WorldWideScience

Sample records for exclusive economic zone

  1. 33 CFR 2.30 - Exclusive Economic Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusive Economic Zone. 2.30... JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.30 Exclusive Economic Zone. (a) With respect to the United States... States exercises sovereignty, exclusive economic zone means the zone seaward of and adjacent to the...

  2. The concept of the Economic Exclusive Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Patuzi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The important and the new concept that brought the third UN Conference of the Law of the Sea was the Economic Exclusive Zone (EEZ, requested by countries whose coasts are bordering on the oceans, seas, but also in harmony with the interests of countries which have extensive coastline or those with specific geographical features, which have a very narrow coastal zone. On December 10, 1982, nearly 120 countries signed the new United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, as one of the most significant international conferences. Part V of that Convention (more precisely Articles 55 to 75 provides for an “Exclusive Economic Zone” extending 200 nautical miles seaward from the coast. If all coastal states thus exercised their jurisdiction over their own EEZ, some 38 million square nautical miles would become their “economic patrimony”. It should be mentioned that the ocean represents 71% of the total surface of the earth and that 32% of that falls under the jurisdiction of coastal states. Consequently inside these economic zones would lie 90% of global fishing, 87% of oil deposits and 10 % of polymetallic nodules. The EEZ provisions have received widespread support and have become an integral part of international practice especially when the Convention of 1982 entered into force, also articles 55 and 86 of the Convention make it clear that the EEZ is not a part of the territorial sea, but it is a zone sui generis, with a statute of its own. Some countries had claimed 200-mile EEZ and other have established a 200- mile Exclusive Fishing Zone (EFZ. The countries benefiting the most from the EEZ concept are in order of the size of their zones: USA, Australia, Indonesia, New Zealand, Canada and Russia. If this concept was to be applied by all coastal Mediterranean States, the entire sea would be covered by EEZs of the littoral countries. The countries of the Mediterranean that would most benefit from the EEZ are Greece, Cyprus, Italy and Malta

  3. Distribution of hydromedusae from the exclusive economic zone of the west and east coasts of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.; Nair, V.R.

    Distribution and abundance of hydromedusae from the exclusive economic zone of the west and east coasts of India is carried out based on zooplankton collections (on board FORV Sagar Sampada) during the period 1985-1990. The 661 samples collected...

  4. Biological productivity and potential resources of the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.

    An assessment of the biological production and the potential fishery resources has been made based on the data collected over a period of 15 years (1976-1991). The entire Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), measuring 2.02 million km sup(2) was divided...

  5. The Legality of Foreign Military Activities in the Exclusive Economic Zone under UNCLOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geng, Jing

    2012-01-01

    During negotiations for the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), military activities in another state's Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) were a point of contention. Currently, the issue remains controversial in state practice. UNCLOS attempts to balance the differing interests of

  6. The Legality of Foreign Military Activities in the Exclusive Economic Zone under UNCLOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Geng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available During negotiations for the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS, military activities in another state's Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ were a point of contention. Currently, the issue remains controversial in state practice. UNCLOS attempts to balance the differing interests of coastal and maritime states, but is silent or ambiguous on the legality of military operations in foreign EEZs. Coastal states seek to assert increasing control over their maritime zones while maritime states prioritize the freedom of navigation. This article examines the competing views on these issues in the context of the 2009 Impeccable incident between China and the United States that occurred in the South China Sea. The issue of military activities in the EEZ will continue to be a complex subject, without clear definitions in the nature and scope of permissible activity. As state practice evolves, the potential for hostilities is high, particularly in semi-enclosed sea areas such as the South China Sea. This article concludes that states should create dialogues and form agreements to help clarify the contours of military activity in the EEZ, focusing on mutual interests, interdependence, and coexistence rather than perceiving the ocean as a zero-sum resource. 

  7. 75 FR 3180 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XT86 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

  8. 75 FR 49422 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XY14 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

  9. SEEKING AND EVALUATING THE REGULATIONS OF INDONESIA’S EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Kurnia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Regulation is the cornerstone for utilizing marine fisheries resources, and thus Indonesian Government had implemented its Constitution as basic laws and rules. Those regulations need further elaboration. Therefore, Indonesian Government established sets of laws related to the utilization of marine fisheries resources, and in its implementation, those laws and regulations should never deviate from the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia. The utilization of marine fisheries resources in Indonesia’s Exclusive Economic Zone enables the possibility of cooperation and colaboration with other countries. Therefore, Indonesia is required to seek by evaluating and complementing the laws in accordance with its Constitution. Pengaturan merupakan landasan utama pemanfaatan sumber daya perikanan, Indonesia telah menyiapkan aturan dasar yaitu Landasan Konstitusional. Pengaturan tersebut perlu penjabaran lebih lanjut. Oleh karena itu Indonesia membentuk aturan-aturan yang terkait dengan pemanfaatan sumber daya ikan dan dalam implementasinya aturan tersebut tidak boleh menyimpang dari aturan yang paling dasar. Pemanfaatan sumber daya ikan di Zona Ekonomi Eksklusif adalah pemanfaatan yang memungkinkan adanya pemanfaatan berbagi dengan negara lain maka Indonesia dituntut untuk segera dapat mencari dengan cara mengevaluasi dan melengkapi aturan sesuai dengan Landasan Konstitusional.

  10. 75 FR 41424 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Skates Management in the Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Skates Management in the Groundfish Fisheries of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... skates from the ``other species'' category to the ``target species'' category in the FMP. Amendments 96... would add skate species to the reporting codes for the BSAI groundfish fisheries. This proposed action...

  11. Delimitation of the continental shelf and exclusive economic Zone the Sea Border between Romania and Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Mereuţă

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Decision I.C.J. from The Hague, since 3rd February 2009, in the case of “Romania vs. Ukraine - the maritime delimitation in the Black Sea”, has an important role in bilateral relations and regional plans of the riparian states and thus also eliminating a potential factor of instability at the sea border between the two countries and in the Black Sea. Drawing a line of demarcation equitable maritime economic zone and continental shelf between the two countries was an example of dispute settlement in the wider Black Sea area. Snake Island was not considered relevant in substantiating the court decision, because the I.C.J. has not declared it a rock, giving it a length of 12 nautical miles territorial sea and has not ruled on the nature of this formation, in accordance with the provisions of art. 121 of the Montego Bay Convention of 1982.

  12. Basis for a valuation of the Polish Exclusive Economic Zone of the Baltic Sea: Rationale and quest for tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Marcin Węsławski

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises current knowledge of goods and servicesin the Polish Exclusive Economic Zone of the Baltic Sea ecosystem.It reviews specific properties of the Baltic that could be usedfor economic valuation. Goods and services range from the familiarresources of fish and minerals, which were valued with the ProductivityMethod, to less obvious services provided by the ecosystem suchas biofiltration in coastal sands, valued with either the ReplacementCost or Damage Cost Avoided methods. Disservices to the marineecosystem are also considered, e.g. erosion and coastal flooding,including the costs of planned mitigating measures. This paperemphasises the importance of using valuation methods to helpmake better-educated decisions for the sustainability of theBaltic Sea.

  13. The taxation jurisdiction of the ISSQN in the exclusive economic zone; A competencia tributaria do ISSQN na zona economica exclusiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raposo, Rodrigo Luis Keller [Keller Raposo Escritorio Juridico, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The oil and natural gas exploitation in the Exclusive Economic Zone will propel the economy of the country, states and municipalities, due to tax revenues, jobs creation. It will also attract new businesses needed to support all the demand created by the main service and correlates. The Tax Service, under the municipal jurisdiction, is a major source of revenue. As the services are performed on the high seas and there is no law to regulate the territorial extent of each municipality, it can be argued that certain Artificial Island (oil platform, for example) is located within the extension of municipal sovereignty, which will allow the ISS taxation, problems will arise. This paper addresses these problems. (author)

  14. 75 FR 39892 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Community Development Quota Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... economic development in western Alaska, to alleviate poverty and provide economic and social benefits for... species caught by catcher vessels targeting halibut, sablefish, or pollock CDQ. These proposed revisions... unlimited amounts of pollock while it is nominally targeting for other types of groundfish. The annual...

  15. Seasonal distribution of chlorophyll-a in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarupria, J.S.; Bhargava, R.M.S.

    measonal distribution of chlorophyll-a (chl-a)) in the different sectors of the EEZ of India was studied based on data from 430 stations over the period from 1962 to 1988. The annual average chl-a for the entire euphotic zone of EEZ was 12.0 mg m...

  16. 75 FR 79330 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; American Fisheries Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... individual vessels and companies do not harvest more than their agreed upon share of pollock. The... recommendations, together with social and economic factors, in determining TACs and other management strategies..., 605 West 4th Avenue, Suite 306, Anchorage, AK 99501. The Council will make copies of each report...

  17. 77 FR 19605 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... review, revise habitat research priority objectives, and update EFH conservation recommendations for, and... in advance, monitors actual run strength and escapement during the fishery, and utilizes in-season... yield. For the East Area, several economic, social, and ecological factors are involved in the...

  18. 78 FR 29248 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Revise Maximum Retainable Amounts of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... group and that this fishery is economically valuable enough for the CDQ groups to target. The creation... affect the impact on small entities was rejected. The ``universe'' of entities to be considered in a FRFA... thereof (e.g., user group, gear type, geographic area), that segment would be considered the universe for...

  19. Biological valorisation of the southern Baltic Sea (Polish Exclusive Economic Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Marcin Węsławski

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A biological valuation system to assess the value associated with ecosystem stability and richness (and not that from the point of view of users is proposed to provide scientific decision support for marine protected areas and marine spatial planning. The system is based on the assessment of individual species and habitat/species assemblages. An extensive set of recently collected (2007-08 and archival (1970-2000 data on the occurrence of marine benthos was analysed for the Polish Marine Areas. Based on matching data sets of sediments, the euphotic zone, temperature and salinity, as well as fetch and sea current values, a GIS model was used to visualise the results; a map indicates the two areas which are considered to be biologically the most valuable (Puck Bay and the stony shallows of the central coast.

  20. Catch composition of the Dutch pelagic fleet in the Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone during the year 2003: results of the scientific observer program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter R.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the total catches of the Dutch pelagic fleet in the Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone during the year 2003. Data have been obtained by the 'Scientific Observer Program', which monitors the catch (both landings and discards) of the Dutch fishery for small pelagics in

  1. Incidental catches of pelagic megafauna by the Dutch pelagic fleet in the Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone during the years 1999 - 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter R.; Zeeberg, J.J.; Haan, de D.; Couperus, A.S.; Mantingh, I.T.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents all registered catches of pelagic megafauna by the Dutch pelagic fleet in the Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone during the years 1999-2003. ‘By-catches’ incidentally include large species, notably cetaceans, sea turtles, sharks, rays, and some large pelagic fish such as

  2. Biology of Incidental Catch Sea Star Stellaster childreni Gray, 1840 (Echinodermata: Asteroidea, from Malaysian Borneo Exclusive Economic Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhana Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea star (class Asteroidea, phylum Echinodermata is one of the most successful marine organisms inhabiting a wide range of habitats. As one of the key stone species, sea stars are responsible for maintaining much of the local diversity of species within certain communities. Malaysian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ Resource Survey had been carried out from 16th Aug to 6th Nov 2015 and one of the invertebrate by-catch organisms is sea star Stellaster childreni Gray, 1840. This study documents morphological characters and diet of the sea star, besides providing brief descriptions of the habitats based on particle size analysis and vessel log data sheet. A total of 217 individuals had been examined throughout this study. Fragments of flora and fauna were found in the gut including Mollusca (gastropod, bivalves, and scaphopods, sponge seagrass, and seaweed as well as benthic Foraminifera. Stellaster childreni were found at depth of 45 m to 185 m in the South China Sea off Sarawak Malaysia, with various sea bottom substrata. Approximately 41% of S. childreni were found at a mixture of sandy and muddy substratum, followed by mixture of sandy and coral (19.3%, muddy substratum (17.5%, coral substratum (11.5%, and sandy areas (10.6%. The widely distributed sea star on different types of sea beds suggested healthy deep sea ecosystem; thus Malaysia should explore further potential fisheries resources in the EEZ off Sarawak coast.

  3. 77 FR 9589 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in the Western Regulatory Area... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher/processors (C/Ps) using trawl gear in the Western Regulatory...

  4. 78 FR 54592 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in the Central Regulatory Area... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher/processors (C/Ps) using trawl gear in the Central Regulatory...

  5. 78 FR 23683 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in the Central Regulatory Area... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher/processors (C/Ps) using trawl gear in the Central Regulatory...

  6. 78 FR 4346 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in the Western Regulatory Area... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher/processors (C/Ps) using trawl gear in the Western Regulatory...

  7. 77 FR 54837 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in the Western Regulatory Area... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher/processors (C/Ps) using trawl gear in the Western Regulatory...

  8. 77 FR 21683 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/processors Using...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/processors Using Trawl Gear in the Central Regulatory Area... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher/processors (C/Ps) using trawl gear in the Central Regulatory...

  9. 78 FR 23864 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Hook...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Hook-and-line Gear in the Western... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher/processors (C/Ps) using hook-and-line gear in the Western...

  10. 77 FR 11776 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Hook...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Hook-and-Line Gear in the Central... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher/processors (C/Ps) using hook-and-line gear in the Central...

  11. 78 FR 68390 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area; Amendment 102 AGENCY: National... the Aleutian Islands to establish a non-profit organization as a CQE to purchase halibut catcher.... Although the IFQ Program resulted in significant safety and economic benefits for many fishermen, since the...

  12. Fishery biology of the jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas off the Exclusive Economic Zone of Chilean waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilin Liu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas is widely distributed in the eastern Pacific Ocean and supports an important fishery. Although many studies have been carried out on the biology of this species, limited biological information is available in the waters outside the Exclusive Economic Zone of Chile (EEZ (20°S-41°S and 74°30’W-84°W. Three surveys were conducted in this area by the Chinese squid jigging vessels during the period from April 2006 to May 2008. The majority of the catch in the survey was from the two areas defined by 37°30’-41°S and 78°30’-80°W and by 25°-30°S and 76°-77°30’W. The sex ratio (M: F of the catch was 1: 2.48. The mean mantle length (ML was 376 mm for males with a range of 257-721 mm and 388.7 mm for females with a range of 236-837 mm. Two distinguished size classes, medium- and large-sized groups, were identified in this study with the medium-sized group (350-450 mm ML consisting of 89% of the total catch. The sizes at first sexual maturity were 638 mm ML for females and 565 mm ML for males. This study suggests that all the individuals examined were hatched from March 2007 to February 2008, indicating that D. gigas might spawn all year around with a peak spawning time from November 2007 to January 2008. Most of the stomachs analyzed had food remains. The preys included three major groups: fish (mainly lanternfish, cephalopods and crustaceans, but D. gigas was the dominant species in the stomach contents, showing strong evidence of cannibalism. The information obtained from this study improves our understanding of the fishery biology of D. gigas off Chile.

  13. 78 FR 57097 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... sharks in the BSAI has been reached. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local time (A.l.t.), September 12...

  14. 76 FR 3044 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sculpins, Sharks, Squid, and Octopus in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sculpins, Sharks, Squid, and Octopus in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for sculpins, sharks, squid, and... allowable catch (TAC) of sculpins, sharks, squid, and octopus in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska...

  15. 76 FR 59924 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... sharks in the BSAI has been reached. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local time (A.l.t.), September 24...

  16. 76 FR 53840 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Other Rockfish, Other Flatfish, Sharks, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Other Rockfish, Other Flatfish, Sharks, and Skates in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... rockfish, other flatfish, sharks, and skates in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI... Aleutian Islands (AI) other rockfish, BSAI other flatfish, BSAI sharks, and BSAI skates was established as...

  17. 76 FR 55276 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI). This action is necessary because the 2011 total allowable catch of octopus in the BSAI has been reached...

  18. 76 FR 66655 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod and Octopus in the Bering Sea...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod and Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area... necessary to limit incidental catch of octopus by vessels using pot gear to fish for Pacific cod the BSAI... Act requires that conservation and management measures prevent overfishing. The 2011 octopus...

  19. 76 FR 17360 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National...-specified reserve to the initial total allowable catch of octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... CFR part 679. The 2011 initial total allowable catch (ITAC) of octopus in the BSAI was ] established...

  20. 77 FR 3638 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by pot catcher/processors in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI... allowable catch (TAC) specified for pot catcher/processors in the BSAI. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska...

  1. 76 FR 4552 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by pot catcher/processors in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI... allowable catch (TAC) specified for pot catcher/processors in the BSAI. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska...

  2. 75 FR 59157 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by pot catcher/processors in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI...) specified for pot catcher/ processors in the BSAI. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local time (A.l.t...

  3. 76 FR 43934 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher/Processors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher/Processors Participating in the Rockfish Limited...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by catcher/processors... perch allocated to catcher/processors participating in the rockfish limited access fishery in the...

  4. 76 FR 66195 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by pot catcher/processors in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI...) specified for pot catcher/ processors in the BSAI. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local time (A.l.t...

  5. 75 FR 42337 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher/Processors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher/Processors Participating in the Rockfish Limited...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by catcher/processors... perch allocated to catcher/processors participating in the rockfish limited access fishery in the...

  6. 78 FR 7280 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by pot catcher/processors in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI... allowable catch (TAC) specified for pot catcher/processors in the BSAI. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska...

  7. 75 FR 7403 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Hook...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Hook-and-Line Gear in the Bering Sea and... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher/processors using hook-and-line gear in the Bering Sea and... allowance of the 2010 Pacific cod total allowable catch (TAC) allocated to catcher/processors using hook-and...

  8. 75 FR 42336 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish for Catcher/Processors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish for Catcher/Processors Participating in the Rockfish Limited...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for northern rockfish by catcher/processors... allocated to catcher/processors participating in the rockfish limited access fishery in the Central...

  9. 76 FR 44283 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish for Catcher/Processors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish for Catcher/Processors Participating in the Rockfish Limited...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for northern rockfish by catcher/processors... allocated to catcher/ processors participating in the rockfish limited access fishery in the Central...

  10. 75 FR 8840 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by pot catcher/processors in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI... allowable catch (TAC) specified for pot catcher/processors in the BSAI. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska...

  11. 76 FR 59924 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Skates in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Skates in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of skates in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... skates in the BSAI has been reached. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local time (A.l.t.), September 24...

  12. 75 FR 61639 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Skate Management in the Groundfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Skate Management in the Groundfish Fisheries of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... referred to as ``the FMPs''). Amendment 95 moves skates from the ``other species'' category to the ``target... specifications and adds skate species to the reporting codes for the BSAI groundfish fisheries. This action is...

  13. 78 FR 27863 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Big Skate in the Central Regulatory Area of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Big Skate in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of big skate in the Central Regulatory Area... skate in the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA has been reached. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska...

  14. 75 FR 73982 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Longnose Skate in the Western Regulatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Longnose Skate in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of longnose skate in the Western... (TAC) of longnose skate in the Western Regulatory Area of the GOA has been reached. DATES: Effective...

  15. 75 FR 73981 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Big Skate in the Central Regulatory Area of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Big Skate in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of big skate in the Central Regulatory Area... big skate in the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA has been reached. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs...

  16. 75 FR 38454 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Skates Management in the Bering Sea and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Skates Management in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area..., Amendment 95 would move skates from the other species category to the target species category in the FMP for... the Secretary, this amendment would move the skates group from the ``other species'' category to the...

  17. 77 FR 75399 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Big Skate in the Central Regulatory Area of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Big Skate in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of big skate in the Central Regulatory Area... skate in the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA has been reached. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska...

  18. 78 FR 61990 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-10

    ... CFR part 679. The 2013 total allowable catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the GOA is 51...) and the revised 2013 TAC in Statistical Area 620 is 52,964 mt (51,444 mt plus 1,520 mt). In accordance... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine...

  19. 75 FR 37371 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Fisheries of the Bering Sea Subarea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... match the southern ] boundary of Statistical Area 400 at the Bering Strait. Area 514 of the Bering Sea... the NBSRA leaves an area open to nonpelagic trawling near the Bering Strait due to the wrong... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Fisheries of the Bering Sea Subarea AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  20. 77 FR 59852 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... rule to the management of the Amendment 80 fleet and an explanation of any differences between the... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area; Amendment 97 ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: NMFS publishes regulations to implement Amendment 97 to the Fishery Management Plan for...

  1. 77 FR 67580 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Jig Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Jig Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf... directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels using jig gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of...) apportioned to vessels using jig gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs...

  2. 77 FR 6683 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf... for Pacific cod by vessels using pot gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA... allowable catch apportioned to vessels using pot gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the GOA. DATES...

  3. 78 FR 10102 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf... for Pacific cod by vessels using pot gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA... allowable catch apportioned to vessels using pot gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA. DATES...

  4. 77 FR 8177 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf... for Pacific cod by vessels using pot gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA... allowable catch apportioned to vessels using pot gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA. DATES...

  5. 78 FR 7280 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf... for Pacific cod by vessels using pot gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA... allowable catch apportioned to vessels using pot gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the GOA. DATES...

  6. 77 FR 62464 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf... for Pacific cod by vessels using pot gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA... vessels using pot gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local...

  7. 77 FR 14305 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Jig Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Jig Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf... for Pacific cod by vessels using jig gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA... allowable catch apportioned to vessels using jig gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA. DATES...

  8. 77 FR 65640 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf... directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels using pot gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of...) apportioned to vessels using pot gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs...

  9. Towards a Cognitive Radar: Canada’s Third-Generation High Frequency Surface Wave Radar (HFSWR) for Surveillance of the 200 Nautical Mile Exclusive Economic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Anthony; McKerracher, Rick; Ding, Zhen; Moo, Peter; Yee, Derek

    2017-01-01

    Canada’s third-generation HFSWR forms the foundation of a maritime domain awareness system that provides enforcement agencies with real-time persistent surveillance out to and beyond the 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone (EEZ). Cognitive sense-and-adapt technology and dynamic spectrum management ensures robust and resilient operation in the highly congested High Frequency (HF) band. Dynamic spectrum access enables the system to simultaneously operate on two frequencies on a non-interference and non-protected basis, without impacting other spectrum users. Sense-and-adapt technologies ensure that the system instantaneously switches to a new vacant channel on the detection of another user or unwanted jamming signal. Adaptive signal processing techniques mitigate against electrical noise, interference and clutter. Sense-and-adapt techniques applied at the detector and tracker stages maximize the probability of track initiation whilst minimizing the probability of false or otherwise erroneous track data. PMID:28686198

  10. Towards a Cognitive Radar: Canada’s Third-Generation High Frequency Surface Wave Radar (HFSWR for Surveillance of the 200 Nautical Mile Exclusive Economic Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Ponsford

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Canada’s third-generation HFSWR forms the foundation of a maritime domain awareness system that provides enforcement agencies with real-time persistent surveillance out to and beyond the 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone (EEZ. Cognitive sense-and-adapt technology and dynamic spectrum management ensures robust and resilient operation in the highly congested High Frequency (HF band. Dynamic spectrum access enables the system to simultaneously operate on two frequencies on a non-interference and non-protected basis, without impacting other spectrum users. Sense-and-adapt technologies ensure that the system instantaneously switches to a new vacant channel on the detection of another user or unwanted jamming signal. Adaptive signal processing techniques mitigate against electrical noise, interference and clutter. Sense-and-adapt techniques applied at the detector and tracker stages maximize the probability of track initiation whilst minimizing the probability of false or otherwise erroneous track data.

  11. Towards a Cognitive Radar: Canada's Third-Generation High Frequency Surface Wave Radar (HFSWR) for Surveillance of the 200 Nautical Mile Exclusive Economic Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Anthony; McKerracher, Rick; Ding, Zhen; Moo, Peter; Yee, Derek

    2017-07-07

    Canada's third-generation HFSWR forms the foundation of a maritime domain awareness system that provides enforcement agencies with real-time persistent surveillance out to and beyond the 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone (EEZ). Cognitive sense-and-adapt technology and dynamic spectrum management ensures robust and resilient operation in the highly congested High Frequency (HF) band. Dynamic spectrum access enables the system to simultaneously operate on two frequencies on a non-interference and non-protected basis, without impacting other spectrum users. Sense-and-adapt technologies ensure that the system instantaneously switches to a new vacant channel on the detection of another user or unwanted jamming signal. Adaptive signal processing techniques mitigate against electrical noise, interference and clutter. Sense-and-adapt techniques applied at the detector and tracker stages maximize the probability of track initiation whilst minimizing the probability of false or otherwise erroneous track data.

  12. 76 FR 8700 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... Initial Regulatory Flexibility Analysis (IRFA), and the Categorical Exclusion prepared for this proposed... Social Impact Assessment prepared for the Crab Rationalization Program are available from the NMFS Alaska... signatory at 50 CFR 680.4(o)(2)(i). For the cities of Adak and Atka, it is assumed that the Mayor or City...

  13. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Exploited Groundfish Species Assemblages Faced to Environmental and Fishing Forcings: Insights from the Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saïkou Oumar Kidé

    Full Text Available Environmental changes and human activities can have strong impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. This study investigates how, from a quantitative point of view, simultaneously both environmental and anthropogenic factors affect species composition and abundance of exploited groundfish assemblages (i.e. target and non-target species at large spatio-temporal scales. We aim to investigate (1 the spatial and annual stability of groundfish assemblages, (2 relationships between these assemblages and structuring factors in order to better explain the dynamic of the assemblages' structure. The Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone (MEEZ is of particular interest as it embeds a productive ecosystem due to upwelling, producing abundant and diverse resources which constitute an attractive socio-economic development. We applied the multi-variate and multi-table STATICO method on a data set consisting of 854 hauls collected during 14-years (1997-2010 from scientific trawl surveys (species abundance, logbooks of industrial fishery (fishing effort, sea surface temperature and chlorophyll a concentration as environmental variables. Our results showed that abiotic factors drove four main persistent fish assemblages. Overall, chlorophyll a concentration and sea surface temperature mainly influenced the structure of assemblages of coastal soft bottoms and those of the offshore near rocky bottoms where upwellings held. While highest levels of fishing effort were located in the northern permanent upwelling zone, effects of this variable on species composition and abundances of assemblages were relatively low, even if not negligible in some years and areas. The temporal trajectories between environmental and fishing conditions and assemblages did not match for all the entire time series analyzed in the MEEZ, but interestingly for some specific years and areas. The quantitative approach used in this work may provide to stakeholders, scientists and fishers a

  14. Patterns of cetacean sighting distribution in the Pacific Exclusive Economic Zone of Costa Rica based on data collected from 1979-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura May-Collado

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen species of cetaceans (families Balaenopteridae, Kogiidae, Physeteridae, Ziphiidae and Delphinidae occur in the Costa Rican Pacific Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ. Based on data recorded from the EEZ by the Southwest Fisheries Service Center, Cascadia Research Collective, and CIMAR between 1979- 2001, we mapped the distribution of 18 cetacean species. Our results suggest that the majority of the cetacean species use primarily oceanic waters, particularly those species within the families Balaenopteridae, Kogiidae, Physeteridae and Ziphiidae. Members of the family Delphinidae showed a wide variety of distribution patterns: seven species are widespread throughout the EEZ, four appear to be exclusively pelagic, and two are primarily coastal. Overall, three cetacean species appear to have populations concentrated in coastal waters: Stenella attenuata graffmani, Tursiops truncatus, and Megaptera novaeangliae. These three may be more susceptible to human activities due to the overlap of their ranges with fishery areas (tuna and artisanal fisheries, and an uncontrolled increase of touristic whale watching activities in several parts of their range. The distribution maps represent the first comprehensive representation of cetacean species that inhabit Costa Rican Pacific waters. They provide essential base-line information that may be used to initiate conservation and management efforts of the habitats where these animals reproduce and forage. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(1-2:249-263.Epub 2005 Jun 24Diecinueve especies de cetáceos distribuídos en cinco familias (Balaenopteridae, Kogiidae, Physeteridae, Ziphiidae and Delphinidae habitan en la Zona Económica Exclusiva del Pacífico de Costa Rica (ZEEP. Con base a datos tomados en esta zona por el Southwest Fisheries Service Center, Cascadia Research Collective y CIMAR entre 1979 y 2001 construímos mapas de distribución de avistamientos para 18 especies. Nuestros resultados sugieren que la mayoría de

  15. Legal aspects and conflicts in the context of offshore wind power plant licensing in the exclusive economic zone; Rechtliche Probleme der Zulassung von Windkraftanlagen in der ausschliesslichen Wirtschaftszone (AWZ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinski, S. [Rechtsanwaltskanzlei Schmidt-Wottrich, Jungnickel und Partner, Berlin (Germany)

    2001-11-01

    The analysis presented discusses in depth the existing German laws, regulations and legal instruments, including constitutional case law, as well as European Directives and rulings of the European Court of Justice, which are to be observed in the context of planning and licensing of offshore wind power plants, in particular in the exclusive economic zone. The author elaborates on deficits in the system of applicable German law, incompatibility aspects with European law, and resulting problems. The conclusions to be considered by the German legislator are explained, and the author presents his recommendations in a list of ten items, addressing aspects of amendment and consolidation of existing German law, and harmonisation with European law. (orig./CB) [German] Diese Analyse untersucht alle nationalen und internationalen Rechtsgrundlagen und Instrumentarien, sowie Anforderungen und Bedingungen, die sich aus Gerichtsentscheidungen des Bundesverfassungsgerichts und des Europaeischen Gerichtshofes ergeben, die bei der Genehmigung von Windkraftanlagen in Kuestengewaessern und in der ausschliesslichen Wirtschaftszone (AWZ) beachtet werden muessen. Der rechtlich wichtigste Bereich ist die AWZ, der ausfuehrlich behandelt wird. Es werden Defizite im deutschen Recht aufgezeigt, Unvereinbarkeiten mit europaeischem Recht und daraus resultierende Probleme. In der Schlussfolgerung wird empfohlen, die deutschen rechtlichen Bestimmungen neu zu ordnen. Eine entsprechende Ausgestaltung wird anhand von 10 konkreten Ansatzpunkten erlaeutert. (orig./CB)

  16. Income and economic exclusion: do they measure the same concept?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renahy Emilie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In this paper, we create an index of economic exclusion based on validated questionnaires of economic hardship and material deprivation, and examine its association with health in Canada. The main study objective is to determine the extent to which income and this index of economic exclusion index are overlapping measurements of the same concept. Methods We used the Canadian Household Panel Survey Pilot and performed multilevel analysis using a sample of 1588 individuals aged 25 to 64, nested within 975 households. Results While economic exclusion is inversely correlated with both individual and household income, these are not perfectly overlapping constructs. Indeed, not only these indicators weakly correlated, but they also point to slightly different sociodemographic groups at risk of low income and economic exclusion. Furthermore, the respective associations with health are of comparable magnitude, but when these income and economic exclusion indicators are included together in the same model, they point to independent and cumulative, not redundant effects. Conclusions We explicitly distinguish, both conceptually and empirically, between income and economic exclusion, one of the main dimensions of social exclusion. Our results suggest that the economic exclusion index we use measures additional aspects of material deprivation that are not captured by income, such as the effective hardship or level of economic 'well-being'.

  17. EFFECT OF PARTICLE DIAMETER ON EXCLUSION-ZONE SIZE

    OpenAIRE

    NHAN, D.T.; Pollack, G.H.

    2011-01-01

    Particles and solutes are excluded from the vicinity of hydrophilic surfaces, leaving large microsphere-free regions known as exclusion zones (EZs). Prior work had indicated that EZs could extend to distances of up to several hundred micrometers from the nucleating surface. These observations were made on large, extended surfaces, leaving open the question whether EZ size might depend on the characteristic dimension of the excluding surface. We placed one or few ion-exchange-resin beads whose...

  18. Dynamics of formation of the Exclusion Zone near hydrophilic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ninno, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    EZ water is unable to host solutes, what provides the root of the name Exclusion Zone, and its formation law points towards a diffusive process. These peculiarities have attracted the interest of scientists because it challenges all the theories which have tried to describe the structure of liquid water. The mixture of H-bond stable and H-bond distorted structures envisaged by very recent experimental findings, cannot account for the long-lived hexagonal configuration observed near the Nafion surface. A theoretical account for the phenomenology of H-bond is provided which looks able to explain many among the most striking feature of this water.

  19. Exclusion-Zone Dynamics Explored with Microfluidics and Optical Tweezers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István N. Huszár

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The exclusion zone (EZ is a boundary region devoid of macromolecules and microscopic particles formed spontaneously in the vicinity of hydrophilic surfaces. The exact mechanisms behind this remarkable phenomenon are still not fully understood and are debated. We measured the short- and long-time-scale kinetics of EZ formation around a Nafion gel embedded in specially designed microfluidic devices. The time-dependent kinetics of EZ formation follow a power law with an exponent of 0.6 that is strikingly close to the value of 0.5 expected for a diffusion-driven process. By using optical tweezers we show that exclusion forces, which are estimated to fall in the sub-pN regime, persist within the fully-developed EZ, suggesting that EZ formation is not a quasi-static but rather an irreversible process. Accordingly, the EZ-forming capacity of the Nafion gel could be exhausted with time, on a scale of hours in the presence of 1 mM Na2HPO4. EZ formation may thus be a non-equilibrium thermodynamic cross-effect coupled to a diffusion-driven transport process. Such phenomena might be particularly important in the living cell by providing mechanical cues within the complex cytoplasmic environment.

  20. Special Economic Zones, 20 years after

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla; Winiarczyk, Marcin

    In this paper the authors undertake an ex-post evaluation of whether the special economic zones (SEZs) introduced in Poland in 1994 have been successful in meeting regional development objectives. They evaluate the policy on as many of its objectives as possible: employment creation, business...... technologies and reduced air pollution, the authors find only a small positively moderating effect of the policy on what are traditionally economically disadvantaged areas in Poland that used to be dependent on the socialist production model. Hence, despite high levels of FDI, the zones policy has not managed...

  1. Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Vision Special Economic Zones, UTM Zone 15N NAD83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [louisiana_speaks_vision_special_economic_zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates special economic zones included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Vision. Special economic zones include existing national,...

  2. 10 CFR 100.11 - Determination of exclusion area, low population zone, and population center distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of exclusion area, low population zone, and population center distance. 100.11 Section 100.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REACTOR... and for Testing Reactors § 100.11 Determination of exclusion area, low population zone, and population...

  3. Special Economic Zones, 20 Years After

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla; Winiarczyk, Marcin

    In this paper we evaluate in an ex-post perspective whether the special economic zones (SEZs) introduced in Poland in 1994 have been successful in meeting regional development objectives or what we in this paper identify as a particular policy that has changed from being supply- to demand...... a higher income level and locking firms into the sustainability agenda through adoption of green technologies and reduced air pollution we find only a small positively moderating effect of the policy on what are traditional economically disadvantaged areas in Poland that were overtly dependent...

  4. Taxes and free economic zones: Russian practice and China experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Shibanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Special economic zone – the tool of regional policy of the state used in regions where increase of an economic and social level of development is required, and questions of application of tax benefits and preferences in the territory of a special economic zone acquire special relevance. The purpose of this article is research of the questions concerning the mode of the taxation of special economic zones. In Russia still there is no consensus about the sizes and the special economic zone types, the mechanism of their activity and approach to management. Development of uniform methodology is necessary for the Russian legislation for effective creation of activity of special economic zones taking into account features of a territorial arrangement. This methodology can be developed on the basis of positive experience of functioning of free economic zones of the different countries of the world. In the real work with the help of economic and statistical methods data on development and results of activity of a special economic zone in the territory of the Russian Federation and the China are collected and considered. As an example of successful functioning of the Russian special economic zone the special economic zone "Alabuga" is considered, as an example of functioning in the territory of the China special economic zone Shenzhen and joint industrial park of China and Singapore in the city of Suzhou are considered. The analysis of experience of the China has allowed to draw conclusions on efficiency of development of certain territories of the China through introduction of special economic zones. This fact substantially depends on efficiency of mechanisms of creation and development of economic educations, a possibility of self-government and financial independence in these territories, attraction of the foreign investment capital. There aren't enough these mechanisms in functioning of the Russian special economic zones where concept special

  5. Manganese nodules in the Exclusive Economic Zone of Mauritius

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; ShyamPrasad, M.

    in the Mascarene Basin off Tromelin Island. Nodule density varied from 1.23 to 10 kg/m2, and were predominantly spheroidal to subspheroidal, a majority of them falling in the 2- to 4-cm-diameter size class. Surface textures were mostly smooth, except for one...

  6. Multibeam mapping of the exclusive economic zone of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Rao, P.S.; Kodagali, V.N.

    character of the seabed, detailed mapping has been carried out on a part of the central western continental margin of India with multibeam swath bathymetric system. The multibeam maps indicate the presence of several small scale topographic features which...

  7. Radioactive waste management in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: 25 years since the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskolkov, Boris Y; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Zinkevich, Lubov I; Proskura, Nikolai I; Farfán, Eduardo B; Jannik, G Timothy

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities in the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste-related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and, in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program.

  8. The Development Evaluation of Economic Zones in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Shi, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Zhe; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Zhai, Yuming; Chen, Quan; Wang, Jiangtao

    2018-01-02

    After the Chinese reform and opening up, the construction of economic zones, such as Special Economic Zones, Hi-tech Zones and Bonded Zones, has played an irreplaceable role in China's economic development. Currently, against the background of Chinese economic transition, research on development evaluation of economic zones has become popular and necessary. Similar research usually focuses on one specific field, and the methods that are used to evaluate it are simple. This research aims to analyse the development evaluation of zones by synthesis. A new hybrid multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) model that combines the DEMATEL technique and the DANP method is proposed. After establishing the evaluation criterion system and acquiring data, the influential weights of dimensions and criteria can be calculated, which will be a guide for forming measures of development. Shandong Peninsula Blue Economic Zone is used in the empirical case analysis. The results show that Transportation Conditions, Industrial Structure and Business Climate are the main influencing criteria and measures based on these criteria are proposed.

  9. Social Exclusion and Economic Growth: An Empirical Investigation in European Economies

    OpenAIRE

    AMENDOLA, Adalgiso; DELL'ANNO, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this article are to propose an overall index of social exclusion and to analyze its relationship with economic growth in European countries. We approach social exclusion as a multidimensional phenomenon by a three-mode principal components analysis (Tucker3 model). This method is applied to estimate an indicator of social exclusion for 28 European countries between 1995 and 2010. The empirical evidence shows that in short run (a) Granger causality runs one way from social exclusio...

  10. Policy Change Implication Toward Integrated Wonorejo Zone as A Strategic Economic Development Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Pandu Dwinugraha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Wonorejo Zone is one of the development zone in Lumajang Regency with significant goals to improve potensial condition in three aspect namely tourism, agriculture and SMEs. Based on RTRW in 2008-2028, which was established in 2008, the development strategy of this zone is change. Integrated Wonorejo Zone was mentioned as a Strategic Economic Development Zone. This research describe and analyse about how the implication of policy change toward Integrated Wonorejo Zone. This research using method of descriptive research with qualitative approach as well as analysis of data by John Seidel about QDA (qualitative data analysis. The result of this research explain that the policy change implication, from description, implementation and implication point of view did not give significant expectation. Key Words: Policy Change, Integrated Wonorejo Zone, Strategic Economic Development Zone.

  11. QELBY®-Induced Enhancement of Exclusion Zone Buildup and Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abha Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A hydrophilic powder, QELBY, from the feldspar family of clay minerals was investigated for its ability to form structured or exclusion-zone (EZ water. We demonstrated microsphere-free zones around different fractions of the QELBY powder or its hydrated pellet. Averaging approximately 100 μm, these zones grew to a size similar to that formed in the vicinity of the Nafion standard. In the case of silica (control, only occasional microsphere-free zones of about 70 μm were found. Further, studies to investigate QELBY’s energizing effect on germination and early sapling growth in brown chickpea seeds showed at least a 2-3-fold increase in root length and/or formation of shoots. This was seen in seeds bathed in QELBY supernatants or surrounded by QELBY powder outside the vials containing the seeds. This indirect effect was observed whether the QELBY was dry or hydrated.

  12. Economic Effects of Increased Control Zone Sizes in Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Koushik

    1998-01-01

    A methodology for estimating the economic effects of different control zone sizes used in conflict resolutions between aircraft is presented in this paper. The methodology is based on estimating the difference in flight times of aircraft with and without the control zone, and converting the difference into a direct operating cost. Using this methodology the effects of increased lateral and vertical control zone sizes are evaluated.

  13. KALININGRAD SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE: RESULTS AND PERFORMANCE Pavel P Bogdanenko

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel P. Bogdanenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available  The subject of the article is Russian special economic zones.InstituteofSpecial EconomicZones in theRussian Federationis known since the late 80-es of the last century. In some regions, in order to attract additional investments the first SEZ were created. And, as a result, despite a series of setbacks in some parts of the country, it has been shown that special economic zones can be an effective tool for economic development. An example of one of the most successful zones is theKaliningradspecial economic zone, established in 1991. The role of its residents in gross regional product per twenty-four years has become quite significant. The purpose of this work is to show the results of operations of Kaliningrad SEZ and its value among other Russian SEZs.The methodological base of the research is comparative analysis, cause-effect relationships, as well as historical method. The current results of its operations, as well as the structure of investment by industry are presented in this article. In addition, the author analyzes specialization and the results of development of zones that are under the control of the state-owned JSC “SEZ”. Despite the declared in 2008 by the government priority of high-tech and innovative industries, mainly industrial production zones have been developed in our country, but not technical innovation ones. Thereby touristic recreation and port zones are still deprived of sufficient investor attention. Among industrial production special economic zones, in terms of development, we can highlight zones in theLipetskregion (SEZ “Lipetsk” and theRepublicofTatarstan(SEZ “Alabuga”. The main indicators of these industrial production zones are compared with those of the SEZ in theKaliningradregion. And as shown by this analysis, the Kaliningrad SEZ is the most developed SEZ, and is the “locomotive” of all Russian special economic zones: all its indicators exceed the values in two other analyzed areas, and the

  14. The Economic Cost of Stigma and the Exclusion of LGBT People: A Case Study of India

    OpenAIRE

    Badgett, M. V. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Human rights and equality for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are usually considered through a social, cultural, or ethical lens, but equality and inclusion of LGBT people are also economic development issues. This report develops a model to estimate the economic cost of stigma; negative attitudes toward LGBT people and the exclusion of LGBT people in social instituti...

  15. A novel cell exclusion zone assay with a barrier made from room temperature vulcanizing silicone rubber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Shiode

    Full Text Available To examine the usefulness of room temperature vulcanizing (RTV silicone rubber as a barrier material for cell exclusion zone assays.We created barriers using three types of RTV silicone rubber with differing viscosities. We then assessed the adherence of these barriers to culture dishes and their ease of removal from the dishes. We tested the effect of the newly created barriers on the extracellular matrix (ECM protein fibronectin by attaching and then removing them from fibronectin-coated culture dishes. We also conducted cell exclusion zone assays with MIO-M1 cells using this new barrier in order to measure cell migration. We used real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining to measure the effect of fibronectin on MIO-M1 cell migration and the effect of migration (with fibronectin coating on basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF expression in MIO-M1 cells.Of the three types of RTV silicon rubber tested, KE-3495-T was the best in terms of adherence to the dish and ease of removal from the dish. When barrier attachment and removal tests were performed, this rubber type did not have an effect on the fibronectin that coated the dish. In the cell exclusion assay, removal of the barrier revealed that a cell-free area with a distinct margin had been created, which allowed us to conduct a quantitative assessment of migration. Fibronectin significantly promoted the migration of MIO-M1 cells (P = 0.02. In addition, both real time RT-PCR and immunohistological staining indicated that bFGF expression in migrating MIO-M1 cells was significantly higher than that in non-migrating cells (P = 0.03.RTV silicone rubber can be used to create an effective barrier in cell exclusion zone assays and allows simple and low-cost multi-parametric analysis of cell migration.

  16. SOCIAL EXCLUSION AS AN OBJECT OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Halushka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article essence and forms of display of social exception of separate citizens and certain layers of population are certain as the socioeconomic phenomenon. Theoretical principles and methodology of estimation of the phenomenon of social exception are analyzed. Certain characteristic lines of social exception: subzero even consumptions and profit of individuals or groups; a limit access is to the public mechanisms of increase of welfare; a mainly passive type of cooperating is with society. Attention is accented on a defect for the individuals of row of rights, limit nature of access to the institutes that distribute resources, to the labor-market. Poverty is certain the main category of social exception. A concept "circles of poverty" and mechanisms of its existence are reasonable. Other displays of social exception-direct violation of base human rights are examined on quality education, on medical services and kind health, on the acceptable standard of living, on access to cultural acquisition, on defense of the interests and on the whole on participating in economic, social, in a civilized manner, political life of country. Cited data about part of torn away housekeeping of Ukraine on separate signs. The analysis of distribution of housekeeping after the amount of the accumulated signs of the social tearing away gave an opportunity to set a limit after that the social tearing away begins brightly to show up, at the level of 5 signs. It is certain the limit of the sharp tearing away. The second degree of tearing away – critical – answers a presence 7thsigns. At this level in Ukraine there are 37,7. That's far more than those, who are considered poor on a relative national criterion (24,0. It is set that conception of social exception shows the "horizontal cut" of the system of social relations and place of individual, layer, group and others like that in this system, certain on certain signs. The necessity of the use of

  17. [Radioecological studies of freshwater mollusks in the Chernobyl accident exclusion zone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkov, D I; Nazarov, A B; Dziubenko, E V; Kaglian, A E; Klenus, V G

    2009-01-01

    Species-specificity and dynamics of 90Sr, 137Cs and some transuranic elements accumulation in bivalve and gastropod freshwater molluscs of the Chernobyl exclusion zone during 1997-2008 was analyzed. The results of radiation dose and chromosome aberration rate estimation and the analysis of hemolymph composition of freshwater snail (Lymnaea stagnalis L.) was produced. The absorbed dose rate was registered in the range of 0.3-85.0 microGy/h. In closed water bodies the heightened chromosome aberration rate (up to 27%) in embryo tissues, and also the change of haematological indexes for the adult individuals of snails was registered.

  18. ESTABLISHMENT OF THE CHORNOBYL RADIOECOLOGICAL BIOSPHERE RESERVE AS RECOVERY BIOTECHNOLOGY IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EXCLUSION ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleh Bondarenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: an article is dedicated to preservation of the unique territory that has an inimitable combination of forests, wetlands, ponds and fallow lands, which de facto became a radioecological testing ground, under current conditions it is possible by creating a biosphere reserve on a basis of the Exclusion zone, as well as existing territories and objects of the National natural reserve fund. Methods: cartographic evaluation methods and the methods determining the projected rate of decline in area. Results: improved management of existing and new protected areas, by creating a large protected natural area in the region and strengthening the monitoring of the Chornobyl tragedy event for several globally important populations of rare and endangered species and preserve some critical sites along the African-Eurasian bird migration routes. Discussion: proposed preliminary functional zoning of the projected Biosphere Reserve within its respective administrative areas, land users in accordance with the suggestions of stakeholders.

  19. Radiation ecology issues associated with murine rodents and shrews in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaschak, Sergey P; Maklyuk, Yulia A; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

    2011-10-01

    This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the "soil-to-plant" chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy h(-1) in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the "Red Forest"). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy h(-1), respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy h(-1), respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described.

  20. RADIATION ECOLOGY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH MURINE RODENTS AND SHREWS IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals, and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the 'soil-to-plant' chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy hr{sup -1} in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the 'Red Forest'). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described.

  1. Peculiarities of absorbed dose forming in some wild animals in Chornobyl exclusion zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gaychenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on field researches conducted in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the years after the accident, the peculiarities are identified of formation of absorbed doses in animals of different taxonomic and ecological groups that live in conditions of radioactive contamination of ecosystems. It was shown importance of consideration of radiation features on wild animals according to their life cycle, conditions and ways of life. Data were displayed about the importance of different types of irradiation according to the period of stay of the animals in the ground, in burrows and nests. The questions were reviewed about value of external and internal radiation in absorbed dose of different types of wildlife. Results of the calculation of the absorbed dose of bird embryos from egg shell were shown.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION MONITORING IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - HISTORY AND RESULTS 25 YEARS AFTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes results of the radiation environmental monitoring performed in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) during the period following the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. This article presents a brief overview of five comprehensive reports generated under Contract No. DE-AC09-96SR18500 (Washington Savannah River Company LLC, Subcontract No. AC55559N, SOW No. ON8778) and summarizes characteristics of the ChEZ and its post-accident status and the history of development of the radiation monitoring research in the ChEZ is described. This article addresses characteristics of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ, its major goals and objectives, and changes of these goals and objectives in the course of time, depending on the tasks associated with the phase of mitigation of the ChNPP accident consequences. The results of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ during the last 25 years are also provided.

  3. Abundance of adult ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movila, A; Deriabina, T; Morozov, A; Sitnicova, N; Toderas, I; Uspenskaia, I; Alekhnovici, A

    2012-08-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear disaster resulted in contamination of vast areas in Europe. To date, there is little knowledge about the effects of radioactive contamination on tick species. We sampled ticks from vegetation and large-sized wild mammals belonging to orders Carnivora and Artiodactyla at sites with 0.76, 1.91, and 4.50 mSv/hr ionizing radiation background values in the Polesky State Radio-Ecological Reserve of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster zone in spring 2010. Altogether, 122 questing ticks were collected from vegetation. Among collected ticks, Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius) was, by far, the most abundant species (99.2%), followed by Ixodes ricnus (L.) (0.8%), which was collected only at the 0.76 mSv/hr site. The average sex ratio female∶male was 2.9∶1.0. In parallel with the present study, we examined 3 Sus scrofa (L.), 2 Nyctereutes procyonoides (Gray), and 1 Alces alces (L.) at the 4.50 mSv/hr site; 96 D. reticulatus ticks were found on 2 N. procyonoides specimens. The mean density and the intensity of infestation were 16 ticks per animal and 48 ticks per infested animal, respectively. Future investigations are warranted to further characterize the role of various tick vectors, vertebrate reservoirs, and diversity of tick-borne pathogens in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

  4. Social exclusion in households with members with disabilities during the Spanish economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagrario Anaut Bravo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the impact that the economic crisis has had on discrimination, poverty and social exclusion among people with disabilities and households with members with disabilities. For this analysis, a series of surveys conducted by the FOESSA Foundation in 2007, 2009 and 2013 were used. The effect of the economic crisis has not been as great among people with disabilities and households that include members with disabilities as among the overall Spanish population. However, the fact that poverty and exclusion levels among the former group remained higher than those of the overall Spanish population reflects the limitations of current social policies in changing this situation that affects the human rights of people with disabilities.

  5. Effects of radionuclide contamination on leaf litter decomposition in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonzom, Jean-Marc, E-mail: jean-marc.bonzom@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS, Cadarache, Bât. 183, BP 3, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Hättenschwiler, Stephan [Centre d' Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive (CEFE UMR 5175, CNRS–Université de Montpellier–Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier–EPHE), 1919 Route de Mende, F-34293 Montpellier (France); Lecomte-Pradines, Catherine [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS, Cadarache, Bât. 183, BP 3, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Chauvet, Eric [EcoLab, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, INPT, 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex (France); Gaschak, Sergey [Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Della-Vedova, Claire; Dubourg, Nicolas [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS, Cadarache, Bât. 183, BP 3, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Maksimenko, Andrey [Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); and others

    2016-08-15

    The effects of radioactive contamination on ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition remain largely unknown. Because radionuclides accumulated in soil and plant biomass can be harmful for organisms, the functioning of ecosystems may be altered by radioactive contamination. Here, we tested the hypothesis that decomposition is impaired by increasing levels of radioactivity in the environment by exposing uncontaminated leaf litter from silver birch and black alder at (i) eleven distant forest sites differing in ambient radiation levels (0.22–15 μGy h{sup −1}) and (ii) along a short distance gradient of radioactive contamination (1.2–29 μGy h{sup −1}) within a single forest in the Chernobyl exclusion zone. In addition to measuring ambient external dose rates, we estimated the average total dose rates (ATDRs) absorbed by decomposers for an accurate estimate of dose-induced ecological consequences of radioactive pollution. Taking into account potential confounding factors (soil pH, moisture, texture, and organic carbon content), the results from the eleven distant forest sites, and from the single forest, showed increased litter mass loss with increasing ATDRs from 0.3 to 150 μGy h{sup −1}. This unexpected result may be due to (i) overcompensation of decomposer organisms exposed to radionuclides leading to a higher decomposer abundance (hormetic effect), and/or (ii) from preferred feeding by decomposers on the uncontaminated leaf litter used for our experiment compared to locally produced, contaminated leaf litter. Our data indicate that radio-contamination of forest ecosystems over more than two decades does not necessarily have detrimental effects on organic matter decay. However, further studies are needed to unravel the underlying mechanisms of the results reported here, in order to draw firmer conclusions on how radio-contamination affects decomposition and associated ecosystem processes. - Highlights: • The effects of radioactivity on

  6. Soil nematode assemblages as bioindicators of radiation impact in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecomte-Pradines, C., E-mail: catherine.lecomte-pradines@irsn.fr [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LECO, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Bonzom, J.-M. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LECO, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Della-Vedova, C. [Magelis, 6, rue Frederic Mistral, 84160 Cadenet (France); Beaugelin-Seiller, K. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LM2E, Building 159, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Villenave, C. [ELISOL Environment, Building 12, Campus de la Gaillarde, 2 place Viala, 34060 Montpellier cedex 2 (France); Gaschak, S. [Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Coppin, F. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, L2BT, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Dubourg, N. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, GARM Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Maksimenko, A. [Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Adam-Guillermin, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LECO, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Garnier-Laplace, J. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, Building 159, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France)

    2014-08-15

    In radioecology, the need to understand the long-term ecological effects of radioactive contamination has been emphasised. This requires that the health of field populations is evaluated and linked to an accurate estimate of received radiological dose. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of current radioactive contamination on nematode assemblages at sites affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. First, we estimated the total dose rates (TDRs) absorbed by nematodes, from measured current soil activity concentrations, Dose Conversion Coefficients (DCCs, calculated using EDEN software) and soil-to-biota concentration ratios (from the ERICA tool database). The impact of current TDRs on nematode assemblages was then evaluated. Nematodes were collected in spring 2011 from 18 forest sites in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) with external gamma dose rates, measured using radiophotoluminescent dosimeters, varying from 0.2 to 22 μGy h{sup −1}. These values were one order of magnitude below the TDRs. A majority of bacterial-, plant-, and fungal-feeding nematodes and very few of the disturbance sensitive families were identified. No statistically significant association was observed between TDR values and nematode total abundance or the Shannon diversity index (H′). The Nematode Channel Ratio (which defines the relative abundance of bacterial- versus fungal-feeding nematodes) decreased significantly with increasing TDR, suggesting that radioactive contamination may influence nematode assemblages either directly or indirectly by modifying their food resources. A greater Maturity Index (MI), usually characterising better soil quality, was associated with higher pH and TDR values. These results suggest that in the CEZ, nematode assemblages from the forest sites were slightly impacted by chronic exposure at a predicted TDR of 200 μGy h{sup −1}. This may be imputable to a dominant proportion of pollutant resistant nematodes in all sites

  7. Human rights and health systems development: confronting the politics of exclusion and the economics of inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maru, Duncan; Farmer, Paul

    2012-12-15

    The social movements of the last two decades have fostered a rights-based approach to health systems development within the global discourse on national and international health governance. In this piece, we discuss ongoing challenges in the cavernous "implementation gap": translating legislative human rights victories into actual practice and delivery. Using accompaniment as an underlying principle, we focus primarily on constructing effective, equitable, and accountable public sector health systems. Public sector health care delivery is challenged by increasingly exclusive politics and inequitable economic policies that fundamentally limit the participatory power of marginalized citizens. Finally, we discuss the role of implementation science in closing the delivery gap in human rights practice.

  8. Effects of radionuclide contamination on leaf litter decomposition in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonzom, Jean-Marc; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Lecomte-Pradines, Catherine; Chauvet, Eric; Gaschak, Sergey; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Della-Vedova, Claire; Dubourg, Nicolas; Maksimenko, Andrey; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2016-08-15

    The effects of radioactive contamination on ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition remain largely unknown. Because radionuclides accumulated in soil and plant biomass can be harmful for organisms, the functioning of ecosystems may be altered by radioactive contamination. Here, we tested the hypothesis that decomposition is impaired by increasing levels of radioactivity in the environment by exposing uncontaminated leaf litter from silver birch and black alder at (i) eleven distant forest sites differing in ambient radiation levels (0.22-15μGyh(-1)) and (ii) along a short distance gradient of radioactive contamination (1.2-29μGyh(-1)) within a single forest in the Chernobyl exclusion zone. In addition to measuring ambient external dose rates, we estimated the average total dose rates (ATDRs) absorbed by decomposers for an accurate estimate of dose-induced ecological consequences of radioactive pollution. Taking into account potential confounding factors (soil pH, moisture, texture, and organic carbon content), the results from the eleven distant forest sites, and from the single forest, showed increased litter mass loss with increasing ATDRs from 0.3 to 150μGyh(-1). This unexpected result may be due to (i) overcompensation of decomposer organisms exposed to radionuclides leading to a higher decomposer abundance (hormetic effect), and/or (ii) from preferred feeding by decomposers on the uncontaminated leaf litter used for our experiment compared to locally produced, contaminated leaf litter. Our data indicate that radio-contamination of forest ecosystems over more than two decades does not necessarily have detrimental effects on organic matter decay. However, further studies are needed to unravel the underlying mechanisms of the results reported here, in order to draw firmer conclusions on how radio-contamination affects decomposition and associated ecosystem processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Soil nematode assemblages as bioindicators of radiation impact in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte-Pradines, C; Bonzom, J-M; Della-Vedova, C; Beaugelin-Seiller, K; Villenave, C; Gaschak, S; Coppin, F; Dubourg, N; Maksimenko, A; Adam-Guillermin, C; Garnier-Laplace, J

    2014-08-15

    In radioecology, the need to understand the long-term ecological effects of radioactive contamination has been emphasised. This requires that the health of field populations is evaluated and linked to an accurate estimate of received radiological dose. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of current radioactive contamination on nematode assemblages at sites affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. First, we estimated the total dose rates (TDRs) absorbed by nematodes, from measured current soil activity concentrations, Dose Conversion Coefficients (DCCs, calculated using EDEN software) and soil-to-biota concentration ratios (from the ERICA tool database). The impact of current TDRs on nematode assemblages was then evaluated. Nematodes were collected in spring 2011 from 18 forest sites in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) with external gamma dose rates, measured using radiophotoluminescent dosimeters, varying from 0.2 to 22 μGy h(-1). These values were one order of magnitude below the TDRs. A majority of bacterial-, plant-, and fungal-feeding nematodes and very few of the disturbance sensitive families were identified. No statistically significant association was observed between TDR values and nematode total abundance or the Shannon diversity index (H'). The Nematode Channel Ratio (which defines the relative abundance of bacterial- versus fungal-feeding nematodes) decreased significantly with increasing TDR, suggesting that radioactive contamination may influence nematode assemblages either directly or indirectly by modifying their food resources. A greater Maturity Index (MI), usually characterising better soil quality, was associated with higher pH and TDR values. These results suggest that in the CEZ, nematode assemblages from the forest sites were slightly impacted by chronic exposure at a predicted TDR of 200 μGy h(-1). This may be imputable to a dominant proportion of pollutant resistant nematodes in all sites. This might

  10. The infection of questing Dermacentor reticulatus ticks with Babesia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Vichová, Bronislavá; Slivinska, Kateryna; Werszko, Joanna; Didyk, Julia; Peťko, Branislav; Stanko, Michal; Akimov, Igor

    2014-08-29

    Tick occurrence was studied in the Chernobyl exclusion zone (CEZ) during the August-October 2009-2012. Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected using the flagging method and then screened for infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia canis by a PCR method incorporating specific primers and sequence analysis. The prevalence of infection with B. canis canis and A. phagocytophilum was found to be 3.41% and 25.36%, respectively. The results present the first evidence of B. canis canis and A. phagocytophilum in questing D. reticulatus ticks from the Chernobyl exclusion zone. They also reveal the presence of tick-borne disease foci in areas with no human activity, and confirm that they can be maintained in areas after a nuclear disaster with radioactive contamination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiation-induced cytogenetic and hematologic effects on aquatic biota within the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkov, D I; Shevtsova, N L; Pomortseva, N A; Dzyubenko, E V; Kaglyan, A E; Nazarov, A B

    2016-01-01

    During 1998-2014 the rate of chromosomal aberrations in embryo tissues of the pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis) and root meristems of higher aquatic plants, and also hematologic indexes of mantle liquid of the adult snails and peripheral blood of fishes in water bodies within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (EZ) was studied. The absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts from water bodies of the EZ registered in a range from 0.25 to 420 μGy h(-1) and in the reference ones - up to 0.09 μGy h(-1). The level of chromosomal aberrations in the molluscs from the most contaminated water bodies of the EZ was registered within range of 18-27% and for the molluscs from the reference lakes this index was on the average 1.5% with the maximal values 2.3%. The rate of chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells of higher aquatic plants from the contaminated lakes of the EZ was in range of 7-17% and in the plants from reference water bodies was not exceed 2.1%. The positive correlation between chromosomal aberration rate and absorbed dose rate in the pond snail's embryos and root meristems of higher aquatic plants in water bodies of the EZ was registered. Analysis of hemolymph structure of snails from the most contaminated water bodies showed a high rate of dead and phagocytic cells as well as decrease of the young amoebocytes quantity. Hematologic research of fish allows to determine on the one hand an insignificant changes of leukogram structure, and from the other hand a high level of red cells with different abnormalities in the peripheral blood of fishes from the water bodies with high levels of radioactive contamination. It is suppose that qualitative indexes of red cells in peripheral blood of fish are more sensitive to long-term radiation impact in comparison with elements of white blood, which can be used for conducting of the hematologic monitoring of radioactive contaminated water bodies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. First use of soil nematode communities as bioindicator of radiation impact in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecomte, C.; Bonzom, J.M.; Adam-Guillermin, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LECO (France); Della-Vedova, C. [Magelis, Cadenet (France); Beaugelin-Seiller, K. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LM2E (France); Gaschak, S. [Chernobyl Center for Nuclear safety, Radioactive waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory (Ukraine); Coppin, F. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, L2BT (France); Garnier-Laplace, J. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS (France)

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effects of former radioactive contamination on the structure of the nematode community in sites affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl accident that occurred on 26, April 1986. Nematodes were collected in spring 2011 from 18 forest sites of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ). The external gamma dose rates, measured from radiophotoluminescent dosimeters (RPL) varied from 0.2 to 22 μGy h{sup -1} between sites. In parallel, the Total dose rates (TDR) absorbed by nematodes were predicted from measured soil activity concentrations, Dose Conversion Coefficients (DCC, calculated by the EDEN software) and Soil-to-biota concentration ratios (from the ERICA tool database). Results showed that TDR were one order of magnitude above the external gamma dose rate measured from RPL. This is mainly due to the contribution of alpha ({sup 241}Am,{sup 238,239,240}Pu) and beta ({sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs) emitters in the external dose rate. The small size (in the order of mm) of nematodes promoted a high energy deposition throughout the organisms without fading, giving more weight to external dose rate induced by alpha-and beta-emitters, relatively to gamma-emitters. Analysis of the nematode community showed a majority of bacterial-, plant-, and fungal- feeder nematodes and almost none of the disturbance sensitive families whatever the level of radioactive contamination. Multiple regression analysis was used to establish relationships between ecological features (nematodes abundance and family diversity, indices of ecosystem structure and function) to the environmental characteristics (TDR and soil physico-chemical properties). No evidence was found that nematode total abundance and family diversity were impaired by the radiological contamination. However, the Nematode Channel Ratio (defining the relative abundance of bacterial- versus fungal-feeding nematodes) decreased significantly with increasing TDR suggesting that the radioactive

  13. Current levels and trends of radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystem components in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudkov, Dmitri I.; Kaglyan, Alexander Ye.; Ganzha, Kristina D.; Klenus, Vasiliy G. [Institute of Hydrobiology, Geroyev Stalingrada Ave. 12, UA-04210 Kiev (Ukraine); Kireev, Sergey I.; Nazarov, Alexander B. [Chernobyl Specialized Enterprise, Radyanska Str. 70, UA-07270 Chernobyl (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    The current radiation level and its composition in aquatic ecosystems within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ) are conditioned, above all things, by the amount of radioactive matters released as aerosols on a water surface and adjacent territories during the period of the active phase of the accident from destroyed of the Chernobyl NPP in 1986, and also by intensity and duration of the second processes of radionuclides washout from the catchment areas and hydrodynamic processes of their transport outside of water bodies. During last 10-15 years in the soils of the ChEZ the tendency of increase of yield of the mobile bioavailable forms of radionuclides, which released into hydrological systems with surface and ground waters or localized in the closed water systems, where quickly involving in the biotic cycle is marked. On the example of lakes of the Krasnensky flood plain of the Pripyat River, which is one of the most contaminated by radionuclides territory of the ChEZ, was determined that the basic amount of radionuclides in lake ecosystem is deposited in the bottom sediments: {sup 90}Sr - 89-95%, {sup 137}Cs - 99%, transuranium elements (TUE) {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am - almost 100% of the total radionuclide amount in ecosystem. The increased migration activity of {sup 90}Sr determines its more high quantity in water (4-10%) on comparison with {sup 137}Cs (0.5-0.6%) and TUE (0.03-0.04%) and, opposite, less - in seston (0.15-0.16%) on comparison with {sup 137}Cs (0.25-0.30%). The value of {sup 90}Sr in biotic component amounts 0.25-0.61%, {sup 137}Cs - 0.14-0.47% and TUE - 0.07-0.16% of the total quantity in ecosystem. The gradual decline of radionuclide specific activity is a dominant tendency in the dynamics of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in water and aquatic biota of the majority of reservoirs and water flow in the ChEZ. The exception is water bodies, located on the dammed territories of the Krasnensky flood plain, where at the proceeding

  14. Radiation-induced cytogenetic and hematologic effects on aquatic biota within the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudkov, Dmitri I.; Shevtsova, Natalia L.; Pomortseva, Natalia A.; Kaglyan, Alexander Ye. [Institute of Hydrobiology, Geroyev Stalingrada Ave. 12, UA-04210 Kiev (Ukraine); Dzyubenko, Elena V. [G. Skovoroda Pereyaslav-Khmelnitsk State Teacher Training University, Sukhomlinskogo Str. 30, UA-08401 Pereyaslav-Khmelnitsk (Ukraine); Rodionova, Natalia K. [R.E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology, Vasilkovskaya Str. 45, UA-04073 Kiev (Ukraine); Nazarov, Alexander B. [Chernobyl Specialized Enterprise, Radyanska Str. 70, UA-07270 Chernobyl (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    During 1998-2013 we studied the rate of chromosomal aberrations in embryo tissues of the pond snails and root meristems of higher aquatic plants, and also hematologic indexes of mantle liquid of the snails and peripheral blood of fishes in water bodies with different levels of radioactive contamination within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ). The absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts from water bodies of the ChEZ during the period of researches registered in a range of 4.6.10{sup -3} - 3.4 Gy year{sup -1}, and in the control water bodies - up to 1.7.10{sup -3} Gy year{sup -1}. Cytogenetic analysis of embryos of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis testifies the increased level of chromosomal aberrations in the mollusks from stagnant water bodies of the ChEZ in comparison with control reservoirs. During the period of studies the highest values were registered for the snails of closed reservoirs of the ChEZ (Glubokoye Lake, Dalyokoe Lake, Azbuchin Lake etc.) where the rate of chromosomal aberrations was registered within range of 18-27%, that on the average more than in 10 times exceeds the spontaneous mutagenesis level for aquatic species. The pond snails of river ecosystems were characterized by the low level of aberrant cells - 2.5-3.5%. For the mollusks from the control lakes this index was reached on the average 1.5% with the maximal values 2.3%. The positive correlation between chromosomal aberration rate and absorbed dose rate in the pond snails' embryos in water bodies of the ChEZ was registered. The rate of chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells of higher aquatic plants (Phragmites australis, Stratiotes aloides, Glyceria maxima, Butomus umbellatus, Sparganium erectum and Sagittaria sagittifolia) from the most contaminated lakes of the ChEZ was in range of 7-17%. In the plants of rivers this index was on the average 3.5-5.0%, and was not exceed 2.6% in control water bodies. Thus, the rate of chromosomal aberrations in hydrobionts of the stagnant

  15. Socio-economic analysis of artisanal fisher folks in arid zone of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic analysis of artisanal fisher folks in arid zone of Nigeria: a case study of Katsina State. ... African Journal of Livestock Extension ... This study was undertaken to establish the socio-economic characteristics of artisanal fisher folks in the arid zone of Nigeria to provide a much-needed base-line of information ...

  16. Construction of wind power plants in Germany and its Exclusive Economic Zone. Licensing procedures, planning control and legal protection at land and on sea; Die Errichtung von Windenergieanlagen in Deutschland und seiner Ausschliesslichen Wirtschaftszone. Genehmigungsverfahren, planerische Steuerung und Rechtsschutz an Land und auf See

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fest, Phillip

    2010-07-01

    The use of wind power is a part of the challenge of the reconstruction of the power supply from the nearly exclusive utilisation of fossil sources of energy to a more sustainable energy mix on the basis of renewable energies. The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the establishment and licensing law of wind power plants. The emphasis of this contribution is on the establishment of plants at onshore sites. The technical development and repowering provide a dynamic development of law. In the offshore area, the development actually is at the beginning. Literature and jurisdiction show continuous law political dynamics.

  17. Assessment of eco-environmental quality of Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, He; Shi, Longyu

    2016-05-01

    Regional eco-environmental quality is the key and foundation to the sustainable socio-economic development of a region. Eco-environmental quality assessment can reveal the capacity of sustainable socio-economic development in a region and the degree of coordination between social production and the living environment. As part of a new development strategy for Fujian Province, the Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone (hereafter referred to as the Economic Zone) provides an important guarantee for the development of China's southeastern coastal area. Based on ecological and remote sensing data on the Economic Zone obtained in 2000, 2005, and 2010, this study investigated county-level administrative regions with a comprehensive index of eco-environmental indicators. An objective weighting method was used to determine the importance of each indicator. This led to the development of an indicator system to assess the eco-environmental quality of the economic zone. ArcGIS software was used to assess the eco-environmental quality of the economic zone based on each indicator. The eco-environmental quality index (EQI) of the county-level administrative regions was calculated. The overall eco-environmental quality of the Economic Zone during the period studied is described and analyzed. The results show that the overall eco-environmental quality of the Economic Zone is satisfactory, but significant intraregional differences still exist. The key to improving the overall eco-environmental quality of this area is to restore vegetation and preserve biodiversity.

  18. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - 25 YEARS SINCE THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures

  19. The probability of laser caused ocular injury to the aircrew of undetected aircraft violating the exclusion zone about the airborne aura LIDAR.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2006-12-01

    The probability of a laser caused ocular injury, to the aircrew of an undetected aircraft entering the exclusion zone about the AURA LIDAR airborne platform with the possible violation of the Laser Hazard Zone boundary, was investigated and quantified for risk analysis and management.

  20. Trapping and exclusion zones in complex streaming patterns around a large assembly of microfluidic bubbles under ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combriat, Thomas; Mekki-Berrada, Flore; Thibault, Pierre; Marmottant, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Pulsating bubbles have proved to be a versatile tool for trapping and sorting particles. In this article, we investigate the different streaming patterns that can be obtained with a group of bubbles in a confined geometry under ultrasound. In the presence of an external flow strong enough to oppose the streaming velocities but not drag the trapped bubbles, we observe either the appearance of exclusion zones near the bubbles or asymmetric streaming patterns that we interpret as the superposition of a two-dimensional (2D) streaming function and of a potential flow. When studying a lattice of several bubbles, we show that the streaming pattern can be accurately predicted by superimposing the contributions of every pair of bubbles present in the lattice, thus allowing one to predict the sizes and the shapes of exclusion zones created by a group of bubbles under acoustic excitation. We suggest that such systems could be used to enhance mixing at a small scale or to catch and release chemical species initially trapped in vortices created around bubble pairs.

  1. A CDT-Based Heuristic Zone Design Approach for Economic Census Investigators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changixu Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a special zone design problem for economic census investigators that is motivated by a real-world application. This paper presented a heuristic multikernel growth approach via Constrained Delaunay Triangulation (CDT. This approach not only solved the barriers problem but also dealt with the polygon data in zoning procedure. In addition, it uses a new heuristic method to speed up the zoning process greatly on the premise of the required quality of zoning. At last, two special instances for economic census were performed, highlighting the performance of this approach.

  2. Special Regimes of Economic Activity: Prospects for Use in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga O. Smirnova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: investigation of the possibility of applying special regimes of economic activity on the territory of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation.Methods: the research methodology is based on methods of generalization, analogy, comparative and system analysis; the rules for assessing the effectiveness of the operation of special economic zones were used.Results: the expediency of applying special regimes of economic activity in the Arctic zone of Russia is considered. Mechanisms for establishing and operating such special economic regimes as special economic zones, territorial development zones, territories for outpacing socio-economic development, industrial parks, technoparks and clusters have been studied. The possibility of linking the supposed support zones of development in the Arctic with special modes of economic activity is considered.Conclusions and Relevance: the current trends in the social and economic development of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation, the need to diversify the region's economy and attract investment determine the appropriateness of using such economic regimes that will contribute to the achievement of the objectives of state policy in the Arctic, taking into account specific conditions for managing the macroregion.The study allows us to conclude that at present there is no clear separation between the indicated regimes. Their effectiveness and effectiveness is not directly dependent on the number of benefits provided.At the present time, any of the existing special regimes in our country can be established on the territory of the Arctic zone of Russia. The adoption of such a decision should be based on a strategic vision for the development of the whole circumpolar region and its individual territories, and also be accompanied by an assessment of the falling incomes, planned tax revenues and the volume of benefits provided within a particular regime of economic activity., Moscow, Russian Federation

  3. Second Best? Investment Climate and Performance in Africa’s Special Economic Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Farole, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    As an instrument of trade and investment policy, special economic zones have played a catalytic role in processes of industrialization, diversification, and trade integration in many countries, particularly in East Asia. However, in the African context, anecdotal evidence suggests the experience has been disappointing on the whole. Among the reasons why many zones underperform may be that ...

  4. Predicting the radiation exposure of terrestrial wildlife in the Chernobyl exclusion zone : an international comparison of approaches.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N. A.; Barnett, C. L.; Brown, J. E.; Cheng, J.-J.; Copplestone, D.; Gaschak, S.; Hosseini, A.; Howard, B. J.; Kamboj, S.; Nedveckaite, T.; Olyslaegers, G.; Smith, J. T.; Vives i Batlle, J.; Vives-Lynch, S.; Yu, C.; Environmental Science Division; Centre for Ecology and Hydrology; Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority; England and Wales Environment Agency; International Radioecology Lab.; Inst. of Physics, Radiation Protection,; Belgian Nuclear Research Centre; Univ. of Portsmouth; Westlakes Research Inst.

    2010-06-09

    There is now general acknowledgement that there is a requirement to demonstrate that species other than humans are protected from anthropogenic releases of radioactivity. A number of approaches have been developed for estimating the exposure of wildlife and some of these are being used to conduct regulatory assessments. There is a requirement to compare the outputs of such approaches against available data sets to ensure that they are robust and fit for purpose. In this paper we describe the application of seven approaches for predicting the whole-body ({sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Am and Pu isotope) activity concentrations and absorbed dose rates for a range of terrestrial species within the Chernobyl exclusion zone. Predictions are compared against available measurement data, including estimates of external dose rate recorded by thermoluminescent dosimeters attached to rodent species. Potential reasons for differences between predictions between the various approaches and the available data are explored.

  5. Predicting the radiation exposure of terrestrial wildlife in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: an international comparison of approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N A; Barnett, C L; Howard, B J [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Brown, J E; Hosseini, A [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Department of Emergency Preparedness and Environmental Radioactivity, Grini naeringspark 13, Postbox 55, No-1332 Oesteras (Norway); Cheng, J-J; Kamboj, S; Yu, C [Argonne National Laboratory, Building 900, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4832 (United States); Copplestone, D [England and Wales Environment Agency, Richard Fairclough House, Knutsford Road, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 1HG (United Kingdom); Gaschak, S [International Radioecology Laboratory (Ukraine); Nedveckaite, T [Institute of Physics, Radiation Protection, Savanoriu Avenue 231, LT-02053 Vilnius (Lithuania); Olyslaegers, G [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK.CEN, Radioecology Section, Radiation Protection Department, Boeretang 200, B-2400, Mol (Belgium); Smith, J T [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 3QL (United Kingdom); Vives i Batlle, J; Vives-Lynch, S, E-mail: nab@ceh.ac.u [Westlakes Research Institute, Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd., The Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria, CA24 3LN (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    There is now general acknowledgement that there is a requirement to demonstrate that species other than humans are protected from anthropogenic releases of radioactivity. A number of approaches have been developed for estimating the exposure of wildlife and some of these are being used to conduct regulatory assessments. There is a requirement to compare the outputs of such approaches against available data sets to ensure that they are robust and fit for purpose. In this paper we describe the application of seven approaches for predicting the whole-body ({sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Am and Pu isotope) activity concentrations and absorbed dose rates for a range of terrestrial species within the Chernobyl exclusion zone. Predictions are compared against available measurement data, including estimates of external dose rate recorded by thermoluminescent dosimeters attached to rodent species. Potential reasons for differences between predictions between the various approaches and the available data are explored.

  6. Erbium concentration anomaly as an indicator of nuclear activity: Focus on Natural waters in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plausinaitis, Deivis; Prokopchik, Aleksandr; Karaliunas, Algimantas; Bohdan, Leonid; Balashevska, Yuliya

    2017-10-17

    This study focused on measurement of lanthanides in surface water (SW) and ground water (GW) samples from the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Results showed that the total lanthanide concentration in SW ranges from 500 to 1100ngL(-1) and is about 10 times lower than the GW concentration. The normalized patterns of lanthanide concentrations increase from lighter elements to heavier lanthanides. Concurrently, concentration anomalies of Ce, Eu, and Er are visible. The Er anomaly is the most noticeable and exceeds the theoretical calculation by about 13 times. The Ce and Eu anomalies are likely related to the variety of oxidation states of these elements. Meanwhile, the cause of the Er anomaly is not completely clear, but is likely related to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, since increased concentrations correlate with the distribution of contamination in the zone. (137)Cs activity measurements partially confirm this hypothesis. Simultaneously, there is a relationship between the positive Er anomaly and increase in (235)U concentrations. However, there is no reliable information in the literature that indicates that Er was used in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant before the reactor accident. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 77 FR 75570 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Coast of Alaska (FMP). Amendment 12 comprehensively revises and updates the FMP to reflect the North... contains a number of provisions to update the FMP and bring it into compliance with the Magnuson-Stevens.... The biology of salmon is such that escapement is the point in the species life history best suited to...

  8. Maritime Territorial and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Disputes Involving China: Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-06

    competition with China.” (Gary Roughead, “China, Time and Rebalancing,” Hoover Institution (www.hoover.org), undated (but with copyright of 2014...Congressional Research Service 37 by VCG Major General Nguyen Quang Dam and USCG Commandant Admiral Robert J. Papp, Jr. The United States will

  9. Military Activities in the Exclusive Economic Zone: Preventing Uncertainty and Defusing Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    freedom of navigation." Id. (citing Edmund V. Carreno, America Latina y los Problems Contemporaneos del Derecho del Mar 27-28 (Santiago, 1973)). But see... fiscal , customs, immigration, and health laws.薯 As discussed above, however, despite this diplomatic and operational activity, while some States have...the coastal State may exercise the control necessary to.. prevent infringement of its customs, fiscal , inmnigration or sanitary laws and regulations

  10. 77 FR 6492 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Community Development Quota Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... final rule revises regulations that may be considered more restrictive because they subject CDQ fishery... Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Final rule... fisheries observer requirements to ensure that they are no more restrictive than the regulations in effect...

  11. 77 FR 59053 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Monitoring and Enforcement Requirements in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ..., Attn: Ellen Sebastian, Records Officer; in person at NMFS, Alaska Region, 709 West 9th Street, Room... experience with the gear being deployed. In recent years, observer reports of harassment and intimidation in...

  12. 75 FR 69016 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish Observer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... Region, 709 West 9th Street, Room 420A, Juneau, AK; and by e-mail to [email protected] or fax... regulations are designed to protect observers and allow them to freely perform their duties without harassment...

  13. Oceanographic Survey in the American Samoa Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) (OES0602, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic data were collected along five predetermined transects in the American Samoa EEZ and consisted of CTD casts, trawl samples, and continuous current and...

  14. 77 FR 23325 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska and Pacific Halibut Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... purpose. Initially, NMFS would deploy electronic monitoring equipment on some vessels to learn more about... NMFS to use the fees to pay for stationing observers or electronic monitoring systems on board fishing... information provided in the user's Deployment System account (FFP or Alaska Department of Fish and Game number...

  15. Present status of oceanographic studies and characteristics of the Exclusive Economic Zone of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, B.N.; Bhargava, R.M.S.; Sarupria, J.S.; Reddy, G.V.

    The EEZ of India includes four seas viz: Arabian Sea, Lakshadweep Sea, Bay of Bengal and Andaman & Nicobar Sea. All the seas except the Andaman and Nicobar Sea are extensively surveyed. The total number of cruises undertaken in the EEZ are 178. More...

  16. 76 FR 7788 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska; Western Alaska Community Development Quota...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... at time of crab delivery; standardize reporting time limits for recording discard, disposition... regulations related to time and time limits, as follows: Time limits for recording information in the paper... time limit to record scale weights in the DCPL for C/Ps participating in the Central Gulf of Alaska...

  17. 77 FR 29556 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Halibut and Sablefish Individual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    .../seabirds/section7/pachalibut.pdf ). In addition, the commenter considers the increased population of short... population has increased, NMFS disagrees that this population increase amounts to a change in the... increasing population of short-tailed albatross, NMFS disagrees that the upward population trend is new...

  18. 75 FR 68325 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of workshop. SUMMARY: NMFS, Alaska Region, will present a workshop on seaLandings, a consolidated electronic...

  19. 76 FR 65500 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ] ACTION: Notice of workshop. SUMMARY: NMFS, Alaska Region, will present a workshop on seaLandings, a consolidated electronic...

  20. 77 FR 70150 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of workshop. SUMMARY: NMFS, Alaska Region, will present a workshop on seaLandings, a consolidated electronic...

  1. Population structure and biological characteristics of Siriella gracilis (Mysida) from the Exclusive Economic Zone of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Biju, A.; Honey, U.K.; Kusum, K.K.; Jagadeesan, L.

    individuals measuring 5.7 mm and 5.2 mm, respectively, secondary sexual characters were not yet visible, while in some male and female measuring 5.5 and 4.2 mm respectively, secondary sexual characteristic were noticed already (table VI). Fully mature...

  2. Mysids (Crustacea) from the Exclusive Economic Zone of India with description of a new species

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Biju, A.; Panampunnayil, S.U.

    - seawater solution and preserved prior to subsequent analysis. In the laboratory, mysids were sorted and classified according to the degree of development of secondary sexual characteristics (Mauchline 1980). For each category the following criteria were... used: juveniles (individuals without secondary sexual characteristics), adult males (well-developed appendix masculina), immature males (appendix masculina present but not setose), adult females (well-developed marsupium), and immature females (with...

  3. 77 FR 56798 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Revise Maximum Retained Amounts for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... incidental species closed to directed fishing. That led to the waste of some basis species for which there...) management purposes and fishing seasons, the Council also recommended, and NMFS proposes, that Kamchatka... Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action would allow the use of BSAI arrowtooth flounder and...

  4. 77 FR 15019 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska and Pacific Halibut Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... operations with minimal processing history, all vessels designated as catcher/processors and motherships... pollock deliveries. A small number of catcher/processors with a history of minor processing would also be... choose when to carry observers, which statistically bias estimates of catch and bycatch. Under the...

  5. Taxonomy in biomedical resources of the Exclusive Economic Zone of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.

    stream_size 9 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Taxonomy_Environ_Biol_1990_49.pdf.txt stream_source_info Taxonomy_Environ_Biol_1990_49.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  6. Maritime Territorial and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Disputes Involving China: Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-18

    particularly on maritime security. American men and women in uniform are working together with countries in the region to build that capacity—especially on...than 16 million citizens who trace their ancestry to the Asia-Pacific. Given the importance of the Asia-Pacific to our interests, we owe it to the

  7. 75 FR 41123 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea Subarea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... the southern boundary of Statistical Area 400 at the Bering Strait. Area 514 of the Bering Sea subarea... nonpelagic trawling near the Bering Strait. The Council intended for the entire northern portion of the... area of the Bering Sea subarea near the Bering Strait that is currently open to nonpelagic trawling...

  8. 78 FR 73842 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; North Pacific Groundfish and Halibut...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... (observers) who obtain information necessary for the conservation and management of the Bering Sea and... management and conservation needs. The final rule was published in the Federal Register on November 21, 2012... -- -- -- BS 0.72 -- -- -- AK 0.83 0.50 -- 0.50 ALL 0.83 0.50 -- 0.50 Tiger Rockfish (148): SEAK 0.32...

  9. Identification document for large by-catch species in the Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter R.

    2003-01-01

    The coastal waters of Mauritania (Northwest Africa) contain large numbers of pelagic fish such as sardinella, sardine, mackerel and horse mackerel. Freezer-trawlers from the European Union (EU), mainly of Dutch origin, have exploited these resources since 1996. In 1998 the Dutch ship owners

  10. Phytoplankton assemblages and pigments in the exclusive economic zone of Mauritius (Indian Ocean)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devassy; Goes, J.I.

    curtailed phytoplankton growth in the surface waters leading to formation of a distinct subsurface chlorophyll maximum (SCM). In the vicinity of Agalega Islands, the enhancement of phytoplankton biomass was associated with an upwelling process causEd...

  11. 77 FR 65843 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Revisions to IFQ Program Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... governs the halibut fishery. The IFQ Program is a limited access system for managing the fixed- gear... definition. The proposed regulations had used the phrase ``constructive total loss,'' which is a term used by... that in the final rule the regulations be revised to define the phrase ``constructive total loss'' to...

  12. 77 FR 21716 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Peninsula. The FMP delegates management of the sport fishery to the State in both areas. Although the FMP... FMP and would reaffirm that management of the commercial and sport salmon fisheries in the East Area... commercial and sport salmon fishing in the East Area. Revise the definition of Salmon Management Area, at Sec...

  13. 76 FR 40674 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Scallops

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... prevent overfishing in the target fishery for weathervane scallops. Implementing these measures would... estimate of spawning biomass for weathervane scallops, the overfishing level (OFL) is specified as the MSY...-Stevens Act relative to preventing overfishing and establishing an ABC and ACL. The following is a summary...

  14. Maritime Territorial and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Disputes Involving China: Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    has been to discourage U.S. involvement and the internationalisation of the disputes. From Beijing’s perspective, ASEAN countries have been using...U.S. involvement will internationalise the territorial disputes in the South China Sea, isolating China and further hindering its efforts to achieve...Service 10 Figure 3. Map of the Nine Dashed Lines Example submitted by China to the United Nations in 2009 Source: Communication from China to the

  15. 77 FR 35925 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Monitoring and Enforcement Requirements in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... accounting system,'' and participants in the catch share programs access their vessel's observer data to... conveyor belt in the factory before any sorting or processing was done. As described below, the operations... system requirements (VMS). The R&R and VMS requirements also apply while these vessels are CDQ fishing...

  16. 77 FR 70061 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska and Pacific Halibut Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... category includes catcher vessels, shoreside processors, and stationary floating processors when not... also will describe how NMFS will deploy observers to shoreside processing plants or stationary floating... casualties, and rarely, but importantly, brought manifestly unsafe vessel conditions to the attention of USCG...

  17. U.S.-China Military Conflicts in the Maritime Exclusive Economic Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    Review 77, no. 1404 (November 2002): 1, in LexisNexis Academic (accessed January 16, 2012). 23 25 The Government of the United States of America...5, in LexisNexis Academic (accessed January 23, 2012). 28 Ibid., 11. 29 United Nations, Office of Legal Affairs, Division for Ocean Affairs and...is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Master of Strategic Studies Degree. The views expressed in this student academic

  18. Is Occurrence of Harmful Algal Blooms in the Exclusive Economic Zone of India on the Rise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Padmakumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence, increase in frequency, intensity and spatial coverage of harmful algal blooms during the past decade in the EEZ of India are documented here. Eighty algal blooms were recorded during the period 1998–2010. Of the eighty algal blooms, 31 blooms were formed by dinoflagellates, 27 by cyanobacteria, and 18 by diatoms. Three raphidophyte and one haptophyte blooms were also observed. Potentially toxic microalgae recorded from the Indian waters were Alexandrium spp., Gymnodinium spp. Dinophysis spp., Coolia monotis, Prorocentrum lima, and Pseudo-nitzschia spp. Examination of available data from the literature during the last hundred years and in situ observations during 1998–2010 indicates clear-cut increase in the occurrence of HABs in the Indian EEZ.

  19. Maritime Territorial and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Disputes Involving China: Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Cape Verde, China, Egypt, Haiti, India, Iran, Kenya, Malaysia, Maldives , Mauritius, North Korea, Pakistan, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sri Lanka...http://www.state.gov/documents/ organization /143224.pdf. The text is also available at http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/ archives/speeches/1983/31083c.htm...International Maritime Organization , Status of Multilateral Conventions and Instruments in Respect of Which the International Maritime Organization or its

  20. 76 FR 12884 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; American Fisheries Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... the Alaska Department of Fish and Game. These SAFE Reports include separate stock assessment and... sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection-of... must be included? The annual report must contain, at a minimum: * * * * * BILLING CODE 3510-22-P ...

  1. Factor Analysis of the Northeast Economic Zone's Logistics Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Wang, Jiaxin; Li, Tingting

    Along with the expanding regional logistics network, the area's logistics competition is very important because it enhances the entire area's economy. This paper is based on both the domestic and foreign theories and methods used with related subjects to study the content of the area's logistics competition. According to the level of economic development in Northeast region, the scale of logistics demand, the situation of logistics supply as well as the level of development of information, all establish the urban logistics competitiveness index system using the factor analysis method through the SPSS system to evaluate the competitiveness of the urban logistics which is very representative of the Northeast economic area. Finally, this paper uses the fore mentioned system to calculate the scores of 27 city's separated into 3 categories: The first including 4 cities (Shenyang, Harbin, Dalian, Changchun), the second having 3 cities (Jilin, Daqing, Anshan) and the final category has 20 cities (Fushun, Songyuan, Qiqihar, Baotou etc.).

  2. COEGA special economic zone: Water for industrial development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taylor, Graham

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water for Industrial Development 06 October 2017 Index 4 5 1 2 3 9 The Coega SEZ Overview The Package of Plans Approach Water Demand Planning Conclusion 6 Coega Overview: Ownership & Control Coega Overview: current status 43....8 billion, making Coega IDZ the No 1 IDZ in Africa” - Dr Ayanda Vilakazi, Coega’s Head of Marketing Coega Wins Top Performance Award. (left to right) Coega CEO - Pepi Silinga; MEC for EC Economic Development - Sakhumzi Somyo, Environmental Affairs...

  3. Assessment of Eco-Environmental Stress in the Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longyu Shi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Eco-environmental stress refers to the pressure borne by the environment in sustaining the pre-existing non-industrialized state and/or in counteracting adverse impacts caused by natural and human factors. The present article introduces the concept, research progress, and method for assessing eco-environmental stress. An eco-environmental stress index (ESI is established to assess the eco-environmental stress of 13 cities in the Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone (hereafter referred to as the Economic Zone during the period from 2000 to 2010. The research provides a reference for the strategic planning of industrial development and environmental protection. The results show that the overall eco-environmental stress of the Economic Zone was slight and did not have significant change during the past 10 years. The cities with the most severe eco-environmental stress are distributed in the north and south of the Economic Zone. Most areas of Fujian Province have a low degree of eco-environmental stress, a situation that is being constantly improved. The regions with high atmospheric and water pollutant emissions are concentrated in the northern, middle, and southern coastal regions of the Economic Zone. The pollutant emissions of coastal cities are higher than those of inland cities. In the future, ecological restoration and compensation mechanisms should be established for regions where environmental protection and remediation is urgently needed.

  4. Combating Poverty and Social Exclusion in France. OECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 569

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamet, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Reducing poverty and social exclusion is an important objective for all French governments. Even though conventionally measured poverty is in fact lower than in most other countries, it is still higher than can be easily accepted. The current policy approach involves a large number of measures tailored to different circumstances. Some policies…

  5. Risk of Poverty or Social Exclusion: Evolution during the Economic Crisis and Territorial Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Úrsula Faura-Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a regional perspective to analyse the progression of the risk of poverty or social exclusion (AROPE rate in Spain during the recent crisis period. Various methodological issues related to how the components of the AROPE rate are integrated have brought into question its suitability as the Europe 2020 strategy indicator. As these problems are accentuated in the analysis of individual territories, this paper examines the effect of using regional poverty thresholds. When these are included, the risk of poverty or social exclusion is more consistent with the standard of living enjoyed in each territory. In addition, this paper mainly on the poverty rate by the application of a multiple linear regression model. Nonetheless, the explanatory power of the deprivation and employment indicators diminishes when using regional poverty thresholds.

  6. The Case for Tetrahedral Oxy-subhydride (TOSH Structures in the Exclusion Zones of Anchored Polar Solvents Including Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Oehr

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesize a mechanistic model of how negatively-charged exclusion zones (EZs are created. While the growth of EZs is known to be associated with the absorption of ambient photonic energy, the molecular dynamics giving rise to this process need greater elucidation. We believe they arise due to the formation of oxy-subhydride structures (OH−(H2O4 with a tetrahedral (sp3 (OH−(H2O3 core. Five experimental data sets derived by previous researchers were assessed in this regard: (1 water-derived EZ light absorbance at specific infrared wavelengths, (2 EZ negative potential in water and ethanol, (3 maximum EZ light absorbance at 270 nm ultraviolet wavelength, (4 ability of dimethyl sulphoxide but not ether to form an EZ, and (5 transitory nature of melting ice derived EZs. The proposed tetrahedral oxy-subhydride structures (TOSH appear to adequately account for all of the experimental evidence derived from water or other polar solvents.

  7. CHRONIC IRRADIATION OF SCOTS PINE TREES (PINUS SYLVESTRIS) IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE: DOSIMETRY AND RADIOBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    To identify effects of chronic internal and external radiation exposure for components of terrestrial ecosystems, a comprehensive study of Scots pine trees in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone was performed. The experimental plan included over 1,100 young trees (up to 20 years old) selected from areas with varying levels of radioactive contamination. These pine trees were planted after the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mainly to prevent radionuclide resuspension and soil erosion. For each tree, the major morphological parameters and radioactive contamination values were identified. Cytological analyses were performed for selected trees representing all dose rate ranges. A specially developed dosimetric model capable of taking into account radiation from the incorporated radionuclides in the trees was developed for the apical meristem. The calculated dose rates for the trees in the study varied within three orders of magnitude, from close to background values in the control area (about 5 mGy y{sup -1}) to approximately 7 Gy y{sup -1} in the Red Forest area located in the immediate vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site. Dose rate/effect relationships for morphological changes and cytogenetic defects were identified and correlations for radiation effects occurring on the morphological and cellular level were established.

  8. Strontium-90 activity concentration in soil samples from the exclusion zone of the Fukushima daiichi nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Kavasi, Norbert; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Arae, Hideki; Tokonami, Shinji; Mietelski, Jerzy Wojciech; Łokas, Edyta; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    The radioactive fission product 90Sr has a long biological half-life (˜18 y) in the human body. Due to its chemical similarity to calcium it accumulates in bones and irradiates the bone marrow, causing its high radio-toxicity. Assessing 90Sr is therefore extremely important in case of a nuclear disaster. In this work 16 soil samples were collected from the exclusion zone (nuclear power plant, to measure 90Sr activity concentration using liquid scintillation counting. 137Cs activity concentration was also measured with gamma-spectroscopy in order to investigate correlation with 90Sr. The 90Sr activity concentrations ranged from 3.0 ± 0.3 to 23.3 ± 1.5 Bq kg-1 while the 137Cs from 0.7 ± 0.1 to 110.8 ± 0.3 kBq kg-1. The fact that radioactive contamination originated from the Fukushima nuclear accident was obvious due to the presence of 134Cs. However, 90Sr contamination was not confirmed in all samples although detectable amounts of 90Sr can be expected in Japanese soils, as a background, stemming from global fallout due to the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. Correlation analysis between 90Sr and 137Cs activity concentrations provides a potentially powerful tool to discriminate background 90Sr level from its Fukushima contribution.

  9. Prediction of the (137)Cs activity concentration in the atmospheric surface layer of the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garger, E K; Kuzmenko, Yu I; Sickinger, S; Tschiersch, J

    2012-08-01

    The time series of the 10-day average (137)Cs volumetric activity concentration in the lower atmosphere measured from 1987 to 1991 in the town of Pripyat, close to the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, was used to construct a model to predict the airborne activity concentration inside the 30-km exclusion zone. For that purpose, individual components of the observed time series were separated by regression analysis and the Group Method of Data Handling. The measured data in Pripyat were divided in two periods. The long-term prediction by the model established using the measured data of the first period, has been validated with the data in the second period with good agreement. The behaviour of the model parameters depending on the length of the periods was also analysed, and the first period of 4.5 y was shown as sufficient for estimating the parameters. Further increase in the length will not significantly enhance the model parameters and the predictive power. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Main Economic Policies in order to Manage an Optimum Accession of Romania to the Euro Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian ANGHEL

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at analysing several options concerning the economic policies Romania should adopt in the following years, in order to attenuate the long term vulnerabilities within the process of joining to the Euro zone, with the observation that, the economic policies proposed in the current work were selected mainly based on the decisive factors for the real equilibrium exchange rate in Romania. Fulfilling the nominal criteria for adhesion can prove itself to be more facile but not able to ensure, on a long term and in a sustainable manner, reaching an optimum for the economy that adheres irreversibly to the Euro zone. It is important to analyze how the competitiveness of other economies evolved prior and after joining the Euro zone, from the perspective of identifying some economic policies meant to ensure the accomplishment of the real convergence criteria to the Euro zone for Romania’s case, on a long term. The economic policies proposed by the authors try to help covering the greatest delays for Romania in comparison with other states in the Euro zone and which, unsolved, can create in time significant vulnerabilities on a long term, having a negative impact for many generations of Romanians from now on.

  11. Industrial clusters in Russia: The development of special economic zones and industrial parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Sosnovskikh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the process of developing and implementing special economic zones (SEZs and industrial parks in Russia. Governments commonly use SEZ policies to develop and diversify exports, create jobs and launch technology/knowledge sharing. The industrial cluster concept is based on the significance of rivalry and supplier networks within the cluster, the combination of geographical specificities and government policies that lead to innovation and productivity growth. This study reveals that in Russia the government′s approach in developing these initiatives has strongly interfered with business activities and prevented the vital competitive and collaborative behavior of firms within these economic zones.

  12. Economic analysis of stockless, horticultural crop rotations on a model farm in temperate zone organic systems

    OpenAIRE

    SCHMUTZ Ulrich; Firth, Chris; Rayns, Francis

    2005-01-01

    Research draws on an organic research farm site in central England with a temperate zone climate - fairly common for the northern lowlands of Europe. The soil type is a sandy loam with 591 mm rainfall. Detailed economic and agronomic data have been collected since conversion began in 1995. The economic analysis discusses rotational gross and net margins of more than 30 different rotations with different fertility building and vegetable crops (potatoes, cabbages, onions, carrots, leeks and par...

  13. 76 FR 61950 - Security Zones, 2011 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference, Oahu, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... Conference, Oahu, HI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary interim rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing four temporary security zones on the navigable waters of Oahu's southern and western shores in support of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference in Oahu...

  14. Marketing to Develop the Premier Medical Brand in the Huaihai Economic Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peiying; Meng, Qingchao

    2015-06-01

    Based on the practices at Xuzhou Central Hospital, the authors analyzed the improvements in the healthcare quality and economic efficiency after implementing a brand marketing strategy. Using methods including questionnaires and business controlling means, we summarized that the improvements to the healthcare quality and economic efficiency after strategies were implemented in the areas of network, reputation, academic research, and public welfare. After the implementation of a brand marketing campaign, the medical service quality and brand reputation have been greatly improved. Meanwhile, a central hospital group was formed and gradually became the central healthcare provider in the Huaihai Economic Zone. The new marketing facilitated the drastic increase of medical service and brand reputation.

  15. Adaptive Differential Evolution Approach for Constrained Economic Power Dispatch with Prohibited Operating Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellatif HAMOUDA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic power dispatch (EPD is one of the main tools for optimal operation and planning of modern power systems. To solve effectively the EPD problem, most of the conventional calculus methods rely on the assumption that the fuel cost characteristic of a generating unit is a continuous and convex function, resulting in inaccurate dispatch. This paper presents the design and application of efficient adaptive differential evolution (ADE algorithm for the solution of the economic power dispatch problem, where the non-convex characteristics of the generators, such us prohibited operating zones and ramp rate limits of the practical generator operation are considered. The 26 bus benchmark test system with 6 units having prohibited operating zones and ramp rate limits was used for testing and validation purposes. The results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for solving the non-convex economic dispatch problem.

  16. Seven Fundamental Economic Characteristics Exclusivity of Agrifood Supply Chains (part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Sporleder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This analysis focuses on defining and describing the unique economic characteristics of agrifood supply chains. The analysis includes seven specific economic characteristics of agrifood supply chains that distinguish them from other industrial manufacturing and service supply chains. The seven characteristics are: 1 risk emanating from the biological nature of agrifood supply chains, 2 the role of buffer stocks within the supply chain, 3 the scientific foundation of innovation in production agriculture having shifted from chemistry to biology, 4 cyberspace and information technology influences on agrifood supply chains, 5 the prevalent market structure at the farm gate remains oligopsony, 6 relative market power shifts in agrifood supply chains away from food manufacturers downstream to food retailers, and 7 globalization of agriculture and agri- food supply chains.

  17. Seven Fundamental Economic Characteristics Exclusivity of Agrifood Supply Chains (part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Sporleder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This analysis focuses on defining and describing the unique economic characteristics of agrifood supply chains. The analysis includes seven specific economic characteristics of agrifood supply chains that distinguish them from other industrial manufacturing and service supply chains. The seven characteristics are: 1 risk emanating from the biological nature of agrifood supply chains, 2 the role of buffer stocks within the supply chain, 3 the scientific foundation of innovation in production agriculture having shifted from chemistry to biology, 4 cyberspace and information technology influence on agrifood supply chains, 5 the prevalent market structure at the farm gate remains oligopsony, 6 relative market power shifts in agrifood supply chains away from food manufacturers downstream to food retailers, and 7 globalization of agriculture and agrifood supply chains.

  18. The Social Bases for Exclusion of Sport from Caribbean Economic Development: Identity Formation vs Capital Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy MCCree

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the salient developments of the 20th century, particularly its last two decades, was the increasing commercialisation of sport and its transformation into an important pole of capital accumulation and economic development consistent with the expansionist dynamics of capitalism on an international scale. This development however did not take place over night and has not taken place at the same pace and to the same degree either across the world or across all sports.

  19. Economic Instruments and the Environment: Can Natural Resources be Maneged Exclusively by the Market?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Júlio Vitral Amaro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The advent of industrial economies coincides with the emergence of the economy as an autonomous discipline and with the question, not hitherto placed on the “value of nature”. As the basis of any theory of the first economists was the statement that every "value" is the work of man, was a fragile theoretical nature of the classics, since this is not the result of human labor. So, to circumvent the problem of fixing the "values​​" intrinsic to nature, environmental economics, in its most widespread version, part of the statement that assigns what is "value" is not exactly the environment or environmental resources but people's preferences in relation to changes in quality or quantity supplied of natural resource. The idea of ​​transaction rights on the environment (in fact, the right to pollute found resonance in the United States with "certified environmental" measures to better control pollution. They are traded for several polluting companies that can, in turn, trade them in the market for environmental permits. Remember that in any arrangement in which disputing parties settle in reaction conditions supposedly equal, makes a big difference the presence of those more able to lobby and power to influence public opinion. It is seen, even with the refinement that achieves economic analysis by incorporating as legitimate rights of non pollution, yet there is no guarantee the order of environmental damage if the whole issue be restricted to the context of the economic approach simply.

  20. A review of possible origins of the uranium 'plume' in the aquifer under the EPIC site in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonucci, C.; Van Meir, N.; Courbet, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, PRP-DGE/SRTG/LETIS, POB 17, F-92262, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Roux, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, PRP-DGE/SRTG/LETIS, POB 17, F-92262, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, IRD, CEREGE UM34, 13545 Aix en Provence (France); Le Gal La Salle, C.; Verdoux, P.; Lancelot, J.C. [Nimes University, Laboratoire de Geochimie Isotopique (GIS), 150 rue George Besse, 30035 Nimes (France); Ruas, A. [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, RadioChemistry and Processes Department, F-30207, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Bassot, S. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, PRP-DGE/SRTG/LAME, POB 17, F-92262, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Bugai, D. [Institute of Geological Sciences, 55-b, Gonchara Str., Kiev 01054 (Ukraine); Levchuk, S.; Kashparov, V. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology, UIAR NUBiP of Ukraine, Mashinobudivnykiv str. 7, Chabany, Kyiv-Svjatoshin (Ukraine)

    2013-07-01

    The uniqueness of the Chernobyl accident lies in the fact that so much radioactive material was discharged to the atmosphere as solid fuel particles from the reactor core. Between the 26 April and the 6 May 1986 more than 6 tons of small particles of highly radioactive uranium oxide fuel were discharged to the atmosphere and were responsible for more than 75 % of the radioactive contamination on the ground in the exclusion zone. In 1987, about 800 trenches had been dug in the exclusion zone to prevent re-suspension and to protect workers from contamination. In 1999, the IRSN, in collaboration with IGS and UIAR, equipped trench 22 (CPS) in order to monitor radionuclide migration in the environment (water, soil, plants). At the EPIC site high uranium concentrations were observed in the groundwater downstream from trench 22. We discuss the possible origins of this uranium 'plume'. (authors)

  1. Nonparametric Forecasting for Biochar Utilization in Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Shiuh Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is the least profitable industry in China. However, even with large financial subsidies from the government, farmers’ living standards have had no significant impact so far due to the historical, geographical, climatic factors. The study examines and quantifies the net economic and environmental benefits by utilizing biochar as a soil amendment in eleven counties in the Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone. A nonparametric kernel regression model is employed to estimate the relation between the scaled environmental and economic factors, which are determined as regression variables. In addition, the partial linear and single index regression models are used for comparison. In terms of evaluations of mean squared errors, the kernel estimator, exceeding the other estimators, is employed to forecast benefits of using biochar under various scenarios. The results indicate that biochar utilization can potentially increase farmers’ income if rice is planted and the net economic benefits can be achieved up to ¥114,900. The net economic benefits are higher when the pyrolysis plant is built in the south of Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone than when it is built in the north as the southern land is relatively barren, and biochar can save more costs on irrigation and fertilizer use.

  2. Landslide Risk: Economic Valuation in The North-Eastern Zone of Medellin City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Johnny Alexander; Hidalgo, César Augusto; Johana Marín, Nini

    2017-10-01

    Natural disasters of a geodynamic nature can cause enormous economic and human losses. The economic costs of a landslide disaster include relocation of communities and physical repair of urban infrastructure. However, when performing a quantitative risk analysis, generally, the indirect economic consequences of such an event are not taken into account. A probabilistic approach methodology that considers several scenarios of hazard and vulnerability to measure the magnitude of the landslide and to quantify the economic costs is proposed. With this approach, it is possible to carry out a quantitative evaluation of the risk by landslides, allowing the calculation of the economic losses before a potential disaster in an objective, standardized and reproducible way, taking into account the uncertainty of the building costs in the study zone. The possibility of comparing different scenarios facilitates the urban planning process, the optimization of interventions to reduce risk to acceptable levels and an assessment of economic losses according to the magnitude of the damage. For the development and explanation of the proposed methodology, a simple case study is presented, located in north-eastern zone of the city of Medellín. This area has particular geomorphological characteristics, and it is also characterized by the presence of several buildings in bad structural conditions. The proposed methodology permits to obtain an estimative of the probable economic losses by earthquake-induced landslides, taking into account the uncertainty of the building costs in the study zone. The obtained estimative shows that the structural intervention of the buildings produces a reduction the order of 21 % in the total landslide risk.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF FREE ECONOMIC ZONE OF THE ASTRAKHAN REGION: MYTH AND REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina V. Kryukova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the tasks, processes and problems demanding permission in the special economic zones formed in the territory of Russia as an institute of development of national economy in the conditions of import substitution policy. The Special Economic Zones (SEZ being one of instruments of attraction of the foreign capital, diversification of economy, transfer of the industry of the country to an innovative way of development, act as the real driver of economic growth of regions. On the example of the special economic zone of the Astrakhan region the comparative characteristic of the main processes of its development is carried out; actual shortcomings of Lotos OJSC management are proved. The author reveals unevenness and slowness of development, structural disproportions, low responsibility of stakeholders, insufficient activity of resident firms and the related groups, high degree of uncertainty of achievement of payback and efficiency of projects of the SEZ. The results of the carried-out analysis let implement the tasks of further development of the Astrakhan SEZ – attraction of considerable resources into the development of fields of natural resources, activization of geological and exploration works, technological improvement of the existing capacities, construction of new unique objects at the shipbuilding enterprises.

  4. The Impact of Key Monetary Variables on the Economic Growth of the CEMAC Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forgha Godfrey NJIMANTED

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to empirically explore the impact of key monetary policy variables on the economic growth in the CEMAC zone from the period of 1981 to 2015. Carried out using the Ex post facto research design based on the principal components selection approach, the study interacts money supply, interest rate, economic growth, and inflation rate, among themselves and their lagged values using the Vector Auto-regressive (VAR analytical technique. The Classical quantity theory of money, the Cambridge Cash Balanced, the liquidity preference theory and the Monetarists as theoretical frameworks were explored to appreciate the time trends of the selected variables on the economic growth of the CEMAC zone. Based on the (VAR methodology, the study reveals that key monetary policy variables influence economic growth of the CEMAC zone in different ways with inflation rate as the impact factor. On the basis of the above findings and the evidence from other studies, lending and inflation rate generated substantial destabilizing impacts on the economic growth, suggesting that the monetary authorities should play a critical role in creating an enabling environment for growth. The determination of the optimal lending rate should reflect the overall internal rate of returns in the productive sectors with due attention to market fundamentals. In line with this, the Central Bank of CEMAC should be given complete instrumental autonomy to operate depending on a set of in-built targets by the individual countries of the zone. Effective monetary targeting and accommodating monetary policies should be designed and implemented as the need arises with little or no political motives.

  5. Impact of radionuclide spatial variability on groundwater quality downstream from a shallow waste burial in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H. L.; de Fouquet, C.; Courbet, C.; Simonucci, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    The effects of spatial variability of hydraulic parameters and initial groundwater plume localization on the possible extent of groundwater pollution plumes have already been broadly studied. However, only a few studies, such as Kjeldsen et al. (1995), take into account the effect of source term spatial variability. We explore this question with the 90Sr migration modeling from a shallow waste burial located in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone to the underlying sand aquifer. Our work is based upon groundwater sampled once or twice a year since 1995 until 2015 from about 60 piezometers and more than 3,000 137Cs soil activity measurements. These measurements were taken in 1999 from one of the trenches dug after the explosion of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, the so-called "T22 Trench", where radioactive waste was buried in 1987. The geostatistical analysis of 137Cs activity data in soils from Bugai et al. (2005) is first reconsidered to delimit the trench borders using georadar data as a covariable and to perform geostatistical simulations in order to evaluate the uncertainties of this inventory. 90Sr activity in soils is derived from 137Cs/154Eu and 90Sr/154Eu activity ratios in Chernobyl hot fuel particles (Bugai et al., 2003). Meanwhile, a coupled 1D non saturated/3D saturated transient transport model is constructed under the MELODIE software (IRSN, 2009). The previous 90Sr transport model developed by Bugai et al. (2012) did not take into account the effect of water table fluctuations highlighted by Van Meir et al. (2007) which may cause some discrepancies between model predictions and field observations. They are thus reproduced on a 1D vertical non saturated model. The equiprobable radionuclide localization maps produced by the geostatistical simulations are selected to illustrate different heterogeneities in the radionuclide inventory and are implemented in the 1D model. The obtained activity fluxes from all the 1D vertical models are then injected in a 3D

  6. INSTITUTE OF SPEСIAL ECONOMIC ZONES: BASIC PROVISIONS AND THE WORLD PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Aleksandr Konstantinovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the operation of special economic zones ("SEZ" in the countries that feature different levels of economic development (including Ghana, China, Bulgaria, the USA and Russia, principal provisions and special entrepreneurial environment, as well as the variety of SEZ depending on the objectives of their setup. Problems of management of items of real estate within territories of SEZ are identified. The authors also analyze peculiarities of establishment and operation of SEZ in the Russian Federation and propose an economic mechanism to boost their competitiveness. The authors conclude that there is a pressing need for a qualitative reconsideration of approaches to the management of SEZ and their constituent elements that have to ensure a scalable and highly efficient application of SEZ as an instrument of innovative development in various fields and a solution to basic economic and social problems.

  7. The Ways of Improving the Activity of Free Economic Zones in the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela OSMATESCU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available General approach about such economical-organizational structures as free economic zones, is very large and changeable because of faster evolution of the factors that influence their development, and which further generate a great number of specifically forms and different ways of their working, and all these later lead to appearance of a lot of organizational models. This article analyses different organizational models which are on the international scale, and suggests some proposals in order to improve the one that exists in our country.

  8. ECOLOGICAL-ECONOMICAL ZONING – EEZ - FOR ORGANIC SYSTEMS OF FARMING PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudete Rempel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the planning mechanisms available to the Government that could be used in territorial planning is the ecological-economic zoning - EEZ, which seeks for reconcilement between economic development and environmental quality. The aim of this study is to determine areas for the introduction and development of organic foods cultivation in the municipality of Arroio do Meio/RS/BR. The study has developed two proposals in order to recognize the territorial and environmental characteristics of the municipality and the vocation of different areas regarding anthropogenic occupation and environmental conservation: 1 EEZ indicating the uses and actions recommended for the rational use of the territory, 2 decision support routines for the determination of aptitude. The results of both evaluations pointed out that the city has approximately 40% of the framed area as a zone of intensive use, showing ability to promote organic foods production.

  9. Interventions to Reduce Drug Abuse in Pars Special Economic Energy Zone

    OpenAIRE

    DAMARI, Behzad; AHMADI PISHKUHI, Mahin; Masoudiasl, Irvan; Bostanmanesh, Golamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: South Pars special economic energy zone is the world's second largest gas reservoir that was established two decades ago. High incidence of social harms is observed in this region due to various problems such as drug addiction which is of high prevalence. Objectives: The current study aimed at finding the strategies to prevent drug abuse and formulating policies in the region. Materials and Methods: The research method was a combination of nested type (qualitative-quantitative) an...

  10. CRITICAL OUTLOOK AT SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE IN ASIA: A COMPARISON BETWEEN INDONESIA, MALAYSIA, THAILAND AND CHINA

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuni, Sari; Astuti, Esther Sri; Utari, Karina Miaprajna

    2015-01-01

    Special Economic Zones (SEZ) have been proven to help countries in fostering economicgrowth. The aim of this research is to try to help the government to improve SEZ policies inIndonesia by providing a benchmark with other SEZ countries in China, Malaysia, andThailand. While China has the most established SEZ program, Malaysia and Thailand alsohave highly-regarded SEZs and investment incentives. These neighboring countries havedeveloped SEZs in significant quantities but the greatest returns ...

  11. Safety Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    These are established primarily to reduce the accidental spread of hazardous substances by workers or equipment from contaminated areas to clean areas. They include the exclusion (hot) zone, contamination reduction (warm) zone, and support (cold) zone.

  12. Effects of long-term radiation exposure on the higher aquatic plants in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevtsova, N.; Gudkov, D. [Institute of Hydrobiology (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    From the earliest years after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 the radioecological study on freshwater plant communities in the water-bodies within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ) has been held. At first stages it was the research on plant species collection and radionuclide contamination of aquatic ecosystems. Now, it is the seasonal monitoring with several groups of data deals with different areas of plant communities investigation: (1) the data characterized the level of radionuclides contamination of the abiotic and biotic components of phyto-coenosis and connected absorbed dose rates for various species of aquatic plants; (2) indexes of plant reproduction, including productivity, sterility, seed germination indexes and different abnormalities of ontogenesis; (3) indexes of morphological deviations (radiomorphoses) of aquatic plant's reproduction organs such as panicle and seeds; (4) cytogenetic indexes including the rate and spectrum of chromosome aberrations in cells of apical root meristem of air-aquatic plants; (5) the group of indexes, connected with plant's immunity. The calculated absorbed dose rate for littoral emergent plants in sampling water bodies was varied from 0.7 to 1.4 Gy/year in dependence of radioactive contamination of bottom sediments, plant tissues and level of gamma-background. There were registered rather low rate of plant productivity (hundred times lower than normal), high percentage of sterility (20-80%), low germinating ability (14-48 %) and germinating power (40-50%) of seeds from all sampling water bodies within the ChEZ. Against the general suppressed background the effect of relative stimulation of more affected seeds was observed. With increase of internal absorbed dose in range of 0.2-5.3 mGy/year the number of germinated seeds was increased. At the same time the number of different abnormalities of seeds was increased as well. The highest rate of the morphological damages (up to 25 % of the total number of

  13. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts, Enterprise Zones (EZ) are areas defined by the Department of Economic Development (LDED) for the purpose of encouraging economic growth by offering tax credits and incentives to businesses locating or expanding in designated enterprise zone areas., Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University (LSU).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts dataset current as of 2005. Enterprise Zones (EZ) are areas defined by the Department of Economic Development (LDED) for...

  14. Assessing decentralised policy implementation in Vietnam : The case of land recovery and resettlement in the Vung Ang Economic Zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. de Wit (Joop); L. Viet Sang (Luong); L. Van Chien (Le); L. Thu Hien (Luong); H. Viet Hung (Ha); D. Thi Anh Tuyet (Dang); D. Ngoc Bau (Dao); Q. Hoa (Quang); M. Thi Thanh Tam (Mai)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractFrom 2006 plans were implemented to create a deep-sea water port linked to an Economic Zone in the coastal Province of Ha Tinh, located in north central Vietnam. The multi-purpose Zone entitled ‘Vung Ang’, was to attract foreign investors, while the port would provide a link to nearby

  15. Distribution of plutonium in selected components of the Baltic ecosystem within the Polish economic zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skwarzec, Bogdan; Bojanowski, Ryszard (Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland). Inst. of Oceanology)

    1992-01-01

    The results of measurements of plutonium isotopes in the Baltic Sea, sediments and biota following the Chernobyl accident are presented and discussed. The average {sup 239,240}Pu level of seawater was found to be 5 mBq m{sup -3} of which 70% constituted filterable forms (<= 0.45 {mu}m). Sea plants and benthic animals concentrated plutonium isotopes to varying degrees, the concentration factors ranging from 600 to 27100. Small differences were observed between plutonium levels of malacostraca and bivalvia collected in 1986 and 1987. Generally, the impact of Chernobyl-derived plutonium on the Baltic ecosystem within the Polish economic zone was insignificant. (author).

  16. The creation of special economic zones in China: Positive and negative impacts in its implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Orozco Plascencia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available At the end of seventies, Deng Xioaping, President applied a modernization policy in China, that during more than 30 years allow to reach high economic growth rates above 8% average per year. This reform included the instauration of four Special Economic Zones (SEZ in the southeast of the country, three in Guangdong (Shenzhen, Zhuhai and Shantao and one in Xiamen, Fujian.The purpose of this paper is to analyze the backgrounds of SEZ, the reasons of Chinese Government to implement its and the positive impacts and barriers to become operational.The conclusion in this article is that sez arise like an experiment of the Chinese central government economic policy to apply capitalist measures in design previous regions, the most important benefit has been the strong attraction of Foreing Direct Investment, explained in a surplus trade balance, sustanaible economic growht and technological transference. However, the most significative operational barrier has been the legal rigidity in the imported overseas products, a change of nacional politicideology system and problem asociated with burocracy and corruption.

  17. Readiness of freight transportation system at special economic zone of Lhokseumawe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fithra, Herman; Sirojuzilam, Saleh, Sofyan M.; Erlina

    2017-11-01

    Geo-economic advantages of Lhokseumawe and Aceh Utara District lies on the geographical location of Aceh crossed by Sea Lane of Communication (Sloc), the Malacca Strait. Located at the Malacca Strait, the Special Economic Zone (Kawasan Ekonomi Khusus/ KEK) of Arun Lhokseumawe has a comparative advantage to be part of the global production network or the global value chain. This study aims to determine freight transportation system to support KEK Lhokseumawe, especially the availability of multimodal transport and multimodal infrastructure. The result shows that KEK Lhokseumawe driven by SOEs in Lhokseumawe and Aceh Utara is urgent to be realized for economic acceleration and to grow new economic growth in Aceh. Multimodal transport in KEK Lhokseumawe is also available, including Ro-Ro ships, train availability from Dewantara sub-district to Muara Batu Sub-district, various types of truck with small, medium and large capacity. The available multimodal infrastructure includes international sea ports, road network connectivity with structure pavement rating of 94.62%, and railroad tracks indicating that multimodal transportation in KEK Lhokseumawe are ready to utilize. Regulatory requirements relating to the operation of all ports in KEK Lhokseumawe as export / import gate are required and serve the loading and loading activities of Containers, and as a place of origin of goods on the east coast of Aceh.

  18. Assessment of environmental impact as a result of industrial development in the Pars special economic energy zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acbarpur Darush

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Pars special economic energy zone, the rapid industrial development has been affecting the environment severely. In order to restore the environment, definite expenses are necessary. The damaging effect on the environment (natural resources caused by the industrial zone can be assessed directly or indirectly. To investigate the Pars economic zone in the province Bushehr, GIS-methods were used. Possible impact of industrial projects on different media: physical and chemical, biological, social and economic was considered. In order to estimate the ecological consequences of the changes of ecological conditions in the area investigated Leopold matrices (with some modifications were used. As a result, both positive and negative changes were revealed in the Pars zone. Taking into account all parameters, two variants were proposed and compared using lobbying tables. Variant C seemed the best, as having minimal negative and maximal positive rating

  19. Assessment of water quality in areas of ecological economic zoning of the Guapiaçu-Macacu basin, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcilio Fernandes Baptista

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic ecosystems have often been significantly altered by multiple impacts. The Guapiaçu-Macacu Hydrographic Complex is an important basin in Rio de Janeiro characterized by distinct ecological zones that make up an Ecological Economic Zoning. This research evaluated ecological upright in segments of this Complex located in Wildlife Conservation Zone (WCZ and the Agricultural Use Zone (AUZ using the Protocol Visual Assessment (PVA and physical, chemicals and microbiology methods. The results showed a significant difference between the points of lowest contamination degree in WCZ and stretches with a greater impact degree in AUZ. The PVA was more sensible than the conventional parameters in the resolution between segments impacted environmentally and impacted middle located in AUZ. This type of evaluation proved to be more effective in environmental monitoring the water quality for watersheds that have their Ecological Economic Zoning Plan. Therefore, the use of physical, chemical and microbiological methods must be complemented by the PVA.

  20. SUSTENABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY BY ADOPTING THE CHINESE MODEL OF SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEGREA Adrian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The architecture of the Chinese economy began to take shape in the late 1980's, because of the new reforms that the Chinese Communist Party started to take. With the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, the Chinese leadership is taken by Deng Xiaoping, who stated a blitz course in capitalism. The new president encouraged foreign direct investments by creating special economic zones near the costal cities, were foreign companies obtained several tax brakes and other incentives, only to invest in those regions. With the help of statistical data from WTO, IMF, and the World Bank, the current paper analyzes the impact of these special economic zones on the Chinese economy, raging from mutations in the labor market and economic sectors structure and their evolution in the formation of the GDP, FDI inflows, and last but not least external trade and current account situation. On the other hand, the paper tries to make a connection with Romania, computing and predicting, based on the Chinese figures, the way in which the Romanian economy, by creating four economic zones within the counties of Satu Mare, Bihor, Arad, and Constanta, will be able to experience the same growth. The first three counties have been piked up based on their proximity to the Schengen area, and/or on their infrastructure, plain terrain, and a qualified and skilled labour force. Constanta, the only one that resembles with its Chinese counterparts, has been considered because of its capabilities of shipping products right away as they are manufactured. The results would decrease the disparity that exists in revenue levels across Romania, Bucharest leading the group way ahead of the other counties. Foreign direct investments in those areas will attract more others made by the local authorities in the infrastructure (schools, universities, roads, airports, high speed railways. This development will have a direct impact on the current account of the Romania's balance sheet of payments, while

  1. The transfer of (137)Cs, Pu isotopes and (90)Sr to bird, bat and ground-dwelling small mammal species within the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, N A; Gaschak, S; Maksimenko, Andrey; Wood, M D

    2016-03-01

    Protected species are the focus of many radiological environmental assessments. However, the lack of radioecological data for many protected species presents a significant international challenge. Furthermore, there are legislative restrictions on destructive sampling of protected species to obtain such data. Where data are not available, extrapolations are often made from 'similar' species but there has been little attempt to validate this approach. In this paper we present what, to our knowledge, is the first study purposefully designed to test the hypothesis that radioecological data for unprotected species can be used to estimate conservative radioecolgical parameters for protected species; conservatism being necessary to ensure that there is no significant impact. The study was conducted in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Consequently, we are able to present data for Pu isotopes in terrestrial wildlife. There has been limited research on Pu transfer to terrestrial wildlife which contrasts with the need to assess radiation exposure of wildlife to Pu isotopes around many nuclear facilities internationally. Our results provide overall support for the hypothesis that data for unprotected species can be used to adequately assess the impacts for ionising radiation on protected species. This is demonstrated for a range of mammalian and avian species. However, we identify one case, the shrew, for which data from other ground-dwelling small mammals would not lead to an appropriately conservative assessment of radiation impact. This indicates the need to further test our hypothesis across a range of species and ecosystems, and/or ensure adequate conservatism within assessments. The data presented are of value to those trying to more accurately estimate the radiation dose to wildlife in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, helping to reduce the considerable uncertainty in studies reporting dose-effect relationships for wildlife. A video abstract for this paper is available from

  2. A restricted hybrid zone between native and introduced red fox (Vulpes vulpes) populations suggests reproductive barriers and competitive exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Benjamin N; Moore, Marcelle; Statham, Mark J; Wittmer, Heiko U

    2011-01-01

    Introduced species can threaten native taxa in multiple ways, including competition and hybridization, which can reduce fitness, alter ecological niches or swamp native genomes. Encroachment and hybridization by introduced species also provide opportunities to study the dynamics of invasiveness and hybridization during early stages following contact. We used 33 microsatellites, 51 single nucleotide polymorphisms and a mtDNA marker to characterize the extent and spatial pattern of encroachment and hybridization between a native, endemic subspecies of red fox (Vulpes vulpes patwin) and an introduced red fox population composed of highly admixed, phylogenetically divergent stock, resulting from a century of domestication. Both nuclear and mtDNA markers indicated that hybridization was primarily restricted to a narrow zone where the two populations came into contact. Although a few introgressed genotypes were detected in the interior of the native range, we found no immigrant foxes or F(1) or F(2) hybrids there, suggesting native foxes excluded introduced individuals. We speculate that the observed interbreeding at the periphery was facilitated by low densities. In total, 98% of mtDNA haplotypes in the native range were native and 96% of the nuclear ancestry was estimated to be native. Although the introduced range had expanded fivefold over the past four decades, native and non-native haplotypes from museum samples collected in and near the native range three decades earlier showed a similar geographic distribution as today, suggesting that the native range and hybrid zone were relatively stable. We hypothesize that the monogamous mating system of red foxes and other wild canids may enhance their resistance to hybridization because of greater fitness consequences associated with mate discrimination. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Economic effectiveness of treating the near-face zone of oil and injection wells in the Tatar ASSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khegay, V.F.; Nekrasova, A.P.; Vostrikova, M.N.

    1979-01-01

    A simplified formula is presented for calculating the economic effectiveness of treating the near-face zone of oil wells. The specific nature of the proposed technique of calculations is such that their result will be more accurate if the economic effect is determined for each well separately, and then the result is summed for the enterprise. In this case, it is necessary to adopt as the base net cost, the net cost of the association, and not of each well, for each well separately influences the indicators of the enterprise not in the size of the economic effect obtained from the individual net cost, but in the size of increase in product and level of outlays to obtain it. An example of analysis of treating the near face zone of oil wells is presented for 191 repair and near-face well zone for injection wells for 1207 repairs.

  4. Strategic opportunities for economic development of the Baltic Sea coastal zones and sea industrial and port complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogoberidze George

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, one of the principal dimensions in attraction of the world economy structures is coastal territories as spaces where marine potential of a state is most pronounced. In this respect, it is vital to set the priorities of development of coastal zones taking into account the changes in the strategic situation in order to maintain the components of marine potential of the Russian Federation at the level of its national interests. The article aims to develop an indicator system of assessment of coastal zone potential, and sea industrial and port facilities in order to identify the characteristic and strategic capacities of the economic development of these territories in the complex approach. The research methodology is based on the assessment of marine potential of coastal territories as an indicator of the efficacy of its marine economic complex development with using the indicator methods as a multi-factor and multi-level spatial system. The proposed system is applied to a complex analysis of coastal territories of the Russian Baltic, the estimation of a socio-economic factor of coastal zone marine potential, as well as recommendations for long-term planning of the economic development of Russia’s coastal zones of the Baltic Sea and the organization of marine activities. This methodology can help to identify a role of coastal territories in the economy and reflect perspectives and directions of strategic development of coastal zones, and sea industrial and port facilities of the Russian Federation.

  5. Special Economic Zones as a Nanoindustry Development Institute: the Nature, Structure, and Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inshakov Oleg Vasilyevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the nature, specificity and tasks of Russia’s special economic zones (SEZ as an institution of national nanoindustry. Statuses and procedures, preferences, benefits, guarantees and privileges of Russian SEZ, which contribute to the creation of favorable starting conditions for the residents’ innovative projects implementation are generally described. Types and parameters of the SEZ are distinguish, their potentials, trends of formation and multiplication, experience and problems of their formation and operation are defined. It is shown that not only technology-innovative SEZ, but also industrial production SEZ are included in the development of the national nanoindustry: the first ones – through the development and implementation of nanotechnology, the second ones – by serial and mass production of goods and services with nanosigns. The notion of the life cycle of the SEZ, based on the understanding of the Kondratieff wave structure, dynamics and boundaries and model representation of technological mode evolution is given. On this methodological basis, an original substantial characteristic of the life cycle of SEZ is suggested and logic of phase change is justified, providing for the division of exogenous and endogenous factors affecting them. The slowness of development, lack of stakeholders’ responsibility, and of the activity of residents and their related groups, the uncertainty of achieving profitability and effectiveness of SEZs in the process of construction and performance of their tasks are identified. The conclusions are confirmed with monitoring materials held by Ministry of Economic Development of Russia.

  6. Currency target-zone modeling: An interplay between physics and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lera, Sandro Claudio; Sornette, Didier

    2015-12-01

    We study the performance of the euro-Swiss franc exchange rate in the extraordinary period from September 6, 2011 to January 15, 2015 when the Swiss National Bank enforced a minimum exchange rate of 1.20 Swiss francs per euro. Within the general framework built on geometric Brownian motions and based on the analogy between Brownian motion in finance and physics, the first-order effect of such a steric constraint would enter a priori in the form of a repulsive entropic force associated with the paths crossing the barrier that are forbidden. Nonparametric empirical estimates of drift and volatility show that the predicted first-order analogy between economics and physics is incorrect. The clue is to realize that the random-walk nature of financial prices results from the continuous anticipation of traders about future opportunities, whose aggregate actions translate into an approximate efficient market with almost no arbitrage opportunities. With the Swiss National Bank's stated commitment to enforce the barrier, traders' anticipation of this action leads to a vanishing drift together with a volatility of the exchange rate that depends on the distance to the barrier. This effect is described by Krugman's model [P. R. Krugman, Target zones and exchange rate dynamics, Q. J. Econ. 106, 669 (1991), 10.2307/2937922]. We present direct quantitative empirical evidence that Krugman's theoretical model provides an accurate description of the euro-Swiss franc target zone. Motivated by the insights from the economic model, we revise the initial economics-physics analogy and show that, within the context of hindered diffusion, the two systems can be described with the same mathematics after all. Using a recently proposed extended analogy in terms of a colloidal Brownian particle embedded in a fluid of molecules associated with the underlying order book, we derive that, close to the restricting boundary, the dynamics of both systems is described by a stochastic differential

  7. Psychophysiological characteristics in the ChNPP accident clean-up workers, exclusion zone evacuees and anti-terrorist operation servicemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganovsky, K M; Gresko, M V

    2017-12-01

    Evaluation of interdependencies between psychometric parameters and spontaneous cerebral electric activity in the ChNPP accident clean up workers, evacuees from exclusion zone, and anti terrorist operation service men. Psychometric and neurophysiological parameters were reviewed in the study subjects retro spectively and in comparison. Study population included the ChNPP accident clean up workers (ACUW), evacuees from the 30 kilometer exclusion zone, specifically in a sample from a cohort of the NRCRM Clinical Epidemiological Register (n=316), and anti terrorist operation servicemen (n=81) undergoing rehabilitation in the NRCRM Radiation psychoneurology department. A control group of persons (n=84) was also involved in the study. Diagnostic method ology for the characteristic personality features, namely the personality test of character accentuation by G. Shmishek and K. Leonhard, and Eysenck Personality Inventory (by H. J. Eysenck) were applied. Computer EEGs were registered and analyzed on the 16 channel electroencephalograph DX 4000 (Kharkiv, Ukraine). In the aftermath of the emergency period, a personality deformation occurs in the clean up workers and survivors of the ChNPP accident, which is characterized by aggravation of such personality traits as jam (fixedness), emotiveness, pedantry, anxiety, cyclothymia, excitability and disthymia, with diminished hyperthymia and ostenta tion (demonstrability). Increased incidence of fixedness, pedantry, cyclothymia, affectability and disthymia with decreased hyperthymia were revealed in the group of ATO participants. Cerebral bioelectrical activity in the ChNPP ACUW was characterized by an increased delta activity power with decreased beta and theta activity power and dom inant frequency in comparison with all groups of survivors and control group. The ATO group was different from groups of survivors and control group with a lower power of delta, theta and beta activity, and a higher dominant frequency. Introversion

  8. Terms, factors and threats of functioning the bio-socio-economic system of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova M. V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The various conditions and factors determining the characteristics of functioning the economic, social and biological systems of the Russian Arctic have been considered. The results of analysis of the socio-economic development of the northern region, an assessment of the legal aspects determining the specificity of the northern regions have been given. The geopolitical situation of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation and potential geopolitical threat to its development have been considered

  9. THE EXPERIENCE IN NATURAL-ECONOMIC ZONING OF THE REPUBLIC OF BURYATIA FOR DEVELOPMENT OF RECREATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Vorobyova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studying and mapping of natural-economic zoning of the Republic of Buryatia for development of recreational environmental management. Regions with different structure of natural territorial complexes, which were modified to some extent by economic activity, were identified. Also were allocated 8 recreational areas, characterized by different set of recreational activities and different perspectives of development which should be considered as priority sites of environmental assessment and monitoring.

  10. Validation of the global model for {sup 90}SR migration from the waste burial in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewiere, L.; Bugai, D.; Kashparov, V.; Barthes, V. [Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, DEI/SARG/LETS, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses cedex, (France)

    2004-07-01

    The Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has managed (1999-2003) the Chernobyl Pilot Site Project (CPS project) in collaboration with the Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), the Institute of Geological Sciences (IGS) and the Tracer Application Section (CEA/SAT). The special focus of the CPS project was environmental behavior and radionuclide release mechanisms from dispersed nuclear fuel particles, forming radionuclide migration source-term. So, the contaminated environment was used as an open-sky laboratory to develop site characterization techniques, better understand and model processes of radionuclides migration in soils and geological environment. The CPS project resulted in detailed characterization of site geology structure, hydrogeology regime, hydro-dispersion regime in the aquifer and unsaturated zone, radionuclide inventory and distribution in trench no.22, focused at {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr. The special research program using scanning electron microscopy and sequential extraction analytical techniques was devoted to characterization of fuel particles and quantification of their dissolution behavior. It was established that Chernobyl radionuclides are associated with uranium oxide matrix particles of different degree of oxidation, characterized by different dissolution rates, as well as with non-dissolvable zirconium containing matrix particles. The multi-component fuel particles dissolution model with empirical dissolution rate constants was developed to describe the source-term. The methodology for radionuclide transport was based on application of the classical advection-diffusion equation and utilization of effective transport parameters. The developed so far modeling methodology is mostly suited for producing spatially averaged parameter values (such as radionuclide concentrations in trench porous solution, and/or integral radionuclide release to aquifer), and for long-term predictions on a scale of years

  11. 75 FR 64957 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the offshore component in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 Pacific total allowable catch (TAC) apportioned to vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the offshore component of the Western Regulatory Area of the GOA.

  12. 75 FR 8839 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the offshore component in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the A season allocation of the 2010 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific cod apportioned to vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the offshore component of the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA.

  13. 75 FR 5541 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the A season allocation of the 2010 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific cod apportioned to vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component of the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA.

  14. 75 FR 56016 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 Pacific total allowable catch (TAC) apportioned to vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component of the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA.

  15. 75 FR 63402 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 Pacific total allowable catch (TAC) apportioned to vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component of the Western Regulatory Area of the GOA.

  16. 75 FR 64956 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the offshore component in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 Pacific total allowable catch (TAC) apportioned to vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the offshore component of the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA.

  17. 76 FR 81860 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Gulf of Alaska; Final 2011 and 2012 Harvest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... of fishery stocks, and market price. Furthermore, the closure of one fishery has a cascading effect... intended effect of this action is to conserve and manage the groundfish resources in the GOA in accordance... rule is necessary to ensure that appropriate allocations will be in effect for the beginning of the...

  18. 78 FR 15677 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... include cost, revenue, ownership, and employment data the North Pacific Fishery Management Council... operations. Specifically, the Council and analysts use the data to examine changes in usage of the crab... Council initiated an analysis to modify the EDR based on the results of its data quality review process...

  19. 76 FR 44699 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Allocations in the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... electronic comments in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. Electronic copies... closes the season much earlier, when the directed fishing allowance has been harvested. Managers attempt... would be extremely low. NMFS' experience with similar sector allocations has shown that small...

  20. Fish Species Observed in the Hawaiian Exclusive Economic Zone from the 1750s through 2003 (NODC Accession 0001486)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A list of Hawaiian fish species was created from contemporary and historical documents dating back to 1758. For each species, the name of the person who described...

  1. 78 FR 40638 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish in the Western Regulatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... metric tons (mt) as established by the final 2013 and 2014 harvest specifications for groundfish of the... establishing a directed fishing allowance of 1,858 mt, and is setting aside the remaining 150 mt as bycatch to... of this closure the maximum retainable amounts at Sec. 679.20(e) and (f) will apply at all times...

  2. 78 FR 39631 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... GOA is 2,040 metric tons (mt) as established by the final 2013 and 2014 harvest specifications for... of 0 mt, and is setting aside 2,040 mt as bycatch to support other anticipated groundfish fisheries... retainable amounts at Sec. 679.20(e) and (f) apply at any time during a trip. Classification This action...

  3. 78 FR 24362 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... Greenland turbot ITAC in the Aleutian Islands subarea of the BSAI is 383 metric tons (mt) as established by... a directed fishing allowance of 0 mt, and is setting aside the remaining 383 mt as incidental catch... retainable amounts at Sec. 679.20(e) and (f) apply at any time during a trip. Classification This action...

  4. 76 FR 63204 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Yellowfin Sole in the Bering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... accordance with Sec. 679.91(f), NMFS reallocates 2,000 mt of yellowfin sole from the BSAI trawl limited... trawl limited access sector is 34,153 metric tons (mt) and to the Amendment 80 cooperative is 138,875 mt... 11139, March 1, 2011). The Administrator, Alaska Region, NMFS, has determined that 2,000 mt of the...

  5. 78 FR 44465 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the West Yakutat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... metric tons (mt) as established by the final 2013 and 2014 harvest specifications for groundfish of the... establishing a directed fishing allowance of 1,541 mt, and is setting aside the remaining 100 mt as bycatch to... of this closure the maximum retainable amounts at Sec. 679.20(e) and (f) apply at any time during a...

  6. 75 FR 55689 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Yellowfin Sole in the Bering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    .... Therefore, in accordance with Sec. 679.91(f), NMFS reallocates 20,000 mt of yellowfin sole from the BSAI... Aleutian Islands trawl limited access sector is 42,369 metric tons (mt) and to the Amendment 80 cooperative is 90,733 mt as established by the final 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish in the...

  7. 78 FR 40638 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Dusky Rockfish in the Western Regulatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    .... The 2013 TAC of dusky rockfish in the Western Regulatory Area of the GOA is 377 metric tons (mt) as... allowance of 277 mt, and is setting aside the remaining 100 mt as bycatch to support other anticipated... retainable amounts at Sec. 679.20(e) and (f) will apply at all times during a trip. Classification This...

  8. 78 FR 58955 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... catcher/processors, and 46,812 mt for trawl catcher vessels. In accordance with Sec. 679.91(f), NMFS will...) specified for catcher vessels using trawl gear in the BSAI is 49,312 metric tons (mt) as established by the... catcher vessels using trawl gear will not be able to harvest 2,500 mt of the 2013 Pacific cod TAC...

  9. 78 FR 52868 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    .../processors, and 49,312 mt for trawl catcher vessels. In accordance with Sec. 679.91(f), NMFS will reissue... vessels using trawl gear in the BSAI is 51,312 metric tons (mt) as established by the final 2013 and 2014... has determined that catcher vessels using trawl gear will not be able to harvest 2,000 mt of the 2013...

  10. 78 FR 24361 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea Subarea...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... ITAC in the Bering Sea subarea of the BSAI is 1,369 metric tons (mt) as established by the final 2013... allowance of 0 mt, and is setting aside the remaining 1,369 mt as incidental catch. In accordance with Sec...) and (f) apply at any time during a trip. Classification This action responds to the best available...

  11. 78 FR 28523 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... North Region were prevented by a fire that disabled the processor. Natural or man-made catastrophes...) Identification of eligible applicants. Eligible applicants are: (i) IFQ holders. Any person holding regionally...

  12. 76 FR 25295 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands King and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... research and management under the FMP. Additional uncertainty includes (1) management uncertainty (i.e... would consider additional scientific uncertainty and management uncertainty in the TAC-setting process... of availability of fishery management plan amendments; request for comments. SUMMARY: The North...

  13. 77 FR 72297 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Gulf of Alaska; Proposed 2013 and 2014...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... making stock assessments. NMFS scientists presented updated and new survey results, changes to assessment... the fisheries scientists. This information is categorized into a successive series of six tiers to... fisheries (including halibut and subsistence) and allocation to the DSR sport fish fishery have been...

  14. 76 FR 44297 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe portable document file (pdf... each crab fishery to aid in price negotiations and arbitrations; (2) a formula arbitrator, who prepares a non-binding price formula that describes the historic division of first whole-sale values among...

  15. 77 FR 42629 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... entities was rejected. The ``universe'' of entities to be considered in a FRFA generally includes only... group, gear type, geographic area), that segment would be considered the universe for purposes of this... area were unacceptably high. Limited information on the origin of Chinook salmon in the GOA indicates...

  16. 78 FR 24707 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska: Fixed-Gear Commercial Halibut and Sablefish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... personal identifying information (e.g., name, address, etc.), confidential business information, or... determined that evolution to an owner-operated program is occurring at a slower pace than was originally... evolution. To address this concern, the Council recommended, and this proposed rule would implement...

  17. 75 FR 76352 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Gulf of Alaska; Proposed 2011 and 2012...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... and Central Regulatory Areas of the GOA reflects the seasonal biomass distribution and is discussed in... apportioned in the Western/Central Regulatory Areas among three statistical areas. During the A season, the... apportionment is based on the relative distribution of pollock biomass at 30%, 54%, and 16% in Statistical Areas...

  18. 75 FR 11749 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Gulf of Alaska; Final 2010 and 2011 Harvest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... Central Regulatory Areas of the GOA is ] apportioned among Statistical Areas 610, 620, and 630, as well as... apportioned in the Western/Central Regulatory Areas among three statistical areas. During the A season, the... distribution of pollock biomass of approximately 30 percent, 46 percent, and 24 percent in Statistical Areas...

  19. 78 FR 13161 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Gulf of Alaska; Final 2013 and 2014 Harvest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... pollock TAC in the Western and Central Regulatory Areas of the GOA is apportioned among Statistical Areas... distribution of pollock in the Central Regulatory Area for the A season instead of using the distribution based... relative distribution of pollock biomass at 16 percent, 74 percent, and 10 percent in Statistical Areas 610...

  20. 76 FR 79620 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Gulf of Alaska; Proposed 2012 and 2013...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... Central Regulatory Areas of the GOA reflects the seasonal biomass distribution and is discussed in greater.... Pollock TACs in the Western and Central Regulatory Areas of the GOA are apportioned among Statistical... NMFS proposes, averaging the winter and summer distribution of pollock in the Central Regulatory Area...

  1. 76 FR 11111 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Gulf of Alaska; Final 2011 and 2012 Harvest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... Western and Central Regulatory Areas of the GOA reflects the seasonal biomass distribution and is... Western/Central Regulatory Areas among three statistical areas. Table 6 lists the final 2012 seasonal.... Pollock TACs in the Western and Central Regulatory Areas of the GOA are apportioned among Statistical...

  2. 77 FR 15193 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Gulf of Alaska; Final 2012 and 2013 Harvest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... Western and Central Regulatory Areas of the GOA is apportioned among Statistical Areas 610, 620, and 630...) through (B)). Tables 3 and 4 list the final 2012 and 2013 distribution of pollock in the Central and... in the Western/Central Regulatory Areas among three statistical areas. During the A season, the...

  3. 78 FR 76246 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Several Groundfish Species in the Bering Sea...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; apportionment of reserves; request for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS apportions... Number NOAA-NMFS-2012-0210 by any of the following methods: Electronic Submission: Submit all electronic...

  4. 78 FR 73110 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; modification of a closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is opening...-2012-0210'' by any of the following methods: Electronic Submission: Submit all electronic public...

  5. 76 FR 74670 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Allocations in the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... Sec. 679.2. NMFS corrected grammatical errors in the definitions of ``Hook-and-line catcher/processor... several non-substantive technical errors that are corrected and text that is clarified in this final rule... a typing error in the regulatory provisions at Sec. 679.4(f)(2)(v)(C) to clarify that SFP...

  6. 75 FR 61642 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Modified Nonpelagic Trawl Gear and Habitat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... near the Bering Strait that was open to nonpelagic trawling (Figure 2) but that will now be closed. The... Natives in the Bering Strait region have voiced their opposition to any nonpelagic trawling in the... failure of NMFS to include any of the subsistence-based communities in the Bering Strait region in the...

  7. 78 FR 74079 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Gulf of Alaska; Proposed 2014 and 2015...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... TACs for three species and area combinations in the final 2014 harvest specifications were mis... incorporate corrections to these mis-specifications. Specification and Apportionment of TAC Amounts The... specifications. Rockfish Program applications for CV cooperatives and C/P cooperatives are not due to NMFS until...

  8. 75 FR 53025 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... the member vessels' pollock catch history from 1995 through 1997, as required under section 210(b) of... lack of understanding of the biological and oceanographic conditions that influence the distribution..., and sport fisheries in their regions of origin. The ] State of Alaska Board of Fisheries adopts...

  9. 76 FR 17107 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Application for an Exempted Fishing Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ....regulations.gov . Mail: P.O. Box 21668, Juneau, AK 99802. Fax: 907-586-7557. Hand delivery to the Federal... be Pacific cod, skates, flatfish, halibut, and jellyfish. The amount of groundfish harvest under the...

  10. 78 FR 63951 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... replacement vessel that exceeds specified length, power, and displacement restrictions unless specifically... endorsement if it is greater than 165 feet in length, or more than 750 gross registered tons, or has engines... feet in registered length, of more than 750 gross registered tons, or that has an engine or engines...

  11. 77 FR 72791 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; 2013 and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... next stock assessment cycle for the 2014 and 2015 OFL, ABC, and TAC. If the Council recommends separate... pollock, Pacific cod, Atka mackerel, yellowfin sole, rock sole, Kamchatka flounder, arrowtooth flounder...) for Pollock, Atka Mackerel, Flathead Sole, Rock Sole, Yellowfin Sole, and AI Pacific Ocean Perch...

  12. 75 FR 76372 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... available for the assessment cycle in the fall of 2011. At the October 2010 meeting, the Council and the..., Pacific cod, yellowfin sole, rock sole, Kamchatka flounder, sharks, squid, sculpins, and octopus to be...: arrowtooth flounder, Greenland turbot, rock sole, Alaska plaice, other flatfish, and rougheye rockfish. The...

  13. 76 FR 11139 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Final 2011...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... information available for the assessment cycle in the fall of 2011. The Council is currently considering an...,500 18,100 -16,600 Yellowfin sole BSAI 196,000 213,000 -17,000 197,660 213,000 -15,340 Rock sole BSAI...,660 176,510 21,150 Rock sole 5, 6 BSAI 248,000 224,000 85,000 75,905 9,095 243,000 219,000 85,000 75...

  14. 75 FR 14015 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), the Final Regulatory Impact Review (RIR), and the Initial Regulatory... and delay. However, salmon caught incidentally in trawl nets always die as a result of that capture... salmon support subsistence, commercial, personal use, and sport fisheries in their regions of origin. The...

  15. 78 FR 54629 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; American Fisheries Act, Amendment 80 Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... accessible to people with disabilities. Requests for sign language interpretation or other auxiliary aids... potential impacts of cost recovery programs; and (3) an overview of proposed regulatory approaches to... participation by people who are knowledgeable about the AFA, Aleutian Islands pollock fishery, Amendment 80, CDQ...

  16. Species composition, distribution and abundance of hydromedusae in the Exclusive Economic Zone of the east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.

    . The hydromedusae were encountered in 273 samples and more than 62 species water found. Liriope tetraphylla dominated in the percentage of occurrence and population density. Aglaura hemistoma, Solmundella bitentaculata, Rhopalonema velatum, Cytaeis tetrastyla...

  17. 76 FR 49423 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... between Class A IFQ and IPQ. Prior to the start of a crab fishing season, Class A IFQ and IPQ holders... days prior to the start of these fisheries to provide the formula arbitrator time to incorporate data... start of the season is required to provide harvesters and processors with the time necessary to review...

  18. Fish Species Observed in the Hawaii Exclusive Economic Zone from the 1750s through 2003 (NODC Accession 0001486)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A list of Hawaiian fish species was created from contemporary and historical documents dating back to 1758. For each species, the name of the person who described...

  19. 78 FR 49200 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pollock in the Bering Sea...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ...,820 ICA \\1\\ 33,699 n/a n/a n/a 33,669 n/a n/a n/a AFA Inshore 550,801 220,320 154,224 330,480 544,316... Harvesting Limit \\5\\ 192,780 n/a n/a n/a 190,510 n/a n/a n/a Excessive Processing Limit \\6\\ 330,480 n/a n/a n... for pollock. The amounts specified are for ICA only and are not apportioned by season or sector. Note...

  20. 76 FR 5556 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... Conservation and Management Act (Magnuson-Stevens Act), the FMP, and other applicable laws. DATES: Comments on.... Balsiger, Administrator, Sustainable Fisheries Division, Alaska Region, NMFS, Attn: Ellen Sebastian. You... encourage the development of processing capacity in specific isolated municipalities. To accomplish this...

  1. 77 FR 20339 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... mackerel, Aleutian Islands Pacific ocean perch, flathead sole, Pacific cod, ] rock sole, and yellowfin sole...., F/V Alaska Ranger, F/V Arctic Sole, F/V Prosperity), or because those vessels have been reflagged... species complexes: the shallow-water and the deep-water fishery species complexes. A shallow-water halibut...

  2. 76 FR 73513 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Revisions to Pacific Cod Fishing in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... C/P sectors in order to participate in the BSAI Pacific cod fishery through an LLP. The creation of... entities, as defined under the RFA. Within the universe of small entities that are the subject of this FRFA...

  3. 76 FR 13331 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Revisions to Pacific Cod Fishing in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... participating in the BSAI Pacific cod fishery through a license limitation program (LLP). The creation of... Regulatory Flexibility ] Analysis. Within the universe of small entities that are the subject of this IRFA...

  4. 76 FR 47493 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands King and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... action is necessary to account for uncertainty in the overfishing limit and prevent overfishing... will be used to set the maximum ABC for each crab stock below the overfishing level (OFL) set for that stock. This mechanism ensures that, at the maximum ABC, the probability of overfishing is less than 50...

  5. 78 FR 42023 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... the BSAI trawl limited access fishery. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local time (A.l.t.), July 9....regulations.gov without change. All personal identifying information (e.g., name, address) submitted... fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay opening directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the CAI by...

  6. 78 FR 54591 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... in the Bering Sea subarea of the BSAI. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local time (A.l.t... viewing on www.regulations.gov without change. All personal identifying information (e.g., name, address... it would prevent NMFS from responding to the most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would...

  7. 78 FR 63405 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local time....gov without change. All personal identifying information (e.g., name, address, etc.), confidential... fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the opening of the directed pollock fishery in...

  8. 78 FR 42024 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish and Dusky Rockfish in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ..., Alaska local time (A.l.t.), July 10, 2013, through 1200 hrs, A.l.t., July 12, 2013. Comments must be... generally be posted for public viewing on www.regulations.gov without change. All personal identifying... from responding to the most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the opening of...

  9. 75 FR 64172 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... 1200 hrs, Alaska local time (A.l.t.), October 14, 2010, through 1200 hrs, A.l.t., October 17, 2010....regulations.gov without change. All Personal Identifying Information (e.g., name, address) voluntarily... fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the opening of pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the GOA...

  10. 76 FR 24404 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... using hook-and-line or pot gear in the BSAI. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local time (A.l.t... posted without change. All Personal Identifying Information (for example, name, address, etc... the most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the opening of directed fishing for...

  11. 76 FR 39792 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish in the Bering Sea and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ..., Alaska local time (A.l.t.), July 1, 2011, through 2400 hrs, A.l.t., December 31, 2011. Comments must be... change. All Personal Identifying Information (for example, name, address, etc.) voluntarily submitted by... prevent NMFS from responding to the most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the...

  12. 75 FR 19561 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... catch (TAC) of Pacific cod specified for the BSAI. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local time (A.l.t... period has closed. Comment will generally be posted without change. All Personal Identifying Information... prevent NMFS from responding to the most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the...

  13. 76 FR 20891 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ...: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local time (A.l.t.), April 9, 2011, through 1200 hrs, A.l.t., April 12, 2011.... Comment will generally be posted without change. All Personal Identifying Information (for example, name... fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the opening of directed fishing for Pacific cod by...

  14. 78 FR 6279 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... conditions could potentially be at a disadvantage when negotiating terms of the exemption. Once the parties..., and understand English; the ability to use a personal computer and the Internet; and the authority to...

  15. 78 FR 36150 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Tanner Crab Area Closure in the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... organisms (e.g., crab species, sea whips, sponges, and basket stars). Approximately 90 percent of the bottom... the Assistant Administrator for Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. For the reasons set out...

  16. 78 FR 57106 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska; Amendment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ...). NMFS establishes halibut PSC limits to constrain the amount of halibut bycatch in the groundfish... resource user groups. The Council also acknowledges that, for a wide variety of reasons, the dynamics of.... Conversely, groundfish harvesters will have their harvest constrained in those years. The reductions in...

  17. 78 FR 53419 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska; Amendment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    .... Amendment 95 recognizes that the dynamics of the directed and non-directed halibut fisheries have changed... 95 (see ADDRESSES for availability). Groundfish harvesters may or may not be constrained by this... reduction in harvest by those directly regulated entities constrained by this action would impact revenue...

  18. 76 FR 42099 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... comments in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. Electronic copies of the... industry in the IPA Annual Reports. Differences in the willingness of individual vessels to move from areas... differences in the incentives created by an IPA. Alternatively, upon examination, these data and other...

  19. 75 FR 11778 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Final 2010...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... allowance (DFA). The entire Bogoslof District pollock TAC is allocated as an ICA (see Sec. 679.20(a)(5)(ii... after subtraction of the 10 percent CDQ DFA. This allowance is based on NMFS' examination of the pollock... of the 10 percent for the CDQ program and the 4 percent for the ICA, be allocated as a DFA as follows...

  20. 76 FR 466 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Inseason Adjustment to the 2011 Bering Sea...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... Allocations of Pollock TACs to the Directed Pollock Fisheries and to the CDQ Directed Fishing Allowances (DFA... 2011 SCA Allocations A season harvest B season Allocations A season harvest B season DFA limit \\2\\ DFA DFA limit \\2\\ DFA Bering Sea subarea 813,000 n/a n/a n/a 1,252,000 n/a n/a n/a CDQ DFA 81,300 32,520...

  1. 78 FR 5143 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pollock in the Bering Sea...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... allowable catch (TAC) allocated to the Aleut Corporation's directed fishing allowance (DFA) is 15,500 metric tons (mt) and the Community Development Quota (CDQ) DFA is 1,900 mt as established by the final 2012..., Alaska Region, NMFS, (Regional Administrator) has determined that 10,500 mt of Aleut Corporation's DFA...

  2. 78 FR 13813 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; 2013 and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... percent of the BSAI pollock TAC be allocated to the pollock CDQ directed fishing allowance (DFA). The... establishes a pollock ICA of 1,600 mt of the AI subarea TAC after subtracting the 10-percent CDQ DFA. This..., after subtracting 10 percent for the CDQ program and 3 percent for the ICA, as a DFA as follows: 50...

  3. 78 FR 14932 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pollock in the Bering Sea...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... allowance (DFA) is 15,500 metric tons (mt) and the Community Development Quota (CDQ) is 1,900 mt as... determined that 10,500 mt of Aleut Corporation's DFA and 1,900 mt of pollock CDQ in the Aleutian Islands... reallocates 10,500 mt of Aleut Corporation's DFA and 1,900 mt of pollock CDQ from the Aleutian Islands subarea...

  4. 75 FR 54792 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pollock in the Bering Sea...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... to the Directed Pollock Fisheries and to the CDQ Directed Fishing Allowances (DFA) \\1\\ 2010 A season... Allocations A season harvest B season Allocations A season harvest B season DFA limit \\2\\ DFA DFA limit \\2\\ DFA Bering Sea subarea 813,000 n/a n/a n/a 1,110,000 n/a n/a n/a CDQ DFA 81,300 32,520 22,764 48,780...

  5. 77 FR 14994 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pollock in the Bering Sea...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... Directed Fishing Allowances (DFA) \\1\\ 2012 A season \\1\\ 2012 B 2013 A season \\1\\ 2013 B season \\1\\ season... harvest B season DFA limit \\2\\ DFA DFA limit \\2\\ DFA Bering Sea subarea 1,212,400 n/a n/a n/a 1,201,900 n/a n/a n/a CDQ DFA 121,900 48,760 34,132 73,140 120,190 48,076 33,653 72,114 ICA \\1\\ 32,400 n/a n/a n...

  6. 76 FR 12607 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pollock in the Bering Sea...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... allowance (DFA) is 15,500 metric tons (mt) and the Community Development Quota (CDQ) is 1,900 mt as... determined that 12,500 mt of Aleut Corporation's DFA and 1,900 mt of pollock CDQ in the Aleutian Islands... reallocates 12,500 mt of Aleut Corporation's DFA and 1,900 mt of pollock CDQ from the Aleutian Islands subarea...

  7. 77 FR 10669 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Final 2012...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... BSAI pollock TACs be allocated to the pollock CDQ directed fishing allowance (DFA). The entire Bogoslof... of 1,600 mt of the AI subarea TAC after subtracting the 10 percent CDQ DFA. This allowance is based... the CDQ program and the 3 percent for the ICA, as a DFA as follows: 50 percent to the inshore sector...

  8. 77 FR 2656 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pollock in the Bering Sea...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... allowable catch (TAC) allocated to the Aleut Corporation's directed fishing allowance (DFA) is 15,500 metric... Aleut Corporation's DFA and 1,900 mt of pollock CDQ in the Aleutian Islands subarea will not be... Corporation's DFA and 1,900 mt of pollock CDQ from the Aleutian Islands subarea to the 2012 Bering Sea subarea...

  9. 76 FR 81876 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Inseason Adjustment to the 2012 Bering Sea...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... Allowances (DFA) \\1\\ 2011 A season \\1\\ 2011 B 2012 A season \\1\\ 2012 B season \\1\\ season \\1\\ Area and sector 2011 2012 Allocations A season SCA harvest B season Allocations A season SCA harvest B season DFA limit \\2\\ DFA DFA limit \\2\\ DFA Bering Sea subarea 1,266,400 n/a n/a n/a 1,200,000 n/a n/a n/a CDQ DFA 127...

  10. Interventions to Reduce Drug Abuse in Pars Special Economic Energy Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damari, Behzad; Ahmadi Pishkuhi, Mahin; Masoudiasl, Irvan; Bostanmanesh, Golamreza

    2015-11-01

    South Pars special economic energy zone is the world's second largest gas reservoir that was established two decades ago. High incidence of social harms is observed in this region due to various problems such as drug addiction which is of high prevalence. The current study aimed at finding the strategies to prevent drug abuse and formulating policies in the region. The research method was a combination of nested type (qualitative-quantitative) and analysis of participated stakeholders' views. The study was conducted from January 2014 to May 2015 in Bushehr province. Intentional sampling was used in qualitative section. Collected data were classified in 3 areas: recognition, directions, and implementation requirements. Different factors were identified affecting the prevalence of drug addiction. Various prevention and treatment interventions have been conducted in response to drug abuse in the region, though they have been often sectional, insular, inconsistent, and immeasurable in terms of impact. After the study, a combination of compulsory, facilitative, and promotional interventions was proposed to reduce drug abuse by 10% within a strategic 5-year plan. These interventions are based on 3 aspects: people, industry, and governance, which have been announced and approved based on a memorandum of understanding. It is necessary to implement simultaneous national interventions as soon as possible to improve the economic, social, political, technological, international, and environmental conditions. In the current study, unlike the previous attempts, national stakeholders, including ministry of petroleum, ministry of health and medical education, interior ministry, ministry of cooperatives, labor, and social welfare, and Iran drug control headquarters have played active roles. This fact is evident in their formulation of a policy document in the region and action plan after reaching a memorandum of understanding.

  11. Emergy-based assessment on industrial symbiosis: a case of Shenyang Economic and Technological Development Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yong; Liu, Zuoxi; Xue, Bing; Dong, Huijuan; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Chiu, Anthony

    2014-12-01

    Industrial symbiosis is the sharing of services, utility, and by-product resources among industries. This is usually made in order to add value, reduce costs, and improve the environment, and therefore has been taken as an effective approach for developing an eco-industrial park, improving resource efficiency, and reducing pollutant emission. Most conventional evaluation approaches ignored the contribution of natural ecosystem to the development of industrial symbiosis and cannot reveal the interrelations between economic development and environmental protection, leading to a need of an innovative evaluation method. Under such a circumstance, we present an emergy analysis-based evaluation method by employing a case study at Shenyang Economic and Technological Development Zone (SETDZ). Specific emergy indicators on industrial symbiosis, including emergy savings and emdollar value of total emergy savings, were developed so that the holistic picture of industrial symbiosis can be presented. Research results show that nonrenewable inputs, imported resource inputs, and associated services could be saved by 89.3, 32.51, and 15.7 %, and the ratio of emergy savings to emergy of the total energy used would be about 25.58 %, and the ratio of the emdollar value of total emergy savings to the total gross regional product (GRP) of SETDZ would be 34.38 % through the implementation of industrial symbiosis. In general, research results indicate that industrial symbiosis could effectively reduce material and energy consumption and improve the overall eco-efficiency. Such a method can provide policy insights to industrial park managers so that they can raise appropriate strategies on developing eco-industrial parks. Useful strategies include identifying more potential industrial symbiosis opportunities, optimizing energy structure, increasing industrial efficiency, recovering local ecosystems, and improving public and industrial awareness of eco-industrial park policies.

  12. Self-Organization at Aqueous Colloid-Membrane Interfaces and an Optical Method to Measure the Kinetics of Exclusion Zone Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Jabs

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Exclusion zone (EZ formation at water-membrane interfaces was studied via bright- and dark-field microscopy. Various aqueous colloids including suspensions of charged microspheres, silicon dioxide particles, and raw whole milk were studied with Nafion® hydrophilic membranes. Interfacial formations observed included EZs and more complex patterns including striations, double layers, banding, dendritic aggregates of particles, and double-stranded structures resembling Birkeland current filaments in cold plasmas. A complex three-dimensional dynamic structure and continuous flow patterns persist in and around EZs, maintaining movement of the colloidal particles even after EZs are fully formed, for which a schematic is proposed. Since radiant energy is critical for EZ formation, we hypothesize that these interfacial phenomena are non-equilibrium dissipative structures that self-organize and self-maintain due to ongoing dynamic processes that may involve hydrodynamic interactions. Another experimental approach undertaken involved the construction of a microscope flow cell to measure the kinetics of EZ formation using sequential microphotography analyzed with macro-programmed ImageJ software to investigate effects of different types of conditioned water. No significant difference was found between spring water and the same water treated by a magnetic vortexer. A significant difference was found for municipal tap water compared to electrolyzed alkaline tap water from the same source.

  13. METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS 90SR AND 137CS IN-VIVO MEASUREMENTS OF SMALL ANIMALS AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA DEVELOPED FOR THE CONDITIONS OF THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    To perform in vivo simultaneous measurements of the {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs content in the bodies of animals living in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ), an appropriate method and equipment were developed and installed in a mobile gamma beta spectrometry laboratory. This technique was designed for animals of relatively small sizes (up to 50 g). The {sup 90}Sr content is measured by a beta spectrometer with a 0.1 mm thick scintillation plastic detector. The spectrum processing takes into account the fact that the measured object is 'thick-layered' and contains a comparable quantity of {sup 137}Cs, which is a characteristic condition of the ChEZ. The {sup 137}Cs content is measured by a NaI scintillation detector that is part of the combined gamma beta spectrometry system. For environmental research performed in the ChEZ, the advantages of this method and equipment (rapid measurements, capability to measure live animals directly in their habitat, and the capability of simultaneous {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs measurements) far outweigh the existing limitations (considerations must be made for background radiation and the animal size, skeletal shape and body mass). The accuracy of these in vivo measurements is shown to be consistent with standard spectrometric and radiochemical methods. Apart from the in vivo measurements, the proposed methodology, after a very simple upgrade that is also described in the article, works even more accurately with samples of other media, such as soil and plants.

  14. FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS OF 90SR AND 137CS CONCENTRATIONS IN AN ECOSYSTEM OF THE 'RED FOREST' AREA IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.; Caldwell, E.

    2011-10-01

    In the most highly contaminated region of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone: the 'Red Forest' site, the accumulation of the major dose-affecting radionuclides ({sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs) within the components of an ecological system encompassing 3,000 m{sup 2} were characterized. The sampled components included soils (top 0-10 cm depth), Molina caerulea (blue moor grass), Camponotus vagus (carpenter ants) and Pelobates fuscus (spade-footed toad). In a comparison among the components of this ecosystem, the {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs concentrations measured in 40 separate grids exhibited significant differences, while the frequency distribution of the values were close to a logarithmically normal leptokurtic distribution with a significant right-side skew. While it is important to identify localized areas of high contamination or 'hot spots,' including these values in the arithmetic mean may overestimate the exposure risk. In component sample sets that exhibited logarithmically normal distribution, the geometrical mean more accurately characterizes a site. Ideally, risk assessment is most confidently achieved when the arithmetic and geometrical means are most similar, meaning the distribution approaches normal. Through bioaccumulation, the highest concentrations of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were measured in the blue moor grass and spade-footed toad. These components also possessed distribution parameters that shifted toward a normal distribution.

  15. Energy use and economic analysis of strawberry production in Sanandaj zone of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salami, P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the energy consumption and economic analysis for strawberry production. The data were collected from 60 farmers growing strawberry in the Sanandaj zone of Iran by using a face-to-face questionnaire in August-September 2009. The plowing operation at the study area was done by two methods; manually plow (P1 and machinery plow (P2. Also the irrigation operation was done by two methods; pumping irrigation (P and non pumping irrigation (NP. Univariate analysis of variance was used for finding the differences among the total energy used for production and profitability of this crop in the different methods at the 5% and 1% level. Total energy used in various farm operations during strawberry production was 53,605 MJ.ha-1. Total energy output was 17,338 MJ.ha-1, and the average annual yield of strawberry farms was 9,125 kg.ha-1. Energy efficiency was 0.32, and energy productivity calculated as 0.17 kg.MJ-1. This means a production of 0.17 kg per unit energy. The difference between total input energy in the different irrigation types (NP and P is significant at 1% level. There is not any significant difference between different plow types at the 5% level. The interaction of irrigation types and plow types is significant at 5% level. The profit-cost ratio, productivity, and net profit in the strawberry production are 1.2, 0.99, and 1,825 $.ha-1, respectively. The difference between net return in the different irrigation types (NP and P is significant at 5% level. The difference between net return in the different plow types (P1 and P2 is significant at 1% level.

  16. Ecological risk assessment of land use change in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hualin; Wang, Peng; Huang, Hongsheng

    2013-01-14

    Land use/land cover change has been attracting increasing attention in the field of global environmental change research because of its role in the social and ecological environment. To explore the ecological risk characteristics of land use change in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone of China, an eco-risk index was established in this study by the combination of a landscape disturbance index with a landscape fragmentation index. Spatial distribution and gradient difference of land use eco-risk are analyzed by using the methods of spatial autocorrelation and semivariance. Results show that ecological risk in the study area has a positive correlation, and there is a decreasing trend with the increase of grain size both in 1995 and 2005. Because the area of high eco-risk value increased from 1995 to 2005, eco-environment quality declined slightly in the study area. There are distinct spatial changes in the concentrated areas with high land use eco-risk values from 1995 to 2005. The step length of spatial separation of land use eco-risk is comparatively long - 58 km in 1995 and 11 km in 2005 - respectively. There are still nonstructural factors affecting the quality of the regional ecological environment at some small-scales. Our research results can provide some useful information for land eco-management, eco-environmental harnessing and restoration. In the future, some measures should be put forward in the regions with high eco-risk value, which include strengthening land use management, avoiding unreasonable types of land use and reducing the degree of fragmentation and separation.

  17. The Economic and social impact of export processing zones : the case of Malaysia.

    OpenAIRE

    Sivalingam, G

    1994-01-01

    Export processing zones (EPZs) or free zones as they are called in Malaysia have played an important role in promoting manufactured exports. The Malaysian Government enacted the Investment Incentive Act in 1968 to promote the growth and development of labour-intensive export-oriented industrializaton. However, it was not until 1971 that the Free Trade Zone Act was passed to create EPZs, which were especially attractive to foreign investors.

  18. "Going Global in Groups": Structural Transformation and China's Special Economic Zones Overseas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brautigam, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    ... of China's development success. Little is known about the 19 zones approved so far under this program, or the impact they are likely to have on structural transformation and industrial development in their host countries...

  19. Computer system for the assessment of radiation situation in the cases of radiological accidents and extreme weather conditions in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talerko, M.; Garger, E.; Kuzmenko, A. [Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Radiation situation within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) is determined by high radionuclides contamination of the land surface formed after the 1986 accident, as well as the presence of a number of potentially hazardous objects (the 'Shelter' object, the Interim Spent Nuclear Fuel Dry Storage Facility ISF-1, radioactive waste disposal sites, radioactive waste temporary localization sites etc.). The air concentration of radionuclides over the ChEZ territory and radiation exposure of personnel are influenced by natural and anthropogenic factors: variable weather conditions, forest fires, construction and excavation activity etc. The comprehensive radiation monitoring and early warning system in the ChEZ was established under financial support of European Commission in 2011. It involves the computer system developed for assessment and prediction of radiological emergencies consequences in the ChEZ ensuring the protection of personnel and the population living near its borders. The system assesses radiation situation under both normal conditions in the ChEZ and radiological emergencies which result in considerable radionuclides emission into the air (accidents at radiation hazardous objects, extreme weather conditions). Three different types of radionuclides release sources can be considered in the software package. So it is based on a set of different models of emission, atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides: 1) mesoscale model of radionuclide atmospheric transport LEDI for calculations of the radionuclides emission from stacks and buildings; 2) model of atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides due to anthropogenic resuspension from contaminated area (area surface source model) as a result of construction and excavation activity, heavy traffic etc.; 3) model of resuspension, atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides during grassland and forest fires in the ChEZ. The system calculates the volume and surface

  20. Zone Restrictions Orders in Canadian Courts and the Reproduction of Socio-Economic Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Eve Sylvestre

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While State and local governments have long turned to legal norms, such as vagrancy ordinances and anti-panhandling by-laws, and relied on displacement strategies ranging from orders to disperse and forced removals to control disorderly behavior in public spaces, the ways in which courts and legal actors working within the criminal justice system contribute to the monitoring of public spaces have almost completely gone unnoticed. This paper focuses on one court-imposed spatial tactic, namely zone restriction or "no go" orders. We suggest that despite the fact that these court orders rely on preventative discourses and pursue rehabilitative objectives, they may ultimately have punitive effects on the public poor and political demonstrators and contribute to creating and reproducing socio-economic inequality by creating obstacles for their reintegration, encouraging recidivism, putting the safety of individuals at risk and by neutralizing those who challenge the social and political order in various ways. Ultimately, these orders raise some concerns with respect to the rule of law since they are rarely challenged and generally appear to be shielded from review. Mientras que estados y gobiernos locales han vuelto a normas legales como la ley de vagos y maleantes, y basan sus estrategias en el desplazamiento, mediante órdenes de dispersión y traslados forzosos para controlar el comportamiento desordenado en los espacios públicos, ha pasado prácticamente desapercibida la forma en la que tribunales y agentes jurídicos trabajan dentro del sistema de justicia penal para contribuir a la vigilancia de los espacios públicos. Este artículo se centra en una táctica espacial impuesta por un tribunal, concretamente la restricción de zona o pedidos "intangibles". Se sugiere que, a pesar de que estas órdenes judiciales se basan en discursos preventivos y persiguen objetivos de rehabilitación, en última instancia pueden tener efectos punitivos sobre

  1. Did the Establishment of Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone Increase Agricultural Labor Productivity in Jiangxi Province, China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we take the establishment of Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone in 2009 as a quasi-natural experiment, to evaluate its influence on the agricultural labor productivity in Jiangxi Province, China. The estimation results of the DID method show that the establishment of the zone reduced agricultural labor productivity by 3.1%, lowering farmers’ net income by 2.5% and reducing the agricultural GDP by 3.6%. Furthermore, this negative effect has increased year after year since 2009. However, the heterogeneity analysis implies that the agricultural labor productivities of all cities in Jiangxi Province will ultimately converge. We find that the lack of agricultural R&D activities and the abuse of chemical fertilizers may be the main reasons behind the negative influence of the policy, by examining two possible transmission channels—the R&D investment and technological substitution. Corresponding policy implications are also provided.

  2. A Pilot Study to Understand the Variation in Indoor Air Quality in Different Economic Zones of Delhi University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Abhinav; Ghosh, Chirashree

    Today, one of the most grave environmental health problems being faced by the urban population is the poor air quality one breathes in. To testify the above statement, the recent survey report, World health statistics (WHO, 2012) reflects the fact that childhood mortality ratio from acute respiratory infection is one of the top leading causes of death in developing countries like India. Urban areas have a complex social stratification which ultimately results in forming different urban economic zones. This research attempts to understand the Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) by taking into consideration different lifestyle of occupants inhabiting these economic zones. The Study tries to evaluate the outdoor and indoor air quality by understanding the variation of selected pollutants (SPM, SOx, NOx) for the duration of four months - from October, 2012-January, 2013. For this, three economic zones (EZ) of Delhi University’s North Campus, were selected - Urban Slum (EZ I), Clerical (EZ II) and Faculty residence (EZ III). The statistical study indicates that Urban Slum (EZ I) was the most polluted site reporting maximum concentration of outdoor pollutants, whereas no significant difference in pollution load was observed in EZ II and EZ III. Further, the indoor air quality was evaluated by quantifying the indoor and outdoor pollution concentration ratios that shows EZ III have most inferior indoor air quality, followed by EZ I and EZ II. Moreover, it was also observed that ratio (phenomenon of infiltration) was dominant at the EZ II but was low for the EZ I and EZ III. With the evidence of high Indoor air pollution, the risk of pulmonary diseases and respiratory infections also increases, calling for an urgent requisite for making reforms to improve IAQ. Key words: Urban Area, Slum, IAQ, SOx, NOx, SPM

  3. POLAND IN AND OUTSIDE THE EURO ZONE – RISKS AND BENEFITS IN THE LIGHT OF NEW POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Dobrowolski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the benefits and risks of Poland adopting the euro in the light of current political and economic conditions. For this purpose, the following research methods were used: literature research, intuitive method and descriptive statistics. Poland has fulfilled the criteria for nominal convergence for two years, apart from participating in the ERM II mechanism, but the political situation in the country precludes the adoption of measures leading to the euro zone. The future shape of this zone is yet unknown, as its closer integration is planned. Theoretical analysis indicates that the process of globalization makes it difficult for medium-sized, open-economy countries to pursue autonomous monetary and exchange rate policy, so the loss of these instruments after the adoption of the euro should not jeopardize long-term economic growth, even in the case of asymmetric shocks. The market mechanisms of restoring the balance and fiscal policy may then be used. The economy will also benefit from the elimination of transaction costs and exchange rate risks in the euro zone. The analysis shows that it is possible to use the opportunity for faster GDP growth associated with the adoption of the common currency if the right economic policy is pursued. Adopting the euro may also incur costs. For banks it can be the loss of foreign exchange earnings and commissions on FX hedge transactions. For the economy it can be the possibility of speculative bubbles, as a result of excessive consumption growth, caused by possibly too low interest rates. Expected benefits should, however, outweigh any losses.

  4. Management of Ecological-Economic Processes of Pollution Accumulation and Assimilation in the Coastal Zone Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.E. Timchenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A model for managing the balance of pollution (getting into the sea with the coastal runoff assimilation and accumulation, based on the negative feedback between the coastal economic system efficiency and penalties for the sea coastal zone pollution is proposed. The model is constructed by the Adaptive Balance of Causes method and is intended for finding a rational balance of profit from the use of assimilative resources of the marine environment and the costs of maintaining its quality. The increase of pollutions in the coastal zone is taken as proportional to the volume of product realization. The decrease of pollution concentration is related to the environment protection activities paid for by the production. The model contains the agents for managing the volume of the economic system generalized production release. The agents control pollution accumulation rate at different ones of the bio-chemical processes resulting in the marine environment natural purification. Scenario analysis of ecological-economic processes in the “Land–Sea” system is carried out, and the dependencies of economic subsystem production profitability on penalty sanctions limiting the pollutant flux getting into the sea are constructed. Sea temperature and water mass dynamics effect on these processes is considered. The scenarios of their intra-annual variability are constructed. It is shown that the sea temperature and near-water wind consideration in the model have a significant effect on marine environment pollution level and production profitability. The conclusion is that the proposed adaptive simulation model “Sea–Land” can be used for forecasting the scenarios of coastal subsystem production processes (the volume of generalized product manufacturing, production cost, profitability in parallel with the forecast of pollution concentration in the sea scenarios.

  5. The economic substantiation for creating defense "support zone" of the Arctic region of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryzgalova A. E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the theoretical foundations of the transition from "continuous" development of the Russian territories of the Far North that proved to be ineffective to the "focal" development based on the concentration of resources within the anchor sectors of the regional economy. The defensive specialisation of the Kola "bearing point" which is a part of the system of eight "bearing zones" located respectively in each of the Arctic regions of Russia is being proved. The value of communication networks in ensuring the effective functioning of naval Arctic closed cities as a core of the defense "bearing point" is discussed from the standpoint of the new economic geography. Рассмотрены теоретические основы перехода от доказавшего свою неэффективность "непрерывного" развития территорий Крайнего Севера России к "очаговому" развитию, основанному на концентрации ресурсов в пределах якорных секторов регионального хозяйства. Доказан оборонный профиль Кольской "опорной точки", входящей в систему восьми "опорных зон", локализованных соответственно в каждом арктическом субъекте Российской Федерации. С позиций новой экономической географии обосновано значение коммуникационной сети для обеспечения эффективного функционирования военно-морских арктических закрытых административно-территориальных образований, выступающих ядром "опорной точки" оборонного значения

  6. Fishes of water bodies within the Ukrainian part of the Chernobyl exclusion zone: current levels of radioactive contamination and absorbed dose rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaglyan, Alexander Ye.; Gudkov, Dmitri I. [Institute of Hydrobiology of the NAS of Ukraine, Geroyiv Stalingrada Ave. 12, UA- 04210, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    The results of studies of radioactive contamination of ichthyofauna of water bodies of the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ) during 2012-2013 are presented. The fish sampled from water bodies with different hydrological mode was used: (1) stagnant lakes (Vershyna, Glyboke, Azbuchyn, Daleke); (2) reservoir with slow water exchange (cooling pond of the Chernobyl NPP); (3) conditionally stagnant water bodies (separated from the main riverbed of the Pripyat River - Yanovsky and Novoshepelichesky Crawls and part of the Krasnensky former river bed); (4) semi-flowing water body (Krasnensky former river bed located outside of the dammed territory); (5) open crawls of the Pripyat river ('Schepochka' and Chernobylsky) and (6) waterway (riverbed sites of the Pripyat River). The highest levels of radionuclide concentrations were determined in fish of the stagnant water objects - 937-25907 Bq/kg (w.w.) of {sup 137}Cs and 1845-101220 Bq/kg of {sup 90}Sr. In fish of cooling pond the concentration of {sup 137}Cs registered in range 750-4200 and {sup 90}Sr - 41-512 Bq/kg. In ichthyofauna of water bodies which concern to the third group, specific activity of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr fluctuated accordingly within range of 520-3385 and 722-6210, and in a semi-flowing reservoir - 573-2948 and 97-4484 Bq/kg. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in fish of the fifth and sixth groups were accordingly 25-159 and 11-224 as well as {sup 90}Sr - 36-174 and 3-14 Bq/kg. The ratio of specific activity of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 137}Cs for pray fish from all studied groups of water bodies, except the second and the sixth ones, was in range 1.5-39.7. Thus intensity of water exchange is one of the defining factors, influencing on level of radionuclide specific activity in fish, especially {sup 90}Sr - the higher the flow age, the lower the level of radioactive contamination of fish inhabiting it. Calculation of the absorbed dose rate has shown that highest radiation dose was in fish inhabiting lake

  7. RELATIVE ECONOMIC VALUE OF MAIZE - OKRA INTERCROPS IN RAINFOREST ZONE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R ALABI

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the relative economic value of maize- okra intercrops in Edo State, Nigeria. The results of analysis show Land Equivalent Ratio (LER of 0.82, Relative Value Total (RVT of 0.99 and Relative Value of Intercropping (RVI of 1.10. Although LER and RVT show that monocrops of maize and okra have advantage over intercrops, RVI shows that the profi t from intercrop is 10% higher than monocrops. This is because of the attendant reduction in variable costs of labour and fertilizer that are associated with intercrops. The economic implication of this study is that any strategy that reduces cost of production in maize/ okra intercrops will increase its profi tability and attractiveness to farmers.

  8. Exclusive Dealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fumagalli, Chiara; Motta, Massimo; Rønde, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies a model whereby exclusive dealing (ED) can both promote investment and foreclose a more efficient supplier. Since ED promotes the incumbent seller's investment, the seller and the buyer realize a greater surplus from bilateral trade under exclusivity. Hence, the parties involved...... may sign an ED contract that excludes a more efficient entrant in circumstances where ED would not arise absent investment. The paper therefore invites a more cautious attitude towards accepting possible investment promotion arguments as a defense for ED....

  9. Socio-Economic Profiling of Tribal Dairy Farmers in Northern Hills Zone of Chhattisgarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mooventhan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chhattisgarh is traditionally known as the Rice Bowl of Central India. Chhattisgarh state has one of highest shares of Scheduled Tribe (ST population within a state, accounting for about 10 per cent of the STs in India. Scheduled Castes and STs together constitute more than 50 per cent of the state’s population. Agriculture is counted as the chief economic occupation of the state. About 80% of the population of the state is rural and the main livelihood of the villagers is agriculture and agriculture-based small industry. This exploratory study was conducted in the tribal populated districts of Chhattisgarh state. In this paper, socio-economic profile of tribal farmers are discussed in detail. About 65.33 percent of the tribal farmers were between 36 and 50 years of age group, more than one fourth (34.67% of the farmers were educated up to primary school level, less than half  (39.00% of the respondents had subsistence dairy farming + Minor forest products collection + labour as their sole occupations, nearly half (43.67% of the respondents were marginal farmers, more than half (62.00 % of the farmers were found with medium level of farming experience, about half (49.00 % of the respondents were at the income range of Rs. 25,001 to Rs. 75,000, about half (44.67 % of the respondents falling under the category of medium herd size followed by 35.67 percent in small and 19.66 percent in large herd size, more than half (56.33% of the tribal dairy farmers falling under the category of subsistence level of dairy production system.

  10. Association of farmers' socio-economics with bovine brucellosis epidemiology in the dry zone of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothalawala, Kasthuri Arachchige Chandrika; Makita, Kohei; Kothalawala, Hemal; Jiffry, Athambawa Mohamed; Kubota, Satoko; Kono, Hiroichi

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the farmers' socio-economic factors and their association with Brucella prevalence in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional survey was planned and a total of 1,153 blood samples were collected from milking and dry animals of 155 farms from three selected veterinary ranges of Kalmunai, Navithanveli, and Mahaoya in the Ampara district, which is a multi-ethnic area. The  Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) were used for the Brucella screening and confirmation, respectively. Socio-economic attributes such as family income, poverty, education, main job, ethnicity, parent farmer, farming experience, and training in animal husbandry were determined as potential farmer-level risk factors. Meanwhile, herd size, grazing practice, breeding method, animal brought-in to the farm, and abortions were considered as herd factors. The results revealed that the overall animal level sero-prevalence of brucellosis was 2.7% (35/1153; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.7, 3.7%) and the herd prevalence was 9.6% (15/155; 95% CI: 5.7, 15.7%) in the area of study. Brucellosis prevalence varies significantly (p<0.001) among the selected veterinary ranges with the highest herd prevalence in Kalmunai (20.0%) followed by Navithanveli (11.9%) and Mahaoya (2.7%). Disease prevalence showed variability (p<0.001) among ethnicities with the highest in Muslims (27.3%) followed by Tamils (8.1%) and Sinhalese (2.7%). Poverty was highly associated (OR=3.75; 95% CI: 1.43-10.00) with the disease. Free movement grazing practices (p<0.01) with OR=7.2 and animal brought-in from outside (p<0.06) with OR=3.06 were positively related to brucellosis. It was revealed that farmers' socio-economics, such as ethnicity and poverty, and animal movement patterns, such as grazing practices are significantly associated with epidemiology of brucellosis in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Therefore, the "farmer factor" should be carefully

  11. Assessment of environmental change and its socio-economic impacts in the mangrove ecological zone of the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Godstime Kadiri

    The Niger Delta, located in the central part of Southern Nigeria, is endowed with immense Mangrove resources, estimated to be the fourth largest in the world. The term Mangrove refers to salt tolerant species of trees or shrubs that grow on shores and in estuaries located in the coastal tropics and sub-tropical regions of the world. They support highly productive marine food chains. However, Mangrove ecosystems are in serious decline around the world due to the rapid increase in maritime commerce and exploration of mineral resources in the last few decades. These pressures often have immediate consequences on sensitive coastal environments and can potentially impact future human use of coastal space and resources. This dynamic process presents unique opportunities for research to explore the nature and consequences of these pressures. This dissertation focused on the Mangrove ecological zone of the Niger Delta, where resource exploitation and indigenous use of the environment are in direct conflict with important socio-economic implications. Environmental accounting metrics derived from the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework were used to assess changes in the spatial extent of the Niger Delta Mangrove ecosystem and the socio-economic impacts of the observed changes. Landsat remotely sensed satellite data from the mid-1980s through 2003 was used to assess change in the spatial extent of the Mangrove vegetation in the region. A total of 21,340 hectares of Mangrove forest was determined to be lost over the study period. Field research in the region confirmed that this loss was primarily driven by urbanization and activities of the multinational oil and gas corporations operating in the region. To estimate the socio-economic impacts of the Mangrove loss in the region, neoclassical economic valuation and participatory social valuation approaches were adopted. Results from the economic valuation revealed that the net present value of future income

  12. Dynamically linking economic models to ecological condition for coastal zone management: Application to sustainable tourism planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvarskas, Anthony

    2017-03-01

    While the development of the tourism industry can bring economic benefits to an area, it is important to consider the long-run impact of the industry on a given location. Particularly when the tourism industry relies upon a certain ecological state, those weighing different development options need to consider the long-run impacts of increased tourist numbers upon measures of ecological condition. This paper presents one approach for linking a model of recreational visitor behavior with an ecological model that estimates the impact of the increased visitors upon the environment. Two simulations were run for the model using initial parameters available from survey data and water quality data for beach locations in Croatia. Results suggest that the resilience of a given tourist location to the changes brought by increasing tourism numbers is important in determining its long-run sustainability. Further work should investigate additional model components, including the tourism industry, refinement of the relationships assumed by the model, and application of the proposed model in additional areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts, File name = ENTERZONES County Enterprise Zone Call HCG Department of Economic Development for details. http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2009, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts dataset current as of 2009. File name = ENTERZONES County Enterprise Zone Call HCG Department of Economic Development for...

  14. Investigation of the response of wood-rotting fungi to copper stress by size-exclusion chromatography and capillary zone electrophoresis with ICP MS detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacchina, V.; Szpunar, J. [Group of Bio-inorganic Analytical Chemistry, CNRS UMR 5034, Pau (France); Baldrian, P.; Gabriel, J. [Laboratory of the Biochemistry of the Wood-Rotting Fungi, Institute of Microbiology ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2002-02-01

    A method based on the coupling of size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) was developed for screening the changes in the bioligand composition of wood-rotting fungi as a function of their exposure to copper stress. Strains of four different species of wood-rotting fungi: Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Schizophyllum commune, Daedalea quercina and Pleurotus ostreatus were examined. Only one, namely Ph. chrysosporium, showed any significant difference in terms of the fingerprint of Cu-binding ligands between control and exposed cells which suggest trapping of Cu(II) by cell walls as the only resistance mechanisms. In the case of Ph. chrysosporium the bioinduction of a new Cu-binding ligand was demonstrated. The presence of a new compound in the SE chromatographic fraction of interest was confirmed by CZE-ICP MS. Attempts to identify the new compound by electrospray MS/MS failed because of insufficient sensitivity. (orig.)

  15. Socio-economic impacts of Parthenium hysterophorus L. in East Shewa and West Arsi zones of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niguse Hundessa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Parthenium hysterophorus L. is non-native invasive plant species belongs to the family Asteraceae. Currently it is a notorious weed in Ethiopia. Socio-economic impacts as well as the local people’s perception towards P. hysterophorus are poorly understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to generate information for a better understanding of the means of dispersal, source introduction and socio-economic impacts, of P. hysterophorus in East shewa and West arsi Zones of the Oromia Regional State of Ethiopia. The study revealed that parthenium was introduced mainly by following vehicles road and railways. This weed grows throughout the year. This results in its fast dispersal. Many mechanisms were assumed by respondents for fast distribution of P. hysterophorus in the study zones. Among these vehicles and wind are the major agents, which proliferate the seeds of the weed. Based on the study it grows in roadsides, grazing land, cropland, village sides and wastelands. Most of respondents also indicated that the weed first appeared on roadside and propagated to other habitats. This finding indicated that the weed high in disturbed habitats. Control methods, which are mostly practiced by local people, were tillage and hand weeding. However, these methods were not an efficient to control the weed distribution; rather it is expanding from time to time since its invasions. P. hysterophorus has a number of socioeconomic impacts that include effect on crop and livestock production, human health, soil fertility and biodiversity. This finding showed that it competes and suppress the growth of crops due its allelopathic nature. Seeds of this weed changes the normal flavor of food when mix with it. It also colonized grazing fields, thus causing animal food scarcity, animals’ health defect. This finding also reported that P. hysterophorus has health hazards on human being, which include allergic, skin itching (irritation, cough and hemorrhage. Generally, P

  16. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of economics, and presents educational resources for teaching basics to children. Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources, as well as activities which focus on economics are described. Includes short features on related topics, and the subtopics of trade, money and banking, and…

  17. THE ACCOUNTING OF A FACTOR OF TRANSBOUNDARY CLUSTERING DYNAMICS OF ECONOMIC AND RESIDENTIAL SYSTEMS OF COASTAL ZONES OF RUSSIA: GEOINFORMATION ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Druzhinin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Both thalasso-attractiveness of the whole Russia and its poly-scale inversions (existing at macro- and meso-levels have been pointed out. Their causes have been shown (including the conjugation with economic clustering and the development of cross-border and transnational ties. On the basis of geoinformation approach the inventory and typology of cross-border clusters in the coastal zones of European Russia has been implemented; the factors and prospects for their formation, functioning and development are analyzed and theoretically considered. Based on the synthesis of instrumental approaches implemented in the study (including the socio-economic zoning and economic (eco-economic structuring of the World’s oceans, the full-scale delimitation and typology of the coastal zone have been made (for all coastal regions of the European part of Russia, taking into account its regional socio-economic and residential specifics, geo-economic and geopolitical context, as well as the extent and nature of cross-border economic and socio-cultural relations. The prototype of the cartographic model of the settlement systems’ evolution in the coastal zone of the European part of Russia has been proposed (including its indicators and principles of scale. Based on it, as well as on the generated database (containing detailed demographic and socio-economic information for 14 regions and 94 “seaside” municipalities, the schematic map of the localization and dynamics of the seaside settlement is developed for the Baltic (Saint Petersburg, Leningrad Region, Kaliningrad Region and the Black Sea coast (Crimea. Analytical matrix of the settlement system has been submitted with the application of cluster and network structures and key infrastructure components. The model has allowed us to assess the projection of structural, technological, market-cyclical and geopolitical factors on the dynamics of settlement in coastal zones (with the emphasis on the dynamics of

  18. Vegetable Cultivation Hydroponics System In Community Economic Zone KEM Kanagarian Tikalak Subdistrict X Koto Singkarak Districts Solok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Budaraga

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Current conditions especially in urban agricultural land is getting narrower due to the rapid development. If left untreated it can lead to food security and environmental problems. One solution to allow the fulfillment of foodstuffs such as vegetables can be fulfilled for the people to exploit the potential of the narrow yard with continuous production of hydroponic systems. Interest dedication to the community to find ways to introduce a hydroponic vegetable crops that can supplement the family income of farmers. Benefits of the service is expected to increase peoples income and the public generally in Community Economic Zone KEM Kanagarian Tikalak in particular and can provide lucrative benefits for the environment. Devotion execution method implemented by a lecture and demonstration. The materials used such as husks seeds of vegetables kale collards caisin hydroponic media such as slug biogas rope bamboo to place the plants grow. The results of this activity the community has been able to make a hydroponic vegetable cultivation system and has been applied to plant vegetables such as kale collards and caisin.

  19. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  20. Pixels and patterns: A satellite-based investigation of changes to urban features in the Sanya Region, Hainan Special Economic Zone, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Andrew Allan

    Throughout most of China, and particularly in the coastal areas of its south, ecological resources and traditional culture are viewed by many to be negatively impacted by accelerating urbanization. As a result, achieving an appropriate balance between development and environmental protection has become a significant problem facing policy-makers in these urbanizing areas. The establishment of a Special Economic Zone in the Chinese Province of Hainan has made its coastal areas attractive locations for business and commerce. Development activities that support a burgeoning tourism industry, but which are damaging the environment, are now prominent components of the landscape in the Sanya Region of Hainan. In this study, patterns of urban growth in the Sanya Region of Hainan Province are investigated. Specifically, using several forms of satellite imagery, statistical tools and ancillary data, urban morphology and changes to the extent and spatial arrangement of urban features are researched and documented. A twelve-year chronology of data was collected which consists of four dates of satellite imagery (1987, 1991, 1997, 1999) acquired by three different satellite sensors (SPOT 2 HRV, Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM+). A method of assessing inter-temporal variance in unchanged features is developed as a surrogate for traditional evaluations of change detection that require spatially accurate and time-specific data. Results reveal that selective PCA using visible bands with the exclusion of an ocean mask yield the most interpretable components representative of landscape urbanization in the Sanya Region. The geostatistical approach of variography is employed to measure spatial dependence and to test for the presence of directional change in urban morphology across a time series of satellite images. Interpreted time-series geostatistics identify and quantify landscape structure, and changes to structure, and provide a valuable quantitative description of landscape change

  1. Incidental catches of pelagic megafauna by the EU pelagic fleet in the Mauritanian exclusive economic zone during the year 2001 : results extracted from the scientific observer program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter R.

    2003-01-01

    The joint project between the Netherlands Institute for Fisheries Research (RIVO) and the Mauritanian Institute for Oceanography and Fisheries Research (IMROP) has been initiated in 1998 in order to strengthen Mauritania’s capacity for research on stocks of small pelagic fish. Part of this project

  2. Geostatistics: a decision-support tool for the decontamination and the recovery of radiocontaminated territories. Study at the scale of the T22 trench in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong Lien; de Fouquet, Chantal; Courbet, Christelle; Simonucci, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    The explosion of Chernobyl reactor n°4 released nearly 13.1019 Bq of radionuclides in the atmosphere and led to the delineation of a 30 km radius exclusion zone. The following year, about 800 shallow trenches were dug and the low to medium activity nuclear wastes were buried in order to prevent their dispersal. However, those trenches are dug in permeable aeolian sand and do not prevent the migration of radionuclides in the superficial aquifer. As the Ukrainian authorities would like to recover part of the exclusion zone territory, it is necessary to quickly assess the radionuclide stock, which could still possibly contaminate the groundwater, by reliable means. The study of the T22 trench shows the effectiveness and the relevance of geostatistics in this issue. The stock of cesium-137 available in 1999 in the T22 trench and its uncertainties related to the spatial variability are assessed. To do so, the limits of the trench basement are first interpolated using the results of ground penetrating radar profiles, undertaken to characterize the subsoil, and using the results of the in situ gamma spectrometry carried on boreholes drilled in the trench. Different geostatistical approaches are examined. Then, the raw data characterizing the intensity of gamma radiation in the soil are analyzed according to their localization in the trench to reassess the limits of the trench, the volume of radiocontaminated soil, the stock of cesium-137 in 1999 and the associated uncertainties. The results of the current and previous analysis of the radionuclide stock and its limits are discussed and the different results of the trench limits are compared. Finally, a hydrogeological model is constructed. The hydraulic parameters are estimated and compared using different methodologies of inverse modeling. Several geostatistical simulations based on the variogram model of the radionuclide stock are introduced in the hydrogeological model in order to evaluate the impact of the

  3. REVIEW APPROACHES ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE TERRITORY OF THE ARCTIC ZONE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION, PRESENTED IN THE FORM OF TARGET SUBSPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Didenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a conceptual idea of the organization of management of development of the Arctic area of the Russian Federation in the form of a set of target subspace. Among the possible types of target subspace comprising the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation, allocated seven subspace: basic city mobile Camps, site production of mineral resources, recreational area, fishing area, the Northern Sea Route, infrastructure protection safe existence in the Arctic. The task of determining the most appropriate theoretical approach for the development of each target subspaces. To this end, the theoretical approaches of economic growth and development of the theory of "economic base» (Economic Base Theory; resource theory (Staple Theory; Theory sectors (Sector Theory; theory of growth poles (Growth Pole Theory; neoclassical theory (Neoclassical Growth Theory; theory of inter-regional trade (Interregional Trade Theory; theory of the commodity cycle; entrepreneurial theory (Entrepreneurship Theories.

  4. Farming in a fragile future : economics of land use with applications in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Schipper, R.A.

    1996-01-01


    The present study contributes to the search for a methodology for land use analysis, aiming at a land use that provides sufficient (and rising) incomes to the agricultural population and at the same time maintains the productive capacity of land. The contribution focuses in particular on the role of economic analysis.

    The study starts with a review of land evaluation and land use planning from an economic angle, providing suggestions for improvement. After a brief examinati...

  5. ECONOMIC ANALISYS OF A COFFEE-BANANA SYSTEM OF A FAMILY-BASED AGRICULTURE AT THE ATLANTIC FOREST ZONE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Ponciano Alves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry systems can reduce the risks of investing in just one crop. However, there are uncertainties like other agricultural and forestry activities. Therefore, there is the need for economic studies under conditions of economic risk of agroforestry systems. This work reports an analysis of the main components of costs and revenues of an agroforestry system with coffee and banana, as well as an analysis of its economic performance through indicators: net present value, equivalent period benefit (or cost, family labor revenue and a sensitivity analysis of net present value. The main cost components in the system are the human labor and mineral and organic fertilizers applied in coffee, and the costs for the production of coffee outweigh the costs of banana production. The monthly income from the production of bananas balances the costs of coffee production, generating a positive cash flow in the studied period. Financial indicators showed positive values, demonstrating the economic viability of the system with coffee and banana. The agroforestry system is economically feasible, even with variations of ± 20% in production costs and selling prices of their products. Variables that showed greater sensitivity on the net present value were the selling price of coffee and bananas, and the cost of coffee production.

  6. Quantitative analysis of the impacts of terrestrial environmental factors on precipitation variation over the Beibu Gulf Economic Zone in Coastal Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yinjun; Deng, Qiyu; Lin, Qing; Cai, Chunting

    2017-03-01

    Taking the Guangxi Beibu Gulf Economic Zone as the study area, this paper utilizes the geographical detector model to quantify the feedback effects from the terrestrial environment on precipitation variation from 1985 to 2010 with a comprehensive consideration of natural factors (forest coverage rate, vegetation type, terrain, terrestrial ecosystem types, land use and land cover change) and social factors (population density, farmland rate, GDP and urbanization rate). First, we found that the precipitation trend rate in the Beibu Gulf Economic Zone is between -47 and 96 mm/10a. Second, forest coverage rate change (FCRC), urbanization rate change (URC), GDP change (GDPC) and population density change (PDC) have a larger contribution to precipitation change through land-surface feedback, which makes them the leading factors. Third, the human element is found to primarily account for the precipitation changes in this region, as humans are the active media linking and enhancing these impact factors. Finally, it can be concluded that the interaction of impact factor pairs has a significant effect compared to the corresponding single factor on precipitation changes. The geographical detector model offers an analytical framework to reveal the terrestrial factors affecting the precipitation change, which gives direction for future work on regional climate modeling and analyses.

  7. Social exclusion and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Vesna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Social exclusion is a process whereby certain individuals are pushed to the edge of society and prevented from participating fully by virtue of their poverty, or lack of basic competencies and lifelong learning opportunities or as a result of discrimination. This distances them from job, income and education opportunities as well as social and community networks and activities. Quality education (conditions and access/accessibility/availability is one of the factors that significantly influence the reduced social exclusion. In other words, education has is key role key role in ensuring social inclusion (equal opportunities and active social participation. At the same time, education and lifelong learning is established as the basis for achieving the goals of sustainable economic development (economy based on knowledge and to achieve social cohesion. Quality education is a prerequisite for progress, development and well-being of the community. Conditions and accessibility to education have become priorities of national reforms in most European countries. The subject of this paper is the educational structure of population of Serbia and the accessibility of education. The analysis covers the educational structure with regard to age, gender and type of settlement (city and other/villages settlements.

  8. Working Paper 138 - Economic Policy and Institutional Factors in the Development of Domestic Bond Markets in the CFA Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Cédric Achille Mbeng Mezui

    2011-01-01

    L'objectif principal de ce papier est de mettre en évidence le rôle de la politique économique et des facteurs institutionnels dans le développement des marchés obligataires en monnaie locale dans les pays de la zone Franc CFA. Nous constatons d’une part que ces pays ne remplissent pas la plupart des préconditions macroéconomiques et microéconomiques, d’autre part que l’état actuel des facteurs institutionnels est un frein au développement de leurs marchés. L’analyse économétrique par la méth...

  9. Vadose zone microbiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieft, Thomas L.; Brockman, Fred J.

    2001-01-17

    The vadose zone is defined as the portion of the terrestrial subsurface that extends from the land surface downward to the water table. As such, it comprises the surface soil (the rooting zone), the underlying subsoil, and the capillary fringe that directly overlies the water table. The unsaturated zone between the rooting zone and the capillary fringe is termed the "intermediate zone" (Chapelle, 1993). The vadose zone has also been defined as the unsaturated zone, since the sediment pores and/or rock fractures are generally not completely water filled, but instead contain both water and air. The latter characteristic results in the term "zone of aeration" to describe the vadose zone. The terms "vadose zone," "unsaturated zone", and "zone of aeration" are nearly synonymous, except that the vadose zone may contain regions of perched water that are actually saturated. The term "subsoil" has also been used for studies of shallow areas of the subsurface immediately below the rooting zone. This review focuses almost exclusively on the unsaturated region beneath the soil layer since there is already an extensive body of literature on surface soil microbial communities and process, e.g., Paul and Clark (1989), Metting (1993), Richter and Markowitz, (1995), and Sylvia et al. (1998); whereas the deeper strata of the unsaturated zone have only recently come under scrutiny for their microbiological properties.

  10. Socio-economic and environmental impact of mining on women in Kasigau mining zone in Taita Taveta County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarifa Ali Mwakumanya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kasigau ward is home to many gemstones with their mining contributing to the county's economic development. The mining sector is dominated by artisanal and small scale mining with 3–5% of women employed. A Participatory Action Research (PAR approach was used to involve women with the aim of establishing home-grown interventions. Seven villages and forty nine households participated in household interviews, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs and female feedback reflection meetings to generate and analyze data. Women worked as zururas (workers or employees, in deplorable environmental conditions, and were heavily impacted by mining activities. Women developed actionable strategies on productive engagement in the artisanal mining sector.

  11. Rezension von: Nancy E. Riley: Gender, Work, and Family in a Chinese Economic Zone. Laboring in Paradise. Wiesbaden: Springer VS 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Berger

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Das Buch eignet sich vor allem für Wissenschaftler/-innen, die sich mit den Lebenswirklichkeiten von Arbeitsmigrantinnen in China aus geschlechtertheoretischer Sicht beschäftigen. Nancy E. Riley interessiert sich ethnographisch für den Zusammenhang von Geschlecht, Arbeit und Familie. Konkret geht die Autorin dabei der Frage nach, inwiefern die in der Dalian Economic Zone (DEZ arbeitenden Frauen Erwerbsarbeit als eine Ressource der sozialen Mobilität und der Verhandlung innerfamilialer Machtpositionen nutzbar machen können. Mit Fokus auf dieser (Sonder-Wirtschaftszone und den familialen Lebenswirklichkeiten der Frauen erschließen sich spannende Einsichten in das wirtschaftlich aufstrebende China und den damit einhergehenden sozialen Wandel von Geschlechterverhältnissen.

  12. Economic growth, ecological economics, and wilderness preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Czech

    2000-01-01

    Economic growth is a perennial national goal. Perpetual economic growth and wilderness preservation are mutually exclusive. Wilderness scholarship has not addressed this conflict. The economics profession is unlikely to contribute to resolution, because the neoclassical paradigm holds that there is no limit to economic growth. A corollary of the paradigm is that...

  13. Implications of new economic policy instruments for tuna management in the Western and Central Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeeting, A.D.; Bush, S.R.; Ram-Bidesi, V.; Bailey, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    Tuna management in the Western and Central Pacific is complicated by the conflicting interests of countries and agents exploiting tuna resources in the region. Historically, regulatory attempts by Pacific Island Countries to control fishing effort within their Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) have

  14. Strategicheskie vozmozhnosti jekonomicheskogo razvitija rossijskih pribrezhnyh zon i morskih portovo-promyshlennyh kompleksov Baltijskogo morja [Strategic opportunities for economic development of the Baltic Sea coastal zones and sea industrial and port complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogoberidze George

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, one of the principal dimensions in attraction of the world economy structures is coastal territories as spaces where marine potential of a state is most pronounced. In this respect, it is vital to set the priorities of development of coastal zones taking into account the changes in the strategic situation in order to maintain the components of marine potential of the Russian Federation at the level of its national interests. The article aims to develop an indicator system of assessment of coastal zone potential, and sea industrial and port facilities in order to identify the characteristic and strategic capacities of the economic development of these territories in the complex approach. The research methodology is based on the assessment of marine potential of coastal territories as an indicator of the efficacy of its marine economic complex development with using the indicator methods as a multi-factor and multi-level spatial system. The proposed system is applied to a complex analysis of coastal territories of the Russian Baltic, the estimation of a socio-economic factor of coastal zone marine potential, as well as recommendations for long-term planning of the economic development of Russia’s coastal zones of the Baltic Sea and the organization of marine activities. This methodology can help to identify a role of coastal territories in the economy and reflect perspectives and directions of strategic development of coastal zones, and sea industrial and port facilities of the Russian Federation.

  15. Exploring the Mechanisms of Ecological Land Change Based on the Spatial Autoregressive Model: A Case Study of the Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hualin; Liu, Zhifei; Wang, Peng; Liu, Guiying; Lu, Fucai

    2013-01-01

    Ecological land is one of the key resources and conditions for the survival of humans because it can provide ecosystem services and is particularly important to public health and safety. It is extremely valuable for effective ecological management to explore the evolution mechanisms of ecological land. Based on spatial statistical analyses, we explored the spatial disparities and primary potential drivers of ecological land change in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone of China. The results demonstrated that the global Moran’s I value is 0.1646 during the 1990 to 2005 time period and indicated significant positive spatial correlation (p < 0.05). The results also imply that the clustering trend of ecological land changes weakened in the study area. Some potential driving forces were identified by applying the spatial autoregressive model in this study. The results demonstrated that the higher economic development level and industrialization rate were the main drivers for the faster change of ecological land in the study area. This study also tested the superiority of the spatial autoregressive model to study the mechanisms of ecological land change by comparing it with the traditional linear regressive model. PMID:24384778

  16. Integrated assessment of socio-economic risks of dangerous hydrological phenomena in Russian coastal zones of the Baltic, the Azov and the Black Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemtsov, Stepan; Baburin, Vyacheslav; Goryachko, Mariya; Krylenko, Inna; Yumina, Natalya

    2013-04-01

    according to UNU-EHS methodology: 'exposure' and 'vulnerability', consisting of 'susceptibility', 'coping capacity' and 'adaptive capacity'. Relevant indicators for each block were selected and verified by statistical methods. The authors estimated the share of people potentially exposed to flooding with the help of geographic information system. The authors, using the technique of World Risk Index (2011), calculated sub-indices for each block, and made the maps. Areas with the highest socio-economic risks were identified on the Azov and the Black sea coast: Slavyansky, Krymsky, Krasnoarmeysky, Temryuksky and Primorsko-Akhtarsky municipal districts. On the third stage, the main purpose was to integrate and use both approaches in evaluation of socio-economic risks on micro-geographical level for different categories of the population and different industries (agriculture, utilities, etc.), using 'field' data. Field study was conducted in Slavyansky municipal district of Krasnodar region and included opinion polls, special interviews with businessmen and authorities, collection of municipal statistics and data from companies, etc. Vulnerability maps, speed evacuation maps, maps of possible locations of warning systems and maps of high insurance risks were developed. Proposals for improvement of legislation for coastal zones were prepared. The conducted research has shown the importance of both social ('vulnerability'), and economic ('damage') components of risk assessment. Using the previously discussed methods individually does not bring desired results because of deficiencies of Russian statistics. It is essential for accurate risk assessment to use an 'ensemble' of methods (statistical, field observations, etc.) on micro geographic level. The work has a practical importance for improving safety of local communities.

  17. PRESENCE OF THE MOST ECONOMICALLY IMPORTANT FISH SPECIES IN THE RIVER DANUBE AND ITS FLOOD ZONES IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Marinović

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the data published between 1983 and 2008, this paper shows presence of tench (Tinca tinca, carp (Cyprinus carpio, pike (Esox lucius, catfish (Silurus glanis, zander (Sander lucioperca and sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus in the Gornje Podunavlje and Koviljsko-Petrovaradinski Rit Special Nature Reserves and the Begečka Jama Nature Park, as well as in the part of the Danube’s bed between river kilometre 1249- and 1255. The number of these fish species in the River Danube and its flood zones in this part of the Pannonian Basin is decreasing due to the use of inappropriate “tools”, electric current, uncontrolled agricultural and industrial waste dumps, degradation of the habitat. The above mentioned species deserve attention because, according to the Rulebook on declaration and protection of protected and strictly protected wild species of plants, animals and fungi of 2010, in Serbia, T. tinca is a strictly protected species, while C. carpio, E. lucius, S. glanis, S. lucioperca and A. ruthenus are listed as protected. On the basis of the 2009 Fisheries Law in Serbia, permanently closed fishing season was introduced for tench, and closed season in certain periods and fishing ban for individuals under the prescribed size for the rest of the above mentioned species. A. ruthenus is subject to the Law on Ratification of Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES, ANNEX II and is listed in the category of species that may be in danger of extinction. Furthermore, it can be found on the IUCN Red List of Endangered Species of the International Union for Conservation of Nature – VU, which means that it is marked as vulnerable.

  18. Zoning Districts - Volusia County HUB Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Historically Underutilized Business (HUB) Zones in Volusia County. Go to http://www.sba.gov/hubzone or contact the Department of Economic Development (386) 248-8048...

  19. Soil maps, field knowledge, forest inventory and Ecological-Economic Zoning as a basis for agricultural suitability of lands in Minas Gerais elaborated in GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Antonio Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lands (broader concept than soils, including all elements of the environment: soils, geology, topography, climate, water resources, flora and fauna, and the effects of anthropogenic activities of the state of Minas Gerais are in different soil, climate and socio-economics conditions and suitability for the production of agricultural goods is therefore distinct and mapping of agricultural suitability of the state lands is crucial for planning guided sustainability. Geoprocessing uses geographic information treatment techniques and GIS allows to evaluate geographic phenomena and their interrelationships using digital maps. To evaluate the agricultural suitability of state lands, we used soil maps, field knowledge, forest inventories and databases related to Ecological-Economic Zoning (EEZ of Minas Gerais, to develop a map of land suitability in GIS. To do this, we have combined the maps of soil fertility, water stress, oxygen deficiency, vulnerability to erosion and impediments to mechanization. In terms of geographical expression, the main limiting factor of lands is soil fertility, followed by lack of water, impediments to mechanization and vulnerability to erosion. Regarding agricultural suitability, the group 2 (regular suitability for crops is the most comprehensive, representing 45.13% of the state. For management levels A and B, low and moderate technological level, respectively, the most expressive suitability class is the regular, followed by the restricted class and last, the adequate class, while for the management level C (high technological level the predominant class is the restricted. The predominant most intensive use type is for crops, whose area increases substantially with capital investment and technology (management levels B and C.

  20. Investment-driven industrial localisation in Calabar, free trade zone and environs, south-eastern/southsouth, Nigeria: Evidence on recent sub-national regional economic diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingwe Richard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The type of foreign direct investment (FDI mostly received by Nigeria in the past decades has formed one of the central points of the discussion of the nature of investment in development in this country acknowledged as Africa’s second largest economy. The way FDI receipt varies by size and type by sub-national regions (especially the 36 states, Federal Capital Territory in Abuja and the 774 Local Government Areas forming Nigeria’s federation has so been poorly addressed. However, scholars recently reported on the receipt of FDI in Cross River State following the state government’s policy that is being praised by Nigeria’s federal government agencies and international governmental organizations -including United Nations Systems in Nigeria, among others. The praises recognize Cross River State Government’s practice of good governance and cost-effective resource management as it confronts challenges including declining funds hitherto allocated from the pooled federation account. The objective of this article is to is to contribute towards understanding recent foreign direct investment in Cross River State. This article follows on theoretical perspectives and background recently reported by presenting findings of an empirical case study of recent and ongoing increasing investments in the Calabar Free Trade Zone (CFTZ city of Cross River State (Nigeria. We apply methods of descriptive case study to inform on the increasing commitment of foreign investments towards manufacturing engagement in Calabar urban region/environs. We present Calabar region’s previous/recent development challenges and provide some details of the recent increasing foreign investments in the Calabar FTZ city, before analyzing and synthesizing the recent increasing foreign investments in the Calabar FTZ city. It is demonstrated that the recent economic dynamics would engender a set of socio-economic, spatial and ecological/environmental responses and explain their

  1. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - Volusia County Enterprise Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Florida's Enterprise Zone Program encourages economic growth and investment in distressed areas by offering tax advantages and incentives to businesses that are...

  2. Explaining Social Exclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerda Jehoel-Gijsbers; Cok Vrooman

    2007-01-01

    Although social exclusion has become a key issue on the European policy agenda in recent years, both the social phenomena the term refers to and the best way to monitor these remain unclear. In response to this, we developed a conceptual model for social exclusion and a methodology for its

  3. Social Exclusion Anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2017-01-01

    exclusion anxiety and longing for belonging are both central aspects of the affects and processes that enact and challenge social groups. Social exclusion anxiety should not be confused with ‘social phobia’, which is a concept within clinical psychology that focuses on the individual and refers to a phobic...

  4. Promoting US-China Critical Zone Science Collaboration and Coordination Through Established Subnational Bilateral Science Partnerships: The US-China EcoPartnership for Economic and Environmental Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filley, T. R.; Guo, D.; Plante, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of critical zone (CZ) science has gained wide recognition with actively funded and emerging CZ observatory programs across the globe. There is much to be gained through international collaboration that links field, laboratory, and modeling efforts from across the emerging global CZ networks, but building international ties is difficult, especially when peer-to-peer connections are nascent, separated by great distances, and span different cultural and political environments. The U.S. and China share many climatic and geological similarities but differ greatly in the magnitude and timescale of human alteration of their landscapes making the comparative study of their respective pasts, current state, and future co-evolution an outstanding scientific opportunity to better understand, predict, and respond to human influence on the CZ. Leveraging the infrastructure and trust capital of longstanding sub-national volunteer scientific networks to bring together people and organizations is a resource-efficient mechanism to build cross-network CZ programs. The U.S.-China EcoPartnership for Environmental Sustainability (USCEES) is one of 30 current EcoPartnerships established beginning in May 2008 by a joint agreement between the U.S. Department of State and China's National Development and Reform Commission with the overarching goal of addressing the interconnected challenges of environmental, social, and economic sustainability through bi-national research innovation, communication, and entrepreneurship. The 2015 USCEES annual conference on "Critical Zone Science, Sustainability, and Services in a Changing World" was co-sponsored by the U.S. Cross-CZO Working Group on Organic Matter Dynamics and hosted three NSF-funded workshops on organic matter dynamics:1) methods for large and complex data analysis, 2) erosion and deposition processes, and 3) mineralogical and microbial controls on reactivity and persistence. This paper highlights outcomes from the workshops

  5. ECONOMY, ECONOMICS, ECONOMIC, ECONOMICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sim Monica Ariana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To speak and understand a language means - among many other things - knowing the words of that language. The average speaker knows, hears, understands and uses thousands of words daily. But does he use them appropriately? That is why this paper is about words and meanings. More specifically, it deals with the internal structure of complex words, i.e. derivatives. The purpose of the paper is to enable students and potentially other individuals dealing with English language on business basis to engage in their own analyses of some aspects of the language, namely the family tree of the word economy. After having read the paper, the reader should be familiar with the necessary knowledge regarding differences between meanings, misuse and actual sense of words deriving from economy, be able to systematically analyze data and relate his own findings on theoretical language problems. English is used by hundreds of millions speakers and still there is always need for improving our knowledge continuously. Knowing and speaking approximate English may not be enough at an advanced level as in the case of students who prepare themselves for careers that involve proficient communication in a foreign language on specific business issues. This is where the idea of such a paper appeared: students of the Faculty of Economic Sciences talk about economy and all the other terms deriving from it, with approximate knowledge of their meaning, without even being aware that some ‘minor' suffixes like –ic, -ical, -ics etc. really matter and do make a difference. Consequently, we started our teaching of Business English lecture in September 2012 with a working sheet based on the terms economic/ economical/ economics/ economy to assess students' awareness of these terms. The result was not a surprise as more than 90% misused economical instead of economic. That seemed a perfect introduction for students in economics. From that moment on, the building of their specific

  6. [Exclusive breastfeeding in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-de Cossío, Teresita; Escobar-Zaragoza, Leticia; González-Castell, Dinorah; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of exclusive breastfeeding in Breastfeeding indicators from WHO-2008 were calculated. We estimated the effect modifier EBFBreastfeeding promotion, protection and support must be targeted mainly at the most vulnerable, food insecure families.

  7. Exclusive reactions in QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Pire, Bernard

    1996-01-01

    We review the theory of hard exclusive scattering in Quantum Chromodynamics. After recalling the classical counting rules which describe the leading scale dependence of form factors and exclusive cross-sections at fixed angle, the pedagogical example of the pion form factor is developped in some detail in order to show explicitely what factorization means in the QCD framework. The picture generalizes to many hard reactions which are at the heart of the ELFE project. We briefly present the con...

  8. Deprivation and Social Exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    BOSSERT, Walter; D'AMBROSIO, Conchita; PERAGINE, Vito

    2004-01-01

    Social exclusion manifests itself in the lack of an individual’s access to functionings as compared to other members of society. Thus, the concept is closely related to deprivation. We view deprivation as having two basic determinants: the lack of identification with other members of society and the aggregate alienation experienced by an agent with respect to those with fewer functioning failures. We use an axiomatic approach to characterize classes of deprivation and exclusion measures and a...

  9. Exploring Dimensions of Women's Social Exclusion and Inclusion in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Haug, Marit; Aasland, Aadne

    2015-01-01

    The article examines a variety of social exclusion and inclusion indicators grouped by domains that are commonly referred to in the social exclusion literature: economic, social, political and intra-household. Levels of social exclusion and inclusion among different groups of women across these domains are studied. This analysis reveals a complex pattern with great variations among women with different socio-demographic and socio-cultural backgrounds. Subsequently we perform a factor (princip...

  10. Social Exclusion: An International Perspective on the Role of the State, Communities and Public Libraries in Tackling Social Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateman, John

    1999-01-01

    This second of two linked papers reviewing social exclusion focuses on models of communities and roles of the State and applies them to economic and political systems in different countries. Discusses exclusive diversity; voluntary inclusion; required inclusion; inclusive diversity; performance indicators; education, literacy, and libraries; and…

  11. Inclusive and Exclusive |Vub|

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrella, Antonio; /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara

    2011-11-17

    The current status of the determinations of CKM matrix element |V{sub ub}| via exclusive and inclusive charmless semileptonic B decays is reviewed. The large datasets collected at the B-Factories, and the increased precision of theoretical calculations have allowed an improvement in the determination of |V{sub ub}|. However, there are still significant uncertainties. In the exclusive approach, the most precise measurement of the pion channel branching ratio is obtained by an untagged analysis. This very good precision can be reached by tagged analyses with more data. The problem with exclusive decays is that the strong hadron dynamics can not be calculated from first principles and the determination of the form factor has to rely on light-cone sum rules or lattice QCD calculations. The current data samples allow a comparison of different FF models with data distributions. With further developments on lattice calculations, the theoretical error should shrink to reach the experimental one. The inclusive approach still provides the most precise |V{sub ub}| determinations. With new theoretical calculations, the mild (2.5{sigma}) discrepancy with respect to the |V{sub ub}| value determined from the global UT fit has been reduced. As in the exclusive approach, theoretical uncertainties represent the limiting factor to the precision of the measurement. Reducing the theoretical uncertainties to a level comparable with the statistical error is challenging. New measurements in semileptonic decays of charm mesons could increase the confidence in theoretical calculations and related uncertainties.

  12. Ombuds' Corner: Social exclusion

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN bulletin

    2012-01-01

    In this special video edition of the Ombuds' Corner, Ombudsman Vincent Vuillemin takes a look at a social exclusion at CERN. Please note that the characters and situations appearing in this work are fictitious, and any resemblance to real persons or events is purely coincidental.

  13. Exclusive Production at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Walczak, Marek

    2016-01-01

    I briefly introduce so-called central exclusive production. I mainly focus on the example analyses that have been performed in the CMS experiment at CERN. I conclude with ideas and perspectives for future work that will be done during Run 2 of the LHC. I pay special attention to the ultraperipheral collisions.

  14. EXCLUSIVELY FOR SIX MONTHS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: Infant feeding practices was studied prospectively among 461 mothers who delivered in JU TH and who initially intended to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months. K. Y Result: Four hundred and twenty two (91.5%) of the recruited mothers continued EBFing practice for 6 months, while 25 (5.4%) dropped out from the ...

  15. Ombuds' Corner: Social exclusion

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2012-01-01

    In this special video edition of the Ombuds' Corner, Vincent Vuillemin takes a look at a social exclusion at CERN. Please note that the characters and situations appearing in this work are fictitious, and any resemblance to real persons or events is purely coincidental.   Contact the Ombuds Early!

  16. Some aspects of social exclusion: do they influence suicide mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yur'yev, Andriy; Värnik, Peeter; Sisask, Merike; Leppik, Lauri; Lumiste, Kaur; Värnik, Airi

    2013-05-01

    The current study is aimed to assess the relationship between the 'economic/employment' and 'social/welfare' dimensions of social exclusion and suicide mortality in Europe. Suicide rates for 26 countries were obtained from the WHO. Data on social expenditure were obtained from the OECD database. Employment rates and GDP were obtained from the Total Economy Database. Questions about citizens' attitudes towards different aspects of social exclusion were taken from the European Social Survey. Structural equation modelling was applied to research the theoretical structure of the variables. All variables are statistically significant in male and female models except of the relationships between 'economic/employment' and 'social/welfare' dimensions and female suicides; and the relationship between 'employment rates' and 'economic/employment' dimension. Suicide mortality rates among both males and females are influenced negatively by 'economic/employment' and 'social/welfare' dimensions. Among females, the influence of 'social/welfare' dimension is stronger compared to the 'economic/employment' dimension. The remaining influence of GDP is positive in both models. Both 'economic/employment' and 'social/welfare' dimensions of social exclusion significantly influence suicide mortality among males. The influence of 'economic/employment' and 'social/welfare' dimensions of social exclusion on female suicide mortality is controversial. Social exclusion might be considered as a risk factor for suicide mortality in Europe.

  17. Social support for schoolchildren at risk of social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanauskiene V.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Social exclusion is a wider concept than poverty and includes not only material conditions but also inability to participate in economic, social, political and cultural life. The essence of social exclusion is social relationships (more exactly breaking off relationships, which may mean not only pushing away some members of the society, but also breaking off relationships with the society from the side of a person himself/herself. The reasons of origin of social exclusion may be legal, political, economical, social and cultural. Nowadays social exclusion is predetermined by social-economic factors. According to Poviliūnas (2001, the problems of children’s social exclusion may be solved ensuring proper education, care of public health, safety and minimal life standard. Growing aggression and violence of schoolchildren and their social exclusion are nowadays an important issue of political debate and media reports. Often schoolchildren face the risk of social exclusion at school during the period of adolescence. The risk also depends on the social status of their family in the society and the relationship of the family members. The aim of the article is to identify characteristic features of schoolchildren at risk of social exclusion and analyze social support provided for them. A quantitative research was carried out to achieve the aim. The method of data collection is a questionnaire. 105 teachers working in 3 secondary schools in Lithuania participated in the research. The research results revealed that most often schoolchildren face the risk of social exclusion at school during adolescence period. They are characterized as incommunicative, unsociable, passive, and shy, do not trust others, are vulnerable, have learning problems and avoid collaborative activities. These schoolchildren usually come from families of social risk or single parent families. The support provided at school by teachers to schoolchildren at risk of social exclusion

  18. The psychology of exclusivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Jollimore

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Friendship and romantic love are, by their very nature, exclusive relationships. This paper suggests that we can better understand the nature of the exclusivity in question by understanding what is wrong with the view of practical reasoning I call the Comprehensive Surveyor View. The CSV claims that practical reasoning, in order to be rational, must be a process of choosing the best available alternative from a perspective that is as detached and objective as possible. But this view, while it means to be neutral between various value-bearers, in fact incorporates a bias against those value-bearers that can only be appreciated from a perspective that is not detached—that can only be appreciated, for instance, by agents who bear long-term commitments to the values in question. In the realm of personal relationships, such commitments tend to give rise to the sort of exclusivity that characterizes friendship and romantic love; they prevent the agent from being impartial between her beloved’s needs, interests, etc., and those of other persons. In such contexts, I suggest, needs and claims of other persons may be silenced in much the way that, as John McDowell has suggested, the temptations of immorality are silenced for the virtuous agent.

  19. A comparison of food pattern, macro- and some micronutrients density of the diet across different socio-economic zones of Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Morteza; Salehi, Forouzan; Kalantari, Naser; Asadilari, Mohsen; Khoshfetrat, Mohammad Reza; Ajami, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of low quality foods is common in low socioeconomic areas; and according to epidemiological studies, the density of nutrients often proves the quality of diet. This study aimed to compare the density of macronutrients and micronutrients in various parts of Tehran. This was a cross-sectional study performed from September to December 2007 in all the 22 districts of the municipality of Tehran including 1,807 households. Experienced interviewers completed a 24-hour recall questionnaire. To estimate the nutrient densities, nutrient intake (grams or milligrams) was calculated per 1,000 kcal energy intake. To calculate the density of energy intake, energy intake (kcal) was divided by 100 g of foodstuff. The 22 districts of Tehran were divided into five zones of north, center, east, west and south. ANOVA and Tukey tests were used. The highest density of protein and fat intake was observed in the north of Tehran, while carbohydrate density was highest in the west, east and south zones, and energy density was highest in the south zone (pmicronutrient intake was obvious, reflecting the importance of the impact of socioeconomic factors.

  20. Exclusive Diplepton Production

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    We present a first study of exclusive production of dileptons in CMS, by selecting events with a single back-to-back $\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$ or $e^{+}e^{-}$ pair and no significant additional activity in the detector. These events result from two-photon exchange and photoproduction of $\\Upsilon$ mesons. The two-photon events potentially provide a high-statistics calibration sample for luminosity normalization and alignment of forward proton detectors. The $\\Upsilon$ sample will allow studies of heavy flavor photoproduction at higher energies than previous experiments.

  1. Social exclusion in finite populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Cong, Rui; Wu, Te; Wang, Long

    2015-04-01

    Social exclusion, keeping free riders from benefit sharing, plays an important role in sustaining cooperation in our world. Here we propose two different exclusion regimes, namely, peer exclusion and pool exclusion, to investigate the evolution of social exclusion in finite populations. In the peer exclusion regime, each excluder expels all the defectors independently, and thus bears the total cost on his own, while in the pool exclusion regime, excluders spontaneously form an institution to carry out rejection of the free riders, and each excluder shares the cost equally. In a public goods game containing only excluders and defectors, it is found that peer excluders outperform pool excluders if the exclusion costs are small, and the situation is converse once the exclusion costs exceed some critical points, which holds true for all the selection intensities and different update rules. Moreover, excluders can dominate the whole population under a suitable parameters range in the presence of second-order free riders (cooperators), showing that exclusion has prominent advantages over common costly punishment. More importantly, our finding indicates that the group exclusion mechanism helps the cooperative union to survive under unfavorable conditions. Our results may give some insights into better understanding the prevalence of such a strategy in the real world and its significance in sustaining cooperation.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF MATHEMATICAL MEANS FOR ESTIMATION OF ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMICAL LOSSES FROM POLLUTION OF ATMOSPHERIC AIR IN ZONES OF TECHNOGENIC OBJECTS IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. POPOV

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the solution of one of the most important problems of rational use of natural resources. Modern mathematical tools for damage estimation, which are caused by atmospheric pollution to natural objects, and also methods for calculation of the cost for their renewal were developed. The solution of problem was divided into 3 stages. At the first stage it was defined basic anthropogenic sources of pollution, was illustrated conceptual behavior of pollutants in the atmosphere emitted by technological stationary point source. Choice of mathematical model that allows to determine the distribution of pollutants concentration in the air in zones of pollution by point stationary sources in the short-term discharges was proved. At the second stage it was developed mathematical tools to determine the level of objects damage, which were in the zone of pollution, depending on the intensity and duration of exposure of technogenic sources. At the third stage it was developed mathematical models to determine the recoverable amount of natural objects depending on their level of damage. Model example of developed means usage was described. Advantages of developed means over existed analogs were noticed.

  3. The Coercive Efficacy of Air Exclusion Zones: Myth or Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    temperamental, complicated, irrational, chameleon and a survivor. In fact, any of these terms fit some portion of his complex character. Coercing this...descriptors, chameleon best fits Gaddafi. Understanding his rationale or reasoning frustrates analysis. At the very least, Gaddafi based his actions on

  4. Linear stability analysis reveals exclusion zone for sliding bed transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talmon Arnold M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A bend or any another pipe component disturbs solids transport in pipes. Longitudinal pressure profiles downstream of such a component may show a stationary transient harmonic wave, as revealed by a recent settling slurry laboratory experiment. Therefore the fundamental transient response of the two-layer model for fully stratified flow is investigated as a first approach. A linear stability analysis of the sliding bed configuration is conducted. No stationary transient harmonic waves are found in this analysis, but adaptation lengths for exponential recovery are quantified. An example calculation is given for a 0.1 m diameter pipeline.

  5. Kirkuk to Baiji Pipeline Exclusion Zone - Phase 3, Kirkuk, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-24

    of earthen berm compaction degradation Road Crossings Road crossings were planned to allow access to small towns and villages. The road...gate posts leading into and out of the small towns and villages must be 100-mm set in concrete. We inspected the three sets of Phase 3 road

  6. Young mothers, first time parenthood and exclusive breastfeeding in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naanyu, Violet

    2008-12-01

    Breastfeeding behaviour is explored in Kenya using data collected in the town of Eldoret, Kenya. This paper specifically examines duration of exclusive breastfeeding among young mothers below 20 years of age as compared to older cohorts. Additionally, focus is laid on the effect of first time motherhood and breastfeeding difficulties on exclusive breastfeeding. Results show that Eldoret mothers are aware of benefits of breastfeeding; nevertheless, the mean duration for exclusive breastfeeding in this sample is 2.4 months. Higher durations of exclusive breastfeeding are associated with increasing age and first time motherhood. Predictably, breastfeeding difficulties bear a negative association with exclusive breastfeeding. While HIV is transmissible through breastfeeding, breast milk remains a vital source of nourishment for infants in Sub-Saharan Africa. More research on mothering should examine the changing socio-economic milieu and its influence on women's infant feeding decisions

  7. Exclusive meson production at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Sznajder, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we summarize recent measurements of exclusive meson production performed by the COMPASS Collaboration. In particular, recent results on the transverse target spin asymmetries for exclusive r 0 production are presented. Some of these asymmetries are sensitive to the GPDs E , which are related to the orbital angular momentum of quarks. Other asymmetries are sensitive to the chiral-odd, transverse GPDs H T . Measurements of exclusive processes, which are a part of the COMPASS-II proposal, are also discussed

  8. The Determination of Exclusion: Evidence from the Ghana Living Standards Surveys 1991-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolleston, Caine

    2009-01-01

    This article examines access to and exclusion from basic education in Ghana over the period 1991-2006, using data derived from the Ghana Living Standards Surveys. It uses the CREATE "zones of exclusion" model to explore schooling access outcomes within the framework of the household production function. Empirical findings indicate that…

  9. High gene flow and genetic diversity in three economically important Zanthoxylum Spp. of Upper Brahmaputra Valley Zone of NE India using molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhi, K; Sarmah, D K; Deka, M; Bhau, B S

    2014-12-01

    The genetic diversity in Zanthoxylum species viz.  Zanthoxylum nitidum, Zanthoxylum oxyphyllum and Zanthoxylum rhesta collected from the Upper Brahmaputra Valley Zone of Assam (NE India) was amplified using 13 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and 9 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. RAPD markers were able to detect 81.82% polymorphism whereas ISSR detected 98.02% polymorphism. The genetic similarities were analyzed from the dendrogram constructed by RAPD and ISSR fingerprinting methods which divided the 3 species of Zanthoxylum into 3 clear different clusters. The principle component analysis (PCA) was carried out to confirm the clustering pattern of RAPD and ISSR analysis. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed the presence of significant variability between different Zanthoxylum species and within the species by both RAPD and ISSR markers. Z. nitidum was found to be sharing a high degree of variation with the other two Zanthoxylum species under study. The Nei's gene diversity (h), Shannon's information index (I), observed number of alleles (na) and effective number of alleles (ne) were also found to be higher in ISSR markers (0.3526, 0.5230, 1.9802 and 1.6145) than in RAPD markers (0.3144, 0.4610, 1.8182 and 1.5571). The values for total genotype diversity for among population (HT), within population diversity (Hs) and gene flow (Nm) were more in ISSR (0.3491, 0.2644 and 1.5610) than RAPD (0.3128, 0.2264 and 1.3087) but the mean coefficient of gene differentiation (GST) was more in RAPD (0.2764) than ISSR (0.2426). A comparison of this two finger printing methods was done by calculating MR, EMI and MI. The correlation coefficient between data matrices of RAPD and ISSR based on Mantel test was found to be significant (r = 0.65612).

  10. Exclusive Rights and State Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2017-01-01

    Exclusive rights are granted in order to regulate markets as one of several possible tools of public intervention. The article considers the role of State aid law in the regulation of exclusive rights. Whereas the right of Member States to organise markets as monopolies and the choice of provider...

  11. Empirical Research on Ecological Development Level of Resource-based Industries–Base on the data of the Silk Road Economic Belt Core Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yan, Min

    2017-11-01

    Industrial ecology is the epitome of sustainable development in industry level, is one effective gateway to realizing green transformation. On the basis of industrial ecology development, including resource efficiency and environmental efficiency of ecological evaluation index system, this paper evaluates the level of industrial ecology development of resource-based industries in Xinjiang using entropy method. Research shows that the overall ecological development level of resource-based industries has remained at continuous improved trend with slow improvement in resource efficiency, and relative faster improvement in environmental efficiency. With economic development entering into the period of new normal at the end of the “twelfth five year plan”, the resource efficiency of ecological development of resource-based industries demonstrated a downward trend. The overall level of industrial ecology also faced with certain fluctuations, various ecological development level of resource-based industries also presented a downward trend. To promote ecological development of resource-based industries in Xinjiang, countermeasures and suggestions are initiated.

  12. Struggle against Racial Exclusion in Public Libraries: A Fight for the Rights of the People. Public Library Policy and Social Exclusion Working Paper No. 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, Shiraz

    This paper discusses public libraries in the United Kingdom (UK) from a social and political point of view and examines race issues outside the UK. Part 1 addresses understanding race and class oppression, including moving away from a Eurocentric approach, features of racism, social and economic exclusion, the language of exclusion/liberation,…

  13. Exclusive dimuon production with LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Shears, Tara

    2011-01-01

    We report on studies of exclusive dimuon production using LHCb experimental data. Exclusively produced muon pairs can be produced by two photon fusion (a QED process ideally suited to obtaining a precise integrated luminosity measure), or through resonances produced by pomeron-photon fusion or double pomeron exchange.We present cross-section measurements for exclusive dimuon production, and the first observations at a proton-proton collider of exclusive J/psi, psi’ and chi_c states, obtained with 37 pb-1 of data at centre of mass energy of 7 TeV. The resolution of the LHCb detectors allow the chic0, chic1 and chic2 states to be separated. We compare our results to theoretical predictions.

  14. Central Exclusive Production at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Rachwal, Bartlomiej

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb detector, with its excellent momentum resolution and flexible trigger strategy, is ideally suited for measuring particles produced exclusively. In addition, a new system of forward shower counters has been installed upstream and downstream of the detector, and has been used to facilitate studies of Central Exclusive Production. Such measurements of integrated and differential cross-section in both Run 1 and Run 2 of the LHC, are summarised here.

  15. NEARSHORE ZONE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hb"'/ H“ —_'~. Fig. l: Schematic plan showing the incident wave and subsequent breaking in the nearshore zone. The still-water line indicates the mean water level and .... obtained by taking the square of the high frequency velocity components.

  16. RELIGIOUS EXCLUSIVITY AND PSYCHOSOCIAL FUNCTIONING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegelashvili, M; Meca, A; Schwartz, S J

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we sought to clarify links between religious exclusivity, as form of intergroup favoritism, and indices of psychosocial functioning. The study of in group favoritism has generally been invoked within Social Identity Theory and related perspectives. However, there is a lack of literature regarding religious exclusivity from the standpoint of social identity. In particular, the ways in which religious exclusivity is linked with other dimensions of religious belief and practice, and with psychosocial functioning, among individuals from different religious backgrounds are not well understood. A sample of 8545 emerging-adult students from 30 U.S. universities completed special measures. Measure of religious exclusivity was developed and validated for this group. The results suggest that exclusivity appears as predictor for impaired psychosocial functioning, low self-esteem and low psychosocial well-being for individuals from organized faiths, as well as for those identifying as agnostic, atheist, or spiritual/nonreligious. These findings are discussed in terms of Social Identity Theory and Terror Management Theory (TMT).

  17. Exclusive Indoor Informal Activities in Africa: Community Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It randomly sampled 04% of the residential buildings in the study area and showed that nearly al l(91%) the respondents captured in the sample earned about three Dollars per day without any public means of advertisement, and vaded tax (96%). Most of them used open spaces and setbacks within buildings for business ...

  18. Child Social Exclusion Risk and Child Health Outcomes in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itismita Mohanty

    Full Text Available This paper studies the relationship between the risk of child social exclusion, as measured by the Child Social Exclusion (CSE index and its individual domains, and child health outcomes at the small area level in Australia. The CSE index is Australia's only national small-area index of the risk of child social exclusion. It includes five domains that capture different components of social exclusion: socio-economic background, education, connectedness, housing and health services.The paper used data from the National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling (NATSEM, University of Canberra for the CSE Index and its domains and two key Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW data sources for the health outcome measures: the National Hospital Morbidity Database and the National Mortality Database.The results show positive associations between rates of both of the negative health outcomes: potentially preventable hospitalisations (PPH and avoidable deaths, and the overall risk of child social exclusion as well as with the index domains. This analysis at the small-area level can be used to identify and study areas with unexpectedly good or bad health outcomes relative to their estimated risk of child social exclusion. We show that children's health outcomes are worse in remote parts of Australia than what would be expected solely based on the CSE index.The results of this study suggest that developing composite indices of the risk of child social exclusion can provide valuable guidance for local interventions and programs aimed at improving children's health outcomes. They also indicate the importance of taking a small-area approach when conducting geographic modelling of disadvantage.

  19. Child Social Exclusion Risk and Child Health Outcomes in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Itismita; Edvardsson, Martin; Abello, Annie; Eldridge, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between the risk of child social exclusion, as measured by the Child Social Exclusion (CSE) index and its individual domains, and child health outcomes at the small area level in Australia. The CSE index is Australia's only national small-area index of the risk of child social exclusion. It includes five domains that capture different components of social exclusion: socio-economic background, education, connectedness, housing and health services. The paper used data from the National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling (NATSEM), University of Canberra for the CSE Index and its domains and two key Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) data sources for the health outcome measures: the National Hospital Morbidity Database and the National Mortality Database. The results show positive associations between rates of both of the negative health outcomes: potentially preventable hospitalisations (PPH) and avoidable deaths, and the overall risk of child social exclusion as well as with the index domains. This analysis at the small-area level can be used to identify and study areas with unexpectedly good or bad health outcomes relative to their estimated risk of child social exclusion. We show that children's health outcomes are worse in remote parts of Australia than what would be expected solely based on the CSE index. The results of this study suggest that developing composite indices of the risk of child social exclusion can provide valuable guidance for local interventions and programs aimed at improving children's health outcomes. They also indicate the importance of taking a small-area approach when conducting geographic modelling of disadvantage.

  20. [Urban dynamics in the decade of the 1980s: concentration of in-migration, spatial segregation and social exclusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, A M

    1991-01-01

    The effects of 2 basic socioeconomic processes of the 1980s on urban dynamics in the Dominican Republic are described. The 2 processes were the restructuring of the national productive apparatus following anew model of accumulation that stressed external markets, and the urban political economy of the years 1986-90, in which priority was given to public investment in construction as an activity favoring economic growth and employment. The interest in urban remodeling and transit renovation implied neglect of other basic sectors including education, agriculture, energy,and health. A series of fiscal measures was necessary to finance the investment program, and the inflation resulting from the investment program had significant effects on real income of the population. The new economic model encountered its competitive edge in wage depression and constant devaluations. The process of inflation-devaluation reinforced the regressive effects of the model on income, resulting in price increases for urban land and exclusion of the majority of the population from the urban housing market. The new economic model has led to dismantling of the national productive apparatus and consolidation of so-called "productive extroversion," with free economic zones and tourism the focus of accumulation related to the international market. The informal sector has grown because of inflation and because of the crisis in industrial activities destined for the internal market. Agricultural production for internal consumption declined over the decade, encouraging rural-urban migration and further swelling of the informal sector. Growth of Santo Domingo's suburbs and surrounding rural areas is 1 of the main effects of the model. By the year 2000, it is estimated that metropolitan Santo Domingo will contain 45% of the total population of the Dominican Republic. Although no exact functional correspondence can be established between urban policy and the model of accumulation, there are 3 aspects

  1. Limiting the Tax Exclusion for Employment-based Health Insurance: Are Improved Equity and Efficiency Enough?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mark V. Pauly

    2009-01-01

    Removal or limitation of the current exclusion of employment-related health benefit payments from taxable income would improve economic efficiency and equity, but is this sufficient to make such a policy change likely...

  2. CMS results on exclusive production

    CERN Document Server

    Khakzad, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    A search for exclusive or quasi-exclusive $\\gamma\\gamma \\rightarrow W^{+}W^{-}$ production, ${\\rm pp} \\rightarrow {\\rm p}^{(*)} W^{+}W^{-} {\\rm p}^{(*)} \\rightarrow {\\rm p}^{(*)} \\mu^{\\pm} {\\rm e}^{\\mp} {\\rm p}^{(*)}$, at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV (7 TeV) are reported using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 $\\rm {fb}^{-1}$ (5.5$\\rm {fb}^{-1}$), respectively. In this study, we look for any deviations that there might be from the Standard Model, and the results are used to set limits on the Anomalous Quartic Gauge Couplings. We also report a measurement of the exclusive production of pairs of charged pions in proton-proton collisions. The differential cross sections for $\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$ pairs as a function of the pion pair invariant mass is measured and compared to several phenomenological predictions.

  3. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  4. Exclusive processes at Jefferson Lab

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    namics, where nucleon–meson degrees of freedom are effective to perturbative QCD of quark and gluon degrees of freedom, is one of the most fundamental, challenging tasks in nuclear and particle physics. Exclusive ... There is no clear guidance from theory as to the limits of the transition region; it must instead be ...

  5. Exclusive meson production at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Pochodzalla, Josef; Moinester, Murray; Piller, Gunther; Sandacz, Andrzej; Vanderhaeghen, Marc; Pochodzalla, Josef; Mankiewicz, Lech; Moinester, Murray; Piller, Gunther; Sandacz, Andrzej; Vanderhaeghen, Marc

    1999-01-01

    We explore the feasibility to study exclusive meson production (EMP) in hard muon-proton scattering at the COMPASS experiment. These measurements constrain the off-forward parton distributions (OFPD's) of the proton, which are related to the quark orbital contribution to the proton spin.

  6. Exclusive processes at Jefferson Lab

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Exclusive processes such as proton–proton elastic scattering, meson photoproduction, and deuteron photodisintegration have been pursued extensively at many laboratories over the years in the search for such a transition, particularly at Jefferson Lab in recent years, taking the advantage of the high luminosity capability of ...

  7. Social exclusion in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerda Jehoel-Gijsbers

    2004-01-01

    Original title: Sociale uitsluiting. This study seeks to provide a greater insight into the situation of citizens for whom 'taking part' is a problem, in other words who are victims of social exclusion. In order to expose this problem adequately, it is first important to make clear how the

  8. University Ranking as Social Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsler, Sarah S.; Bolsmann, Chris

    2012-01-01

    In this article we explore the dual role of global university rankings in the creation of a new, knowledge-identified, transnational capitalist class and in facilitating new forms of social exclusion. We examine how and why the practice of ranking universities has become widely defined by national and international organisations as an important…

  9. [Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in children assisted by interdisciplinary program on breast feeding promotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascoza, Karina Camilo; Possobon, Rosana de Fátima; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Costa Júnior, Aderson Luiz; Moraes, Antônio Bento Alves de

    2011-10-01

    To identify variables potentially related with the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in children assisted by interdisciplinary program on breast feeding promotion. Data were collected by a longitudinal study with 111 mothers who breastfeed their children until six months of age. Univariate analyses were used to assess factors associated with the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment, and also multiple regression analyses. The mothers were divided in two groups: 57 mothers breastfeed, exclusively, their children until six months of age and 54 mothers introduced other kinds of food before this age. The following variables were found to be factors associated with the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: pacifier use (OR 4,65; IC95% 1,66-12,99), social and economic high level (OR 11,46; IC95% 3,09-42,37) and mother's work (OR 2,44; IC95% 0,91-5,62). Pacifier use, social and economic high level and mother's work are associated with the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment.

  10. Taxation of the economical activities developed in the sea regions; Tributacao das atividades economicas desenvolvidas nas regioes maritimas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marcio Branco de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico Juridico. Setor de Planejamento Tributario

    2000-07-01

    Usually, the power of taxation is straightly connected to the idea of territory. It is important to establish the limits of tax jurisdiction not only for taxes in view of which territoriality is part of the taxable event as defined in legislation - import tax (I.I.) and excise tax (IPI) -, but also for those the location of a possession - property tax (IPTU) - or the place in which services are rendered - service occupation tax (ISS) and sales tax (ICMS) - appear as the main component of the taxable event. According to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982, and the Brazilian internal legislation as well, Federal Government has full sovereignty over its territorial sea -12 mile zone. In other areas (contiguous zone, exclusive economic zone and brazilian continental shelf), sovereignty is restricted to the supervision of some activities, not involving power of taxation. (author)

  11. Gender, Marginalisation and Social Exclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D. Munk, Martin

    The paper is focused on the fact that marginalisation and social exclusion are gender-related in the EU. Even when boys and girls experience the same kinds of strain and social inheritance, they react socially different. Likewise women and men are marginalised in different ways. The differing acc...... access to the five ressources: cultural, financial, mental, social and powerrelated resources is highlighted. It is demonstrated how gender involves living in different realities, and requires different solutions to create equal possibilities.......The paper is focused on the fact that marginalisation and social exclusion are gender-related in the EU. Even when boys and girls experience the same kinds of strain and social inheritance, they react socially different. Likewise women and men are marginalised in different ways. The differing...

  12. Intrapersonal and interpersonal processes of social exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Taishi; Ura, Mitsuhiro; Nittono, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    People have a fundamental need to belong with others. Social exclusion impairs this need and has various effects on cognition, affect, and the behavior of excluded individuals. We have previously reported that activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) could be a neurocognitive index of social exclusion (Kawamoto et al., 2012). In this article, we provide an integrative framework for understanding occurrences during and after social exclusion, by reviewing neuroimaging, electrophysiological, and behavioral studies of dACC and rVLPFC, within the framework of intrapersonal and interpersonal processes of social exclusion. As a result, we have indicated directions for future studies to further clarify the phenomenon of social exclusion from the following perspectives: (1) constructional elements of social exclusion, (2) detection sensitivity and interpretation bias in social exclusion, (3) development of new methods to assess the reactivity to social exclusion, and (4) sources of social exclusion.

  13. Economics and business economics.

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Silva

    1993-01-01

    The comparison between Economics and Business Management allows the clarification of some of their characteristics and limits as regards method, language, and objectives. Secondly, it allows the verification of the reciprocal contribution relating to research. For such a comparison, the object of study, the method, and the objectives of Economics and Business Management are taken into consideration distinguishing; so far as Business Management is concerned, between the Italian and American tr...

  14. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    In achieving the goal of economic growth, approaches of attaining this goal do vary across and within countries over ... To maintain economic growth Tanzania like other countries uses export promotion as one of the approaches ... strategies in the country such as establishment of export processing zones so as to speed up.

  15. Tartrazine exclusion for allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardern, K D; Ram, F S

    2001-01-01

    Tartrazine is the best known and one of the most commonly used food additives. Food colorants are also used in many medications as well as foods. There has been conflicting evidence as to whether tartrazine causes exacerbations of asthma with some studies finding a positive association especially in individuals with cross-sensitivity to aspirin. To assess the overall effect of tartrazine (exclusion or challenge) in the management of asthma. A search was carried out using the Cochrane Airways Group specialised register. Bibliographies of each RCT was searched for additional papers. Authors of identified RCTs were contacted for further information for their trials and details of other studies. RCTs of oral administration of tartrazine (as a challenge) versus placebo or dietary avoidance of tartrazine versus normal diet were considered. Studies which focused upon allergic asthma, were also included. Studies of tartrazine exclusion for other allergic conditions such as hay fever, allergic rhinitis and eczema were only considered if the results for subjects with asthma were separately identified. Trials could be in either adults or children with asthma or allergic asthma (e.g. sensitivity to aspirin or food items known to contain tartrazine). Study quality was assessed and data abstracted by two reviewers independently. Outcomes were analysed using RevMan 4.1.1. Ninety abstracts were found, of which 18 were potentially relevant. Six met the inclusion criteria, but only three presented results in a format that permitted analysis and none could be combined in a meta-analysis. In none of the studies did tartrazine challenge or avoidance in diet significantly alter asthma outcomes. Due to the paucity of available evidence, it is not possible to provide firm conclusions as to the effects of tartrazine on asthma control. However, the six RCTs that could be included in this review all arrived at the same conclusion. Routine tartrazine exclusion may not benefit most patients

  16. Exclusion Bounds for Extended Anyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Simon; Lundholm, Douglas

    2017-08-01

    We introduce a rigorous approach to the many-body spectral theory of extended anyons, that is quantum particles confined to two dimensions that interact via attached magnetic fluxes of finite extent. Our main results are many-body magnetic Hardy inequalities and local exclusion principles for these particles, leading to estimates for the ground-state energy of the anyon gas over the full range of the parameters. This brings out further non-trivial aspects in the dependence on the anyonic statistics parameter, and also gives improvements in the ideal (non-extended) case.

  17. Effects of economics and demographics on global fisheries sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qi; Wang, Yali; Chen, Xinjun; Chen, Yong

    2017-08-01

    A good understanding of social factors that lead to marine ecological change is important to developing sustainable global fisheries. We used balanced panel models and conducted cross-national time-series analyses (1970-2010) of 122 nations to examine how economic prosperity and population growth affected the sustainability of marine ecosystems. We used catches in economic exclusive zone (EEZ); mean trophic level of fishery landings (MTL); primary production required to sustain catches (expressed as percentage of local primary production [%PPR]); and an index of ecosystem overfishing (i.e., the loss in secondary production index [L index]) as indicators of ecological change in marine ecosystems. The EEZ catch, %PPR, and L index declined gradually after gross domestic product (GDP) per capita reached $15,000, $14,000, and $19,000, respectively, and MTL increased steadily once GDP per capita exceeded $20,000. These relationships suggest that economic growth and biodiversity conservation are compatible goals. However, increasing human populations would degrade marine ecosystems. Specifically, a doubling of human population caused an increase in the %PPR of 17.1% and in the L index of 0.0254 and a decline in the MTL of 0.176. A 1% increase in human population resulted in a 0.744% increase in EEZ catch. These results highlight the importance of considering social and economic factors in developing sustainable fisheries management policy. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS AND THE NEED OF PSYCHOLOGY IN ECONOMIC RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea GRADINARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The turning point in economic science has now come, marked especially by triggering the biggest crisis since the Great Depression of '29-'33, has called into question the need to reconsider the status of economic science and finding ways in which it can increase its practical foundations. In the elaboration of this study I’ve took into account the fact that beyond any abstract, formal and mathematical model, economics is a science, having the man in its center. Furthermore, every economic process is based on the human being. But the way individuals behave does not follow precisely the pattern predicted by classical and neoclassical models, but most of the time they are making decisions under the influence of psychological factors. Starting from these assumptions I considered important to highlight a real need for psychology in economic research. Therefore, the aim of this work is exclusively theoretical meant to show that the study of psychological factors is necessary in economic research, because it allows a better explanation of the economic problems and lead to obtaining results closer to reality than those who only take into consideration economic factors. In this way I appealed to behavioral economics. This represents a new trend of economic thinking that reunites psychology with economy. The thing that I observed after finishing the study is that behavioral economics can increase the explanatory power of economics by providing more realistic psychological bases, because human behavior is not only the subject matter of economics but psychology too.

  19. Exclusive scattering off the deuteron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amrath, D.

    2007-12-15

    Exclusive processes are a special class of processes giving insight into the inner structure of hadrons. In this thesis we consider two exclusive processes and compute their total cross sections as well as the beam charge and beam polarization asymmetries for different kinematical constraints. These calculations o er the opportunity to get access to the nonperturbative GPDs. Theoretically they can be described with the help of models. The rst process we investigate contains a GPD of the pion, which is basically unknown so far. We include different models and make predictions for observables that could in principle be measured at HERMES at DESY and CLAS at JLab. The second process we consider is electron-deuteron scattering in the kinematical range where the deuteron breaks up into a proton and a neutron. This can be used to investigate the neutron, which cannot be taken as a target due to its lifetime of approximately 15 minutes. For the calculation of the electron-deuteron cross section we implement models for the proton and neutron GPDs. Once there are experimental data available our calculations are ready for comparison. (orig.)

  20. Exclusion Process with Slow Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldasso, Rangel; Menezes, Otávio; Neumann, Adriana; Souza, Rafael R.

    2017-06-01

    We study the hydrodynamic and the hydrostatic behavior of the simple symmetric exclusion process with slow boundary. The term slow boundary means that particles can be born or die at the boundary sites, at a rate proportional to N^{-θ }, where θ > 0 and N is the scaling parameter. In the bulk, the particles exchange rate is equal to 1. In the hydrostatic scenario, we obtain three different linear profiles, depending on the value of the parameter θ ; in the hydrodynamic scenario, we obtain that the time evolution of the spatial density of particles, in the diffusive scaling, is given by the weak solution of the heat equation, with boundary conditions that depend on θ . If θ \\in (0,1), we get Dirichlet boundary conditions, (which is the same behavior if θ =0, see Farfán in Hydrostatics, statical and dynamical large deviations of boundary driven gradient symmetric exclusion processes, 2008); if θ =1, we get Robin boundary conditions; and, if θ \\in (1,∞), we get Neumann boundary conditions.

  1. Social exclusion domains of the elderly: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh Khalvati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The elderly are considered as one of the vulnerable groups as they are subjected to the risk of decrease of participation in different domains of their life due to losing their jobs, a drop in salary and the increase of health-related problems. The current research was aimed to seek the elderly social exclusion domains in various countries around the world. Methods: This systematic review analyzed the published studies from 1999 to 2013. The articles were searched using the keywords of social exclusion along with old people, aging, elderly both in Persian and English in Google search engine and the Iranian and international databases. From among 77 studies obtained, 16 studies met the inclusion criteria for this research. Results: the findings indicated that the majority of studies (9 were conducted in Britain and the most common logical model was distributional and relational approach. Indicators were categorized in 5 domains: economic, social, health, environmental and neighborhood, and discrimination and elderly-oriented. In 50 percent of studies, access or lack of access to services, civil participations and social relations, in 12.5 percent of studies, access to proper health and in 18.7 percent of studies, living in secure environment and neighborhood were the indicators which attracted the most attention in evaluating the elderly social exclusion. Conclusion: Generally, choosing a logical and proper model to design and evaluate social exclusion contributed to decreasing the problems of social exclusion evaluation. Using the data gathered in family panels can also facilitate access to the data related to periodical evaluation of social exclusion.

  2. Dissecting the gray zone between follicular lymphoma and marginal zone lymphoma using morphological and genetic features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsman, Oscar; Gonzalez, Patricia; Ponz, Olga Balague; Roemer, Margaretha G. M.; Slot, Stefanie; Broeks, Annegien; Braaf, Linde; Kerkhoven, Ron M.; Bot, Freek; van Groningen, Krijn; Beijert, Max; Ylstra, Bauke; de Jongi, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Nodal marginal zone lymphoma is a poorly defined entity in the World Health Organization classification, based largely on criteria of exclusion and the diagnosis often remains subjective. Follicular lymphoma lacking t(14;18) has similar characteristics which results in a major potential diagnostic

  3. Exclusive Dijet production from CDF2LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallinaro, Michele; /Rockefeller U.

    2005-04-01

    Exclusive dijet production at the Tevatron can be used as a benchmark to establish predictions on exclusive diffractive Higgs production, a process with a much smaller cross section. Exclusive dijet production in Double Pomeron Exchange processes, including diffractive Higgs production with measurements at the Tevatron and predictions for the Large Hadron Collider are presented. Using new data from the Tevatron and dedicated diffractive triggers, no excess over a smooth falling distribution for exclusive dijet events could be found. Upper limits on the exclusive dijet production cross section are presented and compared to current theoretical predictions.

  4. Central exclusive production at the Tevatron

    CERN Document Server

    Albrow, Michael G

    2008-01-01

    In CDF we have observed several exclusive processes: 2-photon --> e+e- and --> mu+mu-, photon+pomeron --> J/psi and psi(2S), and pomeron+pomeron --> chi_c. The cross sections agree with QED, HERA photoproduction data, and theoretical estimates of gg --> chi_c with another gluon exchanged to screen the color. This observation of exclusive chi_c, together with earlier observations of exclusive dijets and exclusive 2-photon candidates, support some theoretical predictions for p+p --> p+H+p at the LHC. Exclusive dileptons offer the best means of precisely calibrating forward proton spectrometers.

  5. Social inclusion/exclusion: dancing the dialectic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonte, Ronald

    2004-03-01

    The last decade has seen many of the 'community' concepts in health (community empowerment, community capacity) replaced by 'social' concepts (social capital, social cohesion). The continuous re-labelling of roughly similar phenomena may be a necessary stratagem to attract attention to the economic and power inequalities that arise from undisciplined markets. Social concepts also have an advantage over community ones by directing that attention to higher orders of political systems. The latest construct being wielded by health practitioners, researchers and policy-makers are the twinned concepts of social inclusion and social exclusion. These represent a conceptual sophistication over social capital and social cohesion. Like their predecessors, however, there are risks in their adoption without a critical examination of the premises that underpin them. For example, how can one 'include' people and groups into structured systems that have systematically 'excluded' them in the first place? The cautions expressed in this article do not dissuade use of the concepts. Their utility, however, particularly at a time when not only inequalities, but also their rate of growth, is increasing, requires careful questioning.

  6. Exclusive diffractive processes in QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichowsky, M. A.; Lee, T.-S. H.

    1996-10-01

    We consider the role of nonperturbative, confined quarks in the Pomeron-exchange model of exclusive, diffractive processes. In our approach, mesons are treated as q-barq bound states and Pomeron-exchange mediates the quark-nucleon interaction. This interaction is modeled in terms of 4 parameters which are completely determined by examining π p and K p elastic scattering. The predicted ρ- and φ-meson electroproduction cross sections are in excellent agreement with the data. It is shown that the differences in the behavior of electroproduction cross sections for the different vector mesons (ρ, φ, J/ψ) arise from their quark substructures. Furthermore, several interesting features of vector meson electroproduction, recently observed at DESY, naturally arise in this approach. The model is also used to predict ρ p, φ p, ρ ρ, φ φ, and φ ρ elastic scattering cross sections necessary for investigations of QCD aspects of vector meson production from relativistic heavy ion collisions.

  7. Human values and moral exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Goodale

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article uses empirical data from the anthropology of human rights and the ethics of everyday life to examine the relationship between dominant value frames, moral action, and the rise of ‘counter-humanities’ in the form of cultural identitarianism, racial and class-based nationalism, apocalyptic theologies, and nativist populism. This article focuses, in particular, on the emergence and growing power of the value frame of human rights in the post-Cold War period and argues that the more recent spread of violent movements based in forms of moral exclusion was an ironic consequence of the power of human rights. After considering, and then rejecting, the possibility that citizenship can stand in for ‘humanity’ as a more sustainable value frame, the article concludes with an argument for the promise of a post-utopian solidarity inspired by the humanism of Montaigne and More and the pluralism of Berlin.

  8. Social Exclusion/Inclusion for Urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie Walter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social exclusion social inclusion are useful concepts for making sense of the deeply embedded socio-economic disadvantaged position of Aboriginal and Torres Islander people in Australian. The concepts not only describe exclusion from social and economic participation; but seek to understand the dynamic processes behind their creation and reproduction. Yet few Australian studies go beyond describing Aboriginal over-representation on social exclusion indicators. Neither do they address the translatability of the concepts from non-Indigenous to Indigenous contexts despite mainstream studies finding the pattern of social exclusion (and therefore what social inclusion might look like differs for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to that of other disadvantaged groups. This paper uses data from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous children to explore patterns of social exclusion across social, economic, well-being and community dimensions for urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait families. The paper then develops a contextual understanding of the processes and patterns that create and sustain social exclusion and the opportunities and challenges of moving to greater social inclusion for urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people/s.

  9. Methodological problems of economic security research in the conditions of transformed economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goloshchapova  Zhypar  Esenbekovna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the methodological problems of research of financial and economic safety in the conditions of transformed economy. The author hypothesizes that should be divided into four zones of change of financial and economic security indicators: the zone of accumulation of critical mass; crisis zone; shear zone; fatal area.

  10. Exclusive Minilateralism: An Emerging Discourse within International Climate Change Governance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Scott McGee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past five years there have been a series of significant international climate change agreements involving only elite state actors. The Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate, APEC Sydney Leaders Declaration and US Major Economies Process all displayed a shift towards a model of international climate change governance involving a small group of economically powerful states, to the exclusion of less powerful states and environmental NGOs. The modest result from the UNFCCC COP 15 meeting in Copenhagen in December 2009 and subsequent UNFCCC meetings has strengthened calls for international climate governance to be pared down to smaller decision making forums of key states only. This article argues that these developments evidence an emerging discourse of ‘exclusive minilateralism’ in international climate policy that is challenging the inclusive multilateral discourse that has formed the bedrock of international climate change governance since the inception of UN climate regime in the early 1990s. The exclusive minilateralism discourse offers a significant challenge to both the cosmopolitan and discursive democratic aspirations of international climate change governance. One response to the exclusive minilateral discourse is to reform the UNFCCC consensus-based decision making rule to provide the COP with greater ease of decision making on key issues relating to mitigation and adaptation. Another response is to more formally include the exclusive minilateralism discourse within the UNFCCC COP process. This could be achieved by forming a small peak body of states and key NGO groups to act as an influential advisor to the COP process on key issues requiring expedition and resolution.

  11. Density profiles of the exclusive queueing process

    OpenAIRE

    Arita, Chikashi; Schadschneider, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The exclusive queueing process (EQP) incorporates the exclusion principle into classic queueing models. It can be interpreted as an exclusion process of variable system length. Here we extend previous studies of its phase diagram by identifying subphases which can be distinguished by the number of plateaus in the density profiles. Furthermore the influence of different update procedures (parallel, backward-ordered, continuous time) is determined.

  12. Intrapersonal and interpersonal processes of social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taishi eKawamoto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available People have a fundamental need to belong with others. Social exclusion impairs this need and has various effects on cognition, affect, and the behavior of excluded individuals. We have previously reported that activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC could be a neurocognitive index of social exclusion (Kawamoto et al., 2012, Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience, 4, 11. In this article, we provide an integrative framework for understanding occurrences during and after social exclusion, by reviewing neuroimaging, electrophysiological, and behavioral studies of dACC and rVLPFC, within the framework of intrapersonal and interpersonal processes of social exclusion. As a result, we have indicated directions for future studies to further clarify the phenomenon of social exclusion from the following perspectives: (1 constructional elements of social exclusion, (2 detection sensitivity and interpretation bias in social exclusion, (3 development of new methods to assess the reactivity to social exclusion and (4 sources of social exclusion.

  13. Inclusive education and social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Bissoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is critically examining assumptions underlying the Inclusive Education concept, arguing that this can only be effectively considered when understood in a broader context of social inclusion and exclusion. Methodologically, this article relies on international documents and bibliographic references about Inclusive Education, that have been chosen by systematize and characterize different social and educational inclusive practices, encouraging the elaboration of a general overview on this topic. The results of this analysis conclude that it is essential for Inclusive Education that educational institutions review their goals and reasons of social existence. In the concluding remarks it is argued that education is better understood as the act of encouraging and welcoming the efforts of individuals in their attempts to engage in social networking, which sustains life. This includes the acceptance of other reality interpretations and understanding that educational action cannot be restricted by the walls of institutions. It requires the participation of the whole community. Action perspectives likely to promote social inclusion and inclusive education are suggested.

  14. Persistent random walk with exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanti, Marta; Fanelli, Duccio; Piazza, Francesco

    2013-11-01

    Modelling the propagation of a pulse in a dense milieu poses fundamental challenges at the theoretical and applied levels. To this aim, in this paper we generalize the telegraph equation to non-ideal conditions by extending the concept of persistent random walk to account for spatial exclusion effects. This is achieved by introducing an explicit constraint in the hopping rates, that weights the occupancy of the target sites. We derive the mean-field equations, which display nonlinear terms that are important at high density. We compute the evolution of the mean square displacement (MSD) for pulses belonging to a specific class of spatially symmetric initial conditions. The MSD still displays a transition from ballistic to diffusive behaviour. We derive an analytical formula for the effective velocity of the ballistic stage, which is shown to depend in a nontrivial fashion upon both the density (area) and the shape of the initial pulse. After a density-dependent crossover time, nonlinear terms become negligible and normal diffusive behaviour is recovered at long times.

  15. [Model of social exclusion of the elderly people in Siberian Regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximova, S G; Noyanzina, O E; Omelchenko, D A

    2017-01-01

    An article presents results of the construction and approbation of a theoretical model of social exclusion of population of elderly age groups in Siberian regions. It bases on the results of sociological research (2016) in three Russian regions: Altai region, Trans-Baikal region and Kemerovo oblast (n=779 age of respondents from 55 (women) and 60 (men) years and older). In theory, the model lays on the following: in is determined by economic (material) deprivation, deprivation of social rights (access to social institutes and services) and deprivation of security (safe environment), deprivation of social participation, cultural (normative) disintegration and social autism; the above named components are specific for the group of elderly people, that is a priori a high risk of exclusion; social exclusion, as a condition and situation of exclusion can be estimated straightly through the manifestation of its dimensions; the model has a one-way causality, i.e. the manifestation of one of its dimensions can lead to the high manifestation of the social exclusion. Basing on dimensions, operationalized in questionnaire, we calculated as an index of components of the social exclusion, as the total social exclusion index for elderly people including its regional correlations. By the results of a posteriori testing of the suggested model, we proved a good correlation between theoretical and empirical models of social exclusion of elderly people.

  16. Exclusion as a Criterion for Selecting Socially Vulnerable Population Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Anatol’evna Shabunova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers theoretical aspects of a scientific research “The Mechanisms for Overcoming Mental Barriers of Inclusion of Socially Vulnerable Categories of the Population for the Purpose of Intensifying Modernization in the Regional Community” (RSF grant No. 16-18-00078. The authors analyze the essence of the category of “socially vulnerable groups” from the legal, economic and sociological perspectives. The paper shows that the economic approach that uses the criterion “the level of income and accumulated assets” when defining vulnerable population groups prevails in public administration practice. The legal field of the category based on the economic approach is defined by the concept of “the poor and socially unprotected categories of citizens”. With the help of the analysis of theoretical and methodological aspects of this issue, the authors show that these criteria are a necessary but not sufficient condition for classifying the population as being socially vulnerable. Foreign literature associates the phenomenon of vulnerability with the concept of risks, with the possibility of households responding to them and with the likelihood of losing the well-being (poverty theory; research areas related to the means of subsistence, etc.. The asset-based approaches relate vulnerability to the poverty that arises due to lack of access to tangible and intangible assets. Sociological theories presented by the concept of social exclusion pay much attention to the breakdown of social ties as a source of vulnerability. The essence of social exclusion consists in the inability of people to participate in important aspects of social life (in politics, labor markets, education and healthcare, cultural life, etc. though they have all the rights to do so. The difference between the concepts of exclusion and poverty is manifested in the displacement of emphasis from income inequality to limited access to rights. Social exclusion is

  17. Inclusive and exclusive pion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Sandra Lee

    1998-12-01

    One inclusive and one exclusive pion reaction are addressed. For the first, a model for pion-induced pion production ( p,2p ) from nuclei is developed with particular interest in the dependence of the 2p invariant mass distribution as a function of the target mass. Data from ( p,2p ) reactions on free nucleons are used to predict modifications in the production cross sections on nuclei due to medium corrections which might arise from a change in the structure of the nucleon in the nucleus. The ( p,2p ) reaction from the nucleon is modeled using the pion pole diagram. The form factor which governs this cross section is modified to model changes of the nucleon structure within the nuclear medium. Another medium effect, the fermi motion of the nucleon with respect to the nucleus, is also considered. It is found that the differential cross section for production from nuclei is sensitive to the changes of the form factor, but the shape of the invariant mass distribution is not. Comparisons are made to recent experimental findings from 208Pb, 40Ca, 12C, and 2H. The elastic scattering of charged pions from the trinucleon system is then examined at a pion kinetic energy of 180 MeV. The motivation for this study is the structure seen in the angular distribution of back-angle scattering for p+-H3e and p--H3 but for neither p-- H3e nor p+-H3 . A double spin flip mechanism is included in an optical model treatment. It is found that the contribution of this term is non- negligible at large angles for p+-H3e and p--H3 , but it does not reproduce the structure seen in the experiment.

  18. 33 CFR 87.3 - Exclusive use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusive use. 87.3 Section 87.3...: DISTRESS SIGNALS § 87.3 Exclusive use. The use or exhibition of any of the foregoing signals except for the purpose of indicating distress and need of assistance and the use of other signals which may be confused...

  19. 6. EXCLUSIVE BREAST FEEDING PRACTICE IN ZAMBIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    data from the focus group discussions was analysed using content analysis with the help of qualitative research computer software Nvivo. Results: The prevalence of exclusive breast feeding practice was at 61%. The factors that were found to be statistically significant to exclusive breast feeding were age of infant and ...

  20. Exclusive breastfeeding - the relationship between maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The behaviour adopted by individuals is moulded by their perception of various issues. In spite of well established benefits of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) to babies, mothers and society, the EBF practice rate (EBFPr) in our environment has remained low. To evaluatemother's perception of exclusive breastfeeding and ...

  1. Social exclusion and shame in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Stefan; Rief, Winfried; Euteneuer, Frank; Kohlmann, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    Weight bias often results in the social exclusion of individuals with obesity. The direct, short-term psychological effects of social exclusion in obesity have not been investigated yet. This study experimentally tests whether social exclusion elicits stronger negative emotions in individuals with obesity compared to normal-weight controls. Specifically, we test whether social exclusion has a specific impact on shame. In total, N=299 individuals (n=130 with body mass index [BMI]≤30 and n=169 with BMI>30) were randomly assigned to a social exclusion condition or a control condition that was implemented with an online Cyberball paradigm. Before and after, they filled out questionnaires assessing state emotionality. Social exclusion increased negative emotionality in both groups compared to the control condition (pshame in the group with obesity during social exclusion (pshame. As social exclusion is frequent in individuals with obesity, psychological interventions focussing shame-related emotional distress could be crucial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding practices in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACIPH_Admin

    that was extracted from the women's database. Results: The overall rates of exclusive and full breastfeeding were 49.0% and 68.2% respectively. Maternal ... atopic eczema, and allergy during childhood (2, 5, 6). In resource poor countries, where the negative impact of. HIV/AIDS is high, exclusive breastfeeding for the first.

  3. Justice Experiences and Feelings of Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umlauft, Sören; Dalbert, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    To explain feelings of social exclusion, sociological factors, such as occupation, income and education, come to mind. Feelings of social exclusion, however, may be the result of psychological processes and in particular of (in)justice experiences. Based on just-world research, we hypothesized that (1) the more young people feel treated justly by…

  4. Exclusive hadronic processes and color transparency

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hadronic processes; color transparency. PACS Nos 24.85.+p; 25.30.-c. 1. Introduction. It is known that at asymptotically large momentum transfer certain exclusive hadronic reac- tions are calculable within the framework of perturbative QCD (pQCD) due to asymptotic freedom. However the applicability of pQCD to exclusive ...

  5. 40 CFR 21.6 - Exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusions. 21.6 Section 21.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL SMALL BUSINESS § 21.6 Exclusions. (a... for financial assistance in meeting revenue and service charges imposed upon a small business by a...

  6. Rescinding the Ground Combat Exclusion Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    Miller, " Feminism and the Exclusion of Army Women from Combat," in Women in the Military, ed. Rita James Simon (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction...index.php/issuepapers (accessed November 23, 2010). Miller, Laura L. " Feminism and the Exclusion of Army Women from Combat." In Women in the Military

  7. Disciplinary Exclusion: The Influence of School Ethos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Lucy Ann

    2013-01-01

    Disciplinary exclusion is a strategy used by some schools in response to challenging behaviour. While some studies have explored interventions that can be implemented to reduce the exclusion of "at risk" pupils, others have considered how the underlying school ethos influences how challenging behaviour is understood and managed. The…

  8. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-10-07

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant

  9. 76 FR 40688 - Foreign-Trade Zone 71-Windsor Locks, CT Application for Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 71--Windsor Locks, CT Application for Expansion An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) by the Economic and Industrial... provisions of the Foreign- Trade Zones Act, as amended (19 U.S.C. 81a-81u), and the regulations of the Board...

  10. Generation of central exclusive final states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loennblad, Leif [Department of Theoretical Physics, Lund (Sweden); Zlebcik, Radek [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2016-12-15

    We present a scheme for the generation of central exclusive final states in the program. The implementation allows for the investigation of higher-order corrections to such exclusive processes as approximated by the initial-state parton shower in. To achieve this, the spin and colour decomposition of the initial-state shower has been worked out, in order to determine the probability that a partonic state generated from an inclusive sub-process followed by a series of initial-state parton splittings can be considered as an approximation of an exclusive colour- and spin-singlet process. We use our implementation to investigate the effects of parton showers on some examples of central exclusive processes, and we find sizeable effects on di-jet production, while the effects on e.g. central exclusive Higgs production are minor. (orig.)

  11. From global to local : Human mobility in the Rome coastal area in the context of the global economic crisis* Du global au local : la mobilité humaine dans la zone côtière de Rome sur fond de crise économique mondiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Staniscia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the way problems caused by global changes overlap with local problems in coastal zones. It verifies the existence and dimensions of the global-local phenomenon by examining the impact of the recent international economic crisis on the core and ring administrative subdivisions of the coastal zone of the Rome metropolitan area from 2008 to 2010. In particular, it compares housing market trends with available statistics on tourism and migration to provide an indicator of the economic crisis. The results of the research show that to some extent, there is a connection between a drop in house prices and a decreased flow of human mobility.Cet article traite de la façon dont les problèmes causés par des changements globaux interfèrent avec les problèmes locaux dans les régions côtières. Il vérifie l’existence et la taille du phénomène local-global, en examinant l’impact de la récente crise économique mondiale sur le noyau et les franges des zones côtières de la région métropolitaine de Rome durant la période 2008-2010. En particulier, il compare l’évolution du marché immobilier avec les statistiques disponibles sur le tourisme et les migrations pour fournir un indicateur de la crise économique. Les résultats de la recherche montrent que dans une certaine mesure, il y a une relation entre une chute des prix des logements et un flux plus faible en termes de mobilité humaine.

  12. Urban Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Quigley, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Urban economics emphasizes: the spatial arrangements of households, firms, and capital in metropolitan areas; the externalities which arise from the proximity of households and land uses; and the public policy issues which arise from the interplay of these economic forces.

  13. Internet economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik; Øst, Alexander Gorm

    1997-01-01

    A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect.......A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect....

  14. Structural Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Raa, T.

    2015-01-01

    This book aims to make the nature of input-output analysis in economics clearly accessible and, contrary to the opinion of many commentators, shows that this type of analysis can be compatible with the doctrines of neoclassical economics.

  15. Providing plastic zone extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchiraju, Venkata Kiran; Feng, Zhili; David, Stan A.; Yu, Zhenzhen

    2017-04-11

    Plastic zone extrusion may be provided. First, a compressor may generate frictional heat in stock to place the stock in a plastic zone of the stock. Then, a conveyer may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor and transport the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor. Next, a die may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the conveyer and extrude the stock to form a wire.

  16. Factors associated with latent fingerprint exclusion determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulery, Bradford T; Hicklin, R Austin; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2017-06-01

    Exclusion is the determination by a latent print examiner that two friction ridge impressions did not originate from the same source. The concept and terminology of exclusion vary among agencies. Much of the literature on latent print examination focuses on individualization, and much less attention has been paid to exclusion. This experimental study assesses the associations between a variety of factors and exclusion determinations. Although erroneous exclusions are more likely to occur on some images and for some examiners, they were widely distributed among images and examiners. Measurable factors found to be associated with exclusion rates include the quality of the latent, value determinations, analysis minutia count, comparison difficulty, and the presence of cores or deltas. An understanding of these associations will help explain the circumstances under which errors are more likely to occur and when determinations are less likely to be reproduced by other examiners; the results should also lead to improved effectiveness and efficiency of training and casework quality assurance. This research is intended to assist examiners in improving the examination process and provide information to the broader community regarding the accuracy, reliability, and implications of exclusion decisions. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Construal Level and Social Exclusion: Concrete Thinking Impedes Recovery From Social Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfundmair, Michaela; Lermer, Eva; Frey, Dieter; Aydin, Nilüfer

    2015-01-01

    Social exclusion is a painful experience. Recent research has shown, however, that coping with exclusion can be facilitated by favorable conditions. In the current research, we investigated whether construal level affects recovery from social exclusion. We hypothesized that an abstract vs. concrete mindset would moderate coping with exclusion. Indeed, lower compared to higher concrete thinking (Study 1) and abstract compared to concrete thinking (Study 2) bolstered the basic need of belonging when excluded. Priming of abstract thinking, moreover, increased participants' sense of belonging both in response to exclusion and inclusion relative to no priming (Study 3). Our results are the first to establish a relationship between construal level and social exclusion, thereby suggesting an alleviating "abstraction discount" effect for the consequences of social exclusion.

  18. Fighting poverty and exclusion through social investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon

    The fight against poverty and social exclusion is at the heart of the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. With more than 120 million people in the EU at risk of poverty or social exclusion, EU leaders have pledged to bring at least 20 million people out of poverty...... and social exclusion by 2020. In the aftermath of the crisis welfare states are called to address multi-level social risks while securing their financial sustainability. This Review presents evidence from Framework Programme research projects with a view to address the challenges of poverty and social...

  19. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark, Woodrow

    2012-01-01

    Focus in this paper is on building a science of economics, grounded in understanding of organizations and what is beneath the surface of economic structures and activities. As a science Economics should be concerned with its assumptions, logic and lines of arguments, and how to develop theories...... and formulate ideas of reality. There is a disconnection between a science of economics focuses on structures and universal laws from what is experienced in everyday of life of business activity. The everyday of life of business is processual, dynamic and contradictional. This discussion of how to understand...... the everyday economic life is the central issue and is discussed from the perspective of interactionism. It is a perspective developed from the Lifeworld philosophical traditions, such as symbolic interactionism and phenomenology, seeking to develop the thinking of economics. The argument is that economics...

  20. Costs of promoting exclusive breastfeeding at community level in three sites in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkonki, Lungiswa Leonora; Daviaud, Emmanuelle; Jackson, Debra; Chola, Lumbwe; Doherty, Tanya; Chopra, Mickey; Robberstad, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    Community-based peer support has been shown to be effective in improving exclusive breastfeeding rates in a variety of settings. We conducted a cost analysis of a community cluster randomised-controlled trial (Promise-EBF), aimed at promoting exclusive infant feeding in three sites in South Africa. The costs were considered from the perspective of health service providers. Peer supporters in this trial visited women to support exclusive infant feeding, once antenatally and four times postpartum. The total economic cost of the Promise-EBF intervention was US$393 656, with average costs per woman and per visit of US$228 and US$52, respectively. The average costs per woman and visit in an operational 'non research' scenario were US$137 and US$32 per woman and visit, respectively. Investing in the promotion of exclusive infant feeding requires substantial financial commitment from policy makers. Extending the tasks of multi-skilled community health workers (CHWs) to include promoting exclusive infant feeding is a potential option for reducing these costs. In order to avoid efficiency losses, we recommend that the time requirements for delivering the promotion of exclusive infant feeding are considered when integrating it within the existing activities of CHWs. This paper focuses on interventions for exclusive infant feeding, but its findings more generally illustrate the importance of documenting and quantifying factors that affect the feasibility and sustainability of community-based interventions, which are receiving increased focus in low income settings.

  1. Adolescent neighborhood quality predicts adult dACC response to social exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Marlen Z; Beckes, Lane; Chango, Joanna; Allen, Joseph P; Coan, James A

    2015-07-01

    Neuroimaging studies using the social-exclusion paradigm Cyberball indicate increased dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and right insula activity as a function of exclusion. However, comparatively less work has been done on how social status factors may moderate this finding. This study used the Cyberball paradigm with 85 (45 females) socio-economically diverse participants from a larger longitudinal sample. We tested whether neighborhood quality during adolescence would predict subsequent neural responding to social exclusion in young adulthood. Given previous behavioral studies indicating greater social vigilance and negative evaluation as a function of lower status, we expected that lower adolescent neighborhood quality would predict greater dACC activity during exclusion at young adulthood. Our findings indicate that young adults who lived in low-quality neighborhoods in adolescence showed greater dACC activity to social exclusion than those who lived in higher quality neighborhoods. Lower neighborhood quality also predicted greater prefrontal activation in the superior frontal gyrus, dorsal medial prefrontal cortex and the middle frontal gyrus, possibly indicating greater regulatory effort. Finally, this effect was not driven by subsequent ratings of distress during exclusion. In sum, adolescent neighborhood quality appears to potentiate neural responses to social exclusion in young adulthood, effects that are independent of felt distress. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Costs of promoting exclusive breastfeeding at community level in three sites in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lungiswa Leonora Nkonki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Community-based peer support has been shown to be effective in improving exclusive breastfeeding rates in a variety of settings. METHODS: We conducted a cost analysis of a community cluster randomised-controlled trial (Promise-EBF, aimed at promoting exclusive infant feeding in three sites in South Africa. The costs were considered from the perspective of health service providers. Peer supporters in this trial visited women to support exclusive infant feeding, once antenatally and four times postpartum. RESULTS: The total economic cost of the Promise-EBF intervention was US$393 656, with average costs per woman and per visit of US$228 and US$52, respectively. The average costs per woman and visit in an operational 'non research' scenario were US$137 and US$32 per woman and visit, respectively. Investing in the promotion of exclusive infant feeding requires substantial financial commitment from policy makers. Extending the tasks of multi-skilled community health workers (CHWs to include promoting exclusive infant feeding is a potential option for reducing these costs. In order to avoid efficiency losses, we recommend that the time requirements for delivering the promotion of exclusive infant feeding are considered when integrating it within the existing activities of CHWs. DISCUSSION: This paper focuses on interventions for exclusive infant feeding, but its findings more generally illustrate the importance of documenting and quantifying factors that affect the feasibility and sustainability of community-based interventions, which are receiving increased focus in low income settings.

  3. Social Exclusion in Watershed Development: Evidence From the Indo-German Watershed Development Project in Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshwer Kale

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of social exclusion is context-specific and there is no uniform paradigm of exclusion across the world. This paper attempts to analyse exclusion of resource-poor groups in watershed development programmes in the Indian context. It aims to explore excluded community groups from the perspective of people’s equal opportunity and equal access to newly generated economic benefits in watershed development programmes. The paper also traces the determinant factors responsible for denial and exclusion of resource-poor groups and describes the detailed processes involved in their exclusion from institutional and livelihood opportunities in watershed programmes. At the same time, the paper also explores suggestions and views of resource-poor groups about their meaningful social inclusion in watershed programme. The Gadiwat Indo-German Watershed Development Project in Aurangabad district in the State of Maharashtra is studied in detail in terms of its social, economic and political realities through mix-method and multi-stakeholder approaches. The key findings of the paper are that landownership, caste, gender, membership in village institutions and/or watershed institutions or close relationship with members, as well as the limitations of the programme guidelines, are the major determinants of institutional inclusion and the extent of resulting economic benefits. The exclusion of resource-poor groups mainly takes the form of their exclusion from institutional representation. In order to promote meaningful social inclusion of resource-poor groups, there is need for a more livelihood-oriented focus and their equal representation and participation in watershed institutions.

  4. Social exclusion as a contributing factor for the addition of harmful ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social exclusion elements (poverty, high unemployment and lack of social contacts) have generally been found to be contributing factors to the increased ... The socio-economic injustices and the constant weakening of family bonds have created an environment in which temporary escape from the harsh reality of everyday ...

  5. Increasing Inequality in Social Exclusion Occurrence: The Case of Sweden during 1979-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bask, Miia

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the risk of social exclusion among the Swedish population from a longitudinal perspective. In the empirical analysis, a person is considered socially excluded if he or she suffers from at least two of the following six welfare problems: chronic unemployment, economic problems, health problems, experiences of threat or…

  6. OECD Economic Surveys: Canada 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Canada weathered the global economic crisis well, mainly reflecting sustained growth in domestic pending, and the economy is continuing to grow despite the persistence of international turbulence, most recently stemming from the euro zone sovereign debt crisis. In Canada's case, several factors are acting in its favour. Federal fiscal plans are…

  7. Central exclusive production and the Durham model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland-Lang, L. A.; Khoze, V. A.; Ryskin, M. G.

    2014-11-01

    We review some selected results within the Durham model of central exclusive production. We discuss the theoretical aspects of this approach and consider the phenomenological implications for a selection of processes.

  8. FINANCIAL EXCLUSION OF FARMERS AND RURAL ENTREPRENEURS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryszard Kata; Alina Walenia

    2015-01-01

    .... farmers and small entrepreneurs. The extent and reasons for fi nancial exclusion among such entities have been identifi ed and accompanied by the analysis of access to banking services - the key to effective management...

  9. Exclusive processes at high momentum transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Radyushkin, Anatoly; Stoker, Paul

    2002-01-01

    This book focuses on the physics of exclusive processes at high momentum transfer and their description in terms of generalized parton distributions, perturbative QCD, and relativistic quark models. It covers recent developments in the field, both theoretical and experimental.

  10. Imaging partons in exclusive scattering processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus

    2012-06-15

    The spatial distribution of partons in the proton can be probed in suitable exclusive scattering processes. I report on recent performance estimates for parton imaging at a proposed Electron-Ion Collider.

  11. Economic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kholopov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the School of Economic Science at MGIMO was due to the necessity of the world economy research, and the need to prepare highly skilled specialists in international economics. The school is developing a number of areas, which reflect the Faculty structure. - Economic theory is one of the most important research areas, a kind of foundation of the School of Economic Science at MGIMO. Economic theory studies are carried out at the chair of Economic theory. "The course of economic theory" textbook was published in 1991, and later it was reprinted seven times. Over the past few years other textbooks and manuals have been published, including "Economics for Managers" by Professor S.N. Ivashkovskaya, which survived through five editions; "International Economics" - four editions and "History of Economic Thought" - three editions. - International Economic Relations are carried out by the Department of International Economic Relations and Foreign Economic Activity. Its establishment is associated with the prominent economist N.N. Lyubimov. In 1957 he with his colleagues published the first textbook on the subject which went through multiple republications. The editorial team of the textbook subsequently formed the pride of Soviet economic science - S.M. Menshikov, E.P. Pletnev, V.D. Schetinin. Since 2007, the chair of Foreign Economic Activities led by Doctor of Economics, Professor I. Platonova has been investigating the problems of improving the architecture of foreign economic network and the international competitiveness of Russia; - The history of the study of problems of the world economy at MGIMO begins in 1958 at the chair baring the same name. Since 1998, the department has been headed by Professor A. Bulatov; - The study of international monetary relations is based on the chair of International Finance, and is focused on addressing the fundamental scientific and practical problems; - The chair "Banks, monetary circulation

  12. 42 CFR 402.205 - Length of exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... maximum time limit for the period of exclusion. Social Security Actparagraph Code of Federal... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Length of exclusion. 402.205 Section 402.205 Public... PROVISIONS CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS, AND EXCLUSIONS Exclusions § 402.205 Length of exclusion. The...

  13. Association between Exclusive Breastfeeding and Child Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaniyyatul Khudri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child development highly correlates with child’s quality. The fastest child development period is during the first three years, also called golden period. This research was aimed to discover correlation between exclussive breastfeeding and child development in Cipacing Village Jatinangor, district of Sumedang. Methods: This research was conducted using cross-sectional method in thirteen Pos Pelayanan Terpadu (Posyandu Cipacing Village in Jatinangor. One hundred and two children aged 12−24 months with their caregiver were recruited as respondents by using cluster sampling method. Hist ory of exclusive breastfeeding was assessed with questionnaire while child development status was assesed with Kuesioner Pra Skrining Perkembangan (KPSP in September 2013 after informed consent was obtained. Chi-square test analysis was performed to determine correlation between exclusive breastfeeding and child development status. Results: Overall, children in Cipacing Village had non-exclusive breastfeeding history (83.3%, and only 16.7% respondents had exclusive breastfeeding history. Meanwhile, 89.2% of children had normal development status, and 10.8% had delayed development status. Statistic analysis using chi-square test in the level of 95% confidence between exclusive breastfeeding and child development showed p=0.686 and odds ratio 2.133. Conclusions: There is no significant relationship between history of exclusive breastfeeding and child development status.

  14. The development of stereotyping and exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Hitti, Aline; Killen, Melanie

    2010-07-01

    This article reviews the developmental science literature on stereotyping and exclusion, with a focus on gender, race, and ethnicity. Stereotyping of others, which is defined as the attribution of traits to individuals based on group membership, is often used to justify exclusion of others in social group contexts. This review includes a focus on the links between these two constructs. Research on stereotyping and exclusion has drawn on several theoretical traditions, including social domain theory, social identity developmental theory, and subjective group dynamics theory, which are also discussed in the context of the research findings. Key findings on stereotyping include categorization and classification in relationship with decreased in-group bias, and the role of stereotypes in encoding information. Findings on exclusion include the use of available information to make judgments, preferences for in-group members who are normative and out-group members who are deviant, the increased importance, with age, of group functioning in exclusion decisions, and decreased negative evaluation of in-group members who partake in exclusionary behaviors. Though little research has explicitly studied the links between stereotyping and exclusion from groups, this review describes the current literature in both areas and suggests future directions for research. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. in some ecological zones of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zones in Ghana and are cultivated either as monocrops, or intercropped with cereals, legumes, root and tuber crops, plantation crops, etc. Vegetables most widely cultivated and of much economic importance include tomato, pepper, egg- plants and okra. National production figures for these crops as at 1987 were 20,400 ...

  16. OVER FIVE YEARS IN JIMMA ZONE, SOUTHWEST

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    data on malaria cases seen at out patient department of Jimma zone health care facilities from July 2001 to June 2006. Proportion and distribution of malaria ... Malaria remains to be a major challenge to public health and socio-economic ..... compared to a retrospective study done in Malaysia. (17). In highly endemic areas ...

  17. Land governance as grey zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette

    2017-01-01

    Weak state capacity has often been in focus when explaining why land reform in sub-Saharan Africa is not implemented. However, an analysis of the deeper politics of land reform brings our attention to a set of incentives which allow rules governing land to be open to interpretation. This article...... demonstrates that in Uganda, the need to maintain the ruling coalition in a clientelist political settlement to build electoral support, and the desire to attract economic investors, constitute political incentives to maintain land governance as a grey zone, even if there is apparent political...... will to implement land reforms....

  18. Potterian Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Daniel; Snir, Avichai

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies in psychology and neuroscience find that fictional works exert strong influence on readers and shape their opinions and worldviews. We study the Potterian economy, which we compare to economic models, to assess how Harry Potter books affect economic literacy. We find that some principles of Potterian economics are consistent with economists’ models. Many others, however, are distorted and contain numerous inaccuracies, which contradict professional economists’ views and insight...

  19. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We define an evolutionary process of “economic Darwinism” for playing-the-field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is “economic selection”: if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-) activity than does Nash equilibrium...

  20. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    We define an evolutionary process of "economic Darwinism" for playing the field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is "economic selection": if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-)activity than does Nash equilibrium....

  1. Socio-Economic Characteristics Of Snail Farmers, Consumers And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The socio-economic characteristic of snail farmers in Oyo State Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) was evaluated in two out of the four zones that were available. The two zones selected were Ibadan/Ibarapa and Oyo zones, to determine the factors related to snail production, consumption and marketing in the ...

  2. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W

                         This book is about science -- specifically, the science of economics. Or lack thereof is more accurate. The building of any science, let alone economics, is grounded in the understanding of what is beneath the "surface" of economics. Science, and hence economics, should...... be concerned with formulating ideas that express theories which produce descriptions of how to understand phenomenon and real world experiences.                       Economics must become a science, because the essence of economics in terms of human actions, group interactions and communities are in need...... of scientific inquiry. Academics and scholars need a scientific perspective that can hypothesize, theorize document, understand and analyze human dynamics from the individual to more societal interactions. And that is what qualitative economics does; it can make economics into becoming a science. The economic...

  3. Who pays for the health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding? An analysis of maternal time costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J P; Forrester, Robert

    2013-11-01

    The benefits of exclusive breastfeeding, including public health cost savings, are widely recognized, but breastfeeding requires maternal time investments. This study investigates the time taken to exclusively breastfeed at 6 months compared with not exclusively breastfeeding. Time use data were examined from an Australian survey of new mothers conducted during 2005-2006. Data from 139 mothers with infants age 6 months were analyzed using chi-square tests of independence to examine socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and 2-sided t tests to compare average weekly hours spent on milk feeding, feeding solids, preparing feeds, and the total of these. The comparison was of exclusively breastfeeding mothers with other mothers. We also compared exclusively breastfeeding with partially breastfeeding and formula feeding mothers using a 1-way between-groups analysis of variance (ANOVA). The exclusively breastfeeding (vs other) mothers spent 7 hours extra weekly on milk feeding their infants but 2 hours less feeding solids. These differences were statistically significant. ANOVA revealed significant differences between exclusively breastfeeding mothers, breastfeeding mothers who had introduced solids, and mothers who fed any formula, in time spent feeding milk, and solids, and preparing feeds. Exclusive breastfeeding is time intensive, which is economically costly to women. This may contribute to premature weaning for women who are time-stressed, lack household help from family, or cannot afford paid help. Gaining public health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding requires strategies to share maternal lactation costs more widely, such as additional help with housework or caring for children, enhanced leave, and workplace lactation breaks and suitable child care.

  4. Root Apex Transition Zone as Oscillatory Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantisek Baluska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Root apex of higher plants shows very high sensitivity to environmental stimuli. The root cap acts as the most prominent plant sensory organ; sensing diverse physical parameters such as gravity, light, humidity, oxygen and critical inorganic nutrients. However, the motoric responses to these stimuli are accomplished in the elongation region. This spatial discrepancy was solved when we have discovered and characterized the transition zone which is interpolated between the apical meristem and the subapical elongation zone. Cells of this zone are very active in the cytoskeletal rearrangements, endocytosis and endocytic vesicle recycling, as well as in electric activities. Here we discuss the oscillatory nature of the transition zone which, together with several other features of this zone, suggest that it acts as some kind of command centre. In accordance with the early proposal of Charles and Francis Darwins, cells of this root zone receive sensory information from the root cap and instruct the motoric responses of cells in the elongation zone.

  5. Probabilistic estimation of dune erosion and coastal zone risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, F.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal erosion has gained global attention and has been studied for many decades. As a soft sea defence structure, coastal sandy dunes protect coastal zones all over the world, which usually are densely populated areas with tremendous economic value. The coastal zone of the Netherlands, one of the

  6. Details on Exclusive Use Data Protection for Minor Use Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides information about issues related to exclusive use data protection for minor use registrations, including extension of the exclusive use period and establishing a new exclusive use period.

  7. China's Political-Economic Approach toward FTAs with East Asian Nations and Its Implications for Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-jun Cho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on a political-economic perspective, this article examines on the background and objectives of China's approach toward FTAs with East Asian nations. It appears that China's strategy to regional economic integration recently has transformed from a passive direction to active initiative, pushing forward its winning strategies - economic liberalization and its resolve to become a regional leader - while spearheading projects to create a regional free trade zone. China has a tendency to take a serious view on the significance of non-economic factors or international politics and security in regard to pursuing FTAs with neighboring countries. Behind China's ASEAN+1 plan, the implication of security is deeply rooted; and through its pursuit of economic integration within the region, China seems to be seeking change in the regional security order. China has also been bringing security discussions into the mechanism of regional economic cooperation among Korea, China and Japan. China also appears to have a few types of ideological mentality when pursuing FTAs. It seems that China's "great-power mentality"(daguo xintai is somewhat robust. This mentality is prone to be extended to hegemonic contention within the region. If China combines the "great-power mentality" with nationalism in the process of pursuing FTAs with neighboring countries, then this might entail exclusive regionalism. Both Japan and China are basically in rivalry over regional hegemony, and competing for leadership in intra-regional FTA initiatives. In pursuing FTAs with South Korea, China and Japan seem to have quite a contradictory approach. Japan, which wants to control the rise of China, seems to be ruling out the China-Japan-Korea FTA plan and actively pursuing a Japan-Korea FTA. On the contrary, Beijing is expected to actively propose to pursue China-Korea FTA in order to hold back rapid progress in Japan-Korea FTA negotiations, which have already commenced. On the

  8. Green zoning regulation under price discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Hamoudi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine urban zoning within a linear city in a Bertrand duopolistic competition framework with price discrimination and linear transportation costs. It analyses the effects of introducing an environmental area where economic and residential activity are not allowed. The welfare function used to determine the optimal size of the green area allows for a possible regulator’s bias in favour of firms/consumers. It is shown that location-price competition can be either reduced or increased depending on the size of the green area. The results indicate when a regulator implements green zoning, under linear transportation costs, influences the optimal location of firms (because these locations depend on the size of the green zone. In consequence, zoning may be used as an effective industrial or urban policy tool.

  9. Exclusive Breastfeeding Experiences among Mexican American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambach, Karen; Domian, Elaine Williams; Page-Goertz, Sallie; Wurtz, Heather; Hoffman, Kelli

    2016-02-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hispanic breastfeeding mothers begin early formula supplementation at higher rates than other ethnic groups, which can lead to shorter breastfeeding duration and decreased exclusive breastfeeding. Acculturation, the process of adopting beliefs and behaviors of another culture, appears to influence breastfeeding practices of Hispanic women in the United States. Little is known about Mexican American mothers' formula use and exclusive breastfeeding within the context of acculturation. Our study identified perceived benefits and barriers to exclusive breastfeeding and levels of acculturation among Mexican American women living in a Midwestern city. We used a qualitative descriptive design integrating Pender's Health Promotion Model concepts. Individual interviews were conducted in English or Spanish (N = 21). The revised Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans was used to examine acculturation levels. Acculturation scores indicated that the majority (66%) of the sample was "very Mexican oriented." Most women exclusively breastfed, with a few using early supplementation for "insufficient milk production." Three themes emerged: (1) It is natural that a woman give life and also provide the best food for her baby; (2) Breastfeeding is ultimately a woman's decision but is influenced by tradition, guidance, and encouragement; and (3) Breast milk is superior but life circumstances can challenge one's ability to breastfeed. Strong familial/cultural traditions supported and normalized breastfeeding. Barriers to exclusive breastfeeding were similar to breastfeeding women in general, in the United States. Findings support the need for culturally competent and individualized lactation care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Cooperation induced by random sequential exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Cong, Rui; Wang, Long

    2016-06-01

    Social exclusion is a common and powerful tool to penalize deviators in human societies, and thus to effectively elevate collaborative efforts. Current models on the evolution of exclusion behaviors mostly assume that each peer excluder independently makes the decision to expel the defectors, but has no idea what others in the group would do or how the actual punishment effect will be. Thus, a more realistic model, random sequential exclusion, is proposed. In this mechanism, each excluder has to pay an extra scheduling cost and then all the excluders are arranged in a random order to implement the exclusion actions. If one free rider has already been excluded by an excluder, the remaining excluders will not participate in expelling this defector. We find that this mechanism can help stabilize cooperation under more unfavorable conditions than the normal peer exclusion can do, either in well-mixed population or on social networks. However, too large a scheduling cost may undermine the advantage of this mechanism. Our work validates the fact that collaborative practice among punishers plays an important role in further boosting cooperation.

  11. Digital exclusion in higher education contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Pedersen, Mette Jun Lykkegaard

    2016-01-01

    .e., lack of hardware devices and Internet services) and accessibility (which include the division between rural and urban areas, as well as disparities in ICT literacy and information literacy). These factors are multi-tiered and overlapping. Studies on the digital divide, digital exclusion, and barriers...... underlying the concepts of “digital exclusion” and the “digital divide” in higher education. The identified factors are grouped into three categories: social exclusion (i.e., low income, ICT-avoidance as the norm, lack of motivation and commitment, and physical or mental disability), digital exclusion (i......The integration and adoption of digital technologies have enabled improvements in the quality of and inclusion in higher education. However, a significant proportion of the population has either remained or become digitally excluded. This systematic literature review elucidates the factors...

  12. Digital exclusion in higher education contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Pedersen, Mette Jun Lykkegaard

    2016-01-01

    The integration and adoption of digital technologies have enabled improvements in the quality of and inclusion in higher education. However, a significant proportion of the population has either remained or become digitally excluded. This systematic literature review elucidates the factors...... underlying the concepts of “digital exclusion” and the “digital divide” in higher education. The identified factors are grouped into three categories: social exclusion (i.e., low income, ICT-avoidance as the norm, lack of motivation and commitment, and physical or mental disability), digital exclusion (i...... to ICT adoption in higher education deal with similar factors, but these are experienced differently in different contexts. While generalizing these factors into categories enables a better understanding of the nature of digital exclusion, solving and circumventing them remains complex due...

  13. Hard exclusive reactions and generalized parton distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrapetyan Avetik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The recently developed formalism of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs allows connecting the experimental information of hard exclusive reactions to the spin contribution and even to the angular momentum contribution of quarks in the nucleon. By selecting different quantum numbers of the final state in exclusive productions, different GPDs can be addressed separately. The HERMES experiment at the HERA ring at DESY (Hamburg made pioneering contributions and first constraints to Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs, using hard exclusive vector meson production (EVMP and Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS. Using a novel recoil detector, HERMES managed to measure DVCS and EVMP free of any significant background. Selected results are highlighted and discussed in this paper.

  14. The evolution of cooperation by social exclusion

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, Tatsuya

    2012-01-01

    The exclusion of freeriders from common privileges or public acceptance is widely found in the real world. Current models on the evolution of cooperation with incentives mostly assume peer sanctioning, whereby a punisher imposes penalties on freeriders at a cost to itself. It is well known that such costly punishment has two substantial difficulties. First, a rare punishing cooperator barely subverts the asocial society of freeriders, and second, natural selection often eliminates punishing cooperators in the presence of non-punishing cooperators (namely, "second-order" freeriders). We present a game-theoretical model of social exclusion in which a punishing cooperator can exclude freeriders from benefit sharing. We show that such social exclusion can overcome the above-mentioned difficulties even if it is costly and stochastic. The results do not require a genetic relationship, repeated interaction, reputation, or group selection. Instead, only a limited number of freeriders are required to prevent the secon...

  15. Decreased interoceptive accuracy following social exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durlik, Caroline; Tsakiris, Manos

    2015-04-01

    The need for social affiliation is one of the most important and fundamental human needs. Unsurprisingly, humans display strong negative reactions to social exclusion. In the present study, we investigated the effect of social exclusion on interoceptive accuracy - accuracy in detecting signals arising inside the body - measured with a heartbeat perception task. We manipulated exclusion using Cyberball, a widely used paradigm of a virtual ball-tossing game, with half of the participants being included during the game and the other half of participants being ostracized during the game. Our results indicated that heartbeat perception accuracy decreased in the excluded, but not in the included, participants. We discuss these results in the context of social and physical pain overlap, as well as in relation to internally versus externally oriented attention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Is it Ethnic Fractionalization or Social Exclusion, Which Affects Social Cohesion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Staveren, Irene; Pervaiz, Zahid

    2017-01-01

    The theory about missing links of economic growth often lags behind the empirical estimations of such links. A consensus has emerged that ethnic fractionalization has a negative impact on growth, also when controlled for income inequality. Often, although implicitly, the assumed channel is social cohesion. We analyse the effect of fractionalization on social cohesion with a different inequality measure, namely a social measure of inequality: the Inclusion of Minorities Index. Our results indicate that it is social exclusion, which reduces social cohesion, rather than diversity as such. We conclude that future studies of social cohesion and its relation to growth may benefit from using measures of social exclusion next to ethnic diversity.

  17. Energy policy, social exclusion and sustainable development: The biofuels and oil and gas cases in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Jeremy; Matos, Stelvia; Silvestre, Bruno

    2010-09-15

    Recent Brazilian policies have encouraged impoverished communities to participate in the country's growing energy industry. This paper explores the country's attempts to encourage such participation within the oil and gas and biofuels sectors. Our research is based on interviews with industry executives, policymakers, non-governmental organizations and farmers conducted between 2005-2009 in Brazil, an emerging energy leader, yet a country grappling with social exclusion. We propose that some sectors have a propensity to be exclusive due to technological complexity, whereas other sectors, although less complex, tend to economize at the expense of social programs. We conclude with managerial and policy implications.

  18. The feeding tube of cyst nematodes: characterisation of protein exclusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Eves-van den Akker

    Full Text Available Plant parasitic nematodes comprise several groups; the most economically damaging of these are the sedentary endoparasites. Sedentary endoparasitic nematodes are obligate biotrophs and modify host root tissue, using a suite of effector proteins, to create a feeding site that is their sole source of nutrition. They feed by withdrawing host cell assimilate from the feeding site though a structure known as the feeding tube. The function, composition and molecular characteristics of feeding tubes are poorly characterised. It is hypothesised that the feeding tube facilitates uptake of host cell assimilate by acting as a molecular sieve. Several studies, using molecular mass as the sole indicator of protein size, have given contradictory results about the exclusion limits of the cyst nematode feeding tube. In this study we propose a method to predict protein size, based on protein database coordinates in silico. We tested the validity of these predictions using travelling wave ion mobility spectrometry--mass spectrometry, where predictions and measured values were within approximately 6%. We used the predictions, coupled with mass spectrometry, analytical ultracentrifugation and protein electrophoresis, to resolve previous conflicts and define the exclusion characteristics of the cyst nematode feeding tube. Heterogeneity was tested in the liquid, solid and gas phase to provide a comprehensive evaluation of three proteins of particular interest to feeding tube size exclusion, GFP, mRFP and Dual PI. The data and procedures described here could be applied to the design of plant expressed defence compounds intended for uptake into cyst nematodes. We also highlight the need to assess protein heterogeneity when creating novel fusion proteins.

  19. Barriers to Exclusive Breastfeeding among Urban Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazina Sharmin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding is the unique source of nutrition and it plays an important role in the growth, development and survival of the infants. The initiation of breastfeeding within one hour and continuation of only breast milk up to six months ensure maximum benefits. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in Bangladesh is 56% which is low. We designed this study to find out the factors influencing the duration of breastfeeding in Bangladeshi population. Objective: To study the factors influencing noncompliance to exclusive breastfeeding. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in Dhaka Shishu Hospital during the period January to June 2011. It includes 125 infant (1–12 months-mother pairs randomly selected from the inpatient and outpatient departments of Dhaka Shishu Hospital. Mother-infant pairs were divided into two groups based on continuation of only breastfeeding up to six months. Outcomes were compared between two groups. Results: In this study exclusive breastfeeding was found in 27.2% and nonexclusive breastfeeding was in 72.8% cases. It was found that in most cases (40% termination of breastfeeding was at 3--4 months. The study revealed that insufficient milk production due to poor position and attachment, social factors such as influence of husband and other family members, joining to service etc act as barrier to exclusive breastfeeding. Mass media and advice from health professionals had a higher influence on lower rate of exclusive breastfeeding. Women who were multiparous, housewives were more likely to maintain optimal breastfeeding. Conclusion: The present study reveals some important factors contributing to low rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Bangladesh.

  20. Teenage pregnancy and exclusive breastfeeding rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puapompong, Pawin; Raungrongmorakot, Kasem; Manolerdtewan, Wichian; Ketsuwan, Sukwadee; Wongin, Sinutchanan

    2014-09-01

    Teenage pregnancy is an important health issue globally and in Thailand Younger age mothers decide on the breastfeeding practices ofthe first 6-month. To find the rates of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding practices of teenage mothers and compare them with the rates of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding practices in mothers who are 20 years of age or more. Three thousand five hundred sixty three normal, postpartum women, who delivered without complications at the HRH Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Medical Center in the Nakhon Nayok Province between 2010 and2013 were included in this study. At the second daypostpartum, the data of latch scores and the data of the practice of exclusive breastfeeding were collected Telephone follow-ups on the seventh, fourteenth, and forty-fifth postpartum days and at the second, fourth, and sixth month postpartum month were collected and used for exclusive breastfeeding data following discharge. Demographic data included the maternal age, parity, gestational age, marital status, occupation, religion, route ofdelivery, estimated blood loss, body mass index, nipple length, and the childs birth weight. The collected data was analyzed by the t-test, Chi-square, and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. The percentage of teenage pregnancies was at 14.8% (527 cases). On postpartum day 2, the percentage of latch scores of 8 or less was 66.4%. At the seventh, fourteenth, and forty-fifth day and at the second, fourth, and sixth months postpartum, the exclusive breastfeeding rates were 88.5, 78.5, 57.6, 43.1, 32.9, and27.0%, respectively. Comparison of the 6-month exclusive breastfeeding rates between teenage mothers and mothers 20 years ofage or older were not statistically significant (pteenage mothers was at 27.0% and had no significant differences from the rates of mothers 20 years of age or more.

  1. Ecological economics and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    Boulding's 1966 paper on the economics of spaceship Earth established the framework for ecological economics and an understanding of economic growth. In ecological economics, economies are conceptualized as open subsystems of the closed biosphere and are subject to biophysical laws and constraints. Economic growth measured as an increase in real gross domestic product (GDP) has generally been associated with increases in the use of energy and materials and the generation of wastes. Scale, composition, and technology are the proximate determinants of environmental impacts. They are often reduced to two: scale (GDP) and intensity (impact per unit GDP). New work described in this paper defines "green" growth as intensity that declines faster than scale increases. Similarly, "brown" growth occurs when intensity declines more slowly than increases in scale, and "black" growth happens when both scale and intensity increase. These concepts are then related to the environmental Kuznets curve, which can be understood as a transition from brown to green growth. Ecological economics provides a macroperspective on economic growth. It offers broad policy principles, and it challenges the primacy of economic growth as a policy objective, but many important questions remain.

  2. An attempt to understand exclusive π + electroproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goloskokov, S. V.; Kroll, P.

    2010-01-01

    Hard exclusive π + electroproduction is investigated within the handbag approach. The prominent role of the pion-pole contribution is demonstrated. It is also shown that the experimental data require a twist-3 effect which ensues from the helicity-flip generalized parton distribution H T and the twist-3 pion wave function. The results calculated from this handbag approach are compared in detail with the experimental data on cross sections and spin asymmetries measured with a polarized target. It is also commented on consequences of this approach for exclusive π 0 and vector-meson electroproduction.

  3. Exclusive B Decays to Charmonium Final States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, Barbara

    2000-10-13

    We report on exclusive decays of B mesons into final states containing charmonium using data collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage rings. The charmonium states considered here are J/{psi}, {psi}(2S), and {chi}{sub c1}. Branching fractions for several exclusive final states, a measurement of the decay amplitudes for the B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi} K* decay, and measurements of the B{sup 0} and B{sup +} masses are presented. All of the results we present here are preliminary.

  4. Genetic Exclusion in Bacteriophage T4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Snustad , D. P. (1966). Limited genome expression of Bacteriophage T4-infectcd Ese h e -r ichia -coli. 1. Demonstration of the Effect. Genetics 5:2~!5...AD-RIGS 463 GENETIC EXCLUSION IN BACTERIOPHAGE T4(U) AIR FORCE INST 1/2 OF TECH NRIGHT-PRTTERSON SF9 OH J W OSRINGER 199? RFIT/CI/NR-8?-141D...10? ________4______ F4L TITLE (an Iubfil) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PEIOD COVERSO6 Genetic Exclusion in Bacteriophage T4 Afifis/DISSETATION 41. PERFORMING

  5. Exclusive Jet Production with Forward Proton Tagging

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of measuring central exclusive jet production at ATLAS using the AFP detectors is presented. Two data-taking scenarios are considered; an average number of interactions per bunch crossing of $\\mu = 23$ with integrated luminosity of 40~fb$^{-1}$ and $\\mu = 46$ with integrated luminosity of 300 fb$^{-1}$. After the event selection, a signal-to-background ratio of 0.57 (0.16) for $\\mu = 23$ (46) was achieved. The expected precision of the central exclusive dijet cross section measurement is shown with an estimation of the dominant systematic uncertainties.

  6. Corporate social responsibility initiatives addressing social exclusion in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Wendy J

    2009-08-01

    The private sector is often seen as a driver of exclusionary processes rather than a partner in improving the health and welfare of socially-excluded populations. However, private-sector initiatives and partnerships- collectively labelled corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives-may be able to positively impact social status, earning potential, and access to services and resources for socially-excluded populations. This paper presents case studies of CSR projects in Bangladesh that are designed to reduce social exclusion among marginalized populations and explores whether CSR initiatives can increase economic and social capabilities to reduce exclusion. The examples provide snapshots of projects that (a) increase job-skills and employment opportunities for women, disabled women, and rehabilitated drug-users and (b) provide healthcare services to female workers and their communities. The CSR case studies cover a limited number of people but characteristics and practices replicable and scaleable across different industries, countries, and populations are identified. Common success factors from the case studies form the basis for recommendations to design and implement more CSR initiatives targeting socially-excluded groups. The analysis found that CSR has potential for positive and lasting impact on developing countries, especifically on socially-excluded populations. However, there is a need for additional monitoring and critical evaluation.

  7. Consecrated Ground: Spatial Exclusion and the Black Urban Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico A. Beneventi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a long history of discrimination, exclusion, and racial segregation of Canada’s black communities. The establishment and growth of the slave trade, enabled by European maritime technology, made it economically feasible and efficient to establish a trade network of slaves between Africa and the New World. Labour supply in the Americas was affected not only by the lack of Native Americans’ immunity to European diseases, but by European workers’ inability to contend with the extreme heat and tropical diseases in the South American colonies. James Walker argues that contrary to the prevalent understanding that the slave trade was justified by a racialized discourse which constructed the black body inferior to that of whites, “it was the superiority of African labourers in the New World tropics that sealed their fate as slaves” (140.

  8. [Disability studies: social exclusion a research subject].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Michael

    2016-09-01

    The article presents disability studies and elaborates, as their central feature, the distinction between societal disability and impairment which can be described on an individual and medical level. Disability studies define disability as socially caused exclusion. Participation and inclusion, seen as sociopolitical control and counter-terms, do, in fact, have a different content, depending on usage and context. Using the example of the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UN CRPD), the respective understanding of disability is depicted. Against this background, the deficits of implementation of the UN CRPD, as criticized by the responsible UN Committee, are shown. Finally, a research agenda for disability studies is outlined, that deals with, among other things, implementation strategies and conflicts of interest in terms of inclusion, furthering widely unquestioned economic conditions and especially the negative impact of European austerity politics.

  9. Civil society, health, and social exclusion in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurmann, Anna T; Mahmud, Simeen

    2009-08-01

    Civil society has the potential to have a positive impact on social exclusion and health equity through active monitoring and increased accountability. This paper examines the role of civil society in Bangladesh to understand why this potential has not been realized. Looking at two models of civil society action-participation in decentralized public-sector service provision and academic think-tank data analysis-this analysis examines the barriers to positive civil society input into public policy decision-making. The role of non-governmental organizations, political, cultural and economic factors, and the influence of foreign bilateral and multilateral donors are considered. The paper concludes that, with a few exceptions, civil society in Bangladesh replicates the structural inequalities of society at large.

  10. "New Economics"?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    1999-01-01

    The United States, the United Kingdom and Denmark have all enjoyed a long period of high stable growth and low inflation in the 1990s. Attempts to determine the implications of this have led to the so-called "New Economics", whose advocates claim that the relationship between economic growth and ...... and inflation has fundamentally changes. The following article tests this thesis against current data for the USA.......The United States, the United Kingdom and Denmark have all enjoyed a long period of high stable growth and low inflation in the 1990s. Attempts to determine the implications of this have led to the so-called "New Economics", whose advocates claim that the relationship between economic growth...

  11. Circulation economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Stig; Jakobsen, Ove

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - This paper is an attempt to advance the critical discussion regarding environmental and societal responsibility in economics and business. Design/methodology/approach - The paper presents and discusses as a holistic, organic perspective enabling innovative solutions to challenges...... concerning the responsible and efficient use of natural resources and the constructive interplay with culture. To reach the goal of sustainable development, the paper argues that it is necessary to make changes in several dimensions in mainstream economics. This change of perspective is called a turn towards...... presupposes a perspective integrating economic, natural and cultural values. Third, to organize the interplay between all stakeholders we introduce an arena for communicative cooperation. Originality/value - The paper concludes that circulation economics presupposes a change in paradigm, from a mechanistic...

  12. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  13. Perception and knowledge on exclusive breastfeeding among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milk not being enough was the main reason why women did not exclusively breastfeed. The preferred duration of breastfeeding was 18 months in 58% of the women and the main source of information was the health facilities for 48% of the women. The results from this study showed that women have increased knowledge ...

  14. Exclusive processes in pp collisions in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil

    2013-01-01

    We report the results on the searches of exclusive production of low- and high-mass pairs with the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV. The analyses comprise the central exclusive $\\gamma\\gamma$ production, the exclusive two-photon production of dileptons, $e^{+}e^{-}$ and $\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$, and the exclusive two-photon production of $W$ pairs in the asymmetric $e^{\\pm}\\mu^{\\mp}$ decay channel. No diphotons candidates are observed in data and an upper limit on the cross section is set to 1.18 pb with 95% confidence level for $E_{T}(\\gamma)>$ 5.5 GeV and $|\\eta(\\gamma)|$ 5.5 GeV and $|\\eta(e)|$ 11.5 GeV, $p_{\\textrm{T}}(\\mu)>$ 4 GeV and $|\\eta(\\mu)|$ 4 GeV, $|\\eta(\\mu)|$ 20 GeV. Moreover, the study of the tail of the dilepton transverse momentum distribution resulted in model-independent upper limits for the anomalous quartic gauge couplings, which are of the order of 10$^{-4}$.

  15. 19 CFR 10.304 - Exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusions. 10.304 Section 10.304 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Canada Free Trade Agreement § 10...

  16. Sexism and Permanent Exclusion from School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlile, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Focussing on narratives collected during a two year participant observation research project in the children's services department of an urban local authority, this article addresses the intersection between incidents of permanent exclusion from school and assumptions made on the basis of a young person's gender. The article considers gendered…

  17. Exclusive photoproduction of gamma mesons at HERA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.; Musgrave, B.; Nicholass, D.; Repond, J.; Yoshida, R.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, G.; Cindolo, F.; Corradi, M.; Iacobucci, G.; Margotti, A.; Nania, R.; Polini, A.; Antonelli, S.; Basile, M.; Bindi, M.; Cifarelli, L.; Contin, A.; De Pasquale, S.; Sartorelli, G.; Zichichi, A.; Bartsch, D.; Brock, I.; Hartmann, H.; Hilger, E.; Jakob, H. -P.; Juengst, M.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Samson, U.; Schoenberg, V.; Shehzadi, R.; Wlasenko, M.; Brook, N. H.; Heath, G. P.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Singh, I.; Capua, M.; Fazio, S.; Mastroberardino, A.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Tassi, E.; Kim, J. Y.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Idris, F. Mohamad; Kamaluddin, B.; Abdullah, W. A. T. Wan; Ning, Y.; Ren, Z.; Sciulli, F.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Galas, A.; Olkiewicz, K.; Pawlik, B.; Stopa, P.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bold, T.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Kisielewska, D.; Lukasik, J.; Przybycien, M.; Suszycki, L.; Kotanski, A.; Slominski, W.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Blohm, C.; Borras, K.; Ciesielski, R.; Coppola, N.; Geiser, A.; Goettlicher, R.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Huettmann, A.; Januschek, F.; Kahle, B.; Katkov, I. I.; Klein, U.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loehr, B.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I. -A.; Miglioranzi, S.; Montanari, A.; Namsoo, T.; Notz, D.; Parenti, A.; Roloff, P.; Rubinsky, I.; Schneekloth, U.; Spiridonov, A.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Theedt, T.; Tomaszewska, J.; Wolf, G.; Wrona, K.; Yaguees-Molina, A. G.; Youngman, C.; Zeuner, W.; Drugakov, V.; Lohmann, W.; Schlenstedt, S.; Barbagli, G.; Gallo, E.; Pelfer, P. G.; Bamberger, A.; Dobur, D.; Karstens, F.; Vlasov, N. N.; Bussey, P. J.; Doyle, A. T.; Forrest, M.; Saxon, D. H.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Gialas, I.; Papageorgiu, K.; Holm, U.; Klanner, R.; Lohrmann, E.; Perrey, H.; Schleper, R.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Sztuk, J.; Stadie, H.; Turcato, M.; Foudas, C.; Fry, C.; Long, K. R.; Tapper, A. D.; Matsumoto, T.; Nagano, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Boos, E. G.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Aushev, V.; Bachynska, O.; Borodin, M.; Kadenko, I.; Kuprash, O.; Libov, V.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Makarenko, I.; Sorokin, Iu.; Verbytskyi, A.; Volynets, O.; Zolko, M.; Son, D.; de Favereau, J.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Barreiro, F.; Glasman, C.; Jimenez, M.; del Peso, J.; Ron, E.; Terron, J.; Uribe-Estrada, C.; Corriveau, F.; Schwartz, J.; Tsurugai, T.; Antonov, A.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Gladkov, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Stifutkin, A.; Suchkov, S.; Dementiev, R. K.; Ermolov, P. F.; Gladilin, L. K.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Khein, L. A.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Zotkin, D. S.; Abt, I.; Caldwell, A.; Kollar, D.; Reisert, B.; Schmidke, W. B.; Grigorescu, G.; Keramidas, A.; Kooijman, R.; Pellegrino, A.; Tiecke, H.; Vazquez, M.; Bruemmer, N.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Lee, A.; Ling, T. Y.; Allfrey, P. D.; Bell, M. A.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Ferrando, J.; Foster, B.; Gwenlan, C.; Horton, K.; Oliver, K.; Robertson, A.; Walczak, R.; Bertolin, A.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Longhin, A.; Stanco, L.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Limentani, S.; Oh, B. Y.; Raval, A.; Whitmore, J. J.; Iga, Y.; D'Agostini, G.; Marini, G.; Nigro, A.; Cole, J. E.; Hart, J. C.; Abramowicz, H.; Ingbir, R.; Kananov, S.; Stern, A.; Kuze, M.; Maeda, J.; Hori, R.; Kagawa, S.; Okazaki, N.; Tawara, T.; Hamatsu, R.; Kaji, H.; Kitamura, S.; Ota, O.; Ri, Y. D.; Costa, M.; Ferrero, M. I.; Monaco, V.; Sacchi, R.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Arneodo, M.; Ruspa, M.; Fourletov, S.; Stewart, T. P.; Boutle, S. K.; Butterworth, J. M.; Jones, T. W.; Loizides, J. H.; Wing, M.; Brzozowska, B.; Ciborowski, J.; Grzelak, G.; Kulinski, P.; Luzniak, P.; Malka, J.; Nowak, R. J.; Pawlak, J. M.; Perlanski, W.; Zarnecki, A. F.; Adamus, M.; Plucinski, P.; Tymieniecka, T.; Eisenberg, Y.; Hochman, D.; Karshon, U.; Brownson, E.; Reeder, D. D.; Savin, A. A.; Smith, W. H.; Wolfe, H.; Bhadra, S.; Catterall, C. D.; Hartner, G.; Menary, S.; Noor, U.; Standage, J.; Whyte, J.

    2009-01-01

    The exclusive photoproduction reaction gamma p -> gamma p has been studied with the ZEUS experiment in ep collisions at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 468 pb(-1). The measurement covers the kinematic range 60

  18. Bitcoin and Beyond: Exclusively Informational Money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; de Leeuw, K.

    2013-01-01

    The famous new money Bitcoin is classified as a technical informational money (TIM). Besides introducing the idea of a TIM, a more extreme notion of informational money will be developed: exclusively informational money (EXIM). The informational coins (INCOs) of an EXIM can be in control of an agent

  19. Unearthing exclusions: Towards more inclusive Zimbabwean cities ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Zimbabwe now faces significant challenges associated with urban overcrowding, unemployment, violence, and inadequate services. This project seeks to examine the causes and impacts of urban violence and inequalities. Researchers will explore how historically rooted causes of exclusion have-and continue to-frame ...

  20. Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding practices in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACIPH_Admin

    Abstract. Background: Despite the demonstrated benefits of breast milk, the prevalence of breastfeeding, in-particular exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), in many developing countries including Ethiopia is lower than the international recommendation of EBF for the first six months of life. Objective: To assess the practice of EBF ...