used to investigate the relationships. Adult leg and trunk length were each positively associated with parental height, birthweight, and weight at 4 years. Leg length was associated positively with breastfeeding and energy intake at 4 years. Trunk length was associated negatively with serious illness in childhood and possibly also parental divorce, but not with the dietary data. Adult leg length is particularly sensitive to environmental factors and diet in early childhood because that is the period of most rapid leg growth. Trunk growth is faster than leg growth after infancy and before puberty, and may be associated with the effects of serious illness and parental separation because of the child's growing sensitivity to stressful circumstances, as well as the result of the biological effects of illness.

  6. Interactions between immune, stress-related hormonal and cardiovascular systems following strenuous physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menicucci, Danilo; Piarulli, Andrea; Mastorci, Francesca; Sebastiani, Laura; Laurino, Marco; Garbella, Erika; Castagnini, Cinzia; Pellegrini, Silvia; Lubrano, Valter; Bernardi, Giulio; Metelli, Maria; Bedini, Remo; L'abbate, Antonio; Pingitore, Alessandro; Gemignani, Angelo

    2013-09-01

    Physical exercise represents a eustress condition that promotes rapid coordinated adjustments in the immune, stress-related hormonal and cardiovascular systems, for maintaining homeostasis in response to increased metabolic demands. Compared to the tight multisystem coordination during exercise, evidence of between-systems cross talk in the early post exercise is still lacking. This study was aimed at identifying possible interactions between multiple systems following strenuous physical exercise (Ironman race) performed by twenty well-trained triathletes. Cardiac hemodynamics, left ventricle systolic and diastolic function and heart rate variability were measured along with plasma concentrations of immune messengers (cytokines and C-reactive protein) and stress-related hormones (catecholamines and cortisol) both 24h before and within 20 min after the race. Observed changes in antiinflammatory pathways, stress-related hormones and cardiovascular function were in line with previous findings; moreover, correlating parameters' changes (post versus pre-race) highlighted a dependence of cardiovascular function on the post-race biohumoral milieu: in particular, individual post-race variations of heart rate and diastolic function were strongly correlated with individual variations of anti-inflammatory cytokines, while individual baroreflex sensitivity changes were linked to IL-8 increase. Multiple correlations between anti-inflammatory cytokines and catecholamines were also found according with the autonomic regulation of immune function. Observed post-race cytokine and hormone levels were presumptively representative of the increases reached at the effort end while the cardiovascular parameters after the race were measured during the cardiovascular recovery; thus, results suggest that sustained strenuous exercise produced a stereotyped cardiovascular early recovery, whose speed could be conditioned by the immune and stress-related hormonal milieu.

  7. Recreational Exercise Before and During Pregnancy in Relation to Plasma C-Reactive Protein Concentrations in Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Cupul-Uicab, Lea A; Rogan, Walter J; Eggesbo, Merete; Travlos, Gregory; Wilson, Ralph; Longnecker, Matthew P

    2015-06-01

    Pregnant women who are physically active have a lower risk of preeclampsia and gestational diabetes than women who are less active. One possible mechanism is a reduction in low-grade inflammation, as measured by plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP). The association between exercise and CRP in pregnant women, however, has not been adequately investigated. A total of 537 pregnant women, enrolled around the 17th week of gestation in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study in 2003 to 2004, were studied. Self-reported recreational exercise was recalled for both 3 months before pregnancy and early pregnancy. The total energy expenditure from recreational exercise (total recreational exercise, metabolic equivalent of task [MET]-hr/week) was estimated, and low-, moderate- and vigorous-intensity exercise was defined. Plasma CRP concentrations were measured during pregnancy. In adjusted linear regression models, mean CRP concentration was 1.0% lower [95% CI = -1.9% to 0.2%] with each 1 MET-hr/week of total recreational exercise before pregnancy. In addition, vigorous-intensity exercise before pregnancy was more strongly related to a reduction in CRP levels than low- or moderate-intensity exercise. However, we observed no association between recreational exercise during pregnancy and plasma CRP levels. Recreational exercise before pregnancy, especially vigorous exercise, may reduce the risk of maternal inflammation during pregnancy.

  8. The effect of group exercise frequency on health related quality of life in institutionalized elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugbeer, Nivash; Ramklass, Serela; Mckune, Andrew; van Heerden, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to determine the effect of group exercise frequency on health related quality of life in institutionalized elderly. One hundred participants were recruited for voluntary participation from five aged care facilities, with inclusion being based on the outcome of a medical assessment by a sports physician. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare the effect of a 12 week group exercise programme on two groups of participants using pre-test and post-test procedures. A significant difference was noted in social function post training 2X/week (MD = -13.85, 95% CI [-24.66, -3.38], p = 0.017, d = 0.674) and 3X/week (MD = -13.30, 95% CI [-21.81, -5.59], p = 0.003, d = 0.712) a week. Training 3X/week a week provided an additional benefit in vitality (MD = -7.55, 95% CI [-13.16, -1.91], p = 0.018, d =0. 379). Improvements in mental component summary scale post training 2X/week (MD = -4.08, 95% CI [-7.67, -0.42], p = 0.033, d = 0.425) and 3X/week (MD = -6.67, 95% CI [-10.92, -2.33], p = 0.005, d = 0.567) a week was further noted. Mental health and social health benefits can be obtained irrespective of exercise frequency 2X/week or 3X/week. The exercise intervention at a frequency 3X/ week was more effective in improving mental component summary due to a larger effect size obtained compared to the exercise frequency of 2X/week. Additional benefits in vitality were achieved by exercising 3X/week. This may assist the elderly in preserving their independence.

  9. Swimming exercise reverses aging-related contractile abnormalities of female heart by improving structural alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Nihal; Olgar, Yusuf; Er, Hakan; Kucuk, Murathan; Ozdemir, Semir

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of swimming exercise on aging-related Ca2+ handling alterations and structural abnormalities of female rat heart. For this purpose, 4-month and 24-month old female rats were used and divided into three following groups: sedentary young (SY), sedentary old (SO), and exercised old (Ex-O). Swimming exercise was performed for 8 weeks (60 min/day, 5 days/week). Myocyte shortening, L-type Ca2+ currents and associated Ca2+ transients were measured from ventricular myocytes at 36 ± 1°C. NOX-4 levels, aconitase activity, glutathione measurements and ultrastructural examination by electron microscopy were conducted in heart tissue. Swimming exercise reversed the reduced shortening and slowed kinetics of aged cardiomyocytes. Although the current density was similar for all groups, Ca2+ transients were higher in SO and Ex-O myocytes with respect to the SY group. Caffeine-induced Ca2+ transients and the integrated NCX current were lower in cardiomyocytes of SY rats compared with other groups, suggesting an increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ content in an aged heart. Aging led to upregulated cardiac NOX-4 along with declined aconitase activity. Although it did not reverse these oxidative parameters, swimming exercise achieved a significant increase in glutathione levels and improved structural alterations of old rats' hearts. We conclude that swimming exercise upregulates antioxidant defense capacity and improves structural abnormalities of senescent female rat heart, although it does not change Ca2+ handling alterations further. Thereby, it improves contractile function of aged myocardium by mitigating detrimental effects of oxidative stress.

  10. Maintained exercise-enhanced brain executive function related to cerebral lactate metabolism in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takeshi; Tsukamoto, Hayato; Takenaka, Saki; Olesen, Niels D; Petersen, Lonnie G; Sørensen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henning B; Secher, Niels H; Ogoh, Shigehiko

    2018-01-03

    High-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) improves cerebral executive function (EF), but the improvement in EF is attenuated after repeated HIIE, perhaps because of lower lactate availability for the brain. This investigation examined whether improved EF after exercise relates to brain lactate uptake. Fourteen healthy, male subjects performed 2 HIIE protocols separated by 60 min of rest. Blood samples were obtained from the right internal jugular venous bulb and from the brachial artery to determine differences across the brain for lactate (a-v diff lactate ), glucose (diff glucose ), oxygen (diff oxygen ), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; diff BDNF ). EF was evaluated by the color-word Stroop task. The first HIIE improved EF for 40 min, whereas the second HIIE improved EF only immediately after exercise. The a-v diff glucose was unchanged, whereas the a-v diff BDNF increased similarly after both HIIEs, and the a-v diff lactate increased, but the increase was attenuated after the second HIIE, compared with the first HIIE ( P Hashimoto, T., Tsukamoto, H., Takenaka, S., Olesen, N. D., Petersen, L. G., Sørensen, H., Nielsen, H. B., Secher, N. H., Ogoh, S. Maintained exercise-enhanced brain executive function related to cerebral lactate metabolism in men.

  11. Exercise training to improve exercise capacity and quality of life in people with non-malignant dust-related respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Marita T; McKeough, Zoe J; Troosters, Thierry; Bye, Peter; Alison, Jennifer A

    2015-11-05

    Non-malignant dust-related respiratory diseases, such as asbestosis and silicosis, are similar to other chronic respiratory diseases and may be characterised by breathlessness, reduced exercise capacity and reduced health-related quality of life. Some non-malignant dust-related respiratory diseases are a global health issue and very few treatment options, including pharmacological, are available. Therefore, examining the role of exercise training is particularly important to determine whether exercise training is an effective treatment option in non-malignant dust-related respiratory diseases. To assess the effects of exercise training for people with non-malignant dust-related respiratory diseases compared with control, placebo or another non-exercise intervention on exercise capacity, health-related quality of life and levels of physical activity. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro and AMED (all searched from inception until February 2015), national and international clinical trial registries, reference lists of relevant papers and we contacted experts in the field for identification of suitable studies. We included only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared exercise training of at least four weeks duration with no exercise training, placebo or another non-exercise intervention. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. We employed the GRADE approach to assess the overall quality of evidence for each outcome and to interpret findings. We synthesized study results using a random-effects model based on the assessment of heterogeneity. We conducted subgroup analyses on participants with dust-related interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) and participants with asbestos related pleural disease (ARPD). Two RCTs including a combined total of 40 participants (35 from

  12. Stair descending exercise using a novel automatic escalator: effects on muscle performance and health-related parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalis, Vassilis; Theodorou, Anastasios A; Panayiotou, George; Kyparos, Antonios; Patikas, Dimitrios; Grivas, Gerasimos V; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2013-01-01

    A novel automatic escalator was designed, constructed and used in the present investigation. The aim of the present investigation was to compare the effect of two repeated sessions of stair descending versus stair ascending exercise on muscle performance and health-related parameters in young healthy men. Twenty males participated and were randomly divided into two equal-sized groups: a stair descending group (muscle-damaging group) and a stair ascending group (non-muscle-damaging group). Each group performed two sessions of stair descending or stair ascending exercise on the automatic escalator while a three week period was elapsed between the two exercise sessions. Indices of muscle function, insulin sensitivity, blood lipid profile and redox status were assessed before and immediately after, as well as at day 2 and day 4 after both exercise sessions. It was found that the first bout of stair descending exercise caused muscle damage, induced insulin resistance and oxidative stress as well as affected positively blood lipid profile. However, after the second bout of stair descending exercise the alterations in all parameters were diminished or abolished. On the other hand, the stair ascending exercise induced only minor effects on muscle function and health-related parameters after both exercise bouts. The results of the present investigation indicate that stair descending exercise seems to be a promising way of exercise that can provoke positive effects on blood lipid profile and antioxidant status.

  13. Using social learning theory to assess the exercise related health education needs of post-retirement adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, C; Petosa, R

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the exercise related health education needs of post-retirement adults. Social Learning Theory (SLT) was used as the conceptual framework. The target population for this study was post-retirement adults aged sixty years and over living in Columbus, Ohio. Results revealed a serious lack of knowledge regarding the benefits and attributes of exercise. Overall it appeared that few older adults received social support for exercise. Approximately one-half of the sample reported high levels of exercise self-efficacy. Over 50 percent of the sample reported to exercise for health-related benefits. Based on the results, specific recommendations for the promotion of exercise in post-retirement adults are offered.

  14. Promoting graded exercise as a part of multimodal treatment in patients diagnosed with stress-related exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H; Arvidson, Elin; Lindwall, Magnus; Lindegård, Agneta

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine, by using patient cohort data, the changes in exercise habits during a 12-month multimodal treatment period, in patients seeking specialist care for stress-related exhaustion. Randomised controlled trials have greatly contributed to the fact that both physicians and patients regard regular exercise participation as a highly valuable and effective treatment for mental health disorders. Nevertheless, little is known about the adherence to physical activity recommendations for patients with stress-related mental problems in a clinical setting. Knowledge about what can be achieved within the clinical context, and how current treatments can be improved, is crucial for clinicians, researchers, educators, managers and policy makers involved in nursing practice. Longitudinal analysis of patient cohort data. The sample consisted of 169 patients (79% women; mean age = 42·7 years) who were referred to a stress clinic due to stress-related exhaustion. All patients received multimodal treatment with similar components. Two different approaches to promote exercise were used in the clinical work (general comprehensive instruction either with or without an 18-week coached exercise programme). The self-reported overall exercise level was assessed at baseline and at three, six and 12 months after the first visit. Group by time effects were examined with repeated measures analyses of variance. The frequency, duration and intensity of exercise increased substantially during the first three months of multimodal treatment. Although exercise levels tended to decrease thereafter, there was still a significant time effect at the 12-month follow-up showing that follow-up exercise levels were higher than at baseline. Both general exercise instructions and coached exercise were effective in promoting exercise involvement. Exercise can be successfully promoted as a part of multimodal treatment in patients with stress-related exhaustion. © 2015 John

  15. Steerable Hopping Six-Legged Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younse, Paulo; Aghazarian, Hrand

    2010-01-01

    The figure depicts selected aspects of a six-legged robot that moves by hopping and that can be steered in the sense that it can be launched into a hop in a controllable direction. This is a prototype of hopping robots being developed for use in scientific exploration of rough terrain on remote planets that have surface gravitation less than that of Earth. Hopping robots could also be used on Earth, albeit at diminished hopping distances associated with the greater Earth gravitation. The upper end of each leg is connected through two universal joints to an upper and a lower hexagonal frame, such that the tilt of the leg depends on the relative position of the two frames. Two non-back-driveable worm-gear motor drives are used to control the relative position of the two frames along two axes 120 apart, thereby controlling the common tilt of all six legs and thereby, further, controlling the direction of hopping. Each leg includes an upper and a lower aluminum frame segment with a joint between them. A fiberglass spring, connected via hinges to both segments, is used to store hopping energy prior to launch into a hop and to cushion the landing at the end of the hop. A cable for loading the spring is run into each leg through the center of the universal joints and then down along the center lines of the segments to the lower end of the leg. A central spool actuated by a motor with a harmonic drive and an electromagnetic clutch winds in all six cables to compress all six springs (thereby also flexing all six legs) simultaneously. To ensure that all the legs push off and land in the same direction, timing- belt pulley drives are attached to the leg segments, restricting the flexing and extension of all six legs to a common linear motion. In preparation for a hop, the spool can be driven to load the spring legs by an amount corresponding to a desired hop distance within range. The amount of compression can be computed from the reading of a shaft-angle encoder that

  16. Chiropractic management of patients with bilateral congenital hip dislocation with chronic low back and leg pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Francisco

    2004-05-01

    To discuss conservative methods for treating patients with chronic low back and leg pain associated with the biomechanical and postural alterations related to bilateral congenital hip dislocation. This report describes the cases of 2 adult female subjects with bilateral congenital hip dislocation without acetabula formation who suffered from chronic low back and leg pain managed conservatively by chiropractic methods. The first subject is a 45-year-old woman with a 9-month history of right buttock pain and radiating right leg pain and paresthesia down to the first 2 toes, with a diagnosis of a herniated L4 intervertebral disk. The second subject is a 53-year-old woman who complained of chronic intermittent low back pain and constant unremitting pain on her right leg for the last 3 years. Chiropractic manipulation utilizing Logan Basic apex and double notch contacts, as well as sacroiliac manipulation on a drop table with a sacrum contact and with a posterior to anterior and superior to inferior (PA-SI) rocking thrust, together with a spinal stabilization exercise program, were used on these 2 patients. Both patients had significant clinical improvement, with reduction on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) of 67% and 84%, Oswestry Disability Index improvement of 73% and 81%, and an improvement on the Harris hip score of 71% and 44%, respectively. A conservative management approach, including specific chiropractic manipulation and a spinal stabilization exercise program, can help manage the treatment of adult patients with chronic low back and leg pain related to bilateral congenital dislocation of the hips.

  17. Exercise therapy for Stress-related mental disorder, a randomised controlled trial in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donker Marieke

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background to investigate whether a structured physical exercise programme (PEP improves the recovery of general health in patients suffering from Stress-related Mental Disorder (SMD. Method Study design: randomised open trial in general practice. Patients from two regions in the Netherlands were included between September 2003 and December 2005, and followed up for 12 weeks. Intervention: the patients were referred to a physical therapist for instruction in and monitoring of physical exercise of an intermediate intensity. Following the Dutch Guidelines for Healthy Physical Exercise, the patients were instructed to exercise at least five times a week, for at least 30 minutes per day. Control group: usual care from the GP Outcome Primary: improvement of general health after 6 weeks according to the 'general health' dimension of the Short-Form 36. Secondary: total days off work, percentage that resumed work after 6 and 12 weeks, change in distress score and change in remaining SF36 dimensions after 6 and 12 weeks. Results out of 102 randomised patients (mean age 43, 60 (59% female, 70 (68% completed the trial, of whom 31 were in the intervention group. After 6 weeks, the mean (SD general health score was 54.6 (22.1 for the intervention group and 57.5 (19.2 for the controls. The corresponding effect size (Cohen's d with 95% confidence interval from analysis of covariance was -0.06 (-0.41, 0.30 indicating no effect on general health. No significant effects of the intervention were detected for any secondary outcome parameter either. Conclusion Notwithstanding the relatively high drop-out rate, our results suggest that referral to a physical therapist for structured physical exercise is not likely to be very effective in improving recovery from SMD. Trial registry Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN15609105

  18. Regulation of human skeletal muscle perfusion and its heterogeneity during exercise in moderate hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinonen, Ilkka H; Kemppainen, Jukka; Kaskinoro, Kimmo

    2010-01-01

    inhibition had no effect on capillary BF during exercise in either normoxia or hypoxia. Finally, one-leg exercise increased muscle BF heterogeneity both in the resting posterior hamstring part of the exercising leg and in the resting contralateral leg, whereas mean BF was unchanged. In conclusion...

  19. Restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateshiah, Saiprakash B; Ioachimescu, Octavian C

    2015-07-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a common sensorimotor disorder characterized by an urge to move, and associated with uncomfortable sensations in the legs (limbs). Restless legs syndrome can lead to sleep-onset or sleep-maintenance insomnia, and occasionally excessive daytime sleepiness, all leading to significant morbidity. Brain iron deficiency and dopaminergic neurotransmission abnormalities play a central role in the pathogenesis of this disorder, along with other nondopaminergic systems, although the exact mechanisms are still. Intensive care unit patients are especially vulnerable to have unmasking or exacerbation of restless legs syndrome because of sleep deprivation, circadian rhythm disturbance, immobilization, iron deficiency, and use of multiple medications that can antagonize dopamine. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Arterial bypass leg - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... presentations/100155.htm Arterial bypass leg - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  1. Leg CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the body area, called slices. These images can be stored, viewed on a monitor, or printed on film. Three-dimensional (3D) models of the leg can ...

  2. Therapeutic potential of eccentric exercises for age-related muscle atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Young Lim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have focused on evidence-based interventions to prevent mobility decline and enhance physical performance in older adults. Several modalities, in addition to traditional strengthening programs, have been designed to manage age-related functional decline more effectively. In this study, we reviewed the current relevant literatures to assess the therapeutic potential of eccentric exercises for age-related muscle atrophy (sarcopenia. Age-related changes in human skeletal muscle, and their relationship with physical performance, are discussed with reference to in vitro physiologic and human biomechanics studies. An overview of issues relevant to sarcopenia is provided in the context of the recent consensus on the diagnosis and management of the condition. A decline in mobility among the aging population is closely linked with changes in the muscle force–velocity relationship. Interventions based specifically on increasing velocity and eccentric strength can improve function more effectively compared with traditional strengthening programs. Eccentric strengthening programs are introduced as a specific method for improving both muscle force and velocity. To be more effective, exercise interventions for older adults should focus on enhancing the muscle force–velocity relationship. Exercises that can be performed easily, and that utilize eccentric strength (which is relatively spared during the aging process, are needed to improve both muscle force and velocity.

  3. Common causes of lower leg pain an Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Pešková, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    An exercise-induced leg pain resulting from chronic overloading is a common condition affecting physically active population. This bachelor thesis gives an overview of recent knowledge in differential diagnosis of a chronic lower leg pain. Theoretic aspects deal with three main conditions with the highest incidence, including stress fractures, medial tibial stress syndrome and chronic exertional compartment syndrome. Particular chapters describe the difference in the epidemiology, aetiology, ...

  4. Perceptions of issues relating to exercise and joint health in rheumatoid arthritis: a UK-based questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Rebecca-Jane; Markland, David A; Jones, Jeremy G; Maddison, Peter J; Thom, Jeanette M

    2013-09-01

    This questionnaire study investigated the perceptions of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients across the UK in relation to exercise and joint health. The validity of the measure was also assessed. Members of the National Rheumatoid Arthritis Society (NRAS) with self-reported RA completed the questionnaire online. Items related to five factors that emerged from previous qualitative research. Participants responded using a five-point Likert-style scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) assessed physical activity. The model was tested using confirmatory factor analysis (LISREL 8.8); statistical analyses were conducted using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). A total of 247 responses were collected over 47 days (88% females; age: 18-77 years; disease duration: Health professionals show exercise knowledge' (19%); 'Knowing what exercise should be done' (43%); 'Having to exercise because it is helpful' (72%); 'Worry about causing harm to joints' (44%); and 'Not wanting to exercise as joints hurt' (52%). Patient concerns about joint pain, joint harm and how to exercise were significantly associated with lower physical activity (p exercise as beneficial. However, concerns about how to exercise, joint pain, causing harm to joints and a perceived lack of exercise knowledge among health professionals remain. Addressing these concerns may have implications for increasing physical activity within the RA population. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Eating habits, obesity related behaviors, and effects of Danhak exercise in elderly Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ae Wha; Kim, Jong Hyun; Shin, Dong Joo; Choi, Dal Woong; Park, Soo Jin; Kang, Nam-E; Kim, Young Soon

    2010-08-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate obesity-related dietary behaviors and to determine long-term exercise effects on obesity and blood lipid profiles in elderly Korean subjects. A total of 120 subjects, aged 60-75 yr, were recruited, and obesity-related dietary behaviors were determined. An exercise intervention was conducted with 35 qualified elderly females for 6 months, and body composition and blood lipids were measured 6 times at 4 week intervals. At baseline, mean BMI (kg/m(2)) was 24.8 for males and 23.1 for females. The females had better eating habits than the males and were more concerned with reading nutrition labels on food products (P stress-relief (18.9%), and depression (13.2%). In conclusion, elderly females had better eating habits and were more concerned with nutrition information and healthy diets compared to elderly males. However, misperceptions of weight and obesity-related stress tended to be very high in females who were overweight and obese, which can be a barrier to maintain normal weight. Long-term Danhak practice, a traditional Korean exercise, was effective at reducing body fat (%) and abdominal obesity, and improved lipid profiles, self-confidence, and stress.

  6. Health-related quality of life, handgrip strength and falls during detraining in elderly habitual exercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esain, Izaro; Rodriguez-Larrad, Ana; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Gil, Susana María

    2017-11-21

    The effects of regular exercise on physical functioning and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) have been thoroughly studied. In contrast, little is known about the changes which occur following cessation of activity (detraining). Here, we have investigated the effect of a 3 month detraining period on HRQOL and on handgrip strength in elderly people who had regularly exercised, and examined the association of these variables with falls. Thirty-eight women and 11 men (mean age, 75.5±5.7 years) took part in a supervised physical exercise program for 9 months, followed by a 3 month detraining period. Participants completed the SF-36 HRQOL questionnaire at the beginning of detraining (baseline) and 3 months later. Handgrip strength and number of falls were also recorded. Participants had been exercising for 12.1±8.7 years. After the detraining period, we found a significant (p detraining period, 18.4% participants had a fall incident. HRQOL declined in both fallers and non-fallers during detraining. Interestingly, fallers already had at baseline significantly lower values in physical functioning (p detraining period, particularly in women. In contrast, strength of the upper limb was not affected by the detraining. The prior lower HRQOL values of those who will subsequently fall suggest that this criterion should be studied as a candidate risk factor for falls. Efforts should be made to encourage the elderly to continue with exercise activities and/or to shorten holiday break periods, in order to maintain their quality of life. The protocol was registered as a clinical trial in the ANZCTR (trial ID: ACTRN12617000716369 ).

  7. The interplay between aerobic metabolism and antipredator performance: vigilance is related to recovery rate after exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Steven Killen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available When attacked by a predator, fish respond with a sudden fast-start motion away from the threat. Although this anaerobically-powered swimming necessitates a recovery phase which is fuelled aerobically, little is known about links between escape performance and aerobic traits such as aerobic scope or recovery time after exhaustive exercise. Slower recovery ability or a reduced aerobic scope could make some individuals less likely to engage in a fast-start response or display reduced performance. Conversely, increased vigilance in some individuals could permit faster responses to an attack but also increase energy demand and prolong recovery after anaerobic exercise. We examined how aerobic scope and the ability to recover from anaerobic exercise relates to differences in fast-start escape performance in juvenile golden grey mullet at different acclimation temperatures. Individuals were acclimated to either 18, 22, or 26oC, then measured for standard and maximal metabolic rates and aerobic scope using intermittent flow respirometry. Anaerobic capacity and the time taken to recover after exercise were also assessed. Each fish was also filmed during a simulated attack to determine response latency, maximum speed and acceleration, and turning rate displayed during the escape response. Across temperatures, individuals with shorter response latencies during a simulated attack are those with the longest recovery time after exhaustive anaerobic exercise. Because a short response latency implies high preparedness to escape, these results highlight the trade-off between the increased vigilance and metabolic demand, which leads to longer recovery times in fast reactors. These results improve our understanding of the intrinsic physiological traits that generate inter-individual variability in escape ability, and emphasise that a full appreciation of trade-offs associated with predator avoidance and energy balance must include energetic costs associated with

  8. Relation between contemplative exercises and an enriched psychology students' experience in a neuroscience course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levit Binnun, Nava; Tarrasch, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relation of contemplative exercises with enhancement of students' experience during neuroscience studies. Short contemplative exercises inspired by the Buddhist tradition of self-inquiry were introduced in an undergraduate neuroscience course for psychology students. At the start of the class, all students were asked to participate in short “personal brain investigations” relevant to the topic presented. These investigations were aimed at bringing stable awareness to a specific perceptual, emotional, attentional, or cognitive process and observing it in a non-judgmental, non-personal way. In addition, students could choose to participate, for bonus credit, in a longer exercise designed to expand upon the weekly class activity. In the exercise, students continued their “personal brain investigations” for 10 min a day, 4 days a week. They wrote “lab reports” on their daily observations, obtained feedback from the teacher, and at the end of the year reviewed their reports and reflected upon their experiences during the semester. Out of 265 students, 102 students completed the bonus track and their final reflections were analyzed using qualitative methodology. In addition, 91 of the students answered a survey at the end of the course, 43 students participated in a quiz 1 year after course graduation, and the final grades of all students were collected and analyzed. Overall, students reported satisfaction from the exercises and felt they contributed to their learning experience. In the 1-year follow-up, the bonus-track students were significantly more likely than their peers to remember class material. The qualitative analysis of bonus-track students' reports revealed that the bonus-track process elicited positive feelings, helped students connect with class material and provided them with personal insights. In addition, students acquired contemplative skills, such as increased awareness and attention, non-judgmental attitudes, and

  9. Cortical spectral activity and connectivity during active and viewed arm and leg movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eKline

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Active and viewed limb movement activate many similar neural pathways, however, to date most comparison studies have focused on subjects making small, discrete movements of the hands and feet. The purpose of this study was to determine if high-density electroencephalography (EEG could detect differences in cortical activity and connectivity during active and viewed rhythmic arm and leg movements in humans. Our primary hypothesis was that we would detect similar but weaker electrocortical spectral fluctuations and effective connectivity fluctuations during viewed limb exercise compared to active limb exercise due to the similarities in neural recruitment. A secondary hypothesis was that we would record stronger cortical spectral fluctuations for arm exercise compared to leg exercise, because rhythmic arm exercise would be more dependent on supraspinal control than rhythmic leg exercise. We recorded EEG data while ten young healthy subjects exercised on a recumbent stepper with: 1 both arms and legs, 2 just legs, and 3 just arms. Subjects also viewed video playback of themselves or another individual performing the same exercises. We performed independent component analysis, dipole fitting, spectral analysis, and effective connectivity analysis on the data. Cortical areas comprising the premotor and supplementary motor cortex, the anterior cingulate, the posterior cingulate, and the parietal cortex exhibited significant spectral fluctuations during rhythmic limb exercise. These fluctuations tended to be greater for the arms exercise conditions than for the legs only exercise condition, which suggests that human rhythmic arm movements are under stronger cortical control than rhythmic leg movements. We did not find consistent spectral fluctuations in these areas during the viewed conditions, but effective connectivity fluctuated at harmonics of the exercise frequency during both active and viewed rhythmic limb exercise. The right premotor and

  10. Cortical Spectral Activity and Connectivity during Active and Viewed Arm and Leg Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Julia E; Huang, Helen J; Snyder, Kristine L; Ferris, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    Active and viewed limb movement activate many similar neural pathways, however, to date most comparison studies have focused on subjects making small, discrete movements of the hands and feet. The purpose of this study was to determine if high-density electroencephalography (EEG) could detect differences in cortical activity and connectivity during active and viewed rhythmic arm and leg movements in humans. Our primary hypothesis was that we would detect similar but weaker electrocortical spectral fluctuations and effective connectivity fluctuations during viewed limb exercise compared to active limb exercise due to the similarities in neural recruitment. A secondary hypothesis was that we would record stronger cortical spectral fluctuations for arm exercise compared to leg exercise, because rhythmic arm exercise would be more dependent on supraspinal control than rhythmic leg exercise. We recorded EEG data while ten young healthy subjects exercised on a recumbent stepper with: (1) both arms and legs, (2) just legs, and (3) just arms. Subjects also viewed video playback of themselves or another individual performing the same exercises. We performed independent component analysis, dipole fitting, spectral analysis, and effective connectivity analysis on the data. Cortical areas comprising the premotor and supplementary motor cortex, the anterior cingulate, the posterior cingulate, and the parietal cortex exhibited significant spectral fluctuations during rhythmic limb exercise. These fluctuations tended to be greater for the arms exercise conditions than for the legs only exercise condition, which suggests that human rhythmic arm movements are under stronger cortical control than rhythmic leg movements. We did not find consistent spectral fluctuations in these areas during the viewed conditions, but effective connectivity fluctuated at harmonics of the exercise frequency during both active and viewed rhythmic limb exercise. The right premotor and supplementary motor

  11. Restless legs syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovallath S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sujith Ovallath, P DeepaJames Parkinson's Movement Disorder Research Centre, Kannur Medical College, Kerala, IndiaBackground: Restless legs syndrome (RLS is a common sleep-related disorder characterized by abnormal sensation and an urge to move the lower limbs. Symptoms occur at rest in the evening or at night, and they are alleviated by moving the affected extremity or by walking. Although the exact etiopathogenesis of RLS remains elusive, the rapid improvement of symptoms with dopaminergic agents suggests that dopaminergic system dysfunction may be a basic mechanism. Dopaminergic agents are the best-studied agents, and are considered first-line treatment of RLS.Objective: To review the diagnostic criteria, clinical features, etiopathogenesis, and the treatment options of RLS.Methods: The suggestions are based on evidence from studies published in peer-reviewed journals, or upon a comprehensive review of the medical literature.Results/conclusion: Extensive data are available for proving the link between the dopaminergic system and RLS. A possible genetic link also has been studied extensively. Dopamine agonists, especially pramipexole and ropinirole, are particularly useful in the treatment of RLS. Pharmacological treatment should however be limited to those patients who suffer from clinically relevant RLS with impaired sleep quality or quality of life.Keywords: dopamine, levodopa, pramipexole

  12. Microgravity, Mesh-Crawling Legged Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Alberto; Marzwell, Neville; Matthews, Jaret; Richardson, Krandalyn; Wall, Jonathan; Poole, Michael; Foor, David; Rodgers, Damian

    2008-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and microgravity flight-testing are part of a continuing development of palm-sized mobile robots that resemble spiders (except that they have six legs apiece, whereas a spider has eight legs). Denoted SpiderBots (see figure), they are prototypes of proposed product line of relatively inexpensive walking robots that could be deployed in large numbers to function cooperatively in construction, repair, exploration, search, and rescue activities in connection with exploration of outer space and remote planets.

  13. Physical exercise in overweight to obese individuals induces metabolic- and neurotrophic-related structural brain plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten eMueller

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous cross-sectional studies on body-weight-related alterations in brain structure revealed profound changes in the gray matter (GM and white matter (WM that resemble findings obtained from individuals with advancing age. This suggests that obesity may lead to structural brain changes that are comparable with brain aging. Here, we asked whether weight-loss-dependent improved metabolic and neurotrophic functioning parallels the reversal of obesity-related alterations in brain structure. To this end we applied magnetic resonance imaging together with voxel-based morphometry and diffusion-tensor imaging in overweight to obese individuals who participated in a fitness course with intensive physical training three days per week over a period of three months. After the fitness course, participants presented, with inter-individual heterogeneity, a reduced body mass index (BMI, reduced serum leptin concentrations, elevated high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, and alterations of serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF concentrations suggesting changes of metabolic and neurotrophic function. Exercise-dependent changes in BMI and serum concentration of BDNF, leptin, and HDL-C were related to an increase in GM density in the left hippocampus, the insular cortex, and the left cerebellar lobule. We also observed exercise-dependent changes of diffusivity parameters in surrounding WM structures as well as in the corpus callosum. These findings suggest that weight-loss due to physical exercise in overweight to obese participants induces profound structural brain plasticity, not primarily of sensorimotor brain regions involved in physical exercise, but of regions previously reported to be structurally affected by an increased body weight and functionally implemented in gustation and cognitive processing.

  14. Physical exercise in overweight to obese individuals induces metabolic- and neurotrophic-related structural brain plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Karsten; Möller, Harald E; Horstmann, Annette; Busse, Franziska; Lepsien, Jöran; Blüher, Matthias; Stumvoll, Michael; Villringer, Arno; Pleger, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    Previous cross-sectional studies on body-weight-related alterations in brain structure revealed profound changes in the gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) that resemble findings obtained from individuals with advancing age. This suggests that obesity may lead to structural brain changes that are comparable with brain aging. Here, we asked whether weight-loss-dependent improved metabolic and neurotrophic functioning parallels the reversal of obesity-related alterations in brain structure. To this end we applied magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) together with voxel-based morphometry and diffusion-tensor imaging in overweight to obese individuals who participated in a fitness course with intensive physical training twice a week over a period of 3 months. After the fitness course, participants presented, with inter-individual heterogeneity, a reduced body mass index (BMI), reduced serum leptin concentrations, elevated high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and alterations of serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations suggesting changes of metabolic and neurotrophic function. Exercise-dependent changes in BMI and serum concentration of BDNF, leptin, and HDL-C were related to an increase in GM density in the left hippocampus, the insular cortex, and the left cerebellar lobule. We also observed exercise-dependent changes of diffusivity parameters in surrounding WM structures as well as in the corpus callosum. These findings suggest that weight-loss due to physical exercise in overweight to obese participants induces profound structural brain plasticity, not primarily of sensorimotor brain regions involved in physical exercise, but of regions previously reported to be structurally affected by an increased body weight and functionally implemented in gustation and cognitive processing.

  15. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Exercise for Those With Cancer-Related Lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ben; Disipio, Tracey; Peake, Jonathan; Hayes, Sandra C

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of exercise on cancer-related lymphedema and related symptoms, and to determine the need for those with lymphedema to wear compression during exercise. CINAHL, Cochrane, EBSCOhost, MEDLINE, PubMed, ProQuest Health and Medical Complete, ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health Source, ScienceDirect, and SPORTDiscus databases were searched for trials published before January 1, 2015. Randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials and single-group pre-post studies published in English were included. Twenty-one (exercise) and 4 (compression and exercise) studies met inclusion criteria. Data were extracted into tabular format using predefined data fields by 1 reviewer and assessed for accuracy by a second reviewer. Study quality was evaluated using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool. Data were pooled using a random-effects model to assess the effects of acute and long-term exercise on lymphedema and lymphedema-associated symptoms, with subgroup analyses for exercise mode and intervention length. There was no effect of exercise (acute or intervention) on lymphedema or associated symptoms, with standardized mean differences from all analyses ranging between -0.2 and 0.1 (P values ≥.22). Findings from subgroup analyses for exercise mode (aerobic, resistance, mixed, other) and intervention duration (>12wk or ≤12wk) were consistent with these findings-that is, no effect on lymphedema or associated symptoms. There were too few studies evaluating the effect of compression during regular exercise to conduct a meta-analysis. Individuals with secondary lymphedema can safely participate in progressive, regular exercise without experiencing a worsening of lymphedema or related symptoms. However, there is insufficient evidence to support or refute the current clinical recommendation to wear compression garments during regular exercise. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc

  16. The Effectiveness of EMLA as a Primary Dressing on Painful Chronic Leg Ulcers: Effects on Wound Healing and Health-Related Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Anne; Buckley, Thomas; Fethney, Judith; King, Jennie; Moyle, Wendy; Marshall, Andrea P

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of EMLA 5% cream applied to painful chronic leg ulcers (CLUs) as a primary dressing on wound healing and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). A pilot, parallel-group, nonblinded, randomized controlled trial was conducted in 6 community nursing procedure clinics in New South Wales, Australia. A total of 60 participants with painful CLUs of varied etiology were randomly assigned to the intervention (EMLA daily for 4 weeks as a primary dressing, followed by usual care) or usual care only. Wound size and HRQoL were measured at baseline, end of the intervention period (week 4), and week 12. At baseline, wound sizes were similar for both the intervention and control groups. During the intervention period, there was no significant difference in wound sizes between groups (intervention group: median (cm(2)) = 2.4, IQR = 1.3-12.7; control group: median (cm(2)) = 5.0, IQR = 2.5-9.9; P = .05). Mean HRQoL scores for all subscales at baseline and weeks 4 and 12 were similar between groups except for Wellbeing, which was significantly higher in the intervention group at the end of the 4-week intervention period (intervention group: mean = 52.41, SD = 24.50; control group: mean = 38.15, SD = 21.25; P = .03; d = 0.62). The trial findings suggest that daily applications of EMLA as a primary dressing do not inhibit wound healing and may improve patient well-being. Studies with larger samples are required to more comprehensively evaluate the impact of this treatment on wound healing and HRQoL.

  17. Nisin Z produced by Lactococcus lactis from bullfrog hatchery is active against Citrobacter freundii, a red-leg syndrome related pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Gabriel; Niederle, Maria V; Minahk, Carlos J; Picariello, Gianluca; Nader-Macías, María E F; Pasteris, Sergio E

    2017-09-27

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CRL 1584 isolated from a bullfrog hatchery produces a bacteriocin that inhibits both indigenous Citrobacter freundii (a Red-Leg Syndrome related pathogen) and Lactobacillus plantarum, and Listeria monocytogenes as well. Considering that probiotics requires high cell densities and/or bacteriocin concentrations, the effect of the temperature on L. lactis growth and bacteriocin production was evaluated to find the optimal conditions. Thus, the growth rate was maximal at 36 °C, whereas the highest biomass and bacteriocin activity was achieved between 20 and 30 °C and 20-25 °C, respectively. The bacteriocin synthesis was closely growth associated reaching the maximal values at the end of the exponential phase. Since bacteriocins co-production has been evidenced in bacterial genera, a purification of the bacteriocin/s from L. lactis culture supernatants was carried out. The active fraction was purified by cationic-exchange chromatography and then, a RP-HPLC was carried out. The purified sample was a peptide with a 3353.05 Da, a molecular mass that matches nisin Z, which turned out to be the only bacteriocin produced by L. lactis CRL 1584. Nisin Z showed bactericidal effect on C. freundii and L. monocytogenes, which increased in the presence L-lactic acid + H2O2. This is the first report on nisin Z production by L. lactis from a bullfrog hatchery that resulted active on a Gram-negative pathogen. This peptide has potential probiotic for raniculture and as food biopreservative for bullfrog meat.

  18. The effect of a running task on muscle shear elastic modulus of posterior lower leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohya, Shuhei; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Aoki, Takafumi; Suzuki, Daichi; Kikumoto, Takanori; Nakamura, Emi; Ito, Wataru; Hirabayashi, Ryo; Takabayashi, Tomoya; Edama, Mutsuaki

    2017-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is one of the most common causes of exercise-related leg pain in runners. Because stopping training due to pain from MTSS could decrease the athlete's competitiveness, it is necessary to construct MTSS prevention and treatment programs. However, the effect of running, which is believed to cause MTSS, on shear elastic modulus of the posterior lower leg is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 30 min of running on shear elastic modulus of the posterior lower leg in healthy subjects. Twenty healthy males volunteered to participate in this study (age, 20.9 ± 0.6 y; height, 169.6 ± 4.5 cm; weight, 62.6 ± 5.2 kg). The shear elastic modulus of the posterior lower leg was measured using ultrasonic shear wave elastography before and immediately after a 30-min running task. Shear elastic moduli of the flexor digitorum longus and tibialis posterior were significantly increased after 30 min running task. However, there were no significant changes in shear elastic moduli of the lateral gastrocnemius, medial gastrocnemius, peroneus longus and peroneus brevis. The results suggested that the increases in shear elastic moduli of flexor digitorum longus and tibialis posterior after running could be a risk factor for running-related MTSS development.

  19. Strength training and older women: a cross-sectional study examining factors related to exercise adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Rebecca A; Economos, Christina D; Palombo, Ruth; Hyatt, Raymond; Kuder, Julia; Nelson, Miriam E

    2010-04-01

    Despite the recognized health benefits, few older women participate in strength-training exercises. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to older women's adherence to strength training after participation in the StrongWomen Program, a nationally disseminated community program. Adherence was defined as > or =4 months of twice-weekly strength training. Surveys were sent to 970 program participants from 23 states and to participants' corresponding program leaders. Five-hundred fifty-seven participants responded (57%). Of respondents who completed surveys (527), 79% (415) adhered to strength training; adherers reported a mean of 14.1 +/- 9.1 months of strength training. Logistic-regression analysis revealed that exercise adherence was positively associated with age (p = .001), higher lifetime physical activity levels (p = .045), better perceived health (p = .003), leader's sports participation (p = .028), and leader's prior experience leading programs (p = .006). These data lend insight to factors that may be related to exercise adherence among midlife and older women.

  20. Exercise-training in young Drosophila melanogaster reduces age-related decline in mobility and cardiac performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Piazza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Declining mobility is a major concern, as well as a major source of health care costs, among the elderly population. Lack of mobility is a primary cause of entry into managed care facilities, and a contributing factor to the frequency of damaging falls. Exercise-based therapies have shown great promise in sustaining mobility in elderly patients, as well as in rodent models. However, the genetic basis of the changing physiological responses to exercise during aging is not well understood. Here, we describe the first exercise-training paradigm in an invertebrate genetic model system. Flies are exercised by a mechanized platform, known as the Power Tower, that rapidly, repeatedly, induces their innate instinct for negative geotaxis. When young flies are subjected to a carefully controlled, ramped paradigm of exercise-training, they display significant reduction in age-related decline in mobility and cardiac performance. Fly lines with improved mitochondrial efficiency display some of the phenotypes observed in wild-type exercised flies. The exercise response in flies is influenced by the amount of protein and lipid, but not carbohydrate, in the diet. The development of an exercise-training model in Drosophila melanogaster opens the way to direct testing of single-gene based genetic therapies for improved mobility in aged animals, as well as unbiased genetic screens for loci involved in the changing response to exercise during aging.

  1. Effects of leg muscle botulinum toxin A injections on walking in children with spasticity-related cerebral palsy: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryll, U.; Bastiaenen, C.; Bie, R. de; Staal, B.

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To assess treatment effects of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) on walking of children with leg spasticity due to cerebral palsy (CP) compared with usual care. METHOD: We systematically searched the databases CINAHL, Cochrane, PEDro, EMBASE, and PubMed from July 1993 until July 2009 and

  2. Leg muscle mass and composition in relation to lower extremity performance in men and women aged 70 to 79 : the health, aging and body composition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Marjolein; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Goodpaster, Bret H; Newman, Anne B; Nevitt, Michael; Stamm, Elizabeth; Harris, Tamara B

    OBJECTIVES: The loss of muscle mass with aging, or sarcopenia, is hypothesized to be associated with the deterioration of physical function. Our aim was to determine whether low leg muscle mass and greater fat infiltration in the muscle were associated with poor lower extremity performance (LEP).

  3. COMPRESSION GARMENTS AND RECOVERY FROM ECCENTRIC EXERCISE: A 31P-MRS STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael I. Trenell

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The low oxidative demand and muscular adaptations accompanying eccentric exercise hold benefits for both healthy and clinical populations. Compression garments have been suggested to reduce muscle damage and maintain muscle function. This study investigated whether compression garments could benefit metabolic recovery from eccentric exercise. Following 30-min of downhill walking participants wore compression garments on one leg (COMP, the other leg was used as an internal, untreated control (CONT. The muscle metabolites phosphomonoester (PME, phosphodiester (PDE, phosphocreatine (PCr, inorganic phosphate (Pi and adenosine triphosphate (ATP were evaluated at baseline, 1-h and 48-h after eccentric exercise using 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Subjective reports of muscle soreness were recorded at all time points. The pressure of the garment against the thigh was assessed at 1-h and 48-h following exercise. There was a significant increase in perceived muscle soreness from baseline in both the control (CONT and compression (COMP leg at 1-h and 48-h following eccentric exercise (p < 0.05. Relative to baseline, both CONT and COMP showed reduced pH at 1-h (p < 0.05. There was no difference between CONT and COMP pH at 1-h. COMP legs exhibited significantly (p < 0.05 elevated skeletal muscle PDE 1-h following exercise. There was no significant change in PCr/Pi, Mg2+ or PME at any time point or between CONT and COMP legs. Eccentric exercise causes disruption of pH control in skeletal muscle but does not cause disruption to cellular control of free energy. Compression garments may alter potential indices of the repair processes accompanying structural damage to the skeletal muscle following eccentric exercise allowing a faster cellular repair

  4. Light-load resistance exercise increases muscle protein synthesis and hypertrophy signaling in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Jakob; Bülow, Jacob; Jensen, Jacob K

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The present study investigated whether well-tolerated light-load resistance exercise (LL-RE) affects skeletal muscle fractional synthetic rate (FSR) and anabolic intracellular signaling as a way to counteract age-related loss of muscle mass. METHODS: Untrained healthy men (age: +65...... and 12g whey protein at 7 hours post-exercise; N=10) or placebo (4g maltodextrin/hour; N=10). Quadriceps muscle biopsies were taken at 0, 3, 7 and 10 hours post-exercise from both the resting and exercised leg. Myofibrillar-FSR and activity of select targets from the mTORC1-signalling cascade were...

  5. Impact of exercise with TheraBite device on trismus and health-related quality of life: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, Charlotte; Finizia, Caterina; Pauli, Nina; Fagerberg-Mohlin, Bodil; Andréll, Paulin

    2017-01-01

    Trismus is a common symptom in patients with head and neck cancer that affects many aspects of daily life negatively. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of structured exercise with the jaw-mobilizing device TheraBite on trismus, trismus-related symptomatology, and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with head and neck cancer. Fifteen patients with trismus (maximum interincisal opening [MIO] ≤35 mm) after oncologic treatment for head and neck cancer, underwent a 10-week exercise program with the TheraBite device and were followed regularly. Time between oncologic treatment and start of TheraBite exercise ranged from 0.7 to 14.8 years (average 6.2 years). MIO, trismus-related symptoms, and HRQL was assessed before and after exercise and after 6 months. A significant improvement in MIO was observed post-exercise (3.5 mm, 15.3%, p = 0.0002) and after 6-month of follow-up (4.7 mm, 22.1%, p = 0.0029). A statistically significant correlation was found between increased MIO and fewer trismus-related symptoms. In conclusion, exercise with TheraBite improved MIO and trismus-related symptoms in patients with trismus secondary to head and neck cancer. Structured exercise with the jaw-mobilizing device seems to be beneficial for patients with trismus independent of time since oncologic treatment.

  6. Conservative interventions for treating exercise-related musculotendinous, ligamentous and osseous groin pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Matheus O; Silva, Brenda N G; Andriolo, Régis B; Atallah, Alvaro N; Peccin, Maria S

    2013-06-06

    Musculoskeletal, ligamentous and osseous groin injuries are common in athletes and may result in a delay of several months to resume sports. Even then, this may not be at the former level of sport activity. The treatment of exercise-related groin pain is mainly conservative (non-surgical), using interventions such as exercises, electrotherapy, manual therapy and steroid injections. To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of conservative interventions for treating exercise-related musculotendinous, ligamentous and osseous groin pain. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (December 2011); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 4); MEDLINE (1948 to November week 3 2011); EMBASE (1980 to Week 49 2011); CINAHL (1982 to December 2011); LILACS (1982 to December 2011); PEDro (1929 to December 2011), SPORTDiscus (1985 to December 2011), OTseeker (to December 2011), reference lists of papers and conference proceedings (2000 to 2011). Randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized controlled trials evaluating conservative interventions for treating exercise-related musculotendinous, ligamentous and osseous groin pain were included. Studies comparing conservative with surgical treatments were excluded. Two review authors independently extracted data and conducted risk of bias assessments. There was no pooling of data. Two studies, involving a total of 122 participants who had experienced adductor-related groin pain for at least two months, were included in this review. All but one of the participants were male athletes aged between 18 and 50 years old. Both studies were assessed as 'high risk of bias' for at least one source of bias domain. The 'successful treatment' outcome reported in both studies was based primarily on pain measures.One study, based on an intention-to-treat analysis, found a significant difference favouring exercise therapy (strengthening with an

  7. Approach to leg edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Pomero

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Edema is defined as a palpable swelling caused by an increase in interstitial fluid volume. Leg edema is a common problem with a wide range of possible causes and is the result of an imbalance in the filtration system between the capillary and interstitial spaces. Major causes of edema include venous obstruction, increased capillary permeability and increased plasma volume secondary to sodium and water retention. In both hospital and general practice, the patient with a swollen leg presents a common dilemma in diagnosis and treatment. The cause may be trivial or life-threatening and it is often difficult to determine the clinical pathway. The diagnosis can be narrowed by categorizing the edema according to its duration, distribution (unilateral or bilateral and accompanying symptoms. This work provides clinically oriented recommendations for the management of leg edema in adults.

  8. Compromised Agency: The Case of BabyLegs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Liboiron

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of agency is ubiquitous in STS, particularly regarding cases of alternative ways of knowing and doing science such as civic, citizen, and feminist sciences, among others. Yet the focus on agency often glosses over the constraints placed on agents, particularly within asymmetrical power relations. This article follows the case of BabyLegs, a do-it-yourself monitoring tool for marine microplastic pollution, and the attempt to keep the technology open source within an intellectual property (IP system set up to privatize it. The tactics used to design BabyLegs as a feminine, silly, doll-tool to discredit the device in the eyes of an IP system that valued traditional gender roles lead to the eventual success of keeping the device open source. Yet, those same tactics also reinforced and reproduced the structures of power and essentialism they were designed to resist. I characterize this technological ambivalence as compromise, and argue that all agency exercised within asymmetrical power relations is compromised. This is not to say resistance is futile, but that agency is never pure, and this recognition lets us be more intentional in how we might compromise as practitioners of diverse scientific knowledges.

  9. Effects of Exercise Interventions and Physical Activity Behavior on Cancer Related Cognitive Impairments: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Zimmer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review analyzes current data on effects of exercise interventions and physical activity behavior on objective and subjective cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI. Out of the 19 studies which met all inclusion criteria, five RCTs investigated rodents, whereas the other 14 trials explored humans and these included six RCTs, one controlled trial, two prospective noncontrolled trials, one case series, one observational study, and three cross-sectional studies. The results from animal models revealed positive effects of exercise during and after chemotherapy or radiation on structural alterations of the central nervous system, physiological as well as neuropsychological outcomes. The overall study quality in patient studies was poor. The current data on intervention studies showed preliminary positive effects of Asian-influenced movement programs (e.g., Yoga with benefits on self-perceived cognitive functions as well as a reduction of chronic inflammation for breast cancer patients in the aftercare. Exercise potentially contributes to the prevention and rehabilitation of CRCI. Additional RCTs with standardized neuropsychological assessments and controlling for potential confounders are needed to confirm and expand preliminary findings.

  10. Effort Thrombosis of the Upper Extremities Related to an Arm Stretching Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey-Wen Liang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available “Effort” axillary-subclavian vein thrombosis (Paget-Schroetter syndrome is an uncommon deep venous thrombosis due to repetitive activity of the upper limbs. Most cases of this condition are related to strenuous or prolonged sport or occupational activities, while others are associated with endogenous or exogenous risk factors. We report the case of a 43-year-old, previously healthy, male who developed right axillary-subclavian venous thrombosis, which was possibly associated with an exercise involving arm extension and shaking in a posture of shoulder abduction and outstretched for 10 minutes on 2 consecutive days. The condition improved but returned with increased severity when he resumed the exercise after a 2-day break, when he presented with a swollen and bluish arm at the emergency department. Sonographic examination showed moderate thrombotic stenosis of the right axillary vein. Effort thrombosis was diagnosed after ruling out associated coagulopathy or concomitant malignancy. External compression of the accessory ribs or lymph nodes were not detected. He was treated with low molecular weight heparin, followed by oral anticoagulant therapy for 6 months. Only partial resolution of thrombosis was achieved after 6 months of anticoagulant therapy, but pulmonary embolism did not occur during 18 months of follow-up. This case illustrates that, although unusual, Paget-Schroetter syndrome can occur in a healthy patient as a result of mild to moderate exercise.

  11. Leg 179 summary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pettigrew, T.J.; Casey, J.F.; Miller, D.J.; Araki, E.; Boissonnas, R.; Busby, R.; Einaudi, F.; Gerdom, M.; Guo, Z.P.; Hopkins, H.; Myers, G.; Rao, D.G.; Shibata, T.; Thy, P.

    Pettigrew, T.L., Casey, J.F., Miller, D.J., et al., 1999 Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Initial Reports Volume 179 1. LEG 179 SUMMARY 1 Shipboard Scientific Party 2 ABSTRACT Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 179 set out with two primary objectives... a hole, then simultaneously deepen that hole and stabilize its walls with casing. This system is an adaptation of pneu- matically driven drilling systems that have successfully drilled in envi- ronments not unlike those that present our greatest...

  12. Hemoglobinopathies and Leg Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Kirsner, Robert S

    2015-09-01

    Major hemoglobinopathies, including sickle cell anemia, are becoming a global health issue. Leg ulcers are the most common cutaneous manifestation of sickle cell disease and an important contributor to morbidity burden in this population. Leg ulcers following sickling disorders are extremely painful, and hard to heal. The clinical evidence for the optimal management of these ulcers is limited. Treating the cause and the strategies to prevent sickling are the mainstay of treatment. The basic principles of wound bed preparation and compression therapy is beneficial in these patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Impact of exercise capacity on dyspnea and health-related quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Frølich, Anne; Godtfredsen, Nina S

    2012-01-01

    To assess the impact of the amount of exercise training during pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) program for improvements in dyspnea and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)....

  14. Stair descending exercise using a novel automatic escalator: effects on muscle performance and health-related parameters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paschalis, Vassilis; Theodorou, Anastasios A; Panayiotou, George; Kyparos, Antonios; Patikas, Dimitrios; Grivas, Gerasimos V; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2013-01-01

    .... The aim of the present investigation was to compare the effect of two repeated sessions of stair descending versus stair ascending exercise on muscle performance and health-related parameters in young healthy men...

  15. Running for exercise mitigates age-related deterioration of walking economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Justus D; Beck, Owen N; Roby, Jaclyn M; Turney, Aria L; Kram, Rodger

    2014-01-01

    Impaired walking performance is a key predictor of morbidity among older adults. A distinctive characteristic of impaired walking performance among older adults is a greater metabolic cost (worse economy) compared to young adults. However, older adults who consistently run have been shown to retain a similar running economy as young runners. Unfortunately, those running studies did not measure the metabolic cost of walking. Thus, it is unclear if running exercise can prevent the deterioration of walking economy. To determine if and how regular walking vs. running exercise affects the economy of locomotion in older adults. 15 older adults (69 ± 3 years) who walk ≥ 30 min, 3x/week for exercise, "walkers" and 15 older adults (69 ± 5 years) who run ≥ 30 min, 3x/week, "runners" walked on a force-instrumented treadmill at three speeds (0.75, 1.25, and 1.75 m/s). We determined walking economy using expired gas analysis and walking mechanics via ground reaction forces during the last 2 minutes of each 5 minute trial. We compared walking economy between the two groups and to non-aerobically trained young and older adults from a prior study. Older runners had a 7-10% better walking economy than older walkers over the range of speeds tested (p = .016) and had walking economy similar to young sedentary adults over a similar range of speeds (p =  .237). We found no substantial biomechanical differences between older walkers and runners. In contrast to older runners, older walkers had similar walking economy as older sedentary adults (p =  .461) and ∼ 26% worse walking economy than young adults (peconomy whereas walking for exercise appears to have minimal effect on the age-related deterioration in walking economy.

  16. Unsupervised exercise in survivors of human papillomavirus related head and neck cancer: how many can go it alone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauml, Joshua; Kim, Jiyoung; Zhang, Xiaochen; Aggarwal, Charu; Cohen, Roger B; Schmitz, Kathryn

    2017-08-01

    Patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck cancer (HNC) have a better prognosis relative to other types of HNC, making survivorship an emerging and critical issue. Exercise is a core component of survivorship care, but little is known about how many survivors of HPV-related HNC can safely be advised to start exercising on their own, as opposed to needing further evaluation or supervised exercise. We utilized guidelines to identify health issues that would indicate value of further evaluation prior to being safely prescribed unsupervised exercise. We performed a retrospective chart review of 150 patients with HPV-related HNC to assess health issues 6 months after completing definitive therapy. Patients with at least one health issue were deemed appropriate to receive further evaluation prior to prescription for unsupervised exercise. We utilized logistic regression to identify clinical and demographic factors associated with the need for further evaluation, likely performed by outpatient rehabilitation clinicians. In this cohort of patients, 39.3% could safely be prescribed unsupervised exercise 6 months after completing definitive therapy. On multivariable regression, older age, BMI >30, and receipt of radiation were associated with an increased likelihood for requiring further evaluation or supervised exercise. Over half of patients with HPV-related HNC would benefit from referral to physical therapy or an exercise professional for further evaluation to determine the most appropriate level of exercise supervision, based upon current guidelines. Development of such referral systems will be essential to enhance survivorship outcomes for patients who have completed treatment.

  17. Effects of moderate exercise over different phases on age-related physiological dysfunction in testes of SAMP8 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiujun; Bian, Yanqing; Sun, Yichong; Li, Li; Wang, Lixuan; Zhao, Chunfang; Shen, Yongqing; Song, Qingliang; Qu, Yine; Niu, Siyun; Wu, Wenshuang; Gao, Fulu

    2013-09-01

    Oxidative stress and chronic inflammation have been implicated in the testicular aging process. Different types and moderate-intensity of regular exercise may reduce age-related physiological dysfunction associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, but such effects of moderate-intensity of exercise over different phases of life in testes have not been reported. In this study, male SAMP8 mice, a senescence-accelerated strain, were maintained as sedentary (sed) or subjected to daily 15-min periods of swimming exercise between ages of 2-7 months (lifelong), 2-4 months (earlier) or 5-7 months (late). Age-related changes, including serum testosterone levels and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress were analyzed at the end of the experiment. All exercise groups showed significantly greater serum testosterone levels and decreased age-related inflammation and oxidative stress compared with the sedentary group. Exercise also increased expression and activity of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2), a transcriptional regulator of the cellular anti-oxidant system, and decreased expression and activity of nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB), a mediator of inflammatory molecules, in the nucleus of testicular cells. However, lifelong and earlier groups generally showed significantly better protective effects than the late group against age-related physiological dysfunction in testes. Thus, lifelong exercise and earlier phase exercise were most effective in counteracting oxidative stress and inflammation and in preserving testes function through regulation of Nrf2 and NF-κB. These results advocate the benefits of lifelong exercise and emphasize a greater protection against male aging by instituting exercise earlier rather than late in life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Exercise-induced lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue is mainly related to natriuretic peptides in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Cedric; Pillard, Fabien; de Glisezinski, Isabelle; Klimcakova, Eva; Crampes, Francois; Thalamas, Claire; Harant, Isabelle; Marques, Marie-Adeline; Lafontan, Max; Berlan, Michel

    2008-08-01

    Involvement of sympathetic nervous system and natriuretic peptides in the control of exercise-induced lipid mobilization was compared in overweight and lean men. Lipid mobilization was determined using local microdialysis during exercise. Subjects performed 35-min exercise bouts at 60% of their maximal oxygen consumption under placebo or after oral tertatolol [a beta-adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonist]. Under placebo, exercise increased dialysate glycerol concentration (DGC) in both groups. Phentolamine (alpha-AR antagonist) potentiated exercise-induced lipolysis in overweight but not in lean subjects; the alpha(2)-antilipolytic effect was only functional in overweight men. After tertatolol administration, the DGC increased similarly during exercise no matter which was used probe in both groups. Compared with the control probe under placebo, lipolysis was reduced in lean but not in overweight men treated with the beta-AR blocker. Tertatolol reduced plasma nonesterified fatty acids and insulin concentration in both groups at rest. Under placebo or tertatolol, the exercise-induced changes in plasma nonesterified fatty acids, glycerol, and insulin concentrations were similar in both groups. Exercise promoted a higher increase in catecholamine and ANP plasma levels after tertatolol administration. In conclusion, the major finding of our study is that in overweight men, in addition to an increased alpha(2)-antilipolytic effect, the lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue that persists during exercise under beta-blockade is not dependent on catecholamine action. On the basis of correlation findings, it seems to be related to a concomitant exercise-induced rise in plasma ANP when exercise is performed under tertatolol intake and a decrease in plasma insulin.

  19. Knee extensor fatigue threshold is related to whole-body VO2max.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.J.; Maas, E.A; Wesseling, M.G.H.; de Haan, A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Above a given exercise intensity, rapid muscle fatigue will occur. We explored the possibility of assessing torque threshold for peripheral fatigue during single-legged repetitive isometric knee extensor exercise. We hypothesized this fatigue threshold to be related to the general aerobic

  20. The effect of exercise intensity on calf volume and thermoregulatory responses during upper body exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botoms Lindzi M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During upper body exercise the vascular adaptations of the leg have been reported to play an important thermoregulatory role. This study examined the effect of exercise intensity on thermoregulation during upper body exercise. Nine healthy male participants undertook an incremental exercise test on an arm crank ergo meter to determine peak power (Wpeak. The participants performed four experimental trials involving 5 minutes of arm exercise at either 45, 60, 75, or 90% Wpeak (70 rev.min-1 followed by 30 minutes of passive recovery. Aural and skin temperatures, upper arm and calf heat flow were recorded. Calf volume was measured during exercise using plethysmography. During exercise at 45, 60, 75 and 90% Wpeak calf volume decreased (P<0.05 by -0.7±0.8, -1.4±0.9, -1.2±0.6 and -1.6±0.7% respectively. Differences were observed between 45 and 60% Wpeak, and 45 and 90% Wpeak (P<0.05. The results of this study suggest a redistribution of blood from the relatively inactive lower body during arm exercise of intensities up to 60%Wpeak after which point calf volume does not significantly decrease further. Therefore, the redistribution of blood from the inactive lower body does not produce a similar intensity dependent response to visceral blood flow during lower body exercise.

  1. Exercise interventions on health-related quality of life for cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shiraz I; Scherer, Roberta W; Geigle, Paula M; Berlanstein, Debra R; Topaloglu, Ozlem; Gotay, Carolyn C; Snyder, Claire

    2012-08-15

    Cancer survivors experience numerous disease and treatment-related adverse outcomes and poorer health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Exercise interventions are hypothesized to alleviate these adverse outcomes. HRQoL and its domains are important measures for cancer survivorship. To evaluate the effectiveness of exercise on overall HRQoL and HRQoL domains among adult post-treatment cancer survivors. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PEDRO, LILACS, SIGLE, SportDiscus, OTSeeker, and Sociological Abstracts from inception to October 2011 with no language or date restrictions. We also searched citations through Web of Science and Scopus, PubMed's related article feature, and several websites. We reviewed reference lists of included trials and other reviews in the field. We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing exercise interventions with usual care or other nonexercise intervention to assess overall HRQoL or at least one HRQoL domain in adults. Included trials tested exercise interventions that were initiated after completion of active cancer treatment. We excluded trials including people who were terminally ill, or receiving hospice care, or both, and where the majority of trial participants were undergoing active treatment for either the primary or recurrent cancer. Five paired review authors independently extracted information on characteristics of included trials, data on effects of the intervention, and assessed risk of bias based on predefined criteria. Where possible, meta-analyses results were performed for HRQoL and HRQoL domains for the reported difference between baseline values and follow-up values using standardized mean differences (SMD) and a random-effects model by length of follow-up. We also reported the SMDs between mean follow-up values of exercise and control group. Because investigators used many different

  2. Single-leg squats can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements in “turnout”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopper LS

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Luke S Hopper,1 Nahoko Sato,2 Andries L Weidemann1 1Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts, Edith Cowan University, Mt Lawley, WA, Australia; 2Department of Physical Therapy, Nagoya Gakuin University, Seto, Japan Abstract: The physical assessments used in dance injury surveillance programs are often adapted from the sports and exercise domain. Bespoke physical assessments may be required for dance, particularly when ballet movements involve “turning out” or external rotation of the legs beyond that typically used in sports. This study evaluated the ability of the traditional single-leg squat to predict the leg alignment of dancers performing ballet movements with turnout. Three-dimensional kinematic data of dancers performing the single-leg squat and five ballet movements were recorded and analyzed. Reduction of the three-dimensional data into a one-dimensional variable incorporating the ankle, knee, and hip joint center positions provided the strongest predictive model between the single-leg squat and the ballet movements. The single-leg squat can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements, even in “turned out” postures. Clinicians should pay careful attention to observational positioning and rating criteria when assessing dancers performing the single-leg squat. Keywords: injury, motion capture, clinical assessment

  3. Single-leg squats can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements in “turnout”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Luke S; Sato, Nahoko; Weidemann, Andries L

    2016-01-01

    The physical assessments used in dance injury surveillance programs are often adapted from the sports and exercise domain. Bespoke physical assessments may be required for dance, particularly when ballet movements involve “turning out” or external rotation of the legs beyond that typically used in sports. This study evaluated the ability of the traditional single-leg squat to predict the leg alignment of dancers performing ballet movements with turnout. Three-dimensional kinematic data of dancers performing the single-leg squat and five ballet movements were recorded and analyzed. Reduction of the three-dimensional data into a one-dimensional variable incorporating the ankle, knee, and hip joint center positions provided the strongest predictive model between the single-leg squat and the ballet movements. The single-leg squat can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements, even in “turned out” postures. Clinicians should pay careful attention to observational positioning and rating criteria when assessing dancers performing the single-leg squat. PMID:27895518

  4. Increasing trunk flexion transforms human leg function into that of birds despite different leg morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminiaghdam, Soran; Rode, Christian; Müller, Roy; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2017-02-01

    Pronograde trunk orientation in small birds causes prominent intra-limb asymmetries in the leg function. As yet, it is not clear whether these asymmetries induced by the trunk reflect general constraints on the leg function regardless of the specific leg architecture or size of the species. To address this, we instructed 12 human volunteers to walk at a self-selected velocity with four postures: regular erect, or with 30 deg, 50 deg and maximal trunk flexion. In addition, we simulated the axial leg force (along the line connecting hip and centre of pressure) using two simple models: spring and damper in series, and parallel spring and damper. As trunk flexion increases, lower limb joints become more flexed during stance. Similar to birds, the associated posterior shift of the hip relative to the centre of mass leads to a shorter leg at toe-off than at touchdown, and to a flatter angle of attack and a steeper leg angle at toe-off. Furthermore, walking with maximal trunk flexion induces right-skewed vertical and horizontal ground reaction force profiles comparable to those in birds. Interestingly, the spring and damper in series model provides a superior prediction of the axial leg force across trunk-flexed gaits compared with the parallel spring and damper model; in regular erect gait, the damper does not substantially improve the reproduction of the human axial leg force. In conclusion, mimicking the pronograde locomotion of birds by bending the trunk forward in humans causes a leg function similar to that of birds despite the different morphology of the segmented legs. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Relationship between body and leg VO2 during maximal cycle ergometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, D. R.; Poole, D. C.; Schaffartzik, W.; Guy, H. J.; Prediletto, R.; Hogan, M. C.; Wagner, P. D.

    1992-01-01

    It is not known whether the asymptotic behavior of whole body O2 consumption (VO2) at maximal work rates (WR) is explained by similar behavior of VO2 in the exercising legs. To resolve this question, simultaneous measurements of body and leg VO2 were made at submaximal and maximal levels of effort breathing normoxic and hypoxic gases in seven trained male cyclists (maximal VO2, 64.7 +/- 2.7 ml O2.min-1.kg-1), each of whom demonstrated a reproducible VO2-WR asymptote during fatiguing incremental cycle ergometry. Left leg blood flow was measured by constant-infusion thermodilution, and total leg VO2 was calculated as the product of twice leg flow and radial arterial-femoral venous O2 concentration difference. The VO2-WR relationships determined at submaximal WR's were extrapolated to maximal WR as a basis for assessing the body and leg VO2 responses. The differences between measured and extrapolated maximal VO2 were 235 +/- 45 (body) and 203 +/- 70 (leg) ml O2/min (not significantly different). Plateauing of leg VO2 was associated with, and explained by, plateauing of both leg blood flow and O2 extraction and hence of leg VO2. We conclude that the asymptotic behavior of whole body VO2 at maximal WRs is a direct reflection of the VO2 profile at the exercising legs.

  6. Work capacity, exercise responses and body composition of professional pilots in relation to age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeppky, J A; Luft, U C

    1989-11-01

    Body composition and submaximal and maximal cardiorespiratory responses during a progressive upright bicycle ergometer test were measured in 410 professional male pilots, aged 20 to 68 years, and divided into four groups (30, 39, 49, and 59 years). Fat-free weight by hydrostatic weighing was not significantly different between groups and fat increased linearly with age, while height was lower and weight levelled off in the oldest group. Aerobic work capacity (VO2max) fell at a rate of 0.25 ml.min-1.kg-1 per year in this unique population of healthy, but generally sedentary men. A subgroup of 10 pilots, tested annually from age 31 to 47, demonstrated a reversal of the age-related decline in VO2max. This was attributable to regular physical activity, short of athletic training, and changes in personal health habits stimulated by self-assessment available from the repeated tests incorporated into the medical prevention program. These data considered in relation to more recent reports of stroke volume during similar maximal exercise protocols suggest that VO2max is limited during aging by a reduction in tissue diffusing capacity or increased maldistribution of perfusion in relation to O2 uptake in muscle and this can be partially prevented by training. Reference standards for heart rate, blood pressure and ventilation during submaximal and maximal exercise levels are presented in relation to energy requirements and work intensity at various ages.

  7. Relative Humidity of 40% Inhibiting the Increase of Pulse Rate, Body Temperature, and Blood Lactic Acid During Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengah Sandi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excessive sweating of the body is a reaction to decrease the heat caused by prolonged exercise at high relative humidity (RH. This situation may cause an increase in pulse rate (PR, body temperature (BT, and blood lactic acid (BLA workout. Objective: This study aimed to prove that a RH of 40% better than a RH of 50% and 60% RH in inhibiting the increase of PR, BT, and BLA during exercise. Methods: The study was conducted on 54 samples randomly selected from the IKIP PGRI Bali students. The samples were divided into three groups, and each group was given cycling exercise with a load of 80 Watt for 2 x 30 minutes with rest between sets for five minutes. Group-1 of cycling at 40% of RH, Group-2 at a RH of 50%, and the Group-3 at a RH of 60%. Data PR, BT, and BLA taken before and during exercise. The mean difference between groups before and during exercise were analyzed by One-way Anova and a further test used Least Significant Difference (LSD. Significance used was α = 0.05. Results: The mean of PR during exercise was significantly different between groups with p = 0.045, the mean of BT during exercises was significantly different between groups with p = 0.006, and the mean of BLA during exercises was significantly different between groups with p = 0.005 (p <0.05. Also found that PR, BT, and BLA during exercise at 40% RH was lower than 50% RH and 60% RH (p <0.05. Conclusion: Thus, the RH of 40% was better than RH of 50% and 60 % in inhibiting the increase of PR, BT, and BLA during exercise. Therefore, when practiced in a closed room is expected at 40% relative humidity.

  8. The Effects of Combined Exercise on Health-Related Fitness, Endotoxin, and Immune Function of Postmenopausal Women with Abdominal Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Mo; Kwak, Yi-Sub; Ji, Jin-Goo

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of combined exercise on health-related fitness, endotoxin concentrations, and immune functions of postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity. 20 voluntary participants were recruited and they were randomly allocated to the combined exercise group (n = 10) or the control group (n = 10). Visceral obesity was defined as a visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio ≥ 0.4 based on computed tomography (CT) results. Body composition, exercise stress testing, fitness measurement, CT scan, and blood variables were analyzed to elucidate the effects of combined exercise. The SPSS Statistics 18.0 program was used to calculate means and standard deviations for all variables. Significant differences between the exercise group and control group were determined with 2-way ANOVA and paired t-tests. The exercise group's abdominal obesity was mitigated due to visceral fat reduction; grip strength, push-ups, and oxygen uptake per weight improved; and HDL-C and IgA level also increased, while TNF-α, CD14, and endotoxin levels decreased. Lowered TNF-α after exercise might have an important role in the obesity reduction. Therefore, we can conclude that combined exercise is effective in mitigating abdominal obesity, preventing metabolic diseases, and enhancing immune function.

  9. Lying times of lactating cows on dairy farms with automatic milking systems and the relation to lameness, leg lesions, and body condition score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westin, R; Vaughan, A; de Passillé, A M; DeVries, T J; Pajor, E A; Pellerin, D; Siegford, J M; Vasseur, E; Rushen, J

    2016-01-01

    Lying down and resting are important for optimal cow health, welfare, and production. In comparison with free stall farms with a milking parlor, farms with automated milking systems (AMS) may place less constraint on how long cows can lie down. However, few studies report lying times on AMS farms. The aims of this study were to describe the variation in lying times of dairy cows in AMS farms and to understand how much of the variation in individual lying times is related to cow-level factors, including lameness, the presence of hock and knee lesions, and body condition score (BCS). We visited 36 farms in Canada (Quebec: n = 10; Ontario: n = 10; British Columbia: n = 4; and Alberta: n = 5), and the United States (Michigan: n = 7). Gait scores, presence of hock and knee lesions, and BCS were recorded for 40 Holstein cows from each herd. Parity and days in milk were retrieved from farm records. Lying time was recorded across 4d using accelerometers (n = 1,377). Multivariable analysis was performed. Of scored cows, 15.1% were lame (i.e., obviously limping; 203 of 1,348 cows). Knee lesions were found in 27.1% (340 of 1,256 cows) and hock lesions were found in 30.8% (421 of 1,366 cows) of the animals. Daily lying time varied among cows. Cows spent a median duration of 11.4 h/d lying down (25th-75th percentile = 9.7-12.9 h), with a lying bout frequency of 9.5 bouts/d (25th-75th percentile = 7.5-12 bouts/d) and a median bout duration of 71 min (25th-75th percentile = 58-87 min/bout). Lameness was associated with cows lying down for 0.6 h/d longer in fewer, longer bouts. Increased lying time was also associated with increased parity, later stage of lactation and higher BCS. Older cows (parity ≥ 3) spent about 0.5 h/d more lying down compared with parity 1 cows, and cows with BCS ≥ 3.5 lay down on average 1 h/d longer than cows with BCS ≤ 2.25. Hock lesions were associated with shorter lying times in univariable models, but no associations were found in the

  10. The mangled lower leg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, Jochem Maarten

    2002-01-01

    A surgeon faced with a patient presenting with an open tibial/fibular fracture in combination with severe damage of the surrounding soft tissues, has to make the difficult decision whether to attempt salvage or to perform an immediate amputation of the leg. Until late in the nineteenth century the

  11. Effects of Long-Term Exercise on Age-Related Hearing Loss in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chul; Ding, Dalian; Lopez, Maria-Cecilia; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Zhang, Yanping; Kim, Mi-Jung; Park, Hyo-Jin; White, Karessa; Kim, Yong Hwan; Linser, Paul; Tanokura, Masaru; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Baker, Henry V; Salvi, Richard J; Someya, Shinichi

    2016-11-02

    Regular physical exercise reduces the risk for obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and disability and is associated with longer lifespan expectancy (Taylor et al., 2004; Pahor et al., 2014; Anton et al., 2015; Arem et al., 2015). In contrast, decreased physical function is associated with hearing loss among older adults (Li et al., 2013; Chen et al., 2015). Here, we investigated the effects of long-term voluntary wheel running (WR) on age-related hearing loss (AHL) in CBA/CaJ mice, a well established model of AHL (Zheng et al., 1999). WR activity peaked at 6 months of age (12,280 m/d) and gradually decreased over time. At 24 months of age, the average WR distance was 3987 m/d. Twenty-four-month-old runners had less cochlear hair cell and spiral ganglion neuron loss and better auditory brainstem response thresholds at the low and middle frequencies compared with age-matched, non-WR controls. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of inner ear tissues from 6-month-old controls and runners revealed that WR resulted in a marked enrichment for GO gene sets associated with immune response, inflammatory response, vascular function, and apoptosis. In agreement with these results, there was reduced stria vascularis (SV) atrophy and reduced loss of capillaries in the SV of old runners versus old controls. Given that SV holds numerous capillaries that are essential for transporting oxygen and nutrients into the cochlea, our findings suggest that long-term exercise delays the progression of AHL by reducing age-related loss of strial capillaries associated with inflammation. Nearly two-thirds of adults aged 70 years or older develop significant age-related hearing loss (AHL), a condition that can lead to social isolation and major communication difficulties. AHL is also associated with decreased physical function among older adults. In the current study, we show that regular exercise slowed AHL and cochlear degeneration significantly in a well established murine model. Our data

  12. Effects of Long-Term Exercise on Age-Related Hearing Loss in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Chul; Ding, Dalian; Lopez, Maria-Cecilia; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Zhang, Yanping; Kim, Mi-Jung; Park, Hyo-Jin; White, Karessa; Kim, Yong Hwan; Linser, Paul; Tanokura, Masaru; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Baker, Henry V.; Salvi, Richard J.; Someya, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Regular physical exercise reduces the risk for obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and disability and is associated with longer lifespan expectancy (Taylor et al., 2004; Pahor et al., 2014; Anton et al., 2015; Arem et al., 2015). In contrast, decreased physical function is associated with hearing loss among older adults (Li et al., 2013; Chen et al., 2015). Here, we investigated the effects of long-term voluntary wheel running (WR) on age-related hearing loss (AHL) in CBA/CaJ mice, a well estab...

  13. [Exercise for prevention of osteoporosis and other lifestyle-related diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takao

    2011-05-01

    The prevalence of lifestyle-related diseases including hypertension, dyslipidemia (hyperlipidemia) and diabetes increases with aging, and all these conditions are risk factors of arteriosclerotic diseases such as cerebrovascular event (stroke) and myocardial infarction. The term "metabolic domino" has been used to describe the collective concept of the development and progression of these lifestyle-related diseases, the sequence of events, and the progression process of complications. Like the first tile of a domino toppling game, undesirable lifestyle such as overeating and underexercising first triggers obesity, and is followed in succession by onset of an insulin resistance state (underlied by a genetic background indigenous to Japanese) , hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and further postprandial hyperglycemia (the pre-diabetic state) , the so-called metabolic syndrome, at around the same time. On the other hand, apart from the other lifestyle-related diseases, the prevalence of osteoporosis also increases rapidly accompanying aging. Osteoporosis is known to be strongly related to disorders due to the metabolic domino such as arteriosclerosis and vascular calcification, and a new disease category called "osteo-vascular interaction" has attracted attention recently. Regarding "osteo-vascular interaction" , a close relation between bone density loss or osteoporotic changes and vascular lesion-associated lifestyle-related diseases such as hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes has been reported. Therefore, as a common preventive factor for bone mass loss or osteoporosis and lifestyle-related diseases including hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes (osteo-vascular interaction) , exercise has been recognized anew as an important non-pharmaceutical therapy that should take top priority. This article overviews the evidence of exercise therapy for the prevention of osteoporosis and other lifestyle-related diseases, from the viewpoint of health promotion, especially of

  14. Muscle strength and exercise intensity adaptation to resistance training in older women with knee osteoarthritis and total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To analyze muscle strength and exercise intensity adaptation to resistance training in older women with knee osteoarthritis and total knee arthroplasty. METHODS: Twenty-three community-dwelling women were divided into the following groups: older, with knee osteoarthritis and total knee arthroplasty in the contralateral limb (OKG; N= 7; older, without symptomatic osteoarthritis (OG; N= 8; and young and healthy (YG; N= 8. Muscle strength (1-repetition maximum strength test and exercise intensity progression (workload increases of 5%-10% were made whenever adaptation occurred were compared before and after 13 weeks of a twice-weekly progressive resistance-training program. RESULTS: At baseline, OKG subjects displayed lower muscle strength than those in both the OG and YG. Among OKG subjects, baseline muscle strength was lower in the osteoarthritic leg than in the total arthroplasty leg. Muscle strength improved significantly during follow-up in all groups; however, greater increases were observed in the osteoarthritic leg than in the total knee arthroplasty leg in OKG subjects. Greater increases were also seen in the osteoarthritic leg of OKG than in OG and YG. The greater muscle strength increase in the osteoarthritic leg reduced the interleg difference in muscle strength in OKG subjects, and resulted in similar posttraining muscle strength between OKG and OG in two of the three exercises analyzed. Greater exercise intensity progression was also observed in OKG subjects than in both OG and YG subjects. CONCLUSIONS: OKG subjects displayed greater relative muscle strength increases (osteoarthritic leg than subjects in the YG, and greater relative exercise intensity progression than subjects in both OG and YG. These results suggest that resistance training is an effective method to counteract the lower-extremity strength deficits reported in older women with knee osteoarthritis and total knee arthroplasty.

  15. Vibration-related extrusion of capillary blood from the calf musculature depends upon directions of vibration of the leg and of the gravity vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakar, Halil Ibrahim; Doğan, Serfiraz; Kara, Sadık; Rittweger, Jörn; Rawer, Rainer; Zange, Jochen

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of vibration of the whole lower leg on the content and the oxygenation of hemoglobin in the unloaded relaxed lateral gastrocnemius muscle. Vibration was applied orthogonal to and in parallel with leg axis to examine whether the extrusion of blood depends on an alignment of main vessel direction, axis of vibration and gravity. The blood volume in the muscles was altered by horizontal and 30° upright body posture. Fifteen male subjects were exposed to 4 sets of experiments with both vibration directions and both tilt angles applied in permutated order. The absence of voluntary muscular activity and the potential occurrence of compound action potentials by stretch reflexes were monitored using electromyography. Total hemoglobin and tissue saturation index were measured with near infrared spectroscopy. Changes of lower leg circumference were measured with strain gauge system placed around the calf. Vibration caused decrease in tHb and increase in TSI indicating extrusion of predominantly venous blood from the muscle. In 30° tilted position, muscles contained more blood at baseline and vibration ejected more blood from the muscle compared with horizontal posture (p vibration was applied in parallel with the length axis of muscle. It is concluded that the vibration extrudes more blood in 30° head up posture and the vibration applied in parallel with the length axis of the muscle is more effective than orthogonal vibration.

  16. Absolute and relative reliability of acute effects of aerobic exercise on executive function in seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Donath

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging is accompanied by a decline of executive function. Aerobic exercise training induces moderate improvements of cognitive domains (i.e., attention, processing, executive function, memory in seniors. Most conclusive data are obtained from studies with dementia or cognitive impairment. Confident detection of exercise training effects requires adequate between-day reliability and low day-to-day variability obtained from acute studies, respectively. These absolute and relative reliability measures have not yet been examined for a single aerobic training session in seniors. Methods Twenty-two healthy and physically active seniors (age: 69 ± 3 y, BMI: 24.8 ± 2.2, VO2peak: 32 ± 6 mL/kg/bodyweight were enrolled in this randomized controlled cross-over study. A repeated between-day comparison [i.e., day 1 (habituation vs. day 2 & day 2 vs. day 3] of executive function testing (Eriksen-Flanker-Test, Stroop-Color-Test, Digit-Span, Five-Point-Test before and after aerobic cycling exercise at 70% of the heart rate reserve [0.7 × (HRmax – HRrest] was conducted. Reliability measures were calculated for pre, post and change scores. Results Large between-day differences between day 1 and 2 were found for reaction times (Flanker- and Stroop Color testing and completed figures (Five-Point test at pre and post testing (0.002 < p < 0.05, 0.16 < ɳp 2 < 0.38. These differences notably declined when comparing day 2 and 3. Absolute between days variability (CoV dropped from 10 to 5% when comparing day 2 vs. day 3 instead of day 1 vs. day 2. Also ICC ranges increased from day 1 vs. day 2 (0.65 < ICC < 0.87 to day 2 vs. day 3 (0.40 < ICC < 0.93. Interestingly, reliability measures for pre-post change scores were low (0.02 < ICC < 0.71. These data did not improve when comparing day 2 with day 3. During inhibition tests, reaction times showed excellent reliability values compared to the poor to fair reliability of

  17. Exploring enhanced menu labels' influence on fast food selections and exercise-related attitudes, perceptions, and intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Morgan S; Thompson, Joel Kevin

    2016-10-01

    Labeling restaurant menus with calorie counts is a popular public health intervention, but research shows these labels have small, inconsistent effects on behavior. Supplementing calorie counts with physical activity equivalents may produce stronger results, but few studies of these enhanced labels have been conducted, and the labels' potential to influence exercise-related outcomes remains unexplored. This online study evaluated the impact of no information, calories-only, and calories plus equivalent miles of walking labels on fast food item selection and exercise-related attitudes, perceptions, and intentions. Participants (N = 643) were randomly assigned to a labeling condition and completed a menu ordering task followed by measures of exercise-related outcomes. The labels had little effect on ordering behavior, with no significant differences in total calories ordered and counterintuitive increases in calories ordered in the two informational conditions in some item categories. The labels also had little impact on the exercise-related outcomes, though participants in the two informational conditions perceived exercise as less enjoyable than did participants in the no information condition, and trends following the same pattern were found for other exercise-related outcomes. The present findings concur with literature demonstrating small, inconsistent effects of current menu labeling strategies and suggest that alternatives such as traffic light systems should be explored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Situational bandwidth and the criterion-related validity of assessment center ratings: is cross-exercise convergence always desirable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Andrew B; Christiansen, Neil D; Goffin, Richard D; Goff, Maynard

    2014-03-01

    This research examines the relationship between the construct and criterion-related validity of assessment centers (ACs) based on how convergence of dimension ratings across AC exercises affects their ability to predict managerial performance. According to traditional multitrait-multimethod perspective, a high degree of convergence represents more reliable measurement and has the potential for better validity. In contrast, the concept of situational bandwidth suggests that behavior assessed under a dissimilar set of circumstances should result in a more comprehensive assessment of a candidate's tendencies even though ratings are less likely to show high convergence. To test these opposing viewpoints, data from 3 operational ACs were obtained along with experts' evaluations of exercise characteristics and supervisors' ratings of candidates' managerial performance. Across the 3 samples, AC ratings taken from exercises with dissimilar demands had higher estimates of criterion-related validity than ratings taken from similar exercises, even though the same dimension-different exercise correlations were substantially higher between similar exercises. Composites of ratings high in convergence did not emerge as better predictors of managerial performance, and validity particularly suffered when derived from ratings that converged as a result of exercises with similar demands. Implications for AC design are discussed.

  19. Effect of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function: an event-related cortical desynchronization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Chu, Chien-Heng; Wang, Chun-Chih; Song, Tai-Fen; Wei, Gao-Xia

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effects of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function using the Stroop test and event-related desynchronization (ERD) in an aged population. Old adults (63.10 ± 2.89 years) were first assigned to either a high-fitness or a low-fitness group, and they were then subjected to an acute exercise treatment and a reading control treatment in a counterbalanced order. Alpha ERD was recorded during the Stroop test, which was administered after both treatments. Acute exercise improved cognitive performance regardless of the level of cognition, and old adults with higher fitness levels received greater benefits from acute exercise. Additionally, acute exercise, rather than overall fitness, elicited greater lower and upper alpha ERDs relative to the control condition. These findings indirectly suggest that the beneficial effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance may result from exercise-induced attentional control observed during frontal neural excitation. © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  20. Existe déficit bilateral na realização de 10RM em exercícios de braços e pernas? ¿Hay déficit bilateral al realizar 10RM en ejercicios de brazos y piernas? Is there bilateral deficit in the practice of 10RM in arm and leg exercises?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walace David Monteiro

    2006-06-01

    bilateral en los ejercicios seleccionados. El análisis estadístico fue realizado por el test t-Student pareado, para verificar la existencia de diferencia entre los miembros, bien como la suma de los dos miembros por separado en relación al trabajo realizado bilateralmente. Para todos los procedimientos se consideró como grado de significancia p Resistance exercises can be done uni or bilaterally. Depending on the way by which the movement is conducted, the presence of bilateral deficit (BD is observed. BD studies have concentrated their effort on the investigation of the phenomenon in exercises done with one single maximum repetition and little is known about their behavior in exercises with many repetitions. The aims of this study were: a to compare the load in 10 repetition maximum (10RM in the different sides of the body in exercises done with arms and legs. b To compare the sum of the unilateral actions with the bilateral results in the same exercises. Twenty trained women between 18 and 30 years old (24 ± 6 were evaluated in uni and bilateral 10RM test in the selected exercises. The statistics analysis was t-test paired, to verify the difference between limbs and the sum of the two limbs separately in relation to bilateral load. Significance level was p < 0.05 for all procedures. No difference was found in the manipulated loads in both members, the same not occurring with the sum of unilateral load compared to bilateral. This demonstrates that the practice of bilateral work in routine situation of training involving 10RM promotes a greater manipulation of load in relation to unilateral work, differently from what is seen in BD in 1RM. In conclusion, at least in the selected exercises, BD was not found. Future studies should be done for better understanding of the BD phenomenon during training routine.

  1. Brain Network Modularity Predicts Exercise-Related Executive Function Gains in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline L. Baniqued

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent work suggests that the brain can be conceptualized as a network comprised of groups of sub-networks or modules. The extent of segregation between modules can be quantified with a modularity metric, where networks with high modularity have dense connections within modules and sparser connections between modules. Previous work has shown that higher modularity predicts greater improvements after cognitive training in patients with traumatic brain injury and in healthy older and young adults. It is not known, however, whether modularity can also predict cognitive gains after a physical exercise intervention. Here, we quantified modularity in older adults (N = 128, mean age = 64.74 who underwent one of the following interventions for 6 months (NCT01472744 on ClinicalTrials.gov: (1 aerobic exercise in the form of brisk walking (Walk, (2 aerobic exercise in the form of brisk walking plus nutritional supplement (Walk+, (3 stretching, strengthening and stability (SSS, or (4 dance instruction. After the intervention, the Walk, Walk+ and SSS groups showed gains in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, with larger effects in both walking groups compared to the SSS and Dance groups. The Walk, Walk+ and SSS groups also improved in executive function (EF as measured by reasoning, working memory, and task-switching tests. In the Walk, Walk+, and SSS groups that improved in EF, higher baseline modularity was positively related to EF gains, even after controlling for age, in-scanner motion and baseline EF. No relationship between modularity and EF gains was observed in the Dance group, which did not show training-related gains in CRF or EF control. These results are consistent with previous studies demonstrating that individuals with a more modular brain network organization are more responsive to cognitive training. These findings suggest that the predictive power of modularity may be generalizable across interventions aimed to enhance aspects of cognition and

  2. Exercise and NSAIDs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Susanne Germann; Miller, Ben F; Hansen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine muscle and tendon protein fractional synthesis rates (FSR) at rest and after a one-legged kicking exercise in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) receiving either placebo or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).......The purpose of this study was to determine muscle and tendon protein fractional synthesis rates (FSR) at rest and after a one-legged kicking exercise in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) receiving either placebo or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)....

  3. The diurnal patterns of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone in relation to intense aerobic exercise in recreationally trained soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labsy, Z; Prieur, F; Le Panse, B; Do, M C; Gagey, O; Lasne, F; Collomp, K

    2013-03-01

    Diurnal patterns of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion, the two main peripheral secretory products of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal neuroendocrine stress axis, have been well characterized in rest conditions but not in relation to physical exercise. The purpose of this investigation was therefore to determine the effects of an intense 90-min aerobic exercise on the waking diurnal cortisol and DHEA cycles on three separate days [without exercise, with morning exercise (10:00-11:30 h), and with afternoon exercise (14:00-15:30 h)] in nine recreationally trained soccer players. Saliva samples were collected at awakening, 30 min after awakening, and then every 2 h from 08:00 to 22:00 h. A burst of secretory activity was found for cortisol (p DHEA after awakening. Overall, diurnal decline for both adrenal steroids was observed on resting and exercise days under all conditions. However, there was a significant increase in salivary cortisol concentrations on the morning-exercise and afternoon-exercise days at, respectively, 12:00 h (p DHEA. The results of this investigation indicate that 90 min of intense aerobic exercise does not affect the circadian pattern of salivary adrenal steroids in recreationally trained athletes over a 16-h waking period, despite a transitory increase in post-exercise cortisol concentration. Further studies are necessary to determine whether these results are applicable to elite athletes or patients with cortisol or DHEA deficiency.

  4. Effects of Physical Exercise Combined with Nutritional Supplements on Aging Brain Related Structures and Functions: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schättin, Alexandra; Baur, Kilian; Stutz, Jan; Wolf, Peter; de Bruin, Eling D

    2016-01-01

    Age-related decline in gray and white brain matter goes together with cognitive depletion. To influence cognitive functioning in elderly, several types of physical exercise and nutritional intervention have been performed. This paper systematically reviews the potential additive and complementary effects of nutrition/nutritional supplements and physical exercise on cognition. The search strategy was developed for EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, and PsycInfo databases and focused on the research question: "Is the combination of physical exercise with nutrition/nutritional supplementation more effective than nutrition/nutritional supplementation or physical exercise alone in effecting on brain structure, metabolism, and/or function?" Both mammalian and human studies were included. In humans, randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of nutrition/nutritional supplements and physical exercise on cognitive functioning and associated parameters in healthy elderly (>65 years) were included. The systematic search included English and German language literature without any limitation of publication date. The search strategy yielded a total of 3129 references of which 67 studies met the inclusion criteria; 43 human and 24 mammalian, mainly rodent, studies. Three out of 43 human studies investigated a nutrition/physical exercise combination and reported no additive effects. In rodent studies, additive effects were found for docosahexaenoic acid supplementation when combined with physical exercise. Although feasible combinations of physical exercise/nutritional supplements are available for influencing the brain, only a few studies evaluated which possible combinations of nutrition/nutritional supplementation and physical exercise might have an effect on brain structure, metabolism and/or function. The reason for no clear effects of combinatory approaches in humans might be explained by the misfit between the combinations of nutritional methods with

  5. Epilepsy and restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, James D; Geyer, Emery E; Fetterman, Zachary; Carney, Paul R

    2017-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological movement disorder occurring in approximately 10% of the general population. The prevalence of moderately severe RLS is 2.7% overall (3.7% for women and 1.7% for men). Epilepsy is also a common neurological disorder with significant associated morbidity and impact on quality of life. We evaluated the severity and frequency of primary RLS in patients with localization-related temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and investigated the role of prodromal RLS symptoms as a warning sign and lateralizing indicator. All epilepsy patients seen in the outpatient clinic were screened for movement disorders from 2005 to 2015. Ninety-eight consecutive patients with localization-related TLE (50 right TLE and 48 left TLE) who met inclusion criteria were seen in the outpatient clinic. The control group consisted of 50 individuals with no history or immediate family history of epilepsy. Each patient was evaluated with the International Restless Legs Study Group (IRLSSG) questionnaire, NIH RLS diagnostic criteria, ferritin level, and comprehensive sleep screening including polysomnography. Furthermore, patients with obstructive sleep apnea or a definite cause of secondary restless legs syndrome such as low serum ferritin or serum iron levels were also excluded from the study. There was a significant association between the type of epilepsy and whether or not patients had RLS χ 2 (1)=10.17, pepilepsy than if they had left temporal epilepsy, serving as a potential lateralizing indicator. A prodromal sensation of worsening RLS occurred in some patients providing the opportunity to intervene at an earlier stage in this subgroup. We identified frequent moderate to severe RLS in patients with epilepsy. The frequency of RLS was much more common than would typically be seen in patients of similar age. The restlessness was typically described as moderately severe. The RLS symptoms were more common and somewhat more severe in the right TLE group

  6. Aerobic exercise training in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease related fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Melissa A; Sheldon, Ryan D; Meers, Grace M; Ortinau, Laura C; Morris, E Matthew; Booth, Frank W; Kanaley, Jill A; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Sowers, James R; Ibdah, Jamal A; Thyfault, John P; Laughlin, M Harold; Rector, R Scott

    2016-09-15

    Physiologically relevant rodent models of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) that resemble the human condition are limited. Exercise training and energy restriction are first-line recommendations for the treatment of NASH. Hyperphagic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats fed a western diet high in fat, sucrose and cholesterol for 24 weeks developed a severe NASH with fibrosis phenotype. Moderate intensity exercise training and modest energy restriction provided some improvement in the histological features of NASH that coincided with alterations in markers of hepatic stellate cell activation and extracellular matrix remodelling. The present study highlights the importance of lifestyle modification, including exercise training and energy restriction, in the regulation of advanced liver disease. The incidence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is rising but the efficacy of lifestyle modifications to improve NASH-related outcomes remain unclear. We hypothesized that a western diet (WD) would induce NASH in the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat and that lifestyle modification would improve this condition. Eight-week-old Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (L) and OLETF (O) rats consumed a control diet (10% kcal fat, 3.5% sucrose) or a WD (45% kcal fat, 17% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) for 24 weeks. At 20 weeks of age, additional WD-fed OLETFs were randomized to sedentary (O-SED), food restriction (O-FR; ∼25% kcal reduction vs. O-SED) or exercise training (O-EX; treadmill running 20 m min(-1) with a 15% incline, 60 min day(-1) , 5 days week(-1) ) conditions for 12 weeks. WD induced a NASH phenotype in OLETFs characterized by hepatic fibrosis (collagen 1α1 mRNA and hydroxyproline content), as well as elevated inflammation and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity scores, and hepatic stellate cell activation (α-smooth muscle actin) compared to Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats. FR and EX modestly improved NASH-related fibrosis markers (FR

  7. Aerobic exercise training in the treatment of non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease related fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Melissa A.; Sheldon, Ryan D.; Meers, Grace M.; Ortinau, Laura C.; Morris, E. Matthew; Booth, Frank W.; Kanaley, Jill A.; Vieira‐Potter, Victoria J.; Sowers, James R.; Ibdah, Jamal A.; Thyfault, John P.; Laughlin, M. Harold

    2016-01-01

    Key points Physiologically relevant rodent models of non‐alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) that resemble the human condition are limited.Exercise training and energy restriction are first‐line recommendations for the treatment of NASH.Hyperphagic Otsuka Long–Evans Tokushima fatty rats fed a western diet high in fat, sucrose and cholesterol for 24 weeks developed a severe NASH with fibrosis phenotype.Moderate intensity exercise training and modest energy restriction provided some improvement in the histological features of NASH that coincided with alterations in markers of hepatic stellate cell activation and extracellular matrix remodelling.The present study highlights the importance of lifestyle modification, including exercise training and energy restriction, in the regulation of advanced liver disease. Abstract The incidence of non‐alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is rising but the efficacy of lifestyle modifications to improve NASH‐related outcomes remain unclear. We hypothesized that a western diet (WD) would induce NASH in the Otsuka Long–Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat and that lifestyle modification would improve this condition. Eight‐week‐old Long–Evans Tokushima Otsuka (L) and OLETF (O) rats consumed a control diet (10% kcal fat, 3.5% sucrose) or a WD (45% kcal fat, 17% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) for 24 weeks. At 20 weeks of age, additional WD‐fed OLETFs were randomized to sedentary (O‐SED), food restriction (O‐FR; ∼25% kcal reduction vs. O‐SED) or exercise training (O‐EX; treadmill running 20 m min–1 with a 15% incline, 60 min day–1, 5 days week–1) conditions for 12 weeks. WD induced a NASH phenotype in OLETFs characterized by hepatic fibrosis (collagen 1α1 mRNA and hydroxyproline content), as well as elevated inflammation and non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease activity scores, and hepatic stellate cell activation (α‐smooth muscle actin) compared to Long–Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats. FR and EX modestly

  8. The effects of a six-week supervised multimodal exercise intervention during chemotherapy on cancer-related fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christina; Rørth, Mikael; Ejlertsen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    Cancer related fatigue (CRF) is a common problem for cancer patients across diagnoses during chemotherapy and is associated with physical inactivity, lower functional level and lack of energy. Few RCT exercise intervention studies have included cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The objective...... of this study is to evaluate whether a six-week supervised multimodal exercise intervention, adjunct to chemotherapy and standard care, can reduce the patient's CRF level....

  9. Aerobic Exercise Training and Incentive Spirometry Can Control Age-related respiratory muscles performance Changes in Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    El-Kader, Shehab Mahmoud Abd; Ashmawy, Eman Mohamed Salah El-Den

    2013-01-01

    As aging occurs, the respiratory system undergoes a measurable decline in physiological functions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of walking exercise and incentive spirometry in controlling age related respiratory muscles function changes in elderly. Forty elderly subjects of both sexes their age ranged from 65 to 74 years and included into two equal groups; group (A) received walking exercise and incentive spirometery three times a week for 3 months, where group (B) receiv...

  10. Effects of Physical Exercise Combined with Nutritional Supplements on Aging Brain Related Structures and Functions: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sch?ttin, Alexandra; Baur, Kilian; Stutz, Jan; Wolf, Peter; de Bruin, Eling D.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related decline in gray and white brain matter goes together with cognitive depletion. To influence cognitive functioning in elderly, several types of physical exercise and nutritional intervention have been performed. This paper systematically reviews the potential additive and complementary effects of nutrition/nutritional supplements and physical exercise on cognition. The search strategy was developed for EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, and PsycInfo databases and focused on...

  11. Whole-body vibration dosage alters leg blood flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lythgo, Noel; Eser, Prisca; de Groot, Patricia; Galea, Mary

    The effect of whole-body vibration dosage on leg blood flow was investigated. Nine healthy young adult males completed a set of 14 random vibration and non-vibration exercise bouts whilst squatting on a Galileo 900 plate. Six vibration frequencies ranging from 5 to 30 Hz (5 Hz increments) were used

  12. Biomechanical analysis of the single-leg decline squat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwerver, J.; Bredeweg, S. W.; Hof, A. L.

    Background: The single-leg squat on a 25 decline board has been described as a clinical assessment tool and as a rehabilitation exercise for patients with patellar tendinopathy. Several assumptions have been made about its working mechanism on patellar load and patellofemoral forces, but these are

  13. Relation between exercise central haemodynamic response and resting cardiac structure and function in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Matthew C; Lefferts, Wesley K; Heffernan, Kevin S

    2017-07-01

    Left ventricular (LV) structure and function are predictors of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality and are related to resting peripheral haemodynamic load in older adults. The central haemodynamic response to exercise may reveal associations with LV structure and function not detected by traditional peripheral (brachial) measures in a younger population. To examine correlations between acute exercise-induced changes in central artery stiffness and wave reflections and measures of resting LV structure and function. Sixteen healthy men (age 26 ± 6 year; BMI 25·3 ± 2·7 kg m-2 ) had measures of central haemodynamic load measured before/after a 30-s Wingate anaerobic test (WAT). Common carotid artery stiffness and reflected wave intensity were assessed via wave intensity analysis as a regional pulse wave velocity (PWV) and negative area (NA), respectively. Resting LV structure (LV mass) and function [midwall fractional shortening (mFS)] were assessed using M-mode echocardiography in the parasternal short-axis view. There was a significant association between mFS and WAT-mediated change in carotid systolic BP (r = -0·57, P = 0·011), logNA (r = -0·58, P = 0·009) and PWV (r = -0·44, P = 0·045). There were no significant associations between resting mFS and changes in brachial systolic BP (r = -0·26, P>0·05). There were no associations between resting LV mass and changes in any haemodynamic variable (P>0·05). Exercise-induced increases in central haemodynamic load reveal associations with lower resting LV function in young healthy men undetected by traditional peripheral haemodynamics. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Exercise-related changes of networks in aging and mild cognitive impairment brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei eHuang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aging and mild cognitive impairment are accompanied by decline of cognitive functions. Meanwhile, the most common form of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease, which is characterized by loss of memory and other intellectual abilities serious to make difficulties for patients in their daily life. Mild cognitive impairment is a transition period between normal aging and dementia, which has been used for early detection of emerging dementia. It converts to dementia with an annual rate of 5-15% as compared to normal aging with 1% rate. Small decreases in the conversion rate of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer’s disease might significantly reduce the prevalence of dementia. Thus, it is important to intervene at the preclinical stage. Since there are still no effective drugs to treat Alzheimer’s disease, non-drug intervention is crucial for the prevention and treatment of cognitive decline in aging and mild cognitive impairment populations. Previous studies have found some cognitive brain networks disrupted in aging and mild cognitive impairment population, and physical exercise could effectively remediate the function of these brain networks. Understanding the exercise-related mechanisms is crucial to design efficient and effective physical exercise programs for treatment/intervention of cognitive decline. In this review, we provide an overview of the neuroimaging studies on physical training in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment to identify the potential mechanisms underlying current physical training procedures. Studies of functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography and positron emission tomography on brain networks were all included. Based on our review, the default mode network, fronto-parietal network and fronto-executive network are probably the three most valuable targets for efficiency evaluation of interventions.

  15. ORTHOPEDIC LEG BRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, William Neil (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Knee braces generally have been rigid in both the knee bending direction and in the knee straightening direction unless a manually operated release is incorporated in them to allow the knee to bend. Desirably a braced knee joint should effectively duplicate the compound, complex, actions of a normal knee. The key to knee braces is the knee joint housing. The housing herein carries a number of cam action pawls. with teeth adapted to engage the internal teeth of a ratchet ring mounted in the housing. Cam action return springs and the shape of the cam action pawl teeth allow rotation of the ratchet ring in a leg straightening direction while still supporting a load. The leg can then be extended during walking while at the same time being prevented by the cam action pawls from buckling in the knee bending direction.

  16. Integrating Public Relations with Advertising: An Exercise for Students in the College Public Relations Campaigns Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Reginald Ford

    2012-01-01

    Today's public relations (PR) campaigns courses give students the opportunity to research, analyze, plan, and, in many cases, execute a campaign for a real client. Even so, today's campaigns courses may leave students with a weak understanding of how PR can best partner with other tools in the communication mix, namely advertising. Educators may…

  17. Exercise prevents age-related decline in nitric-oxide-mediated vasodilator function in cutaneous microvessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Mark A; Green, Daniel J; Cable, N Timothy

    2008-07-15

    Ageing is associated with impaired endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) function in human microvessels. We investigated the impact of cardiorespiratory fitness and exercise training on physiological and pharmacological NO-mediated microvascular responses in older subjects. NO-mediated vasodilatation was examined in young, older sedentary and older fit subjects who had two microdialysis fibres embedded into the skin on the ventral aspect of the forearm and laser Doppler probes placed over these sites. Both sites were then heated to 42 degrees C, with Ringer solution infused in one probe and N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) through the second. In another study, three doses of ACh were infused in the presence or absence of L-NAME in similar subjects. The older sedentary subjects then undertook exercise training, with repeat studies at 12 and 24 weeks. The NO component of the heat-induced rise in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was diminished in the older sedentary subjects after 30 min of prolonged heating at 42 degrees C (26.9 +/- 3.9%CVC(max)), compared to older fit (46.2 +/- 7.0%CVC(max), P < 0.05) and young subjects (41.2 +/- 5.2%CVC(max), P < 0.05), whereas exercise training in the older sedentary group enhanced NO-vasodilator function in response to incremental heating (P < 0.05). Similarly, the NO contribution to ACh responses was impaired in the older sedentary versus older fit subjects (low dose 3.2 +/- 1.3 versus 6.6 +/- 1.3%CVC(max); mid dose 11.4 +/- 2.4 versus 21.6 +/- 4.5%CVC(max); high dose 35.2 +/- 6.0 versus 52.6 +/- 7.9%CVC(max), P < 0.05) and training reversed this (12 weeks: 13.7 +/- 3.6, 28.9 +/- 5.3, 56.1 +/- 3.9%CVC(max), P < 0.05). These findings indicate that maintaining a high level of fitness, or undertaking exercise training, prevents age-related decline in indices of physiological and pharmacological microvascular NO-mediated vasodilator function. Since higher levels of NO confer anti-atherogenic benefit, this study has

  18. Changes in cognition and mortality in relation to exercise in late life: a population based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Middleton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On average, cognition declines with age but this average hides considerable variability, including the chance of improvement. Here, we investigate how exercise is associated with cognitive change and mortality in older people and, particularly, whether exercise might paradoxically increase the risk of dementia by allowing people to live longer. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA, of 8403 people who had baseline cognition measured and exercise reported at CSHA-1, 2219 had died and 5376 were re-examined at CSHA-2. We used a parametric Markov chain model to estimate the probabilities of cognitive improvement, decline, and death, adjusted for age and education, from any cognitive state as measured by the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination. High exercisers (at least three times per week, at least as intense as walking, n = 3264 had more frequent stable or improved cognition (42.3%, 95% confidence interval: 40.6-44.0 over 5 years than did low/no exercisers (all other exercisers and non exercisers, n = 4331 (27.8% (95% CI 26.4-29.2. The difference widened as baseline cognition worsened. The proportion whose cognition declined was higher amongst the high exercisers but was more similar between exercise groups (39.4% (95% CI 37.7-41.1 for high exercisers versus 34.8% (95% CI 33.4-36.2 otherwise. People who did not exercise were also more likely to die (37.5% (95% CI 36.0-39.0 versus 18.3% (95% CI 16.9-19.7. Even so, exercise conferred its greatest mortality benefit to people with the highest baseline cognition. CONCLUSIONS: Exercise is strongly associated with improving cognition. As the majority of mortality benefit of exercise is at the highest level of cognition, and declines as cognition declines, the net effect of exercise should be to improve cognition at the population level, even with more people living longer.

  19. Intra-observer and interobserver reliability ofOne Leg Stand Test as a measure of posturalbalance in low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo, Thomas; Iversen, Elena; Andersen, Niels Trolle

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the absolute and relative reliability of intra-observer and interobserver To determine the absolute and relative reliability of intra-observer and interobserver measurements of postural balance using the One Leg Stand Test in patients with low back pain. Patients and methods...... in patients with chronic The One Leg Stand Test can be used to test postural balance in patients with chronic low back pain, as the reliability of the test was acceptable.......: Forty-eight patients with chronic low back pain advised to do exercise were : Forty-eight patients with chronic low back pain advised to do exercise were included. A test protocol was established based on review of the literature and a pilot test. Patients were timed for their ability to stand on one...

  20. Effect of task-related continuous auditory feedback during learning of tracking motion exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosati Giulio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents the results of a set of experiments in which we used continuous auditory feedback to augment motor training exercises. This feedback modality is mostly underexploited in current robotic rehabilitation systems, which usually implement only very basic auditory interfaces. Our hypothesis is that properly designed continuous auditory feedback could be used to represent temporal and spatial information that could in turn, improve performance and motor learning. Methods We implemented three different experiments on healthy subjects, who were asked to track a target on a screen by moving an input device (controller with their hand. Different visual and auditory feedback modalities were envisaged. The first experiment investigated whether continuous task-related auditory feedback can help improve performance to a greater extent than error-related audio feedback, or visual feedback alone. In the second experiment we used sensory substitution to compare different types of auditory feedback with equivalent visual feedback, in order to find out whether mapping the same information on a different sensory channel (the visual channel yielded comparable effects with those gained in the first experiment. The final experiment applied a continuously changing visuomotor transformation between the controller and the screen and mapped kinematic information, computed in either coordinate system (controller or video, to the audio channel, in order to investigate which information was more relevant to the user. Results Task-related audio feedback significantly improved performance with respect to visual feedback alone, whilst error-related feedback did not. Secondly, performance in audio tasks was significantly better with respect to the equivalent sensory-substituted visual tasks. Finally, with respect to visual feedback alone, video-task-related sound feedback decreased the tracking error during the learning of a novel

  1. Effect of task-related continuous auditory feedback during learning of tracking motion exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper presents the results of a set of experiments in which we used continuous auditory feedback to augment motor training exercises. This feedback modality is mostly underexploited in current robotic rehabilitation systems, which usually implement only very basic auditory interfaces. Our hypothesis is that properly designed continuous auditory feedback could be used to represent temporal and spatial information that could in turn, improve performance and motor learning. Methods We implemented three different experiments on healthy subjects, who were asked to track a target on a screen by moving an input device (controller) with their hand. Different visual and auditory feedback modalities were envisaged. The first experiment investigated whether continuous task-related auditory feedback can help improve performance to a greater extent than error-related audio feedback, or visual feedback alone. In the second experiment we used sensory substitution to compare different types of auditory feedback with equivalent visual feedback, in order to find out whether mapping the same information on a different sensory channel (the visual channel) yielded comparable effects with those gained in the first experiment. The final experiment applied a continuously changing visuomotor transformation between the controller and the screen and mapped kinematic information, computed in either coordinate system (controller or video), to the audio channel, in order to investigate which information was more relevant to the user. Results Task-related audio feedback significantly improved performance with respect to visual feedback alone, whilst error-related feedback did not. Secondly, performance in audio tasks was significantly better with respect to the equivalent sensory-substituted visual tasks. Finally, with respect to visual feedback alone, video-task-related sound feedback decreased the tracking error during the learning of a novel visuomotor perturbation, whereas

  2. No adverse effects of statins on muscle function and health-related parameters in the elderly: an exercise study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayiotou, G; Paschalis, V; Nikolaidis, M G; Theodorou, A A; Deli, C K; Fotopoulou, N; Fatouros, I G; Koutedakis, Y; Sampanis, M; Jamurtas, A Z

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a repeated bout of eccentric exercise on health-related parameters and muscle performance on subjects undergoing atorvastatin therapy. Twenty-eight elderly men participated in the investigation and were assigned either in a control (n = 14) or in a statin therapy group (n = 14). All participants performed two isokinetic eccentric exercise bouts separated by 3 weeks. Muscle damage indices, resting energy expenditure, substrate metabolism, lipid and lipoprotein profile, as well as insulin sensitivity, were evaluated before and after eccentric. No differences in muscle function were observed between the two groups either at rest or after exercise. Eccentric exercise increased resting energy expenditure, increased fat oxidation, improved lipid profile, and increased insulin resistance 2 days after both eccentric exercise bouts. However, these changes appeared to lesser extent after the second bout. No differences were observed in the responses in the health-related parameters in the control and in the statin therapy group. Eccentric exercise affected similarly the control and the atorvastatin-treated individuals. The present results indicate that atorvastatin-treated elderly individuals may participate in various physical activities, even high-intensity muscle-damaging activities, without negative impact on muscle function and adaptation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Effect of thorax correction exercises on flexed posture and chest function in older women with age-related hyperkyphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Myung-Jun; Kim, Suhn-Yeop

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of thorax correction exercises on flexed posture and chest function in older women with age-related hyperkyphosis. [Subjects and Methods] The study participants included 41 elderly women who were divided into a thorax correction exercise group (n = 20) and a control group (n = 21). Participants in the exercise group completed a specific exercise program that included breathing correction, thorax mobility, thorax stability, and thorax alignment training performed twice per week, 1 hour each session, for 8 weeks. Outcome measures included the flexed posture (thoracic kyphosis angle, forward head posture) and chest function (vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in a second, and chest expansion length). [Results] Participants in the thorax correction exercise group demonstrated significantly greater improvements in thoracic kyphosis angle, forward head, and chest expansion than those in the control group. [Conclusion] This study provides a promising exercise intervention that may improve flexed posture and chest function in older women with age-related hyperkyphosis.

  4. Exercise interventions to reduce fall-related fractures and their risk factors in individuals with low bone density: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kam, D; Smulders, E; Weerdesteyn, V; Smits-Engelsman, B C M

    2009-12-01

    Exercise can reduce falls and fall-related fractures in healthy individuals; however, evidence for individuals with low BMD is limited. The results from this systematic review indicate that exercise interventions for individuals with low BMD to reduce falls and fractures should include balance, muscle strengthening, and weight-bearing exercises. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate which exercise interventions are effective in individuals with low bone mineral density (BMD; osteopenia or osteoporosis) in reducing (1) falls and fractures and (2) risk factors for falls and fractures. Databases were searched for relevant studies between 1996 and June 2008. Methodological quality was assessed with the Jadad score and the PEDro scale. Of the 1,369 publications found, 23 met the inclusion criteria. Five additional articles were included after checking reference lists and searching author's names and related articles. Interventions with balance exercises reduced falls or fall-related fractures and improved balance in the majority of the studies. Muscle strengthening exercises were effective in improving lower extremity strength and back extensor strength; however, not all RCT's reported positive effects. Bone strength was improved by weight-bearing aerobic exercise with or without muscle strengthening exercise when the duration of the intervention was at least a year. Exercise can reduce falls, fall-related fractures, and several risk factors for falls in individuals with low BMD. Exercise interventions for patients with osteoporosis should include weight-bearing activities, balance exercise, and strengthening exercises to reduce fall and fracture risk.

  5. Lower leg pain. Diagnosis and treatment of compartment syndromes and other pain syndromes of the leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touliopolous, S; Hershman, E B

    1999-03-01

    Leg pain in athletes has many aetiologies. The clinician must strive to specifically define the clinical problem in order to administer the appropriate treatment for the athlete's condition. Clinical conditions in the leg causing symptoms in athletes include chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECC), tendinitis, medial tibial stress syndrome, stress fractures, fascial defects, musculotendinous junction disruptions (tennis leg), popliteal artery entrapment syndrome, effort-induced venous thrombosis and nerve entrapment. Appropriate diagnostic studies are needed to allow accurate diagnosis. A work-up might include radiographs, bone scans and compartment pressure measurement. Many of these conditions relate to overuse and training errors. Conservative measures including rest, activity modification and rehabilitation will permit a gradual return to participation in sports. Some problems such as CECC, popliteal artery entrapment syndrome and nerve entrapment may require surgical intervention to allow the resolution of symptoms. Clinicians should be familiar with the range of problems causing leg pain in order to prescribe specific treatment for each athlete.

  6. A prognostic scoring system for arm exercise stress testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xie, Yan; Xian, Hong; Chandiramani, Pooja; Bainter, Emily; Wan, Leping; Martin, 3rd, Wade H

    2016-01-01

    ...% for patients unable to perform leg exercise. Thus, our objective was to develop an arm exercise ECG stress test scoring system, analogous to the Duke Treadmill Score, for predicting outcome in these individuals...

  7. The Effect of Nutrition Therapy and Exercise on Cancer-Related Fatigue and Quality of Life in Men with Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguley, Brenton J; Bolam, Kate A; Wright, Olivia R L; Skinner, Tina L

    2017-09-12

    Improvements in diet and/or exercise are often advocated during prostate cancer treatment, yet the efficacy of, and optimal nutrition and exercise prescription for managing cancer-related fatigue and quality of life remains elusive. The aim of this study is to systematically review the effects of nutrition and/or exercise on cancer-related fatigue and/or quality of life. A literature search was conducted in six electronic databases. The Delphi quality assessment list was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the literature. The study characteristics and results were summarized in accordance with the review's Population, Intervention, Control, Outcome (PICO) criteria. A total of 20 articles (one diet only, two combined diet and exercise, and seventeen exercise only studies) were included in the review. Soy supplementation improved quality of life, but resulted in several adverse effects. Prescribing healthy eating guidelines with combined resistance training and aerobic exercise improved cancer-related fatigue, yet its effect on quality of life was inconclusive. Combined resistance training with aerobic exercise showed improvements in cancer-related fatigue and quality of life. In isolation, resistance training appears to be more effective in improving cancer-related fatigue and quality of life than aerobic exercise. Studies that utilised an exercise professional to supervise the exercise sessions were more likely to report improvements in both cancer-related fatigue and quality of life than those prescribing unsupervised or partially supervised sessions. Neither exercise frequency nor duration appeared to influence cancer-related fatigue or quality of life, with further research required to explore the potential dose-response effect of exercise intensity. Supervised moderate-hard resistance training with or without moderate-vigorous aerobic exercise appears to improve cancer-related fatigue and quality of life. Targeted physiological pathways suggest

  8. Eye and Ear Temperature using Infrared Thermography are Related to Rectal Temperature in Dogs at Rest or With Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Michael Zanghi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rectal body temperature (BT has been documented in exercising dogs to monitor thermoregulation, heat stress risk, and performance during physical activity. Eye (BTeye and ear (BTear temperature measured with infrared thermography (IRT were compared to rectal (BTrec temperature as the reference method and assess alternative sites to track hyperthermia, possibly to establish BTeye IRT as a passive and non-contact method. BT measures were recorded at 09:00, 11:30, 12:30, and 02:30 from Labrador Retrievers (N=16 and Beagles (N=16 while sedentary and with 30-min play-exercise (pre- and 0, 15, 30-min post-exercise. Total exercise locomotor activity counts were recorded to compare relative intensity of play-exercise between breeds. BTrec, BTeye, and BTear were measured within 5 min of the target time. Each BT method was analyzed by ANOVA for main effects of breed and time. Method differences were compared using Bland-Altman plots and linear regression. Sedentary BT differed by breed for BTrec (p<0.0001, BTear (p<0.0001, and BTeye (p=0.06 with Labs having on average 0.3-0.8oC higher BT compared to Beagles. Readings also declined over time for BTeye (p<0.0001 and BTear (p<0.0001, but not for BTrec (p=0.63 for both breeds. Total exercise (30-min activity counts did not differ (p=0.53 between breeds. Time and breed interaction was significant in response to exercise for both BTrec and BTear (p=0.035 and p=0.005, respectively, with a marginal interaction (p=0.09 for BTeye. All 3 methods detected hyperthermia with Labs having a higher increase compared to Beagles. Both BTear and BTeye were significantly (p<0.0001 related to BTrec in all dogs with sedentary or exercise activity. The relationship between BTeye and BTrec improved when monitoring exercise hyperthermia (r=0.674 versus measures at rest (r=0.381, whereas BTear was significantly related to BTrec regardless of activity (r=0.615-0.735. Although BT readings were significantly related, method bias (p<0

  9. The Effect of Acute Exercise on Serum Vaspin Level and Its Relation to Insulin Sensitivity in Overweight Elderly Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabbar Bashiri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vaspin is a new discovered adipocytokine which is a member of serine protease inhibitor family secreted from adipose tissue and might play a role in insulin sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute exercise on serum vaspin levels and its relation to insulin sensitivity in overweight elderly men. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 12 healthy elderly men volunteers randomly selected and performed one session aerobic exercise including 30 minutes of cycling at 70-75% of HRmax, which was followed by 30 minutes of recovery. Three blood samples were taken before exercise, immediately after exercise and after 30 minutes of recovery. Data were analyzed by repeated measure ANOVA and Bonferroni test and Pearson’s correlations were performed to identify possible relationship among the assessed variables. Statistical significance was set at p≤0.05. Results: There were no significant differences for vaspin across time. Insulin and glucose concentration and insulin resistance decreased immediately after exercise. However insulin concentration and insulin resistance returned to pre-exercise level at the end of recovery. Furthermore, no significant correlations were observed among the variables assessed except for the expected between insulin level and insulin resistance. Conclusion: These results indicate that a sub-maximal aerobic workout does not result in significant changes in vaspin levels in elderly men. Furthermore, we observed that vaspin is not associated with insulin sensitivity in this study.

  10. Experiences of leg bag users and emerging design priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Louise; McCarthy, Avril

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore participants' experiences of urinary incontinence and leg bag use in order to identify priorities for product redesign. Twenty-nine leg bag users and 5 carers and healthcare professionals participated in the study. They were recruited through a UK hospital Trust and a UK-wide charity for people with bladder and bowel control problems. The study employed a descriptive design with qualitative and quantitative elements to determine current experiences with urinary drainage leg bags and identify potential ways to improve their design. Data collection occurred during semistructured face-to-face and telephone semistructured interviews. Thematic analysis revealed that leg bag design and performance influenced users' relationships, confidence, and ability to socialize. The most significant issues related to leg bag use were reliable functioning without leakage, secure positioning, and discretion when worn under clothing. All participants reported having experienced significant urine leakage due to usability issues with the leg bags. Respondents identified a number of design issues with current leg bags that need to be addressed to improve the ease of use and overall experience when using leg bags for containing urinary output. The findings have been used to define design requirements for further development of leg bags and their component parts.

  11. Exercise and Health-Related Risks of Physical Deconditioning After Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jennifer L; McMillan, David W; Nash, Mark S

    2017-01-01

    A sedentary lifestyle occurring soon after spinal cord injury (SCI) may be in contrast to a preinjury history of active physical engagement and is thereafter associated with profound physical deconditioning sustained throughout the lifespan. This physical deconditioning contributes in varying degrees to lifelong medical complications, including accelerated cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, osteopenia, and visceral obesity. Unlike persons without disability for whom exercise is readily available and easily accomplished, exercise options for persons with SCI are more limited. Depending on the level of injury, the metabolic responses to acute exercise may also be less robust than those accompanying exercise in persons without disability, the training benefits more difficult to achieve, and the risks of ill-considered exercise both greater and potentially irreversible. For exercise to ultimately promote benefit and not impose additional impairment, an understanding of exercise opportunities and risks if exercise is undertaken by those with SCI is important. The following monograph will thus address common medical challenges experienced by persons with SCI and typical modes and benefits of voluntary exercise conditioning.

  12. Parental smoking during pregnancy shortens offspring's legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żądzińska, E; Kozieł, S; Borowska-Strugińska, B; Rosset, I; Sitek, A; Lorkiewicz, W

    2016-12-01

    One of the most severe detrimental environmental factors acting during pregnancy is foetal smoke exposure. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of maternal, paternal and parental smoking during pregnancy on relative leg length in 7- to 10-year-old children. The research conducted in the years 2001-2002 included 978 term-born children, 348 boys and 630 girls, at the age of 7-10 years. Information concerning the birth weight of a child was obtained from the health records of the women. Information about the mother's and the father's smoking habits during pregnancy and about the mothers' education level was obtained from a questionnaire. The influence of parental smoking on relative leg length, controlled for age, sex, birth weight and the mother's education, as a proxy measure of socioeconomic status, and controlled for an interaction between sex and birth weight, was assessed by an analysis of covariance, where relative leg length was the dependent variable, smoking and sex were the independent variables, and birth weight as well as the mother's education were the covariates. Three separate analyses were run for the three models of smoking habits during pregnancy: the mother's smoking, the father's smoking and both parents' smoking. Only both parents' smoking showed a significant effect on relative leg length of offspring. It is probable that foetal hypoxia caused by carbon monoxide contained in smoke decelerated the growth of the long bones of foetuses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Regular endurance training reduces the exercise induced HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha mRNA expression in human skeletal muscle in normoxic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Gassmann, Max; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2005-01-01

    and 2 (HIFs) are clearly related heterodimeric transcription factors that consist of an oxygen-depended alpha-subunit and a constitutive beta-subunit. With hypoxic exposure, HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha protein are stabilized. Upon heterodimerization, HIFs induce the transcription of a variety of genes...... legs exercised at the same absolute workload. In the untrained leg, the exercise bout induced an increase (Palpha fold and HIF-2alpha fold mRNA at 6 h of recovery. In contrast, HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha mRNA levels were not altered at any time point in the trained leg. Obviously, HIF-1...... including erythropoietin (EPO), transferrin and its receptor, as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor. Considering that several of these genes are also induced with exercise, we tested the hypothesis that the mRNA level of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha subunits increases...

  14. A cholinergic contribution to the circulatory responses evoked at the onset of handgrip exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vianna, Lauro C; Fadel, Paul J; Secher, Niels H

    2015-01-01

    A cholinergic (muscarinic) contribution to the initial circulatory response to exercise in humans remains controversial. Herein, we posit that this may be due to exercise mode with a cholinergic contribution being important during isometric handgrip exercise, where the hyperemic response of the m......A cholinergic (muscarinic) contribution to the initial circulatory response to exercise in humans remains controversial. Herein, we posit that this may be due to exercise mode with a cholinergic contribution being important during isometric handgrip exercise, where the hyperemic response...... of the muscle is relatively small compared with the onset of leg cycling, where a marked increase in muscle blood flow rapidly occurs as a consequence of multiple redundant mechanisms. We recorded blood pressure (BP; brachial artery), stroke volume (pulse contour analysis), cardiac output, and systemic vascular...

  15. Exercise type and intensity in relation to coronary heart disease in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanasescu, Mihaela; Leitzmann, Michael F; Rimm, Eric B; Willett, Walter C; Stampfer, Meir J; Hu, Frank B

    Studies have shown an inverse relationship between exercise and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), but data on type and intensity are sparse. To assess the amount, type, and intensity of physical activity in relation to risk of CHD among men. A cohort of 44 452 US men enrolled in the Health Professionals' Follow-up Study, followed up at 2-year intervals from 1986 through January 31, 1998, to assess potential CHD risk factors, identify newly diagnosed cases of CHD, and assess levels of leisure-time physical activity. Incident nonfatal myocardial infarction or fatal CHD occurring during the follow-up period. During 475 755 person-years, we documented 1700 new cases of CHD. Total physical activity, running, weight training, and rowing were each inversely associated with risk of CHD. The RRs (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) corresponding to quintiles of metabolic equivalent tasks (METs) for total physical activity adjusted for age, smoking, and other cardiovascular risk factors were 1.0, 0.90 (0.78-1.04), 0.87 (0.75-1.00), 0.83 (0.71-0.96), and 0.70 (0.59-0.82) (Pexercise intensity was associated with reduced CHD risk independent of the total volume of physical activity. The RRs (95% CIs) corresponding to moderate (4-6 METs) and high (6-12 METs) activity intensities were 0.94 (0.83-1.04) and 0.83 (0.72-0.97) compared with low activity intensity (brisk walking was associated with an 18% risk reduction (RR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.67-1.00). Walking pace was associated with reduced CHD risk independent of the number of walking hours. Total physical activity, running, weight training, and walking were each associated with reduced CHD risk. Average exercise intensity was associated with reduced risk independent of the number of MET-hours spent in physical activity.

  16. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves exercise capacity and dyspnea in air pollution-related respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Naomi; Senjyu, Hideaki; Tanaka, Takako; Asai, Masaharu; Yanagita, Yorihide; Yano, Yudai; Nishinakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Kotaki, Kenji; Kitagawa, Chika; Rikitomi, Naoto; Kozu, Ryo; Honda, Sumihisa

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution in Japan caused respiratory disease, such as chronic bronchitis and asthma, in many individuals in the 1960s. Although air pollution has decreased, many victims of air pollution-related respiratory disease are limited in their activities of daily living because of respiratory symptoms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of pulmonary rehabilitation in victims of air pollution-related chronic bronchitis or asthma. Subjects were enrolled in a 12-week (2-week inpatient followed by 10-week outpatient) pulmonary rehabilitation program. The program comprised conditioning, strength training, endurance training, and patient education. We assessed the Modified Medical Research Council (MMRC) dyspnea grade, pulmonary function, peripheral muscle force, incremental shuttle walk distance (ISWD), and physical activity at baseline and immediately after the program. Twenty-nine subjects (mean age 74.2 ± 10.1 years, 11 males) completed the program, including 11 subjects with COPD and 18 subjects with asthma. Following rehabilitation, the participants (n = 29) showed significant improvements in MMRC dyspnea grade, vital capacity % predicted, quadriceps force and ISWD (all P rehabilitation is an effective method of improving exercise capacity and dyspnea in officially acknowledged victims of air pollution-related asthma. In conclusion, we recommend that patients with chronic bronchitis or asthma, resulting from exposure to air pollution, are referred for pulmonary rehabilitation.

  17. Age-related differences in exercise and quality of life among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Sheree A; Hayes, Sandra C; Newman, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity has become a focus of cancer recovery research because it has the potential to reduce treatment-related burden and to optimize health-related quality of life (HRQoL). However, the potential for physical activity to influence recovery may be age dependent. This article describes physical activity levels and HRQoL among younger and older women after surgery for breast cancer and explores the correlates of physical inactivity. A population-based sample of breast cancer patients (n = 287) diagnosed in South-East Queensland, Australia, were assessed once every 3 months, from 6 to 18 months postsurgery. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast questionnaire and items from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System questionnaire were used to measure HRQoL and physical activity, respectively. Physical activity was assigned MET values and categorized as age stratification (or=3 MET x h x wk of physical activity reported a higher HRQoL at 18 months compared with their more sedentary counterparts (P age, being overweight or obese, and restricting use of the treated side at 6 months postsurgery increased the likelihood of sedentary behavior (odds ratio >or= 3, P Age influences the potential to observe HRQoL benefits related to physical activity participation. These results also provide relevant information for the design of exercise interventions for breast cancer survivors and highlight that some groups of women are at greater risk of long-term sedentary behavior.

  18. Relations of self-regulation and self-efficacy for exercise and eating and BMI change: A field investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annesi James J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study aimed to assess relations of self-regulatory skill use with self-efficacy for exercise and appropriate eating, and the resulting change in weight associated with participation in a nutrition and exercise treatment supported by cognitive-behavioral methods. Methods Adults with severe obesity (N = 95; mean BMI = 40.5 ± 3.9 kg/m2 participated in a 6-month exercise and nutrition treatment emphasizing self-regulatory skills. Changes in self-regulatory skills usage, self-efficacy, overall mood, and BMI were measured. Relations of changes in self-regulatory skill use and self-efficacy, for both physical activity and appropriate eating, were assessed, as was the possibility of mood change being a mediator of these relationships. Indirect effects of the variables associated with the present treatment on BMI change were then estimated. Results For both exercise and appropriate eating, changes in self-regulation were associated with self-efficacy change. Mood change partially mediated the relationship between changes in self-regulation for appropriate eating and self-efficacy for appropriate eating. Self-efficacy changes for physical activity and controlled eating, together, explained a significant portion of the variance in BMI change (R2 = 0.26, p Conclusion Findings suggest that training in self-regulation for exercise and eating may benefit self-efficacy and weight-loss outcomes. Thus, these variables should be considered in both the theory and behavioral treatment of obesity.

  19. Maternal Recreational Exercise during Pregnancy in relation to Children’s BMI at 7 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Schou Andersen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposures during fetal life may have long-term health consequences including risk of childhood overweight. We investigated the associations between maternal recreational exercise during early and late pregnancy and the children’s body mass index (BMI and risk of overweight at 7 years. Data on 40,280 mother-child pairs from the Danish National Birth Cohort was used. Self-reported information about exercise was obtained from telephone interviews around gestational weeks 16 and 30. Children’s weight and height were reported in a 7-year follow-up and used to calculate BMI and overweight status. Data was analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Recreational exercise across pregnancy was inversely related to children’s BMI and risk of overweight, but all associations were mainly explained by smoking habits, socioeconomic status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Additionally, we did not find exercise intensity or changes in exercise habits in pregnancy related to the children’s BMI or risk of overweight.

  20. The potential role of exercise in chronic stress-related changes in AMPA receptor phenotype underlying synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, Yea-Hyun

    2017-12-31

    Chronic stress can cause disturbances in synaptic plasticity, such as longterm potentiation, along with behavioral defects including memory deficits. One major mechanism sustaining synaptic plasticity involves the dynamics and contents of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) in the central nervous system. In particular, chronic stress-induced disruption of AMPARs includes it abnormal expression, trafficking, and calcium conductance at glutamatergic synapses, which contributes to synaptic plasticity at excitatory synapses. Exercise has the effect of promoting synaptic plasticity in neurons. However, the contribution of exercise to AMPAR behavior under chronic stressful maladaptation remains unclear. The present article reviews the information about the chronic stress-related synaptic plasticity and the role of exercise from the previous-published articles. AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission is an important for chronic stress-related changes of synaptic plasticity, and exercise may at least partly contribute to these episodes. The present article discusses the relationship between AMPARs and synaptic plasticity in chronic stress, as well as the potential role of exercise.

  1. Exercise Therapy for Parkinson's Disease: Pedaling Rate Is Related to Changes in Motor Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Chintan; Beall, Erik B; Frankemolle, Anneke M M; Penko, Amanda; Phillips, Michael D; Lowe, Mark J; Alberts, Jay L

    2016-02-01

    Forced-rate lower-extremity exercise has recently emerged as a potential safe and low-cost therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). The efficacy is believed to be dependent on pedaling rate, with rates above the subjects' voluntary exercise rates being most beneficial. In this study, we use functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to further elucidate the mechanism underlying this effect. Twenty-seven PD patients were randomized to complete 8 weeks of forced-rate exercise (FE) or voluntary-rate exercise (VE). Exercise was delivered using a specialized stationary bicycle, which can augment patients' voluntary exercise rates. The FE group received assistance from the cycle. Imaging was conducted at baseline, end of therapy, and after 4 weeks of follow-up. Functional connectivity (FC) was determined via seed-based correlation analysis, using activation-based seeds in the primary motor cortex (M1). The change in FC after exercise was compared using linear correlation with pedaling rate. Results of the correlation analysis showed a strong positive correlation between pedaling rate and change in FC from the most affected M1 to the ipsilateral thalamus. This effect persisted after 4 weeks of follow-up. These results indicate that a plausible mechanism for the therapeutic efficacy of high-rate exercise in PD is that it improves thalamo-cortical connectivity.

  2. Eat now, exercise later: The relation between consideration of immediate and future consequences and healthy behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van J.; Antonides, G.; Handgraaf, M.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    In light of the current obesity epidemic, individual choices for food and exercise should be understood better. Consideration of the immediate and future consequences of these choices (i.e., time orientation) can be an important predictor of eating and exercising behavior. The objective was to show

  3. Are improvements in assessment center construct-related validity paralleled by improvements in criterion-related validity? The effects of exercise similarity on assessment center validity

    OpenAIRE

    Wirz A. Melchers K. G. Schultheiss S. & Kleinmann M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have found that factors that improved assessment center (AC) construct related validity also had beneficial effects on criterion related validity. However some factors might have diverging effects on construct and criterion related validity. Accordingly we followed recent calls to evaluate construct and criterion related validity of ACs simultaneously by examining the effects of the factor exercise similarity on both aspects of validity within a single study. Data were coll...

  4. Exercise countermeasures for bed-rest deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose for this 30-day bed rest study was to investigate the effects of short-term, high intensity isotonic and isokinetic exercise training on maintenance of working capacity (peak oxygen uptake), muscular strength and endurance, and on orthostatic tolerance, posture and gait. Other data were collected on muscle atrophy, bone mineralization and density, endocrine analyses concerning vasoactivity and fluid-electrolyte balance, muscle intermediary metabolism, and on performance and mood of the subjects. It was concluded that: The subjects maintained a relatively stable mood, high morale, and high esprit de corps throughout the study. Performance improved in nearly all tests in almost all the subjects. Isotonic training, as opposed to isokinetic exercise training, was associated more with decreasing levels of psychological tension, concentration, and motivation; and improvement in the quality of sleep. Working capacity (peak oxygen uptake) was maintained during bed rest with isotonic exercise training; it was not maintained with isokinetic or no exercise training. In general, there was no significant decrease in strength or endurance of arm or leg muscles during bed rest, in spite of some reduction in muscle size (atrophy) of some leg muscles. There was no effect of isotonic exercise training on orthostasis, since tilt-table tolerance was reduced similarly in all three groups following bed rest. Bed rest resulted in significant decreases of postural stability and self-selected step length, stride length, and walking velocity, which were not influenced by either exercise training regimen. Most pre-bed rest responses were restored by the fourth day of recovery.

  5. Intensity and Types of Physical Exercise in Relation to Dementia Risk Reduction in Community-Living Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Allen T C; Richards, Marcus; Chan, Wai C; Chiu, Helen F K; Lee, Ruby S Y; Lam, Linda C W

    2015-10-01

    To systematically examine the amount and type of physical exercise that might reduce the future risk of dementia in community-living older people. Six-year observational study. All the Elderly Health Centers (EHCs) of the Department of Health in Hong Kong. A total of 15,589 community-living Chinese aged 65 years and older with no history of stroke, clinical dementia, or Parkinson disease when they completed health assessment at the EHCs in the first 6 months of 2005. Self-reported habitual physical exercise patterns, including the frequency, duration, and type of exercise, at baseline and Year 3 were analyzed. The study outcome was incident dementia in 6 years. Dementia was defined by presence of clinical dementia in accordance with the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems or Clinical Dementia Rating of 1 to 3. Both the cognitively stable and incident groups reported exercising a median of 7 days per week and 45 minutes per day at baseline and Year 3. The former practiced aerobic and mind-body exercises more at baseline and Year 3, whereas the latter practiced stretching and toning exercises more. The odds ratio for dementia remained significant for aerobic (0.81; 95% confidence interval 0.68-0.95; P = .01) and mind-body exercises (0.76; 0.63-0.92; P = .004) after excluding participants who developed dementia within 3 years after baseline and adjusting for important potential confounders, such as age, gender, educational level, and physical and psychiatric comorbidities. Although physical exercise is widely promoted as a nonpharmacological intervention for dementia prevention, not all types of exercise appear to be useful in reducing risk of dementia in older people. Our findings suggest that daily participation in aerobic and mind-body but not stretching and toning exercises might protect community-living older adults from developing dementia. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and

  6. Effects of Physical Exercise Combined with Nutritional Supplements on Aging Brain Related Structures and Functions: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schättin, Alexandra; Baur, Kilian; Stutz, Jan; Wolf, Peter; de Bruin, Eling D.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related decline in gray and white brain matter goes together with cognitive depletion. To influence cognitive functioning in elderly, several types of physical exercise and nutritional intervention have been performed. This paper systematically reviews the potential additive and complementary effects of nutrition/nutritional supplements and physical exercise on cognition. The search strategy was developed for EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, and PsycInfo databases and focused on the research question: “Is the combination of physical exercise with nutrition/nutritional supplementation more effective than nutrition/nutritional supplementation or physical exercise alone in effecting on brain structure, metabolism, and/or function?” Both mammalian and human studies were included. In humans, randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of nutrition/nutritional supplements and physical exercise on cognitive functioning and associated parameters in healthy elderly (>65 years) were included. The systematic search included English and German language literature without any limitation of publication date. The search strategy yielded a total of 3129 references of which 67 studies met the inclusion criteria; 43 human and 24 mammalian, mainly rodent, studies. Three out of 43 human studies investigated a nutrition/physical exercise combination and reported no additive effects. In rodent studies, additive effects were found for docosahexaenoic acid supplementation when combined with physical exercise. Although feasible combinations of physical exercise/nutritional supplements are available for influencing the brain, only a few studies evaluated which possible combinations of nutrition/nutritional supplementation and physical exercise might have an effect on brain structure, metabolism and/or function. The reason for no clear effects of combinatory approaches in humans might be explained by the misfit between the combinations of nutritional methods

  7. Health promotion: the impact of beliefs of health benefits, social relations and enjoyment on exercise continuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, G; Wikman, J M; Jensen, C J; Schmidt, J F; Gliemann, L; Andersen, T R

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how and why participants in structured exercise intervention programs continue or stop exercising after the program is finished. We conducted four focus group interviews with four groups of middle-aged and elderly men (total n = 28) who had participated in exercise interventions involving playing either a team sport (football) or a more individually focused activity (spinning and crossfit). Our results show that different social, organizational and material structures inherent in the different activities shape the subjects' enjoyment of exercise participation, as well as their intention and ability to continue being active. In conclusion, team sport activities seem to be intrinsically motivating to the participants through positive social interaction and play. They are therefore more likely to result in exercise continuation than activities that rely primarily on extrinsic motivation such as the expectation of improved health and well-being. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Reduced physical exercise and health-related quality of life after Fontan palliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Eva R; Lundell, Bo; Villard, Li; Sjöberg, Gunnar

    2016-11-01

    A growing number of patients with Fontan circulation are reaching adulthood, and there is increasing concern about their physical performance and quality of life. This study compared self-reported exercise and measured activity with quality of life in patients after Fontan palliation and healthy controls. Physical exercise during an average school week was reported by 30 Fontan circulation patients aged eight to 20 years, and 25 healthy controls, followed by accelerometer recordings over seven days. All subjects and their parents answered a questionnaire on quality of life. Patients reported spending less time exercising each week than the controls (114 ± 66 minutes vs. 228 ± 147 minutes, p exercise than healthy controls and their quality of life was lower than the controls. We speculate that promoting structured regular physical exercise could improve the quality of life of Fontan patients. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The role of active muscle mass in determining the magnitude of peripheral fatigue during dynamic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Matthew J; Garten, Ryan S; Venturelli, Massimo; Amann, Markus; Richardson, Russell S

    2014-06-15

    Greater peripheral quadriceps fatigue at the voluntary termination of single-leg knee-extensor exercise (KE), compared with whole-body cycling, has been attributed to confining group III and IV skeletal muscle afferent feedback to a small muscle mass, enabling the central nervous system (CNS) to tolerate greater peripheral fatigue. However, as task specificity and vastly differing systemic challenges may have complicated this interpretation, eight males were studied during constant workload trials to exhaustion at 85% of peak workload during single-leg and double-leg KE. It was hypothesized that because of the smaller muscle mass engaged during single-leg KE, a greater magnitude of peripheral quadriceps fatigue would be present at exhaustion. Vastus lateralis integrated electromyogram (iEMG) signal relative to the first minute of exercise, preexercise to postexercise maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the quadriceps, and twitch-force evoked by supramaximal magnetic femoral nerve stimulation (Qtw,pot) quantified peripheral quadriceps fatigue. Trials performed with single-leg KE (8.1 ± 1.2 min; 45 ± 4 W) resulted in significantly greater peripheral quadriceps fatigue than double-leg KE (10 ± 1.3 min; 83 ± 7 W), as documented by changes in the iEMG signal (147 ± 24 vs. 85 ± 13%), MVC (-25 ± 3 vs. -12 ± 3%), and Qtw,pot (-44 ± 6 vs. -33 ± 7%), for single-leg and double-leg KE, respectively. Therefore, avoiding concerns over task specificity and cardiorespiratory limitations, this study reveals that a reduction in muscle mass permits the development of greater peripheral muscle fatigue and supports the concept that the CNS tolerates a greater magnitude of peripheral fatigue when the source of group III/IV afferent feedback is limited to a small muscle mass.

  10. Important aspects in relation to patients' attendance at exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation - facilitators, barriers and physiotherapist's role: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäck, Maria; Öberg, Birgitta; Krevers, Barbro

    2017-03-14

    In order to improve attendance at exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR), a greater insight into patients' perspectives is necessary. The aim of the study was to explore aspects that influence patients' attendance at exercise-based CR after acute coronary artery disease (CAD) and the role of the physiotherapist in patients' attendance at exercise-based CR. A total of 16 informants, (5 women; median age 64.5, range 47-79 years), diagnosed with CAD, were included in the study at the Cardiology Department, Linköping University Hospital, Sweden. Qualitative interviews were conducted and analysed according to inductive content analysis. Four main categories were identified: (i) previous experience of exercise, (ii) needs in the acute phase, (iii) important prerequisites for attending exercise-based CR and (iv) future ambitions. The categories demonstrate that there are connections between the past, the present and the future, in terms of attitudes to facilitators, barriers and the use of strategies for managing exercise. An overall theme, defined as existential thoughts, had a major impact on the patients' attitudes to attending exercise-based CR. The interaction and meetings with the physiotherapists in the acute phase were described as important factors for attending exercise-based CR. Moreover, informants could feel that the physiotherapists supported them in learning the right level of effort during exercise and reducing the fear of exercise. This study adds to previous knowledge of barriers and facilitators for exercise-based CR that patients with CAD get existential thoughts both related to exercise during the rehabilitation process and for future attitudes to exercise. This knowledge might necessitate greater attention to the physiotherapist-patient interaction. To be able to tailor exercise-based CR for patients, physiotherapists need to be aware of patients' past experiences of exercise and previous phases of the rehabilitation process as these are

  11. An event-related potential investigation of the acute effects of aerobic and coordinative exercise on inhibitory control in children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Ludyga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current body of evidence suggests that an aerobic exercise session has a beneficial effect on inhibitory control, whereas the impact of coordinative exercise on this executive function has not yet been examined in children with ADHD. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the acute effects of aerobic and coordinative exercise on behavioral performance and the allocation of attentional resources in an inhibitory control task.Using a cross-over design, children with ADHD-combined type and healthy comparisons completed a Flanker task before and after 20 min moderately-intense cycling exercise, coordinative exercise and an inactive control condition. During the task, stimulus-locked event-related potentials were recorded with electroencephalography.Both groups showed an increase of P300 amplitude and decrease of reaction time after exercise compared to the control condition. Investigating the effect of exercise modality, aerobic exercise led to greater increases of P300 amplitude and reductions in reaction time than coordinative exercise in children with ADHD.The findings suggest that a single exercise bout improves inhibitory control and the allocation of attentional resources. There were some indications that an aerobic exercise session seems to be more efficient than coordinative exercise in reducing the inhibitory control deficits that persist in children with ADHD. Keywords: P300, Executive function, Cognitive performance, Flanker task, Development, Healthy children

  12. Relation between peak knee flexion angle and knee ankle kinetics in single-leg jump landing from running: a pilot study on male handball players to prevent ACL injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameer, Mariam A; Muaidi, Qassim I

    2017-09-01

    The relationship between knee kinematics and knee-ankle kinetics during the landing phase of single leg jumping has been widely studied to identify proper strategies for preventing non-contact ACL injury. However, there is a lack of study on knee-ankle kinetics at peak knee flexion angle during jumping from running. Hence, the purpose of this study is to establish the relationship between peak knee flexion angle, knee extension moment, ankle plantar flexion moment and ground reaction force in handball players in order to protect ACL from excessive stress during single leg jumping. In addition, the study also clarifies the role of calf muscles in relieving part of ACL stresses with different knee flexion angles during landing. Fifteen active male elite handball players of Saudi Arabia have participated in this study (Age = 22.6 ± 3.5years, Height = 182 ± 3.7 cm, Weight = 87.5 ± 10.2 kg). The players performed three successful landings of single-leg jump following running a fixed distance of about 450cm. The data were collected using a 3D motion capture and analysis system (VICON). Pearson product moment correlation coefficients showed that greater peak knee flexion angle is related significantly to both lesser knee extension moment (r = -.623, P = .013) and vertical component of ground reaction force (VGRF) (r = -.688, P = .005) in landing phase. Moreover, increasing the peak knee flexion angle in landing phase tends to increase the ankle plantar flexion moment significantly (r = .832, P = .000). With an increase of the peak knee flexion angle during single leg jump landing from running, there would be less knee extension moment, low impact force and more plantar flexion moment. As such, the clinical implication of this study is that there may be a possible protective mechanism by increasing the knee flexion angle during landing phase, which tends to protect the ACL from vigorous strain and injuries.

  13. Exercise during Short-Term and Long-Term Continuous Exposure to Hypoxia Exacerbates Sleep-Related Periodic Breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, Helio Fernandez; Morrison, Shawnda A; Neyt, Xavier; Mairesse, Olivier; Piacentini, Maria Francesca; Macdonald-Nethercott, Eoin; Pangerc, Andrej; Dolenc-Groselj, Leja; Eiken, Ola; Pattyn, Nathalie; Mekjavic, Igor B; Meeusen, Romain

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to hypoxia elevates chemosensitivity, which can lead to periodic breathing. Exercise impacts gas exchange, altering chemosensitivity; however, interactions between sleep, exercise and chronic hypoxic exposure have not been examined. This study investigated whether exercise exacerbates sleep-related periodic breathing in hypoxia. Two experimental phases. Short-Term Phase: a laboratory controlled, group-design study in which 16 active, healthy men (age: 25 ± 3 y, height: 1.79 ± 0.06 m, mass: 74 ± 8 kg) were confined to a normobaric hypoxic environment (FIO2 = 0.139 ± 0.003, 4,000 m) for 10 days, after random assignment to a sedentary (control, CON) or cycle-exercise group (EX). Long-Term Phase: conducted at the Concordia Antarctic Research Station (3,800 m equivalent at the Equator) where 14 men (age: 36 ± 9 y, height: 1.77 ± 0.09 m, mass: 75 ± 10 kg) lived for 12-14 months, continuously confined. Participants were stratified post hoc based on self-reported physical activity levels. We quantified apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and physical activity variables. Short-Term Phase: mean AHI scores were significantly elevated in the EX group compared to CON (Night1 = CON: 39 ± 51, EX: 91 ± 59; Night10 = CON: 32 ± 32, EX: 92 ± 48; P = 0.046). Long-Term Phase: AHI was correlated to mean exercise time (R(2) = 0.4857; P = 0.008) and the coefficient of variation in night oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2; R(2) = 0.3062; P = 0.049). Data indicate that exercise (physical activity) per se affects night SpO2 concentrations and AHI after a minimum of two bouts of moderate-intensity hypoxic exercise, while habitual physical activity in hypobaric hypoxic confinement affects breathing during sleep, up to 13+ months' duration. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  14. Derivation and validation of a simple exercise-based algorithm for prediction of genetic testing in relatives of LQTS probands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sy, Raymond W.; van der Werf, Christian; Chattha, Ishvinder S.; Chockalingam, Priya; Adler, Arnon; Healey, Jeffrey S.; Perrin, Mark; Gollob, Michael H.; Skanes, Allan C.; Yee, Raymond; Gula, Lorne J.; Leong-Sit, Peter; Viskin, Sami; Klein, George J.; Wilde, Arthur A.; Krahn, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic testing can diagnose long-QT syndrome (LQTS) in asymptomatic relatives of patients with an identified mutation; however, it is costly and subject to availability. The accuracy of a simple algorithm that incorporates resting and exercise ECG parameters for screening LQTS in asymptomatic

  15. Relation of Physical Activity, Cardiac Function, Exercise Capacity, and Quality of Life in Patients With a Systemic Right Ventricle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, Michiel M.; Bouma, Berto J.; van Dijk, Arie P. J.; Groenink, Maarten; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T.; van der Plas, Mart N.; Sieswerda, Gertjan T.; Konings, Thelma C.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Exercise is recommended in patients with left ventricular failure. Although right ventricular failure is common in patients with a systemic right ventricle (RV), no data are available on the effect of physical activity in these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation of physical

  16. Relation of physical activity, cardiac function, exercise capacity, and quality of life in patients with a systemic right ventricle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, M.M.; Bouma, B.J.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Groenink, M.; Nieuwkerk, P.T.; Plas, MN van der; Sieswerda, G.T.; Konings, T.C.; Mulder, B.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Exercise is recommended in patients with left ventricular failure. Although right ventricular failure is common in patients with a systemic right ventricle (RV), no data are available on the effect of physical activity in these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation of physical

  17. Do Telomeres Adapt to Physiological Stress? Exploring the Effect of Exercise on Telomere Length and Telomere-Related Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Ludlow

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a tissue degeneration phenotype marked by a loss of tissue regenerative capacity. Regenerative capacity is dictated by environmental and genetic factors that govern the balance between damage and repair. The age-associated changes in the ability of tissues to replace lost or damaged cells is partly the cause of many age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and sarcopenia. A well-established marker of the aging process is the length of the protective cap at the ends of chromosomes, called telomeres. Telomeres shorten with each cell division and with increasing chronological age and short telomeres have been associated with a range of age-related diseases. Several studies have shown that chronic exposure to exercise (i.e., exercise training is associated with telomere length maintenance; however, recent evidence points out several controversial issues concerning tissue-specific telomere length responses. The goals of the review are to familiarize the reader with the current telomere dogma, review the literature exploring the interactions of exercise with telomere phenotypes, discuss the mechanistic research relating telomere dynamics to exercise stimuli, and finally propose future directions for work related to telomeres and physiological stress.

  18. Exercise, Diet, and Stress Management as Mediators between Functional Disability and Health-Related Quality of Life in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Connie; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Bezyak, Jill; Chan, Fong; Muller, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the mediational and moderational effect of exercise, diet, and stress management on the relationship between functional disability and health-related quality of life. Quantitative descriptive research design using multiple regression and correlation techniques was used. Participants were 215…

  19. The Effect of Nutrition Therapy and Exercise on Cancer-Related Fatigue and Quality of Life in Men with Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Baguley, Brenton J.; Bolam, Kate A.; Wright, Olivia R. L.; Skinner, Tina L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Improvements in diet and/or exercise are often advocated during prostate cancer treatment, yet the efficacy of, and optimal nutrition and exercise prescription for managing cancer-related fatigue and quality of life remains elusive. The aim of this study is to systematically review the effects of nutrition and/or exercise on cancer-related fatigue and/or quality of life. Methods: A literature search was conducted in six electronic databases. The Delphi quality assessment list was ...

  20. Phasic-to-tonic shift in trunk muscle activity relative to walking during low-impact weight bearing exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Nick; Gibbon, Karl; Hibbs, Angela; Evetts, Simon; Debuse, Dorothée

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an exercise device, designed to improve the function of lumbopelvic muscles via low-impact weight-bearing exercise, on electromyographic (EMG) activity of lumbopelvic, including abdominal muscles. Surface EMG activity was collected from lumbar multifidus (LM), erector spinae (ES), internal oblique (IO), external oblique (EO) and rectus abdominis (RA) during overground walking (OW) and exercise device (EX) conditions. During walking, most muscles showed peaks in activity which were not seen during EX. Spinal extensors (LM, ES) were more active in EX. Internal oblique and RA were less active in EX. In EX, LM and ES were active for longer than during OW. Conversely, EO and RA were active for a shorter duration in EX than OW. The exercise device showed a phasic-to-tonic shift in activation of both local and global lumbopelvic muscles and promoted increased activation of spinal extensors in relation to walking. These features could make the exercise device a useful rehabilitative tool for populations with lumbopelvic muscle atrophy and dysfunction, including those recovering from deconditioning due to long-term bed rest and microgravity in astronauts.

  1. Inflammatory markers as related to disease severity in patients with chronic heart failure: limited effects of exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrkjeland, Rune; Nilsson, Birgitta B; Westheim, Arne S; Arnesen, Harald; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg

    2011-11-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is associated with increased inflammation, and exercise training has in some studies been shown to have anti-inflammatory effect, although controversies exist. We investigated the effects of exercise training in CHF patients on markers of inflammation, and further explored any association between inflammation and the severity and etiology of the disease. Eighty patients in stable CHF were randomized to 4 months of group-based high intensity exercise training or to a control group. Physical capacity was measured by 6-minute walk test and cycle ergometer test. Blood samples were drawn at baseline, after 4 months and after 12 months follow-up for analyses of a range of biomarkers. Physical capacity was significantly inversely related to CRP, IL-6, VCAM-1 and TGF-β, and NT pro-BNP levels were significantly correlated to CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and TGF-β (p markers of inflammation. We could not demonstrate over-all anti-inflammatory effect of exercise in this population of CHF patients. However, the etiology of CHF affected the inflammatory profile and the effect of exercise training.

  2. The prevalence and performance of resistance exercise training activities in an Australian population in relation to health authority guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Brendan; Stanton, Rob; Scanlan, Aaron; Duncan, Mitch J

    2017-09-29

    Resistance training research highlights the importance of training intensity to resistance exercise training (RET) and the associated benefits to health and function for healthy and at-risk populations. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommend specific intensities, frequencies, repetitions, and number of exercises of RET to be performed to maintain health. The primary aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of achieving recommended levels of RET in relation to ACSM guidelines for intensity, frequency, repetitions, and number of exercises in a regional Australian population. A Computer-Assisted-Telephone-Interview (CATI) survey (n=1237) was conducted to determine RET participation. Participants were 18 years plus, residing in Central Queensland, Australia. The prevalence of respondents performing 'No RET', 'insufficient RET' and 'sufficient RET' were 79.6.0%, 15.2% and 5.2% respectively. Significantly higher proportions of younger adults adhered to all RET guidelines for intensity (19.2 vs 8.1%), frequency (19.9 vs 11.6%), repetitions (17.8 vs 6.3%), and number of exercises (8.2 vs 3.6%) (p15 years), and individuals engaging in sufficient levels of aerobic exercise training (AET) engaged in sufficient levels of RET (pACSM guidelines for the quantity and quality of RET that is likely to provide health benefits. This has implications for public health policy and the future development and promotion of population-level RET guidelines. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Klinefelter Syndrome With Leg Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra G

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Leg ulcers are frequently caused by venous insufficiency, arterial insufficiency, neuropathy, or a combination of these factors. Klinefelter syndrome in association with chronic leg ulcers have been reported earlier. We report a case of Klinefelter syndrome with non- healing ulcer. The diagnosis of the Klinefelter syndrome was confirmed by karyotyping.

  4. Post-exercise adipose tissue and skeletal muscle lipid metabolism in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulla, N A; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2000-01-01

    One purpose of the present experiments was to examine whether the relative workload or the absolute work performed is the major determinant of the lipid mobilization from adipose tissue during exercise. A second purpose was to determine the co-ordination of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue lipid......, a subcutaneous abdominal vein and a femoral vein. Adipose tissue metabolism and skeletal muscle (leg) metabolism were measured using Fick's principle. The results show that the lipolytic rate in adipose tissue during exercise was the same in each experiment. Post-exercise, there was a very fast decrease...... adipose tissue during exercise is the same whether the relative workload is 40% or 60% of maximum. Post-exercise, there is a substantial lipid mobilization from adipose tissue and only a small fraction of this is taken up in the lower extremities. This leaves a substantial amount of NEFAs for either NEFA...

  5. Effect of aquatic exercise training on fatigue and health-related quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargarfard, Mehdi; Etemadifar, Masoud; Baker, Peter; Mehrabi, Maryam; Hayatbakhsh, Reza

    2012-10-01

    To examine the effectiveness of aquatic exercise training on fatigue and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in women with multiple sclerosis (MS). Randomized controlled trial, 4-week and 8-week follow-up. Referral center of a multiple sclerosis society. Women (N=32) diagnosed with relapsing-remitting MS (mean age ± SD, 32.6±8.0y) were recruited into this study. After undergoing baseline testing by a neurologist, participants were randomly assigned to either an intervention (aquatic exercise) or a control group. The intervention consisted of 8 weeks supervised aquatic exercise in a swimming pool (3 times a week, each session lasting 60min). At baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks, fatigue and HRQOL were assessed by a blind assessor using the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale and the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 questionnaire, respectively. A mixed-model approach to repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to detect within- and between-subject effects. Findings are based on 21 patients (10 from the exercise group and 11 from the control group) who had data available on outcomes. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups at the baseline. Patients in the aquatic exercise group showed significant improvements in fatigue and subscores of HRQOL after 4 and 8 weeks compared with the control group. Results obtained from the intention-to-treat analysis were consistent with those of per-protocol analysis. The findings suggest that aquatic exercise training can effectively improve fatigue and HRQOL of patients with MS and should be considered in the management of this relatively common public health problem. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. DHEA, DHEA-S and cortisol responses to acute exercise in older adults in relation to exercise training status and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Jennifer L J; Carroll, Douglas; Phillips, Anna C

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate resting measures of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) and cortisol, and the response and recovery of these hormones to acute exercise, in male and female older adults of different exercise training status. Participants were 49 community-dwelling older adults (23 females) aged between 60 and 77 years who were either sedentary (n=14), moderately active (n=14) or endurance trained (n=21). Participants undertook an acute bout of exercise in the form of an incremental submaximal treadmill test. The exercise lasted on average 23 min 49 s (SD=2 min 8 s) and participants reached 76.5% (SD=5.44) of the predicted maximal heart rate. Blood samples were collected prior to exercise, immediately, and 1 h post-exercise. DHEA levels significantly increased immediately post-exercise; however, DHEA-S levels only significantly increased in females. Cortisol significantly decreased immediately post-exercise and 1 h post-exercise compared to pre-exercise. There were no significant differences in resting hormone levels or hormonal responses to exercise between training status groups. The findings suggest that exercise can stimulate DHEA production in older adults and that hormonal responses to exercise differ between male and female older adults.

  7. High exercise levels are related to favorable sleep patterns and psychological functioning in adolescents: a comparison of athletes and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Gerber, Markus; Beck, Johannes; Hatzinger, Martin; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2010-02-01

    To investigate whether chronic vigorous exercising is related to improved sleep and psychological functioning, and whether this association varies with gender. Both lay and scientific opinions hold that physical activity is an efficient remedy and preventative measure for poor sleep. However, empirical evidence on adolescents is very limited. A total of 434 adolescents (258 athletes, 176 controls; mean age 17.2 years) took part in the study. Weekly hours spent exercising were 17.69 hours and 4.69 hours, respectively. To assess sleep patterns and psychological functioning, participants completed a sleep log for 7 consecutive days and several self-rating questionnaires. Compared with controls, athletes reported better sleep patterns including higher sleep quality, shortened sleep onset latency, and fewer awakenings after sleep onset, as well as less tiredness and increased concentration during the day. Athletes reported significantly lower anxiety and fewer depressive symptoms. Compared with males, females reported fewer variations in sleep. Male controls had particularly unfavorable scores related to sleep and psychological functioning. Findings suggest that chronic vigorous exercising is positively related to adolescents' sleep and psychological functioning. Results also indicate that males with low exercise levels are at risk for increased sleep complaints and poorer psychological functioning. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of the Fitkids Exercise Therapy Program on Health-Related Fitness, Walking Capacity, and Health-Related Quality of Life.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotte, E.M.W.; Groot, J.F. de; Winkler, A.M.F.; Huijgen, B.C.H.; Sanders, L.; Takken, T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children with disabilities have an increased risk for reduced fitness and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Fitkids, a nationwide exercise therapy program in the Netherlands, was developed to improve fitness and HRQoL in children with disabilities. Objective: The study

  9. Effects of the Fitkids Exercise Therapy Program on Health-Related Fitness, Walking Capacity, and Health-Related Quality of Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotte, Elles M. W.; de Groot, Janke F.; Winkler, Alexander M. F.; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Takken, Tim

    Background. Children with disabilities have an increased risk for reduced fitness and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Fitkids, a nationwide exercise therapy program in the Netherlands, was developed to improve fitness and HRQoL in children with disabilities. Objective. The study

  10. The heat shock protein response following eccentric exercise in human skeletal muscle is unaffected by local NSAID infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, U R; Paulsen, G; Schjerling, P

    2013-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely consumed in relation to pain and injuries in skeletal muscle, but may adversely affect muscle adaptation probably via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. Induction of heat shock proteins (HSP) represents an important adaptive response...... in muscle subjected to stress, and in several cell types including cardiac myocytes prostaglandins are important in induction of the HSP response. This study aimed to determine the influence of NSAIDs on the HSP response to eccentric exercise in human skeletal muscle. Healthy males performed 200 maximal...... eccentric contractions with each leg with intramuscular infusion of the NSAID indomethacin or placebo. Biopsies were obtained from m. vastus lateralis before and after (5, 28 hrs and 8 days) the exercise bout from both legs (NSAID vs unblocked leg) and analysed for expression of the HSPs HSP70, HSP27 and a...

  11. Knowledge on health and back care education related to physical activity and exercise in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñana-Signes, V; Monfort-Pañego, M

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the specific level of knowledge on health and back care-related physical activity practice and exercise with low back pain (LBP) in adolescents. This is a cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of a total of 576 adolescents aged 13-18 years (mean age 15.5, SD 1.4). Self-reported questionnaires were used to record specific knowledge on health and back care and LBP in healthy adolescents. The prevalence of LBP was 46.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) 44.9-47.8]. Students with LBP scored slightly higher than non-sufferers, getting non-significant values. The level of specific knowledge increased with age (F = 7.308; p = 0.002). Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that older girls group (>16 years old) was significantly associated with LBP odds ratio (OR) 2.9 (95% CI 1.77-4.74; p = 0.000). High school students have a low level of specific knowledge. Back care education in the school curriculum is recommended.

  12. Monitoring training activity during gait-related balance exercise in individuals with Parkinson's disease: a proof-of-concept-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradsson, David; Nero, Håkan; Löfgren, Niklas; Hagströmer, Maria; Franzén, Erika

    2017-01-31

    Despite the benefits of balance exercise in clinical populations, balance training programs tend to be poorly described, which in turn makes it difficult to evaluate important training components and compare between programs. However, the use of wearable sensors may have the potential to monitor certain elements of balance training. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the feasibility of using wearable sensors to provide objective indicators of the levels and progression of training activity during gait-related balance exercise in individuals with Parkinson's disease. Ten individuals with Parkinson's disease participated in 10 weeks of group training (three sessions/week) addressing highly-challenging balance exercises. The training program was designed to be progressive by gradually increasing the amount of gait-related balance exercise exercises (e.g. walking) and time spent dual-tasking throughout the intervention period. Accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+) were used to measure volume (number of steps/session) and intensity (time spent walking >1.0 m/s) of dynamic training activity. Training activity was also expressed in relation to the participants' total daily volume of physical activity prior to the training period (i.e. number of steps during training/the number of steps per day). Feasibility encompassed the adequacy of data sampling, the output of accelerometer data and the participants' perception of the level of difficulty of training. Training activity data were successfully obtained in 98% of the training sessions (n = 256) and data sampling did not interfere with training. Reflecting the progressive features of this intervention, training activity increased throughout the program, and corresponded to a high level of the participants' daily activity (28-43%). In line with the accelerometer data, a majority of the participants (n = 8) perceived the training as challenging. The findings of this proof-of-concept study support the feasibility

  13. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abdominal muscles tight and feet flat on the floor; rotate from side to side. Repeat 10 times. ... arches, your leg is too close to the floor). Return leg and extend other leg. Repeat to ...

  14. Treatment-related cardiovascular late effects and exercise training countermeasures in testicular germ cell cancer survivorship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper F; Bandak, Mikkel; Campbell, Anna

    2015-01-01

    -induced cardiovascular dysfunction to prevent premature onset of clinical cardiovascular disease in germ cell cancer survivors, with a view towards highlighting future directions of exercise-based survivorship research in the germ cell cancer setting. CONCLUSION: As exercise training may have the potential to ameliorate...... and/or reverse long-term cardiovascular disease sequelae in germ cell cancer survivors, a strong rationale exists for the promotion of exercise oncology research in this setting, in order to provide exercise recommendations for optimal germ cell cancer survivorship.......BACKGROUND: Treatment of testicular germ cell cancer constitutes a major success story in modern oncology. Today, the vast majority of patients are cured by a therapeutic strategy using one or more highly effective components including surgery (orchiectomy), radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy...

  15. Fatigue-related adaptations in muscle coordination during a cyclic exercise in humans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turpin, Nicolas A; Guével, Arnaud; Durand, Sylvain; Hug, François

    2011-01-01

    .... A possible strategy to counteract the effects of fatigue is to modify muscle coordination. We designed this study to quantify the effect of fatigue on muscle coordination during a cyclic exercise involving numerous muscles...

  16. Biochemical changes and catecholamine responses in Down's syndrome adolescents in relation to incremental maximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Y; Eterradossi, J; Therminarias, A

    1991-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine biological responses in Down's syndrome subjects for an incremental exercise lasting 10 min. After a training programme specially adapted for children and adolescents with mental handicaps, 11 healthy Down's syndrome subjects, seven boys and four girls aged from 15 to 20 years, performed a progressive exercise until exhaustion on an ergometric bicycle. The results were compared with those taken from the literature for similar aged normal subjects. The results in our series of Down's syndrome subjects showed: (a) no differences in haematologic parameters, except for a high concentration of uric acid at rest which did not increase after the test; (b) a lower blood lactate level than in maximal exercise for this age range; (c) a late mobilization of FFA; and (d) a slightly lower maximal value of catecholamines. These results may suggest a reduced sympathetic response to maximal exercise.

  17. Are Your Cells Pregnant? Relating Biology Laboratory Exercises to Everyday Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Simon J.; Banner, Lisa R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a laboratory exercise that allows students to investigate the principles of hormone release from endocrine cells, which is highly relevant to students' everyday lives. (Contains 17 references.) (ASK)

  18. Creatine monohydrate ingestion-related placebo effects on brief anaerobic exercise performance. A laboratory investigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A Szabo; R Szemerszky; Z Dömötör; R de la Vega; F Köteles

    2017-01-01

    .... In the current study the placebo effects of creatine monohydrate on a one-minute anaerobic step-exercise performance were examined in a double blind laboratory inquiry University students (n = 79, 64.5% women...

  19. Body image dissatisfaction and aesthetic exercise in adolescents: are they related?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Laus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated if boys and girls who practice exercises with aesthetic propose report higher levels of body dissatisfaction compared to their inactive peers. A total of 199 adolescents (89 boys, mean age 16.1 years, completed measures of body dissatisfaction and psychological commitment to exercise. Results demonstrated that active boys presented lower dissatisfaction than their inactive peers; and active girls were significantly more dissatisfied than inactive ones. Active boys were more satisfied than active girls. The majority of active girls reported a desire for a slimmer silhouette; while active boys were equally divided between those who desired a heavier silhouette and those who were satisfied. Psychological commitment to exercise did not differ between satisfied and dissatisfied active adolescents. Thus, girls who practice aesthetic exercises must be looked at as a high risk population to the development of health harmful behaviors and eating disorders.

  20. Biochemical changes in relation to a maximal exercise test in patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, J; Bülow, P M; Mehlsen, J

    1994-01-01

    Patients with fibromyalgia often complain of fatigue and pain during exercise and of worsening of pain days after exercise. The aim of the study described here was to determine if abnormal changes in potassium or lactate could be observed during an exercise test in fibromyalgia. Whether an abnormal...... incline in plasma creatine kinase or myoglobin could be observed days after the test was studied also. Fifteen female fibromyalgia patients and 15 age- and sex-matched controls performed a stepwise incremental maximal bicycle-ergometer test. Blood samples were collected from a catheter in a cubital vein....... The changes in heart rate, potassium levels, and haematocrit during the exercise test were similar in the two groups. The maximal obtained lactate concentration was 4.2 mmol l-1 (3.5-5.6) in the patients as compared to 4.9 mmol l-1 (3.9-5.9) in the controls (NS). The estimated anaerobic threshold of 2 mmol l...

  1. Compression for venous leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, Susan; Cullum, Nicky A; Nelson, E Andrea

    2009-01-21

    Around one percent of people in industrialised countries will suffer from a leg ulcer at some time. The majority of these leg ulcers are due to problems in the veins, resulting in an accumulation of blood in the legs. Leg ulcers arising from venous problems are called venous (varicose or stasis) ulcers. The main treatment has been a firm compression garment (bandage or stocking) in order to aid venous return. There is a large number of compression garments available and it is unclear whether they are effective in treating venous ulcers and which compression garment is the most effective. To undertake a systematic review of all randomised controlled trials of the clinical effectiveness of compression bandage or stocking systems in the treatment of venous leg ulceration.Specific questions addressed by the review are:1. Does the application of compression bandages or stockings aid venous ulcer healing? 2. Which compression bandage or stocking system is the most effective? For this update we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (14/10/08); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 4 2008); Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to October Week 1 2008); Ovid EMBASE (1980 to 2008 Week 41) and Ovid CINAHL (1982 to October Week 1 2008). No date or language restrictions were applied. Randomised controlled trials recruiting people with venous leg ulceration that evaluated any type of compression bandage system or compression hosiery were eligible for inclusion. Comparators included no compression (e.g. primary dressing alone, non-compressive bandage) or an alternative type of compression. Trials had to report an objective measure of ulcer healing in order to be included (primary outcome for the review). Secondary outcomes of the review included ulcer recurrence, costs, quality of life, pain, adverse events and withdrawals. There was no restriction on date, language or publication status of trials. Details of eligible studies were

  2. Chronic Lower Leg Pain in Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Rachel Biber; Gregory, Andrew J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Chronic lower leg pain in athletes can be a frustrating problem for patients and a difficult diagnosis for clinicians. Myriad approaches have been suggested to evaluate these conditions. With the continued evolution of diagnostic studies, evidence-based guidance for a standard approach is unfortunately sparse. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched from January 1980 to May 2011 to identify publications regarding chronic lower leg pain in athletes (excluding conditions related to the foot), including differential diagnosis, clinical presentation, physical examination, history, diagnostic workup, and treatment. Results: Leg pain in athletes can be caused by many conditions, with the most frequent being medial tibial stress syndrome; chronic exertional compartment syndrome, stress fracture, nerve entrapment, and popliteal artery entrapment syndrome are also considerations. Conservative management is the mainstay of care for the majority of causes of chronic lower leg pain; however, surgical intervention may be necessary. Conclusion: Chronic lower extremity pain in athletes includes a wide differential and can pose diagnostic dilemmas for clinicians. PMID:23016078

  3. Effects of physical exercise during adjuvant breast cancer treatment on physical and psychosocial dimensions of cancer-related fatigue : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vulpen, Jonna K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413986322; Peeters, Petra H M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074099655; Velthuis, Miranda J.; van der Wall, Elsken|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/142344532; May, Anne M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304818658

    2016-01-01

    Cancer-related fatigue has a multidimensional nature and complaints typically increase during adjuvant treatment for breast cancer. Physical exercise might prevent or reduce cancer-related fatigue. So far, no meta-analysis has investigated the effects of physical exercise on different dimensions of

  4. Leg or foot amputation - dressing change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000018.htm Leg or foot amputation - dressing change To use the sharing features ... chap 14. Read More Compartment syndrome Leg or foot amputation Peripheral artery disease - legs Type 1 diabetes ...

  5. Similar carbohydrate but enhanced lactate utilization during exercise after 9 wk of acclimatization to 5,620 m

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Calbet, J A L; Sondergaard, H

    2002-01-01

    studied at rest and during 20 min of bicycle exercise at 146 W at sea level (SL) and after 9 wk of acclimatization to 5,260 m (Alt). Whole body glucose Ra was similar at SL and Alt at rest and during exercise. Lactate Ra was also similar for the two conditions at rest; however, during exercise, lactate Ra...... was substantially lower at SL (65 micro mol. min(-1). kg body wt(-1)) than it was at Alt (150 micro mol. min(-1). kg body wt(-1)) at the same exercise intensity. During exercise, net lactate release was approximately 6-fold at Alt compared with SL, and related to this, tracer-calculated leg lactate uptake...... and release were both 3- or 4-fold higher at Alt compared with SL. The contribution of the two legs to glucose disposal was similar at SL and Alt; however, the contribution of the two legs to lactate Ra was significantly lower at rest and during exercise at SL (27 and 81%) than it was at Alt (45 and 123...

  6. Soy protein diet and exercise training increase relative bone volume and enhance bone microarchitecture in a mouse model of uremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomayko, Emily J; Chung, Hae R; Wilund, Kenneth R

    2011-11-01

    Soy protein consumption and exercise training have been widely studied for their effects on the vasculature and bone in healthy populations, but little is known about the effectiveness of these interventions in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Cardiovascular disease and bone fracture risk are significantly elevated in CKD, and current pharmacological interventions have been unsuccessful in treating these conditions simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a soy protein diet and endurance exercise training, alone or in combination, on cardiovascular and bone health in a mouse model