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Sample records for execution motor imagery

  1. To What Extent Can Motor Imagery Replace Motor Execution While Learning a Fine Motor Skill?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobierajewicz, Jagna; Szarkiewicz, Sylwia; Prekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; Jaskowski, Wojciech; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Motor imagery is generally thought to share common mechanisms with motor execution. In the present study, we examined to what extent learning a fine motor skill by motor imagery may substitute physical practice. Learning effects were assessed by manipulating the proportion of motor execution and

  2. Disentangling motor execution from motor imagery with the phantom limb.

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    Raffin, Estelle; Mattout, Jérémie; Reilly, Karen T; Giraux, Pascal

    2012-02-01

    Amputees can move their phantom limb at will. These 'movements without movements' have generally been considered as motor imagery rather than motor execution, but amputees can in fact perform both executed and imagined movements with their phantom and they report distinct perceptions during each task. Behavioural evidence for this dual ability comes from the fact that executed movements are associated with stump muscle contractions whereas imagined movements are not, and that phantom executed movements are slower than intact hand executed movements whereas the speed of imagined movements is identical for both hands. Since neither execution nor imagination produces any visible movement, we hypothesized that the perceptual difference between these two motor tasks relies on the activation of distinct cerebral networks. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and changes in functional connectivity (dynamic causal modelling), we examined the activity associated with imagined and executed movements of the intact and phantom hands of 14 upper-limb amputees. Distinct but partially overlapping cerebral networks were active during both executed and imagined phantom limb movements (both performed at the same speed). A region of interest analysis revealed a 'switch' between execution and imagination; during execution there was more activity in the primary somatosensory cortex, the primary motor cortex and the anterior lobe of the cerebellum, while during imagination there was more activity in the parietal and occipital lobes, and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum. In overlapping areas, task-related differences were detected in the location of activation peaks. The dynamic causal modelling analysis further confirmed the presence of a clear neurophysiological distinction between imagination and execution, as motor imagery and motor execution had opposite effects on the supplementary motor area-primary motor cortex network. This is the first imaging evidence that the

  3. Bridging the gap between motor imagery and motor execution with a brain-robot interface.

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    Bauer, Robert; Fels, Meike; Vukelić, Mathias; Ziemann, Ulf; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2015-03-01

    According to electrophysiological studies motor imagery and motor execution are associated with perturbations of brain oscillations over spatially similar cortical areas. By contrast, neuroimaging and lesion studies suggest that at least partially distinct cortical networks are involved in motor imagery and execution. We sought to further disentangle this relationship by studying the role of brain-robot interfaces in the context of motor imagery and motor execution networks. Twenty right-handed subjects performed several behavioral tasks as indicators for imagery and execution of movements of the left hand, i.e. kinesthetic imagery, visual imagery, visuomotor integration and tonic contraction. In addition, subjects performed motor imagery supported by haptic/proprioceptive feedback from a brain-robot-interface. Principal component analysis was applied to assess the relationship of these indicators. The respective cortical resting state networks in the α-range were investigated by electroencephalography using the phase slope index. We detected two distinct abilities and cortical networks underlying motor control: a motor imagery network connecting the left parietal and motor areas with the right prefrontal cortex and a motor execution network characterized by transmission from the left to right motor areas. We found that a brain-robot-interface might offer a way to bridge the gap between these networks, opening thereby a backdoor to the motor execution system. This knowledge might promote patient screening and may lead to novel treatment strategies, e.g. for the rehabilitation of hemiparesis after stroke. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cortical activity during motor execution, motor imagery, and imagery-based online feedback.

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    Miller, Kai J; Schalk, Gerwin; Fetz, Eberhard E; den Nijs, Marcel; Ojemann, Jeffrey G; Rao, Rajesh P N

    2010-03-02

    Imagery of motor movement plays an important role in learning of complex motor skills, from learning to serve in tennis to perfecting a pirouette in ballet. What and where are the neural substrates that underlie motor imagery-based learning? We measured electrocorticographic cortical surface potentials in eight human subjects during overt action and kinesthetic imagery of the same movement, focusing on power in "high frequency" (76-100 Hz) and "low frequency" (8-32 Hz) ranges. We quantitatively establish that the spatial distribution of local neuronal population activity during motor imagery mimics the spatial distribution of activity during actual motor movement. By comparing responses to electrocortical stimulation with imagery-induced cortical surface activity, we demonstrate the role of primary motor areas in movement imagery. The magnitude of imagery-induced cortical activity change was approximately 25% of that associated with actual movement. However, when subjects learned to use this imagery to control a computer cursor in a simple feedback task, the imagery-induced activity change was significantly augmented, even exceeding that of overt movement.

  5. How effector-specific is the effect of sequence learning by motor execution and motor imagery?

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    Sobierajewicz, Jagna; Przekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; Jaśkowski, Wojciech; van der Lubbe, Rob H J

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was twofold. First, we wanted to examine how effector specific the effect of sequence learning by motor execution is, and second, we wanted to compare this effect with learning by motor imagery. We employed a Go/NoGo discrete sequence production task in which in each trial a spatial sequence of five stimuli was presented. After a Go signal the corresponding spatial response sequence had to be executed, while after a NoGo signal, the response sequence had to be mentally imagined. For the training phase, participants were divided into two groups. In the index finger group, participants had to respond (physically or mentally) with the left or right index finger, while in the hand group they had to respond with four fingers of the left or right hand. In a final test phase both execution modes were compared and all trials had to be executed. Response times and the percentage of correct responses were determined to establish learning effects. Results showed that sequence learning effects as assessed in the test phase were independent of the effector used during the training phase. Results revealed the presence of aspecific learning effects in the case of learning a required motor task with an index finger, but sequence-specific learning effects, both due to motor execution and to motor imagery, were not effector specific.

  6. Brain effective connectivity during motor-imagery and execution following stroke and rehabilitation

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    Sahil Bajaj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain areas within the motor system interact directly or indirectly during motor-imagery and motor-execution tasks. These interactions and their functionality can change following stroke and recovery. How brain network interactions reorganize and recover their functionality during recovery and treatment following stroke are not well understood. To contribute to answering these questions, we recorded blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI signals from 10 stroke survivors and evaluated dynamical causal modeling (DCM-based effective connectivity among three motor areas: primary motor cortex (M1, pre-motor cortex (PMC and supplementary motor area (SMA, during motor-imagery and motor-execution tasks. We compared the connectivity between affected and unaffected hemispheres before and after mental practice and combined mental practice and physical therapy as treatments. The treatment (intervention period varied in length between 14 to 51 days but all patients received the same dose of 60 h of treatment. Using Bayesian model selection (BMS approach in the DCM approach, we found that, after intervention, the same network dominated during motor-imagery and motor-execution tasks but modulatory parameters suggested a suppressive influence of SM A on M1 during the motor-imagery task whereas the influence of SM A on M1 was unrestricted during the motor-execution task. We found that the intervention caused a reorganization of the network during both tasks for unaffected as well as for the affected hemisphere. Using Bayesian model averaging (BMA approach, we found that the intervention improved the regional connectivity among the motor areas during both the tasks. The connectivity between PMC and M1 was stronger in motor-imagery tasks whereas the connectivity from PMC to M1, SM A to M1 dominated in motor-execution tasks. There was significant behavioral improvement (p = 0.001 in sensation and motor movements

  7. Layered stimulus response training improves motor imagery ability and movement execution.

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    Williams, Sarah E; Cooley, Sam J; Cumming, Jennifer

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to test Lang's bioinformational theory by comparing the effects of layered stimulus and response training (LSRT) with imagery practice on improvements in imagery ability and performance of a motor skill (golf putting) in 24 novices (age, M = 20.13 years; SD = 1.65; 12 female) low in imagery ability. Participants were randomly assigned to a LSRT (introducing stimulus and response propositions to an image in a layered approach), motor imagery (MI) practice, or visual imagery (VI) practice group. Following baseline measures of MI ability and golf putting performance, the LSRT and MI practice groups imaged successfully performing the golf putting task 5 times each day for 4 days whereas the VI practice group imaged the ball rolling into the hole. Only the LSRT group experienced an improvement in kinesthetic MI ability, MI ability of more complex skills, and actual golf putting performance. Results support bioinformational theory by demonstrating that LSRT can facilitate visual and kinesthetic MI ability and reiterate the importance of imagery ability to ensure MI is an effective prime for movement execution.

  8. Active vision during action execution, observation and imagery: evidence for shared motor representations.

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    McCormick, Sheree A; Causer, Joe; Holmes, Paul S

    2013-01-01

    The concept of shared motor representations between action execution and various covert conditions has been demonstrated through a number of psychophysiological modalities over the past two decades. Rarely, however, have researchers considered the congruence of physical, imaginary and observed movement markers in a single paradigm and never in a design where eye movement metrics are the markers. In this study, participants were required to perform a forward reach and point Fitts' Task on a digitizing tablet whilst wearing an eye movement system. Gaze metrics were used to compare behaviour congruence between action execution, action observation, and guided and unguided movement imagery conditions. The data showed that participants attended the same task-related visual cues between conditions but the strategy was different. Specifically, the number of fixations was significantly different between action execution and all covert conditions. In addition, fixation duration was congruent between action execution and action observation only, and both conditions displayed an indirect Fitts' Law effect. We therefore extend the understanding of the common motor representation by demonstrating, for the first time, common spatial eye movement metrics across simulation conditions and some specific temporal congruence for action execution and action observation. Our findings suggest that action observation may be an effective technique in supporting motor processes. The use of video as an adjunct to physical techniques may be beneficial in supporting motor planning in both performance and clinical rehabilitation environments.

  9. Monitoring Local Regional Hemodynamic Signal Changes during Motor Execution and Motor Imagery Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

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    Naoki eIso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to clarify the topographical localization of motor-related regional hemodynamic signal changes during motor execution (ME and motor imagery (MI by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, as this technique is more clinically expedient than established methods (e.g. fMRI. Twenty right-handed healthy subjects participated in this study. The experimental protocol was a blocked design consisting of 3 cycles of 20 s of task performance and 30 s of rest. The tapping sequence task was performed with their fingers under 4 conditions: ME and MI with the right or left hand. Hemodynamic brain activity was measured with NIRS to monitor changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb concentration. Oxy-Hb in the somatosensory motor cortex (SMC increased significantly only during contralateral ME and showed a significant interaction between task and hand. There was a main effect of hand in the left SMC. Although there were no significant main effects or interactions in the supplemental motor area (SMA and premotor area (PMA, oxy-Hb increased substantially under all conditions. These results clarified the topographical localization by motor-related regional hemodynamic signal changes during ME and MI by using NIRS.

  10. The investigation of brain-computer interface for motor imagery and execution using functional near-infrared spectroscopy

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    Zhang, Zhen; Jiao, Xuejun; Xu, Fengang; Jiang, Jin; Yang, Hanjun; Cao, Yong; Fu, Jiahao

    2017-01-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), which can measure cortex hemoglobin activity, has been widely adopted in brain-computer interface (BCI). To explore the feasibility of recognizing motor imagery (MI) and motor execution (ME) in the same motion. We measured changes of oxygenated hemoglobin (HBO) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (HBR) on PFC and Motor Cortex (MC) when 15 subjects performing hand extension and finger tapping tasks. The mean, slope, quadratic coefficient and approximate entropy features were extracted from HBO as the input of support vector machine (SVM). For the four-class fNIRS-BCI classifiers, we realized 87.65% and 87.58% classification accuracy corresponding to hand extension and finger tapping tasks. In conclusion, it is effective for fNIRS-BCI to recognize MI and ME in the same motion.

  11. The Representation of Motor (Interaction, States of Action, and Learning: Three Perspectives on Motor Learning by Way of Imagery and Execution

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    Cornelia Frank

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Learning in intelligent systems is a result of direct and indirect interaction with the environment. While humans can learn by way of different states of (interaction such as the execution or the imagery of an action, their unique potential to induce brain- and mind-related changes in the motor action system is still being debated. The systematic repetition of different states of action (e.g., physical and/or mental practice and their contribution to the learning of complex motor actions has traditionally been approached by way of performance improvements. More recently, approaches highlighting the role of action representation in the learning of complex motor actions have evolved and may provide additional insight into the learning process. In the present perspective paper, we build on brain-related findings and sketch recent research on learning by way of imagery and execution from a hierarchical, perceptual-cognitive approach to motor control and learning. These findings provide insights into the learning of intelligent systems from a perceptual-cognitive, representation-based perspective and as such add to our current understanding of action representation in memory and its changes with practice. Future research should build bridges between approaches in order to more thoroughly understand functional changes throughout the learning process and to facilitate motor learning, which may have particular importance for cognitive systems research in robotics, rehabilitation, and sports.

  12. The Representation of Motor (Inter)action, States of Action, and Learning: Three Perspectives on Motor Learning by Way of Imagery and Execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Cornelia; Schack, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Learning in intelligent systems is a result of direct and indirect interaction with the environment. While humans can learn by way of different states of (inter)action such as the execution or the imagery of an action, their unique potential to induce brain- and mind-related changes in the motor action system is still being debated. The systematic repetition of different states of action (e.g., physical and/or mental practice) and their contribution to the learning of complex motor actions has traditionally been approached by way of performance improvements. More recently, approaches highlighting the role of action representation in the learning of complex motor actions have evolved and may provide additional insight into the learning process. In the present perspective paper, we build on brain-related findings and sketch recent research on learning by way of imagery and execution from a hierarchical, perceptual-cognitive approach to motor control and learning. These findings provide insights into the learning of intelligent systems from a perceptual-cognitive, representation-based perspective and as such add to our current understanding of action representation in memory and its changes with practice. Future research should build bridges between approaches in order to more thoroughly understand functional changes throughout the learning process and to facilitate motor learning, which may have particular importance for cognitive systems research in robotics, rehabilitation, and sports.

  13. The Representation of Motor (Inter)action, States of Action, and Learning: Three Perspectives on Motor Learning by Way of Imagery and Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Cornelia; Schack, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Learning in intelligent systems is a result of direct and indirect interaction with the environment. While humans can learn by way of different states of (inter)action such as the execution or the imagery of an action, their unique potential to induce brain- and mind-related changes in the motor action system is still being debated. The systematic repetition of different states of action (e.g., physical and/or mental practice) and their contribution to the learning of complex motor actions has traditionally been approached by way of performance improvements. More recently, approaches highlighting the role of action representation in the learning of complex motor actions have evolved and may provide additional insight into the learning process. In the present perspective paper, we build on brain-related findings and sketch recent research on learning by way of imagery and execution from a hierarchical, perceptual-cognitive approach to motor control and learning. These findings provide insights into the learning of intelligent systems from a perceptual-cognitive, representation-based perspective and as such add to our current understanding of action representation in memory and its changes with practice. Future research should build bridges between approaches in order to more thoroughly understand functional changes throughout the learning process and to facilitate motor learning, which may have particular importance for cognitive systems research in robotics, rehabilitation, and sports. PMID:28588510

  14. Imagined and Executed Actions in the Human Motor System: Testing Neural Similarity Between Execution and Imagery of Actions with a Multivariate Approach.

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    Zabicki, Adam; de Haas, Benjamin; Zentgraf, Karen; Stark, Rudolf; Munzert, Jörn; Krüger, Britta

    2017-09-01

    Simulation theory proposes motor imagery (MI) to be a simulation based on representations also used for motor execution (ME). Nonetheless, it is unclear how far they use the same neural code. We use multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) and representational similarity analysis (RSA) to describe the neural representations associated with MI and ME within the frontoparietal motor network. During functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning, 20 volunteers imagined or executed 3 different types of right-hand actions. Results of MVPA showed that these actions as well as their modality (MI or ME) could be decoded significantly above chance from the spatial patterns of BOLD signals in premotor and posterior parietal cortices. This was also true for cross-modal decoding. Furthermore, representational dissimilarity matrices of frontal and parietal areas showed that MI and ME representations formed separate clusters, but that the representational organization of action types within these clusters was identical. For most ROIs, this pattern of results best fits with a model that assumes a low-to-moderate degree of similarity between the neural patterns associated with MI and ME. Thus, neural representations of MI and ME are neither the same nor totally distinct but exhibit a similar structural geometry with respect to different types of action. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Analisa Spektrum Motor Imagery pada Sinyal Aktivitas Otak

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    Johan Chandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Otak merupakan organ vital pada tubuh manusia yang berperan sebagai pusat kendali sistem saraf manusia. Sinyal yang dikeluarkan otak (EEG mengandung berbagai informasi yang dapat dimanfaatkan pada teknologi BCI. Salah satu informasi yang dapat digunakan adalah informasi motorik baik mengenai motor execution maupung motor imagery. Pada penderita stroke yang biasanya mengalami kelumpuhan pada anggota gerak tubuhnya, informasi mengenai motor imagery dapat dimanfaatkan untuk aplikasi Brain Computer Interface terutama dalam rehabilitasi kelumpuhan anggota gerak pasien tersebut. Pada penelitian ini dirancang sebuah alat sistem EEG untuk merekam sinyal EEG pada otak untuk menganalisa spektrum motor imagery pada sinyal aktivitas otak. Sistem terdiri dari rangkaian filter pasif, rangkaian proteksi, penguat isntrumentasi, common mode rejection, amplifier, dan filter. Pengujian dilakukan dengan membandingkan sinyal EEG pada tasking motor imagery dan motor execution. Selanjutnya, informasi motorik baik motor execution dan motor imagery dapat diaplikasikan lebih lanjut pada sistem BCI terutama pada rehabilitasi medik.

  16. Changes in brain activity during action observation and motor imagery: Their relationship with motor learning.

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    Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that training utilizing action observation and/or motor imagery improves motor performance. These two techniques are widely used in sports and in the rehabilitation of movement-related disorders. Motor imagery has also been used for brain-machine/computer interfaces (BMI/BCI). During both action observation and motor imagery, motor-related regions such as the premotor cortex and inferior parietal lobule are activated. This is common to actual execution and are involved with the underlying mechanisms of motor learning without execution. Since it is easier to record brain activity during action observation and motor imagery than that during actual sport movements, action observation, and motor imagery of sports skills or complex whole body movements have been utilized to investigate how neural mechanisms differ across the performance spectrum ranging from beginner to expert. However, brain activity during action observation and motor imagery is influenced by task complexity (i.e., simple vs complex movements). Furthermore, temporal changes in brain activity during actual execution along the long time course of motor learning are likely nonlinear and would be different from that during action observation or motor imagery. Activity in motor-related regions during action observation and motor imagery is typically greater in experts than in nonexperts, while the activity during actual execution is often smaller in experts than in nonexperts. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Motor imagery in physical therapist practice.

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    Dickstein, Ruth; Deutsch, Judith E

    2007-07-01

    Motor imagery is the mental representation of movement without any body movement. Abundant evidence on the positive effects of motor imagery practice on motor performance and learning in athletes, people who are healthy, and people with neurological conditions (eg, stroke, spinal cord injury, Parkinson disease) has been published. The purpose of this update is to synthesize the relevant literature about motor imagery in order to facilitate its integration into physical therapist practice. This update also will discuss visual and kinesthetic motor imagery, factors that modify motor imagery practice, the design of motor imagery protocols, and potential applications of motor imagery.

  18. Modulation of hand motor-related area during motor imagery and motor execution before and after middle 2/5 of the MS6 line scalp acupuncture stimulation: An fMRI study.

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    Zanardi, Romeo; Maieron, Marta; Tomasino, Barbara

    2016-03-01

    Scalp acupuncture (SA) combines the concept of cerebral cortex organization with the principles of acupuncture. The SA stimulates sections of the cerebral cortex. We studied the functional modulation of the left hand sensorimotor area induced by SA in order to investigate the specificity of the SA-related functional effects of the middle 2/5 of the MS6 line of the left side, which corresponds to the upper limb motor segment of the primary motor area. To this purpose, we compared the pre- and post-SA functional activation patterns during an implicit motor imagery task (handedness decision in which participants simulated rotational hand movements) and an explicit manual motor execution task. Feet and mouth movements, and the fMRI changes in their respective representations were used as control conditions. Only SA on the hand area of the left side (as compared to the mouth and the foot representations which were used as control conditions) exerted a release effect on the right hand area. In addition, an increased activation of the superior parietal lobe was seen, which is involved in movement control and planning. Taken together, these preliminary findings may shed light on the SA effects and confirm a prolonged effect of SA even after cessation of needling stimulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Selective effect of physical fatigue on motor imagery accuracy.

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    Franck Di Rienzo

    Full Text Available While the use of motor imagery (the mental representation of an action without overt execution during actual training sessions is usually recommended, experimental studies examining the effect of physical fatigue on subsequent motor imagery performance are sparse and yielded divergent findings. Here, we investigated whether physical fatigue occurring during an intense sport training session affected motor imagery ability. Twelve swimmers (nine males, mean age 15.5 years conducted a 45 min physically-fatiguing protocol where they swam from 70% to 100% of their maximal aerobic speed. We tested motor imagery ability immediately before and after fatigue state. Participants randomly imagined performing a swim turn using internal and external visual imagery. Self-reports ratings, imagery times and electrodermal responses, an index of alertness from the autonomic nervous system, were the dependent variables. Self-reports ratings indicated that participants did not encounter difficulty when performing motor imagery after fatigue. However, motor imagery times were significantly shortened during posttest compared to both pretest and actual turn times, thus indicating reduced timing accuracy. Looking at the selective effect of physical fatigue on external visual imagery did not reveal any difference before and after fatigue, whereas significantly shorter imagined times and electrodermal responses (respectively 15% and 48% decrease, p<0.001 were observed during the posttest for internal visual imagery. A significant correlation (r=0.64; p<0.05 was observed between motor imagery vividness (estimated through imagery questionnaire and autonomic responses during motor imagery after fatigue. These data support that unlike local muscle fatigue, physical fatigue occurring during intense sport training sessions is likely to affect motor imagery accuracy. These results might be explained by the updating of the internal representation of the motor sequence, due to

  20. Analisa Spektrum Motor Imagery pada Sinyal Aktivitas Otak

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Johan; Arifin, Achmad; Fatoni, Muhammad Hilman

    2016-01-01

    Otak merupakan organ vital pada tubuh manusia yang berperan sebagai pusat kendali sistem saraf manusia. Sinyal yang dikeluarkan otak (EEG) mengandung berbagai informasi yang dapat dimanfaatkan pada teknologi BCI. Salah satu informasi yang dapat digunakan adalah informasi motorik baik mengenai motor execution maupung motor imagery. Pada penderita stroke yang biasanya mengalami kelumpuhan pada anggota gerak tubuhnya, informasi mengenai motor imagery dapat dimanfaatkan untuk aplikasi Brain Compu...

  1. Analisa Spektrum Motor Imagery pada Sinyal Aktivitas Otak

    OpenAIRE

    Johan Chandra; Achmad Arifin; Muhammad Hilman Fatoni

    2017-01-01

    Otak merupakan organ vital pada tubuh manusia yang berperan sebagai pusat kendali sistem saraf manusia. Sinyal yang dikeluarkan otak (EEG) mengandung berbagai informasi yang dapat dimanfaatkan pada teknologi BCI. Salah satu informasi yang dapat digunakan adalah informasi motorik baik mengenai motor execution maupung motor imagery. Pada penderita stroke yang biasanya mengalami kelumpuhan pada anggota gerak tubuhnya, informasi mengenai motor imagery dapat dimanfaatkan untuk aplikasi Brain Compu...

  2. Combining Self-Organizing Mapping and Supervised Affinity Propagation Clustering Approach to Investigate Functional Brain Networks Involved in Motor Imagery and Execution with fMRI Measurements

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    Jiang eZhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractClustering analysis methods have been widely applied to identifying the functional brain networks of a multitask paradigm. However, the previously used clustering analysis techniques are computationally expensive and thus impractical for clinical applications. In this study a novel method, called SOM-SAPC that combines self-organizing mapping (SOM and supervised affinity propagation clustering (SAPC, is proposed and implemented to identify the motor execution (ME and motor imagery (MI networks. In SOM-SAPC, SOM was first performed to process fMRI data and SAPC is further utilized for clustering the patterns of functional networks. As a result, SOM-SAPC is able to significantly reduce the computational cost for brain network analysis. Simulation and clinical tests involving ME and MI were conducted based on SOM-SAPC, and the analysis results indicated that functional brain networks were clearly identified with different response patterns and reduced computational cost. In particular, three activation clusters were clearly revealed, which include parts of the visual, ME and MI functional networks. These findings validated that SOM-SAPC is an effective and robust method to analyze the fMRI data with multitasks.

  3. Combining self-organizing mapping and supervised affinity propagation clustering approach to investigate functional brain networks involved in motor imagery and execution with fMRI measurements.

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    Zhang, Jiang; Liu, Qi; Chen, Huafu; Yuan, Zhen; Huang, Jin; Deng, Lihua; Lu, Fengmei; Zhang, Junpeng; Wang, Yuqing; Wang, Mingwen; Chen, Liangyin

    2015-01-01

    Clustering analysis methods have been widely applied to identifying the functional brain networks of a multitask paradigm. However, the previously used clustering analysis techniques are computationally expensive and thus impractical for clinical applications. In this study a novel method, called SOM-SAPC that combines self-organizing mapping (SOM) and supervised affinity propagation clustering (SAPC), is proposed and implemented to identify the motor execution (ME) and motor imagery (MI) networks. In SOM-SAPC, SOM was first performed to process fMRI data and SAPC is further utilized for clustering the patterns of functional networks. As a result, SOM-SAPC is able to significantly reduce the computational cost for brain network analysis. Simulation and clinical tests involving ME and MI were conducted based on SOM-SAPC, and the analysis results indicated that functional brain networks were clearly identified with different response patterns and reduced computational cost. In particular, three activation clusters were clearly revealed, which include parts of the visual, ME and MI functional networks. These findings validated that SOM-SAPC is an effective and robust method to analyze the fMRI data with multitasks.

  4. Selective Effect of Physical Fatigue on Motor Imagery Accuracy

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    Di Rienzo, Franck; Collet, Christian; Hoyek, Nady; Guillot, Aymeric

    2012-01-01

    While the use of motor imagery (the mental representation of an action without overt execution) during actual training sessions is usually recommended, experimental studies examining the effect of physical fatigue on subsequent motor imagery performance are sparse and yielded divergent findings. Here, we investigated whether physical fatigue occurring during an intense sport training session affected motor imagery ability. Twelve swimmers (nine males, mean age 15.5 years) conducted a 45 min physically-fatiguing protocol where they swam from 70% to 100% of their maximal aerobic speed. We tested motor imagery ability immediately before and after fatigue state. Participants randomly imagined performing a swim turn using internal and external visual imagery. Self-reports ratings, imagery times and electrodermal responses, an index of alertness from the autonomic nervous system, were the dependent variables. Self-reports ratings indicated that participants did not encounter difficulty when performing motor imagery after fatigue. However, motor imagery times were significantly shortened during posttest compared to both pretest and actual turn times, thus indicating reduced timing accuracy. Looking at the selective effect of physical fatigue on external visual imagery did not reveal any difference before and after fatigue, whereas significantly shorter imagined times and electrodermal responses (respectively 15% and 48% decrease, pimagery. A significant correlation (r = 0.64; pimagery vividness (estimated through imagery questionnaire) and autonomic responses during motor imagery after fatigue. These data support that unlike local muscle fatigue, physical fatigue occurring during intense sport training sessions is likely to affect motor imagery accuracy. These results might be explained by the updating of the internal representation of the motor sequence, due to temporary feedback originating from actual motor practice under fatigue. These findings provide insights to

  5. Motor imagery in unipolar major depression

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    Djamila eBennabi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Motor imagery is a potential tool to investigate action representation, as it can provide insights into the processes of action planning and preparation. Recent studies suggest that depressed patients present specific impairment in mental rotation. The present study was designed to investigate the influence of unipolar depression on motor imagery ability.Methods: Fourteen right-handed patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for unipolar depression were compared to fourteen matched healthy controls. Imagery ability was accessed by the timing correspondence between executed and imagined movements during a pointing task, involving strong spatiotemporal constraints (speed/accuracy trade off paradigm.Results: Compared to controls, depressed patients showed marked motor slowing on both actual and imagined movements. Furthermore, we observed greater temporal discrepancies between actual and mental movements in depressed patients than in healthy controls. Lastly, depressed patients modulated, to some extent, mental movement durations according to the difficulty of the task, but this modulation was not as strong as that of healthy subjects.Conclusion: These results suggest that unipolar depression significantly affects the higher stages of action planning and point out a selective decline of motor prediction.

  6. Motor Imagery Ability in Children with Congenital Hemiplegia: Effect of Lesion Side and Functional Level

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    Williams, Jacqueline; Reid, Susan M.; Reddihough, Dinah S.; Anderson, Vicki

    2011-01-01

    In addition to motor execution problems, children with hemiplegia have motor planning deficits, which may stem from poor motor imagery ability. This study aimed to provide a greater understanding of motor imagery ability in children with hemiplegia using the hand rotation task. Three groups of children, aged 8-12 years, participated: right…

  7. Body-specific motor imagery of hand actions: neural evidence from right- and left-handers

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    Roel M Willems

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available If motor imagery uses neural structures involved in action execution, then the neural correlates of imagining an action should differ between individuals who tend to execute the action differently. Here we report fMRI data showing that motor imagery is influenced by the way people habitually perform motor actions with their particular bodies; that is, motor imagery is ‘body-specific’ (Casasanto, 2009. During mental imagery for complex hand actions, activation of cortical areas involved in motor planning and execution was left-lateralized in right-handers but right-lateralized in left-handers. We conclude that motor imagery involves the generation of an action plan that is grounded in the participant’s motor habits, not just an abstract representation at the level of the action’s goal. People with different patterns of motor experience form correspondingly different neurocognitive representations of imagined actions.

  8. Motor imagery training in hemiplegic cerebral palsy: a potentially useful therapeutic tool for rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, B.; Craje, Céline; Nilsen, D.M.; Gordon, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Converging evidence indicates that motor deficits in cerebral palsy (CP) are related not only to problems with execution, but also to impaired motor planning. Current rehabilitation mainly focuses on alleviating compromised motor execution. Motor imagery is a promising method of training the more

  9. Motor imagery enhancement paradigm using moving rubber hand illusion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsu Song; Jonghyun Kim

    2017-07-01

    Motor imagery (MI) has been widely used in neurorehabilitation and brain computer interface. The size of event-related desynchronization (ERD) is a key parameter for successful motor imaginary rehabilitation and BCI adaptation. Many studies have used visual guidance for enhancement/ amplification of motor imagery ERD amplitude, but their enhancements were not significant. We propose a novel ERD enhancing paradigm using body-ownership illusion, or also known as rubber hand illusion (RHI). The system was made by motorized, moving rubber hand which can simulate wrist extension. The amplifying effects of the proposed RHI paradigm were evaluated by comparing ERD sizes of the proposed paradigm with motor imagery and actual motor execution paradigms. The comparison result shows that the improvement of ERD size due to the proposed paradigm was statistically significant (pparadigms.

  10. Motor imagery as a tool for motor skill training in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Doussoulin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at checking the effectiveness of motor imagery on children's motor training. A total of 64 students aged 9 to 10 years, enrolled in three different 4th grade classes, participated in the study. Subjects in the modeling group were asked to view the video recording of an expert performing the task; those in the physical practice group were trained through the actual execution of the task; and subjects in the imagery group, were trained based solely on motor imagery. The task consisted of throwing a ball towards a target. Performance of subjects before and after training was assessed. Results showed improvements for all three groups. However, motor imagery and modeling groups obtained significantly higher mean scores than the physical practice group. Results are discussed in terms of the potential of motor imagery as a training tool in children.

  11. Assessment of motor imagery ability and training

    OpenAIRE

    André Luiz Felix Rodacki; Joice Mara Facco Stefanello; Claudio Portilho Marques

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in motor imagery ability in response to a specific dart throwing training. Twelve subjects (17-22 years) with no previous experience in dart throwing or imagery agreed to participate. Changes in imagery ability were assessed using the Sports Imagery Questionnaire before (pretreatment) and after (post-treatment) an imagery training program consisting of 10 sessions. Retention (RET) was assessed 2 weeks after training. The program included mental ex...

  12. Evaluation of motor imagery ability in neurological patients: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Heremans, Elke; Vercruysse, Sarah; Spildooren, Joke; Feys, Peter; Helsen, W.; Nieuwboer, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Motor imagery is a promising new intervention strategy within neurological rehabilitation. However, previous studies have shown that the ability to perform motor imagery is not well preserved in all neurological patients. Therefore, patients’ motor imagery ability needs to be thoroughly examined when they are included in motor imagery rehabilitation programs or studies. In the past, objective methods to evaluate motor imagery were lacking rigour, and participants’ imagery ability was often in...

  13. The relationship between corticospinal excitability during motor imagery and motor imagery ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jacqueline; Pearce, Alan J; Loporto, Michela; Morris, Tony; Holmes, Paul S

    2012-01-15

    It is commonly reported that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex during action observation and motor imagery results in increases in the amplitude of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in muscles specific to the observed or imagined action. This study aimed to determine whether MEP amplitude was related to the motor imagery ability of participants. Participants were 15 healthy, right-handed adults (five male), with a mean age of 29.7 years. Motor imagery ability was measured using the Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire-2 (VMIQ-2) and a hand rotation task. TMS was delivered during observation and imagery of a finger-thumb opposition sequence and MEPs were measured in the abductor pollicis brevis. Significant increases in MEP amplitude, from baseline, were recorded during observation and imagery conditions. The change in amplitude to both observation and imagery was expressed as a percentage of baseline amplitude. There was a significant correlation between MEP change for the imagery condition and imagery ability, with greater change linked to more vivid images and faster response times. The relationship between MEP change for the observation condition and imagery ability was less salient. This is the first study to show that the strength of corticospinal activation during imagery, which may be a determinant of the effectiveness of imagery training, is related to imagery ability in the general population, and has implications for clinical programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Motor imagery development in primary school children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caeyenberghs, K.; Tsoupas, J.; Wilson, P.H.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Motor imagery provides a unique window on the integrity of movement representation. How this ability unfolds during development remains unknown, however. It was the aim of this cross-sectional study to chart the development of movement imagery over childhood using validated measures, and to examine

  15. Neurofeedback using real-time near-infrared spectroscopy enhances motor imagery related cortical activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Mihara

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that motor imagery and motor execution share common neural networks. Accordingly, mental practices in the form of motor imagery have been implemented in rehabilitation regimes of stroke patients with favorable results. Because direct monitoring of motor imagery is difficult, feedback of cortical activities related to motor imagery (neurofeedback could help to enhance efficacy of mental practice with motor imagery. To determine the feasibility and efficacy of a real-time neurofeedback system mediated by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, two separate experiments were performed. Experiment 1 was used in five subjects to evaluate whether real-time cortical oxygenated hemoglobin signal feedback during a motor execution task correlated with reference hemoglobin signals computed off-line. Results demonstrated that the NIRS-mediated neurofeedback system reliably detected oxygenated hemoglobin signal changes in real-time. In Experiment 2, 21 subjects performed motor imagery of finger movements with feedback from relevant cortical signals and irrelevant sham signals. Real neurofeedback induced significantly greater activation of the contralateral premotor cortex and greater self-assessment scores for kinesthetic motor imagery compared with sham feedback. These findings suggested the feasibility and potential effectiveness of a NIRS-mediated real-time neurofeedback system on performance of kinesthetic motor imagery. However, these results warrant further clinical trials to determine whether this system could enhance the effects of mental practice in stroke patients.

  16. The Functional Equivalence between Movement Imagery, Observation, and Execution Influences Imagery Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sarah E.; Cumming, Jennifer; Edwards, Martin G.

    2011-01-01

    Based on literature identifying movement imagery, observation, and execution to elicit similar areas of neural activity, research has demonstrated that movement imagery and observation successfully prime movement execution. To investigate whether movement and observation could prime ease of imaging from an external visual-imagery perspective, an…

  17. Does motor imagery enhance stretching and flexibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Aymeric; Tolleron, Coralie; Collet, Christian

    2010-02-01

    Although several studies have demonstrated that motor imagery can enhance learning processes and improve motor performance, little is known about its effect on stretching and flexibility. The increased active and passive range of motion reported in preliminary research has not been shown to be elicited by motor imagery training alone. We thus compared flexibility scores in 21 synchronized swimmers before and after a 5-week mental practice programme that included five stretching exercises in active and passive conditions. The imagery training programme resulted in selective increased flexibility, independently of the stretching method. Overall, the improvement in flexibility was greater in the imagery group than in the control group for the front split (F(1,18) = 4.9, P = 0.04), the hamstrings (F(1,18) = 5.2, P = 0.035), and the ankle stretching exercises (F(1,18) = 5.6, P = 0.03). There was no difference in shoulders and side-split flexibility (F(1,18) = 0.1, P = 0.73 and F(1,18) = 3.3, P = 0.08 respectively). Finally, there was no correlation between individual imagery ability and improvement in flexibility. Psychological and physiological effects of motor imagery could explain the increase in range of motion, suggesting that imagery enhances joint flexibility during both active and passive stretching.

  18. On the equivalence of executed and imagined movements: evidence from lateralized motor and nonmotor potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranczioch, Cornelia; Mathews, Simon; Dean, Phil J A; Sterr, Annette

    2009-10-01

    The neural simulation theory assumes that motor imagery and motor execution draw on a shared set of mechanisms underlying motor cognition. Evidence is accumulating that motor imagery and motor execution have many common features. The extent of the similarity and whether it spreads into the preparation phase is however unclear. This study used electroencephalographic recordings to compare the effects of providing advance information about upcoming movements on preparatory processing in a motor imagery and execution paradigm. Event-related potential data were recorded in a priming task where participants were cued to perform simple or complex finger movements. We hypothesized that a high degree of functional similarity of motor imagery and motor execution should be reflected in similar alterations of lateralized preparatory activity. Lateralized preparatory activity was indeed very similar, showing both motor-related (lateralized readiness potential, LRP) and cognitive components (anterior directing-attention negativity or ADAN, late directing-attention positivity or LDAP). Dipole analysis revealed that LRP, ADAN, and LDAP sources were very comparable for motor imagination and execution. Results generally support the idea of common underlying functional networks subserving both the preparation for execution and imagery of movements. They also provide a broader context for this notion by revealing similarities in cognitive components associated with the movement tasks.

  19. Neural activation in cognitive motor processes: comparing motor imagery and observation of gymnastic movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munzert, Jörn; Zentgraf, Karen; Stark, Rudolf; Vaitl, Dieter

    2008-07-01

    The simulation concept suggested by Jeannerod (Neuroimage 14:S103-S109, 2001) defines the S-states of action observation and mental simulation of action as action-related mental states lacking overt execution. Within this framework, similarities and neural overlap between S-states and overt execution are interpreted as providing the common basis for the motor representations implemented within the motor system. The present brain imaging study compared activation overlap and differential activation during mental simulation (motor imagery) with that while observing gymnastic movements. The fMRI conjunction analysis revealed overlapping activation for both S-states in primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, and the supplementary motor area as well as in the intraparietal sulcus, cerebellar hemispheres, and parts of the basal ganglia. A direct contrast between the motor imagery and observation conditions revealed stronger activation for imagery in the posterior insula and the anterior cingulate gyrus. The hippocampus, the superior parietal lobe, and the cerebellar areas were differentially activated in the observation condition. In general, these data corroborate the concept of action-related S-states because of the high overlap in core motor as well as in motor-related areas. We argue that differential activity between S-states relates to task-specific and modal information processing.

  20. Assessment of motor imagery ability and training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Felix Rodacki

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in motor imagery ability in response to a specific dart throwing training. Twelve subjects (17-22 years with no previous experience in dart throwing or imagery agreed to participate. Changes in imagery ability were assessed using the Sports Imagery Questionnaire before (pretreatment and after (post-treatment an imagery training program consisting of 10 sessions. Retention (RET was assessed 2 weeks after training. The program included mental exercises designed to develop vivid images, to control one’s own images, and to increase perception about performance. Comparison of the imagery training conditions (training alone, training accompanied, observing a colleague, and during assessment showed no differences between the pretreatment, post-treatment and RET evaluations. Although imagery ability did not respond to training, significant differences between imagery domains (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and animic were found (p<0.05, except between the visual and animic domains (p=0.58. These differences might be related to subject’s domain preference subject during the imagery process and to the nature of the task in which the skill technique used seems to be a relevant aspect.

  1. Effects of practice, visual loss, limb amputation, and disuse on motor imagery vividness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouin, Francine; Richards, Carol L; Durand, Anne; Descent, Micheline; Poiré, Diane; Frémont, Pierre; Pelet, Stéphane; Gresset, Jacques; Doyon, Julien

    2009-06-01

    The ability to generate vivid images of movements is variable across individuals and likely influenced by sensorimotor inputs. The authors examined (1) the vividness of motor imagery in dancers and in persons with late blindness, with amputation or an immobilization of one lower limb; (2) the effects of prosthesis use on motor imagery; and (3) the temporal characteristics of motor imagery. Eleven dancers, 10 persons with late blindness, 14 with amputation, 6 with immobilization, and 2 groups of age-matched healthy individuals (27 in control group A; 35 in control group B) participated. The Kinesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire served to assess motor imagery vividness. Temporal characteristics were assessed with mental chronometry. The late blindness group and dance group displayed higher imagery scores than respective control groups. In the amputation and immobilization groups, imagery scores were lower on the affected side than the intact side and specifically for imagined foot movements. Imagery scores of the affected limb positively correlated with the time since walking with prosthesis. Movement times during imagination and execution (amputation and immobilization) were longer on the affected side than the intact side, but the temporal congruence between real and imagined movement times was similar to that in the control group. The mental representation of actions is highly modulated by imagery practice and motor activities. The ability to generate vivid images of movements can be specifically weakened by limb loss or disuse, but lack of movement does not affect the temporal characteristics of motor imagery.

  2. Motor imagery and cortico-spinal excitability: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosprêtre, Sidney; Ruffino, Célia; Lebon, Florent

    2016-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI) has received a lot of interest during the last decades as its chronic or acute use has demonstrated several effects on improving sport performances or skills. The development of neuroimagery techniques also helped further our understanding of the neural correlates underlying MI. While some authors showed that MI, motor execution and action observation activated similar motor cortical regions, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies brought great insights on the role of the primary motor cortex and on the activation of the cortico-spinal pathway during MI. After defining MI and describing the TMS technique, a short report of MI activities only at cortical level is provided. Then, a main focus on the specificities of cortico-spinal modulations during MI, investigated by TMS, is provided. Finally, a brief overview of sub-cortical mechanisms gives importance to the activation of peripheral neural structures during MI.

  3. Active training paradigm for motor imagery BCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junhua; Zhang, Liqing

    2012-06-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) allows the use of brain activities for people to directly communicate with the external world or to control external devices without participation of any peripheral nerves and muscles. Motor imagery is one of the most popular modes in the research field of brain-computer interface. Although motor imagery BCI has some advantages compared with other modes of BCI, such as asynchronization, it is necessary to require training sessions before using it. The performance of trained BCI system depends on the quality of training samples or the subject engagement. In order to improve training effect and decrease training time, we proposed a new paradigm where subjects participated in training more actively than in the traditional paradigm. In the traditional paradigm, a cue (to indicate what kind of motor imagery should be imagined during the current trial) is given to the subject at the beginning of a trial or during a trial, and this cue is also used as a label for this trial. It is usually assumed that labels for trials are accurate in the traditional paradigm, although subjects may not have performed the required or correct kind of motor imagery, and trials may thus be mislabeled. And then those mislabeled trials give rise to interference during model training. In our proposed paradigm, the subject is required to reconfirm the label and can correct the label when necessary. This active training paradigm may generate better training samples with fewer inconsistent labels because it overcomes mistakes when subject's motor imagination does not match the given cues. The experiments confirm that our proposed paradigm achieves better performance; the improvement is significant according to statistical analysis.

  4. Mental Representation and Motor Imagery Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eSchack

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Research in sports, dance and rehabilitation has shown that Basic Action Concepts (BACs are fundamental building blocks of mental action representations. BACs are based on chunked body postures related to common functions for realizing action goals. In this paper, we outline issues in research methodology and an experimental method, SDA-M (structural dimensional analysis of mental representation, to assess action-relevant representational structures that reflect the organization of BACs. The SDA-M reveals a strong relationship between cognitive representation and performance if complex actions are performed. We show how the SDA-M can improve motor imagery training and how it contributes to our understanding of coaching processes. The SDA-M capitalizes on the objective measurement of individual mental movement representations before training and the integration of these results into the motor imagery training. Such motor imagery training based on mental representations has been applied successfully in professional sports such as golf, volleyball, gymnastics, windsurfing, and recently in the rehabilitation of patients who have suffered a stroke.

  5. Mental representation and motor imagery training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schack, Thomas; Essig, Kai; Frank, Cornelia; Koester, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Research in sports, dance and rehabilitation has shown that basic action concepts (BACs) are fundamental building blocks of mental action representations. BACs are based on chunked body postures related to common functions for realizing action goals. In this paper, we outline issues in research methodology and an experimental method, the structural dimensional analysis of mental representation (SDA-M), to assess action-relevant representational structures that reflect the organization of BACs. The SDA-M reveals a strong relationship between cognitive representation and performance if complex actions are performed. We show how the SDA-M can improve motor imagery training and how it contributes to our understanding of coaching processes. The SDA-M capitalizes on the objective measurement of individual mental movement representations before training and the integration of these results into the motor imagery training. Such motor imagery training based on mental representations (MTMR) has been applied successfully in professional sports such as golf, volleyball, gymnastics, windsurfing, and recently in the rehabilitation of patients who have suffered a stroke.

  6. Enhanced Motor Imagery Training Using a Hybrid BCI With Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tianyou; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Fangyi; Zhang, Rui; Gu, Zhenghui; Cichocki, Andrzej; Li, Yuanqing

    2015-07-01

    Motor imagery-related mu/beta rhythms, which can be voluntarily modulated by subjects, have been widely used in EEG-based brain computer interfaces (BCIs). Moreover, it has been suggested that motor imagery-specific EEG differences can be enhanced by feedback training. However, the differences observed in the EEGs of naive subjects are typically not sufficient to provide reliable EEG control and thus result in unintended feedback. Such feedback can frustrate subjects and impede training. In this study, a hybrid BCI paradigm combining motor imagery and steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs) has been proposed to provide effective continuous feedback for motor imagery training. During the initial training sessions, subjects must focus on flickering buttons to evoke SSVEPs as they perform motor imagery tasks. The output/feedback of the hybrid BCI is based on hybrid features consisting of motor imagery- and SSVEP-related brain signals. In this context, the SSVEP plays a more important role than motor imagery in generating feedback. As the training progresses, the subjects can gradually decrease their visual attention to the flickering buttons, provided that the feedback is still effective. In this case, the feedback is mainly based on motor imagery. Our experimental results demonstrate that subjects generate distinguishable brain patterns of hand motor imagery after only five training sessions lasting approximately 1.5 h each. The proposed hybrid feedback paradigm can be used to enhance motor imagery training. This hybrid BCI system with feedback can effectively identify the intentions of the subjects.

  7. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M.; Palmer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians' encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies), and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies). Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning) or performing without sound (motor learning); following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall). During either Learning (Experiment 1) or Recall (Experiment 2), pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced) and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals) were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists' pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2). Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1): Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2): Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the presence of

  8. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians' encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies), and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies). Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning) or performing without sound (motor learning); following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall). During either Learning (Experiment 1) or Recall (Experiment 2), pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced) and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals) were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists' pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2). Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1): Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2): Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the presence of

  9. Motor Coordination and Executive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Since Piaget, the view that motor and cognitive development are interrelated has gained wide acceptance. However, empirical research on this issue is still rare. Few studies show a correlation of performance in cognitive and motor tasks in typically developing children. More specifically, Diamond A. (2000) hypothesizes an involvement of executive…

  10. Transcranial direct current stimulation of the motor cortex in waking resting state induces motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Jana; Speth, Clemens; Harley, Trevor A

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates if anodal and cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of areas above the motor cortex (C3) influences spontaneous motor imagery experienced in the waking resting state. A randomized triple-blinded design was used, combining neurophysiological techniques with tools of quantitative mentation report analysis from cognitive linguistics. The results indicate that while spontaneous motor imagery rarely occurs under sham stimulation, general and athletic motor imagery (classified as athletic disciplines), is induced by anodal tDCS. This insight may have implications beyond basic consciousness research. Motor imagery and corresponding motor cortical activation have been shown to benefit later motor performance. Electrophysiological manipulations of motor imagery could in the long run be used for rehabilitative tDCS protocols benefitting temporarily immobile clinical patients who cannot perform specific motor imagery tasks - such as dementia patients, infants with developmental and motor disorders, and coma patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Planning, preparation, execution, and imagery of volitional action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deecke, L

    1996-03-01

    There are different motor sets, which a human subject can be in or act from: he or she can be in a self-initiated voluntary movement set (action) or in a response set (re-action). Also, imagery sets are available that are necessary for the acquisition and practice of skill. Most important are such imagery sets for rehearsal in theatre, dance, music, sports, combat, etc.

  12. Planning, preparation, execution, and imagery of volitional action

    OpenAIRE

    Deecke, Lüder

    1996-01-01

    There are different motor sets, which a human subject can be in or act from: He or she can be in a self-initiated voluntary movement set (action) or in a response set (re-action). Also, imagery sets are available that are necessary for the acquisition and practice of skill. Most important are such imagery sets for rehearsal in theatre, dance, music, sports, combat, etc.

  13. Short time sports exercise boosts motor imagery patterns: Implications of mental practice in rehabilitation programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina Christin Wriessnegger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Motor imagery (MI is a commonly used paradigm for the study of motor learning or cognitive aspects of action control. The rationale for using MI training to promote the relearning of motor function arises from research on the functional correlates that MI shares with the execution of physical movements. While most of the previous studies investigating MI were based on simple movements in the present study a more attractive mental practice was used to investigate cortical activation during MI. We measured cerebral responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in twenty three healthy volunteers as they imagined playing soccer or tennis before and after a short physical sports exercise. Our results demonstrated that only 10 minutes of training are enough to boost motor imagery patterns in motor related brain regions including premotor cortex and supplementary motor area (SMA but also fronto-parietal and subcortical structures. This supports previous findings that motor imagery has beneficial effects especially in combination with motor execution when used in motor rehabilitation or motor learning processes. We conclude that sports MI combined with an interactive game environment could be a promising additional tool in future rehabilitation programs aiming to improve upper or lower limb functions or support neuroplasticity.

  14. Motor Imagery Learning Modulates Functional Connectivity of Multiple Brain Systems in Resting State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Long, Zhiying; Ge, Ruiyang; Xu, Lele; Jin, Zhen; Yao, Li; Liu, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    Background Learning motor skills involves subsequent modulation of resting-state functional connectivity in the sensory-motor system. This idea was mostly derived from the investigations on motor execution learning which mainly recruits the processing of sensory-motor information. Behavioral evidences demonstrated that motor skills in our daily lives could be learned through imagery procedures. However, it remains unclear whether the modulation of resting-state functional connectivity also exists in the sensory-motor system after motor imagery learning. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a fMRI investigation on motor imagery learning from resting state. Based on previous studies, we identified eight sensory and cognitive resting-state networks (RSNs) corresponding to the brain systems and further explored the functional connectivity of these RSNs through the assessments, connectivity and network strengths before and after the two-week consecutive learning. Two intriguing results were revealed: (1) The sensory RSNs, specifically sensory-motor and lateral visual networks exhibited greater connectivity strengths in precuneus and fusiform gyrus after learning; (2) Decreased network strength induced by learning was proved in the default mode network, a cognitive RSN. Conclusions/Significance These results indicated that resting-state functional connectivity could be modulated by motor imagery learning in multiple brain systems, and such modulation displayed in the sensory-motor, visual and default brain systems may be associated with the establishment of motor schema and the regulation of introspective thought. These findings further revealed the neural substrates underlying motor skill learning and potentially provided new insights into the therapeutic benefits of motor imagery learning. PMID:24465577

  15. Motor imagery learning modulates functional connectivity of multiple brain systems in resting state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Long, Zhiying; Ge, Ruiyang; Xu, Lele; Jin, Zhen; Yao, Li; Liu, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    Learning motor skills involves subsequent modulation of resting-state functional connectivity in the sensory-motor system. This idea was mostly derived from the investigations on motor execution learning which mainly recruits the processing of sensory-motor information. Behavioral evidences demonstrated that motor skills in our daily lives could be learned through imagery procedures. However, it remains unclear whether the modulation of resting-state functional connectivity also exists in the sensory-motor system after motor imagery learning. We performed a fMRI investigation on motor imagery learning from resting state. Based on previous studies, we identified eight sensory and cognitive resting-state networks (RSNs) corresponding to the brain systems and further explored the functional connectivity of these RSNs through the assessments, connectivity and network strengths before and after the two-week consecutive learning. Two intriguing results were revealed: (1) The sensory RSNs, specifically sensory-motor and lateral visual networks exhibited greater connectivity strengths in precuneus and fusiform gyrus after learning; (2) Decreased network strength induced by learning was proved in the default mode network, a cognitive RSN. These results indicated that resting-state functional connectivity could be modulated by motor imagery learning in multiple brain systems, and such modulation displayed in the sensory-motor, visual and default brain systems may be associated with the establishment of motor schema and the regulation of introspective thought. These findings further revealed the neural substrates underlying motor skill learning and potentially provided new insights into the therapeutic benefits of motor imagery learning.

  16. Current insights in the development of children's motor imagery ability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, S.; Kamp, J. van der; Steenbergen, B.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the number of studies on motor imagery in children has witnessed a large expansion. Most studies used the hand laterality judgment paradigm or the mental chronometry paradigm to examine motor imagery ability. The main objective of the current review is to collate these

  17. Current insights in the development of children's motor imagery ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, S.; Kamp, J. van der; Steenbergen, B.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the number of studies on motor imagery in children has witnessed a large expansion. Most studies used the hand laterality judgment paradigm or the mental chronometry paradigm to examine motor imagery ability. The main objective of the current review is to collate these

  18. Visuo-motor learning with combination of different rates of motor imagery and physical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allami, Nadia; Paulignan, Yves; Brovelli, Andrea; Boussaoud, Driss

    2008-01-01

    Sports psychology suggests that mental rehearsal facilitates physical practice in athletes and clinical rehabilitation attempts to use mental rehearsal to restore motor function in hemiplegic patients. Our aim was to examine whether mental rehearsal is equivalent to physical learning, and to determine the optimal proportions of real execution and rehearsal. Subjects were asked to grasp an object and insert it into an adapted slot. One group (G0) practiced the task only by physical execution (240 trials); three groups imagined performing the task in different rates of trials (25%, G25; 50%, G50; 75%, G75), and physically executed movements for the remaining trials; a fourth, control group imagined a visual rotation task in 75% of the trials and then performed the same motor task as the others groups. Movement time (MT) was compared for the first and last physical trials, together with other key trials, across groups. All groups learned, suggesting that mental rehearsal is equivalent to physical motor learning. More importantly, when subjects rehearsed the task for large numbers of trials (G50 and G75), the MT of the first executed trial was significantly shorter than the first executed trial in the physical group (G0), indicating that mental practice is better than no practice at all. Comparison of the first executed trial in G25, G50 and G75 with the corresponding trials in G0 (61, 121 and 181 trials), showed equivalence between mental and physical practice. At the end of training, the performance was much better with high rates of mental practice (G50/G75) compared to physical practice alone (G0), especially when the task was difficult. These findings confirm that mental rehearsal can be beneficial for motor learning and suggest that imagery might be used to supplement or partly replace physical practice in clinical rehabilitation.

  19. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians’ encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies, and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies. Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning or performing without sound (motor learning; following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall. During either Learning (Experiment 1 or Recall (Experiment 2, pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists’ pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2. Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1: Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2: Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the

  20. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Rachel M.; Caroline ePalmer

    2013-01-01

    Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians' encoding (during Learning, as they practiced nov...

  1. Differences in Brain Waves of Normal Persons and Stroke Patients during Action Observation and Motor Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junghee; Lee, Byounghee; Lee, Hyun Suk; Shin, Kil Ho; Kim, Min Ju; Son, Esther

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in brain waves between action observation and motor imagery of stroke patients and normal subjects, and to compare them. [Methods] Twelve stroke patients and twelve normal persons participated in this research. Each group executed action observation and the motor imagery training for 3 minutes, and before and during each intervention the brain waves were measured for 3 minutes, and the relative alpha power and relative beta power analyzed. [Results] Both normal persons and stroke patients showed significant differences in relative alpha power during action observation, but no significant difference in relative alpha power was found during motor imagery. The relative beta power increased similarly in both groups but it was more significantly different during action observation than during motor imagery. [Conclusion] Both action observation and motor imagery can be used as a therapeutic method for motor learning. However, action observation induces stronger cognitive activity, so for the stroke patients who have difficulty with fine motor representation, action observation might be a more effective therapy.

  2. Patients’ Views on a Combined Action Observation and Motor Imagery Intervention for Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Bek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Action observation and motor imagery activate neural structures involved in action execution, thereby facilitating movement and learning. Although some benefits of action observation and motor imagery have been reported in Parkinson’s disease (PD, methods have been based on stroke rehabilitation and may be less suitable for PD. Moreover, previous studies have focused on either observation or imagery, yet combining these enhances effects in healthy participants. The present study explores the feasibility of a PD-specific home-based intervention combining observation, imagery, and imitation of meaningful everyday actions. Methods. A focus group was conducted with six people with mild to moderate PD and two companions, exploring topics relating to the utility and feasibility of a home-based observation and imagery intervention. Results. Five themes were identified. Participants reported their experiences of exercise and use of action observation and motor imagery in everyday activities, and the need for strategies to improve movement was expressed. Motivational factors including feedback, challenge, and social support were identified as key issues. The importance of offering a broad range of actions and flexible training was also highlighted. Conclusions. A home-based intervention utilising action observation and motor imagery would be useful and feasible in mild to moderate PD.

  3. Patients' Views on a Combined Action Observation and Motor Imagery Intervention for Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bek, Judith; Webb, Jordan; Gowen, Emma; Vogt, Stefan; Crawford, Trevor J; Sullivan, Matthew S; Poliakoff, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Action observation and motor imagery activate neural structures involved in action execution, thereby facilitating movement and learning. Although some benefits of action observation and motor imagery have been reported in Parkinson's disease (PD), methods have been based on stroke rehabilitation and may be less suitable for PD. Moreover, previous studies have focused on either observation or imagery, yet combining these enhances effects in healthy participants. The present study explores the feasibility of a PD-specific home-based intervention combining observation, imagery, and imitation of meaningful everyday actions. Methods. A focus group was conducted with six people with mild to moderate PD and two companions, exploring topics relating to the utility and feasibility of a home-based observation and imagery intervention. Results. Five themes were identified. Participants reported their experiences of exercise and use of action observation and motor imagery in everyday activities, and the need for strategies to improve movement was expressed. Motivational factors including feedback, challenge, and social support were identified as key issues. The importance of offering a broad range of actions and flexible training was also highlighted. Conclusions. A home-based intervention utilising action observation and motor imagery would be useful and feasible in mild to moderate PD.

  4. Benefits of motor imagery training on muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebon, Florent; Collet, Christian; Guillot, Aymeric

    2010-06-01

    It is well established that motor imagery (MI) improves motor performance and motor learning efficiently. Previous studies provided evidence that muscle strength may benefit from MI training, mainly when movements are under the control of large cortical areas in the primary motor cortex. The purpose of this experiment is to assess whether MI might improve upper and lower limbs' strength through an ecological approach and validation, with complex and multijoint exercises. Nine participants were included in the MI group and 10 in the control (CTRL) group. The 2 groups performed identical bench press and leg press exercises. The MI group was instructed to visualize and feel the correspondent contractions during the rest period, whereas the CTRL group carried out a neutral task. The maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and the maximal number of repetitions (MR) using 80% of the pre-test MVC weight were measured. Although both MI and CTRL groups enhanced their strength through the training sessions, the leg press MVC was significantly higher in the MI group than in the CTRL group (ptraining may contribute to the improvement of lower limbs performance by enhancing the technical execution of the movement, and the individual intrinsic motivation. From an applied and practical perspective, we state that athletes may perform imagined muscles contractions, most especially during the rest periods of their physical training, to contribute to the enhancement of concentric strength.

  5. Improvement in precision grip force control with self-modulation of primary motor cortex during motor imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laura eBlefari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Motor imagery (MI has shown effectiveness in enhancing motor performance. This may be due to the common neural mechanisms underlying MI and motor execution (ME. The main region of the ME network, the primary motor cortex (M1, has been consistently linked to motor performance. However, the activation of M1 during motor imagery is controversial, which may account for inconsistent rehabilitation therapy outcomes using MI. Here, we examined the relationship between contralateral M1 (cM1 activation during MI and changes in sensorimotor performance. To aid cM1 activity modulation during MI, we used real-time fMRI neurofeedback-guided MI based on cM1 hand area blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal in healthy subjects, performing kinesthetic MI of pinching. We used multiple regression analysis to examine the correlation between cM1 BOLD signal and changes in motor performance during an isometric pinching task of those subjects who were able to activate cM1 during motor imagery. Activities in premotor and parietal regions were used as covariates. We found that cM1 activity was positively correlated to improvements in accuracy as well as overall performance improvements, whereas other regions in the sensorimotor network were not. The association between cM1 activation during MI with performance changes indicates that subjects with stronger cM1 activation during MI may benefit more from MI training, with implications towards targeted neurotherapy.

  6. What Do Eye Gaze Metrics Tell Us about Motor Imagery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Poiroux

    Full Text Available Many of the brain structures involved in performing real movements also have increased activity during imagined movements or during motor observation, and this could be the neural substrate underlying the effects of motor imagery in motor learning or motor rehabilitation. In the absence of any objective physiological method of measurement, it is currently impossible to be sure that the patient is indeed performing the task as instructed. Eye gaze recording during a motor imagery task could be a possible way to "spy" on the activity an individual is really engaged in. The aim of the present study was to compare the pattern of eye movement metrics during motor observation, visual and kinesthetic motor imagery (VI, KI, target fixation, and mental calculation. Twenty-two healthy subjects (16 females and 6 males, were required to perform tests in five conditions using imagery in the Box and Block Test tasks following the procedure described by Liepert et al. Eye movements were analysed by a non-invasive oculometric measure (SMI RED250 system. Two parameters describing gaze pattern were calculated: the index of ocular mobility (saccade duration over saccade + fixation duration and the number of midline crossings (i.e. the number of times the subjects gaze crossed the midline of the screen when performing the different tasks. Both parameters were significantly different between visual imagery and kinesthesic imagery, visual imagery and mental calculation, and visual imagery and target fixation. For the first time we were able to show that eye movement patterns are different during VI and KI tasks. Our results suggest gaze metric parameters could be used as an objective unobtrusive approach to assess engagement in a motor imagery task. Further studies should define how oculomotor parameters could be used as an indicator of the rehabilitation task a patient is engaged in.

  7. Motor Imagery Impairment in Postacute Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niclas Braun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Not much is known about how well stroke patients are able to perform motor imagery (MI and which MI abilities are preserved after stroke. We therefore applied three different MI tasks (one mental chronometry task, one mental rotation task, and one EEG-based neurofeedback task to a sample of postacute stroke patients (n=20 and age-matched healthy controls (n=20 for addressing the following questions: First, which of the MI tasks indicate impairment in stroke patients and are impairments restricted to the paretic side? Second, is there a relationship between MI impairment and sensory loss or paresis severity? And third, do the results of the different MI tasks converge? Significant differences between the stroke and control groups were found in all three MI tasks. However, only the mental chronometry task and EEG analysis revealed paresis side-specific effects. Moreover, sensitivity loss contributed to a performance drop in the mental rotation task. The findings indicate that although MI abilities may be impaired after stroke, most patients retain their ability for MI EEG-based neurofeedback. Interestingly, performance in the different MI measures did not strongly correlate, neither in stroke patients nor in healthy controls. We conclude that one MI measure is not sufficient to fully assess an individual’s MI abilities.

  8. Motor imagery beyond the motor repertoire: Activity in the primary visual cortex during kinesthetic motor imagery of difficult whole body movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguchi, N; Nakata, H; Kanosue, K

    2016-02-19

    To elucidate the neural substrate associated with capabilities for kinesthetic motor imagery of difficult whole-body movements, we measured brain activity during a trial involving both kinesthetic motor imagery and action observation as well as during a trial with action observation alone. Brain activity was assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Nineteen participants imagined three types of whole-body movements with the horizontal bar: the giant swing, kip, and chin-up during action observation. No participant had previously tried to perform the giant swing. The vividness of kinesthetic motor imagery as assessed by questionnaire was highest for the chin-up, less for the kip and lowest for the giant swing. Activity in the primary visual cortex (V1) during kinesthetic motor imagery with action observation minus that during action observation alone was significantly greater in the giant swing condition than in the chin-up condition within participants. Across participants, V1 activity of kinesthetic motor imagery of the kip during action observation minus that during action observation alone was negatively correlated with vividness of the kip imagery. These results suggest that activity in V1 is dependent upon the capability of kinesthetic motor imagery for difficult whole-body movements. Since V1 activity is likely related to the creation of a visual image, we speculate that visual motor imagery is recruited unintentionally for the less vivid kinesthetic motor imagery of difficult whole-body movements. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Coupling movement with imagery as a new perspective for motor imagery practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Aymeric; Moschberger, Kevin; Collet, Christian

    2013-02-20

    Recent data support the beneficial role of gesturing during mental practice. The present study examined whether coupling motor imagery (MI) with some movement sequences (dynamic imagery condition) impacted motor performance to a greater extent than performing MI while remaining motionless. A group of active high jumpers imagined their jump both with and without associated arm movement. Three outcome variables were measured: the number of successful attempts, the temporal congruence between MI and actual jump performance, and the technical quality of the jump. Data revealed that dynamic imagery enhanced both MI quality and temporal congruence between MI and motor performance, and further improved the technical efficacy of the jump. Athletes also reported more vivid representation while coupling MI with actual movement. These data support the hypothesis that performing dynamic imagery might contribute to enhance MI quality and efficacy, and sketch potentially fruitful new directions for MI practice.

  10. Current insights in the development of children’s motor imagery ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffie eSpruijt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the number of studies on motor imagery in children has witnessed a large expansion. Most studies used the hand laterality judgment paradigm or the mental chronometry paradigm to examine motor imagery ability. The main objective of the current review is to collate these studies to provide a more comprehensive insight in children’s motor imagery development and its age of onset. Motor imagery is a form of motor cognition and aligns with forward (or predictive models of motor control. Studying age-related differences in motor imagery ability in children therefore provides insight in underlying processes of motor development during childhood. Another motivation for studying age-related differences in motor imagery is that in order to effectively apply motor imagery training in children (with motor impairments, it is pertinent to first establish the age at which children are actually able to perform motor imagery.Overall, performance in the imagery tasks develops between 5 and 12 years of age. The age of motor imagery onset, however, remains equivocal, as some studies indicate that children of 5 to 7 years old can already enlist motor imagery in an implicit motor imagery task, whereas other studies using explicit instructions revealed that children do not use motor imagery before the age of 10. From the findings of the current study, we can conclude that motor imagery training is potentially a feasible method for paediatric rehabilitation in children from 5 years on. We suggest that younger children are most likely to benefit from motor imagery training that is presented in an implicit way. Action observation training might be a beneficial adjunct to implicit motor imagery training. From 10 years of age, more explicit forms of motor imagery training can be effectively used.

  11. EEG-fMRI neurofeedback of a motor imagery task

    OpenAIRE

    Perronnet, Lorraine; Lécuyer, Anatole; Mano, Marsel; Bannier, Elise; Lotte, Fabien; Clerc, Maureen; Barillot, Christian

    2016-01-01

    International audience; EEG-fMRI-neurofeedback(NF) has been introduced for the first time by Zotev et al [1]. The authors hypothesized that bimodal EEG-fMRI-NF could be more efficient than unimodal EEG-NF or fMRI-NF performed alone. A recent study identified the fMRI signature of motor imagery during EEG-NF [3]. However to our knowledge EEG-fMRI-NF, EEG-NF and fMRI-NF have never been compared before. In the present work, we propose an EEG-fMRI-NF protocol of a motor imagery (MI) task and comp...

  12. Imaging the imagination: the trouble with motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Arne

    2008-08-01

    Sports and exercise psychology finds itself in a most unfortunate situation these days. While all other branches of the psychological sciences help themselves freely to the glitzy new toys of modern neuroscience--MRI and PET, mostly--exploring the neural underpinnings of whatever cognitive function they are interested in exploring, the sport sciences are left out of the fun for the simple reason that these imaging instruments preclude motion--the very thing then that is the subject of interest to them. There are several legitimate ways around this problem but the one that seems to be most popular is, I think, not--legitimate, that is. The basic idea, unduly sharpened here, is the following. Neuroimaging studies have shown that imagined and actual motion share the same neural substrates or, alternatively, imagining an action corresponds to a subliminal activation of the same brain areas required for its execution. It follows from this, the arguments runs, that motor imagery can be used as a proxy for real motor performance, et voilà, the sports sciences can go wild with all the snazzy brain imaging tools after all--just like everyone else. This notion is, I believe, misbegotten, a house of cards that threatens to cast a long shadow over the field. The present article, then, is, to be frank, intended to put a machete to this kind of thinking. It does this by exposing this conclusion to be based on an unholy marriage of selective data reporting and gross overgeneralization. The result is a wild goose chase fueled by wishful thinking.

  13. Relaxation guided imagery reduces motor fluctuations in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Ilana; Benyakov, Orna; Erikh, Ilana; Nassar, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Motor fluctuations in Parkinson's disease (PD) cause major disabling symptoms. We aimed to assess the efficacy of relaxation guided imagery in PD patients with motor fluctuation. In a prospective pilot, case cohort, PD patients underwent (i) a relaxation session with relaxation guided imagery, and (ii) a control session of relaxing music. Three-day diaries were completed at baseline and after each intervention. Subsequently, patients received discs for home listening-a relaxation guided imagery disc and a relaxing music disc. After three months the patients were interviewed by phone. Twenty one PD patients participated and 19 completed this study. There was a significant increase in the percent of "on" time after listening to the relaxation guided imagery disc as compared with baseline (from 47.7% to 62.8%, 95% CI 5.26-25.03, p = 0.005). Relaxing music caused no significant change in percent of "on" time from baseline (from 47.7% to 53.0%, p = 0.161). Although all sessions were performed in "on" state, there was a significant decrease in UPDRS motor subscores after each of the two sessions as compared with the UPDRS score before the session (relaxation guided imagery mean reduction -3.81 p = 0.0002 and after relaxing music mean reduction -1.95, p = 0.001), significantly more so after the relaxation guided imagery (p = 0.020). After 3 months listening to the relaxation guided imagery disc increased "on" time from baseline by 12.6% (95% CI 3.19-28.39, p = 0.111) but this did not reach statistical significance. In this pilot study we showed that relaxation guided imagery is a promising treatment for PD.

  14. Short time sports exercise boosts motor imagery patterns: implications of mental practice in rehabilitation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wriessnegger, Selina C; Steyrl, David; Koschutnig, Karl; Müller-Putz, Gernot R

    2014-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI) is a commonly used paradigm for the study of motor learning or cognitive aspects of action control. The rationale for using MI training to promote the relearning of motor function arises from research on the functional correlates that MI shares with the execution of physical movements. While most of the previous studies investigating MI were based on simple movements in the present study a more attractive mental practice was used to investigate cortical activation during MI. We measured cerebral responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in twenty three healthy volunteers as they imagined playing soccer or tennis before and after a short physical sports exercise. Our results demonstrated that only 10 min of training are enough to boost MI patterns in motor related brain regions including premotor cortex and supplementary motor area (SMA) but also fronto-parietal and subcortical structures. This supports previous findings that MI has beneficial effects especially in combination with motor execution when used in motor rehabilitation or motor learning processes. We conclude that sports MI combined with an interactive game environment could be a promising additional tool in future rehabilitation programs aiming to improve upper or lower limb functions or support neuroplasticity.

  15. The correlation between motor impairments and event-related desynchronization during motor imagery in ALS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasahara Takashi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The event-related desynchronization (ERD in EEG is known to appear during motor imagery, and is thought to reflect cortical processing for motor preparation. The aim of this study is to examine the modulation of ERD with motor impairment in ALS patients. ERD during hand motor imagery was obtained from 8 ALS patients with a variety of motor impairments. ERD was also obtained from age-matched 11 healthy control subjects with the same motor task. The magnitude and frequency of ERD were compared between groups for characterization of ALS specific changes. Results The ERD of ALS patients were significantly smaller than those of control subjects. Bulbar function and ERD were negatively correlated in ALS patients. Motor function of the upper extremities did was uncorrelated with ERD. Conclusions ALS patients with worsened bulbar scales may show smaller ERD. Motor function of the upper extremities did was uncorrelated with ERD.

  16. Impaired motor imagery in right hemiparetic cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutsaarts, M.J.H.; Steenbergen, B.; Bekkering, H.

    2007-01-01

    It is generally assumed that movements of a part of the body (e.g., hands) are simulated in motor imagery (MI) tasks. This is evidenced by a linear increase in reaction time as a function of the angular rotation of the stimulus. Under the assumption that MI plays a critical role for anticipatory

  17. Our actions in my mind: Motor imagery of joint action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesper, Cordula; Knoblich, Günther; Sebanz, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    How do people imagine performing actions together? The present study investigated motor imagery of joint actions that requires integrating one's own and another's part of an action. In two experiments, individual participants imagined jumping alone or jointly next to an imagined partner. The join...

  18. Optimization of a motor learning attention-directing strategy based on an individual's motor imagery ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurada, Takeshi; Hirai, Masahiro; Watanabe, Eiju

    2016-01-01

    Motor learning performance has been shown to be affected by various cognitive factors such as the focus of attention and motor imagery ability. Most previous studies on motor learning have shown that directing the attention of participants externally, such as on the outcome of an assigned body movement, can be more effective than directing their attention internally, such as on body movement itself. However, to the best of our knowledge, no findings have been reported on the effect of the focus of attention selected according to the motor imagery ability of an individual on motor learning performance. We measured individual motor imagery ability assessed by the Movement Imagery Questionnaire and classified the participants into kinesthetic-dominant (n = 12) and visual-dominant (n = 8) groups based on the questionnaire score. Subsequently, the participants performed a motor learning task such as tracing a trajectory using visuomotor rotation. When the participants were required to direct their attention internally, the after-effects of the learning task in the kinesthetic-dominant group were significantly greater than those in the visual-dominant group. Conversely, when the participants were required to direct their attention externally, the after-effects of the visual-dominant group were significantly greater than those of the kinesthetic-dominant group. Furthermore, we found a significant positive correlation between the size of after-effects and the modality-dominance of motor imagery. These results suggest that a suitable attention strategy based on the intrinsic motor imagery ability of an individual can improve performance during motor learning tasks.

  19. Using a hybrid brain computer interface and virtual reality system to monitor and promote cortical reorganization through motor activity and motor imagery training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez i Badia, S; García Morgade, A; Samaha, H; Verschure, P F M J

    2013-03-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of adult disability with high economical and societal costs. In recent years, novel rehabilitation paradigms have been proposed to address the life-long plasticity of the brain to regain motor function. We propose a hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI)-virtual reality (VR) system that combines a personalized motor training in a VR environment, exploiting brain mechanisms for action execution and observation, and a neuro-feedback paradigm using mental imagery as a way to engage secondary or indirect pathways to access undamaged cortico-spinal tracts. Furthermore, we present the development and validation experiments of the proposed system. More specifically, EEG data on nine naïve healthy subjects show that a simultaneous motor activity and motor imagery paradigm is more effective at engaging cortical motor areas and related networks to a larger extent. Additionally, we propose a motor imagery driven BCI-VR version of our system that was evaluated with nine different healthy subjects. Data show that users are capable of controlling a virtual avatar in a motor imagery training task that dynamically adjusts its difficulty to the capabilities of the user. User self-report questionnaires indicate enjoyment and acceptance of the proposed system.

  20. The eyes as a mirror of our thoughts: quantification of motor imagery of goal-directed movements through eye movement registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heremans, Elke; Helsen, Werner F; Feys, Peter

    2008-03-05

    It has been suggested that motor imagery possesses a range of useful applications in sport as well as in rehabilitation. Until now, research in this field has been hampered by the lack of an objective method to monitor the subjects' participation in the task. In this present study, a new approach to quantifying motor imagery of goal-directed hand movements by means of eye movement registration is examined. Eye movements of 15 right-handed subjects were recorded using EOG during both physical execution and visual motor imagery of a cyclical aiming task, performed at three different inter-target distances. We found that 89% of subjects made task-related eye movements during imagery with the eyes open and 84% of participants also did so during imagery with the eyes closed. Both the number and amplitude of the eye movements during imagery closely resembled those of eye movements made during physical execution of the task. This indicates that the coupling between neural patterns for eye and hand movements remains intact when hand movements are merely imagined as opposed to being physically executed. Therefore, eye movement recordings may be used as an objective technique to evaluate subjects' compliance, motor imagery ability, and spatial accuracy.

  1. Motor imagery as a tool to enhance the didactics in physical education and artistic gymnastic

    OpenAIRE

    Raiola, Gaetano; Scassillo, Isabella; Parisi, Fabio; Di Tore, Pio Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    The motor imagery is a cognitive process of mental simulation of an action in absence of physical movement. During the motor imagery the cerebral areas of the pre-motor cortex, the same which a muscular contraction would put in action, are activated. There are two methods of motor imagery: In first person - In thirdperson. The biological basis on which the motor imagery theory is founded, is formed by mirror neurons. The mirror neurons are a particular class of visual-motor neurons which perm...

  2. The emulation theory of representation: motor control, imagery, and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grush, Rick

    2004-06-01

    The emulation theory of representation is developed and explored as a framework that can revealingly synthesize a wide variety of representational functions of the brain. The framework is based on constructs from control theory (forward models) and signal processing (Kalman filters). The idea is that in addition to simply engaging with the body and environment, the brain constructs neural circuits that act as models of the body and environment. During overt sensorimotor engagement, these models are driven by efference copies in parallel with the body and environment, in order to provide expectations of the sensory feedback, and to enhance and process sensory information. These models can also be run off-line in order to produce imagery, estimate outcomes of different actions, and evaluate and develop motor plans. The framework is initially developed within the context of motor control, where it has been shown that inner models running in parallel with the body can reduce the effects of feedback delay problems. The same mechanisms can account for motor imagery as the off-line driving of the emulator via efference copies. The framework is extended to account for visual imagery as the off-line driving of an emulator of the motor-visual loop. I also show how such systems can provide for amodal spatial imagery. Perception, including visual perception, results from such models being used to form expectations of, and to interpret, sensory input. I close by briefly outlining other cognitive functions that might also be synthesized within this framework, including reasoning, theory of mind phenomena, and language.

  3. Motor resonance facilitates movement execution: an ERP and kinematic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde eMénoret

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Action observation, simulation and execution share neural mechanisms that allow for a common motor representation. It is known that when these overlapping mechanisms are simultaneously activated by action observation and execution, motor performance is influenced by observation and vice versa. To understand the neural dynamics underlying this influence and to measure how variations in brain activity impact the precise kinematics of motor behaviour, we coupled kinematics and electrophysiological recordings of participants while they performed and observed congruent or non-congruent actions or during action execution alone. We found that movement velocities and the trajectory deviations of the executed actions increased during the observation of congruent actions compared to the observation of non-congruent actions or action execution alone. This facilitation was also discernible in the motor-related potentials of the participants; the motor-related potentials were transiently more negative in the congruent condition around the onset of the executed movement, which occurred 300 ms after the onset of the observed movement. This facilitation seemed to depend not only on spatial congruency but also on the optimal temporal relationship of the observation and execution events.

  4. Practical research-based guidance for motor imagery practice in neurorehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovend'eerdt, Thamar J H; Dawes, Helen; Sackley, Catherine; Wade, Derick T

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this appraisal is to offer guidance to clinicians on applying motor imagery in neurorehabilitation and provide guidance to support this process. We used evidence from a variety of fields as well as clinical experience with motor imagery to develop guidance for employing motor imagery during neurorehabilitation. Motor imagery is a relatively new intervention for neurorehabilitation supported by evidence from areas such as cognitive neuroscience and sports psychology. Motor imagery has become a very popular intervention modality for clinicians but there is insufficient information available on how to administer it in clinical practice and make deliberate decisions during its application. We provide evidence-based guidance for employing motor imagery in neurorehabilitation and use the principles of motor learning as the framework for clinical application.

  5. Neural plasticity during motor learning with motor imagery practice: Review and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffino, Célia; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Lebon, Florent

    2017-01-26

    In the last decade, many studies confirmed the benefits of mental practice with motor imagery. In this review we first aimed to compile data issued from fundamental and clinical investigations and to provide the key-components for the optimization of motor imagery strategy. We focused on transcranial magnetic stimulation studies, supported by brain imaging research, that sustain the current hypothesis of a functional link between cortical reorganization and behavioral improvement. As perspectives, we suggest a model of neural adaptation following mental practice, in which synapse conductivity and inhibitory mechanisms at the spinal level may also play an important role. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of motor imagery in children with unilateral cerebral palsy: fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinier, Eva; N'Guyen, Sylvie; Lignon, Grégoire; Ter Minassian, Aram; Richard, Isabelle; Dinomais, Mickaël

    2014-01-01

    Motor imagery is considered as a promising therapeutic tool for rehabilitation of motor planning problems in patients with cerebral palsy. However motor planning problems may lead to poor motor imagery ability. The aim of this functional magnetic resonance imaging study was to examine and compare brain activation following motor imagery tasks in patients with hemiplegic cerebral palsy with left or right early brain lesions. We tested also the influence of the side of imagined hand movement. Twenty patients with clinical hemiplegic cerebral palsy (sixteen males, mean age 12 years and 10 months, aged 6 years 10 months to 20 years 10 months) participated in this study. Using block design, brain activations following motor imagery of a simple opening-closing hand movement performed by either the paretic or nonparetic hand was examined. During motor imagery tasks, patients with early right brain damages activated bilateral fronto-parietal network that comprise most of the nodes of the network well described in healthy subjects. Inversely, in patients with left early brain lesion brain activation following motor imagery tasks was reduced, compared to patients with right brain lesions. We found also a weak influence of the side of imagined hand movement. Decreased activations following motor imagery in patients with right unilateral cerebral palsy highlight the dominance of the left hemisphere during motor imagery tasks. This study gives neuronal substrate to propose motor imagery tasks in unilateral cerebral palsy rehabilitation at least for patients with right brain lesions.

  7. Motor priming in virtual reality can augment motor-imagery training efficacy in restorative brain-computer interaction: a within-subject analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourvopoulos, Athanasios; Bermúdez I Badia, Sergi

    2016-08-09

    The use of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technology in neurorehabilitation provides new strategies to overcome stroke-related motor limitations. Recent studies demonstrated the brain's capacity for functional and structural plasticity through BCI. However, it is not fully clear how we can take full advantage of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying recovery and how to maximize restoration through BCI. In this study we investigate the role of multimodal virtual reality (VR) simulations and motor priming (MP) in an upper limb motor-imagery BCI task in order to maximize the engagement of sensory-motor networks in a broad range of patients who can benefit from virtual rehabilitation training. In order to investigate how different BCI paradigms impact brain activation, we designed 3 experimental conditions in a within-subject design, including an immersive Multimodal Virtual Reality with Motor Priming (VRMP) condition where users had to perform motor-execution before BCI training, an immersive Multimodal VR condition, and a control condition with standard 2D feedback. Further, these were also compared to overt motor-execution. Finally, a set of questionnaires were used to gather subjective data on Workload, Kinesthetic Imagery and Presence. Our findings show increased capacity to modulate and enhance brain activity patterns in all extracted EEG rhythms matching more closely those present during motor-execution and also a strong relationship between electrophysiological data and subjective experience. Our data suggest that both VR and particularly MP can enhance the activation of brain patterns present during overt motor-execution. Further, we show changes in the interhemispheric EEG balance, which might play an important role in the promotion of neural activation and neuroplastic changes in stroke patients in a motor-imagery neurofeedback paradigm. In addition, electrophysiological correlates of psychophysiological responses provide us with valuable information

  8. Visual-Motor Maturity and Executive Functions in Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Silva de Oliveira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Visual-motor maturity and executive functions are closely related in the child development process. This study aimed to investigate the relation between visual-motor abilities and executive functions in 83 healthy children between 7 and 10 years old. The tools used were the Bender Gestalt Visual-Motor Test - Gradual Scoring System (B-GSS, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST, Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM, and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF. The correlation between the B-GSS and WCST scores was significantly negative (r = -.23, p < .033, while ROCF variables, such as Total Memory and Total Copy, had a moderate, significant correlation with total B-GSS score (r = -.55, p < .001; r = -.44, p < .001, respectively. The results empirically show the relation between executive functions and visual-motor maturity and are discussed in face of developmental neuropsychology.

  9. Action Observation and Motor Imagery: Innovative Cognitive Tools in the Rehabilitation of Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Abbruzzese

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is characterized by a progressive impairment of motor skills with deterioration of autonomy in daily living activities. Physiotherapy is regarded as an adjuvant to pharmacological and neurosurgical treatment and may provide small and short-lasting clinical benefits in PD patients. However, the development of innovative rehabilitation approaches with greater long-term efficacy is a major unmet need. Motor imagery (MI and action observation (AO have been recently proposed as a promising rehabilitation tool. MI is the ability to imagine a movement without actual performance (or muscle activation. The same cortical-subcortical network active during motor execution is engaged in MI. The physiological basis of AO is represented by the activation of the “mirror neuron system.” Both MI and AO are involved in motor learning and can induce improvements of motor performance, possibly mediated by the development of plastic changes in the motor cortex. The review of available evidences indicated that MI ability and AO feasibility are substantially preserved in PD subjects. A few preliminary studies suggested the possibility of using MI and AO as parts of rehabilitation protocols for PD patients.

  10. Motor imagery during action observation modulates automatic imitation effects in rhythmical actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lloyd Eaves

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that passively observing a task-irrelevant rhythmical action can bias the cycle time of a subsequently executed rhythmical action. Here we use the same paradigm to investigate the impact of different forms of motor imagery (MI during action observation (AO on this automatic imitation (AI effect. Participants saw a picture of the instructed action followed by a rhythmical distractor movie, wherein cycle time was subtly manipulated across trials. They then executed the instructed rhythmical action. When participants imagined performing the instructed action in synchrony with the distractor action (AO + MI, a strong imitation bias was found that was significantly greater than in our previous study. The bias was pronounced equally for compatible and incompatible trials, wherein observed and imagined actions were different in type (e.g., face washing vs. painting or plane of movement, or both. In contrast, no imitation bias was observed when MI conflicted with AO. In Experiment 2, motor execution synchronised with AO produced a stronger imitation bias compared to AO + MI, showing an advantage in synchronisation for overt execution over MI. Furthermore, the bias was stronger when participants synchronised the instructed action with the distractor movie, compared to when they synchronised the distractor action with the distractor movie. Although we still observed a significant bias in the latter condition, this finding indicates a degree of specificity in AI effects for the identity of the synchronised action. Overall, our data show that MI can substantially modulate the effects of AO on subsequent execution, wherein: (1 combined AO + MI can enhance AI effects relative to passive AO; (2 observed and imagined actions can be flexibly coordinated across different action types and planes; and (3 conflicting AO + MI can abolish AI effects. Therefore, combined AO + MI instructions should be considered in motor training and

  11. When unintended movements "leak" out: a startling acoustic stimulus can elicit a prepared response during motor imagery and action observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslovat, Dana; Chua, Romeo; Hodges, Nicola J

    2013-04-01

    Covert forms of practice, such as observation and imagery, have been shown to involve neurophysiological activation of the motor system, and a functional equivalence between covert and overt processes involved in action execution has been proposed (Jeannerod, 2001). We used a startling acoustic stimulus (SAS), which has been shown to trigger prepared movements involuntarily at short latencies via an increase in cortical activation, to probe the similarity of these processes and elicit movement responses in imagery and observation trials. Startle trials were interspersed with control trials while participants (n=16) performed or imagined a right hand key lift or observed a model perform the key lift. During physical movement trials, intended movements were triggered by the SAS at a short latency (RT=78 ms) in comparison to control trials (RT=110 ms). During imagery and observation, unimanual partial movements (assessed by force change and muscle activation) were elicited by the SAS, providing novel behavioural evidence for a functional similarity between covert and overt movement preparation processes. Examination of the magnitude of the reflexive startle response (an index of motor preparation) during imagery and observation also revealed similarities to physical movement trials. We conclude that covert and overt movements involve similarities in motor preparation and neural pathways, and propose that movements do not normally occur during imagery and observation due to low level neural activation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A novel EEG-based brain mapping to determine cortical activation patterns in normal children and children with cerebral palsy during motor imagery tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoon Kyum; Lee, Dong Ryul; Hwang, Han Jeong; You, Sung Joshua Hyun; Im, Chang Hwan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare EEG topographical maps in normal children and children with cerebral palsy (CP) during motor execution and motor imagery tasks. Four normal children and four children with CP (mean age 11.6 years) were recruited from a community medical center. An EEG-based brain mapping system with 30 scalp sites (extended 10--20 system) was used to determine cortical reorganization in the regions of interest (ROIs) during four motor tasks: movement execution (ME), kinesthetic-motor imagery (KMI), observation of movement (OOM), and visual motor imagery (VMI). ROIs included the primary sensorimotor cortex (SMC), premotor cortex (PMC), and supplementary motor area (SMA). Descriptive analysis. Normal children showed increased SMC activation during the ME and KMI aswell as SMC and visual cortex (VC) activation during KMI. Children with CP showed similar activation in the SMC and other motor network areas (PMC, SMA, and VC). During the OOM and VMI tasks, the VC or occipital area were primarily activated in normal children, whereas the VC, SMC, and bilateral auditory areas were activated in children with CP. This is the first study demonstrating different neural substrates for motor imagery tasks in normal and children with CP.

  13. Assessing the feasibility of time-resolved fNIRS to detect brain activity during motor imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalmalak, Androu; Milej, Daniel; Diop, Mamadou; Naci, Lorina; Owen, Adrian M.; St. Lawrence, Keith

    2016-03-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive optical technique for detecting brain activity, which has been previously used during motor and motor executive tasks. There is an increasing interest in using fNIRS as a brain computer interface (BCI) for patients who lack the physical, but not the mental, ability to respond to commands. The goal of this study is to assess the feasibility of time-resolved fNIRS to detect brain activity during motor imagery. Stability tests were conducted to ensure the temporal stability of the signal, and motor imagery data were acquired on healthy subjects. The NIRS probes were placed on the scalp over the premotor cortex (PMC) and supplementary motor area (SMA), as these areas are responsible for motion planning. To confirm the fNIRS results, subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing the same task. Seven subjects have participated to date, and significant activation in the SMA and/or the PMC during motor imagery was detected by both fMRI and fNIRS in 4 of the 7 subjects. No activation was detected by either technique in the remaining three participants, which was not unexpected due to the nature of the task. The agreement between the two imaging modalities highlights the potential of fNIRS as a BCI, which could be adapted for bedside studies of patients with disorders of consciousness.

  14. How Kinesthetic Motor Imagery works: A predictive-processing theory of visualization in sports and motor expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Brass, M.

    2015-01-01

    Kinesthetic Motor Imagery (KMI) is an important technique to acquire and refine motor skills. KMI is widely used by professional athletes as an effective way to improve motor performance without overt motor output. Despite this obvious relevance, the functional mechanisms and neural circuits

  15. Motor imagery EEG discrimination using the correlation of wavelet features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Yen

    2015-04-01

    A novel method for motor imagery (MI) electroencephalogram (EEG) data classification is proposed in this study. Time-frequency representation is constructed by means of continuous wavelet transform from EEG signals and then weighted with 2-sample t-statistics, which are also used to automatically select the area of interest in advance. Finally, normalized cross-correlation is used to discriminate the test MI data. Compared with the nonweighted version on MI data, the experimental results indicate that the proposed system achieves satisfactory results in the applications of brain-computer interface (BCI). © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) 2014.

  16. Effect of tactile stimulation on primary motor cortex excitability during action observation combined with motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Megumi; Kubota, Shinji; Onmyoji, Yusuke; Hirano, Masato; Uehara, Kazumasa; Morishita, Takuya; Funase, Kozo

    2015-07-23

    We aimed to investigate the effects of the tactile stimulation to an observer's fingertips at the moment that they saw an object being pinched by another person on the excitability of observer's primary motor cortex (M1) using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In addition, the above effects were also examined during action observation combined with the motor imagery. Motor evoked potentials (MEP) were evoked from the subjects' right first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles. Electrical stimulation (ES) inducing tactile sensation was delivered to the subjects' first and second fingertips at the moment of pinching action performed by another person. Although neither the ES nor action observation alone had significant effects on the MEP amplitude of the FDI or ADM, the FDI MEP amplitude which acts as the prime mover during pinching was reduced when ES and action observation were combined; however, no such changes were seen in the ADM. Conversely, that reduced FDI MEP amplitude was increased during the motor imagery. These results indicated that the M1 excitability during the action observation of pinching action combined with motor imagery could be enhanced by the tactile stimulation delivered to the observer's fingertips at the moment corresponding to the pinching being observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Motor imagery in REM sleep is increased by transcranial direct current stimulation of the left motor cortex (C3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Jana; Speth, Clemens

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates if anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of areas above the motor cortex (C3) influences the quantity and quality of spontaneous motor imagery experienced in REM sleep. A randomized triple-blinded design was used, combining neurophysiological techniques with a tool of quantitative mentation report analysis developed from cognitive linguistics and generative grammar. The results indicate that more motor imagery, and more athletic motor imagery, is induced by anodal tDCS in comparison to cathodal and sham tDCS. This insight may have implications beyond basic consciousness research. Motor imagery in REM sleep has been hypothesized to serve the rehearsal of motor movements, which benefits later motor performance. Electrophysiological manipulations of motor imagery in REM sleep could in the long run be used for rehabilitative tDCS protocols benefitting temporarily immobile clinical patients, especially those who cannot perform specific motor imagery tasks - such as dementia patients, infants with developmental and motor disorders, and coma patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Motor assessment in pediatric neuropsychology: relationships to executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Executive function often refers to control behaviors such as "initiating," "sustaining," "inhibiting," and "switching." These mechanisms contribute to regulation of thinking and emotion but can be observed most clearly in the motor system. Neuropsychology has been influenced by "top-down" models of cognitive control that emerged from information-processing theories of cognition. In fact, neural models provide evidence that control processes are highly interactive within the cortico-striatal-cerebellar circuits. Cognition unfolds in response to motor-driven adaptation, and evidence exists for similar firing of brain cells and circuits during "imagined action" as in actual motor behavior. The motor system develops early and yet is not routinely assessed in neuropsychological evaluation of children with neurodevelopmental disorders. This article reviews some of the approaches to motor assessment that have sensitivity to neurodevelopmental disorders, and advocates for inclusion of motor assessment, particularly in evaluating control processes independent of culture, language, and other confounders.

  19. Shared electrophysiology mechanisms of body ownership and motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nathan; Blanke, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Although we feel, see, and experience our hands as our own (body or hand ownership), recent research has shown that illusory hand ownership can be induced for fake or virtual hands and may be useful for neuroprosthetics and brain-computer interfaces. Despite the vast amount of behavioral data on illusory hand ownership, neuroimaging studies are rare, in particular electrophysiological studies. Thus, while the neural systems underlying hand ownership are relatively well described, the spectral signatures of body ownership as measured by electroencephalography (EEG) remain elusive. Here we induced illusory hand ownership in an automated, computer-controlled manner using virtual reality while recording 64-channel EEG and found that illusory hand ownership is reflected by a body-specific modulation in the mu-band over fronto-parietal cortex. In a second experiment in the same subjects, we then show that mu as well as beta-band activity in highly similar fronto-parietal regions was also modulated during a motor imagery task often used in paradigms employing non-invasive brain-computer interface technology. These data provide insights into the electrophysiological brain mechanisms of illusory hand ownership and their strongly overlapping mechanisms with motor imagery in fronto-parietal cortex. They also highlight the potential of combining high-resolution EEG with virtual reality setups and automatized stimulation protocols for systematic, reproducible stimulus presentation in cognitive neuroscience, and may inform the design of non-invasive brain-computer interfaces. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Association between gross-motor and executive function depends on age and motor task complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spedden, Meaghan Elizabeth; Malling, Anne Sofie B; Andersen, Ken Kjøller

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to examine associations between motor and executive function across the adult lifespan and to investigate the role of motor complexity in these associations. Young, middle-aged and older adults (n = 82; 19-83y) performed two gross-motor tasks with different levels of complexity...... and a Stroop-like computer task. Performance was decreased in older adults. The association between motor and cognitive performance was significant for older adults in the complex motor task (p = 0.03, rs = -0.41), whereas no significant associations were found for young or middle-aged groups, suggesting...... that the link between gross-motor and executive function emerges with age and depends on motor complexity....

  1. The effect of motor imagery with specific implement in expert badminton player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Wang, S; Shi, F-Y; Guan, Y; Wu, Y; Zhang, L-L; Shen, C; Zeng, Y-W; Wang, D-H; Zhang, J

    2014-09-05

    Motor skill can be improved with mental simulation. Implements are widely used in daily life and in various sports. However, it is unclear whether the utilization of implements enhances the effect of mental simulation. The present study was designed to investigate the different effects of motor imagery in athletes and novices when they handled a specific implement. We hypothesize that athletes have better motor imagery ability than novices when they hold a specific implement for the sport. This is manifested as higher motor cortical excitability in athletes than novices during motor imagery with the specific implement. Sixteen expert badminton players and 16 novices were compared when they held a specific implement such as a badminton racket and a non-specific implement such as a a plastic bar. Motor imagery ability was measured with a self-evaluation questionnaire. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to test the motor cortical excitability during motor imagery. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and extensor carpi radialis muscles were recorded. Athletes reported better motor imagery than novices when they held a specific implement. Athletes exhibited more MEP facilitation than novices in the FDI muscle with the specific implement applied during motor imagery. The MEP facilitation is correlated with motor imagery ability in athletes. We conclude that the effects of motor imagery with a specific implement are enhanced in athletes compared to novices and the difference between two groups is caused by long-term physical training of athletes with the specific implement. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Feasibility of motor imagery training for children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, I.L.J.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.; Lust, J.M.; Wilson, P.H.; Steenbergen, B.

    2017-01-01

    Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) experience movement difficulties that may be linked to processes involved in motor imagery (MI). This paper discusses recent advances in theory that underpin the use of motor imagery (MI) training for children with Developmental Coordination

  3. Assessment of motor imagery in cerebral palsy via mental chronometry: The case of walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, S.; Jouen, F.; Molina, M.; Kudlinski, C.; Guilbert, J.; Steenbergen, B.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies show varying results on whether motor imagery capacity is compromised in individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). Motor imagery studies in children predominantly used the implicit hand laterality task. In this task participants judge the laterality of displayed hand stimuli. A more

  4. Assessment of motor imagery in cerebral palsy via mental chronometry: The case of walking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, S.; Jouen, F.; Molina, M.; Kudlinski, C.; Guilbert, J.; Steenbergen, B.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies show varying results on whether motor imagery capacity is compromised in individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). Motor imagery studies in children predominantly used the implicit hand laterality task. In this task participants judge the laterality of displayed hand stimuli. A more

  5. Current insights in the development of children’s motor imagery ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, S; van der Kamp, J.; Steenbergen, B.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the number of studies on motor imagery in children has witnessed a large expansion. Most studies used the hand laterality judgment paradigm or the mental chronometry paradigm to examine motor imagery ability. The main objective of the current review is to collate these

  6. When music tempo affects the temporal congruence between physical practice and motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debarnot, Ursula; Guillot, Aymeric

    2014-06-01

    When people listen to music, they hear beat and a metrical structure in the rhythm; these perceived patterns enable coordination with the music. A clear correspondence between the tempo of actual movement (e.g., walking) and that of music has been demonstrated, but whether similar coordination occurs during motor imagery is unknown. Twenty participants walked naturally for 8m, either physically or mentally, while listening to slow and fast music, or not listening to anything at all (control condition). Executed and imagined walking times were recorded to assess the temporal congruence between physical practice (PP) and motor imagery (MI). Results showed a difference when comparing slow and fast time conditions, but each of these durations did not differ from soundless condition times, hence showing that body movement may not necessarily change in order to synchronize with music. However, the main finding revealed that the ability to achieve temporal congruence between PP and MI times was altered when listening to either slow or fast music. These data suggest that when physical movement is modulated with respect to the musical tempo, the MI efficacy of the corresponding movement may be affected by the rhythm of the music. Practical applications in sport are discussed as athletes frequently listen to music before competing while they mentally practice their movements to be performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Adaptive Motor Imagery: A Multimodal Study of Immobilization-Induced Brain Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burianová, Hana; Sowman, Paul F; Marstaller, Lars; Rich, Anina N; Williams, Mark A; Savage, Greg; Al-Janabi, Shahd; de Lissa, Peter; Johnson, Blake W

    2016-03-01

    The consequences of losing the ability to move a limb are traumatic. One approach that examines the impact of pathological limb nonuse on the brain involves temporary immobilization of a healthy limb. Here, we investigated immobilization-induced plasticity in the motor imagery (MI) circuitry during hand immobilization. We assessed these changes with a multimodal paradigm, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure neural activation, magnetoencephalography (MEG) to track neuronal oscillatory dynamics, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to assess corticospinal excitability. fMRI results show a significant decrease in neural activation for MI of the constrained hand, localized to sensorimotor areas contralateral to the immobilized hand. MEG results show a significant decrease in beta desynchronization and faster resynchronization in sensorimotor areas contralateral to the immobilized hand. TMS results show a significant increase in resting motor threshold in motor cortex contralateral to the constrained hand, suggesting a decrease in corticospinal excitability in the projections to the constrained hand. These results demonstrate a direct and rapid effect of immobilization on MI processes of the constrained hand, suggesting that limb nonuse may not only affect motor execution, as evidenced by previous studies, but also MI. These findings have important implications for the effectiveness of therapeutic approaches that use MI as a rehabilitation tool to ameliorate the negative effects of limb nonuse. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Increased motor cortex excitability during motor imagery in brain-computer interface trained subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya eMokienko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Motor imagery (MI is the mental performance of movement without muscle activity. It is generally accepted that MI and motor performance have similar physiological mechanisms.Purpose: To investigate the activity and excitability of cortical motor areas during MI in subjects who were previously trained with an MI-based brain-computer interface (BCI.Subjects and methods: Eleven healthy volunteers without neurological impairments (mean age, 36 years; range: 24–68 years were either trained with an MI-based BCI (BCI-trained, n = 5 or received no BCI training (n = 6, controls. Subjects imagined grasping in a blocked paradigm task with alternating rest and task periods. For evaluating the activity and excitability of cortical motor areas we used functional MRI and navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS.Results: fMRI revealed activation in Brodmann areas 3 and 6, the cerebellum, and the thalamus during MI in all subjects. The primary motor cortex was activated only in BCI-trained subjects. The associative zones of activation were larger in non-trained subjects. During MI, motor evoked potentials recorded from two of the three targeted muscles were significantly higher only in BCI-trained subjects. The motor threshold decreased (median = 17% during MI, which was also observed only in BCI-trained subjects.Conclusion: Previous BCI training increased motor cortex excitability during MI. These data may help to improve BCI applications, including rehabilitation of patients with cerebral palsy.

  9. Discriminating multiple motor imageries of human hands using EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ran; Liao, Ke; Ding, Lei

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the feasibility of discriminating four different motor imagery (MI) types from both hands using electroencephalography (EEG) through exploring underlying features related to MIs of thumb and fist from one hand. New spectral and spatial features related to different MIs were extracted using principal component analysis (PCA) and squared cross correlation (R(2)). Extracted features were evaluated using a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier, resulting in an average decoding accuracy about 50%, which is significantly higher than the guess level and the 95% confidence level of guess. The preliminary results demonstrate the great potential of extracting features from different MIs from same hands to generate control signals with more degrees of freedom (DOF) for non-invasive brain-computer interface applications. In addition, for movement related applications, especially for neuroprosthesis, the present study may facilitate the development of a non-invasive BCI, which is highly intuitive and based on users' spontaneous intentions.

  10. Brain activation patterns of motor imagery reflect plastic changes associated with intensive shooting training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeck, Jong-Su; Kim, Yang-Tae; Seo, Jee-Hye; Ryeom, Hun-Kyu; Lee, Jongmin; Choi, Sung-Mook; Woo, Minjung; Kim, Woojong; Kim, Jin Gu; Chang, Yongmin

    2012-09-01

    Evidence from previous studies has suggested that motor imagery and motor action engage overlapping brain systems. As a result of this observation that motor imagery can activate brain regions associated with actual motor movement, motor imagery is expected to enhance motor skill performance and become an underlying principle for physical training in sports and physical rehabilitation. However, few studies have examined the effects of physical training on motor imagery in beginners. Also, differences in neural networks related to motor imagery before and after training have seldom been studied. In the current study, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the question of whether motor imagery can reflect plastic changes of neural correlates associated with intensive training. In fact, motor imagery was used in this study as a tool to assess the brain areas involved in shooting and involved in learning of shooting. We discovered that use of motor imagery resulted in recruitment of widely distributed common cortical areas, which were suggested to play a role in generation and maintenance of mental images before and after 90 h of shooting training. In addition to these common areas, brain activation before and after 90 h of shooting practice showed regionally distinct patterns of activity change in subcortical motor areas. That is, basal ganglia showed increased activity after 90 h of shooting practice, suggesting the occurrence of plastic change in association with gains in performance and reinforcement learning. Therefore, our results suggest that, in order to reach a level of expertise, the brain would change through initial reinforcement of preexistent connections during the training period and then use more focused neural correlates through formation of new connections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Motor imagery for walking: a comparison between cerebral palsy adolescents with hemiplegia and diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Michèle; Kudlinski, Cyril; Guilbert, Jessica; Spruijt, Steffie; Steenbergen, Bert; Jouen, François

    2015-02-01

    The goal of the study was to investigate whether motor imagery (MI) could be observed in cerebral palsy (CP) participants presenting a bilateral affected body side (diplegia) as it has been previously revealed in participants presenting a unilateral body affected sided (hemiplegia). MI capacity for walking was investigated in CP adolescents diagnosed with hemiplegia (n=10) or diplegia (n=10) and in adolescents with typical motor development (n=10). Participants were explicitly asked to imagine walking before and after actually walking toward a target located at 4 m and 8 m. Movement durations for executed and imagined trials were recorded. ANOVA and Pearson's correlation analyses revealed the existence of time invariance between executed and imagined movement durations for the control group and both groups of CP participants. However, results revealed that MI capacity in CP participants was observed for the short distance (4 m) but not for the long distance (8 m). Moreover, even for short distance, CP participants performed worse than typical adolescents. These results are discussed inline of recent researches suggesting that MI in CP participants may not depend on the side of the lesion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of motor imagery in cerebral palsy via mental chronometry: the case of walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt, Steffie; Jouen, Francois; Molina, Michèle; Kudlinski, Cyril; Guilbert, Jessica; Steenbergen, Bert

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies show varying results on whether motor imagery capacity is compromised in individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). Motor imagery studies in children predominantly used the implicit hand laterality task. In this task participants judge the laterality of displayed hand stimuli. A more explicit way of studying motor imagery is mental chronometry. This paradigm is based on the comparison between the movement durations of actually performing a task and imagining the same task. The current study explored motor imagery capacity in CP by means of mental chronometry of a whole body task. Movement durations of 20 individuals with CP (mean age=13 years, SD=3.6) were recorded in two conditions: actual walking and imagined walking. Six unique trajectories were used that varied in difficulty via manipulation of walking distance and path width. We found no main effect of condition (actual walking versus imagining) on movement durations. Difficulty of the walking trajectory did affect movement durations. In general, this was expressed by an increase in movement durations with increasing difficulty of the task. No interaction between task difficulty and movement condition was found. Our results show that task difficulty has similar effects on movement durations for both actual walking and imagined walking. These results exemplify that the tested individuals were able to use motor imagery in an explicit task involving walking. Previous studies using the implicit hand laterality task showed varying results on motor imagery capacity in CP. We therefore conclude that motor imagery capacity is task dependent and that an explicit paradigm as the one used in this study may reveal the true motor imagery capacity. The implications of these findings for the use of motor imagery training are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. MOTOR IMAGERY AND TENNIS SERVE PERFORMANCE: THE EXTERNAL FOCUS EFFICACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymeric Guillot

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is now ample evidence that motor imagery (MI contributes to enhance motor performance. Previous research also demonstrated that directing athletes' attention to the effects of their movements on the environment is more effective than focusing on the action per se. The present study aimed therefore at evaluating whether adopting an external focus during MI contributes to enhance tennis serve performance. Twelve high-level young tennis players were included in a test-retest procedure. The effects of regular training were first evaluated. Then, players were subjected to a MI intervention during which they mentally focused on ball trajectory and specifically visualized the space above the net where the serve can be successfully hit. Serve performance was evaluated during both a validated serve test and a real match. The main results showed a significant increase in accuracy and velocity during the ecological serve test after MI practice, as well as a significant improvement in successful first serves and won points during the match. Present data therefore confirmed the efficacy of MI in combination of physical practice to improve tennis serve performance, and further provided evidence that it is feasible to adopt external attentional focus during MI. Practical applications are discussed

  14. Individual differences in the perception of biological motion: links to social cognition and motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Luke E; Saygin, Ayse P

    2013-08-01

    Biological motion perception is often claimed to support social cognition, and to rely upon embodied representations and motor imagery. Are people with higher levels of social traits or more vivid motor imagery better at biological motion perception? We administered four experiments measuring sensitivity in using (global) form and (local) motion cues in biological motion, plus well-established measures of social cognition (e.g., empathy) and motor imagery (e.g., kinesthetic motor imagery). This first systematic investigation of individual variability in biological motion processing demonstrated significant relationships between these domains, along with a dissociation. Sensitivity for using form cues in biological motion processing was correlated with social (and not the imagery) measures; sensitivity for using motion cues was correlated with motor imagery (and not the social) measures. These results could not be explained by performance on non-biological control stimuli. We thus show that although both social cognition and motor imagery predict sensitivity to biological motion, these skills likely tap into different aspects of perception. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantifying the role of motor imagery in brain-machine interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesotti, Silvia; Bassolino, Michela; Serino, Andrea; Bleuler, Hannes; Blanke, Olaf

    2016-04-01

    Despite technical advances in brain machine interfaces (BMI), for as-yet unknown reasons the ability to control a BMI remains limited to a subset of users. We investigate whether individual differences in BMI control based on motor imagery (MI) are related to differences in MI ability. We assessed whether differences in kinesthetic and visual MI, in the behavioral accuracy of MI, and in electroencephalographic variables, were able to differentiate between high- versus low-aptitude BMI users. High-aptitude BMI users showed higher MI accuracy as captured by subjective and behavioral measurements, pointing to a prominent role of kinesthetic rather than visual imagery. Additionally, for the first time, we applied mental chronometry, a measure quantifying the degree to which imagined and executed movements share a similar temporal profile. We also identified enhanced lateralized μ-band oscillations over sensorimotor cortices during MI in high- versus low-aptitude BMI users. These findings reveal that subjective, behavioral, and EEG measurements of MI are intimately linked to BMI control. We propose that poor BMI control cannot be ascribed only to intrinsic limitations of EEG recordings and that specific questionnaires and mental chronometry can be used as predictors of BMI performance (without the need to record EEG activity).

  16. Activation of thalamus in motor imagery results from gating by hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Katharina; Bacht, Katrin; Prochnow, Denise; Schramm, Stefanie; Seitz, Rüdiger J

    2013-02-01

    The ability to mentally imagine the performance of automatic movements has been well-established being employed in sports and physiotherapy as a tool for motor learning and rehabilitation. This is probably mediated by engagement of the same brain areas as during real motor performance. Here we investigated the effect of hypnotic trance on the cerebral activation pattern engaged in motor imagery in 16 healthy, right-handed subjects using fMRI. Motor imagery as compared with rest was related to activations in the left medial frontal areas (preSMA/SMA), prefrontal- and frontal areas, putamen and inferior parietal areas. When compared with performance of the same movements motor imagery resulted in activation of the left middle frontal cortex, precuneus, and posterior cingulate. Under hypnotic trance there was one extra-activation in the left thalamus which occurred specifically in the motor imagery condition. The regional beta indices were highly correlated among the areas of the cortical-subcortical motor network. Our data accord with the notion that hypnotic trance enhances the motor control circuit engaged in motor imagery by modulating the gating function of the thalamus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Transcranial direct current stimulation enhances mu rhythm desynchronization during motor imagery that depends on handedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuga, Shoko; Matsushika, Yayoi; Kasashima-Shindo, Yuko; Kamatani, Daiki; Fujiwara, Toshiyuki; Liu, Meigen; Ushiba, Junichi

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can modulate the amplitude of event-related desynchronization (ERD) that appears on the electroencephalogram (EEG) during motor imagery. To study the effect of handedness on the modulating effect of tDCS, we compared the difference in tDCS-boosted ERD during dominant and non-dominant hand motor imagery. EEGs were recorded over the left sensorimotor cortex of seven healthy right-handed volunteers, and we measured ERD induced either by dominant or non-dominant hand motor imagery. Ten minutes of anodal tDCS was then used to increase the cortical excitability of the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1), and ERD was measured again. With anodal tDCS, we observed only a small increase in ERD during non-dominant hand motor imagery, whereas the same stimulation induced a prominent increase in ERD during dominant hand motor imagery. This trend was most obvious in the participants who used their dominant hand more frequently. Although our study is preliminary because of a small sample size, these results suggest that the increase in ERD by applying anodal tDCS was stronger on the dominant side than on the non-dominant side. The background excitability of M1 may determine the strength of the effect of anodal tDCS on ERD by hand motor imagery.

  18. The TMS Motor Map Does Not Change Following a Single Session of Mirror Training Either with Or without Motor Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark van de Ruit

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Both motor imagery and mirror training have been used in motor rehabilitation settings to promote skill learning and plasticity. As motor imagery and mirror training are suggested to be closely linked, it was hypothesized that mirror training augmented by motor imagery would increase corticospinal excitability (CSE significantly compared to mirror training alone. Forty-four participants were split over two experimental groups. Each participant visited the laboratory once to receive either mirror training alone or mirror training augmented with layered stimulus response training (LSRT, a type of motor imagery training. Participants performed 16 min of mirror training, making repetitive grasping movements paced by a metronome. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS mapping was performed before and after the mirror training to test for changes in CSE of the untrained hand. Self-reports suggested that the imagery training was effective in helping the participant to perform the mirror training task as instructed. Nonetheless, neither training type resulted in a significant change of TMS map area, nor was there an interaction between the groups. The results from the study revealed no effect of a single session of 16 min of either mirror training or mirror training enhanced by imagery on TMS map area. Despite the negative result of the present experiment, this does not suggest that either motor imagery or mirror training might be ineffective as a rehabilitation therapy. Further study is required to allow disentangling the role of imagery and action observation in mirror training so that mirror training can be further tailored to the individual according to their abilities.

  19. Cooperation in mind: Motor imagery of joint and single actions is represented in different brain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wriessnegger, S C; Steyrl, D; Koschutnig, K; Müller-Putz, G R

    2016-11-01

    In this study brain activity during motor imagery (MI) of joint actions, compared to single actions and rest conditions, was investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first neuroimaging study which directly investigated the neural correlates of joint action motor imagery. Twenty-one healthy participants imagined three different motor tasks (dancing, carrying a box, wiping). Each imagery task was performed at two kinds: alone (single action MI) or with a partner (joint action MI). We hypothesized that to imagine a cooperative task would lead to a stronger cortical activation in motor related areas due to a higher vividness and intensification of the imagery. This would be elicited by the integration of the action simulation of the virtual partner to one's own action. Comparing the joint action and the single action condition with the rest condition, we found significant activation in the precentral gyrus and precuneus respectively. Furthermore the joint action MI showed higher activation patterns in the premotor cortex (inferior and middle frontal gyrus) compared to the single action MI. The imagery of a more vivid and engaging task, like our joint action imagery, could improve rehabilitation processes since a more distributed brain activity is found. Furthermore, the joint action imagery compared to single action imagery might be an appropriate BCI task due to its clear spatial distinction of activation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mental imagery of speech: linking motor and perceptual systems through internal simulation and estimation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tian, Xing; Poeppel, David

    2012-01-01

    .... Imagined speech production ("articulation imagery"), which induces the kinesthetic feeling of articulator movement and its auditory consequences, provides a new angle because of the concurrent involvement of motor and perceptual systems...

  1. The Effect of Visual and Auditory Enhancements on Excitability of the Primary Motor Cortex during Motor Imagery: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kohei; Higashi, Toshio; Sugawara, Kenichi; Tomori, Kounosuke; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Kasai, Tatsuya

    2012-01-01

    The effect of visual and auditory enhancements of finger movement on corticospinal excitability during motor imagery (MI) was investigated using the transcranial magnetic stimulation technique. Motor-evoked potentials were elicited from the abductor digit minimi muscle during MI with auditory, visual and, auditory and visual information, and no…

  2. Autonomic nervous system correlates in movement observation and motor imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eCollet

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current article is to provide a comprehensive overview of the literature offering a better understanding on the autonomic nervous system (ANS correlates in motor imagery (MI and movement observation. These are two high brain functions involving sensori-motor coupling, mediated by memory systems. How observing or mentally rehearsing a movement affect ANS activity has not been extensively investigated. The links between cognitive functions and ANS responses are not so obvious. We first describe the organization of the ANS whose main purposes are controlling vital functions by maintaining the homeostasis of the organism and providing adaptive responses when changes occur either in the external or internal milieu. We will then review how scientific knowledge evolved, thus integrating recent findings related to ANS functioning, and show how these are linked to mental functions. In turn, we will describe how movement observation or MI may elicit physiological responses at the peripheral level of the autonomic effectors, thus eliciting autonomic correlates to cognitive activity. Key features of this paper are to draw a step-by step progression from the understanding of ANS physiology to its relationships with high mental processes such as movement observation or MI. We will further provide evidence that mental processes are co-programmed both at the somatic and autonomic levels of the central nervous system. We will thus detail how peripheral physiological responses may be analyzed to provide objective evidence that MI is actually performed. The main perspective is thus to consider that, during movement observation and MI, ANS activity is an objective witness of mental processes.

  3. Investigation of fMRI neurofeedback of differential primary motor cortex activity using kinesthetic motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiew, Mark; LaConte, Stephen M; Graham, Simon J

    2012-05-15

    Functional MRI neurofeedback (fMRI NF) is an emerging technique that trains subjects to regulate their brain activity while they manipulate sensory stimulus representations of fMRI signals in "real-time". Here we report an fMRI NF study of brain activity associated with kinesthetic motor imagery (kMI), analyzed using partial least squares (PLS), a multivariate analysis technique. Thirteen healthy young adult subjects performed kMI involving each hand separately, with NF training targeting regions of interest (ROIs) in the left and right primary motor cortex (M1). Throughout, subjects attempted to maximize a laterality index (LI) of brain activity-the difference in activity between the contralateral ROI (relative to the hand involved in kMI) and the ipsilateral M1 ROI-while receiving real-time updates on a visual display. Six of 13 subjects were successful in increasing the LI value, whereas the other 7 were not successful and performed similarly to 5 control subjects who received sham NF training. Ability to suppress activity in the ipsilateral M1 ROI was the primary driver of successful NF performance. Multiple PLS analyses depicted activated networks of brain regions involved with imagery, self-awareness, and feedback processing, and additionally showed that activation of the task positive network was correlated with task performance. These results indicate that fMRI NF of kMI is capable of modulating brain activity in primary motor regions in a subset of the population. In the future, such methods may be useful in the development of NF training methods for enhancing motor rehabilitation following stroke. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Multiclass Posterior Probability Twin SVM for Motor Imagery EEG Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Qingshan; Ma, Yuliang; Meng, Ming; Luo, Zhizeng

    2015-01-01

    Motor imagery electroencephalography is widely used in the brain-computer interface systems. Due to inherent characteristics of electroencephalography signals, accurate and real-time multiclass classification is always challenging. In order to solve this problem, a multiclass posterior probability solution for twin SVM is proposed by the ranking continuous output and pairwise coupling in this paper. First, two-class posterior probability model is constructed to approximate the posterior probability by the ranking continuous output techniques and Platt's estimating method. Secondly, a solution of multiclass probabilistic outputs for twin SVM is provided by combining every pair of class probabilities according to the method of pairwise coupling. Finally, the proposed method is compared with multiclass SVM and twin SVM via voting, and multiclass posterior probability SVM using different coupling approaches. The efficacy on the classification accuracy and time complexity of the proposed method has been demonstrated by both the UCI benchmark datasets and real world EEG data from BCI Competition IV Dataset 2a, respectively.

  5. Multiclass Posterior Probability Twin SVM for Motor Imagery EEG Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingshan She

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor imagery electroencephalography is widely used in the brain-computer interface systems. Due to inherent characteristics of electroencephalography signals, accurate and real-time multiclass classification is always challenging. In order to solve this problem, a multiclass posterior probability solution for twin SVM is proposed by the ranking continuous output and pairwise coupling in this paper. First, two-class posterior probability model is constructed to approximate the posterior probability by the ranking continuous output techniques and Platt’s estimating method. Secondly, a solution of multiclass probabilistic outputs for twin SVM is provided by combining every pair of class probabilities according to the method of pairwise coupling. Finally, the proposed method is compared with multiclass SVM and twin SVM via voting, and multiclass posterior probability SVM using different coupling approaches. The efficacy on the classification accuracy and time complexity of the proposed method has been demonstrated by both the UCI benchmark datasets and real world EEG data from BCI Competition IV Dataset 2a, respectively.

  6. Low-Rank Linear Dynamical Systems for Motor Imagery EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chuanqi; Liu, Shaobo

    2016-01-01

    The common spatial pattern (CSP) and other spatiospectral feature extraction methods have become the most effective and successful approaches to solve the problem of motor imagery electroencephalography (MI-EEG) pattern recognition from multichannel neural activity in recent years. However, these methods need a lot of preprocessing and postprocessing such as filtering, demean, and spatiospectral feature fusion, which influence the classification accuracy easily. In this paper, we utilize linear dynamical systems (LDSs) for EEG signals feature extraction and classification. LDSs model has lots of advantages such as simultaneous spatial and temporal feature matrix generation, free of preprocessing or postprocessing, and low cost. Furthermore, a low-rank matrix decomposition approach is introduced to get rid of noise and resting state component in order to improve the robustness of the system. Then, we propose a low-rank LDSs algorithm to decompose feature subspace of LDSs on finite Grassmannian and obtain a better performance. Extensive experiments are carried out on public dataset from “BCI Competition III Dataset IVa” and “BCI Competition IV Database 2a.” The results show that our proposed three methods yield higher accuracies compared with prevailing approaches such as CSP and CSSP. PMID:28096809

  7. Low-Rank Linear Dynamical Systems for Motor Imagery EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The common spatial pattern (CSP and other spatiospectral feature extraction methods have become the most effective and successful approaches to solve the problem of motor imagery electroencephalography (MI-EEG pattern recognition from multichannel neural activity in recent years. However, these methods need a lot of preprocessing and postprocessing such as filtering, demean, and spatiospectral feature fusion, which influence the classification accuracy easily. In this paper, we utilize linear dynamical systems (LDSs for EEG signals feature extraction and classification. LDSs model has lots of advantages such as simultaneous spatial and temporal feature matrix generation, free of preprocessing or postprocessing, and low cost. Furthermore, a low-rank matrix decomposition approach is introduced to get rid of noise and resting state component in order to improve the robustness of the system. Then, we propose a low-rank LDSs algorithm to decompose feature subspace of LDSs on finite Grassmannian and obtain a better performance. Extensive experiments are carried out on public dataset from “BCI Competition III Dataset IVa” and “BCI Competition IV Database 2a.” The results show that our proposed three methods yield higher accuracies compared with prevailing approaches such as CSP and CSSP.

  8. Electroencephalographic Motor Imagery Brain Connectivity Analysis for BCI: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedi, Mahyar; Salleh, Sh-Hussain; Noor, Alias Mohd

    2016-06-01

    Recent research has reached a consensus on the feasibility of motor imagery brain-computer interface (MI-BCI) for different applications, especially in stroke rehabilitation. Most MI-BCI systems rely on temporal, spectral, and spatial features of single channels to distinguish different MI patterns. However, no successful communication has been established for a completely locked-in subject. To provide more useful and informative features, it has been recommended to take into account the relationships among electroencephalographic (EEG) sensor/source signals in the form of brain connectivity as an efficient tool of neuroscience. In this review, we briefly report the challenges and limitations of conventional MI-BCIs. Brain connectivity analysis, particularly functional and effective, has been described as one of the most promising approaches for improving MI-BCI performance. An extensive literature on EEG-based MI brain connectivity analysis of healthy subjects is reviewed. We subsequently discuss the brain connectomes during left and right hand, feet, and tongue MI movements. Moreover, key components involved in brain connectivity analysis that considerably affect the results are explained. Finally, possible technical shortcomings that may have influenced the results in previous research are addressed and suggestions are provided.

  9. Context-aware adaptive spelling in motor imagery BCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdikis, S.; Leeb, R.; Millán, J. d. R.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. This work presents a first motor imagery-based, adaptive brain-computer interface (BCI) speller, which is able to exploit application-derived context for improved, simultaneous classifier adaptation and spelling. Online spelling experiments with ten able-bodied users evaluate the ability of our scheme, first, to alleviate non-stationarity of brain signals for restoring the subject’s performances, second, to guide naive users into BCI control avoiding initial offline BCI calibration and, third, to outperform regular unsupervised adaptation. Approach. Our co-adaptive framework combines the BrainTree speller with smooth-batch linear discriminant analysis adaptation. The latter enjoys contextual assistance through BrainTree’s language model to improve online expectation-maximization maximum-likelihood estimation. Main results. Our results verify the possibility to restore single-sample classification and BCI command accuracy, as well as spelling speed for expert users. Most importantly, context-aware adaptation performs significantly better than its unsupervised equivalent and similar to the supervised one. Although no significant differences are found with respect to the state-of-the-art PMean approach, the proposed algorithm is shown to be advantageous for 30% of the users. Significance. We demonstrate the possibility to circumvent supervised BCI recalibration, saving time without compromising the adaptation quality. On the other hand, we show that this type of classifier adaptation is not as efficient for BCI training purposes.

  10. Mental imagery of speech: linking motor and perceptual systems through internal simulation and estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xing; Poeppel, David

    2012-01-01

    The neural basis of mental imagery has been investigated by localizing the underlying neural networks, mostly in motor and perceptual systems, separately. However, how modality-specific representations are top-down induced and how the action and perception systems interact in the context of mental imagery is not well understood. Imagined speech production ("articulation imagery"), which induces the kinesthetic feeling of articulator movement and its auditory consequences, provides a new angle because of the concurrent involvement of motor and perceptual systems. On the basis of previous findings in mental imagery of speech, we argue for the following regarding the induction mechanisms of mental imagery and the interaction between motor and perceptual systems: (1) Two distinct top-down mechanisms, memory retrieval and motor simulation, exist to induce estimation in perceptual systems. (2) Motor simulation is sufficient to internally induce the representation of perceptual changes that would be caused by actual movement (perceptual associations); however, this simulation process only has modulatory effects on the perception of external stimuli, which critically depends on context and task demands. Considering the proposed simulation-estimation processes as common mechanisms for interaction between motor and perceptual systems, we outline how mental imagery (of speech) relates to perception and production, and how these hypothesized mechanisms might underpin certain neural disorders.

  11. Graded motor imagery and the impact on pain processing in a case of CRPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Andrea D; Usichenko, Taras; Moseley, G Lorimer; Lotze, Martin

    2013-03-01

    Graded motor imagery (GMI) shows promising results for patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). In a case with chronic unilateral CRPS type I, we applied GMI for 6 weeks and recorded clinical parameters and cerebral activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI; pre-GMI, after each GMI block, and after 6 mo). Changes in fMRI activity were mapped during movement execution in areas associated with pain processing. A healthy participant served as a control for habituation effects. Pain intensity decreased over the course of GMI, and relief was maintained at follow-up. fMRI during movement execution revealed marked changes in S1 and S2 (areas of discriminative pain processing), which seemed to be associated with pain reduction, but none in the anterior insula and the anterior cingulate cortex (areas of affective pain processing). After mental rotation training, the activation intensity of the posterior parietal cortex was reduced to one third. Our case report develops a design capable of differentiating cerebral changes associated with behavioral therapy of CRPS type I study.

  12. A hybrid NIRS-EEG system for self-paced brain computer interface with online motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Bonkon; Lee, Hwan-Gon; Nam, Yunjun; Kang, Hyohyeong; Koh, Chin Su; Shin, Hyung-Cheul; Choi, Seungjin

    2015-04-15

    For a self-paced motor imagery based brain-computer interface (BCI), the system should be able to recognize the occurrence of a motor imagery, as well as the type of the motor imagery. However, because of the difficulty of detecting the occurrence of a motor imagery, general motor imagery based BCI studies have been focusing on the cued motor imagery paradigm. In this paper, we present a novel hybrid BCI system that uses near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and electroencephalography (EEG) systems together to achieve online self-paced motor imagery based BCI. We designed a unique sensor frame that records NIRS and EEG simultaneously for the realization of our system. Based on this hybrid system, we proposed a novel analysis method that detects the occurrence of a motor imagery with the NIRS system, and classifies its type with the EEG system. An online experiment demonstrated that our hybrid system had a true positive rate of about 88%, a false positive rate of 7% with an average response time of 10.36 s. As far as we know, there is no report that explored hemodynamic brain switch for self-paced motor imagery based BCI with hybrid EEG and NIRS system. From our experimental results, our hybrid system showed enough reliability for using in a practical self-paced motor imagery based BCI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Best practice for motor imagery: a systematic literature review on motor imagery training elements in five different disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Corina; Hilfiker, Roger; Amft, Oliver; Scheidhauer, Anne; Andrews, Brian; Butler, Jenny; Kischka, Udo; Ettlin, Thierry

    2011-06-17

    The literature suggests a beneficial effect of motor imagery (MI) if combined with physical practice, but detailed descriptions of MI training session (MITS) elements and temporal parameters are lacking. The aim of this review was to identify the characteristics of a successful MITS and compare these for different disciplines, MI session types, task focus, age, gender and MI modification during intervention. An extended systematic literature search using 24 databases was performed for five disciplines: Education, Medicine, Music, Psychology and Sports. References that described an MI intervention that focused on motor skills, performance or strength improvement were included. Information describing 17 MITS elements was extracted based on the PETTLEP (physical, environment, timing, task, learning, emotion, perspective) approach. Seven elements describing the MITS temporal parameters were calculated: study duration, intervention duration, MITS duration, total MITS count, MITS per week, MI trials per MITS and total MI training time. Both independent reviewers found 96% congruity, which was tested on a random sample of 20% of all references. After selection, 133 studies reporting 141 MI interventions were included. The locations of the MITS and position of the participants during MI were task-specific. Participants received acoustic detailed MI instructions, which were mostly standardised and live. During MI practice, participants kept their eyes closed. MI training was performed from an internal perspective with a kinaesthetic mode. Changes in MI content, duration and dosage were reported in 31 MI interventions. Familiarisation sessions before the start of the MI intervention were mentioned in 17 reports. MI interventions focused with decreasing relevance on motor-, cognitive- and strength-focused tasks. Average study intervention lasted 34 days, with participants practicing MI on average three times per week for 17 minutes, with 34 MI trials. Average total MI time

  14. Best practice for motor imagery: a systematic literature review on motor imagery training elements in five different disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheidhauer Anne

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature suggests a beneficial effect of motor imagery (MI if combined with physical practice, but detailed descriptions of MI training session (MITS elements and temporal parameters are lacking. The aim of this review was to identify the characteristics of a successful MITS and compare these for different disciplines, MI session types, task focus, age, gender and MI modification during intervention. Methods An extended systematic literature search using 24 databases was performed for five disciplines: Education, Medicine, Music, Psychology and Sports. References that described an MI intervention that focused on motor skills, performance or strength improvement were included. Information describing 17 MITS elements was extracted based on the PETTLEP (physical, environment, timing, task, learning, emotion, perspective approach. Seven elements describing the MITS temporal parameters were calculated: study duration, intervention duration, MITS duration, total MITS count, MITS per week, MI trials per MITS and total MI training time. Results Both independent reviewers found 96% congruity, which was tested on a random sample of 20% of all references. After selection, 133 studies reporting 141 MI interventions were included. The locations of the MITS and position of the participants during MI were task-specific. Participants received acoustic detailed MI instructions, which were mostly standardised and live. During MI practice, participants kept their eyes closed. MI training was performed from an internal perspective with a kinaesthetic mode. Changes in MI content, duration and dosage were reported in 31 MI interventions. Familiarisation sessions before the start of the MI intervention were mentioned in 17 reports. MI interventions focused with decreasing relevance on motor-, cognitive- and strength-focused tasks. Average study intervention lasted 34 days, with participants practicing MI on average three times per week for 17

  15. Motor and Executive Function Profiles in Adult Residents ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Exposure to elevated levels of manganese (Mn) may be associated with tremor, motor and executive dysfunction (EF), clinically resembling Parkinson’s disease (PD). PD research has identified tremor-dominant (TD) and non-tremor dominant (NTD) profiles. NTD PD presents with bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural sway, and is associated with EF impairment with lower quality of life (QoL). Presence and impact of tremor, motor, and executive dysfunction profiles on health-related QoL and life satisfaction were examined in air-Mn exposed residents of two Ohio, USA towns. Participants and Methods: From two Ohio towns exposed to air-Mn, 186 residents (76 males) aged 30-75 years were administered measures of EF (Animal Naming, ACT, Rey-O Copy, Stroop Color-Word, and Trails B), motor and tremor symptoms (UPDRS), QoL (BRFSS), life satisfaction (SWLS), and positive symptom distress (SCL-90-R). Air-Mn exposure in the two towns was modeled with 10 years of air-monitoring data. Cluster analyses detected the presence of symptom profiles by grouping together residents with similar scores on these measures. Results: Overall, mean air-Mn concentration for the two towns was 0.53 µg/m3 (SD=.92). Two-step cluster analyses identified TD and NTD symptom profiles. Residents in the NTD group lacked EF impairment; EF impairment represented a separate profile. An unimpaired group also emerged. The NTD and EF impairment groups were qualitatively similar, with relatively lo

  16. Differences in Motor Imagery Time when Predicting Task Duration in Alpine Skiers and Equestrian Riders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Magali; Collet, Christian; Champely, Stephane; Guillot, Aymeric

    2012-01-01

    Athletes' ability to use motor imagery (MI) to predict the speed at which they could perform a motor sequence has received little attention. In this study, 21 alpine skiers and 16 equestrian riders performed MI based on a prediction of actual performance time (a) after the course inspection, (b) before the start, and (c) after the actual…

  17. Stimulation through Simulation? Motor Imagery and Functional Reorganization in Hemiplegic Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Frey, Scott H.

    2004-01-01

    A key factor influencing reorganization of function in damaged neural networks of the adult brain is stimulation. How to stimulate motor areas of patients with paralyses is a formidable challenge. One possibility is to use internal movement simulations, or motor imagery, as an alternative to conventional therapeutic interventions that require…

  18. Mental imagery of speech: linking motor and perceptual systems through internal simulation and estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing eTian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The neural basis of mental imagery has been investigated by localizing the underlying neural networks, mostly in motor and perceptual systems, separately. However, how modality-specific representations are top-down induced and how the action and perception systems interact in the context of mental imagery is not well understood. Imagined speech production (‘articulation imagery’, which induces the kinesthetic feeling of articulator movement and its auditory consequences, provides a new angle because of the concurrent involvement of motor and perceptual systems. On the basis of previous findings in mental imagery of speech, we argue for the following regarding the induction mechanisms of mental imagery and the interaction between motor and perceptual systems: (1 Two distinct top-down mechanisms, memory retrieval and motor simulation, exist to induce estimation in perceptual systems. (2 Motor simulation is sufficient to internally induce the representation of perceptual changes that would be caused by actual movement (perceptual associations; however, this simulation process only has modulatory effects on the perception of external stimuli, which critically depends on context and task demands. Considering the proposed simulation-estimation processes as common mechanisms for interaction between motor and perceptual systems, we outline how mental imagery (of speech relates to perception and production, and how these hypothesized mechanisms might underpin certain neural disorders.

  19. Motor imagery cognitive network after left ischemic stroke: study of the patients during mental rotation task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yan

    Full Text Available Although motor imagery could improve motor rehabilitation, the detailed neural mechanisms of motor imagery cognitive process of stroke patients, particularly from functional network perspective, remain unclear. This study investigated functional brain network properties in each cognitive sub-stage of motor imagery of stroke patients with ischemic lesion in left hemisphere to reveal the impact of stroke on the cognition of motor imagery. Both stroke patients and control subjects participated in mental rotation task, which includes three cognitive sub-stages: visual stimulus perception, mental rotation and response cognitive process. Event-related electroencephalograph was recorded and interdependence between two different cortical areas was assessed by phase synchronization. Both global and nodal properties of functional networks in three sub-stages were statistically analyzed. Phase synchronization of stroke patients significantly reduced in mental rotation sub-stage. Longer characteristic path length and smaller global clustering coefficient of functional network were observed in patients in mental rotation sub-stage which implied the impaired segregation and integration. Larger nodal clustering coefficient and betweenness in contralesional occipitoparietal and frontal area respectively were observed in patients in all sub-stages. In addition, patients also showed smaller betweenness in ipsilesional central-parietal area in response sub-stage. The compensatory effects on local connectedness and centrality indicated the neuroplasticity in contralesional hemisphere. The functional brain networks of stroke patients demonstrated significant alterations and compensatory effects during motor imagery.

  20. Motor skill experience modulates executive control for task switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiuhua; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Chau, Bolton; Fu, Amy S N

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of types of motor skills, including open and closed skills on enhancing proactive and reactive controls for task switching. Thirty-six athletes in open (n=18) or closed (n=18) sports and a control group (n=18) completed the task-switching paradigm and the simple reaction task. The task-switching paradigm drew on the proactive and reactive control of executive functions, whereas the simple reaction task assessed the processing speed. Significant Validity×Group effect revealed that the participants with open skills had a lower switch cost of response time compared to the other two groups when the task cue was 100% valid; whereas the participants regardless of motor skills had a lower switch cost of response time compared to the control group when the task cue was 50% valid. Hierarchical stepwise regression analysis further confirmed these findings. For the simple reaction task, there were no differences found among the three groups. These findings suggest that experience in open skills has benefits of promoting both proactive and reactive controls for task switching, which corresponds to the activity context exposed by the participants. In contrast, experience in closed skills appears to only benefit development of reactive control for task switching. The neural mechanisms for the proactive and reactive controls of executive functions between experts with open and closed skills call for future study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Source Detection and Functional Connectivity of the Sensorimotor Cortex during Actual and Imaginary Limb Movement: A Preliminary Study on the Implementation of eConnectome in Motor Imagery Protocols

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    Alkinoos Athanasiou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sensorimotor cortex is activated similarly during motor execution and motor imagery. The study of functional connectivity networks (FCNs aims at successfully modeling the dynamics of information flow between cortical areas. Materials and Methods. Seven healthy subjects performed 4 motor tasks (real foot, imaginary foot, real hand, and imaginary hand movements, while electroencephalography was recorded over the sensorimotor cortex. Event-Related Desynchronization/Synchronization (ERD/ERS of the mu-rhythm was used to evaluate MI performance. Source detection and FCNs were studied with eConnectome. Results and Discussion. Four subjects produced similar ERD/ERS patterns between motor execution and imagery during both hand and foot tasks, 2 subjects only during hand tasks, and 1 subject only during foot tasks. All subjects showed the expected brain activation in well-performed MI tasks, facilitating cortical source estimation. Preliminary functional connectivity analysis shows formation of networks on the sensorimotor cortex during motor imagery and execution. Conclusions. Cortex activation maps depict sensorimotor cortex activation, while similar functional connectivity networks are formed in the sensorimotor cortex both during actual and imaginary movements. eConnectome is demonstrated as an effective tool for the study of cortex activation and FCN. The implementation of FCN in motor imagery could induce promising advancements in Brain Computer Interfaces.

  2. Effect of biased feedback on motor imagery learning in BCI-teleoperation system

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    Maryam eAlimardani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Feedback design is an important issue in motor imagery BCI systems. Regardless, to date it has not been reported how feedback presentation can optimize co-adaptation between a human brain and such systems. This paper assesses the effect of realistic visual feedback on users’ BC performance and motor imagery skills. We previously developed a tele-operation system for a pair of humanlike robotic hands and showed that BCI control of such hands along with first-person perspective visual feedback of movements can arouse a sense of embodiment in the operators. In the first stage of this study, we found that the intensity of this ownership illusion was associated with feedback presentation and subjects’ performance during BCI motion control. In the second stage, we probed the effect of positive and negative feedback bias on subjects’ BCI performance and motor imagery skills. Although the subject specific classifier, which was set up at the beginning of experiment, detected no significant change in the subjects’ online performance, evaluation of brain activity patterns revealed that subjects’ self-regulation of motor imagery features improved due to a positive bias of feedback and a possible occurrence of ownership illusion. Our findings suggest that in general training protocols for BCIs, manipulation of feedback can play an important role in the optimization of subjects’ motor imagery skills.

  3. An examination of the relationship between motor coordination and executive functions in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rigoli, D; Piek, J.P.; Kane, R; Oosterlaan, J.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Research suggests important links between motor coordination and executive functions. The current study examined whether motor coordination predicts working memory, inhibition, and switching performance, extending previous research by accounting for attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder

  4. Motor imagery development and proprioceptive integration: Which sensory reweighting during childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Jessica; Jouen, François; Molina, Michèle

    2018-02-01

    It is widely accepted that motor imagery development during childhood may be due to refinement of internal models of action. At the same time, gradual improvement of predictive motor control in children may reflect an increasing ability to integrate the proprioceptive afferences with other sources of sensory information (especially vision). The current study investigated the extent to which motor imagery refinement observed between 5 and 9 years of age was related to the increasing ability to integrate proprioceptive afferences with vision and audition signals. To attain this goal, we compared motor imagery performances of 96 children (32 5-year-olds, 32 7-year-olds, and 32 9-year-olds) who received either visual and auditory inputs (VA condition) or visual, auditory, and proprioceptive inputs (VAP condition) during the imagery task. Motor imagery capacity was evaluated by means of mental chronometry paradigm based on a walking task. Our results revealed that correlations between overt and covert movements gradually increased across age in either the VA or VAP condition. Most important, in 5- and 7-year-olds, covert walking times were significantly longer than overt walking times in the VAP condition, whereas covert walking times were not different from actual walking times in the VA condition. In 9-year-olds, covert walking times were not different from overt walking times in either the VAP or VA condition. We suggest that motor imagery refinement during childhood can be partially related to the ability to integrate proprioceptive inputs with other sources of sensory information. Furthermore, our results shed light on the sensory content of motor images in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing motor imagery in brain-computer interface training: Psychological and neurophysiological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, Anatoly; Liburkina, Sofya; Yakovlev, Lev; Perepelkina, Olga; Kaplan, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    Motor imagery (MI) is considered to be a promising cognitive tool for improving motor skills as well as for rehabilitation therapy of movement disorders. It is believed that MI training efficiency could be improved by using the brain-computer interface (BCI) technology providing real-time feedback on person's mental attempts. While BCI is indeed a convenient and motivating tool for practicing MI, it is not clear whether it could be used for predicting or measuring potential positive impact of the training. In this study, we are trying to establish whether the proficiency in BCI control is associated with any of the neurophysiological or psychological correlates of motor imagery, as well as to determine possible interrelations among them. For that purpose, we studied motor imagery in a group of 19 healthy BCI-trained volunteers and performed a correlation analysis across various quantitative assessment metrics. We examined subjects' sensorimotor event-related EEG events, corticospinal excitability changes estimated with single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), BCI accuracy and self-assessment reports obtained with specially designed questionnaires and interview routine. Our results showed, expectedly, that BCI performance is dependent on the subject's capability to suppress EEG sensorimotor rhythms, which in turn is correlated with the idle state amplitude of those oscillations. Neither BCI accuracy nor the EEG features associated with MI were found to correlate with the level of corticospinal excitability increase during motor imagery, and with assessed imagery vividness. Finally, a significant correlation was found between the level of corticospinal excitability increase and kinesthetic vividness of imagery (KVIQ-20 questionnaire). Our results suggest that two distinct neurophysiological mechanisms might mediate possible effects of motor imagery: the non-specific cortical sensorimotor disinhibition and the focal corticospinal excitability increase

  6. Mental imagery of speech: linking motor and perceptual systems through internal simulation and estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Xing eTian; David ePoeppel

    2012-01-01

    The neural basis of mental imagery has been investigated by localizing the underlying neural networks, mostly in motor and perceptual systems, separately. However, how modality-specific representations are top-down induced and how the action and perception systems interact in the context of mental imagery is not well understood. Imagined speech production (‘articulation imagery’), which induces the kinesthetic feeling of articulator movement and its auditory consequences, provides a new angle...

  7. Attention, motor control and motor imagery in schizophrenia: implications for the role of the parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danckert, James; Saoud, Mohamed; Maruff, Paul

    2004-10-01

    Many recent models of schizophrenia have attempted to explain the so-called first-rank symptoms in terms of a breakdown in the self-monitoring of thoughts and behaviours. These models have focused on the most common symptom of schizophrenia auditory hallucinations-suggesting that they may represent disordered self-monitoring of internal speech. As such, much attention has been given to the role of the temporal and frontal cortices in the clinical presentation of patients with schizophrenia. In this review, we examine the role of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in schizophrenia within the context of recent models of self-monitoring deficits in these patients. Attentional dysfunctions and certain impairments of motor control and motor imagery all point towards the involvement of the parietal cortex in the disorder. In particular, we suggest that patients experiencing passivity phenomena (e.g., delusions of control) may have particular impairments of parietal function related to poor utilisation of forward models of intended actions. We also present a novel hypothesis that suggests differential impairments of the left and right parietal cortices in schizophrenia may help explain many of the first-rank symptoms of the disorder.

  8. Optimized Motor Imagery Paradigm Based on Imagining Chinese Characters Writing Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhaoyang; Allison, Brendan Z; Jin, Jing; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xingyu; Li, Wei; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2017-07-01

    motor imagery (MI) is a mental representation of motor behavior. The MI-based brain computer interfaces (BCIs) can provide communication for the physically impaired. The performance of MI-based BCI mainly depends on the subject's ability to self-modulate electroencephalogram signals. Proper training can help naive subjects learn to modulate brain activity proficiently. However, training subjects typically involve abstract motor tasks and are time-consuming. to improve the performance of naive subjects during motor imagery, a novel paradigm was presented that would guide naive subjects to modulate brain activity effectively. In this new paradigm, pictures of the left or right hand were used as cues for subjects to finish the motor imagery task. Fourteen healthy subjects (11 male, aged 22-25 years, and mean 23.6±1.16) participated in this study. The task was to imagine writing a Chinese character. Specifically, subjects could imagine hand movements corresponding to the sequence of writing strokes in the Chinese character. This paradigm was meant to find an effective and familiar action for most Chinese people, to provide them with a specific, extensively practiced task and help them modulate brain activity. results showed that the writing task paradigm yielded significantly better performance than the traditional arrow paradigm (p paradigm was easier. the proposed new motor imagery paradigm could guide subjects to help them modulate brain activity effectively. Results showed that there were significant improvements using new paradigm, both in classification accuracy and usability.

  9. The Modulation of Corticospinal Excitability during Motor Imagery of Actions with Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Sakamoto, Masanori; Muraoka, Tetsuro; Nakagawa, Kento; Kanazawa, Shoichi; Nakata, Hiroki; Moriyama, Noriyoshi; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether corticospinal excitability during motor imagery of actions (the power or the pincer grip) with objects was influenced by actually touching objects (tactile input) and by the congruency of posture with the imagined action (proprioceptive input). Corticospinal excitability was assessed by monitoring motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the first dorsal interosseous following transcranial magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex. MEPs were recorded during imagery of the power grip of a larger-sized ball (7 cm) or the pincer grip of a smaller-sized ball (3 cm)—with or without passively holding the larger-sized ball with the holding posture or the smaller-sized ball with the pinching posture. During imagery of the power grip, MEPs amplitude was increased only while the actual posture was the same as the imagined action (the holding posture). On the other hand, during imagery of the pincer grip while touching the ball, MEPs amplitude was enhanced in both postures. To examine the pure effect of touching (tactile input), we recorded MEPs during imagery of the power and pincer grip while touching various areas of an open palm with a flat foam pad. The MEPs amplitude was not affected by the palmer touching. These findings suggest that corticospinal excitability during imagery with an object is modulated by actually touching an object through the combination of tactile and proprioceptive inputs. PMID:22022491

  10. Efficacy of motor imagery in post-stroke rehabilitation: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puhan Milo A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluation of how Motor Imagery and conventional therapy (physiotherapy or occupational therapy compare to conventional therapy only in their effects on clinically relevant outcomes during rehabilitation of persons with stroke. Design Systematic review of the literature Methods We conducted an electronic database search in seven databases in August 2005 and also hand-searched the bibliographies of studies that we selected for the review. Two reviewers independently screened and selected all randomized controlled trials that compare the effects of conventional therapy plus Motor Imagery to those of only conventional therapy on stroke patients. The outcome measurements were: Fugl-Meyer Stroke Assessment upper extremity score (66 points and Action Research Arm Test upper extremity score (57 points. Due to the high variability in the outcomes, we could not pool the data statistically. Results We identified four randomized controlled trials from Asia and North America. The quality of the included studies was poor to moderate. Two different Motor imagery techniques were used (three studies used audiotapes and one study had occupational therapists apply the intervention. Two studies found significant effects of Motor Imagery in the Fugl-Meyer Stroke Assessment: Differences between groups amounted to 11.0 (1.0 to 21.0 and 3.2 (-4 to 10.3 respectively and in the Action Research Arm Test 6.1 (-6.2 to 18.4 and 15.8 (0.5 to 31.0 respectively. One study did not find a significant effect in the Fugl-Meyer Stroke Assessment and Color trail Test (p = 0.28 but in the task-related outcomes (p > 0.001. Conclusion Current evidence suggests that Motor imagery provides additional benefits to conventional physiotherapy or occupational therapy. However, larger and methodologically sounder studies should be conducted to assess the benefits of Motor imagery.

  11. The Importance of Visual Feedback Design in BCIs; from Embodiment to Motor Imagery Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimardani, Maryam; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Brain computer interfaces (BCIs) have been developed and implemented in many areas as a new communication channel between the human brain and external devices. Despite their rapid growth and broad popularity, the inaccurate performance and cost of user-training are yet the main issues that prevent their application out of the research and clinical environment. We previously introduced a BCI system for the control of a very humanlike android that could raise a sense of embodiment and agency in the operators only by imagining a movement (motor imagery) and watching the robot perform it. Also using the same setup, we further discovered that the positive bias of subjects' performance both increased their sensation of embodiment and improved their motor imagery skills in a short period. In this work, we studied the shared mechanism between the experience of embodiment and motor imagery. We compared the trend of motor imagery learning when two groups of subjects BCI-operated different looking robots, a very humanlike android's hands and a pair of metallic gripper. Although our experiments did not show a significant change of learning between the two groups immediately during one session, the android group revealed better motor imagery skills in the follow up session when both groups repeated the task using the non-humanlike gripper. This result shows that motor imagery skills learnt during the BCI-operation of humanlike hands are more robust to time and visual feedback changes. We discuss the role of embodiment and mirror neuron system in such outcome and propose the application of androids for efficient BCI training.

  12. The Importance of Visual Feedback Design in BCIs; from Embodiment to Motor Imagery Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Alimardani

    Full Text Available Brain computer interfaces (BCIs have been developed and implemented in many areas as a new communication channel between the human brain and external devices. Despite their rapid growth and broad popularity, the inaccurate performance and cost of user-training are yet the main issues that prevent their application out of the research and clinical environment. We previously introduced a BCI system for the control of a very humanlike android that could raise a sense of embodiment and agency in the operators only by imagining a movement (motor imagery and watching the robot perform it. Also using the same setup, we further discovered that the positive bias of subjects' performance both increased their sensation of embodiment and improved their motor imagery skills in a short period. In this work, we studied the shared mechanism between the experience of embodiment and motor imagery. We compared the trend of motor imagery learning when two groups of subjects BCI-operated different looking robots, a very humanlike android's hands and a pair of metallic gripper. Although our experiments did not show a significant change of learning between the two groups immediately during one session, the android group revealed better motor imagery skills in the follow up session when both groups repeated the task using the non-humanlike gripper. This result shows that motor imagery skills learnt during the BCI-operation of humanlike hands are more robust to time and visual feedback changes. We discuss the role of embodiment and mirror neuron system in such outcome and propose the application of androids for efficient BCI training.

  13. Re-imagining motor imagery: building bridges between cognitive neuroscience and sport psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Aidan; Guillot, Aymeric; Macintyre, Tadhg; Collet, Christian

    2012-05-01

    One of the most remarkable capacities of the mind is its ability to simulate sensations, actions, and other types of experience. A mental simulation process that has attracted recent attention from cognitive neuroscientists and sport psychologists is motor imagery or the mental rehearsal of actions without engaging in the actual physical movements involved. Research on motor imagery is important in psychology because it provides an empirical window on consciousness and movement planning, rectifies a relative neglect of non-visual types of mental imagery, and has practical implications for skill learning and skilled performance in special populations (e.g., athletes, surgeons). Unfortunately, contemporary research on motor imagery is hampered by a variety of semantic, conceptual, and methodological issues that prevent cross-fertilization of ideas between cognitive neuroscience and sport psychology. In this paper, we review these issues, suggest how they can be resolved, and sketch some potentially fruitful new directions for inter-disciplinary research in motor imagery. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Classification of Motor Imagery EEG Signals with Support Vector Machines and Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuliang; Ding, Xiaohui; She, Qingshan; Luo, Zhizeng; Potter, Thomas; Zhang, Yingchun

    2016-01-01

    Support vector machines are powerful tools used to solve the small sample and nonlinear classification problems, but their ultimate classification performance depends heavily upon the selection of appropriate kernel and penalty parameters. In this study, we propose using a particle swarm optimization algorithm to optimize the selection of both the kernel and penalty parameters in order to improve the classification performance of support vector machines. The performance of the optimized classifier was evaluated with motor imagery EEG signals in terms of both classification and prediction. Results show that the optimized classifier can significantly improve the classification accuracy of motor imagery EEG signals. PMID:27313656

  15. Effects of motor imagery combined with functional electrical stimulation on upper limb motor function of patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-feng LIU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effects of motor imagery (MI combined with the third generation functional electrical stimulation (FES on upper limb motor function in acute ischemic stroke patients with hemiplegia.  Methods Forty acute ischemic stroke patients, within 48 h of onset, were randomly divided into FES group (N = 20 and combination group (FES combined with motor imagery, N = 20. All patients received basic routine rehabilitation training, for example, good limb positioning, accepting braces, balance training and training in the activities of daily living (ADL. FES group received the third generation FES therapy and the combination group also received motor imagery for 2 weeks. All of the patients were assessed with Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA, Action Research Arm Test (ARAT and active range of motion (AROM of wrist dorsiflexion before and after 2 weeks of treatment.  Results After 2 weeks of treatment, the 2 groups had significantly higher FMA score, ARAT score and AROM of wrist dorsiflexion than that in pre-treatment (P = 0.000, for all. Besides, the FMA score (t = - 2.528, P = 0.016, ARAT score (t = - 2.562, P = 0.014 and AROM of wrist dorsiflexion (t = - 2.469, P = 0.018 in the combination group were significantly higher than that in the FES group. There were interactions of treatment methods with observation time points (P < 0.05, for all.  Conclusions Motor imagery combined with the third generation FES can effectively promote the recovery of upper limb motor function and motion range of wrist dorsiflexion in patients with acute ischemic stroke. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.03.008

  16. Motor planning and performance in transitive and intransitive gesture execution and imagination: Does EEG (RP) activity predict hemodynamic (fNIRS) response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Cortesi, Livia; Crivelli, Davide

    2017-05-01

    The interplay between neural structures and processes underlying motor planning and proper movement initiation and guidance is still a matter of debate. The present study aimed at investigating cortical correlates of motor planning and production when execution and imagery of real-life gestures are performed, with an additional focus on potential specificities of meaningful transitive/intransitive gestures. Electrophysiological (Readiness Potential - RP) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) measures were analyzed to investigate the relationship between processes supporting action planning, execution and imagination. Participants were instructed to observe videos presenting various gestures and then to execute or to imagine them. We observed comparable RP before gesture execution and imagination, with a "facilitation effect" of transitive gestures in particular for imagination. Further, while the supplementary motor regions showed similar O 2 Hb profiles during both execution and imagination of transitive/intransitive gestures, premotor and posterior parietal areas showed specificities respectively for execution processes and transitive gesture execution. Finally, regression analyses showed that RP amplitude is a predictive factor of subsequent hemodynamic brain activity during action production. Such predictive role was modulated by both task and gesture type factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Motor imagery in spinal cord injured people is modulated by somatotopic coding, perspective taking, and post-lesional chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandola, Michele; Aglioti, Salvatore M; Pozeg, Polona; Avesani, Renato; Moro, Valentina

    2017-09-01

    Motor imagery (MI) allows one to mentally represent an action without necessarily performing it. Importantly, however, MI is profoundly influenced by the ability to actually execute actions, as demonstrated by the impairment of this ability as a consequence of lesions in motor cortices, limb amputations, movement limiting chronic pain, and spinal cord injury. Understanding MI and its deficits in patients with motor limitations is fundamentally important as development of some brain-computer interfaces and daily life strategies for coping with motor disorders are based on this ability. We explored MI in a large sample of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) using a comprehensive battery of questionnaires to assess the ability to imagine actions from a first-person or a third-person perspective and also imagine the proprioceptive components of actions. Moreover, we correlated MI skills with personality measures and clinical variables such as the level and completeness of the lesion and the presence of chronic pain. We found that the MI deficits (1) concerned the body parts affected by deafferentation and deefferentation, (2) were present in first- but not in third-person perspectives, and (3) were more altered in the presence of chronic pain. MI is thus closely related to bodily perceptions and representations. Every attempt to devise tools and trainings aimed at improving autonomy needs to consider the cognitive changes due to the body-brain disconnection. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Motor imagery and action observation : cognitive tools for rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Th.

    2007-01-01

    Rehabilitation, for a large part may be seen as a learning process where old skills have to be re-acquired and new ones have to be learned on the basis of practice. Active exercising creates a flow of sensory (afferent) information. It is known that motor recovery and motor learning have many

  19. Motor imagery and stroke rehabilitation : A critical discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Sjoerd; Mulder, Theo

    Motor disorders are a frequent consequence of stroke and much effort is invested in the re-acquisition of motor control. Although patients often regain some of their lost function after therapy, most remain chronically disabled. Functional recovery is achieved largely through reorganization

  20. Mild impairments of motor imagery skills in children with DCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noten, M.; Wilson, P.H.; Ruddock, S.; Steenbergen, B.

    2014-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the underlying mechanism of clumsy motor behaviour in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is caused by a deficit in the internal modelling for motor control. An internal modelling deficit can be shown on a behavioural level by a task that requires

  1. Low Intensity Focused tDCS Over the Motor Cortex Shows Inefficacy to Improve Motor Imagery Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma N. Angulo-Sherman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a brain stimulation technique that can enhance motor activity by stimulating the motor path. Thus, tDCS has the potential of improving the performance of brain-computer interfaces during motor neurorehabilitation. tDCS effects depend on several aspects, including the current density, which usually varies between 0.02 and 0.08 mA/cm2, and the location of the stimulation electrodes. Hence, testing tDCS montages at several current levels would allow the selection of current parameters for improving stimulation outcomes and the comparison of montages. In a previous study, we found that cortico-cerebellar tDCS shows potential of enhancing right-hand motor imagery. In this paper, we aim to evaluate the effects of the focal stimulation of the motor cortex over motor imagery. In particular, the effect of supplying tDCS with a 4 × 1 ring montage, which consists in placing an anode on the motor cortex and four cathodes around it, over motor imagery was assessed with different current densities. Electroencephalographic (EEG classification into rest or right-hand/feet motor imagery was evaluated on five healthy subjects for two stimulation schemes: applying tDCS for 10 min on the (1 right-hand or (2 feet motor cortex before EEG recording. Accuracy differences related to the tDCS intensity, as well as μ and β band power changes, were tested for each subject and tDCS modality. In addition, a simulation of the electric field induced by the montage was used to describe its effect on the brain. Results show no improvement trends on classification for the evaluated currents, which is in accordance with the observation of variable EEG band power results despite the focused stimulation. The lack of effects is probably related to the underestimation of the current intensity required to apply a particular current density for small electrodes and the relatively short inter-electrode distance. Hence, higher current

  2. A square root ensemble Kalman filter application to a motor-imagery brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrunnahar, M; Schiff, S J

    2011-01-01

    We here investigated a non-linear ensemble Kalman filter (SPKF) application to a motor imagery brain computer interface (BCI). A square root central difference Kalman filter (SR-CDKF) was used as an approach for brain state estimation in motor imagery task performance, using scalp electroencephalography (EEG) signals. Healthy human subjects imagined left vs. right hand movements and tongue vs. bilateral toe movements while scalp EEG signals were recorded. Offline data analysis was conducted for training the model as well as for decoding the imagery movements. Preliminary results indicate the feasibility of this approach with a decoding accuracy of 78%-90% for the hand movements and 70%-90% for the tongue-toes movements. Ongoing research includes online BCI applications of this approach as well as combined state and parameter estimation using this algorithm with different system dynamic models.

  3. Motor imagery training promotes motor learning in adolescents with cerebral palsy: comparison between left and right hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Sequeira, Audrey Sartori; Coelho, Daniel Boari; Teixeira, Luis Augusto

    2016-06-01

    This experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of pure motor imagery training (MIT) and its combination with physical practice on learning an aiming task with the more affected arm in adolescents suffering from cerebral palsy. Effect of MIT was evaluated as a function of side of hemiparesis. The experiment was accomplished by 11- to 16-year-old participants (M = 13.58 years), who suffered left (n = 16) or right (n = 15) mild hemiparesis. They were exposed to pure MIT (day 1) followed by physical practice (day 2) on an aiming task demanding movement accuracy and speed. Posttraining movement kinematics of the group receiving MIT were compared with movement kinematics of the control group after receiving recreational activities (day 1) and physical practice (day 2). Kinematic analysis showed that MIT led to decreased movement time and straighter hand displacements to the target. Performance achievements from MIT were increased with further physical practice, leading to enhanced effects on motor learning. Retention evaluation indicated that performance improvement from pure MIT and its combination with physical practice were stable over time. Performance achievements were equivalent between adolescents with either right or left hemiparesis, suggesting similar capacity between these groups to achieve performance improvement from pure imagery training and from its association with physical practice. Our results suggest that motor imagery training is a procedure potentially useful to increase motor learning achievements in individuals suffering from cerebral palsy.

  4. Feasibility of Motor Imagery Training for Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder - A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, I.L.; Smits-Engelsman, B.; Lust, J.M.; Wilson, P.H.; Steenbergen, B.

    2017-01-01

    Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) experience movement difficulties that may be linked to processes involved in motor imagery (MI). This paper discusses recent advances in theory that underpin the use of MI training for children with DCD. This knowledge is translated in a new MI

  5. Motor imagery training for children with developmental coordination disorder - study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, I.L.; Steenbergen, B.; Lust, J.M.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that the predictive control of movements is impaired in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), most likely due to a deficit in the internal modeling of movements. Motor imagery paradigms have been used to test this internal modeling deficit.

  6. Motor imagery training for children with developmental coordination disorder: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, I.L.J.; Steenbergen, B.; Lust, J.M.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that the predictive control of movements is impaired in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), most likely due to a deficit in the internal modeling of movements. Motor imagery paradigms have been used to test this internal modeling deficit.

  7. Electrophysiological Brain Activity during the Control of a Motor Imagery-Based Brain–Computer Interface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frolov, A. A.; Aziatskaya, G.A.; Bobrov, P.D.; Luykmanov, R. Kh.; Fedotova, I.R.; Húsek, Dušan; Snášel, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 5 (2017), s. 501-511 ISSN 0362-1197 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : brain–computer interface * neurointerface * EEG * motor imagery * EEG rhythm synchronization and desynchronization * independent component analysis * EEG inverse problem * neurorehabilitation Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  8. Phantom limb perception interferes with motor imagery after unilateral upper-limb amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Yuanyuan; Guo, Xiaoli; Bekrater-Bodmann, Robin; Flor, Herta; Tong, Shanbao

    2016-02-16

    A potential contributor to impaired motor imagery in amputees is an alteration of the body schema as a result of the presence of a phantom limb. However, the nature of the relationship between motor imagery and phantom experiences remains unknown. In this study, the influence of phantom limb perception on motor imagery was investigated using a hand mental rotation task by means of behavioral and electrophysiological measures. Compared with healthy controls, significantly prolonged response time for both the intact and missing hand were observed specifically in amputees who perceived a phantom limb during the task but not in amputees without phantom limb perception. Event-related desynchronization of EEG in the beta band (beta-ERD) in central and parietal areas showed an angular disparity specifically in amputees with phantom limb perception, with its source localized in the right inferior parietal lobule. The response time as well as the beta-ERD values were significantly positively correlated with phantom vividness. Our results suggest that phantom limb perception during the task is an important interferential factor for motor imagery after amputation and the interference might be related to a change of the body representation resulting from an unnatural posture of the phantom limb.

  9. Motor imagery for walking: A comparison between cerebral palsy adolescents with hemiplegia and diplegia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molina, M.; Kudlinski, C.; Guilbert, J.; Spruijt, S.; Steenbergen, B.; Jouen, F.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the study was to investigate whether motor imagery (MI) could be observed in cerebral palsy (CP) participants presenting a bilateral affected body side (diplegia) as it has been previously revealed in participants presenting a unilateral body affected sided (hemiplegia). MI capacity for

  10. Motor imagery for walking: a comparison between cerebral palsy adolescents with hemiplegia and diplegia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molina, M.; Kudlinski, C.; Guilbert, J.; Spruijt, S.; Steenbergen, B.; Jouen, F.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the study was to investigate whether motor imagery (MI) could be observed in cerebral palsy (CP) participants presenting a bilateral affected body side (diplegia) as it has been previously revealed in participants presenting a unilateral body affected sided (hemiplegia). MI capacity for

  11. Motor imagery for walking: A comparison between cerebral palsy adolescents with hemiplegia and diplegia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molina, M.; Kudlinski, C.; Guilbert, J.; Spruijt, S.; Steenbergen, B.; Jouen, F.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the study was to investigate whether motor imagery (MI) could be observed in cerebral palsy (CP) participants presenting a bilateral affected body side (diplegia) as it has been previously revealed in participants presenting a unilateral body affected sided (hemiplegia). MI capacity for

  12. Using motor imagery to study the neural substrates of dynamic balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferraye, M.U.; Debû, B.H.G.; Heil, L.; Carpenter, M.; Bloem, B.R.; Toni, I.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the cerebral structures involved in dynamic balance using a motor imagery (MI) protocol. We recorded cerebral activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging while subjects imagined swaying on a balance board along the sagittal plane to point a laser at target pairs of

  13. Selective Influence of Circadian Modulation and Task Characteristics on Motor Imagery Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debarnot, Ursula; Sahraoui, Djafar; Champely, Stephane; Collet, Christian; Guillot, Aymeric

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of circadian modulation on motor imagery (MI) time while also considering the effects of task complexity and duration. The ability to imagine in real time was influenced by circadian modulation in a simple walking condition, with longer MI times in the morning and evening sessions. By contrast, there was no…

  14. Mirror therapy, graded motor imagery and virtual illusion for the management of chronic pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plumbe, Lee; Peters, Susan; Bennett, Sally; Vicenzino, Bill; Coppieters, Michel W.

    2016-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the efficacy of mirror therapy, graded motor imagery, and virtual illusion for improving pain and function levels in chronic pain states, including, but not limited to, chronic regional pain

  15. Mutual information-based feature selection for low-cost BCIs based on motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiatti, L; Faes, L; Tessadori, J; Barresi, G; Mattos, L

    2016-08-01

    In the present study a feature selection algorithm based on mutual information (MI) was applied to electro-encephalographic (EEG) data acquired during three different motor imagery tasks from two dataset: Dataset I from BCI Competition IV including full scalp recordings from four subjects, and new data recorded from three subjects using the popular low-cost Emotiv EPOC EEG headset. The aim was to evaluate optimal channels and band-power (BP) features for motor imagery tasks discrimination, in order to assess the feasibility of a portable low-cost motor imagery based Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) system. The minimal sub set of features most relevant to task description and less redundant to each other was determined, and the corresponding classification accuracy was assessed offline employing linear support vector machine (SVM) in a 10-fold cross validation scheme. The analysis was performed: (a) on the original full Dataset I from BCI competition IV, (b) on a restricted channels set from Dataset I corresponding to available Emotiv EPOC electrodes locations, and (c) on data recorded with the EPOC system. Results from (a) showed that an offline classification accuracy above 80% can be reached using only 5 features. Limiting the analysis to EPOC channels caused a decrease of classification accuracy, although it still remained above chance level, both for data from (b) and (c). A top accuracy of 70% was achieved using 2 optimal features. These results encourage further research towards the development of portable low cost motor imagery-based BCI systems.

  16. Disentangling the relationship between children's motor ability, executive function and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Mirko; Egger, Fabienne; Benzing, Valentin; Jäger, Katja; Conzelmann, Achim; Roebers, Claudia M; Pesce, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    Even though positive relations between children's motor ability and their academic achievement are frequently reported, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Executive function has indeed been proposed, but hardly tested as a potential mediator. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine the mediating role of executive function in the relationship between motor ability and academic achievement, also investigating the individual contribution of specific motor abilities to the hypothesized mediated linkage to academic achievement. At intervals of ten weeks, 236 children aged between 10 and 12 years were tested in terms of their motor ability (t1: cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, motor coordination), core executive functions (t2: updating, inhibition, shifting), and academic achievement (t3: mathematics, reading, spelling). Structural equation modelling revealed executive function to be a mediator in the relation between motor ability and academic achievement, represented by a significant indirect effect. In separate analyses, each of the three motor abilities were positively related to children's academic achievement. However, only in the case of children's motor coordination, the mediation by executive function accounted for a significance percentage of variance of academic achievement data. The results provide evidence in support of models that conceive executive function as a mechanism explaining the relationship that links children's physical activity-related outcomes to academic achievement and strengthen the advocacy for quality physical activity not merely focused on health-related physical fitness outcomes, but also on motor skill development and learning.

  17. Disentangling the relationship between children’s motor ability, executive function and academic achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Fabienne; Benzing, Valentin; Jäger, Katja; Conzelmann, Achim; Roebers, Claudia M.; Pesce, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    Even though positive relations between children’s motor ability and their academic achievement are frequently reported, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Executive function has indeed been proposed, but hardly tested as a potential mediator. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine the mediating role of executive function in the relationship between motor ability and academic achievement, also investigating the individual contribution of specific motor abilities to the hypothesized mediated linkage to academic achievement. At intervals of ten weeks, 236 children aged between 10 and 12 years were tested in terms of their motor ability (t1: cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, motor coordination), core executive functions (t2: updating, inhibition, shifting), and academic achievement (t3: mathematics, reading, spelling). Structural equation modelling revealed executive function to be a mediator in the relation between motor ability and academic achievement, represented by a significant indirect effect. In separate analyses, each of the three motor abilities were positively related to children’s academic achievement. However, only in the case of children’s motor coordination, the mediation by executive function accounted for a significance percentage of variance of academic achievement data. The results provide evidence in support of models that conceive executive function as a mechanism explaining the relationship that links children’s physical activity-related outcomes to academic achievement and strengthen the advocacy for quality physical activity not merely focused on health-related physical fitness outcomes, but also on motor skill development and learning. PMID:28817625

  18. Translation of EEG spatial filters from resting to motor imagery using independent component analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Wang

    Full Text Available Electroencephalogram (EEG-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs often use spatial filters to improve signal-to-noise ratio of task-related EEG activities. To obtain robust spatial filters, large amounts of labeled data, which are often expensive and labor-intensive to obtain, need to be collected in a training procedure before online BCI control. Several studies have recently developed zero-training methods using a session-to-session scenario in order to alleviate this problem. To our knowledge, a state-to-state translation, which applies spatial filters derived from one state to another, has never been reported. This study proposes a state-to-state, zero-training method to construct spatial filters for extracting EEG changes induced by motor imagery. Independent component analysis (ICA was separately applied to the multi-channel EEG in the resting and the motor imagery states to obtain motor-related spatial filters. The resultant spatial filters were then applied to single-trial EEG to differentiate left- and right-hand imagery movements. On a motor imagery dataset collected from nine subjects, comparable classification accuracies were obtained by using ICA-based spatial filters derived from the two states (motor imagery: 87.0%, resting: 85.9%, which were both significantly higher than the accuracy achieved by using monopolar scalp EEG data (80.4%. The proposed method considerably increases the practicality of BCI systems in real-world environments because it is less sensitive to electrode misalignment across different sessions or days and does not require annotated pilot data to derive spatial filters.

  19. The comparison between motor imagery and verbal rehearsal on the learning of sequential movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud eSaimpont

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mental practice refers to the cognitive rehearsal of a physical activity. It is widely used by athletes to enhance their performance and its efficiency to help train motor function in people with physical disabilities is now recognized. Mental practice is generally based on motor imagery (MI i.e. the conscious simulation of a movement without its actual execution. It may also be based on verbal rehearsal (VR i.e. the silent rehearsal of the labels associated with an action. In this study, the effect of MI training or VR on the learning and retention of a foot-sequence task was investigated. Thirty right-footed subjects, aged between 22 and 37 years old (mean: 27.4±4.1 years and randomly assigned to one of three groups, practiced a serial reaction time task involving a sequence of three dorsiflexions and three plantar flexions with the left foot. One group (n=10 mentally practiced the sequence with MI for five weeks, another group (n=10 mentally practiced the sequence with VR of the foot positions for the same duration, and a control group (n=10 did not practice the sequence mentally. The time to perform the practiced sequence as well as an unpracticed sequence was recorded before training, immediately after training and six months after training (retention. The main results showed that the speed improvement after training was significantly greater in the MI group compared to the control group and tended to be greater in the VR group compared to the control group. The improvement in performance did not differ in the MI and VR groups. At retention, however, no difference in response times was found among the three groups, indicating that the effect of mental practice did not last over a long period without training. Interestingly, this pattern of results was similar for the practiced and non-practiced sequence. Overall, these results suggest that both MI training and VR help to improve motor performance and that mental practice may induce non

  20. Executive functions as predictors of visual-motor integration in children with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memisevic, Haris; Sinanovic, Osman

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between visual-motor integration and executive functions, and in particular, the extent to which executive functions can predict visual-motor integration skills in children with intellectual disability. The sample consisted of 90 children (54 boys, 36 girls; M age = 11.3 yr., SD = 2.7, range 7-15) with intellectual disabilities of various etiologies. The measure of executive functions were 8 subscales of the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) consisting of Inhibition, Shifting, Emotional Control, Initiating, Working memory, Planning, Organization of material, and Monitoring. Visual-motor integration was measured with the Acadia test of visual-motor integration (VMI). Regression analysis revealed that BRIEF subscales explained 38% of the variance in VMI scores. Of all the BRIEF subscales, only two were statistically significant predictors of visual-motor integration: Working memory and Monitoring. Possible implications of this finding are further elaborated.

  1. Functional Semi-Blind Source Separation Identifies Primary Motor Area Without Active Motor Execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcaro, Camillo; Cottone, Carlo; Cancelli, Andrea; Salustri, Carlo; Tecchio, Franca

    2018-04-01

    High time resolution techniques are crucial for investigating the brain in action. Here, we propose a method to identify a section of the upper-limb motor area representation (FS_M1) by means of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals recorded during a completely passive condition (FS_M1bySS). We delivered a galvanic stimulation to the median nerve and we applied to EEG the semi-Blind Source Separation (s-BSS) algorithm named Functional Source Separation (FSS). In order to prove that FS_M1bySS is part of FS_M1, we also collected EEG in a motor condition, i.e. during a voluntary movement task (isometric handgrip) and in a rest condition, i.e. at rest with eyes open and closed. In motor condition, we show that the cortico-muscular coherence (CMC) of FS_M1bySS does not differ from FS_ M1 CMC (0.04 for both sources). Moreover, we show that the FS_M1bySS's ongoing whole band activity during Motor and both rest conditions displays high mutual information and time correlation with FS_M1 (above 0.900 and 0.800, respectively) whereas much smaller ones with the primary somatosensory cortex [Formula: see text] (about 0.300 and 0.500, [Formula: see text]). FS_M1bySS as a marker of the upper-limb FS_M1 representation obtainable without the execution of an active motor task is a great achievement of the FSS algorithm, relevant in most experimental, neurological and psychiatric protocols.

  2. How Kinesthetic Motor Imagery works: a predictive-processing theory of visualization in sports and motor expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Brass, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Kinesthetic Motor Imagery (KMI) is an important technique to acquire and refine motor skills. KMI is widely used by professional athletes as an effective way to improve motor performance without overt motor output. Despite this obvious relevance, the functional mechanisms and neural circuits involved in KMI in sports are still poorly understood. In the present article, which aims at bridging the sport sciences and cognitive neurophysiology literatures, we give a brief overview of relevant research in the field of KMI. Furthermore, we develop a theoretical account that relates KMI to predictive motor control theories assuming that it is based on internal activation of anticipatory images of action effects. This mechanism allows improving motor performance solely based on internal emulation of action. In accordance with previous literature, we propose that this emulation mechanism is implemented in brain regions that partially overlap with brain areas involved in overt motor performance including the posterior parietal cortex, the cerebellum, the basal ganglia and the premotor cortex. Finally, we outline one way to test the heuristic value of our theoretical framework for KMI; we suggest that experience with motor performance improves the ability to correctly infer the goals of others, in particular in penalty blocking in soccer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised, Second Edition (MIQ-RS Is a Reliable and Valid Tool for Evaluating Motor Imagery in Stroke Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Butler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental imagery can improve motor performance in stroke populations when combined with physical therapy. Valid and reliable instruments to evaluate the imagery ability of stroke survivors are needed to maximize the benefits of mental imagery therapy. The purposes of this study were to: examine and compare the test-retest intra-rate reliability of the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised, Second Edition (MIQ-RS in stroke survivors and able-bodied controls, examine internal consistency of the visual and kinesthetic items of the MIQ-RS, determine if the MIQ-RS includes both the visual and kinesthetic dimensions of mental imagery, correlate impairment and motor imagery scores, and investigate the criterion validity of the MIQ-RS in stroke survivors by comparing the results to the KVIQ-10. Test-retest analysis indicated good levels of reliability (ICC range: .83–.99 and internal consistency (Cronbach α: .95–.98 of the visual and kinesthetic subscales in both groups. The two-factor structure of the MIQ-RS was supported by factor analysis, with the visual and kinesthetic components accounting for 88.6% and 83.4% of the total variance in the able-bodied and stroke groups, respectively. The MIQ-RS is a valid and reliable instrument in the stroke population examined and able-bodied populations and therefore useful as an outcome measure for motor imagery ability.

  4. Differential changes in the development of motor coordination and executive functions in children with motor coordination impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Eva; Molitor, Sabine; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive and motor coordination skills of children with and without motor coordination impairments were examined with a one-year follow-up investigation. Initially, children were between 4 and 6 years old. Age-appropriate tests of executive functions (updating, switching, inhibition, interference control), motor coordination (the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2) and fitness (the Körperkoordinations-Test für Kinder) were administered in two consecutive years. Several background variables (age, socioeconomic status, medical support, clinical interventions, leisure activities) and potential moderators (nonverbal intelligence, reaction time, visual perception) were controlled. The matched sample consisted of 48 control children and 48 children with motor coordination impairments. The children's executive functions dramatically improved during the one-year period. With regard to motor coordination performance, half of the impaired children caught up to the control children's level ("remission group"), while the remaining half showed no improvement ("persisting group"). Compared to the persisting group, the children in the remission group showed markedly better interference control at both measurement points. The correlation between executive functions and motor coordination is significant in the persisting group, but not in the remission group. The results of the study are discussed in the light of the role of executive functions, especially inhibition processes, for the automatization of motor coordination tasks.

  5. Determining specificity of motor imagery training for upper limb improvement in chronic stroke patients: a training protocol and pilot results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crajé, M.C.; Graaf, C.A.A. van der; Lem, F.C.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Steenbergen, B.

    2010-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI) refers to the mental rehearsal of a movement without actual motor output. MI training has positive effects on upper limb recovery after stroke. However, until now it is unclear whether this effect is specific to the trained task or a more general motor skill improvement. This

  6. Determining Specificity of Motor Imagery Training for Upper Limb Improvement in Chronic Stroke Patients: A Training Protocol and Pilot Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craje, Celine

    2010-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI) refers to the mental rehearsal of a movement without actual motor output. MI training has positive effects on upper limb recovery after stroke. However, until now it is unclear whether this effect is specific to the trained task or a more general motor skill improvement. This study was set up to advance our insights into the…

  7. Robot-Aided Upper-Limb Rehabilitation Based on Motor Imagery EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoguo Xu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of disability worldwide. In this paper, a novel robot-assisted rehabilitation system based on motor imagery electroencephalography (EEG is developed for regular training of neurological rehabilitation for upper limb stroke patients. Firstly, three-dimensional animation was used to guide the patient image the upper limb movement and EEG signals were acquired by EEG amplifier. Secondly, eigenvectors were extracted by harmonic wavelet transform (HWT and linear discriminant analysis (LDA classifier was utilized to classify the pattern of the left and right upper limb motor imagery EEG signals. Finally, PC triggered the upper limb rehabilitation robot to perform motor therapy and gave the virtual feedback. Using this robot-assisted upper limb rehabilitation system, the patient's EEG of upper limb movement imagination is translated to control rehabilitation robot directly. Consequently, the proposed rehabilitation system can fully explore the patient's motivation and attention and directly facilitate upper limb post-stroke rehabilitation therapy. Experimental results on unimpaired participants were presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the rehabilitation system. Combining robot-assisted training with motor imagery-based BCI will make future rehabilitation therapy more effective. Clinical testing is still required for further proving this assumption.

  8. Using motor imagery to study the neural substrates of dynamic balance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murielle Ursulla Ferraye

    Full Text Available This study examines the cerebral structures involved in dynamic balance using a motor imagery (MI protocol. We recorded cerebral activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging while subjects imagined swaying on a balance board along the sagittal plane to point a laser at target pairs of different sizes (small, large. We used a matched visual imagery (VI control task and recorded imagery durations during scanning. MI and VI durations were differentially influenced by the sway accuracy requirement, indicating that MI of balance is sensitive to the increased motor control necessary to point at a smaller target. Compared to VI, MI of dynamic balance recruited additional cortical and subcortical portions of the motor system, including frontal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and mesencephalic locomotor region, the latter showing increased effective connectivity with the supplementary motor area. The regions involved in MI of dynamic balance were spatially distinct but contiguous to those involved in MI of gait (Bakker et al., 2008; Snijders et al., 2011; Crémers et al., 2012, in a pattern consistent with existing somatotopic maps of the trunk (for balance and legs (for gait. These findings validate a novel, quantitative approach for studying the neural control of balance in humans. This approach extends previous reports on MI of static stance (Jahn et al., 2004, 2008, and opens the way for studying gait and balance impairments in patients with neurodegenerative disorders.

  9. Using motor imagery to study the neural substrates of dynamic balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraye, Murielle Ursulla; Debû, Bettina; Heil, Lieke; Carpenter, Mark; Bloem, Bastiaan Roelof; Toni, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the cerebral structures involved in dynamic balance using a motor imagery (MI) protocol. We recorded cerebral activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging while subjects imagined swaying on a balance board along the sagittal plane to point a laser at target pairs of different sizes (small, large). We used a matched visual imagery (VI) control task and recorded imagery durations during scanning. MI and VI durations were differentially influenced by the sway accuracy requirement, indicating that MI of balance is sensitive to the increased motor control necessary to point at a smaller target. Compared to VI, MI of dynamic balance recruited additional cortical and subcortical portions of the motor system, including frontal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and mesencephalic locomotor region, the latter showing increased effective connectivity with the supplementary motor area. The regions involved in MI of dynamic balance were spatially distinct but contiguous to those involved in MI of gait (Bakker et al., 2008; Snijders et al., 2011; Crémers et al., 2012), in a pattern consistent with existing somatotopic maps of the trunk (for balance) and legs (for gait). These findings validate a novel, quantitative approach for studying the neural control of balance in humans. This approach extends previous reports on MI of static stance (Jahn et al., 2004, 2008), and opens the way for studying gait and balance impairments in patients with neurodegenerative disorders.

  10. Effect of motor imagery therapy on cognitive function of patients with stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-jun GONG

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the rehabilitation effect of motor imagery therapy on cognitive function of stroke patients.  Methods A total of 99 stroke patients with mild to moderate cognitive dysfunction were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group (N = 33, cognitive training group (N = 33 and motor imagery training group (N = 33. All patients received conventional rehabilitation training. Before and after 8-week training, all subjects were assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA. At the same time, event-related potential (ERP was examined to detect P300 latency and amplitude.   Results ompared with before training, MMSE (P = 0.000 and MoCA (P = 0.000 scores were significantly increased, P300 latency was shortened (P = 0.000 and P300 amplitude was increased (P = 0.000 in 3 groups after 8 - week training. There were significant differences among 3 groups on MMSE (P = 0.030 and MoCA (P = 0.013 scores, P300 latency (P = 0.004 and P300 amplitude (P = 0.009 before and after training. Among them, cognitive training group and motor imagery training group had significantly higher MMSE (P = 0.019, 0.021 and MoCA (P = 0.003, 0.031 scores, shorter P300 latency (P = 0.020, 0.003 and higher P300 amplitude (P = 0.003, 0.002 than control group.  Conclusions Motor imagery training can not only improve motor function of stroke patients, but also improve their cognitive function. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.06.005

  11. Motor imagery during action observation: A brief review of evidence, theory and future research opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lloyd Eaves

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Motor imagery (MI and action observation (AO have traditionally been viewed as two separate techniques, which can both be used alongside physical practice to enhance motor learning and rehabilitation. Their independent use has been shown to be effective, and there is clear evidence that the two processes can elicit similar activity in the motor system. Building on these well-established findings, research has now turned to investigate the effects of their combined use. In this article, we first review the available neurophysiological and behavioral evidence for the effects of combined action observation and motor imagery (‘AO+MI’ on motor processes. We next describe a conceptual framework for their combined use, and then discuss several areas for future research into AO+MI processes. In this review, we advocate a more integrated approach to AO+MI techniques than has previously been adopted by movement scientists and practitioners alike. We hope this early review of an emergent body of research, along with a related set of research questions, can inspire new work in this area. We are optimistic that future research will further confirm if, how, and when this combined approach to AO+MI can be more effective in motor learning and rehabilitation settings, relative to the more traditional application of AO or MI independently.

  12. The therapeutic role of motor imagery during the acute phase after total knee arthroplasty: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukarzel, Marcel; Di Rienzo, Franck; Lahoud, Jean-Claude; Hoyek, Fadi; Collet, Christian; Guillot, Aymeric; Hoyek, Nady

    2017-12-24

    The aim of this study was to measure physical and functional outcomes during the acute postoperative recovery in patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty. Motor imagery has been shown to decrease pain and promote functional recovery after both neurological and peripheral injuries. Yet, whether motor imagery can be included as an adjunct effective method into physical therapy programs following total knee arthroplasty remains a working hypothesis that we aim to test in a pilot study. Twenty volunteers were randomly assigned to either a motor imagery or a control group. Pain, range of motion, knee girth as well as quadriceps strength and Timed Up and Go Test time were the dependent variables during pre-test and post-test. The motor imagery group exhibited larger decrease of ipsilateral pain and knee girth, a slightly different evolution of range of motion and an increase of ipsilateral quadriceps strength compared to the control group. No effects of motor imagery on Timed Up and Go Test scores were observed. Implementing motor imagery practice into the course of physical therapy enhanced various physical outcomes during acute postoperative recovery after total knee arthroplasty. According to this pilot study, motor imagery might be relevant to promote motor relearning and recovery after total knee arthroplasty.Partial effect-sizes should be conducted in the future. Implications for rehabilitation    Adding motor imagery to physical therapy sessions during the acute period following total knee arthroplasty:    • Enhances quadriceps strength.    • Alleviates pain.    • Enhances range of motion.    • Does not have any effect on basic functional mobility.    • Does not have any effect on knee girth.

  13. Virtual and Actual Humanoid Robot Control with Four-Class Motor-Imagery-Based Optical Brain-Computer Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmoo E.

    2017-01-01

    Motor-imagery tasks are a popular input method for controlling brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), partially due to their similarities to naturally produced motor signals. The use of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in BCIs is still emerging and has shown potential as a supplement or replacement for electroencephalography. However, studies often use only two or three motor-imagery tasks, limiting the number of available commands. In this work, we present the results of the first four-class motor-imagery-based online fNIRS-BCI for robot control. Thirteen participants utilized upper- and lower-limb motor-imagery tasks (left hand, right hand, left foot, and right foot) that were mapped to four high-level commands (turn left, turn right, move forward, and move backward) to control the navigation of a simulated or real robot. A significant improvement in classification accuracy was found between the virtual-robot-based BCI (control of a virtual robot) and the physical-robot BCI (control of the DARwIn-OP humanoid robot). Differences were also found in the oxygenated hemoglobin activation patterns of the four tasks between the first and second BCI. These results corroborate previous findings that motor imagery can be improved with feedback and imply that a four-class motor-imagery-based fNIRS-BCI could be feasible with sufficient subject training. PMID:28804712

  14. Virtual and Actual Humanoid Robot Control with Four-Class Motor-Imagery-Based Optical Brain-Computer Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batula, Alyssa M; Kim, Youngmoo E; Ayaz, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Motor-imagery tasks are a popular input method for controlling brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), partially due to their similarities to naturally produced motor signals. The use of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in BCIs is still emerging and has shown potential as a supplement or replacement for electroencephalography. However, studies often use only two or three motor-imagery tasks, limiting the number of available commands. In this work, we present the results of the first four-class motor-imagery-based online fNIRS-BCI for robot control. Thirteen participants utilized upper- and lower-limb motor-imagery tasks (left hand, right hand, left foot, and right foot) that were mapped to four high-level commands (turn left, turn right, move forward, and move backward) to control the navigation of a simulated or real robot. A significant improvement in classification accuracy was found between the virtual-robot-based BCI (control of a virtual robot) and the physical-robot BCI (control of the DARwIn-OP humanoid robot). Differences were also found in the oxygenated hemoglobin activation patterns of the four tasks between the first and second BCI. These results corroborate previous findings that motor imagery can be improved with feedback and imply that a four-class motor-imagery-based fNIRS-BCI could be feasible with sufficient subject training.

  15. Effect of Different Mental Imagery Speeds on the Motor Performance: Investigation of the Role of Mirror Neurons

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    Sajad Parsaei

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study showed that mirror neurons within the premotor cortex are an important neural mechanism in the brain activity pattern, which causes the effectiveness of imagery in the improvement of motor skills.  

  16. Performance variation in motor imagery brain-computer interface: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Minkyu; Jun, Sung Chan

    2015-03-30

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology has attracted significant attention over recent decades, and has made remarkable progress. However, BCI still faces a critical hurdle, in that performance varies greatly across and even within subjects, an obstacle that degrades the reliability of BCI systems. Understanding the causes of these problems is important if we are to create more stable systems. In this short review, we report the most recent studies and findings on performance variation, especially in motor imagery-based BCI, which has found that low-performance groups have a less-developed brain network that is incapable of motor imagery. Further, psychological and physiological states influence performance variation within subjects. We propose a possible strategic approach to deal with this variation, which may contribute to improving the reliability of BCI. In addition, the limitations of current work and opportunities for future studies are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Classification of four-class motor imagery employing single-channel electroencephalography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Ge

    Full Text Available With advances in brain-computer interface (BCI research, a portable few- or single-channel BCI system has become necessary. Most recent BCI studies have demonstrated that the common spatial pattern (CSP algorithm is a powerful tool in extracting features for multiple-class motor imagery. However, since the CSP algorithm requires multi-channel information, it is not suitable for a few- or single-channel system. In this study, we applied a short-time Fourier transform to decompose a single-channel electroencephalography signal into the time-frequency domain and construct multi-channel information. Using the reconstructed data, the CSP was combined with a support vector machine to obtain high classification accuracies from channels of both the sensorimotor and forehead areas. These results suggest that motor imagery can be detected with a single channel not only from the traditional sensorimotor area but also from the forehead area.

  18. Selective, non-lateralized impairment of motor imagery following right parietal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danckert, James; Ferber, Susanne; Doherty, Timothy; Steinmetz, Helena; Nicolle, David; Goodale, Melvyn A

    2002-01-01

    Using variants of a visually guided pointing task, in which subjects make pointing movements towards targets of varying sizes, we explored motor imagery in a patient with visual neglect. When this patient actually pointed towards targets of different sizes he showed the normal correlation between movement duration (MD) and target size, such that MD increased as target size decreased. In contrast, his imagined movements did not show the same speed-accuracy trade-off observed for actual movements. This was true regardless of the hand used or the initial direction of movement (left versus right). The patient performed normally on several tasks of visual imagery, including size estimation, perceptual discrimination and localization of cities on an imagined map. This patient's performance suggests that the networks in the right parietal lobe play an important role in the generation of internal models of motor movements regardless of the hand used to perform the task.

  19. Localization of Brain Electrical Activity Sources and Hemodynamic Activity Foci during Motor Imagery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frolov, A. A.; Húsek, Dušan; Mokienko, O.; Bobrov, P.; Chernikova, L.; Konovalov, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 3 (2014), s. 273-283 ISSN 0362-1197 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0070; GA MŠk(CZ) EE.2.3.20.0073 Program:ED Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : brain computer interface * independent component analysis * EEG pattern classification * motor imagery * inverse EEG problem Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  20. Classifying Single-Trial EEG during Motor Imagery with a Small Training Set

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yijun

    2013-01-01

    Before the operation of a motor imagery based brain-computer interface (BCI) adopting machine learning techniques, a cumbersome training procedure is unavoidable. The development of a practical BCI posed the challenge of classifying single-trial EEG with a small training set. In this letter, we addressed this problem by employing a series of signal processing and machine learning approaches to alleviate overfitting and obtained test accuracy similar to training accuracy on the datasets from B...

  1. Cognitive alterations in motor imagery process after left hemispheric ischemic stroke.

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    Jing Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motor imagery training is a promising rehabilitation strategy for stroke patients. However, few studies had focused on the neural mechanisms in time course of its cognitive process. This study investigated the cognitive alterations after left hemispheric ischemic stroke during motor imagery task. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eleven patients with ischemic stroke in left hemisphere and eleven age-matched control subjects participated in mental rotation task (MRT of hand pictures. Behavior performance, event-related potential (ERP and event-related (desynchronization (ERD/ERS in beta band were analyzed to investigate the cortical activation. We found that: (1 The response time increased with orientation angles in both groups, called "angle effect", however, stoke patients' responses were impaired with significantly longer response time and lower accuracy rate; (2 In early visual perceptual cognitive process, stroke patients showed hypo-activations in frontal and central brain areas in aspects of both P200 and ERD; (3 During mental rotation process, P300 amplitude in control subjects decreased while angle increased, called "amplitude modulation effect", which was not observed in stroke patients. Spatially, patients showed significant lateralization of P300 with activation only in contralesional (right parietal cortex while control subjects showed P300 in both parietal lobes. Stroke patients also showed an overall cortical hypo-activation of ERD during this sub-stage; (4 In the response sub-stage, control subjects showed higher ERD values with more activated cortical areas particularly in the right hemisphere while angle increased, named "angle effect", which was not observed in stroke patients. In addition, stroke patients showed significant lower ERD for affected hand (right response than that for unaffected hand. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Cortical activation was altered differently in each cognitive sub-stage of motor imagery after

  2. BRAIN-COMPUTER-INTERFACE – SUPPORTED MOTOR IMAGERY TRAININTG FOR PATIENTS WITH HEMIPARESIS

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    O. A. Mokienko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to assess the feasibility of motor imagery supported brain-computer interface in patients with hemiparesis. 13 patients with central paresis of the hand and 15 healthy volunteers were learning to control EEG-based interface with feedback. No differences on interface control quality were found between patients and healthy subjects. The trainings were accompanied by the desynchronization of sensorimotor rhythm. In patients with cortical damage the source of EEG-activity was dislocated.

  3. The effect of motor imagery training for trunk movements on trunk muscle control and proprioception in stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Dong-Sik; Choi, Jong-Duk

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of motor imagery training for trunk movements on trunk muscle control and proprioception in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 12 study subjects were randomly assigned to the experimental group (a motor imagery training group) and the control group (a neurodevelopmental treatment, NDT) group. The two groups were treated five times (30 minutes each time) per week for 4 weeks. The experimental group underwent image...

  4. Online Motor Imagery Training Effect for the Appearance of Event Related Desynchronization (ERD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Mitsuru; Gouko, Manabu; Ito, Koji

    Stroke patients have some motor deficits, but they can regain their motor abilities by rehabilitation. In the aspect of rehabilitation, voluntary movement is very important. We propose a system which can make a closed loop in brain for stroke patients like voluntary movement. Event Related Desynchronization (ERD) is used to extract patients' motor intention, and then Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) stimuls their paralyzed muscles. In many Brain Computer Interface (BCI) researches, subjects are trained for several months or years to do the task, because of the difficulty to extract clear ERD without training. Thinking about applying for stroke patients, motor imagery training should be shorter, because of the brain plasticity. We did a pilot study about the effect of visual feedback training for three days with healthy subjects. The result indicated that ERD could be clearly extracted in three days, but the training effect differs in each subjects.

  5. Motor imagery during action observation increases eccentric hamstring force: an acute non-physical intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Matthew; Taylor, Stephen; Chesterton, Paul; Vogt, Stefan; Eaves, Daniel Lloyd

    2017-03-21

    Rehabilitation professionals typically use motor imagery (MI) or action observation (AO) to increase physical strength for injury prevention and recovery. Here we compared hamstring force gains for MI during AO (AO + MI) against two pure MI training groups. Over a 3-week intervention physically fit adults imagined Nordic hamstring exercises in both legs and synchronized this with a demonstration of the same action (AO + MI), or they purely imagined this action (pure MI), or imagined upper-limb actions (pure MI-control). Eccentric hamstring strength gains were assessed using ANOVAs, and magnitude-based inference (MBI) analyses determined the likelihood of clinical/practical benefits for the interventions. Hamstring strength only increased significantly following AO + MI training. This effect was lateralized to the right leg, potentially reflecting a left-hemispheric dominance in motor simulation. MBIs: The right leg within-group treatment effect size for AO + MI was moderate and likely beneficial (d = 0.36), and only small and possibly beneficial for pure MI (0.23). Relative to pure MI-control, effects were possibly beneficial and moderate for AO + MI (0.72), although small for pure MI (0.39). Since hamstring strength predicts injury prevalence, our findings point to the advantage of combined AO + MI interventions, over and above pure MI, for injury prevention and rehabilitation. Implications for rehabilitation While hamstring strains are the most common injury across the many sports involving sprinting and jumping, Nordic hamstring exercises are among the most effective methods for building eccentric hamstring strength, for injury prevention and rehabilitation. In the acute injury phase it is crucial not to overload damaged soft tissues, and so non-physical rehabilitation techniques are well suited to this phase. Rehabilitation professionals typically use either motor imagery or action observation techniques to safely improve physical

  6. A Wearable Channel Selection-Based Brain-Computer Interface for Motor Imagery Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chi-Chun; Chien, Tsung-Yi; Chen, Yu-Chun; Tsai, Shang-Ho; Fang, Wai-Chi; Lin, Bor-Shyh

    2016-02-06

    Motor imagery-based brain-computer interface (BCI) is a communication interface between an external machine and the brain. Many kinds of spatial filters are used in BCIs to enhance the electroencephalography (EEG) features related to motor imagery. The approach of channel selection, developed to reserve meaningful EEG channels, is also an important technique for the development of BCIs. However, current BCI systems require a conventional EEG machine and EEG electrodes with conductive gel to acquire multi-channel EEG signals and then transmit these EEG signals to the back-end computer to perform the approach of channel selection. This reduces the convenience of use in daily life and increases the limitations of BCI applications. In order to improve the above issues, a novel wearable channel selection-based brain-computer interface is proposed. Here, retractable comb-shaped active dry electrodes are designed to measure the EEG signals on a hairy site, without conductive gel. By the design of analog CAR spatial filters and the firmware of EEG acquisition module, the function of spatial filters could be performed without any calculation, and channel selection could be performed in the front-end device to improve the practicability of detecting motor imagery in the wearable EEG device directly or in commercial mobile phones or tablets, which may have relatively low system specifications. Finally, the performance of the proposed BCI is investigated, and the experimental results show that the proposed system is a good wearable BCI system prototype.

  7. Local Temporal Correlation Common Spatial Patterns for Single Trial EEG Classification during Motor Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Common spatial pattern (CSP is one of the most popular and effective feature extraction methods for motor imagery-based brain-computer interface (BCI, but the inherent drawback of CSP is that the estimation of the covariance matrices is sensitive to noise. In this work, local temporal correlation (LTC information was introduced to further improve the covariance matrices estimation (LTCCSP. Compared to the Euclidean distance used in a previous CSP variant named local temporal CSP (LTCSP, the correlation may be a more reasonable metric to measure the similarity of activated spatial patterns existing in motor imagery period. Numerical comparisons among CSP, LTCSP, and LTCCSP were quantitatively conducted on the simulated datasets by adding outliers to Dataset IVa of BCI Competition III and Dataset IIa of BCI Competition IV, respectively. Results showed that LTCCSP achieves the highest average classification accuracies in all the outliers occurrence frequencies. The application of the three methods to the EEG dataset recorded in our laboratory also demonstrated that LTCCSP achieves the highest average accuracy. The above results consistently indicate that LTCCSP would be a promising method for practical motor imagery BCI application.

  8. Exploring differences between left and right hand motor imagery via spatio-temporal EEG microstate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weifeng; Liu, Xiaoming; Dai, Ruomeng; Tang, Xiaoying

    2017-12-01

    EEG-based motor imagery is very useful in brain-computer interface. How to identify the imaging movement is still being researched. Electroencephalography (EEG) microstates reflect the spatial configuration of quasi-stable electrical potential topographies. Different microstates represent different brain functions. In this paper, microstate method was used to process the EEG-based motor imagery to obtain microstate. The single-trial EEG microstate sequences differences between two motor imagery tasks - imagination of left and right hand movement were investigated. The microstate parameters - duration, time coverage and occurrence per second as well as the transition probability of the microstate sequences were obtained with spatio-temporal microstate analysis. The results were shown significant differences (P < 0.05) with paired t-test between the two tasks. Then these microstate parameters were used as features and a linear support vector machine (SVM) was utilized to classify the two tasks with mean accuracy 89.17%, superior performance compared to the other methods. These indicate that the microstate can be a promising feature to improve the performance of the brain-computer interface classification.

  9. A Test of Motor (Not Executive) Planning in Developmental Coordination Disorder and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Swieten, Lisa M.; van Bergen, Elsje; Williams, Justin H. G.; Wilson, Andrew D.; Plumb, Mandy S.; Kent, Samuel W.; Mon-Williams, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Grip selection tasks have been used to test "planning" in both autism and developmental coordination disorder (DCD). We differentiate between "motor" and "executive" planning and present a modified motor planning task. Participants grasped a cylinder in 1 of 2 orientations before turning it clockwise or anticlockwise.…

  10. On the relationship between motor performance and executive functioning in children with intellectual disabilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, E.; Houwen, S.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Visscher, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that children with intellectual disabilities (ID) have motor problems and higher-order cognitive deficits. The aim of this study was to examine the motor skills and executive functions in school-age children with borderline and mild ID. The second aim was to

  11. On the relationship between motor performance and executive functioning in children with intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, E.; Houwen, S.; Scherder, E.; Visscher, C.

    Background It has been suggested that children with intellectual disabilities (ID) have motor problems and higher-order cognitive deficits. The aim of this study was to examine the motor skills and executive functions in school-age children with borderline and mild ID. The second aim was to

  12. Relationships between Motor and Executive Functions and the Effect of an Acute Coordinative Intervention on Executive Functions in Kindergartners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Stein

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence indicating positive, causal effects of acute physical activity on cognitive performance of school children, adolescents, and adults. However, only a few studies examined these effects in kindergartners, even though correlational studies suggest moderate relationships between motor and cognitive functions in this age group. One aim of the present study was to examine the correlational relationships between motor and executive functions among 5- to 6-year-olds. Another aim was to test whether an acute coordinative intervention, which was adapted to the individual motor functions of the children, causally affected different executive functions (i.e., motor inhibition, cognitive inhibition, and shifting. Kindergartners (N = 102 were randomly assigned either to a coordinative intervention (20 min or to a control condition (20 min. The coordination group performed five bimanual exercises (e.g., throwing/kicking balls onto targets with the right and left hand/foot, whereas the control group took part in five simple activities that hardly involved coordination skills (e.g., stamping. Children’s motor functions were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2 (Petermann, 2009 in a pre-test (T1, 1 week before the intervention took place. Motor inhibition was assessed with the Simon says task (Carlson and Wang, 2007, inhibition and shifting were assessed with the Hearts and Flowers task (Davidson et al., 2006 in the pre-test and again in a post-test (T2 immediately after the interventions. Results revealed significant correlations between motor functions and executive functions (especially shifting at T1. There was no overall effect of the intervention. However, explorative analyses indicated a three-way interaction, with the intervention leading to accuracy gains only in the motor inhibition task and only if it was tested directly after the intervention. As an unexpected effect, this result needs to be treated

  13. Robot-Aided Upper-Limb Rehabilitation Based on Motor Imagery EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoguo Xu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of disability worldwide. In this paper, a novel robot‐assisted rehabilitation system based on motor imagery electroencephalography (EEG is developed for regular training of neurological rehabilitation for upper limb stroke patients. Firstly, three‐dimensional animation was used to guide the patient image the upper limb movement and EEG signals were acquired by EEG amplifier. Secondly, eigenvectors were extracted by harmonic wavelet transform (HWT and linear discriminant analysis (LDA classifier was utilized to classify the pattern of the left and right upper limb motor imagery EEG signals. Finally, PC triggered the upper limb rehabilitation robot to perform motor therapy and gave the virtual feedback. Using this robot‐assisted upper limb rehabilitation system, the patientʹs EEG of upper limb movement imagination is translated to control rehabilitation robot directly. Consequently, the proposed rehabilitation system can fully explore the patientʹs motivation and attention and directly facilitate upper limb post‐stroke rehabilitation therapy. Experimental results on unimpaired participants were presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the rehabilitation system. Combining robot‐assisted training with motor imagery‐ based BCI will make future rehabilitation therapy more effective. Clinical testing is still required for further proving this assumption.

  14. Modulation of mu rhythm desynchronization during motor imagery by transcranial direct current stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura Akio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mu event-related desynchronization (ERD is supposed to reflect motor preparation and appear during motor imagery. The aim of this study is to examine the modulation of ERD with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS. Methods Six healthy subjects were asked to imagine their right hand grasping something after receiving a visual cue. Electroencephalograms (EEGs were recorded near the left M1. ERD of the mu rhythm (mu ERD by right hand motor imagery was measured. tDCS (10 min, 1 mA was used to modulate the cortical excitability of M1. Anodal, cathodal, and sham tDCS were tested in each subject with a randomized sequence on different days. Each condition was separated from the preceding one by more than 1 week in the same subject. Before and after tDCS, mu ERD was assessed. The motor thresholds (MT of the left M1 were also measured with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Results Mu ERD significantly increased after anodal stimulation, whereas it significantly decreased after cathodal stimulation. There was a significant correlation between mu ERD and MT. Conclusions Opposing effects on mu ERD based on the orientation of the stimulation suggest that mu ERD is affected by cortical excitability.

  15. Changes in cerebello-motor connectivity during procedural learning by actual execution and observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torriero, Sara; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Koch, Giacomo; Lo Gerfo, Emanuele; Salerno, Silvia; Ferlazzo, Fabio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Petrosini, Laura

    2011-02-01

    The cerebellum is involved in motor learning of new procedures both during actual execution of a motor task and during observational training. These processes are thought to depend on the activity of a neural network that involves the lateral cerebellum and primary motor cortex (M1). In this study, we used a twin-coil TMS technique to investigate whether execution and observation of a visuomotor procedural learning task is related to modulation of cerebello-motor connectivity. We observed that, at rest, a magnetic conditioning pulse applied over the lateral cerebellum reduced the motor-evoked potentials obtained by stimulating the contralateral M1, indicating activation of a cerebello-motor connection. Furthermore, during procedural learning, cerebellar stimulation resulted in selective facilitation, not inhibition, of contralateral M1 excitability. The effects were evident when motor learning was obtained by actual execution of the task or by observation, but they disappeared if procedural learning had already been acquired by previous observational training. These results indicate that changes in cerebello-motor connectivity occur in relation to specific phases of procedural learning, demonstrating a complex pattern of excitatory and inhibitory drives modulated across time.

  16. Development of motor imagery and anticipatory action planning in children with developmental coordination disorder - A longitudinal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Imke L J; Lust, Jessica M; Wilson, Peter H; Steenbergen, Bert

    2017-10-01

    Children with impaired motor coordination (or Development Coordination Disorder - DCD) have difficulty with the predictive control of movements, evidenced by cross-sectional studies that show impaired motor imagery and action planning abilities. What remains unclear is whether this deficit in predictive control reflects immaturity of the motor system (a developmental delay) or some deviation from normal development (a disorder). To advance this discussion the present study used a longitudinal design to examine the development of motor imagery and action planning in children with DCD. Thirty children were included in the DCD group (aged 6-11years) and age- and gender-matched to 30 controls. The DCD group had a mABC-2 score≤16th percentile, the control group>20th percentile. Motor imagery was assessed with the hand rotation task, action planning with a test for end-state comfort. Children participated in three measurements, with one year in between measurements. Results showed that children with DCD were slower and less accurate than their typically developing peers in all subsequent years but were able to improve their motor imagery ability over time. Furthermore, children with DCD showed less planning for ESC at the start of the present study, but were able to catch up with their peers during two-year follow up. These results exemplify that improvement of motor imagery and action planning ability is possible in DCD, and they lend theoretical support to the use of new training techniques that focus on training motor imagery to improve motor skills in children with DCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of motor imagery and anticipatory action planning in children with developmental coordination disorder: A longitudinal approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, I.L.J.; Lust, J.M.; Wilson, P.H.; Steenbergen, B.

    2017-01-01

    Children with impaired motor coordination (or Development Coordination Disorder - DCD) have difficulty with the predictive control of movements, evidenced by cross-sectional studies that show impaired motor imagery and action planning abilities. What remains unclear is whether this deficit in

  18. Executive Function Is Associated With Off-Line Motor Learning in People With Chronic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dughmi, Mayis; Al-Sharman, Alham; Stevens, Suzanne; Siengsukon, Catherine F

    2017-04-01

    Sleep has been shown to promote off-line motor learning in individuals following stroke. Executive function ability has been shown to be a predictor of participation in rehabilitation and motor recovery following stroke. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between executive function and off-line motor learning in individuals with chronic stroke compared with healthy control participants. Seventeen individuals with chronic stroke (>6 months poststroke) and 9 healthy adults were included in the study. Participants underwent 3 consecutive nights of polysomnography, practiced a continuous tracking task the morning of the third day, and underwent a retention test the morning after the third night. Participants underwent testing on 4 executive function tests after the continuous tracking task retention test. Participants with stroke showed a significant positive correlation between the off-line motor learning score and performance on the Trail-Making Test from Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (r = 0.652; P = 0.005), while the healthy control participants did not. Regression analysis showed that the Trail-Making Test-Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System is a significant predictor of off-line motor learning (P = 0.008). This is the first study to demonstrate that better performance on an executive function test of attention and set-shifting predicts a higher magnitude of off-line motor learning in individuals with chronic stroke. This emphasizes the need to consider attention and set-shifting abilities of individuals following stroke as these abilities are associated with motor learning. This in turn could affect learning of activities of daily living and impact functional recovery following stroke.Video Abstract available for more insights from the authors (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A166).

  19. Effect of tDCS stimulation of motor cortex and cerebellum on EEG classification of motor imagery and sensorimotor band power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Sherman, Irma N; Rodríguez-Ugarte, Marisol; Sciacca, Nadia; Iáñez, Eduardo; Azorín, José M

    2017-04-19

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a technique for brain modulation that has potential to be used in motor neurorehabilitation. Considering that the cerebellum and motor cortex exert influence on the motor network, their stimulation could enhance motor functions, such as motor imagery, and be utilized for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) during motor neurorehabilitation. A new tDCS montage that influences cerebellum and either right-hand or feet motor area is proposed and validated with a simulation of electric field. The effect of current density (0, 0.02, 0.04 or 0.06 mA/cm2) on electroencephalographic (EEG) classification into rest or right-hand/feet motor imagery was evaluated on 5 healthy volunteers for different stimulation modalities: 1) 10-minutes anodal tDCS before EEG acquisition over right-hand or 2) feet motor cortical area, and 3) 4-seconds anodal tDCS during EEG acquisition either on right-hand or feet cortical areas before each time right-hand or feet motor imagery is performed. For each subject and tDCS modality, analysis of variance and Tukey-Kramer multiple comparisons tests (p stimulation. The proposed montage improved the classification of right-hand motor imagery for 4 out of 5 subjects when the highest current was applied for 10 minutes over the right-hand motor area. Although EEG band power changes could not be related directly to classification improvement, tDCS appears to affect variably different motor areas on μ and/or β band. The proposed montage seems capable of enhancing right-hand motor imagery detection when the right-hand motor area is stimulated. Future research should be focused on applying higher currents over the feet motor cortex, which is deeper in the brain compared to the hand motor cortex, since it may allow observation of effects due to tDCS. Also, strategies for improving analysis of EEG respect to accuracy changes should be implemented.

  20. Unconscious processing of body actions primes subsequent action perception but not motor execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Sonia; Mattiassi, Alan D A; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that viewing body actions primes not only the visual perception of congruent versus incongruent actions, but also their motor execution. Here, we used a masked-priming paradigm to explore whether visuoperceptual and visuomotor action priming may also occur when the prime is not consciously perceived. In 5 experiments, healthy individuals were presented with masked implied-action primes and were then prompted to perceive congruent or incongruent implied-action stimuli or to execute congruent or incongruent finger movements. Results showed that implied-action primes affected subsequent action perception also when they were not consciously perceived. Unconscious visuoperceptual action priming effects were independent from spatial compatibility and reflected genuine action representation. Conversely, masked implied-action primes affected motor preparation and execution processes only when they were consciously perceived. The results provide evidence of unconscious visuoperceptual but not visuomotor action priming effects, suggesting that unconscious processing of actions affects perceptual, but not motor representations.

  1. Online performance evaluation of motor imagery BCI with augmented-reality virtual hand feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Zheng Yang; Ang, Kai Keng; Wang, Chuanchu; Guan, Cuntai

    2010-01-01

    The online performance of a motor imagery-based Brain-Computer Interface (MI-BCI) influences its effectiveness and usability in real-world clinical applications such as the restoration of motor control. The online performance depends on factors such as the different feedback techniques and motivation of the subject. This paper investigates the online performance of the MI-BCI with an augmented-reality (AR) 3D virtual hand feedback. The subject experiences the interaction with 3D virtual hands, which have been superimposed onto his real hands and displayed on the computer monitor from a first person point-of-view. While performing motor imagery, he receives continuous visual feedback from the MI-BCI in the form of different degrees of reaching and grasping actions of the 3D virtual hands with other virtual objects. The AR feedback is compared with the conventional horizontal bar feedback on 8 subjects, of whom 7 are BCI-naïve. The subjects found the AR feedback to be more engaging and motivating. Despite the higher mental workload involved in the AR feedback, their online MI-BCI performance compared to the conventional horizontal bar feedback was not affected. The results provide motivation to further develop and refine the AR feedback protocol for MI-BCI.

  2. Speech motor planning and execution deficits in early childhood stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Bridget; Mettel, Kathleen Marie; Smith, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Five to eight percent of preschool children develop stuttering, a speech disorder with clearly observable, hallmark symptoms: sound repetitions, prolongations, and blocks. While the speech motor processes underlying stuttering have been widely documented in adults, few studies to date have assessed the speech motor dynamics of stuttering near its onset. We assessed fundamental characteristics of speech movements in preschool children who stutter and their fluent peers to determine if atypical speech motor characteristics described for adults are early features of the disorder or arise later in the development of chronic stuttering. Orofacial movement data were recorded from 58 children who stutter and 43 children who do not stutter aged 4;0 to 5;11 (years; months) in a sentence production task. For single speech movements and multiple speech movement sequences, we computed displacement amplitude, velocity, and duration. For the phrase level movement sequence, we computed an index of articulation coordination consistency for repeated productions of the sentence. Boys who stutter, but not girls, produced speech with reduced amplitudes and velocities of articulatory movement. All children produced speech with similar durations. Boys, particularly the boys who stuttered, had more variable patterns of articulatory coordination compared to girls. This study is the first to demonstrate sex-specific differences in speech motor control processes between preschool boys and girls who are stuttering. The sex-specific lag in speech motor development in many boys who stutter likely has significant implications for the dramatically different recovery rates between male and female preschoolers who stutter. Further, our findings document that atypical speech motor development is an early feature of stuttering.

  3. Effects of truncal motor imagery practice on trunk performance, functional balance, and daily activities in acute stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Motor imagery is beneficial to treat upper and lower limbs motor impairments in stroke patients, but the effects of imagery in the trunk recovery have not been reported. Hence, the aim is to test the effects of truncal motor imagery practice on trunk performance, functional balance, and daily activities in acute stroke patients. Methods: This pilot randomized clinical trial was conducted in acute stroke unit. Acute stroke patients with hemodynamic stability, aged between 30 and 70 years, first time stroke, and scoring <20 on trunk impairment scale (TIS were included in the study. Patients in the experimental group practiced trunk motor imagery in addition to physical training. Control group was given conventional physical therapy. The treatment intensity was 90 min/day, 6 days a week for 3 weeks duration. Trunk control test, TIS, brunel balance assessment (BBA, and Barthel index (BI were considered as the outcome measures. Results: Among 23 patients included in the study, 12 and 11 patients, respectively, in the control and experimental groups completed the intervention. Repeated measures ANOVA, i.e., timeFNx01 group factor analysis and effect size showed statistically significant improvements (P = 0.001 in the scores of TIS (1.64, BBA (1.83, and BI (0.67. Conclusion: Motor imagery of trunk in addition to the physical practice showed benefits in improving trunk performance, functional balance, and daily living in acute stroke.

  4. Musculoskeletal disorders and commercial motor vehicle driver safety: executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    This report was prepared by ECRI Institute under subcontract to MANILA Consulting Group, Inc., which holds prime GS-10F-0177N/DTMC75-06-F-00039 with the Department of Transportations Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. ECRI Institute is a...

  5. Research on Algorithm for Feature Extraction and Classification of Motor Imagery EEG Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Juan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper made a research on the feature extraction and pattern recognition of left and right hands motor imagery EEG signals. In combination with the data from BCI Competition III, denoising preprocessing is carried out for EEG signals firstly; and then, the relative wavelet energy is extracted as a feature vector from the Channels C3 and C4 by use of the algorithm for relative wavelet energy, and pattern recognition is carried out by use of the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN. Simulation results show that the proposed method achieves good classification results.

  6. Robustness of movement detection techniques from motor execution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aliakbaryhosseinabadi, Susan; Jiang, Ning; Petrini, Laura

    2015-01-01

    subjects completed a set of movement executions prior to and following the oddball paradigm. The locality preserving projection followed by the linear discriminant analysis (LPP-LDA) and the matched-filter (MF) technique were applied offline for detection of movement. Results show that LPP-LDA...... significantly outperformed MF. The robustness of the LPP-LDA method was demonstrated by a higher true positive rate (TPR), lower false positive rate (FPR) and a shorter detection latency when attention levels were altered....

  7. Assessment of motor imagery ability and training doi: 10.5007/1980-0037.2010v12n6p395

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Mara Facco Stefanello

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in motor imagery ability in response to a specific dart throwing training. Twelve subjects (17-22 years with no previous experience in dart throwing or imagery agreed to participate. Changes in imagery ability were assessed using the Sports Imagery Questionnaire before (pretreatment and after (post-treatment an imagery training program consisting of 10 sessions. Retention (RET was assessed 2 weeks after training. The program included mental exercises designed to develop vivid images, to control one’s own images, and to increase perception about performance. Comparison of the imagery training conditions (training alone, training accompanied, observing a colleague, and during assessment showed no differences between the pretreatment, post-treatment and RET evaluations. Although imagery ability did not respond to training, significant differences between imagery domains (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and animic were found (p<0.05, except between the visual and animic domains (p=0.58. These differences might be related to subject’s domain preference subject during the imagery process and to the nature of the task in which the skill technique used seems to be a relevant aspect.

  8. Classification of EEG signals to identify variations in attention during motor task execution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aliakbaryhosseinabadi, Susan; Kamavuako, Ernest Nlandu; Jiang, Ning

    2017-01-01

    attentionlevels onmotor tasks ineachparticipant. Then, a globalfeature distribution was constructed with the projected time-frequency features of all participants from all channels and applied for attention classification during motor movement execution. Results: Time-frequency features led to significantly...... BCI systems with time-frequency features. This is the first step towards an adaptive real-time BCI with an integrated function to reveal attention shifts from the motor task....

  9. Motor imagery based brain-computer interfaces: An emerging technology to rehabilitate motor deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Valerdi, Luz Maria; Salido-Ruiz, Ricardo Antonio; Ramirez-Mendoza, Ricardo A

    2015-12-01

    When the sensory-motor integration system is malfunctioning provokes a wide variety of neurological disorders, which in many cases cannot be treated with conventional medication, or via existing therapeutic technology. A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a tool that permits to reintegrate the sensory-motor loop, accessing directly to brain information. A potential, promising and quite investigated application of BCI has been in the motor rehabilitation field. It is well-known that motor deficits are the major disability wherewith the worldwide population lives. Therefore, this paper aims to specify the foundation of motor rehabilitation BCIs, as well as to review the recent research conducted so far (specifically, from 2007 to date), in order to evaluate the suitability and reliability of this technology. Although BCI for post-stroke rehabilitation is still in its infancy, the tendency is towards the development of implantable devices that encompass a BCI module plus a stimulation system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Motor imagery and its effect on complex regional pain syndrome: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélio Silva de Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The motor imagery (MI has been proposed as a treatment in the complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1, since it seems to promote a brain reorganization effect on sensory- motor areas of pain perception. The aim of this paper is to investigate, through an integrative critical review, the influence of MI on the CRPS-1, correlating their evidence to clinical practice. Research in PEDro, Medline, Bireme and Google Scholar databases was conducted. Nine randomized controlled trials (level 2, 1 non-controlled clinical study (level 3, 1 case study (level 4, 1 systematic review (level 1, 2 review articles and 1 comment (level 5 were found. We can conclude that MI has shown effect in reducing pain and functionality that remains after 6 months of treatment. However, the difference between the MI strategies for CRPS-1 is unknown as well as the intensity of mental stress influences the painful response or effect of MI or other peripheral neuropathies.

  11. Balancing a simulated inverted pendulum through motor imagery: an EEG-based real-time control paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Jingwei; Zhou, Zongtan; Jiang, Jun; Liu, Yadong; Hu, Dewen

    2012-08-30

    Most brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are non-time-restraint systems. However, the method used to design a real-time BCI paradigm for controlling unstable devices is still a challenging problem. This paper presents a real-time feedback BCI paradigm for controlling an inverted pendulum on a cart (IPC). In this paradigm, sensorimotor rhythms (SMRs) were recorded using 15 active electrodes placed on the surface of the subject's scalp. Subsequently, common spatial pattern (CSP) was used as the basic filter to extract spatial patterns. Finally, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to translate the patterns into control commands that could stabilize the simulated inverted pendulum. Offline trainings were employed to teach the subjects to execute corresponding mental tasks, such as left/right hand motor imagery. Five subjects could successfully balance the online inverted pendulum for more than 35s. The results demonstrated that BCIs are able to control nonlinear unstable devices. Furthermore, the demonstration and extension of real-time continuous control might be useful for the real-life application and generalization of BCI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Discrimination of Motor Imagery-Induced EEG Patterns in Patients with Complete Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pfurtscheller

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available EEG-based discrimination between different motor imagery states has been subject of a number of studies in healthy subjects. We investigated the EEG of 15 patients with complete spinal cord injury during imagined right hand, left hand, and feet movements. In detail we studied pair-wise discrimination functions between the 3 types of motor imagery. The following classification accuracies (mean ± SD were obtained: left versus right hand 65.03% ± 8.52, left hand versus feet 68.19% ± 11.08, and right hand versus feet 65.05% ± 9.25. In 5 out of 8 paralegic patients, the discrimination accuracy was greater than 70% but in only 1 out of 7 tetraplagic patients. The present findings provide evidence that in the majority of paraplegic patients an EEG-based BCI could achieve satisfied results. In tetraplegic patients, however, it is expected that extensive training-sessions are necessary to achieve a good BCI performance at least in some subjects.

  13. Motor imagery in Asperger syndrome: testing action simulation by the hand laterality task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Conson

    Full Text Available Asperger syndrome (AS is a neurodevelopmental condition within the Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD characterized by specific difficulties in social interaction, communication and behavioural control. In recent years, it has been suggested that ASD is related to a dysfunction of action simulation processes, but studies employing imitation or action observation tasks provided mixed results. Here, we addressed action simulation processes in adolescents with AS by means of a motor imagery task, the classical hand laterality task (to decide whether a rotated hand image is left or right; mental rotation of letters was also evaluated. As a specific marker of action simulation in hand rotation, we assessed the so-called biomechanical effect, that is the advantage for judging hand pictures showing physically comfortable versus physically awkward positions. We found the biomechanical effect in typically-developing participants but not in participants with AS. Overall performance on both hand laterality and letter rotation tasks, instead, did not differ in the two groups. These findings demonstrated a specific alteration of motor imagery skills in AS. We suggest that impaired mental simulation and imitation of goal-less movements in ASD could be related to shared cognitive mechanisms.

  14. Feature Selection for Motor Imagery EEG Classification Based on Firefly Algorithm and Learning Automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aiming; Chen, Kun; Liu, Quan; Ai, Qingsong; Xie, Yi; Chen, Anqi

    2017-11-08

    Motor Imagery (MI) electroencephalography (EEG) is widely studied for its non-invasiveness, easy availability, portability, and high temporal resolution. As for MI EEG signal processing, the high dimensions of features represent a research challenge. It is necessary to eliminate redundant features, which not only create an additional overhead of managing the space complexity, but also might include outliers, thereby reducing classification accuracy. The firefly algorithm (FA) can adaptively select the best subset of features, and improve classification accuracy. However, the FA is easily entrapped in a local optimum. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a method of combining the firefly algorithm and learning automata (LA) to optimize feature selection for motor imagery EEG. We employed a method of combining common spatial pattern (CSP) and local characteristic-scale decomposition (LCD) algorithms to obtain a high dimensional feature set, and classified it by using the spectral regression discriminant analysis (SRDA) classifier. Both the fourth brain-computer interface competition data and real-time data acquired in our designed experiments were used to verify the validation of the proposed method. Compared with genetic and adaptive weight particle swarm optimization algorithms, the experimental results show that our proposed method effectively eliminates redundant features, and improves the classification accuracy of MI EEG signals. In addition, a real-time brain-computer interface system was implemented to verify the feasibility of our proposed methods being applied in practical brain-computer interface systems.

  15. Relations of Preschoolers' Visual-Motor and Object Manipulation Skills With Executive Function and Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Lipscomb, Shannon; McClelland, Megan M; Duncan, Rob; Becker, Derek; Anderson, Kim; Kile, Molly

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine specific linkages between early visual-motor integration skills and executive function, as well as between early object manipulation skills and social behaviors in the classroom during the preschool year. Ninety-two children aged 3 to 5 years old (Mage = 4.31 years) were recruited to participate. Comprehensive measures of visual-motor integration skills, object manipulation skills, executive function, and social behaviors were administered in the fall and spring of the preschool year. Our findings indicated that children who had better visual-motor integration skills in the fall had better executive function scores (B = 0.47 [0.20], p skills in the fall showed significantly stronger social behavior in their classrooms (as rated by teachers) in the spring, including more self-control (B - 0.03 [0.00], p social behavior in the fall and other covariates. Children's visual-motor integration and object manipulation skills in the fall have modest to moderate relations with executive function and social behaviors later in the preschool year. These findings have implications for early learning initiatives and school readiness.

  16. Motor and Executive Function Profiles in Adult Residents Environmentally Exposed to Manganese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Exposure to elevated levels of manganese (Mn) may be associated with tremor, motor and executive dysfunction (EF), clinically resembling Parkinson’s disease (PD). PD research has identified tremor-dominant (TD) and non-tremor dominant (NTD) profiles. NTD PD pres...

  17. Relations of Preschoolers' Visual-Motor and Object Manipulation Skills with Executive Function and Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Lipscomb, Shannon; McClelland, Megan M.; Duncan, Rob; Becker, Derek; Anderson, Kim; Kile, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to examine specific linkages between early visual-motor integration skills and executive function, as well as between early object manipulation skills and social behaviors in the classroom during the preschool year. Method: Ninety-two children aged 3 to 5 years old (M[subscript age] = 4.31 years) were…

  18. Relationship between Executive Functions and Motor Stereotypies in Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMonda, Brittany C.; Holtzer, Roee; Goldman, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    This study reports on the relationship between motor stereotypies and impairments in executive functions (EF) in children with Autistic Disorder (AD) and in children with Developmental Language Disorders (DLD). We hypothesized that low EF performance would predict higher frequency and longer durations of stereotypies in the AD group only.…

  19. The relationship between executive function and fine motor control in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Emily J; Johnson, Andrew R; Riddle, Hayley; Gasson, Natalie; Kane, Robert; Loftus, Andrea M

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between executive function (EF) and fine motor control in young and older healthy adults. Participants completed 3 measures of executive function; a spatial working memory (SWM) task, the Stockings of Cambridge task (planning), and the Intra-Dimensional Extra-Dimensional Set-Shift task (set-shifting). Fine motor control was assessed using 3 subtests of the Purdue Pegboard (unimanual, bimanual, sequencing). For the younger adults, there were no significant correlations between measures of EF and fine motor control. For the older adults, all EFs significantly correlated with all measures of fine motor control. Three separate regressions examined whether planning, SWM and set-shifting independently predicted unimanual, bimanual, and sequencing scores for the older adults. Planning was the primary predictor of performance on all three Purdue subtests. A multiple-groups mediation model examined whether planning predicted fine motor control scores independent of participants' age, suggesting that preservation of planning ability may support fine motor control in older adults. Planning remained a significant predictor of unimanual performance in the older age group, but not bimanual or sequencing performance. The findings are discussed in terms of compensation theory, whereby planning is a key compensatory resource for fine motor control in older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of observation combined with motor imagery of a skilled hand-motor task on motor cortical excitability: difference between novice and expert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukazaki, Izumi; Uehara, Kazumasa; Morishita, Takuya; Ninomiya, Masato; Funase, Kozo

    2012-06-19

    We examined the effects of observation combined with motor imagery (MI) of a skilled hand-motor task on motor cortex excitability, which was assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Novices and experts at 3-ball cascade juggling (3BCJ) participated in this study. In one trial, the subjects observed a video clip of 3BCJ while imagining performing it. In addition, the subjects also imagined performing 3BCJ without video clip observation. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the hand muscles that were activated by the task during each trial. In the novices, the MEP amplitude was significantly increased by video clip observation combined with MI. In contrast, MI without video clip observation significantly increased the MEP amplitude of the experts. These results suggest that action observation of 3BCJ increases the ability of novices to make their MI performing the task. Meanwhile, experts use their own motor program to recall their MI of the task. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Visual-motor and executive functions in children born preterm: the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Birgitta; Lundequist, Aiko; Smedler, Ann-Charlotte

    2010-10-01

    Visual-motor development and executive functions were investigated with the Bender Test at age 5½ years in 175 children born preterm and 125 full-term controls, within the longitudinal Stockholm Neonatal Project. Assessment also included WPPSI-R and NEPSY neuropsychological battery for ages 4-7 (Korkman, 1990). Bender protocols were scored according to Brannigan & Decker (2003), Koppitz (1963) and a complementary neuropsychological scoring system (ABC), aimed at executive functions and developed for this study. Bender results by all three scoring systems were strongly related to overall cognitive level (Performance IQ), in both groups. The preterm group displayed inferior visual-motor skills compared to controls also when controlling for IQ. The largest group differences were found on the ABC scoring, which shared unique variance with NEPSY tests of executive function. Multiple regression analyses showed that hyperactive behavior and inattention increased the risk for visual-motor deficits in children born preterm, whereas no added risk was seen among hyperactive term children. Gender differences favoring girls were strongest within the preterm group, presumably reflecting the specific vulnerability of preterm boys. The results indicate that preterm children develop a different neurobehavioral organization from children born at term, and that the Bender test with a neuropsychological scoring is a useful tool in developmental screening around school start. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2010 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  2. Brain volumetric and microstructural correlates of executive and motor performance in aged rhesus monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadhavi eSridharan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aged rhesus macaque exhibits brain atrophy and behavioral deficits similar to normal aging in humans. Here we studied the association between cognitive and motor performance and anatomic and microstructural brain integrity measured with 3T magnetic resonance imaging in aged monkeys. About half of these animals were maintained on moderate calorie restriction, the only intervention shown to delay the aging process in lower animals. T1-weighted anatomic and diffusion tensor images were used to obtain gray matter volume, and fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity, respectively. We tested the extent to which brain health indexed by gray matter volume, fractional anisotropy, and mean diffusivity were related to executive and motor function, and determined the effect of the dietary intervention on this relationship. We hypothesized that fewer errors on the executive function test and faster motor times would be correlated with higher volume, higher fractional anisotropy, and lower mean diffusivity in frontal areas that mediate executive function, and in motor, premotor, subcortical, and cerebellar areas underlying goal-directed motor behaviors. Higher error percentage on a cognitive conceptual shift task was significantly associated with lower gray matter volume in frontal and parietal cortices, and lower fractional anisotropy in major association fiber bundles. Similarly, slower performance time on the motor task was significantly correlated with lower volumetric measures in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar areas and decreased fractional anisotropy in several major association fiber bundles. Notably, performance during the acquisition phase of the hardest level of the motor task was significantly associated with anterior mesial temporal lobe volume. Finally, these brain-behavior correlations for the motor task were attenuated in calorie restricted animals compared to controls, indicating a potential protective effect of the dietary

  3. Principles of Motor Recovery in Post-Stroke Patients using Hand Exoskeleton Controlled by the Brain-Computer Interface Based on Motor Imagery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frolov, A. A.; Húsek, Dušan; Biryukova, E. V.; Bobrov, P.; Mokienko, O.; Alexandrov, A.V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2017), s. 107-137 ISSN 1210-0552 Grant - others:Russian Ministry of Education and Science(RU) RFMEFI60715X0128 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : brain computer interface * motor imagery * post-stroke and post-traumatic patients * arm and hand exoskeleton * proportional derivative controller * motor synergy * clinical application Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 0.394, year: 2016

  4. Motor Imagery Classification Using Mu and Beta Rhythms of EEG with Strong Uncorrelating Transform Based Complex Common Spatial Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjoo; Ryu, Jiwoo; Kim, Ko Keun; Took, Clive C; Mandic, Danilo P; Park, Cheolsoo

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the disassociation between the mu and beta rhythms of electroencephalogram (EEG) during motor imagery tasks. The proposed algorithm in this paper uses a fully data-driven multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD) in order to obtain the mu and beta rhythms from the nonlinear EEG signals. Then, the strong uncorrelating transform complex common spatial patterns (SUTCCSP) algorithm is applied to the rhythms so that the complex data, constructed with the mu and beta rhythms, becomes uncorrelated and its pseudocovariance provides supplementary power difference information between the two rhythms. The extracted features using SUTCCSP that maximize the interclass variances are classified using various classification algorithms for the separation of the left- and right-hand motor imagery EEG acquired from the Physionet database. This paper shows that the supplementary information of the power difference between mu and beta rhythms obtained using SUTCCSP provides an important feature for the classification of the left- and right-hand motor imagery tasks. In addition, MEMD is proved to be a preferred preprocessing method for the nonlinear and nonstationary EEG signals compared to the conventional IIR filtering. Finally, the random forest classifier yielded a high performance for the classification of the motor imagery tasks.

  5. Real-time changes in corticospinal excitability related to motor imagery of a force control task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatemoto, Tsuyoshi; Tsuchiya, Junko; Numata, Atsuki

    2017-01-01

    in order to track an on-screen sine wave form. Participants performed the trained task 40 times with actual muscle contraction in order to construct the motor image. They were then instructed to execute the task without actual muscle contraction, but by imagining contraction of the right wrist...... (Increasing phase), the peak value of the sine wave, during the gradual reduction (Decreasing phase), and after completion of the task. The MEP ratio, as the ratio of imaged MEPs to resting-state, was compared between pre- and post-training at each time point. Results In the ECR muscle, the MEP ratio...

  6. Development of a Novel Motor Imagery Control Technique and Application in a Gaming Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a methodology for a hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI system, with the recognition of motor imagery (MI based on EEG and blink EOG signals. We tested the BCI system in a 3D Tetris and an analogous 2D game playing environment. To enhance player’s BCI control ability, the study focused on feature extraction from EEG and control strategy supporting Game-BCI system operation. We compared the numerical differences between spatial features extracted with common spatial pattern (CSP and the proposed multifeature extraction. To demonstrate the effectiveness of 3D game environment at enhancing player’s event-related desynchronization (ERD and event-related synchronization (ERS production ability, we set the 2D Screen Game as the comparison experiment. According to a series of statistical results, the group performing MI in the 3D Tetris environment showed more significant improvements in generating MI-associated ERD/ERS. Analysis results of game-score indicated that the players’ scores presented an obvious uptrend in 3D Tetris environment but did not show an obvious downward trend in 2D Screen Game. It suggested that the immersive and rich-control environment for MI would improve the associated mental imagery and enhance MI-based BCI skills.

  7. Implementation of Motor Imagery during Specific Aerobic Training Session in Young Tennis Players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymeric Guillot

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of implementing motor imagery (MI during specific tennis high intensity intermittent training (HIIT sessions on groundstroke performance in young elite tennis players. Stroke accuracy and ball velocity of forehand and backhand drives were evaluated in ten young tennis players, immediately before and after having randomly performed two HIIT sessions. One session included MI exercises during the recovery phases, while the other included verbal encouragements for physical efforts and served as control condition. Results revealed that similar cardiac demand was observed during both sessions, while implementing MI maintained groundstroke accuracy. Embedding MI during HIIT enabled the development of physical fitness and the preservation of stroke performance. These findings bring new insight to tennis and conditioning coaches in order to fulfil the benefits of specific playing HIIT sessions, and therefore to optimise the training time.

  8. Quaternion-Based Signal Analysis for Motor Imagery Classification from Electroencephalographic Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batres-Mendoza, Patricia; Montoro-Sanjose, Carlos R.; Guerra-Hernandez, Erick I.; Almanza-Ojeda, Dora L.; Rostro-Gonzalez, Horacio; Romero-Troncoso, Rene J.; Ibarra-Manzano, Mario A.

    2016-01-01

    Quaternions can be used as an alternative to model the fundamental patterns of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals in the time domain. Thus, this article presents a new quaternion-based technique known as quaternion-based signal analysis (QSA) to represent EEG signals obtained using a brain-computer interface (BCI) device to detect and interpret cognitive activity. This quaternion-based signal analysis technique can extract features to represent brain activity related to motor imagery accurately in various mental states. Experimental tests in which users where shown visual graphical cues related to left and right movements were used to collect BCI-recorded signals. These signals were then classified using decision trees (DT), support vector machine (SVM) and k-nearest neighbor (KNN) techniques. The quantitative analysis of the classifiers demonstrates that this technique can be used as an alternative in the EEG-signal modeling phase to identify mental states. PMID:26959029

  9. Multisubject Learning for Common Spatial Patterns in Motor-Imagery BCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Devlaminck

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor-imagery-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs commonly use the common spatial pattern filter (CSP as preprocessing step before feature extraction and classification. The CSP method is a supervised algorithm and therefore needs subject-specific training data for calibration, which is very time consuming to collect. In order to reduce the amount of calibration data that is needed for a new subject, one can apply multitask (from now on called multisubject machine learning techniques to the preprocessing phase. Here, the goal of multisubject learning is to learn a spatial filter for a new subject based on its own data and that of other subjects. This paper outlines the details of the multitask CSP algorithm and shows results on two data sets. In certain subjects a clear improvement can be seen, especially when the number of training trials is relatively low.

  10. Common Spatio-Time-Frequency Patterns for Motor Imagery-Based Brain Machine Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Toshihisa

    2013-01-01

    For efficient decoding of brain activities in analyzing brain function with an application to brain machine interfacing (BMI), we address a problem of how to determine spatial weights (spatial patterns), bandpass filters (frequency patterns), and time windows (time patterns) by utilizing electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. To find these parameters, we develop a data-driven criterion that is a natural extension of the so-called common spatial patterns (CSP) that are known to be effective features in BMI. We show that the proposed criterion can be optimized by an alternating procedure to achieve fast convergence. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively extract discriminative features for a motor imagery-based BMI. PMID:24302929

  11. Quaternion-Based Signal Analysis for Motor Imagery Classification from Electroencephalographic Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batres-Mendoza, Patricia; Montoro-Sanjose, Carlos R; Guerra-Hernandez, Erick I; Almanza-Ojeda, Dora L; Rostro-Gonzalez, Horacio; Romero-Troncoso, Rene J; Ibarra-Manzano, Mario A

    2016-03-05

    Quaternions can be used as an alternative to model the fundamental patterns of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals in the time domain. Thus, this article presents a new quaternion-based technique known as quaternion-based signal analysis (QSA) to represent EEG signals obtained using a brain-computer interface (BCI) device to detect and interpret cognitive activity. This quaternion-based signal analysis technique can extract features to represent brain activity related to motor imagery accurately in various mental states. Experimental tests in which users where shown visual graphical cues related to left and right movements were used to collect BCI-recorded signals. These signals were then classified using decision trees (DT), support vector machine (SVM) and k-nearest neighbor (KNN) techniques. The quantitative analysis of the classifiers demonstrates that this technique can be used as an alternative in the EEG-signal modeling phase to identify mental states.

  12. Identification of motor imagery tasks through CC-LR algorithm in brain computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siuly; Li, Yan; Wen, Peng

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the identification of Motor Imagery (MI) tasks for the development of Brain Computer Interface (BCI) technologies combining Cross-Correlation and Logistic Regression (CC-LR) techniques. The proposed method is tested on two benchmark data sets, IVa and IVb of BCI Competition III, and the performance is evaluated through a 3-fold cross-validation procedure. The experimental outcomes are compared with two recently reported algorithms, R-Common Spatial Pattern (CSP) with aggregation and Clustering Technique (CT)-based Least Square Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) and also other four algorithms using data set IVa. The results demonstrate that our proposed method results in an improvement of at least 3.47% compared with the existing methods tested.

  13. Fitts's Law violation and motor imagery: are imagined movements truthful or lawful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, Petre V; Adam, Jos J; Fischer, Martin H; Pratt, Jay

    2010-03-01

    Fitts's Law for the timing of targeted movements states that, when target width is held constant, movement time (MT) will increase as the travelled distance increases. Even imagined movements, mentally simulated actions without actual actions, obey Fitts's Law. Recently, a violation of Fitts's Law has been reported; when targets occur in a structured array, MT to the farthest target is shorter than that predicted by Fitts's Law. We conducted two experiments to determine if the violation also occurs for imagined movements. Results showed a close correspondence between real and imaginary MTs across target locations, including the Fitts's violation for the farthest target. We conclude that the violation of Fitts's Law occurs in motor imagery and that the locus of the violation is in the planning stage of action.

  14. Programming an offline-analyzer of motor imagery signals via python language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Valerdi, Luz María; Sepulveda, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Brain Computer Interface (BCI) systems control the user's environment via his/her brain signals. Brain signals related to motor imagery (MI) have become a widespread method employed by the BCI community. Despite the large number of references describing the MI signal treatment, there is not enough information related to the available programming languages that could be suitable to develop a specific-purpose MI-based BCI. The present paper describes the development of an offline-analysis system based on MI-EEG signals via open-source programming languages, and the assessment of the system using electrical activity recorded from three subjects. The analyzer recognized at least 63% of the MI signals corresponding to three classes. The results of the offline analysis showed a promising performance considering that the subjects have never undergone MI trainings.

  15. A Transform-Based Feature Extraction Approach for Motor Imagery Tasks Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorshidtalab, Aida; Mesbah, Mostefa; Salami, Momoh J. E.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new motor imagery classification method in the context of electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain–computer interface (BCI). This method uses a signal-dependent orthogonal transform, referred to as linear prediction singular value decomposition (LP-SVD), for feature extraction. The transform defines the mapping as the left singular vectors of the LP coefficient filter impulse response matrix. Using a logistic tree-based model classifier; the extracted features are classified into one of four motor imagery movements. The proposed approach was first benchmarked against two related state-of-the-art feature extraction approaches, namely, discrete cosine transform (DCT) and adaptive autoregressive (AAR)-based methods. By achieving an accuracy of 67.35%, the LP-SVD approach outperformed the other approaches by large margins (25% compared with DCT and 6 % compared with AAR-based methods). To further improve the discriminatory capability of the extracted features and reduce the computational complexity, we enlarged the extracted feature subset by incorporating two extra features, namely, Q- and the Hotelling’s \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$T^{2}$ \\end{document} statistics of the transformed EEG and introduced a new EEG channel selection method. The performance of the EEG classification based on the expanded feature set and channel selection method was compared with that of a number of the state-of-the-art classification methods previously reported with the BCI IIIa competition data set. Our method came second with an average accuracy of 81.38%. PMID:27170898

  16. Is Implicit Motor Imagery a Reliable Strategy for a Brain-Computer Interface?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuagwu, Bethel A; Zych, Magdalena; Vuckovic, Aleksandra

    2017-12-01

    Explicit motor imagery (eMI) is a widely used brain-computer interface (BCI) paradigm, but not everybody can accomplish this task. Here, we propose a BCI based on implicit motor imagery (iMI). We compared classification accuracy between eMI and iMI of hands. Fifteen able-bodied people were asked to judge the laterality of hand images presented on a computer screen in a lateral or medial orientation. This judgment task is known to require mental rotation of a person's own hands, which in turn is thought to involve iMI. The subjects were also asked to perform eMI of the hands. Their electroencephalography was recorded. Linear classifiers were designed based on common spatial patterns. For discrimination between left hand and right hand, the classifier achieved maximum of 81 ± 8% accuracy for eMI and 83 ± 3% for iMI. These results show that iMI can be used to achieve similar classification accuracy as eMI. Additional classification was performed between iMI in medial and lateral orientations of a single hand; the classifier achieved 81 ± 7% for the left hand and 78 ± 7% for the right hand, which indicate distinctive spatial patterns of cortical activity for iMI of a single hand in different directions. These results suggest that a special BCI based on iMI may be constructed, for people who cannot perform explicit imagination, for rehabilitation of movement, or for treatment of bodily spatial neglect.

  17. Non-invasive detection of high gamma band activity during motor imagery

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    Melissa M Smith

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available High gamma oscillations (70-150 Hz; HG are rapidly evolving, spatially localized neurophysiological signals that are believed to be the best representative signature of engaged neural populations. The HG band has been best characterized from invasive electrophysiological approaches such as electrocorticography (ECoG because of the increased signal-to-noise ratio that results when by-passing the scalp and skull. Despite the recent observation that HG activity can be detected non-invasively by electroencephalography (EEG, it is unclear to what extent EEG can accurately resolve the spatial distribution of HG signals during active task engagement. We have overcome some of the limitations inherent to acquiring HG signals across the scalp by utilizing individual head anatomy in combination with an inverse modeling method. We applied a linearly constrained minimum variance beamformer (LCMV method on EEG data during a motor imagery paradigm to extract a time-frequency spectrogram at every voxel location on the cortex. To confirm spatially distributed patterns of HG responses, we contrasted overlapping maps of the EEG HG signal with BOLD fMRI data acquired from the same set of neurologically normal subjects during a separate session. We show that scalp-based HG band activity detected by EEG during motor imagery spatially co-localizes with BOLD fMRI data. Taken together, these results suggest that EEG can accurately resolve spatially specific estimates of local cortical high frequency signals, potentially opening an avenue for non-invasive measurement of HG potentials from diverse sets of neurologically impaired populations for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes

  18. The therapeutic role of motor imagery on the functional rehabilitation of a stage II shoulder impingement syndrome.

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    Hoyek, Nady; Di Rienzo, Franck; Collet, Christian; Hoyek, Fadi; Guillot, Aymeric

    2014-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI) has been used as a complementary therapeutic tool for motor recovery after central nervous system disease and peripheral injuries. However, it has never been used as a preventive tool. We investigated the use of MI in the rehabilitation of stage II shoulder impingement syndrome. For the first time, MI is used before surgery. Sixteen participants were randomly assigned to either a MI or control group. Shoulder functional assessment (Constant score), range of motion and pain were measured before and after intervention. Higher Constant score was observed in the MI than in the control group (p=0.04). Participants in the MI group further displayed greater movement amplitude (extension (psyndrome: Helps in alleviating pain Enhances shoulder mobility Motor imagery is a valuable technique that can be used as a preventive tool before the stage III of the impingement syndrome.

  19. Mental representation and mental practice: experimental investigation on the functional links between motor memory and motor imagery.

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    Frank, Cornelia; Land, William M; Popp, Carmen; Schack, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on mental representation of complex action has revealed distinct differences in the structure of representational frameworks between experts and novices. More recently, research on the development of mental representation structure has elicited functional changes in novices' representations as a result of practice. However, research investigating if and how mental practice adds to this adaptation process is lacking. In the present study, we examined the influence of mental practice (i.e., motor imagery rehearsal) on both putting performance and the development of one's representation of the golf putt during early skill acquisition. Novice golfers (N = 52) practiced the task of golf putting under one of four different practice conditions: mental, physical, mental-physical combined, and no practice. Participants were tested prior to and after a practice phase, as well as after a three day retention interval. Mental representation structures of the putt were measured, using the structural dimensional analysis of mental representation. This method provides psychometric data on the distances and groupings of basic action concepts in long-term memory. Additionally, putting accuracy and putting consistency were measured using two-dimensional error scores of each putt. Findings revealed significant performance improvements over the course of practice together with functional adaptations in mental representation structure. Interestingly, after three days of practice, the mental representations of participants who incorporated mental practice into their practice regime displayed representation structures that were more similar to a functional structure than did participants who did not incorporate mental practice. The findings of the present study suggest that mental practice promotes the cognitive adaptation process during motor learning, leading to more elaborate representations than physical practice only.

  20. Mental representation and mental practice: experimental investigation on the functional links between motor memory and motor imagery.

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    Cornelia Frank

    Full Text Available Recent research on mental representation of complex action has revealed distinct differences in the structure of representational frameworks between experts and novices. More recently, research on the development of mental representation structure has elicited functional changes in novices' representations as a result of practice. However, research investigating if and how mental practice adds to this adaptation process is lacking. In the present study, we examined the influence of mental practice (i.e., motor imagery rehearsal on both putting performance and the development of one's representation of the golf putt during early skill acquisition. Novice golfers (N = 52 practiced the task of golf putting under one of four different practice conditions: mental, physical, mental-physical combined, and no practice. Participants were tested prior to and after a practice phase, as well as after a three day retention interval. Mental representation structures of the putt were measured, using the structural dimensional analysis of mental representation. This method provides psychometric data on the distances and groupings of basic action concepts in long-term memory. Additionally, putting accuracy and putting consistency were measured using two-dimensional error scores of each putt. Findings revealed significant performance improvements over the course of practice together with functional adaptations in mental representation structure. Interestingly, after three days of practice, the mental representations of participants who incorporated mental practice into their practice regime displayed representation structures that were more similar to a functional structure than did participants who did not incorporate mental practice. The findings of the present study suggest that mental practice promotes the cognitive adaptation process during motor learning, leading to more elaborate representations than physical practice only.

  1. The effect of motor imagery training for trunk movements on trunk muscle control and proprioception in stroke patients.

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    Oh, Dong-Sik; Choi, Jong-Duk

    2017-07-01

    [Purpose] The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of motor imagery training for trunk movements on trunk muscle control and proprioception in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 12 study subjects were randomly assigned to the experimental group (a motor imagery training group) and the control group (a neurodevelopmental treatment, NDT) group. The two groups were treated five times (30 minutes each time) per week for 4 weeks. The experimental group underwent imagery training for 10 minutes and trunk control centered NDT for 20 minutes and the control group underwent only trunk control centered NDT for 30 minutes. The trunk muscle activity and the position sense of the subjects were evaluated before and after the intervention. [Results] The two groups showed significant improvements in muscle activity after the intervention. Only the experimental group showed significant improvements in proprioception. The experimental group showed significant improvements in the variations of muscle activity and proprioception compared to the control group. [Conclusion] Motor imagery training for trunk movements can be effectively used to improve trunk muscle activity and proprioception in stroke patients.

  2. Feasibility of Motor Imagery Training for Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder - A Pilot Study.

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    Adams, Imke L J; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien; Lust, Jessica M; Wilson, Peter H; Steenbergen, Bert

    2017-01-01

    Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) experience movement difficulties that may be linked to processes involved in motor imagery (MI). This paper discusses recent advances in theory that underpin the use of MI training for children with DCD. This knowledge is translated in a new MI training protocol which is compared with the cognitive orientation to daily occupational performance (CO-OP). Children meeting DSM-5 criteria for DCD were assigned to MI (n = 4) or CO-OP (n = 4) interventions and completed nine treatment sessions, including homework exercises. Results were positive, with two children in the MI group and three in the CO-OP group improving their m-ABC-2 score by ≥ 2 standard scores, interpreted as a clinically meaningful change. Moreover, all children and parents noticed improvements in motor skills after training. This is the first study to demonstrate the feasibility of a theoretically principled treatment protocol for MI training in children with DCD, and extends earlier work. Trial registration: The complete trial is registered at the Dutch trial register, www.trialregister.nl (NTR5471). http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=5471.

  3. Feasibility of Motor Imagery Training for Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder – A Pilot Study

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    Adams, Imke L. J.; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien; Lust, Jessica M.; Wilson, Peter H.; Steenbergen, Bert

    2017-01-01

    Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) experience movement difficulties that may be linked to processes involved in motor imagery (MI). This paper discusses recent advances in theory that underpin the use of MI training for children with DCD. This knowledge is translated in a new MI training protocol which is compared with the cognitive orientation to daily occupational performance (CO-OP). Children meeting DSM-5 criteria for DCD were assigned to MI (n = 4) or CO-OP (n = 4) interventions and completed nine treatment sessions, including homework exercises. Results were positive, with two children in the MI group and three in the CO-OP group improving their m-ABC-2 score by ≥ 2 standard scores, interpreted as a clinically meaningful change. Moreover, all children and parents noticed improvements in motor skills after training. This is the first study to demonstrate the feasibility of a theoretically principled treatment protocol for MI training in children with DCD, and extends earlier work. Trial registration: The complete trial is registered at the Dutch trial register, www.trialregister.nl (NTR5471). http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=5471 PMID:28798707

  4. Laterality of brain activity during motor imagery is modulated by the provision of source level neurofeedback.

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    Boe, Shaun; Gionfriddo, Alicia; Kraeutner, Sarah; Tremblay, Antoine; Little, Graham; Bardouille, Timothy

    2014-11-01

    Motor imagery (MI) may be effective as an adjunct to physical practice for motor skill acquisition. For example, MI is emerging as an effective treatment in stroke neurorehabilitation. As in physical practice, the repetitive activation of neural pathways during MI can drive short- and long-term brain changes that underlie functional recovery. However, the lack of feedback about MI performance may be a factor limiting its effectiveness. The provision of feedback about MI-related brain activity may overcome this limitation by providing the opportunity for individuals to monitor their own performance of this endogenous process. We completed a controlled study to isolate neurofeedback as the factor driving changes in MI-related brain activity across repeated sessions. Eighteen healthy participants took part in 3 sessions comprised of both actual and imagined performance of a button press task. During MI, participants in the neurofeedback group received source level feedback based on activity from the left and right sensorimotor cortex obtained using magnetoencephalography. Participants in the control group received no neurofeedback. MI-related brain activity increased in the sensorimotor cortex contralateral to the imagined movement across sessions in the neurofeedback group, but not in controls. Task performance improved across sessions but did not differ between groups. Our results indicate that the provision of neurofeedback during MI allows healthy individuals to modulate regional brain activity. This finding has the potential to improve the effectiveness of MI as a tool in neurorehabilitation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mental imagery in music performance: underlying mechanisms and potential benefits.

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    Keller, Peter E

    2012-04-01

    This paper examines the role of mental imagery in music performance. Self-reports by musicians, and various other sources of anecdotal evidence, suggest that covert auditory, motor, and/or visual imagery facilitate multiple aspects of music performance. The cognitive and motor mechanisms that underlie such imagery include working memory, action simulation, and internal models. Together these mechanisms support the generation of anticipatory images that enable thorough action planning and movement execution that is characterized by efficiency, temporal precision, and biomechanical economy. In ensemble performance, anticipatory imagery may facilitate interpersonal coordination by enhancing online predictions about others' action timing. Overlap in brain regions subserving auditory imagery and temporal prediction is consistent with this view. It is concluded that individual differences in anticipatory imagery may be a source of variation in expressive performance excellence and the quality of ensemble cohesion. Engaging in effortful musical imagery is therefore justified when artistic perfection is the goal. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. Age-specific activation of cerebral areas in motor imagery - a fMRI study

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    Wang, Li [Chongqing University, Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College, Chongqing (China); Third Military Medical University, Department of Medical Image, College of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing (China); Qiu, Mingguo; Zhang, Jingna; Zhang, Ye; Sang, Linqiong [Third Military Medical University, Department of Medical Image, College of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing (China); Liu, Chen; Yang, Jun [Third Military Medical University, Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Chongqing (China); Yan, Rubing [Third Military Medical University, Department of Rehabilitation, Southwest Hospital, Chongqing (China); Zheng, Xiaolin [Chongqing University, Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College, Chongqing (China)

    2014-04-15

    The objectives of this study were to study the age-specific activation patterns of cerebral areas during motor execution (ME) and motor imaging (MI) of the upper extremities and to discuss the age-related neural mechanisms associated with ME or MI. The functional magnetic resonance imaging technique was used to monitor the pattern and intensity of brain activation during the ME and MI of the upper extremities in 20 elderly (>50 years) and 19 young healthy subjects (<25 years). No major differences were identified regarding the activated brain areas during ME or MI between the two groups; however, a minor difference was noted. The intensity of the activated brain area during ME was stronger in the older group than in the younger group, while the results with MI were the opposite. The posterior central gyrus and supplementary motor area during MI were more active in the younger group than in the older group. The putamen, lingual, and so on demonstrated stronger activation during dominant hand MI in the older group. The results of this study revealed that the brain structure was altered and that neuronal activity was attenuated with age, and the cerebral cortex and subcortical tissues were found to be over-activated to achieve the same level of ME and MI, indicating that the activating effects of the left hemisphere enhanced with age, whereas the inhibitory effects declined during ME, and activation of the right hemisphere became more difficult during MI. (orig.)

  7. EEG classification for motor imagery and resting state in BCI applications using multi-class Adaboost extreme learning machine

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    Gao, Lin; Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Jinhua; Wang, Jue

    2016-08-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems provide an alternative communication and control approach for people with limited motor function. Therefore, the feature extraction and classification approach should differentiate the relative unusual state of motion intention from a common resting state. In this paper, we sought a novel approach for multi-class classification in BCI applications. We collected electroencephalographic (EEG) signals registered by electrodes placed over the scalp during left hand motor imagery, right hand motor imagery, and resting state for ten healthy human subjects. We proposed using the Kolmogorov complexity (Kc) for feature extraction and a multi-class Adaboost classifier with extreme learning machine as base classifier for classification, in order to classify the three-class EEG samples. An average classification accuracy of 79.5% was obtained for ten subjects, which greatly outperformed commonly used approaches. Thus, it is concluded that the proposed method could improve the performance for classification of motor imagery tasks for multi-class samples. It could be applied in further studies to generate the control commands to initiate the movement of a robotic exoskeleton or orthosis, which finally facilitates the rehabilitation of disabled people.

  8. Long-lasting cortical reorganization as the result of motor imagery of throwing a ball in a virtual tennis court

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    Ana-Maria eCebolla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the neural signature of a motor imagery (MI task, the present study investigates for the first time the oscillation characteristics including both of the time-frequency measurements, event related spectral perturbation (ERSP and intertrial coherence (ITC underlying the variations in the temporal measurements (ERP directly related to a motor imagery task. We hypothesize that significant variations in both of the time-frequency measurements underlie the specific changes in the ERP directly related to motor imagery. For the motor imagery task, we chose a simple everyday task (throwing a tennis ball, that does not require any particular motor expertise, set within the controlled virtual reality scenario of a tennis court. When compared to the rest condition a consistent, long-lasting negative fronto-central ERP wave was accompanied by significant changes in both time frequency measurements suggesting long-lasting cortical activity reorganization. The ERP wave was characterised by two peaks at about 300 ms (N300 and 1000 ms (N1000. The N300 component was centrally localized on the scalp and was accompanied by significant phase consistency in the delta brain rhythms in the contralateral central scalp areas. The N1000 component spread wider centrally and was accompanied by a significant power decrease (or ERD in low beta brain rhythms localized in fronto-precentral and parieto-occipital scalp areas and also by a significant power increase (or ERS in theta brain rhythms spreading fronto-centrally. During the transition from N300 to N1000, a contralateral alpha (mu as well as post-central and parieto- theta rhythms occurred. The visual representation of movement formed in the minds of participants might underlie a top-down process from the fronto-central areas which is reflected by the amplitude changes observed in the fronto-central ERPs and by the significant phase synchrony in contralateral fronto-central delta and

  9. "Like the palm of my hands": Motor imagery enhances implicit and explicit visual recognition of one's own hands.

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    Conson, Massimiliano; Volpicella, Francesco; De Bellis, Francesco; Orefice, Agnese; Trojano, Luigi

    2017-10-01

    A key point in motor imagery literature is that judging hands in palm view recruits sensory-motor information to a higher extent than judging hands in back view, due to the greater biomechanical complexity implied in rotating hands depicted from palm than from back. We took advantage from this solid evidence to test the nature of a phenomenon known as self-advantage, i.e. the advantage in implicitly recognizing self vs. others' hand images. The self-advantage has been actually found when implicitly but not explicitly judging self-hands, likely due to dissociation between implicit and explicit body representations. However, such a finding might be related to the extent to which motor imagery is recruited during implicit and explicit processing of hand images. We tested this hypothesis in two behavioural experiments. In Experiment 1, right-handed participants judged laterality of either self or others' hands, whereas in Experiment 2, an explicit recognition of one's own hands was required. Crucially, in both experiments participants were randomly presented with hand images viewed from back or from palm. The main result of both experiments was the self-advantage when participants judged hands from palm view. This novel finding demonstrate that increasing the "motor imagery load" during processing of self vs. others' hands can elicit a self-advantage in explicit recognition tasks as well. Future studies testing the possible dissociation between implicit and explicit visual body representations should take into account the modulatory effect of motor imagery load on self-hand processing. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. The effect of leisure activity golf practice on motor imagery: an fMRI study in middle adulthood

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    Ladina eBezzola

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Much is known about practice-induced plasticity of the motor system. But it is not clear whether the activity in the motor network induced by mental motor imagery is influenced by actually practicing the imagined motor tasks.In a longitudinal study design with two measurement time-points, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was used to explore dynamic changes in the brain in response to training of highly complex movements by participants of 40 to 60 years of age. The investigated motor learning task entailed golf training practiced by novices as leisure activity. Additionally, data from an age and sex-matched control group without golf training was collected.Results show increased hemodynamic responses during mental rehearsal of a golf swing in non-primary cortical motor areas, sub-cortical motor areas, and parietal regions of the novice golfers and the control subjects. This result complements previous mental imagery research that shows involvement of motor areas during mental rehearsal of a complex movement, especially in subjects with low skill level. More importantly, changes were only found between the two measurement time-points in the golf novice group with a decrease in hemodynamic responses in non-primary motor areas after the 40 hours of golf practice. Thus, the results indicate that a complex physical leisure activity induces functional neuroplasticity in the seldom studied population of middle-aged adults, and that this effect is evident during mental rehearsal of the practiced task. This finding supports the idea that (a a skill improvement is associated with a modified activation pattern in the associated neuronal network that can be identified during mental rehearsal of the practiced task, and that (b a strict training protocol is not necessary to induce functional neuroplasticity.

  11. Long-latency TMS-evoked potentials during motor execution and inhibition

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    Kentaro eYamanaka

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS has often been used in conjunction with electroencephalography (EEG, which is effective for the direct demonstration of cortical reactivity and corticocortical connectivity during cognitive tasks through the spatio-temporal pattern of long-latency TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs. However, it remains unclear what pattern is associated with the inhibition of a planned motor response. Therefore, we performed TMS-EEG recording during a go/stop task, in which participants were instructed to click a computer mouse with a right index finger when an indicator that was moving with a constant velocity reached a target (go trial or to avoid the click when the indicator randomly stopped just before it reached the target (stop trial. Single-pulse TMS to the left (contralateral or right (ipsilateral motor cortex was applied 500 ms before or just at the target time. TEPs related to motor execution and inhibition were obtained by subtractions between averaged EEG waveforms with and without TMS. As a result, in TEPs induced by both contralateral and ipsilateral TMS, small oscillations were followed by a prominent negative deflection around the TMS site peaking at approximately 100 ms post-TMS (N100, and a less pronounced later positive component (LPC over the broad areas that was centered at the midline-central site in both go and stop trials. However, compared to the pattern in go and stop trials with TMS at 500 ms before the target time, N100 and LPC were differently modulated in the go and stop trials with TMS just at the target time. The amplitudes of both N100 and LPC decreased in go trials, while the amplitude of LPC decreased and the latency of LPC was delayed in both go and stop trials. These results suggested that TMS-induced neuronal reactions in the motor cortex and subsequent their propagation to surrounding cortical areas might change functionally according to task demand when executing and inhibiting a motor

  12. Are children who play a sport or a musical instrument better at motor imagery than children who do not?

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    Dey, Abhishikta; Barnsley, Nadia; Mohan, Rahul; McCormick, Marianne; McAuley, James H; Moseley, G Lorimer

    2012-10-01

    Playing a sport or a musical instrument is presumed to improve motor ability. One would therefore predict that children who play a sport or music are better at motor imagery tasks, which rely on an intact cortical proprioceptive representation and precise motor planning, than children who do not. The authors tested this prediction. This study involved an online questionnaire and then a motor imagery task. The task measured the reaction time (RT) and the accuracy for left/right-hand judgements in children aged 5 to 17 years. Forty pictured hands (20 left), held in various positions and rotated zero, 90°, 180° or 270°, were displayed on a screen. Participants indicated whether the displayed hands were left or right by pressing keys on a keyboard. Fifty-seven children (30 boys; mean±SD age=10±3.3 years) participated. The mean±SD RT was 3015.4±1330.0 ms and the accuracy was 73.9±16.6%. There was no difference in RT between children who played sport, music, neither or both (four-level one-way analysis of variance, p=0.85). There was no difference in accuracy between groups either (Kruskal-Wallis, p=0.46). In a secondary analysis, participants whose parents rated them as being 'clumsy' were no slower (n.s.) but were about 25% less accurate than those rated coordinated or very coordinated (psport or music is associated with better cortical proprioceptive representation and motor planning. Secondary analyses suggest that parent-rated clumsiness is negatively related to motor imagery performance.

  13. Learning a keying sequence you never executed: evidence for independent associative and motor chunk learning.

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    Verwey, Willem B; Wright, David L

    2014-09-01

    A substantial amount of research has addressed how people learn and control movement sequences. Recent results suggested that practice with discrete key pressing sequences results in two types of sequence learning: associative learning and motor chunk development (Verwey & Abrahamse, 2012). In the present study, we addressed whether in keying sequences of limited length associative learning develops also when the use of the chunking mode is prevented by introducing during practice random deviants. In line with the notion of two different learning mechanisms, the present results indicate that associative sequence learning develops when motor chunks cannot be developed during practice. This confirms the notion that motor chunks do not rely on these associations. In addition, experience with a particular execution mode during the practice phase seems to benefit subsequent use of that mode with unfamiliar and random sequences. Also, participants with substantial video-gaming experience were faster in executing discrete keying sequences in the chunking mode. These last two results may point to the development of a general ability to produce movement sequences in the chunking mode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Classification of EEG signals to identify variations in attention during motor task execution.

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    Aliakbaryhosseinabadi, Susan; Kamavuako, Ernest Nlandu; Jiang, Ning; Farina, Dario; Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie

    2017-06-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems in neuro-rehabilitation use brain signals to control external devices. User status such as attention affects BCI performance; thus detecting the user's attention drift due to internal or external factors is essential for high detection accuracy. An auditory oddball task was applied to divert the users' attention during a simple ankle dorsiflexion movement. Electroencephalogram signals were recorded from eighteen channels. Temporal and time-frequency features were projected to a lower dimension space and used to analyze the effect of two attention levels on motor tasks in each participant. Then, a global feature distribution was constructed with the projected time-frequency features of all participants from all channels and applied for attention classification during motor movement execution. Time-frequency features led to significantly better classification results with respect to the temporal features, particularly for electrodes located over the motor cortex. Motor cortex channels had a higher accuracy in comparison to other channels in the global discrimination of attention level. Previous methods have used the attention to a task to drive external devices, such as the P300 speller. However, here we focus for the first time on the effect of attention drift while performing a motor task. It is possible to explore user's attention variation when performing motor tasks in synchronous BCI systems with time-frequency features. This is the first step towards an adaptive real-time BCI with an integrated function to reveal attention shifts from the motor task. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Motor imagery practice for improving sit to stand and reaching to grasp in individuals with poststroke hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttman, Avia; Burstin, Arie; Brown, Riki; Bril, Shai; Dickstein, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Motor imagery practice refers to the mental rehearsal of motor acts in the absence of actual movement production. To evaluate the effect of motor imagery practice on the performance of sit to stand (STS) and reaching to grasp in subjects with post stroke chronic hemiparesis. The study was designed as a crossover intervention. Participants were 13 individuals (mean age, 68.9 [±4.9] years) with chronic hemiparesis enrolled in a day center at the Bet-Rivka Rehabilitation Hospital in Petach Tikvah, Israel. Following 1 week of baseline measurements of the performance of STS and reaching to grasp, these functions were mentally practiced for 15 minutes 3 times a week for 4 weeks. Half of the subjects mentally practiced STS, while the other half practiced the reaching imagery protocol. Subsequently, the participants in each group crossed over to practice the second function for the next 4 weeks. All practice sessions were performed according to a pre-established protocol under supervision. Measurements of real performance took place twice before and twice immediately following each practice session. For STS, the Tetrax Balance System was used to measure the speed of performance and weight distribution between the legs. Reaching to grasp was appraised via a "kinematic" glove and included speed variables of the hand. A significant decrease was found in the values of STS duration. Weight distribution between the legs was not affected by the intervention. For reaching to grasp, a significant improvement was found in the mean and the maximum reaching velocity. In individuals with chronic hemiparesis, the imagery practice of meaningful motor tasks can positively affect real performance.

  16. The influence of body configuration on motor imagery of walking in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saimpont, A; Malouin, F; Tousignant, B; Jackson, P L

    2012-10-11

    Motor imagery (MI) refers to the mental simulation of a movement. It is used as a tool to improve motor function in several populations. In young adults, it has been repeatedly shown that MI of upper-limb movements is facilitated when one's posture is congruent with the movement to simulate. As MI training is notably used for improving locomotor-related activities in older populations, it may be questioned whether subjects' body configuration could also influence MI of walking movements and whether this influence is preserved with age. In the present study, we examined the impact of one's body position (congruent with walking: standing/incongruent with walking: sitting) on the duration of walking simulation over two distances (3m/6m), in 26 young (21 females, 5 males; mean: 23.2 ± 2.4 years) and 26 elderly (18 females, 8 males; mean: 72.7 ± 5.5 years) healthy subjects. It was found that, in both age groups, walking simulation times while standing were shorter than while sitting. Furthermore, walking simulation times in the standing position were closer to actual walking times to cover the same distances. The present findings extend to walking movements the notion that adopting a posture congruent with the movement to imagine facilitates the simulation process. They also suggest that, at least for simple walking tasks, this effect is maintained across the lifespan. The implication of our findings for optimizing MI training of locomotor-related activities is underlined. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Testing the potential of a virtual reality neurorehabilitation system during performance of observation, imagery and imitation of motor actions recorded by wireless functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS

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    Eng Kynan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several neurorehabilitation strategies have been introduced over the last decade based on the so-called simulation hypothesis. This hypothesis states that a neural network located in primary and secondary motor areas is activated not only during overt motor execution, but also during observation or imagery of the same motor action. Based on this hypothesis, we investigated the combination of a virtual reality (VR based neurorehabilitation system together with a wireless functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS instrument. This combination is particularly appealing from a rehabilitation perspective as it may allow minimally constrained monitoring during neurorehabilitative training. Methods fNIRS was applied over F3 of healthy subjects during task performance in a virtual reality (VR environment: 1 'unilateral' group (N = 15, contralateral recording during observation, motor imagery, observation & motor imagery, and imitation of a grasping task performed by a virtual limb (first-person perspective view using the right hand; 2 'bilateral' group (N = 8, bilateral recording during observation and imitation of the same task using the right and left hand alternately. Results In the unilateral group, significant within-condition oxy-hemoglobin concentration Δ[O2Hb] changes (mean ± SD μmol/l were found for motor imagery (0.0868 ± 0.5201 μmol/l and imitation (0.1715 ± 0.4567 μmol/l. In addition, the bilateral group showed a significant within-condition Δ[O2Hb] change for observation (0.0924 ± 0.3369 μmol/l as well as between-conditions with lower Δ[O2Hb] amplitudes during observation compared to imitation, especially in the ipsilateral hemisphere (p imitation using the non-dominant (left hand resulted in larger Δ[O2Hb] changes in both the ipsi- and contralateral hemispheres as compared to using the dominant (right hand. Conclusions This study shows that our combined VR-fNIRS based neurorehabilitation system can

  18. Motor imagery, P300 and error-related EEG-based robot arm movement control for rehabilitation purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Saugat; Konar, Amit; Tibarewala, D N

    2014-12-01

    The paper proposes a novel approach toward EEG-driven position control of a robot arm by utilizing motor imagery, P300 and error-related potentials (ErRP) to align the robot arm with desired target position. In the proposed scheme, the users generate motor imagery signals to control the motion of the robot arm. The P300 waveforms are detected when the user intends to stop the motion of the robot on reaching the goal position. The error potentials are employed as feedback response by the user. On detection of error the control system performs the necessary corrections on the robot arm. Here, an AdaBoost-Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier is used to decode the 4-class motor imagery and an SVM is used to decode the presence of P300 and ErRP waveforms. The average steady-state error, peak overshoot and settling time obtained for our proposed approach is 0.045, 2.8% and 44 s, respectively, and the average rate of reaching the target is 95%. The results obtained for the proposed control scheme make it suitable for designs of prosthetics in rehabilitative applications.

  19. Optimizing spatial patterns with sparse filter bands for motor-imagery based brain-computer interface.

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    Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Guoxu; Jin, Jing; Wang, Xingyu; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2015-11-30

    Common spatial pattern (CSP) has been most popularly applied to motor-imagery (MI) feature extraction for classification in brain-computer interface (BCI) application. Successful application of CSP depends on the filter band selection to a large degree. However, the most proper band is typically subject-specific and can hardly be determined manually. This study proposes a sparse filter band common spatial pattern (SFBCSP) for optimizing the spatial patterns. SFBCSP estimates CSP features on multiple signals that are filtered from raw EEG data at a set of overlapping bands. The filter bands that result in significant CSP features are then selected in a supervised way by exploiting sparse regression. A support vector machine (SVM) is implemented on the selected features for MI classification. Two public EEG datasets (BCI Competition III dataset IVa and BCI Competition IV IIb) are used to validate the proposed SFBCSP method. Experimental results demonstrate that SFBCSP help improve the classification performance of MI. The optimized spatial patterns by SFBCSP give overall better MI classification accuracy in comparison with several competing methods. The proposed SFBCSP is a potential method for improving the performance of MI-based BCI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Haptic, Virtual Interaction and Motor Imagery: Entertainment Tools and Psychophysiological Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Invitto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the perception of affordances was analysed in terms of cognitive neuroscience during an interactive experience in a virtual reality environment. In particular, we chose a virtual reality scenario based on the Leap Motion controller: this sensor device captures the movements of the user’s hand and fingers, which are reproduced on a computer screen by the proper software applications. For our experiment, we employed a sample of 10 subjects matched by age and sex and chosen among university students. The subjects took part in motor imagery training and immersive affordance condition (a virtual training with Leap Motion and a haptic training with real objects. After each training sessions the subject performed a recognition task, in order to investigate event-related potential (ERP components. The results revealed significant differences in the attentional components during the Leap Motion training. During Leap Motion session, latencies increased in the occipital lobes, which are entrusted to visual sensory; in contrast, latencies decreased in the frontal lobe, where the brain is mainly activated for attention and action planning.

  1. Haptic, Virtual Interaction and Motor Imagery: Entertainment Tools and Psychophysiological Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invitto, Sara; Faggiano, Chiara; Sammarco, Silvia; De Luca, Valerio; De Paolis, Lucio T.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the perception of affordances was analysed in terms of cognitive neuroscience during an interactive experience in a virtual reality environment. In particular, we chose a virtual reality scenario based on the Leap Motion controller: this sensor device captures the movements of the user’s hand and fingers, which are reproduced on a computer screen by the proper software applications. For our experiment, we employed a sample of 10 subjects matched by age and sex and chosen among university students. The subjects took part in motor imagery training and immersive affordance condition (a virtual training with Leap Motion and a haptic training with real objects). After each training sessions the subject performed a recognition task, in order to investigate event-related potential (ERP) components. The results revealed significant differences in the attentional components during the Leap Motion training. During Leap Motion session, latencies increased in the occipital lobes, which are entrusted to visual sensory; in contrast, latencies decreased in the frontal lobe, where the brain is mainly activated for attention and action planning. PMID:26999151

  2. Binary particle swarm optimization for frequency band selection in motor imagery based brain-computer interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qingguo; Wei, Zhonghai

    2015-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) enables people suffering from affective neurological diseases to communicate with the external world. Common spatial pattern (CSP) is an effective algorithm for feature extraction in motor imagery based BCI systems. However, many studies have proved that the performance of CSP depends heavily on the frequency band of EEG signals used for the construction of covariance matrices. The use of different frequency bands to extract signal features may lead to different classification performances, which are determined by the discriminative and complementary information they contain. In this study, the broad frequency band (8-30 Hz) is divided into 10 sub-bands of band width 4 Hz and overlapping 2 Hz. Binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO) is used to find the best sub-band set to improve the performance of CSP and subsequent classification. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieved an average improvement of 6.91% in cross-validation accuracy when compared to broad band CSP.

  3. Latent variable method for automatic adaptation to background states in motor imagery BCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagaev, Nikolay; Volkova, Ksenia; Ossadtchi, Alexei

    2018-02-01

    Objective. Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems are known to be vulnerable to variabilities in background states of a user. Usually, no detailed information on these states is available even during the training stage. Thus there is a need in a method which is capable of taking background states into account in an unsupervised way. Approach. We propose a latent variable method that is based on a probabilistic model with a discrete latent variable. In order to estimate the model’s parameters, we suggest to use the expectation maximization algorithm. The proposed method is aimed at assessing characteristics of background states without any corresponding data labeling. In the context of asynchronous motor imagery paradigm, we applied this method to the real data from twelve able-bodied subjects with open/closed eyes serving as background states. Main results. We found that the latent variable method improved classification of target states compared to the baseline method (in seven of twelve subjects). In addition, we found that our method was also capable of background states recognition (in six of twelve subjects). Significance. Without any supervised information on background states, the latent variable method provides a way to improve classification in BCI by taking background states into account at the training stage and then by making decisions on target states weighted by posterior probabilities of background states at the prediction stage.

  4. Effectiveness of motor imagery or mental practice in functional recovery after stroke: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Carrasco, D; Aboitiz Cantalapiedra, J

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, many stroke rehabilitation methods have been developed. Mental practice (MP) is a dynamic state in which the subject evokes an imaginary representation of a motor action or skill in order to learn or perfect that action. Although functional imaging has shown that MP produces similar cortical activation patterns to those of movement, the clinical effectiveness of such methods in rehabilitation and functional recovery has yet to be demonstrated. Systematic search of all clinical studies published in the main scientific databases between December 2011 and October 2012 concerning mental practice in stroke rehabilitation. We selected 23 clinical trials testing different MP protocols in patients with hemiparesis. MP is effective when used in conjunction with conventional physical therapy for functional rehabilitation of both upper and lower limbs, as well as for the recovery of daily activities and skills. Owing to the heterogeneity of the studies with regard to the intervention protocol, specific imagery technique, time spent practicing, patient characteristics, etc., more studies are needed in order to determine the optimal treatment protocol and patient profile. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Latent variable method for automatic adaptation to background states in motor imagery BCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagaev, Nikolay; Volkova, Ksenia; Ossadtchi, Alexei

    2017-07-18

    Objective. Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems are known to be vulnerable to variabilities in background states of a user. Usually, no detailed information on these states is available even during the training stage. Thus there is a need in a method which is capable of taking background states into account in an unsupervised way. Approach. We propose a latent variable method that is based on a probabilistic model with a discrete latent variable. In order to estimate the model's parameters, we suggest to use the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. The proposed method is aimed at assessing characteristics of background states without any corresponding data labeling. In the context of asynchronous motor imagery paradigm, we applied this method to the real data from twelve able-bodied subjects with open/closed eyes serving as background states. Main results. We found that the latent variable method improved classication of target states compared to the baseline method (in seven of twelve subjects). In addition, we found that our method was also capable of background states recognition (in six of twelve subjects). Signicance. Without any supervised information on background states, the latent variable method provides a way to improve classication in BCI by taking background states into account at the training stage and then by making decisions on target states weighted by posterior probabilities of background states at the prediction stage. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  6. A binary motor imagery tasks based brain-computer interface for two-dimensional movement control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bin; Cao, Lei; Maysam, Oladazimi; Li, Jie; Xie, Hong; Su, Caixia; Birbaumer, Niels

    2017-12-01

    Objective. Two-dimensional movement control is a popular issue in brain–computer interface (BCI) research and has many applications in the real world. In this paper, we introduce a combined control strategy to a binary class-based BCI system that allows the user to move a cursor in a two-dimensional (2D) plane. Users focus on a single moving vector to control 2D movement instead of controlling vertical and horizontal movement separately. Approach. Five participants took part in a fixed-target experiment and random-target experiment to verify the effectiveness of the combination control strategy under the fixed and random routine conditions. Both experiments were performed in a virtual 2D dimensional environment and visual feedback was provided on the screen. Main results. The five participants achieved an average hit rate of 98.9% and 99.4% for the fixed-target experiment and the random-target experiment, respectively. Significance. The results demonstrate that participants could move the cursor in the 2D plane effectively. The proposed control strategy is based only on a basic two-motor imagery BCI, which enables more people to use it in real-life applications.

  7. The effect of rhythmic-cued motor imagery on walking, fatigue and quality of life in people with multiple sclerosis: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebacher, Barbara; Kuisma, Raija; Glynn, Angela; Berger, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Motor imagery and rhythmic auditory stimulation are physiotherapy strategies for walking rehabilitation. To investigate the effect of motor imagery combined with rhythmic cueing on walking, fatigue and quality of life (QoL) in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Individuals with MS and Expanded Disability Status Scale scores of 1.5-4.5 were randomised into one of three groups: 17 minutes of motor imagery, six times per week, for 4 weeks, with music (A) or metronome cues (B), both with verbal cueing, and (C) controls. Primary outcomes were walking speed (Timed 25-Foot Walk) and distance (6-Minute Walk Test). Secondary outcomes were walking perception (Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12), fatigue (Modified Fatigue Impact Scale) and QoL (Short Form-36 Health Survey, Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale-29, Euroquol-5D-3L Questionnaire). Of the 112 participants randomised, 101 completed the study. Compared to controls, both interventions significantly improved walking speed, distance and perception. Significant improvements in cognitive but not psychosocial fatigue were seen in the intervention groups, and physical fatigue improved only in the music-based group. Both interventions improved QoL; however, music-cued motor imagery was superior at improving health-related QoL. Rhythmic-cued motor imagery improves walking, fatigue and QoL in people with MS, with music-cued motor imagery being more effective.

  8. Supplementary motor area and primary auditory cortex activation in an expert break-dancer during the kinesthetic motor imagery of dance to music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshansky, Michael P; Bar, Rachel J; Fogarty, Mary; DeSouza, Joseph F X

    2015-01-01

    The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural activity of an expert dancer with 35 years of break-dancing experience during the kinesthetic motor imagery (KMI) of dance accompanied by highly familiar and unfamiliar music. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of musical familiarity on neural activity underlying KMI within a highly experienced dancer. In order to investigate this in both primary sensory and motor planning cortical areas, we examined the effects of music familiarity on the primary auditory cortex [Heschl's gyrus (HG)] and the supplementary motor area (SMA). Our findings reveal reduced HG activity and greater SMA activity during imagined dance to familiar music compared to unfamiliar music. We propose that one's internal representations of dance moves are influenced by auditory stimuli and may be specific to a dance style and the music accompanying it.

  9. Effect of Morphological Characteristics and Motor Abilities on the Execution of Technical Elements in Alpine Skiing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Bubanja

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Testing was conducted on a sample of 35 subjects, students of the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education in Niksic, who attend regular classes of the Based skiing. There were two systems implied during the testing and those are a predicator system of variables and a criterion system of variables. The predictor system of variables consists of 9 morphological measurements (body weight, chest circumference, thigh volume, body height, the length of the lower leg, arm length, knee diameter, shoulder width and pelvic width and 8 motor skills (hand tapping, foot tapping, bend-twist-touch, balance with closed eyes, balance with open eyes, agility in the air, side steps, backwards polygon. The criterion system of variables consists of 4 situational motor task (oblique descent, turn towards the slope, V shift, basic meandering. Based on the obtained results, basic descriptive statistic indicators have been calculated: range-Range, minimum-Min, the maximum-Max, arithmetic average-Mean, standard error of arithmetic mean-Std.Error Mean, standard deviation-SD. According the results of regression analysis it could be concluded that the system of 17 predictor variables (9 morphological and 8 motor skills have achieved a statistically significant impact on the efficiency of the performance of ski technique-two out of four situational motor tasks (criterion system and those are: V-turn and basic meandering. On the other hand, the system of 17 predictor variables has not achieved statistically significant effect on the efficiency of execution of technical elements of ski techniques on two situational motor task, and those are: oblique descent and turn towards the slope.

  10. High theta and low alpha powers may be indicative of BCI-illiteracy in motor imagery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkyu Ahn

    Full Text Available In most brain computer interface (BCI systems, some target users have significant difficulty in using BCI systems. Such target users are called 'BCI-illiterate'. This phenomenon has been poorly investigated, and a clear understanding of the BCI-illiteracy mechanism or a solution to this problem has not been reported to date. In this study, we sought to demonstrate the neurophysiological differences between two groups (literate, illiterate with a total of 52 subjects. We investigated recordings under non-task related state (NTS which is collected during subject is relaxed with eyes open. We found that high theta and low alpha waves were noticeable in the BCI-illiterate relative to the BCI-literate people. Furthermore, these high theta and low alpha wave patterns were preserved across different mental states, such as NTS, resting before motor imagery (MI, and MI states, even though the spatial distribution of both BCI-illiterate and BCI-literate groups did not differ. From these findings, an effective strategy for pre-screening subjects for BCI illiteracy has been determined, and a performance factor that reflects potential user performance has been proposed using a simple combination of band powers. Our proposed performance factor gave an r = 0.59 (r(2 = 0.34 in a correlation analysis with BCI performance and yielded as much as r = 0.70 (r(2 = 0.50 when seven outliers were rejected during the evaluation of whole data (N = 61, including BCI competition datasets (N = 9. These findings may be directly applicable to online BCI systems.

  11. EEG sensorimotor rhythms' variation and functional connectivity measures during motor imagery: linear relations and classification approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano Filho, Carlos A; Attux, Romis; Castellano, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Hands motor imagery (MI) has been reported to alter synchronization patterns amongst neurons, yielding variations in the mu and beta bands' power spectral density (PSD) of the electroencephalography (EEG) signal. These alterations have been used in the field of brain-computer interfaces (BCI), in an attempt to assign distinct MI tasks to commands of such a system. Recent studies have highlighted that information may be missing if knowledge about brain functional connectivity is not considered. In this work, we modeled the brain as a graph in which each EEG electrode represents a node. Our goal was to understand if there exists any linear correlation between variations in the synchronization patterns-that is, variations in the PSD of mu and beta bands-induced by MI and alterations in the corresponding functional networks. Moreover, we (1) explored the feasibility of using functional connectivity parameters as features for a classifier in the context of an MI-BCI; (2) investigated three different types of feature selection (FS) techniques; and (3) compared our approach to a more traditional method using the signal PSD as classifier inputs. Ten healthy subjects participated in this study. We observed significant correlations ( p  classification, with mean accuracies of (90 ± 8)% and (87 ± 7)% for the mu and beta band, respectively, versus (83 ± 8)% and (83 ± 7)% for the same bands for the graph method. Moreover, the number of features for the graph method was considerably larger. However, results for both methods were relatively close, and even overlapped when the uncertainties of the accuracy rates were considered. Further investigation regarding a careful exploration of other graph metrics may provide better alternatives.

  12. Improving the discrimination of hand motor imagery via virtual reality based visual guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shuang; Choi, Kup-Sze; Qin, Jing; Pang, Wai-Man; Wang, Qiong; Heng, Pheng-Ann

    2016-08-01

    While research on the brain-computer interface (BCI) has been active in recent years, how to get high-quality electrical brain signals to accurately recognize human intentions for reliable communication and interaction is still a challenging task. The evidence has shown that visually guided motor imagery (MI) can modulate sensorimotor electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms in humans, but how to design and implement efficient visual guidance during MI in order to produce better event-related desynchronization (ERD) patterns is still unclear. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of using object-oriented movements in a virtual environment as visual guidance on the modulation of sensorimotor EEG rhythms generated by hand MI. To improve the classification accuracy on MI, we further propose an algorithm to automatically extract subject-specific optimal frequency and time bands for the discrimination of ERD patterns produced by left and right hand MI. The experimental results show that the average classification accuracy of object-directed scenarios is much better than that of non-object-directed scenarios (76.87% vs. 69.66%). The result of the t-test measuring the difference between them is statistically significant (p = 0.0207). When compared to algorithms based on fixed frequency and time bands, contralateral dominant ERD patterns can be enhanced by using the subject-specific optimal frequency and the time bands obtained by our proposed algorithm. These findings have the potential to improve the efficacy and robustness of MI-based BCI applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Multi-class motor imagery EEG decoding for brain-computer interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deng; Miao, Duoqian; Blohm, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies show that scalp electroencephalography (EEG) as a non-invasive interface has great potential for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). However, one factor that has limited practical applications for EEG-based BCI so far is the difficulty to decode brain signals in a reliable and efficient way. This paper proposes a new robust processing framework for decoding of multi-class motor imagery (MI) that is based on five main processing steps. (i) Raw EEG segmentation without the need of visual artifact inspection. (ii) Considering that EEG recordings are often contaminated not just by electrooculography (EOG) but also other types of artifacts, we propose to first implement an automatic artifact correction method that combines regression analysis with independent component analysis for recovering the original source signals. (iii) The significant difference between frequency components based on event-related (de-) synchronization and sample entropy is then used to find non-contiguous discriminating rhythms. After spectral filtering using the discriminating rhythms, a channel selection algorithm is used to select only relevant channels. (iv) Feature vectors are extracted based on the inter-class diversity and time-varying dynamic characteristics of the signals. (v) Finally, a support vector machine is employed for four-class classification. We tested our proposed algorithm on experimental data that was obtained from dataset 2a of BCI competition IV (2008). The overall four-class kappa values (between 0.41 and 0.80) were comparable to other models but without requiring any artifact-contaminated trial removal. The performance showed that multi-class MI tasks can be reliably discriminated using artifact-contaminated EEG recordings from a few channels. This may be a promising avenue for online robust EEG-based BCI applications.

  14. Multi-class motor imagery EEG decoding for brain-computer interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng eWang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies show that scalp electroencephalography (EEG as a non-invasive interface has great potential for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs. However, one factor that has limited practical applications for EEG-based BCI so far is the difficulty to decode brain signals in a reliable and efficient way. This paper proposes a new robust processing framework for decoding of multi-class motor imagery (MI that is based on five main processing steps. (i Raw EEG segmentation without the need of visual artifact inspection. (ii Considering that EEG recordings are often contaminated not just by electrooculography (EOG but also other types of artifacts, we propose to first implement an automatic artifact correction method that combines regression analysis with independent component analysis (ICA for recovering the original source signals. (iii The significant difference between frequency components based on event-related (de- synchronization and sample entropy is then used to find non-continuous discriminating rhythms. After spectral filtering using the discriminating rhythms, a channel selection algorithm is used to select only relevant channels. (iv Feature vectors are extracted based on the inter-class diversity and time-varying dynamic characteristics of the signals. (v Finally, a support vector machine (SVM is employed for four-class classification. We tested our proposed algorithm on experimental data that was obtained from dataset 2a of BCI competition IV (2008. The overall four-class kappa values (between 0.41 and 0.80 were comparable to other models but without requiring any artifact-contaminated trial removal. The performance showed that multi-class MI tasks can be reliably discriminated using artifact-contaminated EEG recordings from a few channels. This may be a promising avenue for online robust EEG-based BCI applications.

  15. Short-term effects of integrated motor imagery practice on muscle activation and force performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rienzo, F; Blache, Y; Kanthack, T F D; Monteil, K; Collet, C; Guillot, A

    2015-10-01

    The effect of motor imagery (MI) practice on isometric force development is well-documented. However, whether practicing MI during rest periods of physical training improves the forthcoming performance remains unexplored. We involved 18 athletes in a counterbalanced design including three physical training sessions scheduled over five consecutive days. Training involved 10 maximal isometric contractions against a force plate, with the elbow at 90°. During two sessions, we integrated MI practice (focusing on either muscle activation or relaxation) during the inter-trial rest periods. We measured muscle performance from force plate and electromyograms of the biceps brachii and anterior deltoideus. We continuously monitored electrodermal activity (EDA) to control sympathetic nervous system activity. MI of muscle activation resulted in higher isometric force as compared to both MI of muscle relaxation and passive recovery (respectively +2.1% and +3.5%). MI practice of muscle relaxation also outperformed the control condition (+1.9%). Increased activation of the biceps brachii was recorded under both MI practice conditions compared to control. Biceps brachii activation was similar between the two MI practice conditions, but electromyography revealed a marginal trend toward greater activation of the anterior deltoideus during MI practice of muscle activation. EDA and self-reports indicated that these effects were independent from physiological arousal and motivation. These results might account for priming effects of MI practice yielding to higher muscle activation and force performance. Present findings may be of interest for applications in sports training and neurologic rehabilitation. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. EEG Spectral Generators Involved in Motor Imagery: A swLORETA Study

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    Ana-Maria Cebolla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the neural generators of the brain oscillations related to motor imagery (MI, we investigated the cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar localizations of their respective electroencephalogram (EEG spectral power and phase locking modulations. The MI task consisted in throwing a ball with the dominant upper limb while in a standing posture, within an ecological virtual reality (VR environment (tennis court. The MI was triggered by the visual cues common to the control condition, during which the participant remained mentally passive. As previously developed, our paradigm considers the confounding problem that the reference condition allows two complementary analyses: one which uses the baseline before the occurrence of the visual cues in the MI and control resting conditions respectively; and the other which compares the analog periods between the MI and the control resting-state conditions. We demonstrate that MI activates specific, complex brain networks for the power and phase modulations of the EEG oscillations. An early (225 ms delta phase-locking related to MI was generated in the thalamus and cerebellum and was followed (480 ms by phase-locking in theta and alpha oscillations, generated in specific cortical areas and the cerebellum. Phase-locking preceded the power modulations (mainly alpha–beta ERD, whose cortical generators were situated in the frontal BA45, BA11, BA10, central BA6, lateral BA13, and posterior cortex BA2. Cerebellar-thalamic involvement through phase-locking is discussed as an underlying mechanism for recruiting at later stages the cortical areas involved in a cognitive role during MI.

  17. Experience-dependent modulation of alpha and beta during action observation and motor imagery.

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    Di Nota, Paula M; Chartrand, Julie M; Levkov, Gabriella R; Montefusco-Siegmund, Rodrigo; DeSouza, Joseph F X

    2017-03-06

    EEG studies investigating the neural networks that facilitate action observation (AO) and kinaesthetic motor imagery (KMI) have shown reduced, or desynchronized, power in the alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta (13-30 Hz) frequency bands relative to rest, reflecting efficient activation of task-relevant areas. Functional modulation of these networks through expertise in dance has been established using fMRI, with greater activation among experts during AO. While there is evidence for experience-dependent plasticity of alpha power during AO of dance, the influence of familiarity on beta power during AO, and alpha and beta activity during KMI, remain unclear. The purpose of the present study was to measure the impact of familiarity on confidence ratings and EEG activity during (1) AO of a brief ballet sequence, (2) KMI of this same sequence, and (3) KMI of non-dance movements among ballet dancers, dancers from other genres, and non-dancers. Ballet dancers highly familiar with the genre of the experimental stimulus demonstrated higher individual alpha peak frequency (iAPF), greater alpha desynchronization, and greater task-related beta power during AO, as well as faster iAPF during KMI of non-dance movements. While no between-group differences in alpha or beta power were observed during KMI of dance or non-dance movements, all participants showed significant desynchronization relative to baseline, and further desynchronization during dance KMI relative to non-dance KMI indicative of greater cognitive load. These findings confirm and extend evidence for experience-dependent plasticity of alpha and beta activity during AO of dance and KMI. We also provide novel evidence for modulation of iAPF that is faster when tuned to the specific motor repertoire of the observer. By considering the multiple functional roles of these frequency bands during the same task (AO), we have disentangled the compounded contribution of familiarity and expertise to alpha desynchronization for mediating

  18. Effects of imagery motor training on torque production of ankle plantar flexor muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Toering, ST; Bessem, B; van der Laan, O; Diercks, RL

    The aim of this study was to investigate in control subjects the effect of imagery training on the torque of plantar-flexor muscles of the ankle. Twenty-nine subjects were allocated to one of three groups that performed either imagery training, low-intensity strength training, or no training (only

  19. The association of motor imagery and kinesthetic illusion prolongs the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on corticospinal tract excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Fuminari; Shibata, Eriko; Hayami, Tatsuya; Nagahata, Keita; Aoyama, Toshiyuki

    2016-04-15

    A kinesthetic illusion induced by a visual stimulus (KI) can produce vivid kinesthetic perception. During KI, corticospinal tract excitability increases and results in the activation of cerebral networks. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is emerging as an alternative potential therapeutic modality for a variety of neurological and psychiatric conditions, such that identifying factors that enhance the magnitude and duration of tDCS effects is currently a topic of great scientific interest. This study aimed to establish whether the combination of tDCS with KI and sensory-motor imagery (MI) induces larger and longer-lasting effects on the excitability of corticomotor pathways in healthy Japanese subjects. A total of 21 healthy male volunteers participated in this study. Four interventions were investigated in the first experiment: (1) anodal tDCS alone (tDCSa), (2) anodal tDCS with visually evoked kinesthetic illusion (tDCSa + KI), (3) anodal tDCS with motor imagery (tDCSa + MI), and (4) anodal tDCS with kinesthetic illusion and motor imagery (tDCSa + KIMI). In the second experiment, we added a sham tDCS intervention with kinesthetic illusion and motor imagery (sham + KIMI) as a control for the tDCSa + KIMI condition. Direct currents were applied to the right primary motor cortex. Corticospinal excitability was examined using transcranial magnetic stimulation of the area associated with the left first dorsal interosseous. In the first experiment, corticomotor excitability was sustained for at least 30 min following tDCSa + KIMI (p < 0.01). The effect of tDCSa + KIMI on corticomotor excitability was greater and longer-lasting than that achieved in all other conditions. In the second experiment, significant effects were not achieved following sham + KIMI. Our results suggest that tDCSa + KIMI has a greater therapeutic potential than tDCS alone for inducing higher excitability of the corticospinal tract. The observed

  20. Kinesthetic imagery of musical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eLotze

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Musicians use different kinds of imagery. This review focuses on kinesthetic imagery, which has been shown to be an effective complement to actively playing an instrument. However, experience in actual movement performance seems to be a requirement for a recruitment of those brain areas representing movement ideation during imagery. An internal model of movement performance might be more differentiated when training has been more intense or simply performed more often. Therefore, with respect to kinesthetic imagery, these strategies are predominantly found in professional musicians. There are a few possible reasons as to why kinesthetic imagery is used in addition to active training; one example is the need for mental rehearsal of the technically most difficult passages. Training difficult passages repeatedly has the potential to induce fatigue in tendons and muscles and can ultimately result in the development of dystonia. Another reason for mental practice is that mental rehearsal of the piece helps to improve performance if the instrument is not available for actual training as is the case for professional musicians when they are travelling to various appearances. Overall, mental imagery in musicians is not necessarily specific to motor, somatosensory, auditory or visual aspects of imagery, but integrates them all. In particular, the audiomotor loop is highly important, since auditory aspects are crucial for guiding motor performance. Furthermore, slight co-movement, for instance of the fingers, usually occurs when imagining musical performance, a situation different to the laboratory condition where movement execution is strictly controlled. All these aspects result in a distinctive representation map for the mental imagery of musical performance. This review summarizes behavioral data, and findings from functional brain imaging studies of mental imagery of musical performance.

  1. Dizzy people perform no worse at a motor imagery task requiring whole body mental rotation; a case-control comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah B Wallwork

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We wanted to find out whether people who suffer from dizziness take longer than people who do not, to perform a motor imagery task that involves implicit whole body rotation. Our prediction was that people in the ‘dizzy’ group would take longer at a left/right neck rotation judgment task but not a left/right hand judgment task, because actually performing the former, but not the latter, would exacerbate their dizziness. Secondly, we predicted that when dizzy participants responded to neck rotation images, responses would be greatest when images were in the upside-down orientation; an orientation with greatest dizzy-provoking potential. To test this idea, we used a case-control comparison design. One hundred and eighteen participants who suffered from dizziness and 118 age, gender, arm pain and neck pain matched controls took part in the study. Participants undertook two motor imagery tasks; a left/right neck rotation judgment task and a left/right hand judgment task. The tasks were completed using the Recognise program; an on-line reaction time task program. Images of neck rotation were shown in four different orientations; 0°, 90°, 180° and 270°. Participants were asked to respond to each ‘neck’ image identifying it as either ‘right neck rotation’ or a ‘left neck rotation’, or for hands, a right or a left hand. Results showed that participants in the ‘dizzy’ group were slower than controls at both tasks (p= 0.015, but this was not related to task (p= 0.498. Similarly, ‘dizzy’ participants were not proportionally worse at images of different orientations (p= 0.878. Our findings suggest impaired performance in dizzy people, an impairment that may be confined to motor imagery or may extend more generally.

  2. Use of Pain Neuroscience Education, Tactile Discrimination, and Graded Motor Imagery in an Individual With Frozen Shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Eric E; McDevitt, Amy W; Louw, Adriaan; Puentedura, Emilio J; Mintken, Paul E

    2018-03-01

    Study Design Case report. Background Aggressive physical therapy in the freezing stage of frozen shoulder may prolong the course of recovery. Central sensitization may play a role in the early stages of frozen shoulder. Pain neuroscience education, tactile discrimination, and graded motor imagery have been used in a number of conditions with central sensitization. The purpose of this case report was to describe the examination and treatment of a patient in the freezing stage of frozen shoulder using pain neuroscience education, tactile discrimination, and graded motor imagery. Case Description A 54-year-old woman with a diagnosis of frozen shoulder was referred by an orthopaedic surgeon following lack of progress after 4 weeks of intensive daily physical therapy. Pain at rest was 7/10, and her Shoulder Pain and Disability Index score was 64%. She had painful and limited active range of motion and elevated fear-avoidance beliefs. Tactile discrimination and limb laterality were impaired, with signs of central sensitization. A "top-down" approach using pain neuroscience education, tactile discrimination, and graded motor imagery was used for the first 6 weeks, followed by a "bottom-up" impairment-based approach. Outcomes The patient was seen for 20 sessions over 12 weeks. At discharge, her Shoulder Pain and Disability Index score was 22%, resting pain was 0/10, and fear-avoidance beliefs improved. Improvements in active range of motion, laterality, and tactile discrimination were also noted. Discussion Intensive physical therapy in the freezing stage of frozen shoulder may be detrimental to long-term outcomes. This case report suggests that a top-down approach may allow a quicker transition through the freezing stage of frozen shoulder. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 5. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2018;48(3):174-184. Epub 19 Dec 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.7716.

  3. A comparison of modelling and imagery in the acquisition and retention of motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Nilam; Riggs, S M; Skaling, S; Landers, D M; McCullagh, P

    2007-03-01

    Although many researchers have examined the effects of imagery and/or modelling interventions, it is unclear which of the two interventions is more effective. In two experiments, novice learners assessed over multiple trials of a free weight squat lifting or a stabilometer balancing task were given modelling, imagery, a combination of modelling and imagery, or control interventions. Group differences indicated, in general, that groups receiving modelling (modelling, combination) evidenced a more appropriate form than groups that did not receive modelling (imagery, control). When apparent, these differences were already in place after the first of several interventions. Practical implications are that even a single bout of modelling can have immediate beneficial effects on movement form (Experiments 1 and 2) and outcome (Experiment 1).

  4. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy-based correlates of prefrontal cortical dynamics during a cognitive-motor executive adaptation task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe J. Gentili

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated changes in brain hemodynamics, as measured by functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIR, during performance of a cognitive-motor adaptation task. The adaptation task involved the learning of a novel visuo-motor transformation (a 60 degree counterclockwise screen-cursor rotation, which required inhibition of a pre-potent visuo-motor response. A control group experienced a familiar transformation and thus, did not face any executive challenge. Analysis of the experimental group hemodynamic responses revealed that the performance enhancement was associated with a monotonic reduction in the oxygenation level in the prefrontal cortex. This finding confirms and extends functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and electroencephalography (EEG studies of visuo-motor adaptation and learning. The changes in prefrontal brain activation suggest an initial recruitment of frontal executive functioning to inhibit pre-potent visuo-motor mappings followed by a progressive de-recruitment of the same prefrontal regions. The prefrontal hemodynamic changes observed in the experimental group translated into enhanced motor performance revealed by a reduction in movement time, movement extent, root mean square error and the directional error. These kinematic adaptations are consistent with the acquisition of an internal model of the novel visuo-motor transformation. No comparable change was observed in the control group for either the hemodynamics or for the kinematics. This study 1 extends our understanding of the frontal executive processes from the cognitive to the cognitive-motor domain and 2 suggests that optical brain imaging can be employed to provide hemodynamic based-biomarkers to assess and monitor the level of adaptive cognitive-motor performance.

  5. Development of hierarchical structures for actions and motor imagery: a constructivist view from synthetic neuro-robotics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Ryunosuke; Tani, Jun

    2009-07-01

    The current paper shows a neuro-robotics experiment on developmental learning of goal-directed actions. The robot was trained to predict visuo-proprioceptive flow of achieving a set of goal-directed behaviors through iterative tutor training processes. The learning was conducted by employing a dynamic neural network model which is characterized by their multiple time-scale dynamics. The experimental results showed that functional hierarchical structures emerge through stages of developments where behavior primitives are generated in earlier stages and their sequences of achieving goals appear in later stages. It was also observed that motor imagery is generated in earlier stages compared to actual behaviors. Our claim that manipulatable inner representation should emerge through the sensory-motor interactions is corresponded to Piaget's constructivist view.

  6. Detection of motor execution using a hybrid fNIRS-biosignal BCI: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Raphael; Marchal-Crespo, Laura; Edelmann, Janis; Lambercy, Olivier; Fluet, Marie-Christine; Riener, Robert; Wolf, Martin; Gassert, Roger

    2013-01-21

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) were recently recognized as a method to promote neuroplastic effects in motor rehabilitation. The core of a BCI is a decoding stage by which signals from the brain are classified into different brain-states. The goal of this paper was to test the feasibility of a single trial classifier to detect motor execution based on signals from cortical motor regions, measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), and the response of the autonomic nervous system. An approach that allowed for individually tuned classifier topologies was opted for. This promises to be a first step towards a novel form of active movement therapy that could be operated and controlled by paretic patients. Seven healthy subjects performed repetitions of an isometric finger pinching task, while changes in oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations were measured in the contralateral primary motor cortex and ventral premotor cortex using fNIRS. Simultaneously, heart rate, breathing rate, blood pressure and skin conductance response were measured. Hidden Markov models (HMM) were used to classify between active isometric pinching phases and rest. The classification performance (accuracy, sensitivity and specificity) was assessed for two types of input data: (i) fNIRS-signals only and (ii) fNIRS- and biosignals combined. fNIRS data were classified with an average accuracy of 79.4%, which increased significantly to 88.5% when biosignals were also included (p=0.02). Comparable increases were observed for the sensitivity (from 78.3% to 87.2%, p=0.008) and specificity (from 80.5% to 89.9%, p=0.062). This study showed, for the first time, promising classification results with hemodynamic fNIRS data obtained from motor regions and simultaneously acquired biosignals. Combining fNIRS data with biosignals has a beneficial effect, opening new avenues for the development of brain-body-computer interfaces for rehabilitation applications. Further research is required to

  7. Equal prefrontal cortex activation between males and females in a motor tasks and different visual imagery perspectives: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago F. Dias Kanthack

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the prefrontal cortex (PFC blood flow variation and time on in males and females while performing a motor task and imagery perspectives. Eighteen right handed subjects (11 males and 7 females were volunteers to this study. All subjects went through three randomly conditions, a motor task condition (MT in which they had to do a simple finger tap. The other conditions included practicing imagery in first and third views. During all the conditions, the fNIRS device was attached to the subject forehead to obtain the blood flow; the total time in each task which was measured with a chronometer. No difference had been found in any condition for both sexes in the PFC and time, nor for all subjects integrated in the PFC. Therefore, we conclu-de that both imageries can be used to mentally train a motor task, and probably both sexes can be benefited.

  8. Relationship between motor and executive functioning in school-age children with pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, J.; Hartman, E.; Scherder, Erik; Houwen, S; Visscher, C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the motor skills and executive functioning (EF) of 28 children diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS; mean age: 10 years 6 months, range: 7-12 years; 19 boys, 9 girls) in comparison with age- and gender-matched typically developing

  9. Measurement of Heat Losses on The Milking Machine Electric Motor at Various Regulations of Vacuum Using Methods of Thermal Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kudělka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the desirable vacuum in the milking machines, use is currently made predominantly of rotary vacuum pumps. These vacuum pumps are driven by a squirrel-cage induction motor. Until recently, the vacuum in the system to achieve the required value was controlled by a main control valve sucking in ambient air into the system. During the milking process itself and during other activities (flushing, sanitation, this control method consumed a large amount of electricity. The technical solution to electricity demand reduction was introduced with the emergence and development of frequency converters. The frequency converters control the operation of the asynchronous electric motor so that the actual delivery of the vacuum pumps equals the volume of air sucked into the vacuum pipe. The motor supply by the frequency converter brings about a host of adverse phenomena. This paper is dedicated to motor heating and heat losses on the surface of the electric motor at different regulations of vacuum in milking machines. The objective of the paper is to determine the immediate specific heat flows along the surface of the electric motor of the milking machine during milking using a control valve regulation and a control using the frequency converter, and compare the resulting value. The specific heat flows were determined by means of a non-traditional method of temperature field measurement using a system of thermal imagery. The calculated and measured data obtained from both these systems were statistically evaluated and compared. Use was made of a milking machine located in the cooperative Hospodářské obchodní družstvo (HOD Jabloňov.

  10. Muscular responses appear to be associated with existence of kinesthetic perception during combination of tendon co-vibration and motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Eriko; Kaneko, Fuminari; Katayose, Masaki

    2017-11-01

    The afferent inputs from peripheral sensory receptors and efferent signals from the central nervous system that underlie intentional movement can contribute to kinesthetic perception. Previous studies have revealed that tendon vibration to wrist muscles elicits an excitatory response-known as the antagonist vibratory response-in muscles antagonistic to the vibrated muscles. Therefore, the present study aimed to further investigate the effect of tendon vibration combined with motor imagery on kinesthetic perception and muscular activation. Two vibrators were applied to the tendons of the left flexor carpi radialis and extensor carpi radialis. When the vibration frequency was the same between flexors and extensors, no participant perceived movement and no muscle activity was induced. When participants imagined flexing their wrists during tendon vibration, the velocity of perceptual flexion movement increased. Furthermore, muscle activity of the flexor increased only during motor imagery. These results demonstrate that kinesthetic perception can be induced during the combination of motor imagery and co-vibration, even with no experience of kinesthetic perception from an afferent input with co-vibration at the same frequency. Although motor responses were observed during combined co-vibration and motor imagery, no such motor responses were recorded during either co-vibration alone or motor imagery alone, suggesting that muscular responses during the combined condition are associated with kinesthetic perception. Thus, the present findings indicate that kinesthetic perception is influenced by the interaction between afferent input from muscle spindles and the efferent signals that underlie intentional movement. We propose that the physiological behavior resulting from kinesthetic perception affects the process of modifying agonist muscle activity, which will be investigated in a future study.

  11. Effectiveness of mirror therapy, motor imagery, and virtual feedback on phantom limb pain following amputation: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrador Colmenero, Laura; Perez Marmol, Jose Manuel; Martí-García, Celia; Querol Zaldivar, María de Los Ángeles; Tapia Haro, Rosa María; Castro Sánchez, Adelaida María; Aguilar-Ferrándiz, María Encarnación

    2017-11-01

    Phantom limb pain is reported in 50%-85% of people with amputation. Clinical interventions in treating central pain, such as mirror therapy, motor imagery, or virtual visual feedback, could redound in benefits to amputee patients with phantom limb pain. To provide an overview of the effectiveness of different techniques for treating phantom limb pain in amputee patients. Systematic review. A computerized literature search up to April 2017 was performed using the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, MEDLINE, ProQuest, PEDro, EBSCOhost, and Cochrane Plus. Methodological quality and internal validity score of each study were assessed using PEDro scale. For data synthesis, qualitative methods from the Cochrane Back Review Group were applied. In all, 12 studies met our inclusion criteria, where 9 were rated as low methodological quality and 3 rated moderate quality. All studies showed a significant reduction in pain, but there was heterogeneity among subjects and methodologies and any high-quality clinical trial (PEDro score ≤8; internal validity score ≤5) was not found. Mirror therapy, motor imaginary, and virtual visual feedback reduce phantom limb pain; however, there is limited scientific evidence supporting their effectiveness. Future studies should include designs with more solid research methods, exploring short- and long-term benefits of these therapies. Clinical relevance This systematic review investigates the effectiveness of mirror therapy, motor imagery, and virtual visual feedback on phantom limb pain, summarizing the currently published trials and evaluating the research quality. Although these interventions have positive benefits in phantom limb pain, there is still a lack of evidence for supporting their effectiveness.

  12. Motor cortical plasticity induced by motor learning through mental practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eAvanzino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Several investigations suggest that actual and mental actions trigger similar neural substrates. Motor learning via physical practice results in long-term potentiation (LTP-like plasticity processes, namely potentiation of M1 and a temporary occlusion of additional LTP-like plasticity. However, whether this neuroplasticity process contributes to improve motor performance through mental practice remains to be determined. Here, we tested skill learning-dependent changes in primary motor cortex (M1 excitability and plasticity by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation in subjects trained to physically execute or mentally perform a sequence of finger opposition movements. Before and after physical practice and motor-imagery practice, M1 excitability was evaluated by measuring the input-output (IO curve of motor evoked potentials. M1 long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD-like plasticity was assessed with paired-associative stimulation (PAS of the median nerve and motor cortex using an interstimulus interval of 25 ms (PAS25 or 10 ms (PAS10, respectively. We found that even if after both practice sessions subjects significantly improved their movement speed, M1 excitability and plasticity were differentially influenced by the two practice sessions. First, we observed an increase in the slope of IO curve after physical but not after motor-imagery practice. Second, there was a reversal of the PAS25 effect from LTP-like plasticity to LTD-like plasticity following physical and motor-imagery practice. Third, LTD-like plasticity (PAS10 protocol increased after physical practice, whilst it was occluded after motor-imagery practice. In conclusion, we demonstrated that motor-imagery practice lead to the development of neuroplasticity, as it affected the PAS25- and PAS10- induced plasticity in M1. These results, expanding the current knowledge on how motor-imagery training shapes M1 plasticity, might have a potential impact in

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN TASK SPECIFIC MOTOR IMAGERY WITH MENTAL PRACTICE VERSUS TASK SPECIFIC MIRROR THERAPY ON UPPER LIMB FUNCTIONS FOR SUB ACUTE HEMIPLEGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thara. N

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Task specific training of upper limb may result in learning of new motor task through transfer after repeated practice. Mirror therapy and motor imagery are effective emerging techniques used as an adjunct in rehabilitation of upper limb function in hemiplegia. The purpose of the study is to find comparative effects of task specific motor imagery with mental practice over task specific mirror therapy on upper limb functional activities for subjects with sub acute hemiplegia. Method: An experimental study design with two groups conducted on 30 subjects with sub-acute hemiplegic. Thirty subjects randomised, 15 subjects into group A and 15 into group B. Group A subjects received task specific motor imagery with mental practice thrice a week for 10 weeks and Group B received task specific mirror therapy thrice a week for 10 weeks. In both groups, each session consisted of 60 minutes. The outcome measure such as Action Research Arm Test (ARAT was measured before and after 10 weeks of intervention. Results: Comparison of post intervention means of ARAT using Independent t test and Mann-Whitney Test showed that there is no statistically significant difference in grasp and gross movement between the groups and there is a statistically significant difference in grip, pinch and total score between the groups. Conclusion: The present study concludes that 10 weeks of task specific motor imagery with mental practice and task specific mirror therapy both shown significant effect on improvement of upper extremity function. However, greater percentage of improvement was found using task specific motor imagery with mental practice in hand function when compared to task specific mirror therapy.

  14. Relationship between executive functions and motor stereotypies in children with Autistic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemonda, Brittany C; Holtzer, Roee; Goldman, Sylvie

    2012-07-01

    This study reports on the relationship between motor stereotypies and impairments in executive functions (EF) in children with Autistic Disorder (AD) and in children with Developmental Language Disorders (DLD). We hypothesized that low EF performance would predict higher frequency and longer durations of stereotypies in the AD group only. Twenty-two children (age range = 7-9 years, 6 months, girls = 5) with AD were recruited from a longitudinal multi-site study and compared to twenty-two non-autistic children with DLD (age range = 7-9 years, 6 months, girls = 5). The two groups were matched on non-verbal IQ and demographic characteristics. Frequency and duration of stereotypies were coded from videotaped semi-structured play sessions. EF measures included the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) Categories, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) Mazes, and Stanford-Binet Fourth Edition (SB-IV) Matrices. The scores for frequency and duration of stereotypies were higher in the AD group. Separate linear regressions revealed that group status, EF, and their interactions predict stereotypies. Specifically, lower EF scores predicted higher frequencies and longer durations of stereotypies in the AD group only. Analyses controlled for age, gender, and parent education. Findings suggest that in AD, EF impairments and stereotypies may be linked to shared brain pathways.

  15. Improving the Accuracy and Training Speed of Motor Imagery Brain-Computer Interfaces Using Wavelet-Based Combined Feature Vectors and Gaussian Mixture Model-Supervectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David; Park, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Goog

    2017-10-07

    In this paper, we propose a set of wavelet-based combined feature vectors and a Gaussian mixture model (GMM)-supervector to enhance training speed and classification accuracy in motor imagery brain-computer interfaces. The proposed method is configured as follows: first, wavelet transforms are applied to extract the feature vectors for identification of motor imagery electroencephalography (EEG) and principal component analyses are used to reduce the dimensionality of the feature vectors and linearly combine them. Subsequently, the GMM universal background model is trained by the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to purify the training data and reduce its size. Finally, a purified and reduced GMM-supervector is used to train the support vector machine classifier. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated for three different motor imagery datasets in terms of accuracy, kappa, mutual information, and computation time, and compared with the state-of-the-art algorithms. The results from the study indicate that the proposed method achieves high accuracy with a small amount of training data compared with the state-of-the-art algorithms in motor imagery EEG classification.

  16. Wavelet packet-based independent component analysis for feature extraction from motor imagery EEG of complex movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhongxing; Wan, Baikun

    2012-09-01

    The main goal of this study was to develop a novel spatial filtering method for better extracting the feature information underlying the event-related de-synchronisation and synchronisation (ERD/ERS) during complex motor imagery of lower limb action. The algorithm used a wavelet packet-based independent component analysis (WPICA) method to extract the ERD/ERS patterns in different frequency bands. Time-frequency decomposition in the wavelet packet domain was designed to avoid the statistical correlation between different electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms. The subband-specific principal components were extracted after independent component analysis and projected back to the time-frequency domain of corresponding electrodes for better fitting the varying EEG spatial distributions. The present method was tested with the EEG data from 10 human subjects performing three complex mental tasks (i.e., imagery standing up, imagery left/right foot movement combined with homolateral hand movement). A classification rate of about 80% was achieved using the WPICA-based technique, which is better than the traditional ICA method with the rate of 72.30% and the non-spatial filtering condition of 68.34%. We developed a novel spatial filtering method based on WPICA to extract the ERD/ERS patterns in different frequency bands. The overall performance of this algorithm was better than that of the conventional methods. The current method promised to provide an effective way for ERD/ERS patterns recognition and thus could improve the pattern classification performance of complex mental tasks from scalp EEGs. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Strength Gains by Motor Imagery with Different Ratios of Physical to Mental Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Mathias eReiser; Dirk eBüsch; Jörn eMunzert

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this training study was to determine the magnitude of strength gains following a high-intensity resistance training (i.e., improvement of neuromuscular coordination) that can be achieved by imagery of the respective muscle contraction imagined maximal isometric contraction (IMC training). Prior to the experimental intervention, subjects completed a 4-week standardized strength training program. 3 groups with different combinations of real maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and...

  18. Perceived success, auditory feedback, and mental imagery: what best predicts improved efficacy and motor performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Bradley J; O'Halloran, Paul D

    2013-06-01

    Performance enhancement techniques can improve self-efficacy (SE) and task performance. The focus of this study was to determine which techniques could best achieve this with three novel tasks. Participants (n = 98) were counterbalanced across tasks and conditions (48 participants assigned to each condition in each task) and completed two trials of putting (imagery vs. no imagery), throwing (easy vs. difficult), and kicking (verbal feedback vs. no feedback) tasks, and SE and performance scores were recorded. The results revealed that the auditory feedback condition had the greatest impact as it significantly explained both SE and performance scores, with a greater effect recorded for SE scores. Use of imagery or allocation to the easy-to-score condition did not improve performance or SE scores more than did the control conditions. These findings were unexpected as successful past performance is often cited as the main determinant of SE change. Further empirical investigation is required to determine if these findings are repeatable and if they generalize to sporting settings.

  19. Use of video observation and motor imagery on jumping performance in national rhythmic gymnastics athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Claudia; D'Artibale, Emanuele; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Piazza, Marina; Tsopani, Despina; Giombini, Arrigo; Calcagno, Giuseppe; di Cagno, Alessandra

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a mental training protocol could improve gymnastic jumping performance. Seventy-two rhythmic gymnasts were randomly divided into an experimental and control group. At baseline, experimental group completed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire Revised (MIQ-R) to assess the gymnast ability to generate movement imagery. A repeated measures design was used to compare two different types of training aimed at improving jumping performance: (a) video observation and PETTLEP mental training associated with physical practice, for the experimental group, and (b) physical practice alone for the control group. Before and after six weeks of training, their jumping performance was measured using the Hopping Test (HT), Drop Jump (DJ), and Counter Movement Jump (CMJ). Results revealed differences between jumping parameters F(1,71)=11.957; p<.01, and between groups F(1,71)=10.620; p<.01. In the experimental group there were significant correlations between imagery ability and the post-training Flight Time of the HT, r(34)=-.295, p<.05 and the DJ, r(34)=-.297, p<.05. The application of the protocol described herein was shown to improve jumping performance, thereby preserving the elite athlete's energy for other tasks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. MOTOR IMAGERY BOOSTS PROPRIOCEPTIVE NEUROMUSCULAR FACILITATION IN THE ATTAINMENT AND RETENTION OF RANGE-OF -MOTION AT THE HIP JOINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Callaghan

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF coupled with an internal mental imagery technique (PNFI on both the attainment and retention of increased range-of-movement (ROM at the hip joint. Twenty-four young adult subjects were randomly allocated to PNF, PNFI, and control treatments administered in fifteen sessions over a three-week period. ROM was assessed prior to training then at the completion of sessions 1 day, 3, 7, and 14 during training, then 28 days after program completion. Analysis-of-Variance with repeated measures showed both significant treatment (p < 0.01 and time effects (p < 0.05. Mean change of ROM values were always larger under the PNFI condition and significantly different (p < 0.05 at day 1 and 3 following training program completion. Thereafter, the diminution of ROM was comparable to the PNF condition. Mean ROM increment relative to baseline was 7.55 and 9.45 degrees for PNF and PNFI respectively receding to 5.86 and 6.5 degrees at twenty-eight days following treatment cessation. Motor imagery coupled with PNF to enhance and retain ROM yields superior results to physical training used alone and can benefit both athletes and those undergoing rehabilitation.

  1. An Efficient Framework for EEG Analysis with Application to Hybrid Brain Computer Interfaces Based on Motor Imagery and P300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jinyi; Wang, Jue; Yu, Tianyou

    2017-01-01

    The hybrid brain computer interface (BCI) based on motor imagery (MI) and P300 has been a preferred strategy aiming to improve the detection performance through combining the features of each. However, current methods used for combining these two modalities optimize them separately, which does not result in optimal performance. Here, we present an efficient framework to optimize them together by concatenating the features of MI and P300 in a block diagonal form. Then a linear classifier under a dual spectral norm regularizer is applied to the combined features. Under this framework, the hybrid features of MI and P300 can be learned, selected, and combined together directly. Experimental results on the data set of hybrid BCI based on MI and P300 are provided to illustrate competitive performance of the proposed method against other conventional methods. This provides an evidence that the method used here contributes to the discrimination performance of the brain state in hybrid BCI.

  2. Sparse Bayesian Learning for Obtaining Sparsity of EEG Frequency Bands Based Feature Vectors in Motor Imagery Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Wang, Yu; Jin, Jing; Wang, Xingyu

    2017-03-01

    Effective common spatial pattern (CSP) feature extraction for motor imagery (MI) electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings usually depends on the filter band selection to a large extent. Subband optimization has been suggested to enhance classification accuracy of MI. Accordingly, this study introduces a new method that implements sparse Bayesian learning of frequency bands (named SBLFB) from EEG for MI classification. CSP features are extracted on a set of signals that are generated by a filter bank with multiple overlapping subbands from raw EEG data. Sparse Bayesian learning is then exploited to implement selection of significant features with a linear discriminant criterion for classification. The effectiveness of SBLFB is demonstrated on the BCI Competition IV IIb dataset, in comparison with several other competing methods. Experimental results indicate that the SBLFB method is promising for development of an effective classifier to improve MI classification.

  3. Mobile EEG and its potential to promote the theory and application of imagery-based motor rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranczioch, Cornelia; Zich, Catharina; Schierholz, Irina; Sterr, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Studying the brain in its natural state remains a major challenge for neuroscience. Solving this challenge would not only enable the refinement of cognitive theory, but also provide a better understanding of cognitive function in the type of complex and unpredictable situations that constitute daily life, and which are often disturbed in clinical populations. With mobile EEG, researchers now have access to a tool that can help address these issues. In this paper we present an overview of technical advancements in mobile EEG systems and associated analysis tools, and explore the benefits of this new technology. Using the example of motor imagery (MI) we will examine the translational potential of MI-based neurofeedback training for neurological rehabilitation and applied research. © 2013.

  4. Motor imagery EEG classification with optimal subset of wavelet based common spatial pattern and kernel extreme learning machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyeong-Jun Park; Jongin Kim; Beomjun Min; Boreom Lee

    2017-07-01

    Performance of motor imagery based brain-computer interfaces (MI BCIs) greatly depends on how to extract the features. Various versions of filter-bank based common spatial pattern have been proposed and used in MI BCIs. Filter-bank based common spatial pattern has more number of features compared with original common spatial pattern. As the number of features increases, the MI BCIs using filter-bank based common spatial pattern can face overfitting problems. In this study, we used eigenvector centrality feature selection method, wavelet packet decomposition common spatial pattern, and kernel extreme learning machine to improve the performance of MI BCIs and avoid overfitting problems. Furthermore, the computational speed was improved by using kernel extreme learning machine.

  5. An Efficient Framework for EEG Analysis with Application to Hybrid Brain Computer Interfaces Based on Motor Imagery and P300

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyi Long

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid brain computer interface (BCI based on motor imagery (MI and P300 has been a preferred strategy aiming to improve the detection performance through combining the features of each. However, current methods used for combining these two modalities optimize them separately, which does not result in optimal performance. Here, we present an efficient framework to optimize them together by concatenating the features of MI and P300 in a block diagonal form. Then a linear classifier under a dual spectral norm regularizer is applied to the combined features. Under this framework, the hybrid features of MI and P300 can be learned, selected, and combined together directly. Experimental results on the data set of hybrid BCI based on MI and P300 are provided to illustrate competitive performance of the proposed method against other conventional methods. This provides an evidence that the method used here contributes to the discrimination performance of the brain state in hybrid BCI.

  6. Executive dysfunction and motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease Disfunções executivas e sintomas motores na doença de Parkinson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Silveira Campos-Sousa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze executive function and motor symptoms in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD. The sample consisted of 44 subjects with PD between the ages of 45 to 75, who were examined consecutively. The subjects were divided into two groups according to the duration of the disease. The control group was composed of spouses, family and accompanying members. Patients included were submitted to motor dysfunction evaluation using the UPDRS. The executive functions modalities analyzed included: operational memory, inhibitory control, planning, cognitive flexibility and inductive reasoning. Significant differences between the experimental and control groups were found in all the executive domains studied. Evidence of tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia correlation with executive dysfunction were not observed. Patients with PD, even in the initial phase of the disease, presented executive dysfunction. The cardinal motor signs of the disease were not correlated with the cognitive dysfunction found.O objetivo do estudo é avaliar as funções executivas e sintomas motores em pacientes portadores de doença de Parkinson. A amostra se constituiu de 44 portadores de doença de Parkinson com idade entre 45 e 75 anos, examinados consecutivamente, os quais foram divididos em dois grupos de acordo com o tempo de duração da doença. O grupo controle foi composto de acompanhantes ou cônjuges. Os sujeitos selecionados foram submetidos à avaliação motora utilizando-se a escala UPDRS e à avaliação das funções executivas nas modalidades: raciocínio indutivo, memória operacional, controle inibitório, planejamento e flexibilidade cognitiva. Os resultados apontaram diferenças significantes entre os grupos experimentais e controle nas modalidades analisadas. Não encontramos evidência de associação entre tremor, rigidez e bradicinesia com as funções executivas. Conclui-se que os pacientes com doença de Parkinson

  7. Motor Imagery signal Classification for BCI System Using Empirical Mode Décomposition and Bandpower Feature Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalila Trad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The idea that brain activity could be used as a communication channel has rapidly developed. Indeed, Electroencephalography (EEG is the most common technique to measure the brain activity on the scalp and in real-time. In this study we examine the use of EEG signals in Brain Computer Interface (BCI. This approach consists of combining the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD and band power (BP for the extraction of EEG signals in order to classify motor imagery (MI. This new feature extraction approach is intended for non-stationary and non-linear characteristics MI EEG. The EMD method is proposed to decompose the EEG signal into a set of stationary time series called Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF. These IMFs are analyzed with the bandpower (BP to detect the characteristics of sensorimotor rhythms (mu and beta when a subject imagines a left or right hand movement. Finally, the data were just reconstructed with the specific IMFs and the bandpower is applied on the new database. Once the new feature vector is rebuilt, the classification of MI is performed using two types of classifiers: generative and discriminant. The results obtained show that the EMD allows the most reliable features to be extracted from EEG and that the classification rate obtained is higher and better than using the direct BP approach only. Such a system is a promising communication channel for people suffering from severe paralysis, for instance, people with myopathic diseases or muscular dystrophy (MD in order to help them move a joystick to a desired direction corresponding to the specific motor imagery.

  8. EFFECTIVENESS OF A MOTOR CONTROL THERAPEUTIC EXERCISE PROGRAM COMBINED WITH MOTOR IMAGERY ON THE SENSORIMOTOR FUNCTION OF THE CERVICAL SPINE: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Peréz, Amanda; Fernández-García, Ángela; López-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; Gil-Martínez, Alfonso; Paris-Alemany, Alba; Fernández-Carnero, Josué; La Touche, Roy

    2015-11-01

    Motor control therapeutic exercise (MCTE) for the neck is a motor relearning program that emphasizes the coordination and contraction of specific neck flexor, extensor, and shoulder girdle muscles. Because motor imagery (MI) improves sensorimotor function and it improves several motor aspects, such as motor learning, neuromotor control, and acquisition of motor skills, the authors hypothesized that a combination of MCTE and MI would improve the sensorimotor function of the cervical spine more effectively than a MCTE program alone. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of MI combined with a MCTE program on sensorimotor function of the craniocervical region in asymptomatic subjects. This study was a single-blinded randomized controlled trial. Forty asymptomatic subjects were assigned to a MCTE group or a MCTE+MI group. Both groups received the same MCTE program for the cervical region (60 minutes), but the MCTE+MI group received an additional intervention based on MI (15 minutes). The primary outcomes assessed were craniocervical neuromotor control (activation pressure value and highest pressure value), cervical kinesthetic sense (joint position error [JPE]), and the subjective perception of fatigue after effort. Intra-group significant differences were obtained between pre- and post interventions for all evaluated variables (pfatigue after effort in the MCTE group. In the MCTE+MI group a large effect size was found for craniocervical neuromotor control (d between -0.94 and -1.41), cervical kinesthetic sense (d between 0.97 and 2.14), neck flexor muscle endurance test (d = -1.50), and subjective perception of fatigue after effort (d = 0.79). There were significant inter-group differences for the highest pressure value, joint position error (JPE) extension, JPE left rotation, and subjective perception of fatigue after effort. The combined MI and MCTE intervention produced statistically significant changes in sensorimotor function variables

  9. Pure visual imagery as a potential approach to achieve three classes of control for implementation of BCI in non-motor disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Teresa; Amaral, Carlos; Andrade, João; Pires, Gabriel; Nunes, Urbano J.; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2017-08-01

    imagery with potential for the implementation of multiclass (3) BCIs. Our results are consistent with the notion that frontal alpha synchronization is related with high internal processing demands, changing with the number of alternation levels during imagery. Together, these findings suggest the feasibility of pure visual motion imagery tasks as a strategy to achieve multiclass control systems with potential for BCI and in particular, neurofeedback applications in non-motor (attentional) disorders.

  10. Cognitive or Cognitive-Motor Executive Function Tasks? Evaluating Verbal Fluency Measures in People with Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferreira Barbosa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Executive function deficits are observed in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD from early stages and have great impact on daily living activities. Verbal fluency and oral diadochokinesia involve phonarticulatory coordination, response inhibition, and phonological processing and may also be affected in people with PD. This study aimed to describe the performance of PD patients and an age- and education-matched control group on executive function, verbal fluency, and oral diadochokinesia tests and to investigate possible relationships between them. Methods. Forty people with PD and forty controls were evaluated with Trail Making Test (TMT, executive function and phonemic/semantic verbal fluency and oral diadochokinesia (/pataka/ tests. Groups were compared by ANOVA and relationships were investigated by Pearson tests. Results. People with PD showed longer times in parts A and B of TMT. They also said fewer words in phonemic/semantic verbal fluency tests and less syllables in the diadochokinesia test. Oral diadochokinesia strongly correlated to parts A and B of TMT and to phonemic verbal fluency. Conclusion. Oral diadochokinesia was correlated to executive function and verbal fluency. The cognitive-motor interaction in verbal fluency and oral diadochokinesia must be considered not to overestimate the cognitive or motor impairments in people with PD.

  11. Cognitive or Cognitive-Motor Executive Function Tasks? Evaluating Verbal Fluency Measures in People with Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Alessandra Ferreira; Voos, Mariana Callil; Chen, Janini; Francato, Debora Cristina Valente; Souza, Carolina de Oliveira; Barbosa, Egberto Reis; Chien, Hsin Fen; Mansur, Letícia Lessa

    2017-01-01

    Executive function deficits are observed in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) from early stages and have great impact on daily living activities. Verbal fluency and oral diadochokinesia involve phonarticulatory coordination, response inhibition, and phonological processing and may also be affected in people with PD. This study aimed to describe the performance of PD patients and an age- and education-matched control group on executive function, verbal fluency, and oral diadochokinesia tests and to investigate possible relationships between them. Forty people with PD and forty controls were evaluated with Trail Making Test (TMT, executive function) and phonemic/semantic verbal fluency and oral diadochokinesia (/pataka/) tests. Groups were compared by ANOVA and relationships were investigated by Pearson tests. People with PD showed longer times in parts A and B of TMT. They also said fewer words in phonemic/semantic verbal fluency tests and less syllables in the diadochokinesia test. Oral diadochokinesia strongly correlated to parts A and B of TMT and to phonemic verbal fluency. Oral diadochokinesia was correlated to executive function and verbal fluency. The cognitive-motor interaction in verbal fluency and oral diadochokinesia must be considered not to overestimate the cognitive or motor impairments in people with PD.

  12. Structural and functional correlates of motor imagery BCI performance: Insights from the patterns of fronto-parietal attention network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Liu, Tiejun; Li, Fali; Li, Mengchen; Liu, Dongbo; Zhang, Rui; He, Hui; Li, Peiyang; Gong, Jinnan; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong; Xu, Peng

    2016-07-01

    Motor imagery (MI)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have been widely used for rehabilitation of motor abilities and prosthesis control for patients with motor impairments. However, MI-BCI performance exhibits a wide variability across subjects, and the underlying neural mechanism remains unclear. Several studies have demonstrated that both the fronto-parietal attention network (FPAN) and MI are involved in high-level cognitive processes that are crucial for the control of BCIs. Therefore, we hypothesized that the FPAN may play an important role in MI-BCI performance. In our study, we recorded multi-modal datasets consisting of MI electroencephalography (EEG) signals, T1-weighted structural and resting-state functional MRI data for each subject. MI-BCI performance was evaluated using the common spatial pattern to extract the MI features from EEG signals. One cortical structural feature (cortical thickness (CT)) and two measurements (degree centrality (DC) and eigenvector centrality (EC)) of node centrality were derived from the structural and functional MRI data, respectively. Based on the information extracted from the EEG and MRI, a correlation analysis was used to elucidate the relationships between the FPAN and MI-BCI performance. Our results show that the DC of the right ventral intraparietal sulcus, the EC and CT of the left inferior parietal lobe, and the CT of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were significantly associated with MI-BCI performance. Moreover, the receiver operating characteristic analysis and machine learning classification revealed that the EC and CT of the left IPL could effectively predict the low-aptitude BCI users from the high-aptitude BCI users with 83.3% accuracy. Those findings consistently reveal that the individuals who have efficient FPAN would perform better on MI-BCI. Our findings may deepen the understanding of individual variability in MI-BCI performance, and also may provide a new biomarker to predict individual

  13. Continuous three-dimensional control of a virtual helicopter using a motor imagery based brain-computer interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Doud

    Full Text Available Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs allow a user to interact with a computer system using thought. However, only recently have devices capable of providing sophisticated multi-dimensional control been achieved non-invasively. A major goal for non-invasive BCI systems has been to provide continuous, intuitive, and accurate control, while retaining a high level of user autonomy. By employing electroencephalography (EEG to record and decode sensorimotor rhythms (SMRs induced from motor imaginations, a consistent, user-specific control signal may be characterized. Utilizing a novel method of interactive and continuous control, we trained three normal subjects to modulate their SMRs to achieve three-dimensional movement of a virtual helicopter that is fast, accurate, and continuous. In this system, the virtual helicopter's forward-backward translation and elevation controls were actuated through the modulation of sensorimotor rhythms that were converted to forces applied to the virtual helicopter at every simulation time step, and the helicopter's angle of left or right rotation was linearly mapped, with higher resolution, from sensorimotor rhythms associated with other motor imaginations. These different resolutions of control allow for interplay between general intent actuation and fine control as is seen in the gross and fine movements of the arm and hand. Subjects controlled the helicopter with the goal of flying through rings (targets randomly positioned and oriented in a three-dimensional space. The subjects flew through rings continuously, acquiring as many as 11 consecutive rings within a five-minute period. In total, the study group successfully acquired over 85% of presented targets. These results affirm the effective, three-dimensional control of our motor imagery based BCI system, and suggest its potential applications in biological navigation, neuroprosthetics, and other applications.

  14. Feature Selection Strategy for Classification of Single-Trial EEG Elicited by Motor Imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Swati; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Prasad, Ramjee

    2011-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) provides new means of communication for people with motor disabilities by utilizing electroencephalographic activity. Selection of features from Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals for classification plays a key part in the development of BCI systems. In this paper, we...... system that uses wavelet coefficients as features and support vector machine (SVM) as classifier...

  15. Exploring virtual environments with an EEG-based BCI through motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, R; Scherer, R; Keinrath, C; Guger, C; Pfurtscheller, G

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, we describe the possibility of navigating in a virtual environment using the output signal of an EEG-based Brain-Computer Interface (BCI). The graphical capabilities of virtual reality (VR) should help to create new BCI-paradigms and improve feedback presentation. The objective of this combination is to enhance the subject's learning process of gaining control of the BCI. In this study, the participant had to imagine left or right hand movements while exploring a virtual conference room. By imaging a left hand movement the subject turned virtually to the left inside the room and with right hand imagery to the right. In fact, three trained subjects reached 80% to 100% BCI classification accuracy in the course of the experimental sessions. All subjects were able to achieve a rotation in the VR to the left or right by approximately 45 degrees during one trial.

  16. The Changes in the Hemodynamic Activity of the Brain during Motor Imagery Training with the Use of Brain-Computer Interface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frolov, A. A.; Húsek, Dušan; Silchenko, A.V.; Tintěra, J.; Rydlo, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 1 (2016), s. 1-12 ISSN 0362-1197 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0070 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) EE.2.3.20.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : brain-computer interface * motor imagery * hemodynamic activity * brain plasticity * functional MRI Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  17. A hybrid BCI based on EEG and fNIRS signals improves the performance of decoding motor imagery of both force and speed of hand clenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xuxian; Xu, Baolei; Jiang, Changhao; Fu, Yunfa; Wang, Zhidong; Li, Hongyi; Shi, Gang

    2015-06-01

    Objective. In order to increase the number of states classified by a brain-computer interface (BCI), we utilized a motor imagery task where subjects imagined both force and speed of hand clenching. Approach. The BCI utilized simultaneously recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) signals. The time-phase-frequency feature was extracted from EEG, whereas the HbD [the difference of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO) and deoxy-hemoglobin (Hb)] feature was used to improve the classification accuracy of fNIRS. The EEG and fNIRS features were combined and optimized using the joint mutual information (JMI) feature selection criterion; then the extracted features were classified with the extreme learning machines (ELMs). Main results. In this study, the averaged classification accuracy of EEG signals achieved by the time-phase-frequency feature improved by 7%, to 18%, more than the single-type feature, and improved by 15% more than common spatial pattern (CSP) feature. The HbD feature of fNIRS signals improved the accuracy by 1%, to 4%, more than Hb, HbO, or HbT (total hemoglobin). The EEG-fNIRS feature for decoding motor imagery of both force and speed of hand clenching achieved an accuracy of 89% ± 2%, and improved the accuracy by 1% to 5% more than the sole EEG or fNIRS feature. Significance. Our novel motor imagery paradigm improves BCI performance by increasing the number of extracted commands. Both the time-phase-frequency and the HbD feature improve the classification accuracy of EEG and fNIRS signals, respectively, and the hybrid EEG-fNIRS technique achieves a higher decoding accuracy for two-class motor imagery, which may provide the framework for future multi-modal online BCI systems.

  18. A Study on the Effect of Electrical Stimulation as a User Stimuli for Motor Imagery Classification in Brain-Machine Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Saugat; Clerc, Maureen; Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro

    2016-06-13

    Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) provides a neuroprosthetic interface to non-recovered muscle groups by stimulating the affected region of the human body. FES in combination with Brain-machine interfacing (BMI) has a wide scope in rehabilitation because this system directly links the cerebral motor intention of the users with its corresponding peripheral muscle activations. In this paper, we examine the effect of FES on the electroencephalography (EEG) during motor imagery (left- and right-hand movement) training of the users. Results suggest a significant improvement in the classification accuracy when the subject was induced with FES stimuli as compared to the standard visual one.

  19. Brain-Computer Interface application: auditory serial interface to control a two-class motor-imagery-based wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron-Angevin, Ricardo; Velasco-Álvarez, Francisco; Fernández-Rodríguez, Álvaro; Díaz-Estrella, Antonio; Blanca-Mena, María José; Vizcaíno-Martín, Francisco Javier

    2017-05-30

    Certain diseases affect brain areas that control the movements of the patients' body, thereby limiting their autonomy and communication capacity. Research in the field of Brain-Computer Interfaces aims to provide patients with an alternative communication channel not based on muscular activity, but on the processing of brain signals. Through these systems, subjects can control external devices such as spellers to communicate, robotic prostheses to restore limb movements, or domotic systems. The present work focus on the non-muscular control of a robotic wheelchair. A proposal to control a wheelchair through a Brain-Computer Interface based on the discrimination of only two mental tasks is presented in this study. The wheelchair displacement is performed with discrete movements. The control signals used are sensorimotor rhythms modulated through a right-hand motor imagery task or mental idle state. The peculiarity of the control system is that it is based on a serial auditory interface that provides the user with four navigation commands. The use of two mental tasks to select commands may facilitate control and reduce error rates compared to other endogenous control systems for wheelchairs. Seventeen subjects initially participated in the study; nine of them completed the three sessions of the proposed protocol. After the first calibration session, seven subjects were discarded due to a low control of their electroencephalographic signals; nine out of ten subjects controlled a virtual wheelchair during the second session; these same nine subjects achieved a medium accuracy level above 0.83 on the real wheelchair control session. The results suggest that more extensive training with the proposed control system can be an effective and safe option that will allow the displacement of a wheelchair in a controlled environment for potential users suffering from some types of motor neuron diseases.

  20. A novel Morse code-inspired method for multiclass motor imagery brain-computer interface (BCI) design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Zhou, Zongtan; Yin, Erwei; Yu, Yang; Liu, Yadong; Hu, Dewen

    2015-11-01

    Motor imagery (MI)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) allow disabled individuals to control external devices voluntarily, helping us to restore lost motor functions. However, the number of control commands available in MI-based BCIs remains limited, limiting the usability of BCI systems in control applications involving multiple degrees of freedom (DOF), such as control of a robot arm. To address this problem, we developed a novel Morse code-inspired method for MI-based BCI design to increase the number of output commands. Using this method, brain activities are modulated by sequences of MI (sMI) tasks, which are constructed by alternately imagining movements of the left or right hand or no motion. The codes of the sMI task was detected from EEG signals and mapped to special commands. According to permutation theory, an sMI task with N-length allows 2 × (2(N)-1) possible commands with the left and right MI tasks under self-paced conditions. To verify its feasibility, the new method was used to construct a six-class BCI system to control the arm of a humanoid robot. Four subjects participated in our experiment and the averaged accuracy of the six-class sMI tasks was 89.4%. The Cohen's kappa coefficient and the throughput of our BCI paradigm are 0.88 ± 0.060 and 23.5bits per minute (bpm), respectively. Furthermore, all of the subjects could operate an actual three-joint robot arm to grasp an object in around 49.1s using our approach. These promising results suggest that the Morse code-inspired method could be used in the design of BCIs for multi-DOF control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-Lasting Cortical Reorganization as the Result of Motor Imagery of Throwing a Ball in a Virtual Tennis Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebolla, Ana M; Petieau, Mathieu; Cevallos, Carlos; Leroy, Axelle; Dan, Bernard; Cheron, Guy

    2015-01-01

    In order to characterize the neural signature of a motor imagery (MI) task, the present study investigates for the first time the oscillation characteristics including both of the time-frequency measurements, event related spectral perturbation and intertrial coherence (ITC) underlying the variations in the temporal measurements (event related potentials, ERP) directly related to a MI task. We hypothesize that significant variations in both of the time-frequency measurements underlie the specific changes in the ERP directly related to MI. For the MI task, we chose a simple everyday task (throwing a tennis ball), that does not require any particular motor expertise, set within the controlled virtual reality scenario of a tennis court. When compared to the rest condition a consistent, long-lasting negative fronto-central ERP wave was accompanied by significant changes in both time frequency measurements suggesting long-lasting cortical activity reorganization. The ERP wave was characterized by two peaks at about 300 ms (N300) and 1000 ms (N1000). The N300 component was centrally localized on the scalp and was accompanied by significant phase consistency in the delta brain rhythms in the contralateral central scalp areas. The N1000 component spread wider centrally and was accompanied by a significant power decrease (or event related desynchronization) in low beta brain rhythms localized in fronto-precentral and parieto-occipital scalp areas and also by a significant power increase (or event related synchronization) in theta brain rhythms spreading fronto-centrally. During the transition from N300 to N1000, a contralateral alpha (mu) as well as post-central and parieto-theta rhythms occurred. The visual representation of movement formed in the minds of participants might underlie a top-down process from the fronto-central areas which is reflected by the amplitude changes observed in the fronto-central ERPs and by the significant phase synchrony in contralateral fronto

  2. Mental motor imagery and the body schema: evidence for proprioceptive dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenton, Jeffrey T; Schwoebel, John; Coslett, H Branch

    2004-11-03

    Previous studies have demonstrated that both visual and proprioceptive feedback influence motor control. The relative contributions of these sensory modalities to the on-line computation of body position--that is, the body schema--remain unclear. We report a study designed to explore the roles of vision and proprioception in motor planning. The task required subjects to judge if a pictured stimulus was a right or left hand; stimuli included pictures of a right or left hand in a palm up or palm down position and in six different angular rotations (0 degrees , 60 degrees , 120 degrees , 180 degrees , 240 degrees , 300 degrees ). Each subject was tested with his/her right hand palm down and palm up. There were three conditions: a "control" condition (real hand in view), a "fake hand" condition (fake hand in view, real hand out of view), and a "proprioception" condition (no fake hand, real hand out of view). We found that proprioceptive input (that is, the subject's "felt position") had a significant influence on mental rotation whereas the visually perceived posture of the hand did not. We suggest that, at least under some circumstances, proprioceptive inflow may represent the dominant sensory input to the on-line representation of the body in space.

  3. A clinical evaluation on the spatial patterns of non-invasive motor imagery-based brain-computer interface in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Kai Keng; Guan, Cuntai; Chua, Karen Sui Geok; Ang, Beng Ti; Kuah, Christopher; Wang, Chuanchu; Phua, Kok Soon; Chin, Zheng Yang; Zhang, Haihong

    2008-01-01

    This clinical study investigates whether the spatial patterns of hemiparetic stroke patients operating a non-invasive Motor Imagery-based Brain Computer Interface (MI-BCI) is comparable to healthy subjects. The spatial patterns for a specific frequency range are generated using the common spatial pattern (CSP) algorithm, of which is highly successful for discriminating two classes of EEG measurements in MI-BCI. The spatial patterns illustrate how the presumed sources project on the scalp and are effective in verifying the neurophysiological plausibility of the computed solution. The spatial patterns show focused activity in ipsilateral as well as contralateral hemisphere with respect to the hand by tapping or motor imagery in 2 BCI-artful healthy subjects and 12 BCI-naïve hemiparetic stroke patients. The results also show that neurophysiologically interpretable spatial patterns is more common in performing motor imagery compared to finger tapping by hemiparetic stroke patients. Hence, this shows that hemiparetic stroke patients are capable of operating MI-BCI.

  4. Enhancing performance of a motor imagery based brain-computer interface by incorporating electrical stimulation-induced SSSEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Weibo; Qiu, Shuang; Wang, Kun; Qi, Hongzhi; Zhao, Xin; He, Feng; Zhou, Peng; Yang, Jiajia; Ming, Dong

    2017-04-01

    Objective. We proposed a novel simultaneous hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI) by incorporating electrical stimulation into a motor imagery (MI) based BCI system. The goal of this study was to enhance the overall performance of an MI-based BCI. In addition, the brain oscillatory pattern in the hybrid task was also investigated. Approach. 64-channel electroencephalographic (EEG) data were recorded during MI, selective attention (SA) and hybrid tasks in fourteen healthy subjects. In the hybrid task, subjects performed MI with electrical stimulation which was applied to bilateral median nerve on wrists simultaneously. Main results. The hybrid task clearly presented additional steady-state somatosensory evoked potential (SSSEP) induced by electrical stimulation with MI-induced event-related desynchronization (ERD). By combining ERD and SSSEP features, the performance in the hybrid task was significantly better than in both MI and SA tasks, achieving a ~14% improvement in total relative to the MI task alone and reaching ~89% in mean classification accuracy. On the contrary, there was no significant enhancement obtained in performance while separate ERD feature was utilized in the hybrid task. In terms of the hybrid task, the performance using combined feature was significantly better than using separate ERD or SSSEP feature. Significance. The results in this work validate the feasibility of our proposed approach to form a novel MI-SSSEP hybrid BCI outperforming a conventional MI-based BCI through combing MI with electrical stimulation.

  5. Improvement of grasping after motor imagery in C6-C7 tetraplegia: A kinematic and MEG pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Sébastien; Di Rienzo, Franck; Reilly, Karen T; Revol, Patrice; Delpuech, Claude; Daligault, Sébastien; Guillot, Aymeric; Jacquin-Courtois, Sophie; Luauté, Jacques; Rossetti, Yves; Collet, Christian; Rode, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Grasp recovery after C6-C7-spinal cord injury (SCI) requires learning "tenodesis grasp" whereby active wrist extension elicits passive thumb-to-forefinger and finger-to-palm flexion. Evidence that motor imagery (MI) promotes upper limb function after tetraplegia is growing, but whether MI potentiates grasp recovery in C6-C7-SCI individuals who have successfully learned the "tenodesis grasp" remains unknown. Six chronic stable C6-C7-SCI inpatients and six healthy control participants were included. C6-C7-SCI participants imagined grasping movements and controls visualized geometric forms for 45 minutes, three times a week for five weeks. Three separate measures taken over a five week period before the intervention formed the baseline. Intervention effects were assessed immediately after the intervention and eight weeks later. Each testing session consisted of kinematic recordings during reach-to-grasp and magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings during wrist extension. During baseline, kinematic wrist extension angle during "tenodesis grasp" and MEG contralateral sensorimotor cortex (cSMC) activity during wrist extension were stable. Moreover, SCI participants exhibited a greater number of voxels within cSMC than controls. After MI sessions, wrist extension angle increased during "tenodesis grasp" and the number of voxels within cSMC during wrist extension decreased and became similar to controls. These findings provide further support for the use of MI to reinforce a compensatory grasping movement (tenodesis) and induce brain plasticity.

  6. Long-term adaptation to neck/shoulder pain and perceptual performance in a hand laterality motor imagery test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Hans O; Röijezon, Ulric; Björklund, Martin; Djupsjöbacka, Mats

    2010-01-01

    The effect of neck/shoulder pain on the performance in a hand laterality motor imagery test was studied. Responses to the Cooper and Shepard (1975, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 104 48-56) hand laterality test were explored in twenty-four individuals with chronic non-specific neck pain and twenty-one subjects with chronic neck pain of traumatic origin (whiplash-associated disorder). Twenty-two controls were also included in the study. Digitalised right- or left-hand stimuli were presented at five different stimulus angles (0 degrees, 45 degrees laterally, 90 degrees laterally, 135 degrees laterally, and 180 degrees). The experimental task was to decide the laterality as fast and accurately as possible. The performance, both reaction time (RT) and accuracy, of the two experimental groups was contrasted with that of the control group. The main results revealed that the subjects afflicted with whiplash injury on the average exhibited a faster response pattern than symptom-free healthy controls. Despite their musculoskeletal deficits and experience of pain these volunteers also exhibited a preserved speed-accuracy tradeoff. Longer duration of time with symptoms of neck pain was, moreover, associated with progressively faster RTs. These results point to perceptual learning and may reflect different stages of adaptation to neck pain.

  7. Effects of Motor Imagery on Cognitive Function and Prefrontal Cortex Activity in Normal Adults Evaluated by NIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, M; Sakatani, K

    2017-01-01

    Recent near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) studies demonstrated that physical exercise enhances working memory (WM) performance and prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity during WM tasks in normal adults. Interestingly, the effects of rehabilitation (i.e. physiotherapy) on post-stroke patients could be enhanced by motor imagery (MI), an active process during which the specified action is reproduced within WM without any actual physical movement. However, it is not known whether MI can enhance cognitive function and associated brain activity. To clarify these issues, we evaluated the effect of MI on WM performance and PFC activity during WM tasks in normal adults, employing NIRS. We studied 10 healthy adults. The present study was a crossover comparison test; the MI training and control condition (rest) were applied to the subjects at random. The Time Up and Go method was used for MI training: the subject sat on a chair and conducted MI for 3 min, three times. Neuronal activity (oxyhemoglobin concentration) in the bilateral PFC was measured using 2-CH NIRS during WM tasks. We found that MI improved the behavioral performance of WM compared with the control (p activity induced by the WM task compared with the control task (p increase associated PFC activity in normal adults.

  8. Motor imagery based brain-computer interface: a study of the effect of positive and negative feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Franco, Mar; Yuan, Peng; Zhang, Dan; Hong, Bo; Gao, Shangkai

    2011-01-01

    Co-adaptation between the human brain and computers is an important issue in brain-computer interface (BCI) research. However, most of the research has focused on the computer side of BCI, such as developing powerful machine-learning algorithms, while less research has focused on investigating how BCI users may optimally adapt. This paper assesses the influences of positive and negative visual feedback on motor imagery (MI) skills by evaluating the performance. More precisely, a MI based BCI paradigm was employed with fake visual feedback, regardless of subjects' real performance. Subjects were exposed to two experimental conditions--one positive and one negative, in which 80% or 30% of the trials were associated with positive feedback, respectively. The main EEG feature for MI-BCI classification--the asymmetry of mu-rhythm between hemispheres--was more prominent only after the negative feedback session. In addition, the negative feedback condition was accompanied by larger heart rate variability compared to the positive feedback condition. Our results suggest that visual feedback is an important aspect to take into account when designing BCI skill acquisition sessions.

  9. A classification method of different motor imagery tasks based on fractal features for brain-machine interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phothisonothai, Montri; Nakagawa, Masahiro

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study is to classify spontaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) signal on the basis of fractal concepts. Four motor imagery tasks (left hand movement, right hand movement, feet movement, and tongue movement) were investigated for each EEG recording session. Ten subjects volunteered to participate in this study. As we known, fractal geometry is a mathematical tool for dealing with complex systems like EEG signal. Therefore, we used the fractal dimension (FD) as feature for the application of brain-machine interface (BMI). Effective algorithm, namely, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) has been selected to estimate embedded FD values between relaxing and imaging states of the recorded EEG signal. To show the pattern of FDs, we propose a windowing-based method or also called time-dependent fractal dimension (TDFD) and the Kullback-Leibler (K-L) divergence. The K-L divergence and different expected values are employed as the input parameters of classifier. Finally, featured data are classified by a three-layer feed-forward neural network based on a simple backpropagation algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed method is more effective than the conventional methods.

  10. Strength gains by motor imagery with different ratios of physical to mental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Mathias; Büsch, Dirk; Munzert, Jörn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this training study was to determine the magnitude of strength gains following a high-intensity resistance training (i.e., improvement of neuromuscular coordination) that can be achieved by imagery of the respective muscle contraction imagined maximal isometric contraction (IMC training). Prior to the experimental intervention, subjects completed a 4-week standardized strength training program. 3 groups with different combinations of real maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and mental (IMC) strength training (M75, M50, M25; numbers indicate percentages of mental trials) were compared to a MVC-only training group (M0) and a control condition without strength training (CO). Training sessions (altogether 12) consisted of four sets of two maximal 5-s isometric contractions with 10 s rest between sets of either MVC or IMC training. Task-specific effects of IMC training were tested in four strength exercises commonly used in practical settings (bench pressing, leg pressing, triceps extension, and calf raising). Maximum isometric voluntary contraction force (MVC) was measured before and after the experimental training intervention and again 1 week after cessation of the program. IMC groups (M25, M50, M75) showed slightly smaller increases in MVC (3.0% to 4.2%) than M0 (5.1%), but significantly stronger improvements than CO (-0.2%). Compared to further strength gains in M0 after 1 week (9.4% altogether), IMC groups showed no "delayed" improvement, but the attained training effects remained stable. It is concluded that high-intensity strength training sessions can be partly replaced by IMC training sessions without any considerable reduction of strength gains.

  11. Strength Gains by Motor Imagery with Different Ratios of Physical to Mental Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias eReiser

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this training study was to determine the magnitude of strength gains following a high-intensity resistance training (i.e., improvement of neuromuscular coordination that can be achieved by imagery of the respective muscle contraction (IMC training. Prior to the experimental intervention, subjects completed a 4-week standardized strength training program. 3 groups with different combinations of real (MVC and mental (IMC strength training (M75, M50, M25; numbers indicate percentages of mental trials were compared to a MVC-only training group (M0 and a control condition without strength training (CO. Training sessions (altogether 12 consisted of four sets of two maximal 5-s isometric contractions with 10 s rest between sets of either MVC or IMC training. Task-specific effects of IMC training were tested in four strength exercises commonly used in practical settings (bench pressing, leg pressing, triceps extension, and calf raising. Maximum isometric voluntary contraction force (MVC was measured before and after the experimental training intervention and again 1 week after cessation of the program. IMC groups (M25, M50, M75 showed slightly smaller increases in MVC (3.0% to 4.2% than M0 (5.1%, but significantly stronger improvements than CO (-0.2%. Compared to further strength gains in M0 after 1 week (9.4% altogether, IMC groups showed no "delayed" improvement, but the attained training effects remained stable. It is concluded that high-intensity strength training sessions can be partly replaced by IMC training sessions without any considerable reduction of strength gains.

  12. Neural correlates of learning in an electrocorticographic motor-imagery brain-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Tim M.; Miller, Kai J.; Rao, Rajesh P. N.; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.

    2014-01-01

    Human subjects can learn to control a one-dimensional electrocorticographic (ECoG) brain-computer interface (BCI) using modulation of primary motor (M1) high-gamma activity (signal power in the 75–200 Hz range). However, the stability and dynamics of the signals over the course of new BCI skill acquisition have not been investigated. In this study, we report 3 characteristic periods in evolution of the high-gamma control signal during BCI training: initial, low task accuracy with corresponding low power modulation in the gamma spectrum, followed by a second period of improved task accuracy with increasing average power separation between activity and rest, and a final period of high task accuracy with stable (or decreasing) power separation and decreasing trial-to-trial variance. These findings may have implications in the design and implementation of BCI control algorithms. PMID:25599079

  13. Single-trial classification of motor imagery differing in task complexity: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Martin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For brain computer interfaces (BCIs, which may be valuable in neurorehabilitation, brain signals derived from mental activation can be monitored by non-invasive methods, such as functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS. Single-trial classification is important for this purpose and this was the aim of the presented study. In particular, we aimed to investigate a combined approach: 1 offline single-trial classification of brain signals derived from a novel wireless fNIRS instrument; 2 to use motor imagery (MI as mental task thereby discriminating between MI signals in response to different tasks complexities, i.e. simple and complex MI tasks. Methods 12 subjects were asked to imagine either a simple finger-tapping task using their right thumb or a complex sequential finger-tapping task using all fingers of their right hand. fNIRS was recorded over secondary motor areas of the contralateral hemisphere. Using Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (FLDA and cross validation, we selected for each subject a best-performing feature combination consisting of 1 one out of three channel, 2 an analysis time interval ranging from 5-15 s after stimulation onset and 3 up to four Δ[O2Hb] signal features (Δ[O2Hb] mean signal amplitudes, variance, skewness and kurtosis. Results The results of our single-trial classification showed that using the simple combination set of channels, time intervals and up to four Δ[O2Hb] signal features comprising Δ[O2Hb] mean signal amplitudes, variance, skewness and kurtosis, it was possible to discriminate single-trials of MI tasks differing in complexity, i.e. simple versus complex tasks (inter-task paired t-test p ≤ 0.001, over secondary motor areas with an average classification accuracy of 81%. Conclusions Although the classification accuracies look promising they are nevertheless subject of considerable subject-to-subject variability. In the discussion we address each of these aspects, their

  14. Post-stroke Rehabilitation Training with a Motor-Imagery-Based Brain-Computer Interface (BCI)-Controlled Hand Exoskeleton: A Randomized Controlled Multicenter Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, Alexander A; Mokienko, Olesya; Lyukmanov, Roman; Biryukova, Elena; Kotov, Sergey; Turbina, Lydia; Nadareyshvily, Georgy; Bushkova, Yulia

    2017-01-01

    Repeated use of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) providing contingent sensory feedback of brain activity was recently proposed as a rehabilitation approach to restore motor function after stroke or spinal cord lesions. However, there are only a few clinical studies that investigate feasibility and effectiveness of such an approach. Here we report on a placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial that investigated whether stroke survivors with severe upper limb (UL) paralysis benefit from 10 BCI training sessions each lasting up to 40 min. A total of 74 patients participated: median time since stroke is 8 months, 25 and 75% quartiles [3.0; 13.0]; median severity of UL paralysis is 4.5 points [0.0; 30.0] as measured by the Action Research Arm Test, ARAT, and 19.5 points [11.0; 40.0] as measured by the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment, FMMA. Patients in the BCI group ( n = 55) performed motor imagery of opening their affected hand. Motor imagery-related brain electroencephalographic activity was translated into contingent hand exoskeleton-driven opening movements of the affected hand. In a control group ( n = 19), hand exoskeleton-driven opening movements of the affected hand were independent of brain electroencephalographic activity. Evaluation of the UL clinical assessments indicated that both groups improved, but only the BCI group showed an improvement in the ARAT's grasp score from 0 [0.0; 14.0] to 3.0 [0.0; 15.0] points ( p exoskeleton-assisted physical therapy can improve post-stroke rehabilitation outcomes. Both maximum and mean values of the percentage of successfully decoded imagery-related EEG activity, were higher than chance level. A correlation between the classification accuracy and the improvement in the upper extremity function was found. An improvement of motor function was found for patients with different duration, severity and location of the stroke.

  15. United States industrial electric motor systems market opportunities assessment: Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1998-12-01

    The Market Assessment is designed to be of value to manufacturers, distributors, engineers, and others in the supply channels for motor systems. It provides a detailed and highly differentiated portrait of their end-use markets.

  16. Relevant Feature Integration and Extraction for Single-Trial Motor Imagery Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain computer interfaces provide a novel channel for the communication between brain and output devices. The effectiveness of the brain computer interface is based on the classification accuracy of single trial brain signals. The common spatial pattern (CSP algorithm is believed to be an effective algorithm for the classification of single trial brain signals. As the amplitude feature for spatial projection applied by this algorithm is based on a broad frequency bandpass filter (mainly 5–30 Hz in which the frequency band is often selected by experience, the CSP is sensitive to noise and the influence of other irrelevant information in the selected broad frequency band. In this paper, to improve the CSP, a novel relevant feature integration and extraction algorithm is proposed. Before projecting, we integrated the motor relevant information to suppress the interference of noise and irrelevant information, as well as to improve the spatial difference for projection. The algorithm was evaluated with public datasets. It showed significantly better classification performance with single trial electroencephalography (EEG data, increasing by 6.8% compared with the CSP.

  17. A Motor Imagery During Blind Action is Guided by the Same Foci of Attention as Actual Performance in a Sample Comprising Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassem Khalaf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is strong evidence that focussing on the goal of an action improves performance relative to focussing on the concrete motor behaviours. The current study tests whether blind action guided by imagery relies on the same foci of attention. Thirty female participants took part in an experiment. In each condition there were 20 trials, they were asked to close their eyes and draw a straight line between two landmarks on a graphics tablet. We instructed them, in three conditions, to focus on (1 mental imagery of the goal landmark (external focus of attention, (2 drawing a straight line with the fingers (internal focus, or (3 without a specific focus of attention (control. We tested to what extent these attention instructions affected drawing performance, in terms of both deviations of the participants’ lines from an ideal straight line, and the time it took to complete the line. The study revealed that the manipulation specifically affected the deviation measure and that an external focus of attention was better than an internal focus and the control condition. These findings reveal that that mental imagery during blind action relies on same processes as actual performance. These data give perceptual representations of a direct role in motor control. They will be related to current theories of action control (constrained action hypothesis, ideomotor theories, and dual task accounts.

  18. Reduced motor imagery efficiency is associated with online control difficulties in children with probable developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuelscher, Ian; Williams, Jacqueline; Enticott, Peter G; Hyde, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the ability to correct reaching movements in response to unexpected target changes (i.e., online control) is reduced in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Recent computational modeling of human reaching suggests that these inefficiencies may result from difficulties generating and/or monitoring internal representations of movement. This study was the first to test this putative relationship empirically. We did so by investigating the degree to which the capacity to correct reaching mid-flight could be predicted by motor imagery (MI) proficiency in a sample of children with probable DCD (pDCD). Thirty-four children aged 8 to 12 years (17 children with pDCD and 17 age-matched controls) completed the hand rotation task, a well-validated measure of MI, and a double-step reaching task (DSRT), a protocol commonly adopted to infer one's capacity for correcting reaching online. As per previous research, children with pDCD demonstrated inefficiencies in their ability to generate internal action representations and correct their reaching online, demonstrated by inefficient hand rotation performance and slower correction to the reach trajectory following unexpected target perturbation during the DSRT compared to age-matched controls. Critically, hierarchical moderating regression demonstrated that even after general reaching ability was controlled for, MI efficiency was a significant predictor of reaching correction efficiency, a relationship that was constant across groups. Ours is the first study to provide direct pilot evidence in support of the view that a decreased capacity for online control of reaching typical of DCD may be associated with inefficiencies generating and/or using internal representations of action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Learning a keying sequence you never executed: Evidence for independent associative and motor chunk learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, Willem B.; Wright, David L.

    2014-01-01

    A substantial amount of research has addressed how people learn and control movement sequences. Recent results suggested that practice with discrete key pressing sequences results in two types of sequence learning: associative learning and motor chunk development (Verwey & Abrahamse, 2012). In the

  20. Grasping Motor Impairments in Autism: Not Action Planning but Movement Execution Is Deficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoit, Astrid M. B.; van Schie, Hein T.; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine I. E.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2013-01-01

    Different views on the origin of deficits in action chaining in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been posited, ranging from functional impairments in action planning to internal models supporting motor control. Thirty-one children and adolescents with ASD and twenty-nine matched controls participated in a two-choice reach-to-grasp paradigm…

  1. Motor Imagery Experiences and Use: Asking Patients after Stroke Where, When, What, Why, and How They Use Imagery: A Qualitative Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Schuster

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A framework on where, when, what, why, and how to use imagery from sports psychology was explored whether it can be applied in patients after stroke in their chronic stage. Methods. Eleven patients (ages 31–85, 3 females, 1.3–6.4 years after stroke were interviewed. Semistructured interviews were conducted before and after a two-week MI intervention period with six MI sessions. Information was obtained regarding experiences and knowledge of MI, and the evaluation of an MI practical example. The coding scheme was based on the framework and a hierarchical categorisation. Results. Information regarding domains where, when, what, why, and how to use imagery was addressed. Patients imagined themselves as healthy individuals, did not focus on surroundings during MI practice,and reported to use positive imagery only. After MI training, patients became more flexible regarding their location and position during MI practice. Conclusions. MI became an automatic process, and patients did not need specific concentration and quietness as mentioned in the first interview. Patients recommended daily MI training and began to transfer MI to practice movements that were affected by the stroke. In contrast to sports, patients did not talk about how MI was triggered rather than how MI was designed.

  2. Regional MRI Perfusion Measures Predict Motor/Executive Function in Patients with Clinically Isolated Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrosini Z. Papadaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS demonstrate brain hemodynamic changes and also suffer from difficulties in processing speed, memory, and executive functions. Objective. To explore whether brain hemodynamic disturbances in CIS patients correlate with executive functions. Methods. Thirty CIS patients and forty-three healthy subjects, matched for age, gender, education level, and FSIQ, were administered tests of visuomotor learning and set shifting ability. Cerebral blood volume (CBV, cerebral blood flow (CBF, and mean transit time (MTT values were estimated in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM and normal-appearing deep gray Matter (NADGM structures, using a perfusion MRI technique. Results. CIS patients showed significantly elevated reaction time (RT on both tasks, while their CBV and MTT values were globally increased, probably due to inflammatory vasodilation. Significantly, positive correlation coefficients were found between error rates on the inhibition condition of the visuomotor learning task and CBV values in occipital, periventricular NAWM and both thalami. On the set shifting condition of the respective task significant, positive associations were found between error rates and CBV values in the semioval center and periventricular NAWM bilaterally. Conclusion. Impaired executive function in CIS patients correlated positively with elevated regional CBV values thought to reflect inflammatory processes.

  3. Classification of functional near-infrared spectroscopy signals corresponding to the right- and left-wrist motor imagery for development of a brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseer, Noman; Hong, Keum-Shik

    2013-10-11

    This paper presents a study on functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) indicating that the hemodynamic responses of the right- and left-wrist motor imageries have distinct patterns that can be classified using a linear classifier for the purpose of developing a brain-computer interface (BCI). Ten healthy participants were instructed to imagine kinesthetically the right- or left-wrist flexion indicated on a computer screen. Signals from the right and left primary motor cortices were acquired simultaneously using a multi-channel continuous-wave fNIRS system. Using two distinct features (the mean and the slope of change in the oxygenated hemoglobin concentration), the linear discriminant analysis classifier was used to classify the right- and left-wrist motor imageries resulting in average classification accuracies of 73.35% and 83.0%, respectively, during the 10s task period. Moreover, when the analysis time was confined to the 2-7s span within the overall 10s task period, the average classification accuracies were improved to 77.56% and 87.28%, respectively. These results demonstrate the feasibility of an fNIRS-based BCI and the enhanced performance of the classifier by removing the initial 2s span and/or the time span after the peak value. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Watch me if you can: imagery ability moderates observational learning effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, Gavin; Callow, Nichola; Roberts, Ross

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has revealed similarities in brain activity during observational learning and motor execution. However, whilst action develops visual, motor and afferent representations during acquisition, action-observation has been proposed to only develop visual-spatial learning via visual representation. In addition, it has been suggested that the vividness of visual representations are determined by imagery ability. Thus, the purpose of the current investigation was to explore the possib...

  5. Detection of motor imagery of swallow EEG signals based on the dual-tree complex wavelet transform and adaptive model selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huijuan; Guan, Cuntai; Sui Geok Chua, Karen; San Chok, See; Wang, Chuan Chu; Kok Soon, Phua; Tang, Christina Ka Yin; Keng Ang, Kai

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Detection of motor imagery of hand/arm has been extensively studied for stroke rehabilitation. This paper firstly investigates the detection of motor imagery of swallow (MI-SW) and motor imagery of tongue protrusion (MI-Ton) in an attempt to find a novel solution for post-stroke dysphagia rehabilitation. Detection of MI-SW from a simple yet relevant modality such as MI-Ton is then investigated, motivated by the similarity in activation patterns between tongue movements and swallowing and there being fewer movement artifacts in performing tongue movements compared to swallowing. Approach. Novel features were extracted based on the coefficients of the dual-tree complex wavelet transform to build multiple training models for detecting MI-SW. The session-to-session classification accuracy was boosted by adaptively selecting the training model to maximize the ratio of between-classes distances versus within-class distances, using features of training and evaluation data. Main results. Our proposed method yielded averaged cross-validation (CV) classification accuracies of 70.89% and 73.79% for MI-SW and MI-Ton for ten healthy subjects, which are significantly better than the results from existing methods. In addition, averaged CV accuracies of 66.40% and 70.24% for MI-SW and MI-Ton were obtained for one stroke patient, demonstrating the detectability of MI-SW and MI-Ton from the idle state. Furthermore, averaged session-to-session classification accuracies of 72.08% and 70% were achieved for ten healthy subjects and one stroke patient using the MI-Ton model. Significance. These results and the subjectwise strong correlations in classification accuracies between MI-SW and MI-Ton demonstrated the feasibility of detecting MI-SW from MI-Ton models.

  6. Patients' views on a combined action observation and motor imagery intervention for Parkinson's disease.(Research Article)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crawford, Trevor J; Gowen, Emma; Bek, Judith; Poliakoff, Ellen; Vogt, Stefan; Sullivan, Matthew S; Webb, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    ...), methods have been based on stroke rehabilitation and may be less suitable for PD. Moreover, previous studies have focused on either observation or imagery, yet combining these enhances effects in healthy participants...

  7. Post-stroke Rehabilitation Training with a Motor-Imagery-Based Brain-Computer Interface (BCI-Controlled Hand Exoskeleton: A Randomized Controlled Multicenter Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Frolov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Repeated use of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs providing contingent sensory feedback of brain activity was recently proposed as a rehabilitation approach to restore motor function after stroke or spinal cord lesions. However, there are only a few clinical studies that investigate feasibility and effectiveness of such an approach. Here we report on a placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial that investigated whether stroke survivors with severe upper limb (UL paralysis benefit from 10 BCI training sessions each lasting up to 40 min. A total of 74 patients participated: median time since stroke is 8 months, 25 and 75% quartiles [3.0; 13.0]; median severity of UL paralysis is 4.5 points [0.0; 30.0] as measured by the Action Research Arm Test, ARAT, and 19.5 points [11.0; 40.0] as measured by the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment, FMMA. Patients in the BCI group (n = 55 performed motor imagery of opening their affected hand. Motor imagery-related brain electroencephalographic activity was translated into contingent hand exoskeleton-driven opening movements of the affected hand. In a control group (n = 19, hand exoskeleton-driven opening movements of the affected hand were independent of brain electroencephalographic activity. Evaluation of the UL clinical assessments indicated that both groups improved, but only the BCI group showed an improvement in the ARAT's grasp score from 0 [0.0; 14.0] to 3.0 [0.0; 15.0] points (p < 0.01 and pinch scores from 0.0 [0.0; 7.0] to 1.0 [0.0; 12.0] points (p < 0.01. Upon training completion, 21.8% and 36.4% of the patients in the BCI group improved their ARAT and FMMA scores respectively. The corresponding numbers for the control group were 5.1% (ARAT and 15.8% (FMMA. These results suggests that adding BCI control to exoskeleton-assisted physical therapy can improve post-stroke rehabilitation outcomes. Both maximum and mean values of the percentage of successfully decoded imagery-related EEG activity, were higher

  8. Optimization of Alpha-Beta Log-Det Divergences and their Application in the Spatial Filtering of Two Class Motor Imagery Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Beeta Thiyam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Alpha-Beta Log-Det divergences for positive definite matrices are flexible divergences that are parameterized by two real constants and are able to specialize several relevant classical cases like the squared Riemannian metric, the Steins loss, the S-divergence, etc. A novel classification criterion based on these divergences is optimized to address the problem of classification of the motor imagery movements. This research paper is divided into three main sections in order to address the above mentioned problem: (1 Firstly, it is proven that a suitable scaling of the class conditional covariance matrices can be used to link the Common Spatial Pattern (CSP solution with a predefined number of spatial filters for each class and its representation as a divergence optimization problem by making their different filter selection policies compatible; (2 A closed form formula for the gradient of the Alpha-Beta Log-Det divergences is derived that allows to perform optimization as well as easily use it in many practical applications; (3 Finally, in similarity with the work of Samek et al. 2014, which proposed the robust spatial filtering of the motor imagery movements based on the beta-divergence, the optimization of the Alpha-Beta Log-Det divergences is applied to this problem. The resulting subspace algorithm provides a unified framework for testing the performance and robustness of the several divergences in different scenarios.

  9. EEG changes during sequences of visual and kinesthetic motor imagery Alterações no EEG durante sequencias de imagética motora visual e cinestésica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Stecklow

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The evoked cerebral electric response when sequences of complex motor imagery (MI task are executed several times is still unclear. This work aims at investigating the existence of habituation in the cortical response, more specifically in the alpha band peak of parietal and occipital areas (10-20 international system electroencephalogram, EEG, protocol. The EEG signals were acquired during sequences of MI of volleyball spike movement in kinesthetic and visual modalities and also at control condition. Thirty right-handed male subjects (18 to 40 years were assigned to either an 'athlete' or a 'non-athlete' group, both containing 15 volunteers. Paired Wilcoxon tests (with α=0.05 indicates that sequential MI of complex tasks promotes cortical changes, mainly in the power vicinity of the alpha peak. This finding is more pronounced along the initial trials and also for the athletes during the modality of kinesthetic motor imagery.A resposta elétrica cerebral evocada quando sequencias de imagética motora (MI de tarefas complexas são executadas seguidamente no tempo permanecem desconhecidas. Este trabalho objetivou investigar a existência de habituação da resposta cortical, mais especificamente na banda do pico de alfa de áreas parietais e occipitais (sistema internacional 10-20, eletroencefalograma, protocolo de EEG. Os sinais de EEG foram adquiridos durante sequências de MI do movimento de ataque do voleibol nas modalidades cinestésica e visual, e também em condição de controle. Trinta voluntários adultos (entre 18 e 40 anos, destros, do gênero masculino foram agrupados como 'atletas' ou 'não-atletas', sendo cada grupo composto de 15 voluntários. Testes pareados de Wilcoxon (com α=0.05 indicaram que a MI sequencial de tarefas complexas promoveram alterações nas respostas corticais, mais especificamente na região ao redor do pico de alfa. Este achado foi mais pronunciado ao longo dos trechos iniciais e também nos atletas durante

  10. Impaired motor preparation and execution during standing reach in people with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCombe Waller, Sandy; Yang, Chieh-Ling; Magder, Laurence; Yungher, Don; Creath, Rob; Gray, Vicki; Rogers, Mark W

    2016-09-06

    Movement preparation of both anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) and goal directed movement during a standing reaching task in adults with chronic hemiparesis and healthy controls was investigated. Using a simple reaction time paradigm, while standing on two separate force platforms, subjects received a warning light cue to "get ready to reach" followed 2.5s later by an imperative light cue to "reach as quickly as possible" with the paretic arm (matched arm for controls) to touch a target in front of them for a total of 90 trials. In 30 of the reaching trials a loud acoustic stimulus (LAS) of 123 dB was randomly - -200, or 0ms relative to the "go" cue. APA (postural) responses were characterized by the onset and maximal posterior displacement of center of pressure (CoP) and onset/offset of electromyography (EMG) from tibialis anterior (TA), soleus (SOL), while reach was characterized by onset and maximal forward displacement of the reach hand and onset of the anterior (AD), biceps brachii (BB) and middle deltoid (MD). Subjects with stroke, demonstrated a marked reduction in the occurrence of the StartReact responses for both APA and forward reach at all LAS time points indicating movement preparation dysfunction. Movement execution during a cued reach showed significant delays in APA and reach onsets, significant reduction in the magnitude of APA (posterior CoP displacement) and reach excursion, and an increased latency between the APA and reach compared to controls. EMG activation patterns for the TA and SOL demonstrated co contraction compared to the temporally sequenced pattern of control subjects. When LAS was provided at the "go" there were earlier but not significant differences in APA onset latency compared to reaching without LAS and significant delays in reach onset latency when compared to control subjects with or without LAS. An early burst of EMG in biceps brachii muscles with a further delay of the reach onset compared to reaching without LAS may

  11. Decoding human motor activity from EEG single trials for a discrete two-dimensional cursor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dandan; Lin, Peter; Fei, Ding-Yu; Chen, Xuedong; Bai, Ou

    2009-08-01

    This study aims to explore whether human intentions to move or cease to move right and left hands can be decoded from spatiotemporal features in non-invasive EEG in order to control a discrete two-dimensional cursor movement for a potential multidimensional brain-computer interface (BCI). Five naïve subjects performed either sustaining or stopping a motor task with time locking to a predefined time window by using motor execution with physical movement or motor imagery. Spatial filtering, temporal filtering, feature selection and classification methods were explored. The performance of the proposed BCI was evaluated by both offline classification and online two-dimensional cursor control. Event-related desynchronization (ERD) and post-movement event-related synchronization (ERS) were observed on the contralateral hemisphere to the hand moved for both motor execution and motor imagery. Feature analysis showed that EEG beta band activity in the contralateral hemisphere over the motor cortex provided the best detection of either sustained or ceased movement of the right or left hand. The offline classification of four motor tasks (sustain or cease to move right or left hand) provided 10-fold cross-validation accuracy as high as 88% for motor execution and 73% for motor imagery. The subjects participating in experiments with physical movement were able to complete the online game with motor execution at an average accuracy of 85.5 ± 4.65%; the subjects participating in motor imagery study also completed the game successfully. The proposed BCI provides a new practical multidimensional method by noninvasive EEG signal associated with human natural behavior, which does not need long-term training.

  12. Decoding human motor activity from EEG single trials for a discrete two-dimensional cursor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dandan; Lin, Peter; Fei, Ding-Yu; Chen, Xuedong; Bai, Ou

    2009-08-01

    This study aims to explore whether human intentions to move or cease to move right and left hands can be decoded from spatiotemporal features in non-invasive EEG in order to control a discrete two-dimensional cursor movement for a potential multidimensional brain-computer interface (BCI). Five naïve subjects performed either sustaining or stopping a motor task with time locking to a predefined time window by using motor execution with physical movement or motor imagery. Spatial filtering, temporal filtering, feature selection and classification methods were explored. The performance of the proposed BCI was evaluated by both offline classification and online two-dimensional cursor control. Event-related desynchronization (ERD) and post-movement event-related synchronization (ERS) were observed on the contralateral hemisphere to the hand moved for both motor execution and motor imagery. Feature analysis showed that EEG beta band activity in the contralateral hemisphere over the motor cortex provided the best detection of either sustained or ceased movement of the right or left hand. The offline classification of four motor tasks (sustain or cease to move right or left hand) provided 10-fold cross-validation accuracy as high as 88% for motor execution and 73% for motor imagery. The subjects participating in experiments with physical movement were able to complete the online game with motor execution at an average accuracy of 85.5 +/- 4.65%; the subjects participating in motor imagery study also completed the game successfully. The proposed BCI provides a new practical multidimensional method by noninvasive EEG signal associated with human natural behavior, which does not need long-term training.

  13. Simultaneous NIRS and kinematics study of planning and execution of motor skill task: towards cerebral palsy rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Ujwal; Thompson, Bryant; Gonzalez, Jean; Jung, Young-Jin; Davis, Jennifer; Gonzalez, Patricia; Rice, Kyle; Bloyer, Martha; Elbaum, Leonard; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2013-03-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a term that describes a group of motor impairment syndromes secondary to genetic and/or acquired disorders of the developing brain. In the current study, NIRS and motion capture were used simultaneously to correlate the brain's planning and execution activity during and with arm movement in healthy individual. The prefrontal region of the brain is non-invasively imaged using a custom built continuous-wave based near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system. The kinematics of the arm movement during the studies is recorded using an infrared based motion capture system, Qualisys. During the study, the subjects (over 18 years) performed 30 sec of arm movement followed by 30 sec rest for 5 times, both with their dominant and non-dominant arm. The optical signal acquired from NIRS system was processed to elucidate the activation and lateralization in the prefrontal region of participants. The preliminary results show difference, in terms of change in optical response, between task and rest in healthy adults. Currently simultaneous NIRS imaging and kinematics data are acquired in healthy individual and individual with CP in order to correlate brain activity to arm movement in real-time. The study has significant implication in elucidating the evolution in the functional activity of the brain as the physical movement of the arm evolves using NIRS. Hence the study has potential in augmenting the designing of training and hence rehabilitation regime for individuals with CP via kinematic monitoring and imaging brain activity.

  14. The users, uses, and value of Landsat and other moderate-resolution satellite imagery in the United States-Executive report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Holly M.; Sexton, Natalie R.; Koontz, Lynne; Loomis, John; Koontz, Stephen R.; Hermans, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Moderate-resolution imagery (MRI), such as that provided by the Landsat satellites, provides unique spatial information for use by many people both within and outside of the United States (U.S.). However, exactly who these users are, how they use the imagery, and the value and benefits derived from the information are, to a large extent, unknown. To explore these issues, social scientists at the USGS Fort Collins Science Center conducted a study of U.S.-based MRI users from 2008 through 2010 in two parts: 1) a user identification and 2) a user survey. The objectives for this study were to: 1) identify and classify U.S.-based users of this imagery; 2) better understand how and why MRI, and specifically Landsat, is being used; and 3) qualitatively and quantitatively measure the value and societal benefits of MRI (focusing on Landsat specifically). The results of the survey revealed that respondents from multiple sectors use Landsat imagery in many different ways, as demonstrated by the breadth of project locations and scales, as well as application areas. The value of Landsat imagery to these users was demonstrated by the high importance placed on the imagery, the numerous benefits received from projects using Landsat imagery, the negative impacts if Landsat imagery was no longer available, and the substantial willingness to pay for replacement imagery in the event of a data gap. The survey collected information from users who are both part of and apart from the known user community. The diversity of the sample delivered results that provide a baseline of knowledge about the users, uses, and value of Landsat imagery. While the results supply a wealth of information on their own, they can also be built upon through further research to generate a more complete picture of the population of Landsat users as a whole.

  15. Age-related wayfinding differences in real large-scale environments: detrimental motor control effects during spatial learning are mediated by executive decline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Taillade

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate motor control activity (active vs. passive condition with regards to wayfinding and spatial learning difficulties in large-scale spaces for older adults. We compared virtual reality (VR-based wayfinding and spatial memory (survey and route knowledge performances between 30 younger and 30 older adults. A significant effect of age was obtained on the wayfinding performances but not on the spatial memory performances. Specifically, the active condition deteriorated the survey measure in all of the participants and increased the age-related differences in the wayfinding performances. Importantly, the age-related differences in the wayfinding performances, after an active condition, were further mediated by the executive measures. All of the results relative to a detrimental effect of motor activity are discussed in terms of a dual task effect as well as executive decline associated with aging.

  16. Different performances in static and dynamic imagery and real locomotion. An exploratory trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto eFusco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Motor imagery is a mental representation of an action without its physical execution. Recently, the simultaneous movement of the body has been added to the mental simulation. This refers to dynamic motor imagery (dMI. This study was aimed at analyzing the temporal features for static and dMI in different locomotor conditions (natural walking, NW, light running, LR, lateral walking, LW, backward walking, BW, and whether these performances were more related to all the given conditions or present only in walking. We have been also evaluated the steps performed in the dMI in comparison with the ones performed by real locomotion. Twenty healthy participants (29.3 ± 5.1 y. old were asked to move towards a visualized target located at 10mt. In dMI, no significant temporal differences respect the actual locomotion were found for all the given tasks (NW: p=0.058, LR: p=0.636, BW: p=0.096; LW: p=0,487. Significant temporal differences between static imagery and actual movements were found for LR (p<0.001 and LW (p<0.001, due to an underestimation of time needed to achieve the target in imagined locomotion. Significant differences in terms of number of steps among tasks were found for LW (p<0.001 and BW (p=0.036, whereas neither in NW (p=0.124 nor LR (p=0.391 between dMI and real locomotion.Our results confirmed that motor imagery is a task-dependent process, with walking being temporally closer than other locomotor conditions. Moreover, the time records of dynamic motor imagery are nearer to the ones of actual locomotion respect than the ones of static motor imagery. Keywords: Walking, dynamic motor imagery, human locomotion, chronometry.

  17. Observation-execution matching and action inhibition in human primary motor cortex during viewing of speech-related lip movements or listening to speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Takenobu; Restle, Julia; Ziemann, Ulf

    2011-06-01

    One influential theory posits that language has evolved from gestural communication through observation-execution matching processes in the mirror neuron system (MNS). This theory predicts that observation of speech-related lip movements or even listening to speech would result in effector and task specific increase of the excitability of the corresponding motor representations in the primary motor cortex (M1), since actual movement execution is known be effector and task specific. In addition, effector and task specific inhibitory control mechanisms should be important to prevent overt motor activation during observation of speech-related lip movements or listening to speech. We tested these predictions by applying focal transcranial magnetic stimulation to the left M1 of 12 healthy right-handed volunteers and measuring motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) in a lip muscle, the right orbicularis oris (OO), vs. a hand muscle, the right first dorsal interosseus (FDI). We found that MEP and SICI increased only in the OO but not in the FDI during viewing of speech-related lip movements or listening to speech. These changes were highly task specific because they were absent when lip movements non-related to speech were viewed. Finally, the increase in MEP amplitude in the OO correlated inversely with accuracy of speech perception, i.e. the MEP increase was directly related to task difficulty. The MEP findings support the notion that observation-execution matching is an operating process in the putative human MNS that might have been fundamental for evolution of language. Furthermore, the SICI findings provide evidence that inhibitory mechanisms are recruited to prevent unwanted overt motor activation during action observation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Performance evaluation of a motor-imagery-based EEG-Brain computer interface using a combined cue with heterogeneous training data in BCI-Naive subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Youngbum

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The subjects in EEG-Brain computer interface (BCI system experience difficulties when attempting to obtain the consistent performance of the actual movement by motor imagery alone. It is necessary to find the optimal conditions and stimuli combinations that affect the performance factors of the EEG-BCI system to guarantee equipment safety and trust through the performance evaluation of using motor imagery characteristics that can be utilized in the EEG-BCI testing environment. Methods The experiment was carried out with 10 experienced subjects and 32 naive subjects on an EEG-BCI system. There were 3 experiments: The experienced homogeneous experiment, the naive homogeneous experiment and the naive heterogeneous experiment. Each experiment was compared in terms of the six audio-visual cue combinations and consisted of 50 trials. The EEG data was classified using the least square linear classifier in case of the naive subjects through the common spatial pattern filter. The accuracy was calculated using the training and test data set. The p-value of the accuracy was obtained through the statistical significance test. Results In the case in which a naive subject was trained by a heterogeneous combined cue and tested by a visual cue, the result was not only the highest accuracy (p Conclusions We propose the use of this measuring methodology of a heterogeneous combined cue for training data and a visual cue for test data by the typical EEG-BCI algorithm on the EEG-BCI system to achieve effectiveness in terms of consistence, stability, cost, time, and resources management without the need for a trial and error process.

  19. Long-Lasting Cortical Reorganization as the Result of Motor Imagery of Throwing a Ball in a Virtual Tennis Court

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cebolla, Ana M; Petieau, Mathieu; Cevallos, Carlos; Leroy, Axelle; Dan, Bernard; Cheron, Guy

    2015-01-01

    .... For the MI task, we chose a simple everyday task (throwing a tennis ball), that does not require any particular motor expertise, set within the controlled virtual reality scenario of a tennis court...

  20. Measurement of Heat Losses on The Milking Machine Electric Motor at Various Regulations of Vacuum Using Methods of Thermal Imagery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kudělka, Jan; Fryč, Jiří; Trávníček, Petr

    2014-01-01

    .... These vacuum pumps are driven by a squirrel-cage induction motor. Until recently, the vacuum in the system to achieve the required value was controlled by a main control valve sucking in ambient air into the system...

  1. Playing piano in the mind--an fMRI study on music imagery and performance in pianists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, I G; Krings, T; Foltys, H; Boroojerdi, B; Müller, M; Töpper, R; Thron, A

    2004-05-01

    Reading of musical notes and playing piano is a very complex motor task which requires years of practice. In addition to motor skills, rapid and effective visuomotor transformation as well as processing of the different components of music like pitch, rhythm and musical texture are involved. The aim of the present study was the investigation of the cortical network which mediates music performance compared to music imagery in 12 music academy students playing the right hand part of a Bartok piece using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In both conditions, fMRI activations of a bilateral frontoparietal network comprising the premotor areas, the precuneus and the medial part of Brodmann Area 40 were found. During music performance but not during imagery the contralateral primary motor cortex and posterior parietal cortex (PPC) bilaterally was active. This reflects the role of primary motor cortex for motor execution but not imagery and the higher visuomotor integration requirements during music performance compared to simulation. The notion that the same areas are involved in visuomotor transformation/motor planning and music processing emphasizes the multimodal properties of cortical areas involved in music and motor imagery in musicians.

  2. Motor priming in virtual reality can augment motor-imagery training efficacy in restorative brain-computer interaction: a within-subject analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vourvopoulos, Athanasios; Berm?dez i Badia, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of Brain?Computer Interface (BCI) technology in neurorehabilitation provides new strategies to overcome stroke-related motor limitations. Recent studies demonstrated the brain's capacity for functional and structural plasticity through BCI. However, it is not fully clear how we can take full advantage of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying recovery and how to maximize restoration through BCI. In this study we investigate the role of multimodal virtual reality (VR) sim...

  3. The effect of a cognitive-motor intervention on voluntary step execution under single and dual task conditions in older adults: a randomized controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichierri G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Pichierri,1 Amos Coppe,1 Silvio Lorenzetti,2 Kurt Murer,1 Eling D de Bruin11Institute of Human Movement Sciences and Sport, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, Switzerland; 2Institute for Biomechanics, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, SwitzerlandBackground: This randomized controlled pilot study aimed to explore whether a cognitive-motor exercise program that combines traditional physical exercise with dance video gaming can improve the voluntary stepping responses of older adults under attention demanding dual task conditions.Methods: Elderly subjects received twice weekly cognitive-motor exercise that included progressive strength and balance training supplemented by dance video gaming for 12 weeks (intervention group. The control group received no specific intervention. Voluntary step execution under single and dual task conditions was recorded at baseline and post intervention (Week 12.Results: After intervention between-group comparison revealed significant differences for initiation time of forward steps under dual task conditions (U = 9, P = 0.034, r = 0.55 and backward steps under dual task conditions (U = 10, P = 0.045, r = 0.52 in favor of the intervention group, showing altered stepping levels in the intervention group compared to the control group.Conclusion: A cognitive-motor intervention based on strength and balance exercises with additional dance video gaming is able to improve voluntary step execution under both single and dual task conditions in older adults.Keywords: fall prevention, exercise, dance, video game

  4. Modified CC-LR algorithm with three diverse feature sets for motor imagery tasks classification in EEG based brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siuly; Li, Yan; Paul Wen, Peng

    2014-03-01

    Motor imagery (MI) tasks classification provides an important basis for designing brain-computer interface (BCI) systems. If the MI tasks are reliably distinguished through identifying typical patterns in electroencephalography (EEG) data, a motor disabled people could communicate with a device by composing sequences of these mental states. In our earlier study, we developed a cross-correlation based logistic regression (CC-LR) algorithm for the classification of MI tasks for BCI applications, but its performance was not satisfactory. This study develops a modified version of the CC-LR algorithm exploring a suitable feature set that can improve the performance. The modified CC-LR algorithm uses the C3 electrode channel (in the international 10-20 system) as a reference channel for the cross-correlation (CC) technique and applies three diverse feature sets separately, as the input to the logistic regression (LR) classifier. The present algorithm investigates which feature set is the best to characterize the distribution of MI tasks based EEG data. This study also provides an insight into how to select a reference channel for the CC technique with EEG signals considering the anatomical structure of the human brain. The proposed algorithm is compared with eight of the most recently reported well-known methods including the BCI III Winner algorithm. The findings of this study indicate that the modified CC-LR algorithm has potential to improve the identification performance of MI tasks in BCI systems. The results demonstrate that the proposed technique provides a classification improvement over the existing methods tested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Voluntary Modulation of Hemodynamic Responses in Swallowing Related Motor Areas: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy-Based Neurofeedback Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Erika Kober

    Full Text Available In the present study, we show for the first time that motor imagery of swallowing, which is defined as the mental imagination of a specific motor act without overt movements by muscular activity, can be successfully used as mental strategy in a neurofeedback training paradigm. Furthermore, we demonstrate its effects on cortical correlates of swallowing function. Therefore, N = 20 healthy young adults were trained to voluntarily increase their hemodynamic response in swallowing related brain areas as assessed with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. During seven training sessions, participants received either feedback of concentration changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb group, N = 10 or deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb group, N = 10 over the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG during motor imagery of swallowing. Before and after the training, we assessed cortical activation patterns during motor execution and imagery of swallowing. The deoxy-Hb group was able to voluntarily increase deoxy-Hb over the IFG during imagery of swallowing. Furthermore, swallowing related cortical activation patterns were more pronounced during motor execution and imagery after the training compared to the pre-test, indicating cortical reorganization due to neurofeedback training. The oxy-Hb group could neither control oxy-Hb during neurofeedback training nor showed any cortical changes. Hence, successful modulation of deoxy-Hb over swallowing related brain areas led to cortical reorganization and might be useful for future treatments of swallowing dysfunction.

  6. Watch me if you can: imagery ability moderates observational learning effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gavin; Callow, Nichola; Roberts, Ross

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has revealed similarities in brain activity during observational learning and motor execution. However, whilst action develops visual, motor and afferent representations during acquisition, action-observation has been proposed to only develop visual-spatial learning via visual representation. In addition, it has been suggested that the vividness of visual representations are determined by imagery ability. Thus, the purpose of the current investigation was to explore the possible moderating role of imagery ability in the effectiveness of observational learning. Participants (n = 40) were assessed on their imagery ability via the Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire-2 (VMIQ-2) and then assigned to one of four groups; high imagery ability and observational learning (HIA-OL), low imagery ability and observational learning (LIA-OL), high imagery ability control (HIA-C) and low imagery ability control (LIA-C). Following group allocation all participants performed a pre-test consisting of five actual practice trials of a novel gymnastics routine. The HIA-OL and LIA-OL groups then participated in a 14 day observational learning intervention whilst the HIA-C and LIA-C groups acted as controls. Following this, participants performed a post test, which was identical in nature to the pre-test, before finally completing the VMIQ-2 again. Performance on both the pre-test and post test was evaluated by two qualified gymnastics judges. Results revealed that gymnastics performance increased from pre-test to post test for both the HIA-OL and LIA-OL groups. However, this effect was greater in the HIA-OL group suggesting that the relationship between observational learning and successful imitation performance is moderated by imagery ability.

  7. Index finger motor imagery EEG pattern recognition in BCI applications using dictionary cleaned sparse representation-based classification for healthy people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Minmin; Zeng, Hong; Wang, Aimin; Zhao, Fengkui; Liu, Feixiang

    2017-09-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based motor imagery (MI) brain-computer interface (BCI) has shown its effectiveness for the control of rehabilitation devices designed for large body parts of the patients with neurologic impairments. In order to validate the feasibility of using EEG to decode the MI of a single index finger and constructing a BCI-enhanced finger rehabilitation system, we collected EEG data during right hand index finger MI and rest state for five healthy subjects and proposed a pattern recognition approach for classifying these two mental states. First, Fisher's linear discriminant criteria and power spectral density analysis were used to analyze the event-related desynchronization patterns. Second, both band power and approximate entropy were extracted as features. Third, aiming to eliminate the abnormal samples in the dictionary and improve the classification performance of the conventional sparse representation-based classification (SRC) method, we proposed a novel dictionary cleaned sparse representation-based classification (DCSRC) method for final classification. The experimental results show that the proposed DCSRC method gives better classification accuracies than SRC and an average classification accuracy of 81.32% is obtained for five subjects. Thus, it is demonstrated that single right hand index finger MI can be decoded from the sensorimotor rhythms, and the feature patterns of index finger MI and rest state can be well recognized for robotic exoskeleton initiation.

  8. A Genetic-Based Feature Selection Approach in the Identification of Left/Right Hand Motor Imagery for a Brain-Computer Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaacoub, Charles; Mhanna, Georges; Rihana, Sandy

    2017-01-23

    Electroencephalography is a non-invasive measure of the brain electrical activity generated by millions of neurons. Feature extraction in electroencephalography analysis is a core issue that may lead to accurate brain mental state classification. This paper presents a new feature selection method that improves left/right hand movement identification of a motor imagery brain-computer interface, based on genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks used as classifiers. Raw electroencephalography signals are first preprocessed using appropriate filtering. Feature extraction is carried out afterwards, based on spectral and temporal signal components, and thus a feature vector is constructed. As various features might be inaccurate and mislead the classifier, thus degrading the overall system performance, the proposed approach identifies a subset of features from a large feature space, such that the classifier error rate is reduced. Experimental results show that the proposed method is able to reduce the number of features to as low as 0.5% (i.e., the number of ignored features can reach 99.5%) while improving the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and precision of the classifier.

  9. Assembling A Multi-Feature EEG Classifier for Left-Right Motor Imagery Data Using Wavelet-Based Fuzzy Approximate Entropy for Improved Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Yen

    2015-12-01

    An EEG classifier is proposed for application in the analysis of motor imagery (MI) EEG data from a brain-computer interface (BCI) competition in this study. Applying subject-action-related brainwave data acquired from the sensorimotor cortices, the system primarily consists of artifact and background removal, feature extraction, feature selection and classification. In addition to background noise, the electrooculographic (EOG) artifacts are also automatically removed to further improve the analysis of EEG signals. Several potential features, including amplitude modulation, spectral power and asymmetry ratio, adaptive autoregressive model, and wavelet fuzzy approximate entropy (wfApEn) that can measure and quantify the complexity or irregularity of EEG signals, are then extracted for subsequent classification. Finally, the significant sub-features are selected from feature combination by quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization and then classified by support vector machine (SVM). Compared with feature extraction without wfApEn on MI data from two data sets for nine subjects, the results indicate that the proposed system including wfApEn obtains better performance in average classification accuracy of 88.2% and average number of commands per minute of 12.1, which is promising in the BCI work applications.

  10. Changes in EEG Power Spectral Density and Cortical Connectivity in Healthy and Tetraplegic Patients during a Motor Imagery Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Cona

    2009-01-01

    The model assumes that each ROI can generate an intrinsic rhythm in the beta range, and receives rhythms in the alpha and gamma ranges from other two regions. Connectivity strengths among the ROIs were estimated by means of an original genetic algorithm that tries to minimize several cost functions of the difference between real and model power spectral densities. Results show that the stronger connections are those from the cingulate cortex to the primary and supplementary motor areas, thus emphasizing the pivotal role played by the CMA_L during the task. Tetraplegic patients exhibit higher connectivity strength on average, with significant statistical differences in some connections. The results are commented and virtues and limitations of the proposed method discussed.

  11. The Observation and Execution of Actions Share Motor and Somatosensory Voxels in all Tested Subjects: Single-Subject Analyses of Unsmoothed fMRI Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keysers, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Many neuroimaging studies of the mirror neuron system (MNS) examine if certain voxels in the brain are shared between action observation and execution (shared voxels, sVx). Unfortunately, finding sVx in standard group analyses is not a guarantee that sVx exist in individual subjects. Using unsmoothed, single-subject analyses we show sVx can be reliably found in all 16 investigated participants. Beside the ventral premotor (BA6/44) and inferior parietal cortex (area PF) where mirror neurons (MNs) have been found in monkeys, sVx were reliably observed in dorsal premotor, supplementary motor, middle cingulate, somatosensory (BA3, BA2, and OP1), superior parietal, middle temporal cortex and cerebellum. For the premotor, somatosensory and parietal areas, sVx were more numerous in the left hemisphere. The hand representation of the primary motor cortex showed a reduced BOLD during hand action observation, possibly preventing undesired overt imitation. This study provides a more detailed description of the location and reliability of sVx and proposes a model that extends the original idea of the MNS to include forward and inverse internal models and motor and sensory simulation, distinguishing the MNS from a more general concept of sVx. PMID:19020203

  12. Large-Scale Assessment of a Fully Automatic Co-Adaptive Motor Imagery-Based Brain Computer Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acqualagna, Laura; Botrel, Loic; Vidaurre, Carmen; Kübler, Andrea; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    In the last years Brain Computer Interface (BCI) technology has benefited from the development of sophisticated machine leaning methods that let the user operate the BCI after a few trials of calibration. One remarkable example is the recent development of co-adaptive techniques that proved to extend the use of BCIs also to people not able to achieve successful control with the standard BCI procedure. Especially for BCIs based on the modulation of the Sensorimotor Rhythm (SMR) these improvements are essential, since a not negligible percentage of users is unable to operate SMR-BCIs efficiently. In this study we evaluated for the first time a fully automatic co-adaptive BCI system on a large scale. A pool of 168 participants naive to BCIs operated the co-adaptive SMR-BCI in one single session. Different psychological interventions were performed prior the BCI session in order to investigate how motor coordination training and relaxation could influence BCI performance. A neurophysiological indicator based on the Power Spectral Density (PSD) was extracted by the recording of few minutes of resting state brain activity and tested as predictor of BCI performances. Results show that high accuracies in operating the BCI could be reached by the majority of the participants before the end of the session. BCI performances could be significantly predicted by the neurophysiological indicator, consolidating the validity of the model previously developed. Anyway, we still found about 22% of users with performance significantly lower than the threshold of efficient BCI control at the end of the session. Being the inter-subject variability still the major problem of BCI technology, we pointed out crucial issues for those who did not achieve sufficient control. Finally, we propose valid developments to move a step forward to the applicability of the promising co-adaptive methods.

  13. Large-Scale Assessment of a Fully Automatic Co-Adaptive Motor Imagery-Based Brain Computer Interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Acqualagna

    Full Text Available In the last years Brain Computer Interface (BCI technology has benefited from the development of sophisticated machine leaning methods that let the user operate the BCI after a few trials of calibration. One remarkable example is the recent development of co-adaptive techniques that proved to extend the use of BCIs also to people not able to achieve successful control with the standard BCI procedure. Especially for BCIs based on the modulation of the Sensorimotor Rhythm (SMR these improvements are essential, since a not negligible percentage of users is unable to operate SMR-BCIs efficiently. In this study we evaluated for the first time a fully automatic co-adaptive BCI system on a large scale. A pool of 168 participants naive to BCIs operated the co-adaptive SMR-BCI in one single session. Different psychological interventions were performed prior the BCI session in order to investigate how motor coordination training and relaxation could influence BCI performance. A neurophysiological indicator based on the Power Spectral Density (PSD was extracted by the recording of few minutes of resting state brain activity and tested as predictor of BCI performances. Results show that high accuracies in operating the BCI could be reached by the majority of the participants before the end of the session. BCI performances could be significantly predicted by the neurophysiological indicator, consolidating the validity of the model previously developed. Anyway, we still found about 22% of users with performance significantly lower than the threshold of efficient BCI control at the end of the session. Being the inter-subject variability still the major problem of BCI technology, we pointed out crucial issues for those who did not achieve sufficient control. Finally, we propose valid developments to move a step forward to the applicability of the promising co-adaptive methods.

  14. User Experience May be Producing Greater Heart Rate Variability than Motor Imagery Related Control Tasks during the User-System Adaptation in Brain-Computer Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Valerdi, Luz M; Gutiérrez-Begovich, David A; Argüello-García, Janet; Sepulveda, Francisco; Ramírez-Mendoza, Ricardo A

    2016-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) is technology that is developing fast, but it remains inaccurate, unreliable and slow due to the difficulty to obtain precise information from the brain. Consequently, the involvement of other biosignals to decode the user control tasks has risen in importance. A traditional way to operate a BCI system is via motor imagery (MI) tasks. As imaginary movements activate similar cortical structures and vegetative mechanisms as a voluntary movement does, heart rate variability (HRV) has been proposed as a parameter to improve the detection of MI related control tasks. However, HR is very susceptible to body needs and environmental demands, and as BCI systems require high levels of attention, perceptual processing and mental workload, it is important to assess the practical effectiveness of HRV. The present study aimed to determine if brain and heart electrical signals (HRV) are modulated by MI activity used to control a BCI system, or if HRV is modulated by the user perceptions and responses that result from the operation of a BCI system (i.e., user experience). For this purpose, a database of 11 participants who were exposed to eight different situations was used. The sensory-cognitive load (intake and rejection tasks) was controlled in those situations. Two electrophysiological signals were utilized: electroencephalography and electrocardiography. From those biosignals, event-related (de-)synchronization maps and event-related HR changes were respectively estimated. The maps and the HR changes were cross-correlated in order to verify if both biosignals were modulated due to MI activity. The results suggest that HR varies according to the experience undergone by the user in a BCI working environment, and not because of the MI activity used to operate the system.

  15. EEG-Based Brain-Computer Interface for Decoding Motor Imagery Tasks within the Same Hand Using Choi-Williams Time-Frequency Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Alazrai

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an EEG-based brain-computer interface system for classifying eleven motor imagery (MI tasks within the same hand. The proposed system utilizes the Choi-Williams time-frequency distribution (CWD to construct a time-frequency representation (TFR of the EEG signals. The constructed TFR is used to extract five categories of time-frequency features (TFFs. The TFFs are processed using a hierarchical classification model to identify the MI task encapsulated within the EEG signals. To evaluate the performance of the proposed approach, EEG data were recorded for eighteen intact subjects and four amputated subjects while imagining to perform each of the eleven hand MI tasks. Two performance evaluation analyses, namely channel- and TFF-based analyses, are conducted to identify the best subset of EEG channels and the TFFs category, respectively, that enable the highest classification accuracy between the MI tasks. In each evaluation analysis, the hierarchical classification model is trained using two training procedures, namely subject-dependent and subject-independent procedures. These two training procedures quantify the capability of the proposed approach to capture both intra- and inter-personal variations in the EEG signals for different MI tasks within the same hand. The results demonstrate the efficacy of the approach for classifying the MI tasks within the same hand. In particular, the classification accuracies obtained for the intact and amputated subjects are as high as 88 . 8 % and 90 . 2 % , respectively, for the subject-dependent training procedure, and 80 . 8 % and 87 . 8 % , respectively, for the subject-independent training procedure. These results suggest the feasibility of applying the proposed approach to control dexterous prosthetic hands, which can be of great benefit for individuals suffering from hand amputations.

  16. Watch me if you can: Imagery ability moderates observational learning effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin eLawrence

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has revealed similarities in brain activity during observational learning and motor execution. However, whilst action develops visual, motor and afferent representations during acquisition, action-observation has been proposed to only develop visual-spatial learning via visual representation. In addition, it has been suggested that the vividness of visual representations are determined by imagery ability. Thus, the purpose of the current investigation was to explore the possible moderating role of imagery ability in the effectiveness of observational learning. Participants (n=40 were assessed on their imagery ability via the VMIQ-2 and then assigned to one of four groups; high imagery ability and observational learning (HIA-OL, low imagery ability and observational learning (LIA-OL, high imagery ability control (HIA-C and low imagery ability control (LIA-C. Following group allocation all participants performed a pre-test consisting of 5 actual practice trials of a novel gymnastics routine. The HIA-OL and LIA-OL groups then participated in a 14 day observational learning intervention whilst the HIA-C & LIA-C groups acted as controls. Following this, participants performed a post test, which was identical in nature to the pre-test, before finally completing the VMIQ-2 again. Performance on both the pre-test and post test was evaluated by two qualified gymnastics judges. Results revealed that gymnastics performance increased from pre-test to post test for both the HIA-OL and LIA-OL groups. However, this effect was greater in the HIA-OL group suggesting that the relationship between observational learning and successful imitation performance is moderated by imagery ability.

  17. Applying a brain-computer interface to support motor imagery practice in people with stroke for upper limb recovery: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonough Suzanne

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is now sufficient evidence that using a rehabilitation protocol involving motor imagery (MI practice in conjunction with physical practice (PP of goal-directed rehabilitation tasks leads to enhanced functional recovery of paralyzed limbs among stroke sufferers. It is however difficult to confirm patient engagement during an MI in the absence of any on-line measure. Fortunately an EEG-based brain-computer interface (BCI can provide an on-line measure of MI activity as a neurofeedback for the BCI user to help him/her focus better on the MI task. However initial performance of novice BCI users may be quite moderate and may cause frustration. This paper reports a pilot study in which a BCI system is used to provide a computer game-based neurofeedback to stroke participants during the MI part of a protocol. Methods The participants included five chronic hemiplegic stroke sufferers. Participants received up to twelve 30-minute MI practice sessions (in conjunction with PP sessions of the same duration on 2 days a week for 6 weeks. The BCI neurofeedback performance was evaluated based on the MI task classification accuracy (CA rate. A set of outcome measures including action research arm test (ARAT and grip strength (GS, was made use of in assessing the upper limb functional recovery. In addition, since stroke sufferers often experience physical tiredness, which may influence the protocol effectiveness, their fatigue and mood levels were assessed regularly. Results Positive improvement in at least one of the outcome measures was observed in all the participants, while improvements approached a minimal clinically important difference (MCID for the ARAT. The on-line CA of MI induced sensorimotor rhythm (SMR modulation patterns in the form of lateralized event-related desynchronization (ERD and event-related synchronization (ERS effects, for novice participants was in a moderate range of 60-75% within the limited 12 training

  18. Imagining is not doing but involves specific motor commands: a review of experimental data related to motor inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymeric eGuillot

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available There is now compelling evidence that motor imagery (MI and actual movement share common neural substrate. However, the question of how MI inhibits the transmission of motor commands into the efferent pathways in order to prevent any movement is largely unresolved. Similarly, little is known about the nature of the electromyographic activity that is apparent during MI. In addressing these gaps in the literature, the present paper argues that MI includes motor execution commands for muscle contractions which are blocked at some level of the motor system by inhibitory mechanisms. We first assemble data from neuroimaging studies that demonstrate that the neural networks mediating MI and motor performance are not totally overlapping, thereby highlighting potential differences between MI and actual motor execution. We then review MI data indicating the presence of subliminal muscular activity reflecting the intrinsic characteristics of the motor command as well as increased corticomotor excitability. The third section not only considers the inhibitory mechanisms involved during MI but also examines how the brain resolves the problem of issuing the motor command for action while supervising motor inhibition when people engage in voluntary movement during MI. The last part of the paper draws on imagery research in clinical contexts to suggest that some patients move while imagining an action, although they are not aware of such movements. In particular, experimental data from amputees as well as from patients with Parkinson’s disease are discussed. We also review recent studies based on comparing brain activity in tetraplegic patients with that from healthy matched controls that provide insights into inhibitory processes during MI. We conclude by arguing that based on available evidence, a multifactorial explanation of motor inhibition during MI is warranted.

  19. Imagining is Not Doing but Involves Specific Motor Commands: A Review of Experimental Data Related to Motor Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Aymeric; Di Rienzo, Franck; MacIntyre, Tadhg; Moran, Aidan; Collet, Christian

    2012-01-01

    There is now compelling evidence that motor imagery (MI) and actual movement share common neural substrate. However, the question of how MI inhibits the transmission of motor commands into the efferent pathways in order to prevent any movement is largely unresolved. Similarly, little is known about the nature of the electromyographic activity that is apparent during MI. In addressing these gaps in the literature, the present paper argues that MI includes motor execution commands for muscle contractions which are blocked at some level of the motor system by inhibitory mechanisms. We first assemble data from neuroimaging studies that demonstrate that the neural networks mediating MI and motor performance are not totally overlapping, thereby highlighting potential differences between MI and actual motor execution. We then review MI data indicating the presence of subliminal muscular activity reflecting the intrinsic characteristics of the motor command as well as increased corticomotor excitability. The third section not only considers the inhibitory mechanisms involved during MI but also examines how the brain resolves the problem of issuing the motor command for action while supervising motor inhibition when people engage in voluntary movement during MI. The last part of the paper draws on imagery research in clinical contexts to suggest that some patients move while imagining an action, although they are not aware of such movements. In particular, experimental data from amputees as well as from patients with Parkinson’s disease are discussed. We also review recent studies based on comparing brain activity in tetraplegic patients with that from healthy matched controls that provide insights into inhibitory processes during MI. We conclude by arguing that based on available evidence, a multifactorial explanation of motor inhibition during MI is warranted. PMID:22973214

  20. The ability to mentally represent action is associated with low motor ability in children: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; Caçola, Priscila; Bobbio, Tatiana

    2012-05-01

    Theory and anatomical research suggest that the ability to mentally represent intended actions affect level of execution. This study presents preliminary data examining the association between children's ability to mentally represent action and general motor ability. Children aged 7- to 10 years were assessed for motor imagery ability using a simulation of reach task and motor ability via the Movement ABC-2. Motor ability values, based on percentile rank, ranged from 2 to 91, with a mean of 36. The overall correlation between mental representation and motor ability yielded a moderately positive relationship (r = .39). Interestingly, when looking at motor ability subcategories, only Balance was significant in the model, explaining 20% of the variance. These results provide preliminary evidence that children's motor ability and the ability to mentally represent action are associated in a positive direction. Furthermore, given the results for Balance, we speculate that there are clinical implications regarding work with potentially at-risk children. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Adaptive coding of orofacial and speech actions in motor and somatosensory spaces with and without overt motor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Marc; Vilain, Coriandre; Lamalle, Laurent; Grabski, Krystyna

    2015-02-01

    Studies of speech motor control suggest that articulatory and phonemic goals are defined in multidimensional motor, somatosensory, and auditory spaces. To test whether motor simulation might rely on sensory-motor coding common with those for motor execution, we used a repetition suppression (RS) paradigm while measuring neural activity with sparse sampling fMRI during repeated overt and covert orofacial and speech actions. RS refers to the phenomenon that repeated stimuli or motor acts lead to decreased activity in specific neural populations and are associated with enhanced adaptive learning related to the repeated stimulus attributes. Common suppressed neural responses were observed in motor and posterior parietal regions in the achievement of both repeated overt and covert orofacial and speech actions, including the left premotor cortex and inferior frontal gyrus, the superior parietal cortex and adjacent intraprietal sulcus, and the left IC and the SMA. Interestingly, reduced activity of the auditory cortex was observed during overt but not covert speech production, a finding likely reflecting a motor rather an auditory imagery strategy by the participants. By providing evidence for adaptive changes in premotor and associative somatosensory brain areas, the observed RS suggests online state coding of both orofacial and speech actions in somatosensory and motor spaces with and without motor behavior and sensory feedback.

  2. Corticospinal excitability modulation to hand muscles during movement imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, P M; Rossi, S; Pasqualetti, P; Tecchio, F

    1999-03-01

    Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) to magnetic transcranial stimulation (TCS) were recorded from right abductor digiti minimi (ADM) and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscles, sharing the same peripheral innervation but engaged in two different motor demands. In seven healthy and trained subjects, the latencies, amplitudes and variability of MEPs were investigated under the following, randomly intermingled, conditions: full muscular and mental relaxation; mental simulation of selective index finger or little finger abduction; mental non-motor activity (arithmetical calculation); and real motor task (little and index finger abduction). The whole procedure was performed by continuous audiovisual monitoring of electromyographic 'silence' in the tested muscles. The maximal facilitatory effects (= latency shortening and amplitude increase) on MEPs were induced by the real motor task. An amplitude potentiation of MEPs in both tested muscles was present during non-motor mental activity, in comparison to basal values. A further amplitude potentiation, without latency shifts, was confined to the muscle acting as 'prime mover' for the mentally simulated movement, according to the motor program dispatched but not executed by the subject. Similar results were also found in the F-wave, showing that mental simulation affects spinal motoneuronal excitability as well, although -- due to the lack of MEP and F-wave latency shift -- the main effect takes place at cortical level. The study shows that movement imagery can focus specific facilitation on the prime-mover muscle for the mentally simulated movement. This is mainly evident on FDI muscle, which controls fingers (i.e. the index) with highly corticalized motor representation.

  3. Imagery Data Base Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Imagery Data Base Facility supports AFRL and other government organizations by providing imagery interpretation and analysis to users for data selection, imagery...

  4. Executive functioning in highly talented soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburgh, L.; Scherder, E.J.A.; van Lange, P.A.M.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions might be important for successful performance in sports, particularly in team sports requiring quick anticipation and adaptation to continuously changing situations in the field. The executive functions motor inhibition, attention and visuospatial working memory were examined in

  5. A high performance sensorimotor beta rhythm-based brain computer interface associated with human natural motor behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ou; Lin, Peter; Vorbach, Sherry; Floeter, Mary Kay; Hattori, Noriaki; Hallett, Mark

    2008-03-01

    To explore the reliability of a high performance brain-computer interface (BCI) using non-invasive EEG signals associated with human natural motor behavior does not require extensive training. We propose a new BCI method, where users perform either sustaining or stopping a motor task with time locking to a predefined time window. Nine healthy volunteers, one stroke survivor with right-sided hemiparesis and one patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) participated in this study. Subjects did not receive BCI training before participating in this study. We investigated tasks of both physical movement and motor imagery. The surface Laplacian derivation was used for enhancing EEG spatial resolution. A model-free threshold setting method was used for the classification of motor intentions. The performance of the proposed BCI was validated by an online sequential binary-cursor-control game for two-dimensional cursor movement. Event-related desynchronization and synchronization were observed when subjects sustained or stopped either motor execution or motor imagery. Feature analysis showed that EEG beta band activity over sensorimotor area provided the largest discrimination. With simple model-free classification of beta band EEG activity from a single electrode (with surface Laplacian derivation), the online classifications of the EEG activity with motor execution/motor imagery were: >90%/~80% for six healthy volunteers, >80%/~80% for the stroke patient and ~90%/~80% for the ALS patient. The EEG activities of the other three healthy volunteers were not classifiable. The sensorimotor beta rhythm of EEG associated with human natural motor behavior can be used for a reliable and high performance BCI for both healthy subjects and patients with neurological disorders. Significance: The proposed new non-invasive BCI method highlights a practical BCI for clinical applications, where the user does not require extensive training.

  6. Everyday imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Chris; Allan, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    ’s detailed analysis of open-ended questionnaires from ‘millennial’ smartphone users elucidates the varied experiential, compositional, and technological aspects associated with smartphone imagery in everyday life. It argues that the associated changes do more than just update previous technologies but rather...

  7. Role of medial premotor areas in action language processing in relation to motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courson, Melody; Macoir, Joël; Tremblay, Pascale

    2017-10-01

    The literature reports that the supplementary motor area (SMA) and pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) are involved in motor planning and execution, and in motor-related cognitive functions such as motor imagery. However, their specific role in action language processing remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the impact of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over SMA and pre-SMA during an action semantic analogy task (SAT) in relation with fine motor skills (i.e., manual dexterity) and motor imagery abilities in healthy non-expert adults. The impact of rTMS over SMA (but not pre-SMA) on reaction times (RT) during SAT was correlated with manual dexterity. Specifically, results show that rTMS over SMA modulated RT for those with lower dexterity skills. Our results therefore demonstrate a causal involvement of SMA in action language processing, as well as the existence of inter-individual differences in this involvement. We discuss these findings in light of neurolinguistic theories of language processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Performance improvements from imagery:evidence that internal visual imagery is superior to external visual imagery for slalom performance

    OpenAIRE

    Nichola eCallow; Ross eRoberts; Lew eHardy; Dan eJiang; Martin G Edwards

    2013-01-01

    We report three experiments investigating the hypothesis that use of internal visual imagery (IVI) would be superior to external visual imagery (EVI) for the performance of different slalom-based motor tasks. In Experiment 1, three groups of participants (IVI, EVI, and a control group) performed a driving-simulation slalom task. The IVI group achieved significantly quicker lap times than EVI and the control group. In Experiment 2, participants performed a downhill running slalom task under bo...

  9. Phantom motor execution facilitated by machine learning and augmented reality as treatment for phantom limb pain: a single group, clinical trial in patients with chronic intractable phantom limb pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Catalan, Max; Guðmundsdóttir, Rannveig A; Kristoffersen, Morten B; Zepeda-Echavarria, Alejandra; Caine-Winterberger, Kerstin; Kulbacka-Ortiz, Katarzyna; Widehammar, Cathrine; Eriksson, Karin; Stockselius, Anita; Ragnö, Christina; Pihlar, Zdenka; Burger, Helena; Hermansson, Liselotte

    2016-12-10

    Phantom limb pain is a debilitating condition for which no effective treatment has been found. We hypothesised that re-engagement of central and peripheral circuitry involved in motor execution could reduce phantom limb pain via competitive plasticity and reversal of cortical reorganisation. Patients with upper limb amputation and known chronic intractable phantom limb pain were recruited at three clinics in Sweden and one in Slovenia. Patients received 12 sessions of phantom motor execution using machine learning, augmented and virtual reality, and serious gaming. Changes in intensity, frequency, duration, quality, and intrusion of phantom limb pain were assessed by the use of the numeric rating scale, the pain rating index, the weighted pain distribution scale, and a study-specific frequency scale before each session and at follow-up interviews 1, 3, and 6 months after the last session. Changes in medication and prostheses were also monitored. Results are reported using descriptive statistics and analysed by non-parametric tests. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02281539. Between Sept 15, 2014, and April 10, 2015, 14 patients with intractable chronic phantom limb pain, for whom conventional treatments failed, were enrolled. After 12 sessions, patients showed statistically and clinically significant improvements in all metrics of phantom limb pain. Phantom limb pain decreased from pre-treatment to the last treatment session by 47% (SD 39; absolute mean change 1·0 [0·8]; p=0·001) for weighted pain distribution, 32% (38; absolute mean change 1·6 [1·8]; p=0·007) for the numeric rating scale, and 51% (33; absolute mean change 9·6 [8·1]; p=0·0001) for the pain rating index. The numeric rating scale score for intrusion of phantom limb pain in activities of daily living and sleep was reduced by 43% (SD 37; absolute mean change 2·4 [2·3]; p=0·004) and 61% (39; absolute mean change 2·3 [1·8]; p=0·001), respectively. Two of four

  10. Mental concerts: musical imagery and auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatorre, Robert J; Halpern, Andrea R

    2005-07-07

    Most people intuitively understand what it means to "hear a tune in your head." Converging evidence now indicates that auditory cortical areas can be recruited even in the absence of sound and that this corresponds to the phenomenological experience of imagining music. We discuss these findings as well as some methodological challenges. We also consider the role of core versus belt areas in musical imagery, the relation between auditory and motor systems during imagery of music performance, and practical implications of this research.

  11. At the mercy of strategies: the role of motor representations in language understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasino, Barbara; Rumiati, Raffaella Ida

    2013-01-01

    Classical cognitive theories hold that word representations in the brain are abstract and amodal, and are independent of the objects' sensorimotor properties they refer to. An alternative hypothesis emphasizes the importance of bodily processes in cognition: the representation of a concept appears to be crucially dependent upon perceptual-motor processes that relate to it. Thus, understanding action-related words would rely upon the same motor structures that also support the execution of the same actions. In this context, motor simulation represents a key component. Our approach is to draw parallels between the literature on mental rotation and the literature on action verb/sentence processing. Here we will discuss recent studies on mental imagery, mental rotation, and language that clearly demonstrate how motor simulation is neither automatic nor necessary to language understanding. These studies have shown that motor representations can or cannot be activated depending on the type of strategy the participants adopt to perform tasks involving motor phrases. On the one hand, participants may imagine the movement with the body parts used to carry out the actions described by the verbs (i.e., motor strategy); on the other, individuals may solve the task without simulating the corresponding movements (i.e., visual strategy). While it is not surprising that the motor strategy is at work when participants process action-related verbs, it is however striking that sensorimotor activation has been reported also for imageable concrete words with no motor content, for "non-words" with regular phonology, for pseudo-verb stimuli, and also for negations. Based on the extant literature, we will argue that implicit motor imagery is not uniquely used when a body-related stimulus is encountered, and that it is not the type of stimulus that automatically triggers the motor simulation but the type of strategy. Finally, we will also comment on the view that sensorimotor activations

  12. Comparative analyis of kinematic characteristics of motor actions of highly skilled and skilled female gymnasts during execution of «front handspring» type vault

    OpenAIRE

    Гамалій, Володимир; Хмельницька, Ірина; Крупеня, Світлана

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the kinematic characteristics of motor actions of skilled and highly skilled female gymnasts in the “front handspring” type vault on the table, based on the results of biomechanical analysis. The features of motor actions technique under a modified design of the apparatus have been studied. Statistically significant differences in the technique of kinematic characteristics of skilled and highly skilled female gymnasts during performance of vaults have been ...

  13. The Observation and Execution of Actions Share Motor and Somatosensory Voxels in all Tested Subjects : Single-Subject Analyses of Unsmoothed fMRI Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazzola, Valeria; Keysers, Christian

    Many neuroimaging studies of the mirror neuron system (MNS) examine if certain voxels in the brain are shared between action observation and execution (shared voxels, sVx). Unfortunately, finding sVx in standard group analyses is not a guarantee that sVx exist in individual subjects. Using

  14. Observation and execution of upper-limb movements as a tool for rehabilitation of motor deficits in paretic stroke patients: protocol of a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertelt Denis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence exist that motor observation activates the same cortical motor areas that are involved in the performance of the observed actions. The so called “mirror neuron system” has been proposed to be responsible for this phenomenon. We employ this neural system and its capability to re-enact stored motor representations as a tool for rehabilitating motor control. In our new neurorehabilitative schema (videotherapy we combine observation of daily actions with concomitant physical training of the observed actions focusing on the upper limbs. Following a pilot study in chronic patients in an ambulatory setting, we currently designed a new multicenter clinical study dedicated to patients in the sub-acute state after stroke using a home-based self-induced training. Within our protocol we assess 1 the capability of action observation to elicit rehabilitational effects in the motor system, and 2 the capacity of this schema to be performed by patients without assistance from a physiotherapist. The results of this study would be of high health and economical relevance. Methods/design A controlled, randomized, multicenter, paralleled, 6 month follow-up study will be conducted on three groups of patients: one group will be given the experimental treatment whereas the other two will participate in control treatments. All patients will undergo their usual rehabilitative treatment beside participation in the study. The experimental condition consists in the observation and immediate imitation of common daily hand and arm actions. The two parallel control groups are a placebo group and a group receiving usual rehabilitation without any trial-related treatment. Trial randomization is provided via external data management. The primary efficacy endpoint is the improvement of the experimental group in a standardized motor function test (Wolf Motor Function Test relative to control groups. Further assessments refer to subjective and

  15. Interference from mere thinking: mental rehearsal temporarily disrupts recall of motor memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Cong; Wei, Kunlin

    2014-08-01

    Interference between successively learned tasks is widely investigated to study motor memory. However, how simultaneously learned motor memories interact with each other has been rarely studied despite its prevalence in daily life. Assuming that motor memory shares common neural mechanisms with declarative memory system, we made unintuitive predictions that mental rehearsal, as opposed to further practice, of one motor memory will temporarily impair the recall of another simultaneously learned memory. Subjects simultaneously learned two sensorimotor tasks, i.e., visuomotor rotation and gain. They retrieved one memory by either practice or mental rehearsal and then had their memory evaluated. We found that mental rehearsal, instead of execution, impaired the recall of unretrieved memory. This impairment was content-independent, i.e., retrieving either gain or rotation impaired the other memory. Hence, conscious recollection of one motor memory interferes with the recall of another memory. This is analogous to retrieval-induced forgetting in declarative memory, suggesting a common neural process across memory systems. Our findings indicate that motor imagery is sufficient to induce interference between motor memories. Mental rehearsal, currently widely regarded as beneficial for motor performance, negatively affects memory recall when it is exercised for a subset of memorized items. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Behavioral evidence for left-hemisphere specialization of motor planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, L.; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.; Steenbergen, B.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the left hemisphere is dominant for the planning of motor actions. This left-hemisphere specialization hypothesis was proposed in various lines of research, including patient studies, motor imagery studies, and studies involving neurophysiological techniques. However,

  17. Postura da mão e imagética motora: um estudo sobre reconhecimento de partes do corpo Hand posture and motor imagery: a body-part recognition study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AP Lameira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Assim como a imagética motora, o reconhecimento de partes do corpo aciona representações somatosensoriais específicas. Essas representações são ativadas implicitamente para comparar o corpo com o estímulo. No presente estudo, investigou-se a influência da informação proprioceptiva da postura no reconhecimento de partes do corpo (mãos e propõe-se a utilização dessa tarefa na reabilitação de pacientes neurológicos. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Dez voluntários destros participaram do experimento. A tarefa era reconhecer a lateralidade de figuras da mão apresentada, em várias perspectivas e em vários ângulos de orientação. Para a figura da mão direita, o voluntário pressionava a tecla direita e para a figura da mão esquerda, a tecla esquerda. Os voluntários realizavam duas sessões: uma com as mãos na postura prona e outra com as mãos na postura supina. RESULTADOS: Os tempos de reação manual (TRM eram maiores para as vistas e orientações, nas quais é difícil realizar o movimento real, mostrando que durante a tarefa, existe um acionamento de representações motoras para comparar o corpo com o estímulo. Além disso, existe uma influência da postura do sujeito em vistas e ângulos específicos. CONCLUSÕES: Estes resultados mostram que representações motoras são ativadas para comparar o corpo com o estímulo e que a postura da mão influencia esta ressonância entre estímulo e parte do corpo.OBJECTIVE: Recognition of body parts activates specific somatosensory representations in a way that is similar to motor imagery. These representations are implicitly activated to compare the body with the stimulus. In the present study, we investigate the influence of proprioceptive information relating to body posture on the recognition of body parts (hands. It proposes that this task could be used for rehabilitation of neurological patients. METHODS: Ten right-handed volunteers participated in this experiment. The

  18. Effects of an Exhaustive Exercise on Motor Skill Learning and on the Excitability of Primary Motor Cortex and Supplementary Motor Area

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coco, Marinella; Perciavalle, Vincenzo; Cavallari, Paolo; Perciavalle, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    ...) motor execution of sequential finger movements (cognitive task). Moreover, we determined with transcranial magnetic stimulation whether changes in motor performance are associated with variations in excitability of primary motor area (M1...

  19. Current Resource Imagery Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — Map showing coverage of current Resource imagery projects. High resolution/large scale Resource imagery is typically acquired for the U.S. Forest Service and other...

  20. National Agriculture Imagery Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) acquires aerial imagery during the agricultural growing seasons in the continental U.S. A primary goal of the NAIP...

  1. NAIP 2015 Imagery Feedback

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The NAIP 2015 Imagery Feedback web application allows users to make comments and observations about the quality of the 2015 National Agriculture Imagery Program...

  2. Corticomotor facilitation associated with observation, imagery and imitation of hand actions: a comparative study in young and old adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léonard, Guillaume; Tremblay, François

    2007-02-01

    In the present report, we extent our previous findings (Clark et al. in Neuropsychologia 42:105-122, 2004) on corticomotor facilitation associated with covert (observation and imagery) and overt execution (action imitation) of hand actions to better delineate the selectivity of the effect in the context of an object-oriented action. A second aim was to examine whether the pattern of facilitation would be affected by age. Corticomotor facilitation was determined in two groups of participants (young n = 21, 24 +/- 2 years; old n = 19, 62 +/- 6 years) by monitoring changes in the amplitude and latency of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited in hand muscles by transcranial magnetic stimulation. MEP responses were measured from both the first dorsal interosseous (FDI, task selective muscle) and the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) of the right hand while participants attended to four different video presentations. Each of four videos provided specific instructions for participants to either: (1) close their eyes and relax (REST), (2) observe the action attentively (OBS), (3) close their eyes and mentally simulate the action (IMAG), or (4) imitate the action (IMIT). The action depicted in the videos represented a male subject cutting a piece of material with scissors. In the young group, the pattern of results revealed selective facilitation in the FDI in conditions involving either covert (OBS and IMAG) or overt action execution (IMIT). In the ADM, only overt execution with action imitation was associated with significant MEP facilitation. In the old group, a similar pattern of results was observed, although the modulation was less selective than that seen in the young group. In fact, older individuals often exhibited concomitant facilitation in both the FDI and ADM during either covert (OBS and IMAG conditions) or overt action execution (IMIT condition). Taken together, these results further corroborate the notion that the corticomotor system is selectively active when

  3. Real-time Classification of Non-Weight Bearing Lower-Limb Movements Using EMG to Facilitate Phantom Motor Execution: Engineering and Case Study Application on Phantom Limb Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendaro, Eva; Mastinu, Enzo; Håkansson, Bo; Ortiz-Catalan, Max

    2017-01-01

    Phantom motor execution (PME), facilitated by myoelectric pattern recognition (MPR) and virtual reality (VR), is positioned to be a viable option to treat phantom limb pain (PLP). A recent clinical trial using PME on upper-limb amputees with chronic intractable PLP yielded promising results. However, further work in the area of signal acquisition is needed if such technology is to be used on subjects with lower-limb amputation. We propose two alternative electrode configurations to conventional, bipolar, targeted recordings for acquiring surface electromyography. We evaluated their performance in a real-time MPR task for non-weight-bearing, lower-limb movements. We found that monopolar recordings using a circumferential electrode of conductive fabric, performed similarly to classical bipolar recordings, but were easier to use in a clinical setting. In addition, we present the first case study of a lower-limb amputee with chronic, intractable PLP treated with PME. The patient’s Pain Rating Index dropped by 22 points (from 32 to 10, 68%) after 23 PME sessions. These results represent a methodological advancement and a positive proof-of-concept of PME in lower limbs. Further work remains to be conducted for a high-evidence level clinical validation of PME as a treatment of PLP in lower-limb amputees. PMID:28955294

  4. Real-time Classification of Non-Weight Bearing Lower-Limb Movements Using EMG to Facilitate Phantom Motor Execution: Engineering and Case Study Application on Phantom Limb Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendaro, Eva; Mastinu, Enzo; Håkansson, Bo; Ortiz-Catalan, Max

    2017-01-01

    Phantom motor execution (PME), facilitated by myoelectric pattern recognition (MPR) and virtual reality (VR), is positioned to be a viable option to treat phantom limb pain (PLP). A recent clinical trial using PME on upper-limb amputees with chronic intractable PLP yielded promising results. However, further work in the area of signal acquisition is needed if such technology is to be used on subjects with lower-limb amputation. We propose two alternative electrode configurations to conventional, bipolar, targeted recordings for acquiring surface electromyography. We evaluated their performance in a real-time MPR task for non-weight-bearing, lower-limb movements. We found that monopolar recordings using a circumferential electrode of conductive fabric, performed similarly to classical bipolar recordings, but were easier to use in a clinical setting. In addition, we present the first case study of a lower-limb amputee with chronic, intractable PLP treated with PME. The patient's Pain Rating Index dropped by 22 points (from 32 to 10, 68%) after 23 PME sessions. These results represent a methodological advancement and a positive proof-of-concept of PME in lower limbs. Further work remains to be conducted for a high-evidence level clinical validation of PME as a treatment of PLP in lower-limb amputees.

  5. Convolutional neural network for high-accuracy functional near-infrared spectroscopy in a brain-computer interface: three-class classification of rest, right-, and left-hand motor execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakoolwilaiwan, Thanawin; Behboodi, Bahareh; Lee, Jaeseok; Kim, Kyungsoo; Choi, Ji-Woong

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop an effective brain-computer interface (BCI) method based on functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). In order to improve the performance of the BCI system in terms of accuracy, the ability to discriminate features from input signals and proper classification are desired. Previous studies have mainly extracted features from the signal manually, but proper features need to be selected carefully. To avoid performance degradation caused by manual feature selection, we applied convolutional neural networks (CNNs) as the automatic feature extractor and classifier for fNIRS-based BCI. In this study, the hemodynamic responses evoked by performing rest, right-, and left-hand motor execution tasks were measured on eight healthy subjects to compare performances. Our CNN-based method provided improvements in classification accuracy over conventional methods employing the most commonly used features of mean, peak, slope, variance, kurtosis, and skewness, classified by support vector machine (SVM) and artificial neural network (ANN). Specifically, up to 6.49% and 3.33% improvement in classification accuracy was achieved by CNN compared with SVM and ANN, respectively.

  6. Real-time Classification of Non-Weight Bearing Lower-Limb Movements Using EMG to Facilitate Phantom Motor Execution: Engineering and Case Study Application on Phantom Limb Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Lendaro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phantom motor execution (PME, facilitated by myoelectric pattern recognition (MPR and virtual reality (VR, is positioned to be a viable option to treat phantom limb pain (PLP. A recent clinical trial using PME on upper-limb amputees with chronic intractable PLP yielded promising results. However, further work in the area of signal acquisition is needed if such technology is to be used on subjects with lower-limb amputation. We propose two alternative electrode configurations to conventional, bipolar, targeted recordings for acquiring surface electromyography. We evaluated their performance in a real-time MPR task for non-weight-bearing, lower-limb movements. We found that monopolar recordings using a circumferential electrode of conductive fabric, performed similarly to classical bipolar recordings, but were easier to use in a clinical setting. In addition, we present the first case study of a lower-limb amputee with chronic, intractable PLP treated with PME. The patient’s Pain Rating Index dropped by 22 points (from 32 to 10, 68% after 23 PME sessions. These results represent a methodological advancement and a positive proof-of-concept of PME in lower limbs. Further work remains to be conducted for a high-evidence level clinical validation of PME as a treatment of PLP in lower-limb amputees.

  7. Ultrafast Excited State Dynamics in Molecular Motors : Coupling of Motor Length to Medium Viscosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conyard, Jamie; Stacko, Peter; Chen, Jiawen; McDonagh, Sophie; Hall, Christopher R.; Laptenok, Sergey P.; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.; Meech, Stephen R.

    2017-01-01

    Photochemically driven molecular motors convert the energy of incident radiation to intramolecular rotational motion. The motor molecules considered here execute four step unidirectional rotational motion. This comprises a pair of successive light induced isomerizations to a metastable state

  8. Mirrored, imagined and executed movements differentially activate sensorimotor cortex in amputees with and without phantom limb pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diers, Martin; Christmann, Christoph; Koeppe, Caroline; Ruf, Matthias; Flor, Herta

    2010-05-01

    Extended viewing of movements of the intact hand in a mirror as well as motor imagery has been shown to decrease pain in phantom pain patients. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the neural correlates of mirrored, imagined and executed hand movements in 14 upper extremity amputees - 7 with phantom limb pain (PLP) and 7 without phantom limb pain (non-PLP) and 9 healthy controls (HC). Executed movement activated the contralateral sensorimotor area in all three groups but ipsilateral cortex was only activated in the non-PLP and HC group. Mirrored movements activated the sensorimotor cortex contralateral to the hand seen in the mirror in the non-PLP and the HC but not in the PLP. Imagined movement activated the supplementary motor area in all groups and the contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex in the non-PLP and HC but not in the PLP. Mirror- and movement-related activation in the bilateral sensorimotor cortex in the mirror movement condition and activation in the sensorimotor cortex ipsilateral to the moved hand in the executed movement condition were significantly negatively correlated with the magnitude of phantom limb pain in the amputee group. Further research must identify the causal mechanisms related to mirror treatment, imagined movements or movements of the other hand and associated changes in pain perception. Copyright 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Briefing Executives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    in order to move forward. You have to report some bad news. Or maybe it is just an information brief to someone with a reputation for asking hard...face value . He or she will undoubtedly have many questions for you to answer and clarify, and, in the end, the executive may decide on a different...misunderstanding, and we were able to move on. Getting up the nerve to push back wasn’t easy—Meyer had a reputation for gruffness and great technical

  10. Effects of proprioception training with exercise imagery on balance ability of stroke patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    HYUNGJIN LEE; HEESOO KIM; MYUNGHWAN AHN; YOUNGYOUL YOU

    2015-01-01

    [Abstract.] [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine and compare the effects of proprioceptive training accompanied by motor imagery training and general proprioceptive training on the balance of stroke patients...

  11. Effects of proprioception training with exercise imagery on balance ability of stroke patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Hyungjin; Kim, Heesoo; Ahn, Myunghwan; You, Youngyoul

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine and compare the effects of proprioceptive training accompanied by motor imagery training and general proprioceptive training on the balance of stroke patients...

  12. The Resting Motor Threshold - Restless or Resting?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karabanov, Anke Ninija; Raffin, Estelle Emeline; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2015-01-01

    , the RMT of the right first dorsal interosseus muscle was repeatedly determined using a threshold-hunting procedure while participants performed motor imagery and visual attention tasks with the right or left hand. Data were analyzed using repeated-measure ANOVA. Results RMT differed depending on which...... hand performed the task (P = 0.003). RMT of right FDI was lower during motor imagery than during visual attention of the right hand (P = 0.002), but did not differ between left-hand tasks (P = 0.988). Conclusions State-dependent changes of RMT occur in absence of overt motor activity and can...

  13. Performance improvements from imagery:evidence that internal visual imagery is superior to external visual imagery for slalom performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichola eCallow

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We report three experiments investigating the hypothesis that use of internal visual imagery (IVI would be superior to external visual imagery (EVI for the performance of different slalom-based motor tasks. In Experiment 1, three groups of participants (IVI, EVI, and a control group performed a driving-simulation slalom task. The IVI group achieved significantly quicker lap times than EVI and the control group. In Experiment 2, participants performed a downhill running slalom task under both IVI and EVI conditions. Performance was again quickest in the IVI compared to EVI condition, with no differences in accuracy. Experiment 3 used the same group design as Experiment 1, but with participants performing a downhill ski-slalom task. Results revealed the IVI group to be significantly more accurate than the control group, with no significant differences in time taken to complete the task. These results support the beneficial effects of IVI for slalom-based tasks, and significantly advances our knowledge related to the differential effects of visual imagery perspectives on motor performance.

  14. Performance improvements from imagery: evidence that internal visual imagery is superior to external visual imagery for slalom performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callow, Nichola; Roberts, Ross; Hardy, Lew; Jiang, Dan; Edwards, Martin Gareth

    2013-01-01

    We report three experiments investigating the hypothesis that use of internal visual imagery (IVI) would be superior to external visual imagery (EVI) for the performance of different slalom-based motor tasks. In Experiment 1, three groups of participants (IVI, EVI, and a control group) performed a driving-simulation slalom task. The IVI group achieved significantly quicker lap times than EVI and the control group. In Experiment 2, participants performed a downhill running slalom task under both IVI and EVI conditions. Performance was again quickest in the IVI compared to EVI condition, with no differences in accuracy. Experiment 3 used the same group design as Experiment 1, but with participants performing a downhill ski-slalom task. Results revealed the IVI group to be significantly more accurate than the control group, with no significant differences in time taken to complete the task. These results support the beneficial effects of IVI for slalom-based tasks, and significantly advances our knowledge related to the differential effects of visual imagery perspectives on motor performance.

  15. Imagery ability and imagery use in individual and team sports

    OpenAIRE

    Peltomäki, Ville

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine whether individual and team sport athletes differ in their imagery use and imagery ability, and to examine whether level of sport participation or weekly sport involvement are variables that differentiate between athletes on the basis of their levels of imagery ability and imagery use. Two measures were conducted. The Sport Imagery Ability Measure (SIAM) is a 48-item self-report measure that uses four sport related scenes to examine the dimensional,...

  16. Executing Liveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2018-01-01

    -actions this thesis examines the complexity of our current computational environment as evident in the increasing use of data queries, the instantaneous transmission of data streams and the seamless running of automated agents. By drawing together the methods of reflexive practice, close reading, iterative trials...... implications of the reading, writing, running and execution of code, which I refer to as ‘reflexive coding practice.’ This methodology provides an applied approach to computational processes, invisible architectures and a means to reflect on cultural issues through experimentation and practice. A materialist...... scales. The analysis and discussion contributes to a widening of critical attention to software (art) studies primarily in terms of its distinct focus on the live dimension of code. Furthermore, it expands the debate in media and performance studies, providing technical description and analysis...

  17. Auditory-motor learning influences auditory memory for music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2012-05-01

    In two experiments, we investigated how auditory-motor learning influences performers' memory for music. Skilled pianists learned novel melodies in four conditions: auditory only (listening), motor only (performing without sound), strongly coupled auditory-motor (normal performance), and weakly coupled auditory-motor (performing along with auditory recordings). Pianists' recognition of the learned melodies was better following auditory-only or auditory-motor (weakly coupled and strongly coupled) learning than following motor-only learning, and better following strongly coupled auditory-motor learning than following auditory-only learning. Auditory and motor imagery abilities modulated the learning effects: Pianists with high auditory imagery scores had better recognition following motor-only learning, suggesting that auditory imagery compensated for missing auditory feedback at the learning stage. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 with melodies that contained greater variation in acoustic features. Melodies that were slower and less variable in tempo and intensity were remembered better following weakly coupled auditory-motor learning. These findings suggest that motor learning can aid performers' auditory recognition of music beyond auditory learning alone, and that motor learning is influenced by individual abilities in mental imagery and by variation in acoustic features.

  18. Phantom limb pain, cortical reorganization and the therapeutic effect of mental imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, D. M.; Kelly, S.; Roberts, N.; Nurmikko, T.

    2008-01-01

    Using functional MRI (fMRI) we investigated 13 upper limb amputees with phantom limb pain (PLP) during hand and lip movement, before and after intensive 6-week training in mental imagery. Prior to training, activation elicited during lip purse showed evidence of cortical reorganization of motor (M1) and somatosensory (S1) cortices, expanding from lip area to hand area, which correlated with pain scores. In addition, during imagined movement of the phantom hand, and executed movement of the intact hand, group maps demonstrated activation not only in bilateral M1 and S1 hand area, but also lip area, showing a two-way process of reorganization. In healthy participants, activation during lip purse and imagined and executed movement of the non-dominant hand was confined to the respective cortical representation areas only. Following training, patients reported a significant reduction in intensity and unpleasantness of constant pain and exacerbations, with a corresponding elimination of cortical reorganization. Post hoc analyses showed that intensity of constant pain, but not exacerbations, correlated with reduction in cortical reorganization. The results of this study add to our current understanding of the pathophysiology of PLP, underlining the reversibility of neuroplastic changes in this patient population while offering a novel, simple method of pain relief. PMID:18567624

  19. NOAA Emergency Response Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is in response to natural disasters. The aerial photography missions were conducted by the NOAA Remote Sensing Division. The majority...

  20. Coastal California Digital Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This digital ortho-imagery dataset is a survey of coastal California. The project area consists of approximately 3774 square miles. The project design of the digital...

  1. SHEBA Reconnaissance Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of optical band reconnaissance imagery of the Surface Heat Balance of the Arctic (SHEBA) site acquired between August 1997 and September 1998....

  2. Imagery and Improvisation in Dance in the Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magruder, Ella

    1981-01-01

    Improvisation and imagery should be used to strengthen the thin bond between creativity and motor development in children. The approach to dance as an improvisational tool should be made more concrete when working with special populations such as mentally handicapped students. (JN)

  3. Degraded Imagery/Art Technique for the Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agard, Richard

    Developed for handicapped artists, Degraded Imagery is a technique whereby images can be extracted and refined from a photograph or a collage of photographs. The advantage of this process is that it requires a lower degree of fine motor skills to produce a quality image from a photograph than it does to create a quality image on a blank piece of…

  4. KINESTHETIC IMAGERY TRAINING OF FORCEFUL MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS INCREASES BRAIN SIGNAL AND MUSCLE STRENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan X Yao

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of training using internal imagery (IMI; also known as kinesthetic imagery or first person imagery with that of external imagery (EMI; also known as third-person visual imagery of strong muscle contractions on voluntary muscle strengthening. Eighteen young, healthy subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups (6 in each group: internal motor imagery (IMI, external motor imagery (EMI, or a no-practice control (CTRL group. Training lasted for 6 weeks (~15 min/day, 5 days/week. The participants’ right arm elbow-flexion strength, muscle electrical activity and movement-related cortical potential (MRCP were evaluated before and after training. Only the IMI group showed significant strength gained (10.8% while the EMI (4.8% and CTRL (-3.3% groups did not. Only the IMI group showed a significant elevation in MRCP on scalp locations over both the primary motor (M1 and supplementary motor cortices (EMI group over M1 only and this increase was significantly greater than that of EMI and CTRL groups. These results suggest that training by IMI of forceful muscle contractions was effective in improving voluntary muscle strength without physical exercise. We suggest that the IMI training likely strengthened brain-to-muscle (BTM command that may have improved motor unit recruitment and activation, and led to greater muscle output. Training by internal motor imagery of forceful muscle contractions may change the activity level of cortical motor control network, which may translate into greater descending command to the target muscle and increase its strength.

  5. Fuzzy Entropy Relevance Analysis in DWT and EMD for BCI Motor Imagery ApplicationsAnálisis de Relevancia con Entropía Difusa en Aplicaciones BCI con Imaginación Motora mediante Descomposiciones DWT y EMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Medina Salgado

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rhythm analysis in advanced signal processing methods has long of interest in application areas such as diagnosis of brain disorders, epilepsy, sleep or anesthesia analysis, and more recently in brain computer interfaces. In this paper the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT and Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD techniques are applied to extract the brain rhythms from electroencephalographic (EEG signals in motor imagination tasks, of left-and right hand, using public dataset BCI Competition 2003. Then the brain rhythms are characterized by statistical features. Additionally, fuzzy entropy algorithm was used to perform the relevance analysis to determine the most important features in the training set. Classification stage was performed using K-NN classifiers and SVM, obtaining classification accuracy up to 100% with EMD. Classification results allow us to infer that the techniques used are appropriate to generate solutions in BCI applications for recognizing motor imagination in people with motor disabilities.

  6. Effects of Mental Imagery on Muscular Strength in Healthy and Patient Participants: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimani, Maamer; Tod, David; Chaabene, Helmi; Miarka, Bianca; Chamari, Karim

    2016-09-01

    The aims of the present review were to (i) provide a critical overview of the current literature on the effects of mental imagery on muscular strength in healthy participants and patients with immobilization of the upper extremity (i.e., hand) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), (ii) identify potential moderators and mediators of the "mental imagery-strength performance" relationship and (iii) determine the relative contribution of electromyography (EMG) and brain activities, neural and physiological adaptations in the mental imagery-strength performance relationship. This paper also discusses the theoretical and practical implications of the contemporary literature and suggests possible directions for future research. Overall, the results reveal that the combination of mental imagery and physical practice is more efficient than, or at least comparable to, physical execution with respect to strength performance. Imagery prevention intervention was also effective in reducing of strength loss after short-term muscle immobilization and ACL. The present review also indicates advantageous effects of internal imagery (range from 2.6 to 136.3%) for strength performance compared with external imagery (range from 4.8 to 23.2%). Typically, mental imagery with muscular activity was higher in active than passive muscles, and imagining "lifting a heavy object" resulted in more EMG activity compared with imagining "lifting a lighter object". Thus, in samples of students, novices, or youth male and female athletes, internal mental imagery has a greater effect on muscle strength than external mental imagery does. Imagery ability, motivation, and self-efficacy have been shown to be the variables mediating the effect of mental imagery on strength performance. Finally, the greater effects of internal imagery than those of external imagery could be explained in terms of neural adaptations, stronger brain activation, higher muscle excitation, greater somatic and sensorimotor

  7. Effects of Mental Imagery on Muscular Strength in Healthy and Patient Participants: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maamer Slimani, David Tod, Helmi Chaabene, Bianca Miarka, Karim Chamari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present review were to (i provide a critical overview of the current literature on the effects of mental imagery on muscular strength in healthy participants and patients with immobilization of the upper extremity (i.e., hand and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL, (ii identify potential moderators and mediators of the “mental imagery-strength performance” relationship and (iii determine the relative contribution of electromyography (EMG and brain activities, neural and physiological adaptations in the mental imagery-strength performance relationship. This paper also discusses the theoretical and practical implications of the contemporary literature and suggests possible directions for future research. Overall, the results reveal that the combination of mental imagery and physical practice is more efficient than, or at least comparable to, physical execution with respect to strength performance. Imagery prevention intervention was also effective in reducing of strength loss after short-term muscle immobilization and ACL. The present review also indicates advantageous effects of internal imagery (range from 2.6 to 136.3% for strength performance compared with external imagery (range from 4.8 to 23.2%. Typically, mental imagery with muscular activity was higher in active than passive muscles, and imagining “lifting a heavy object” resulted in more EMG activity compared with imagining “lifting a lighter object”. Thus, in samples of students, novices, or youth male and female athletes, internal mental imagery has a greater effect on muscle strength than external mental imagery does. Imagery ability, motivation, and self-efficacy have been shown to be the variables mediating the effect of mental imagery on strength performance. Finally, the greater effects of internal imagery than those of external imagery could be explained in terms of neural adaptations, stronger brain activation, higher muscle excitation, greater somatic

  8. Motor cortical activity during motor tasks is normal in patients with complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velzen, Gijsbrecht A J; Marinus, Johan; van Dijk, J Gert; van Zwet, Erik W; Schipper, Inger B; van Hilten, Jacobus J

    2015-01-01

    Motor dysfunction in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is often considered a functional movement disorder. Earlier studies in patients with functional movement disorders found evidence of cortical inhibition during explicit but not implicit motor tasks, suggesting active inhibition from other brain areas. In this study, we explored whether active inhibition occurs in CRPS patients. We compared patients with CRPS with 2 control groups: healthy controls matched for age and sex, and patients whose hand was immobilized to treat a scaphoid fracture. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation to measure corticospinal excitability at rest and during motor imagery (explicit motor task) and motor observation (implicit motor task). Motor corticospinal excitation measured at rest and during implicit and explicit motor tasks was similar for CRPS patients and healthy controls. Patients with an immobilized hand showed an absence of motor cortical excitation of the corresponding hemisphere during motor imagery of tasks involving the immobilized hand, but not during motor observation. The normal motor cortical processing during motor imagery and motor observation found in the corresponding hemisphere of CPRS patients suggests that the nature of motor dysfunction in this condition differs from that described in literature for patients with functional paresis or under circumstances of limb immobilization. This study shows that the nature of motor dysfunction in CRPS patients differs from that encountered in patients with functional paresis or under circumstances of limb immobilization. This information is important for patients and pain clinicians and could help prevent implementation of therapeutic strategies based on incorrect assumptions. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mental imagery for musical changes in loudness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freya eBailes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Musicians imagine music during mental rehearsal, when reading from a score, and while composing. An important characteristic of music is its temporality. Among the parameters that vary through time is sound intensity, perceived as patterns of loudness. Studies of mental imagery for melodies (i.e. pitch and rhythm show interference from concurrent musical pitch and verbal tasks, but how we represent musical changes in loudness is unclear. Theories suggest that our perceptions of loudness change relate to our perceptions of force or effort, implying a motor representation. An experiment was conducted to investigate the modalities that contribute to imagery for loudness change. Musicians performed a within-subjects loudness change recall task, comprising 48 trials. First, participants heard a musical scale played with varying patterns of loudness, which they were asked to remember. There followed an empty interval of 8 seconds (nil distractor control, or the presentation of a series of 4 sine tones, or 4 visual letters or 3 conductor gestures, also to be remembered. Participants then saw an unfolding score of the notes of the scale, during which they were to imagine the corresponding scale in their mind while adjusting a slider to indicate the imagined changes in loudness. Finally, participants performed a recognition task of the tone, letter or gesture sequence. Based on the motor hypothesis, we predicted that observing and remembering conductor gestures would impair loudness change scale recall, while observing and remembering tone or letter string stimuli would not. Results support this prediction, with loudness change recalled less accurately in the gestures condition than in the control condition. An effect of musical training suggests that auditory and motor imagery ability may be closely related to domain expertise.

  10. Mental Imagery for Musical Changes in Loudness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailes, Freya; Bishop, Laura; Stevens, Catherine J.; Dean, Roger T.

    2012-01-01

    Musicians imagine music during mental rehearsal, when reading from a score, and while composing. An important characteristic of music is its temporality. Among the parameters that vary through time is sound intensity, perceived as patterns of loudness. Studies of mental imagery for melodies (i.e., pitch and rhythm) show interference from concurrent musical pitch and verbal tasks, but how we represent musical changes in loudness is unclear. Theories suggest that our perceptions of loudness change relate to our perceptions of force or effort, implying a motor representation. An experiment was conducted to investigate the modalities that contribute to imagery for loudness change. Musicians performed a within-subjects loudness change recall task, comprising 48 trials. First, participants heard a musical scale played with varying patterns of loudness, which they were asked to remember. There followed an empty interval of 8 s (nil distractor control), or the presentation of a series of four sine tones, or four visual letters or three conductor gestures, also to be remembered. Participants then saw an unfolding score of the notes of the scale, during which they were to imagine the corresponding scale in their mind while adjusting a slider to indicate the imagined changes in loudness. Finally, participants performed a recognition task of the tone, letter, or gesture sequence. Based on the motor hypothesis, we predicted that observing and remembering conductor gestures would impair loudness change scale recall, while observing and remembering tone or letter string stimuli would not. Results support this prediction, with loudness change recalled less accurately in the gestures condition than in the control condition. An effect of musical training suggests that auditory and motor imagery ability may be closely related to domain expertise. PMID:23227014

  11. Measuring Creative Imagery Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota M. Jankowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA, developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail, originality (the ability to produce unique imagery, and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery. TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of eight studies on a total sample of more than 1,700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument’s validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science.

  12. Measuring creative imagery abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Dorota M.; Karwowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative visual imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA), developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail), originality (the ability to produce unique imagery), and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery). TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of nine studies on a total sample of more than 1700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument's validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science. PMID:26539140

  13. Stabilizing posture through imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Eleonora; Manzoni, Diego; Santarcangelo, Enrica L

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the general population, suppression of vision modulates body sway by increasing the center of pressure (CoP) velocity, while a light fingertip touch reduces the area of the CoP displacement in blindfolded subjects. This study assessed whether imagined fixation and fingertip touch differentially stabilize posture in subjects with high (highs) and low (lows) hypnotizability. Visual and tactile imageries were ineffective in lows. In highs, the effects of visual imagery could not be evaluated because the real information was ineffective; real tactile stimulation was effective only on velocity, but the imagery effects could not be definitely assessed owing to low effect size. The highs' larger variability could account for this and represents the most important finding.

  14. Mental imagery affects subsequent automatic defense responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel A Hagenaars

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic defense responses promote survival and appropriate action under threat. They have also been associated with the development of threat-related psychiatric syndromes. Targeting such automatic responses during threat may be useful in populations with frequent threat exposure. Here, two experiments explored whether mental imagery as a pre-trauma manipulation could influence fear bradycardia (a core characteristic of freezing during subsequent analogue trauma (affective picture viewing. Image-based interventions have proven successful in the treatment of threat-related disorders, and are easily applicable. In Experiment 1 43 healthy participants were randomly assigned to an imagery script condition. Participants executed a passive viewing task with blocks of neutral, pleasant and unpleasant pictures after listening to an auditory script that was either related (with a positive or a negative outcome or unrelated to the unpleasant pictures from the passive viewing task. Heart rate was assessed during script listening and during passive viewing. Imagining negative related scripts resulted in greater bradycardia (neutral-unpleasant contrast than imagining positive scripts, especially unrelated. This effect was replicated in Experiment 2 (N = 51, again in the neutral-unpleasant contrast. An extra no-script condition showed that bradycardia was not induced by the negative related script, but rather that a positive script attenuated bradycardia. These preliminary results might indicate reduced vigilance after unrelated positive events. Future research should replicate these findings using a larger sample. Either way, the findings show that highly automatic defense behavior can be influenced by relatively simple mental imagery manipulations.

  15. NAIP 2015 Imagery Feedback Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The NAIP 2015 Imagery Feedback map allows users to make comments and observations about the quality of the 2015 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  16. NAIP 2017 Imagery Feedback Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The NAIP 2017 Imagery Feedback map allows users to make comments and observations about the quality of the 2017 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  17. Vibrato changes following imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorcroft, Lynda; Kenny, Dianna T; Oates, Jennifer

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated acoustic change in singers' vibrato following imagery and non-imagery tasks. The study used a fully randomized cross-over (six conditions × two times) block design, in which each singer received each intervention in random order. Data were analyzed using the general linear model (GLM). Main effects for time and condition and interaction effects (time × condition) were calculated for each dependent measure. Six classically trained female singers recorded an 8-bar solo before and after three nonvocal, 25 minute tasks. Each singer performed the tasks in a different randomized order in a single sitting. Task 1 involved imagery of the breath directed up and down as far from the larynx as possible; Task 2 used Braille music code, enabling the singer to engage in tactile, kinesthetic and visual imagery related to music but unrelated to breath function; Task 3 was a nonimagery activity requiring the completion of a cloze passage about breath function. From the 11 longest notes in each solo, spectrograms of the partials were produced and assessed for pre- to post-test changes in vibrato rate, vibrato extent, and sound pressure level (SPL). Only the breathing imagery task produced significantly more moderate and regular vibrato rates. Vibrato extent was not responsive to any intervention. Findings indicate that breathing imagery regulates singers' vibrato in a manner consistent with that of a more proficient, warmed-up voice. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An emerging paradigm: A strength-based approach to exploring mental imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadhg Eoghan Macintyre

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mental imagery, or the ability to simulate in the mind information that is not currently perceived by the senses, has attracted considerable research interest in psychology since the early 1970s. Within the past two decades, research in this field – as in cognitive psychology more generally - has been dominated by neuroscientific methods that typically involve comparisons between the imagery performance of participants from clinical populations with those who exhibit apparently normal cognitive functioning. Although this approach has been valuable in identifying key neural substrates of visual imagery, it has been less successful in understanding the possible mechanisms underlying another simulation process, namely, motor imagery or the mental rehearsal of actions without engaging in the actual movements involved. In order to address this oversight, a strength-based approach has been postulated which is concerned with understanding those on the high ability end of the imagery performance spectrum. Guided by the expert performance approach and principles of ecological validity, converging methods have to potential to enable imagery researchers to investigate the neural ‘signature’ of elite performers, for example. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explain the origin, nature and implications of the strength-based approach to mental imagery. Following a brief explanation of the background to this latter approach, we highlight some important theoretical advances yielded by recent research on mental practice, mental travel and meta-imagery processes in expert athletes and dancers. Next, we consider the methodological implications of using a strength-based approach to investigate imagery processes. The implications for the field of motor cognition are outlined and specific research questions, in dynamic imagery, imagery perspective, measurement, multi-sensory imagery and metacognition, that may benefit from this approach in the future

  19. The Imagery-Creativity Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels-McGhee, Susan; Davis, Gary A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews historical highlights of the imagery-creativity connection, including early and contemporary accounts, along with notable examples of imagery in the creative process. It also looks at cross-modal imagery (synesthesia), a model of image-based creativity and the creative process, and implications for strengthening creativity by…

  20. Joint Influence of Metaphor Familiarity and Mental Imagery Ability on Action Metaphor Comprehension: An Event-Related Potential Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shen, Zih-Yu; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Lee, Chia-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates whether an individual’s mental imagery ability, in addition to metaphor familiarity, affects the degree of sensory-motor involvement during action metaphor comprehension...

  1. Movement Sonification: Audiovisual benefits on motor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Andreas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Processes of motor control and learning in sports as well as in motor rehabilitation are based on perceptual functions and emergent motor representations. Here a new method of movement sonification is described which is designed to tune in more comprehensively the auditory system into motor perception to enhance motor learning. Usually silent features of the cyclic movement pattern "indoor rowing" are sonified in real time to make them additionally available to the auditory system when executing the movement. Via real time sonification movement perception can be enhanced in terms of temporal precision and multi-channel integration. But beside the contribution of a single perceptual channel to motor perception and motor representation also mechanisms of multisensory integration can be addressed, if movement sonification is configured adequately: Multimodal motor representations consisting of at least visual, auditory and proprioceptive components - can be shaped subtly resulting in more precise motor control and enhanced motor learning.

  2. Motor Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...

  3. Eye movements may cause motor contagion effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Merryn D; de Grosbois, John; Lung, Tiffany; Tremblay, Luc; Pratt, Jay; Welsh, Timothy N

    2017-06-01

    When a person executes a movement, the movement is more errorful while observing another person's actions that are incongruent rather than congruent with the executed action. This effect is known as "motor contagion". Accounts of this effect are often grounded in simulation mechanisms: increased movement error emerges because the motor codes associated with observed actions compete with motor codes of the goal action. It is also possible, however, that the increased movement error is linked to eye movements that are executed simultaneously with the hand movement because oculomotor and manual-motor systems are highly interconnected. In the present study, participants performed a motor contagion task in which they executed horizontal arm movements while observing a model making either vertical (incongruent) or horizontal (congruent) movements under three conditions: no instruction, maintain central fixation, or track the model's hand with the eyes. A significant motor contagion-like effect was only found in the 'track' condition. Thus, 'motor contagion' in the present task may be an artifact of simultaneously executed incongruent eye movements. These data are discussed in the context of stimulation and associative learning theories, and raise eye movements as a critical methodological consideration for future work on motor contagion.

  4. Solar Imagery - Chromosphere - Calcium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of full-disk images of the sun in Calcium (Ca) II K wavelength (393.4 nm). Ca II K imagery reveal magnetic structures of the sun from about 500...

  5. Kinesthetic imagery training of forceful muscle contractions increases brain signal and muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wan X; Ranganathan, Vinoth K; Allexandre, Didier; Siemionow, Vlodek; Yue, Guang H

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of training using internal imagery (IMI; also known as kinesthetic imagery or first person imagery) with that of external imagery (EMI; also known as third-person visual imagery) of strong muscle contractions on voluntary muscle strengthening. Eighteen young, healthy subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups (6 in each group): internal motor imagery (IMI), external motor imagery (EMI), or a no-practice control (CTRL) group. Training lasted for 6 weeks (~15 min/day, 5 days/week). The participants' right arm elbow-flexion strength, muscle electrical activity, and movement-related cortical potential (MRCP) were evaluated before and after training. Only the IMI group showed significant strength gained (10.8%) while the EMI (4.8%) and CTRL (-3.3%) groups did not. Only the IMI group showed a significant elevation in MRCP on scalp locations over both the primary motor (M1) and supplementary motor cortices (EMI group over M1 only) and this increase was significantly greater than that of EMI and CTRL groups. These results suggest that training by IMI of forceful muscle contractions was effective in improving voluntary muscle strength without physical exercise. We suggest that the IMI training likely strengthened brain-to-muscle (BTM) command that may have improved motor unit recruitment and activation, and led to greater muscle output. Training by IMI of forceful muscle contractions may change the activity level of cortical motor control network, which may translate into greater descending command to the target muscle and increase its strength.

  6. Training visual imagery: Improvements of metacognition, but not imagery strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanne Lynn Rademaker

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual imagery has been closely linked to brain mechanisms involved in perception. Can visual imagery, like visual perception, improve by means of training? Previous research has demonstrated that people can reliably evaluate the vividness of single episodes of sensory imagination – might the metacognition of imagery also improve over the course of training? We had participants imagine colored Gabor patterns for an hour a day, over the course of five consecutive days, and again two weeks after training. Participants rated the subjective vividness and effort of their mental imagery on each trial. The influence of imagery on subsequent binocular rivalry dominance was taken as our measure of imagery strength. We found no overall effect of training on imagery strength. Training did, however, improve participant’s metacognition of imagery. Trial-by-trial ratings of vividness gained predictive power on subsequent rivalry dominance as a function of training. These data suggest that, while imagery strength might be immune to training in the current context, people’s metacognitive understanding of mental imagery can improve with practice.

  7. Selective Efficacy of Static and Dynamic Imagery in Different States of Physical Fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Ferreira Dias Kanthack

    Full Text Available There is compelling evidence that motor imagery contributes to improved motor performance, and recent work showed that dynamic motor imagery (dMI might provide additional benefits by comparison with traditional MI practice. However, the efficacy of motor imagery in different states of physical fatigue remains largely unknown, especially as imagery accuracy may be hampered by the physical fatigue states elicited by training. We investigated the effect of static motor imagery (sMI and dMI on free-throw accuracy in 10 high-level basketball athletes, both in a non-fatigued state (Experiment 1 and immediately after an incremental running test completed until exhaustion (20 m shuttle run-test-Experiment 2. We collected perceived exhaustion and heart rate to quantify the subjective experience of fatigue and energy expenditure. We found that dMI brought better shooting performance than sMI, except when athletes were physically exhausted. These findings shed light on the conditions eliciting optimal use of sMI and dMI. In particular, considering that the current physical state affects body representation, performing dMI under fatigue may result in mismatches between actual and predicted body states.

  8. Are Motor Skills and Motor Inhibitions Impaired in Tourette Syndrome? A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Navkiran Kalsi; Renata Tambelli; Paola Aceto; Carlo Lai

    2015-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental motor disorder described as an inability to inhibit unwanted motor movements. This article reviews research on the execution and inhibition of voluntary motor movements in TS. Over last two decades, a number of studies have addressed the structural and functional deficits associated with this syndrome. Only a limited number of studies have assessed the motor skills in these patients but have failed to reach any conclusive outcome. In the domain o...

  9. Visuomotor learning by passive motor experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eSakamoto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Humans can adapt to unfamiliar dynamic and/or kinematic transformations through the active motor experience. Recent studies of neurorehabilitation using robots or brain-computer interface (BCI technology suggest that passive motor experience would play a measurable role in motor recovery, however our knowledge of passive motor learning is limited. To clarify the effects of passive motor experience on human motor learning, we performed arm reaching experiments guided by a robotic manipulandum. The results showed that the passive motor experience had an anterograde transfer effect on the subsequent motor execution, whereas no retrograde interference was confirmed in the ABA paradigm experiment. This suggests that the passive experience of the error between visual and proprioceptive sensations leads to the limited but actual compensation of behavior, although it is fragile and cannot be consolidated as a persistent motor memory.

  10. Executive functioning in highly talented soccer players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lot Verburgh

    Full Text Available Executive functions might be important for successful performance in sports, particularly in team sports requiring quick anticipation and adaptation to continuously changing situations in the field. The executive functions motor inhibition, attention and visuospatial working memory were examined in highly talented soccer players. Eighty-four highly talented youth soccer players (mean age 11.9, and forty-two age-matched amateur soccer players (mean age 11.8 in the age range 8 to 16 years performed a Stop Signal task (motor inhibition, the Attention Network Test (alerting, orienting, and executive attention and a visuospatial working memory task. The highly talented soccer players followed the talent development program of the youth academy of a professional soccer club and played at the highest national soccer competition for their age. The amateur soccer players played at a regular soccer club in the same geographical region as the highly talented soccer players and play in a regular regional soccer competition. Group differences were tested using analyses of variance. The highly talented group showed superior motor inhibition as measured by stop signal reaction time (SSRT on the Stop Signal task and a larger alerting effect on the Attention Network Test, indicating an enhanced ability to attain and maintain an alert state. No group differences were found for orienting and executive attention and visuospatial working memory. A logistic regression model with group (highly talented or amateur as dependent variable and executive function measures that significantly distinguished between groups as predictors showed that these measures differentiated highly talented soccer players from amateur soccer players with 89% accuracy. Highly talented youth soccer players outperform youth amateur players on suppressing ongoing motor responses and on the ability to attain and maintain an alert state; both may be essential for success in soccer.

  11. Executive functioning in highly talented soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburgh, Lot; Scherder, Erik J A; van Lange, Paul A M; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions might be important for successful performance in sports, particularly in team sports requiring quick anticipation and adaptation to continuously changing situations in the field. The executive functions motor inhibition, attention and visuospatial working memory were examined in highly talented soccer players. Eighty-four highly talented youth soccer players (mean age 11.9), and forty-two age-matched amateur soccer players (mean age 11.8) in the age range 8 to 16 years performed a Stop Signal task (motor inhibition), the Attention Network Test (alerting, orienting, and executive attention) and a visuospatial working memory task. The highly talented soccer players followed the talent development program of the youth academy of a professional soccer club and played at the highest national soccer competition for their age. The amateur soccer players played at a regular soccer club in the same geographical region as the highly talented soccer players and play in a regular regional soccer competition. Group differences were tested using analyses of variance. The highly talented group showed superior motor inhibition as measured by stop signal reaction time (SSRT) on the Stop Signal task and a larger alerting effect on the Attention Network Test, indicating an enhanced ability to attain and maintain an alert state. No group differences were found for orienting and executive attention and visuospatial working memory. A logistic regression model with group (highly talented or amateur) as dependent variable and executive function measures that significantly distinguished between groups as predictors showed that these measures differentiated highly talented soccer players from amateur soccer players with 89% accuracy. Highly talented youth soccer players outperform youth amateur players on suppressing ongoing motor responses and on the ability to attain and maintain an alert state; both may be essential for success in soccer.

  12. Executive Functioning in Highly Talented Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburgh, Lot; Scherder, Erik J. A.; van Lange, Paul A.M.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions might be important for successful performance in sports, particularly in team sports requiring quick anticipation and adaptation to continuously changing situations in the field. The executive functions motor inhibition, attention and visuospatial working memory were examined in highly talented soccer players. Eighty-four highly talented youth soccer players (mean age 11.9), and forty-two age-matched amateur soccer players (mean age 11.8) in the age range 8 to 16 years performed a Stop Signal task (motor inhibition), the Attention Network Test (alerting, orienting, and executive attention) and a visuospatial working memory task. The highly talented soccer players followed the talent development program of the youth academy of a professional soccer club and played at the highest national soccer competition for their age. The amateur soccer players played at a regular soccer club in the same geographical region as the highly talented soccer players and play in a regular regional soccer competition. Group differences were tested using analyses of variance. The highly talented group showed superior motor inhibition as measured by stop signal reaction time (SSRT) on the Stop Signal task and a larger alerting effect on the Attention Network Test, indicating an enhanced ability to attain and maintain an alert state. No group differences were found for orienting and executive att